Science.gov

Sample records for acid peptide derived

  1. [Amino acid and peptide derivatives of the tylosin family of macrolide antibiotics modified at the aldehyde group].

    PubMed

    Sumbatian, N V; Kuznetsova, I V; Karpenko, V V; Fedorova, N V; Chertkov, V A; Korshunova, G A; Bogdanov, A A

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen new functionally active amino acid and peptide derivatives of the antibiotics tylosin, desmycosin, and 5-O-mycaminosyltylonolide were synthesized in order to study the interaction of the growing polypeptide chain with the ribosomal tunnel. The conjugation of various amino acids and peptides with a macrolide aldehyde group was carried out by two methods: direct reductive amination with the isolation of the intermediate Schiff bases or through binding via oxime using the preliminarily obtained derivatives of 2-aminooxyacetic acid.

  2. Formation pathways and opioid activity data for 3-hydroxypyridinium compounds derived from glucuronic acid and opioid peptides by Maillard processes.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Stefica; Roscić, Maja; Lemieux, Carole; Nguyen, Thi M-D; Schiller, Peter W

    2007-07-01

    The kinetics of formation and identity of the reaction products of the glucuronic acid with three representative opioid peptides were investigated in vitro. Peptides were conjugated with glucuronic acid either in solution or under dry-heating conditions. From the incubations performed in solution N-(1-deoxy-D-fructofuranos-1-yluronic acid)-peptide derivatives (Amadori compounds) were isolated, whereas from the dry-heated reactions products containing the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety at the N-terminal of the peptide chain were obtained. Experiments performed under mild dry-heating conditions (40 degrees C) in model systems based on Leu-enkephalin and glucuronic acid, and in environment of either 40% or 75% relative humidity, revealed that the higher level of humidity promoted a process that enhanced 3-hydroxypyridinium compound generation. The mechanism of 3-hydroxypyridinium formation is discussed. In comparison with their respective parent peptides, the N-(1-deoxy-D-fructofuranosyl-uronic acid) derivatives of the opioid peptides showed three- to 11-fold lower mu- and delta-receptor-binding affinities and agonist potencies in the functional assays, likely as a consequence of the steric bulk introduced at the N-terminal amino group. The further decrease in opioid activity observed with the 3-hydroxypyridinium-containing peptides may be due to the lower pK(a) of the 3-hydroxypyridinium moiety and to delocalization of the positive charge in the pyridinium ring system.

  3. Single Amino Acid Variation Underlies Species-Specific Sensitivity to Amphibian Skin-Derived Opioid-like Peptides.

    PubMed

    Vardy, Eyal; Sassano, Maria F; Rennekamp, Andrew J; Kroeze, Wesley K; Mosier, Philip D; Westkaemper, Richard B; Stevens, Craig W; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C; Peterson, Randall T; Roth, Bryan L

    2015-06-18

    It has been suggested that the evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors (ORs) follow a vector of increased functionality. Here, we test this idea by comparing human and frog ORs. Interestingly, some of the most potent opioid peptides known have been isolated from amphibian skin secretions. Here we show that such peptides (dermorphin and deltorphin) are highly potent in the human receptors and inactive in frog ORs. The molecular basis for the insensitivity of the frog ORs to these peptides was studied using chimeras and molecular modeling. The insensitivity of the delta OR (DOR) to deltorphin was due to variation of a single amino acid, Trp7.35, which is a leucine in mammalian DORs. Notably, Trp7.35 is completely conserved in all known DOR sequences from lamprey, fish, and amphibians. The deltorphin-insensitive phenotype was verified in fish. Our results provide a molecular explanation for the species selectivity of skin-derived opioid peptides.

  4. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel non-peptide boronic acid derivatives as proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Li, Aibo; Wu, Jianwei; Feng, Haiwei; Wang, Letian; Liu, Hongwu; Xu, Yungen; Xu, Qingxiang; Zhao, Li; Li, Yuyan

    2017-03-10

    A novel series of non-peptide proteasome inhibitors bearing the 1, 4-naphthoquinone scaffold and boronic acid warhead was developed. In the biological evaluation on the chymotrypsin-like activity of human 20S proteasome, five compounds showed IC50 values in the nanomolar range. Docking experiments into the yeast 20S proteasome rationalized their biological activities and allowed further optimization of this interesting class of inhibitors. Within the cellular proliferation inhibition assay and western blot analysis, compound 3e demonstrated excellent anti-proliferative activity against solid tumor cells and clear accumulation of ubiquitinated cellular proteins. Furthermore, in the microsomal stability assay compound 3e demonstrated much improved metabolic stability compared to bortezomib, emerging as a promising lead compound for further design of non-peptide proteasome inhibitors.

  5. Synthetic amphibian peptides and short amino-acids derivatives against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of Providencia stuartii clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Ostrowska, Kinga; Kamysz, Wojciech; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Różalski, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, the growing number of multidrug resistant strains limits the use of many of the currently available chemotherapeutic agents. Furthermore, bacterial biofilm, due to its complex structure, constitutes an effective barrier to conventional antibiotics. The in vitro activities of naturally occurring peptide (Citropin 1.1), chemically engineered analogue (Pexiganan), newly-designed, short amino-acid derivatives (Pal-KK-NH2, Pal-KKK-NH2, Pal-RRR-NH2) and six clinically used antimicrobial agents (Gatifloxacin, Ampicilin, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, Cefuroxime and Cefalexin) were investigated against planktonic cells and mature biofilm of multidrug-resistant Providencia stuartii strains, isolated from urological catheters. The MICs, MBCs values were determined by broth microdilution technique. Inhibition of biofilm formation by antimicrobial agents as well as biofilm susceptibility assay were tested using a surrogate model based on the Crystal Violet method. The antimicrobial activity of amino-acids derivatives and synthetic peptides was compared to that of clinically used antibiotics. For planktonic cells, MICs of peptides and antibiotics ranged between 1 and 256 μg/ml and 256 and ≥ 2048 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs values of Pexiganan, Citropin 1.1 and amino-acids derivatives were between 16 and 256 μg/ml, 64 and 256 μg/ml and 16 and 512 μg/ml, respectively. For clinically used antibiotics the MBCs values were above 2048 μg/ml. All of the tested peptides and amino-acids derivatives, showed inhibitory activity against P. stuartii biofilm formation, in relation to their concentrations. Pexiganan and Citropin 1.1 in concentration range 32 and 256 μg/ml caused both strong and complete suppression of biofilm formation. None of the antibiotics caused complete inhibition of biofilm formation process. The biofilm susceptibility assay verified the extremely poor antibiofilm activity of conventional antibiotics compared to synthetic peptides. The

  6. Spectral and biological evaluation of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide derived from 1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, J J; Leung, Kai P; Chai, Hanbo; Hicks, Rickey P

    2015-03-15

    Ac-GF(A6c)G(A6c)K(A6c)G(A6c)F(A6c)G(A6c)GK(A6c)KKKK-amide (A6c=1-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid) is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that exhibits in vitro inhibitory activity against drug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterococcus faecium at concentrations ranging from 10.9 to 43μM. Spectroscopic investigations were conducted to determine how this AMP interacts with simple membrane model systems in order to provide insight into possible mechanisms of action. CD and 2D-(1)H NMR experiments indicated this AMP on binding to SDS and DPC micelles adopts conformations with varying percentages of helical and random coil conformers. CD investigations in the presence of three phospholipid SUVs consisting of POPC, 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC revealed: (1) The interactions occurring with POPC SUVs have minimal effect on the conformational diversity of the AMP yielding conformations similar to those observed in buffer. (2) The interactions with 4:1 POPC/POPG, and 60% POPE/21%POPG/19%POPC SUVs exhibited a greater influence on the percentage of different conformers contributing to the CD spectra. (3) The presence of a high of percentage of helical conformers was not observed in the presence of SUVs as was the case with micelles. This data indicates that the diversity of surface bound conformations adopted by this AMP are very different from the diversity of conformations adopted by this AMP on insertion into the lipid bilayer. CD spectra of this AMP in the presence of SUVs consisting of LPS isolated from P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli exhibited characteristics associated with various helical conformations.

  7. Synthesis of side chain N,N'-diaminoalkylated derivatives of basic amino acids for application in solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pitteloud, Jean-Philippe; Bionda, Nina; Cudic, Predrag

    2013-01-01

    Despite the enormous therapeutic potential, the clinical use of peptides has been limited by their poor bioavailability and low stability under physiological conditions. Hence, efforts have been undertaken to alter peptide structure in ways to improve their pharmacological properties. Inspired by the importance of basic amino acids in biological systems and the remarkable versatility displayed by lysine during the synthesis of complex peptide scaffolds, this chapter describes a simple procedure that enables rapid access to protected N,N'-diaminoalkylated basic amino acid building blocks suitable for standard solid-phase peptide synthesis. This procedure allows preparation of symmetrical, as well as unsymmetrical, dialkylated amino acid derivatives that can be further modified, enhancing their synthetic utility. The suitability of the synthesized branched basic amino acid building blocks for use in standard solid-phase peptide synthesis has been demonstrated by synthesis of an indolicidin analog in which the lysine residue was substituted with its synthetic polyamino derivate. The substitution provided indolicidin analog with increase net positive charge, more ordered secondary structure in biological membranes mimicking conditions, and enhanced antibacterial activity without altering hemolytic activity. Taking into consideration the increasing interest for peptides with unusual structural features due to their improved biological properties, the described synthesis of polyfunctional amino acid building blocks is of particular practical value.

  8. Selective Detection of Carbohydrates and Their Peptide Conjugates by ESI-MS Using Synthetic Quaternary Ammonium Salt Derivatives of Phenylboronic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijewska, Monika; Kuc, Adam; Kluczyk, Alicja; Waliczek, Mateusz; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    We present new tags based on the derivatives of phenylboronic acid and apply them for the selective detection of sugars and peptide-sugar conjugates in mass spectrometry. We investigated the binding of phenylboronic acid and its quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives to carbohydrates and peptide-derived Amadori products by HR-MS and MS/MS experiments. The formation of complexes between sugar or sugar-peptide conjugates and synthetic tags was confirmed on the basis of the unique isotopic distribution resulting from the presence of boron atom. Moreover, incorporation of a quaternary ammonium salt dramatically improved the efficiency of ionization in mass spectrometry. It was found that the formation of a complex with phenylboronic acid stabilizes the sugar moiety in glycated peptides, resulting in simplification of the fragmentation pattern of peptide-derived Amadori products. The obtained results suggest that derivatization of phenylboronic acid as QAS is a promising method for sensitive ESI-MS detection of carbohydrates and their conjugates formed by non-enzymatic glycation or glycosylation.

  9. Selective detection of carbohydrates and their peptide conjugates by ESI-MS using synthetic quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of phenylboronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kijewska, Monika; Kuc, Adam; Kluczyk, Alicja; Waliczek, Mateusz; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    We present new tags based on the derivatives of phenylboronic acid and apply them for the selective detection of sugars and peptide-sugar conjugates in mass spectrometry. We investigated the binding of phenylboronic acid and its quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives to carbohydrates and peptide-derived Amadori products by HR-MS and MS/MS experiments. The formation of complexes between sugar or sugar-peptide conjugates and synthetic tags was confirmed on the basis of the unique isotopic distribution resulting from the presence of boron atom. Moreover, incorporation of a quaternary ammonium salt dramatically improved the efficiency of ionization in mass spectrometry. It was found that the formation of a complex with phenylboronic acid stabilizes the sugar moiety in glycated peptides, resulting in simplification of the fragmentation pattern of peptide-derived Amadori products. The obtained results suggest that derivatization of phenylboronic acid as QAS is a promising method for sensitive ESI-MS detection of carbohydrates and their conjugates formed by non-enzymatic glycation or glycosylation.

  10. Cα-C bond cleavage of the peptide backbone in MALDI in-source decay using salicylic acid derivative matrices.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2011-07-01

    The use of 5-formylsalicylic acid (5-FSA) and 5-nitrosalicylic acid (5-NSA) as novel matrices for in-source decay (ISD) of peptides in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is described. The use of 5-FSA and 5-NSA generated a- and x-series ions accompanied by oxidized peptides [M - 2 H + H](+). The preferential formation of a- and x-series ions was found to be dependent on the hydrogen-accepting ability of matrix. The hydrogen-accepting ability estimated from the ratio of signal intensity of oxidized product [M - 2 H + H](+) to that of non-oxidized protonated molecule [M + H](+) of peptide was of the order 5-NSA > 5-FSA > 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) ≒ 2,5-dihydroxyl benzoic acid (2,5-DHB) ≒ 0. The results suggest that the hydrogen transfer reaction from peptide to 5-FSA and 5-NSA occurs during the MALDI-ISD processes. The hydrogen abstraction from peptides results in the formation of oxidized peptides containing a radical site on the amide nitrogen with subsequent radical-induced cleavage at the Cα-C bond, leading to the formation of a- and x-series ions. The most significant feature of MALDI-ISD with 5-FSA and 5-NSA is the specific cleavage of the Cα-C bond of the peptide backbone without degradation of side-chain and post-translational modifications (PTM). The matrix provides a useful complementary method to conventional MALDI-ISD for amino acid sequencing and site localization of PTMs in peptides.

  11. Bioactive peptides derived from food.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay J; Moughan, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    As interest in the ability of functional foods to impact on human health has grown over the past decade, so has the volume of knowledge detailing the beneficial roles of food-derived bioactive peptides. Bioactive peptides from both plant and animal proteins have been discovered, with to date, by far the most being isolated from milk-based products. A wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial and antifungal properties, blood pressure-lowering effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic effects, enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulatory effects, and localized effects on the gut. Although there is still considerable research to be performed in the area of food-derived bioactive peptides, it is clear that the generation of bioactive peptides from dietary proteins during the normal digestive process is of importance. Therefore, it will become necessary when determining dietary protein quality to consider the potential effects of latent bioactive peptides that are released during digestion of the protein.

  12. Design of antimicrobial peptides conjugated biodegradable citric acid derived hydrogels for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhiwei; Aphale, Nikhil V; Kadapure, Tejaswi D; Wadajkar, Aniket S; Orr, Sara; Gyawali, Dipendra; Qian, Guoying; Nguyen, Kytai T; Yang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Wound healing is usually facilitated by the use of a wound dressing that can be easily applied to cover the wound bed, maintain moisture, and avoid bacterial infection. In order to meet all of these requirements, we developed an in situ forming biodegradable hydrogel (iFBH) system composed of a newly developed combination of biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) maleate citrate (PEGMC) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The in situ forming hydrogel systems are able to conform to the wound shape in order to cover the wound completely and prevent bacterial invasion. A 2(k) factorial analysis was performed to examine the effects of polymer composition on specific properties, including the curing time, Young's modulus, swelling ratio, and degradation rate. An optimized iFBH formulation was achieved from the systematic factorial analysis. Further, in vitro biocompatibility studies using adult human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) confirmed that the hydrogels and degradation products are not cytotoxic. The iFBH wound dressing was conjugated and functionalized with antimicrobial peptides as well. Evaluation against bacteria both in vitro and in vivo in rats demonstrated that the peptide-incorporated iFBH wound dressing offered excellent bacteria inhibition and promoted wound healing. These studies indicated that our in situ forming antimicrobial biodegradable hydrogel system is a promising candidate for wound treatment.

  13. Construction of peptides with nucleobase amino acids: design and synthesis of the nucleobase-conjugated peptides derived from HIV-1 Rev and their binding properties to HIV-1 RRE RNA.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Hamasaki, K; Ueno, A; Mihara, H

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop a novel molecule that recognizes a specific structure of RNA, we have attempted to design peptides having L-alpha-amino acids with a nucleobase at the side chain (nucleobase amino acid (NBA)), expecting that the function of a nucleobase which can specifically recognize a base in RNA is regulated in a peptide conformation. In this study, to demonstrate the applicability of the NBA units in the peptide to RNA recognition, we designed and synthesized a variety of NBA-conjugated peptides, derived from HIV-1 Rev. Circular dichroism study revealed that the conjugation of the Rev peptide with an NBA unit did not disturb the peptide conformation. RNA-binding affinities of the designed peptides with RRE IIB RNA were dependent on the structure of the nucleobase moieties in the peptides. The peptide having the cytosine NBA at the position of the Asn40 site in the Rev showed a higher binding ability for RRE IIB RNA, despite the diminishing the Asn40 function. Furthermore, the peptide having the guanine NBA at the position of the Arg44 site, which is the most important residue for the RNA binding in the Rev, bound to RRE IIB RNA in an ability similar to Rev34-50 with native sequence. These results demonstrate that an appropriate NBA unit in the peptide plays an important role in the RNA binding with a specific contact such as hydrogen bonding, and the interaction between the nucleobase in the peptide and the base in the RNA can enhance the RNA-binding affinity and specificity.

  14. Design of protease-resistant myelin basic protein-derived peptides by cleavage site directed amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed

    Burster, Timo; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; Boehm, Bernhard O; Dunn, Shannon; Rotzschke, Olaf; Falk, Kirsten; Weber, Ekkehard; Verhelst, Steven H L; Kalbacher, Hubert; Driessen, Christoph

    2007-11-15

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is considered to be a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. An attractive strategy to prevent activation of autoaggressive T cells in MS, is the use of altered peptide ligands (APL), which bind to major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules. To be of clinical use, APL must be capable of resisting hostile environments including the proteolytic machinery of antigen presenting cells (APC). The current design of APL relies on cost- and labour-intensive strategies. To overcome these major drawbacks, we used a deductive approach which involved modifying proteolytic cleavage sites in APL. Cleavage site-directed amino acid substitution of the autoantigen myelin basic protein (MBP) resulted in lysosomal protease-resistant, high-affinity binding peptides. In addition, these peptides mitigated T cell activation in a similar fashion as conventional APL. The strategy outlined allows the development of protease-resistant APL and provides a universal design strategy to improve peptide-based immunotherapeutics.

  15. Single amino acid variation underlies species-specific sensitivity to amphibian skin-derived opioid-like peptides

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, Eyal; Sassano, Maria F.; Rennekamp, Andrew J.; Kroeze, Wesley K.; Mosier, Philip D.; Westkaemper, Richard B.; Stevens, Craig W.; Katritch, Vsevolod; Stevens, Raymond C.; Peterson, Randel T.; Roth, Bryan L.

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the evolution of vertebrate opioid receptors (ORs) follow a vector of increased functionality. Here we test this idea comparing human and frog ORs. Interestingly, some of the most potent opioid peptides known have been isolated from amphibian skin secretions. Here we show that such peptides (dermorphin and deltorphin) are highly potent in the human receptors and inactive in frog ORs. The molecular basis for the insensitivity of the frog ORs to these peptides was studied using chimeras and molecular modeling. Interestingly, the insensitivity of the delta opioid receptor (DOR) to deltorphin was due to variation of a single amino acid– Trp7.35—which is a leucine in mammalian DORs. Notably, Trp7.35 is completely conserved in all known DOR sequences from lamprey, fish and amphibians. The deltorphin-insensitive phenotype was verified in fish. Our results provide a molecular explanation for the species selectivity of skin-derived opioid peptides. PMID:26091169

  16. Application of serine- and threonine-derived cyclic sulfamidates for the preparation of S-linked glycosyl amino acids in solution- and solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Scott B; Halcomb, Randall L

    2002-03-20

    Cyclic sulfamidates were synthesized in 60% yield from L-serine and allo-L-threonine, respectively. These sulfamidates reacted with a variety of unprotected 1-thio sugars in aqueous bicarbonate buffer (pH 8) to afford the corresponding S-linked serine- and threonine-glycosyl amino acids with good diastereoselectivity (> or =97%) after hydrolysis of the N-sulfates. The serine-derived sulfamidate was incorporated into a simple dipeptide to generate a reactive dipeptide substrate that underwent chemoselective ligation with a 1-thio sugar to afford an S-linked glycopeptide. This sulfamidate was also incorporated into a peptide on a solid support in conjunction with solid-phase peptide synthesis. Chemoselective ligation of a 1-thio sugar with the cyclic sulfamidate was achieved on the solid support, followed by removal of the N-sulfate. Finally, the peptide chain of the resulting support-bound S-linked glycopeptide was extended using standard peptide synthesis procedures.

  17. Antioxidative Peptides Derived from Enzyme Hydrolysis of Bone Collagen after Microwave Assisted Acid Pre-Treatment and Nitrogen Protection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yun-Jian; Le, Guo-Wei; Wang, Jie-Yun; Li, Ya-Xin; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the preparation method of antioxidant peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis of bone collagen after microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection. Phosphoric acid showed the highest ability of hydrolysis among the four other acids tested (hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and/or citric acid). The highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 9.5% using 4 mol/L phosphoric acid with a ratio of 1:6 under a microwave intensity of 510 W for 240 s. Neutral proteinase gave higher DH among the four protease tested (Acid protease, neutral protease, Alcalase and papain), with an optimum condition of: (1) ratio of enzyme and substrate, 4760 U/g; (2) concentration of substrate, 4%; (3) reaction temperature, 55 °C and (4) pH 7.0. At 4 h, DH increased significantly (P < 0.01) under nitrogen protection compared with normal microwave assisted acid pre-treatment hydrolysis conditions. The antioxidant ability of the hydrolysate increased and reached its maximum value at 3 h; however DH decreased dramatically after 3 h. Microwave assisted acid pre-treatment and nitrogen protection could be a quick preparatory method for hydrolyzing bone collagen. PMID:21151439

  18. A 16-amino acid peptide from human alpha2-macroglobulin binds transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factor-BB.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, D. J.; Roadcap, D. W.; Dhakephalkar, A.; Gonias, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) is a major carrier of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in vitro and in vivo. By screening glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins with overlapping sequences, we localized the TGFbeta-binding site to aa 700-738 of the mature human alpha2M subunit. In separate experiments, we screened overlapping synthetic peptides corresponding to aa 696-777 of alpha2M and identified a single 16-mer (718-733) that binds TGF-beta1. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) bound to the same peptide, even though TGF-beta and PDGF-BB share almost no sequence identity. The sequence of the growth factor-binding peptide, WDLVVVNSAGVAEVGV, included a high proportion of hydrophobic amino acids. The analogous peptide from murinoglobulin, a human alpha2M homologue that does not bind growth factors, contained only three nonconservative amino acid substitutions; however, the MUG peptide failed to bind TGF-beta1 and PDGF-BB. These results demonstrate that a distinct and highly-restricted site in alpha2M, positioned near the C-terminal flank of the bait region, mediates growth factor binding. At least part of the growth factor-binding site is encoded by exon 18 of the alpha2M gene, which is notable for a 5' splice site polymorphism that has been implicated in Alzheimer's Disease. PMID:11106172

  19. Mass spectral study of hybrid peptides derived from (R)-aminoxy ester and [beta]-amino acids: The influence of aminoxy peptide bond (CO-NH-O) on peptide fragmentation under electrospray ionization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, V.; Ramesh, M.; Srinivas, R.; Sharma, G. V. M.; Manohar, V.

    2009-04-01

    A new class of Boc-protected aminoxy hybrid peptides containing repeats of [beta]-hAla-(R)-Ama-, and [beta]-Caa-(R)-Ama- ([beta]-hAla = [beta]3-(S)-hAlanine, (R)-Ama = (R)-aminoxy ester, and [beta]-Caa = (R)-C-linked carbo-[beta]3-amino acid) have been studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) of their protonated, cationized, and negative ions. MS3 CID of protonated aminoxy peptides of [beta]-hAla-(R)-Ama- yield intense [beta]-amino acid characteristic retro-Mannich fragmentation. The bn+ and [bn-methyl imine]+ (n = 3, 5) ions formed by cleavage of aminoxy peptide bond (CO-NH-O) are more intense than bn+ (n = 2, 4) formed by that of peptide bond (CO-NH-C) cleavage. Another characteristic ion observed is due to loss of H3NO from yn+ ions. The cationized (Li+, and Na+) peptides dissociate differently compared to protonated peptides. Intense cationized cn and zn ions are formed due to the cleavage of N-O bond. The deprotonated peptides also show abundant cn- and zn- ions (n = 1, 3, 5) and do not form any yn- ions. All these results clearly indicate the influence of aminoxy peptide bond on fragmentation of these hybrid peptides.

  20. Borinic acid catalysed peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    El Dine, Tharwat Mohy; Rouden, Jacques; Blanchet, Jérôme

    2015-11-18

    The catalytic synthesis of peptides is a major challenge in the modern organic chemistry hindered by the well-established use of stoichiometric coupling reagents. Herein, we describe for the first time that borinic acid is able to catalyse this reaction under mild conditions with an improved activity compared to our recently developed thiophene-based boronic acid. This catalyst is particularly efficient for peptide bond synthesis affording dipeptides in good yields without detectable racemization.

  1. Determination of the sequences of protein-derived peptides and peptide mixtures by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Howard R.; Williams, Dudley H.; Ambler, Richard P.

    1971-01-01

    Micro-quantities of protein-derived peptides have been converted into N-acetylated permethyl derivatives, and their sequences determined by low-resolution mass spectrometry without prior knowledge of their amino acid compositions or lengths. A new strategy is suggested for the mass spectrometric sequencing of oligopeptides or proteins, involving gel filtration of protein hydrolysates and subsequent sequence analysis of peptide mixtures. Finally, results are given that demonstrate for the first time the use of mass spectrometry for the analysis of a protein-derived peptide mixture, again without prior knowledge of the protein or components within the mixture. PMID:5158904

  2. BIOACTIVE PROTEINS, PEPTIDES, AND AMINO ACIDS FROM MACROALGAE(1).

    PubMed

    Harnedy, Pádraigín A; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2011-04-01

    Macroalgae are a diverse group of marine organisms that have developed complex and unique metabolic pathways to ensure survival in highly competitive marine environments. As a result, these organisms have been targeted for mining of natural biologically active components. The exploration of marine organisms has revealed numerous bioactive compounds that are proteinaceous in nature. These include proteins, linear peptides, cyclic peptides and depsipeptides, peptide derivatives, amino acids, and amino acid-like components. Furthermore, some species of macroalgae have been shown to contain significant levels of protein. While some protein-derived bioactive peptides have been characterized from macroalgae, macroalgal proteins currently still represent good candidate raw materials for biofunctional peptide mining. This review will provide an overview of the important bioactive amino-acid-containing compounds that have been identified in macroalgae. Moreover, the potential of macroalgal proteins as substrates for the generation of biofunctional peptides for utilization as functional foods to provide specific health benefits will be discussed.

  3. Isoxazole‐Derived Amino Acids are Bromodomain‐Binding Acetyl‐Lysine Mimics: Incorporation into Histone H4 Peptides and Histone H3

    PubMed Central

    Sekirnik (née Measures), Angelina R.; Hewings, David S.; Theodoulou, Natalie H.; Jursins, Lukass; Lewendon, Katie R.; Jennings, Laura E.; Rooney, Timothy P. C.; Heightman, Tom D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A range of isoxazole‐containing amino acids was synthesized that displaced acetyl‐lysine‐containing peptides from the BAZ2A, BRD4(1), and BRD9 bromodomains. Three of these amino acids were incorporated into a histone H4‐mimicking peptide and their affinity for BRD4(1) was assessed. Affinities of the isoxazole‐containing peptides are comparable to those of a hyperacetylated histone H4‐mimicking cognate peptide, and demonstrated a dependence on the position at which the unnatural residue was incorporated. An isoxazole‐based alkylating agent was developed to selectively alkylate cysteine residues in situ. Selective monoalkylation of a histone H4‐mimicking peptide, containing a lysine to cysteine residue substitution (K12C), resulted in acetyl‐lysine mimic incorporation, with high affinity for the BRD4 bromodomain. The same technology was used to alkylate a K18C mutant of histone H3. PMID:27264992

  4. The 28-amino acid form of an APLP1-derived Aβ-like peptide is a surrogate marker for Aβ42 production in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Yanagida, Kanta; Okochi, Masayasu; Tagami, Shinji; Nakayama, Taisuke; Kodama, Takashi S; Nishitomi, Kouhei; Jiang, Jingwei; Mori, Kohji; Tatsumi, Shin-ichi; Arai, Tetsuaki; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Kasuga, Kensaku; Tokuda, Takahiko; Kondo, Masaki; Ikeda, Masaki; Deguchi, Kentaro; Kazui, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Morihara, Takashi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Kudo, Takashi; Steiner, Harald; Haass, Christian; Tsuchiya, Kuniaki; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Kuwano, Ryozo; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    Surrogate markers for the Alzheimer disease (AD)-associated 42-amino acid form of amyloid-β (Aβ42) have been sought because they may aid in the diagnosis of AD and for clarification of disease pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains three APLP1-derived Aβ-like peptides (APL1β) that are generated by β- and γ-cleavages at a concentration of ∼4.5 nM. These novel peptides, APL1β25, APL1β27 and APL1β28, were not deposited in AD brains. Interestingly, most γ-secretase modulators (GSMs) and familial AD-associated presenilin1 mutants that up-regulate the relative production of Aβ42 cause a parallel increase in the production of APL1β28 in cultured cells. Moreover, in CSF from patients with pathological mutations in presenilin1 gene, the relative APL1β28 levels are higher than in non-AD controls, while the relative Aβ42 levels are unchanged or lower. Most strikingly, the relative APL1β28 levels are higher in CSF from sporadic AD patients (regardless of whether they are at mild cognitive impairment or AD stage), than those of non-AD controls. Based on these results, we propose the relative level of APL1β28 in the CSF as a candidate surrogate marker for the relative level of Aβ42 production in the brain. PMID:20049724

  5. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Dehydroabietic Acid Derivatives Conjugated with Acyl-Thiourea Peptide Moiety as Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Le; Qu, Hong-En; Huang, Xiao-Chao; Pan, Ying-Ming; Liang, Dong; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Heng-Shan; Zhang, Ye

    2015-01-01

    A series of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) acyl-thiourea derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent antitumor agents. The in vitro pharmacological screening results revealed that the target compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HeLa, SK-OV-3 and MGC-803 tumor cell lines, while they showed lower cytotoxicity against HL-7702 normal human river cells. Compound 9n (IC50 = 6.58 ± 1.11 μM) exhibited the best antitumor activity against the HeLa cell line and even displayed more potent inhibitory activity than commercial antitumor drug 5-FU (IC50 = 36.58 ± 1.55 μM). The mechanism of representative compound 9n was then studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33,258 staining, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, TUNEL assay and flow cytometry, which illustrated that this compound could induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that compound 9n mainly arrested HeLa cells in the S phase stage. Further investigation demonstrated that compound 9n induced apoptosis of HeLa cells through a mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26132564

  6. An HLA-A3-binding prostate acid phosphatase-derived peptide can induce CTLs restricted to HLA-A2 and -A24 alleles.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Yasunobu; Shichijo, Shigeki; Niu, Yamei; Komatsu, Nobukazu; Noguchi, Masanori; Todo, Satoru; Itoh, Kyogo

    2009-11-01

    We previously reported peptide vaccine candidates for HLA-A3 supertype (-A3, -A11, -A31, -A33)-positive cancer patients. In the present study, we examined whether those peptides can also induce cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity restricted to HLA-A2, HLA-A24, and HLA-A26 alleles. Fourteen peptides were screened for their binding activity to HLA-A*0201, -A*0206, -A*0207, -A*2402, and -A*2601 molecules and then tested for their ability to induce CTL activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from prostate cancer patients. Among these peptides, one from the prostate acid phosphatase protein exhibited binding activity to HLA-A*0201, -A*0206, and -A*2402 molecules. In addition, PBMCs stimulated with this peptide showed that HLA-A2 or HLA-A24 restricted CTL activity. Their cytotoxicity toward cancer cells was ascribed to peptide-specific and CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that this peptide could be widely applicable as a peptide vaccine for HLA-A3 supertype-, HLA-A2-, and -A24-positive cancer patients.

  7. An active twenty-amino-acid-residue peptide derived from the inhibitor protein of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, H C; van Patten, S M; Smith, A J; Walsh, D A

    1985-01-01

    Digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase of the inhibitor protein of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase results in the sequential formation of three active inhibitory peptides. The smallest active peptide has the sequence Thr-Thr-Tyr-Ala-Asp-Phe-Ile-Ala-Ser-Gly-Arg-Thr-Gly-Arg-Arg-Asn-Ala-Ile- His-Asp . This 20-amino-acid-residue peptide has 20-40% of the activity of the native molecule and a Ki of 0.2 nM. Inhibition, as a minimum, appears to be based upon the inhibitor protein containing the recognition sequences that dictate protein-substrate-specificity. This inhibitory peptide also has sequence homology with the phosphorylation site for a protein kinase other than the cyclic AMP-dependent enzyme. PMID:3000357

  8. Marine-Derived Bioactive Peptides for Biomedical Sectors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Mancera-Andrade, Elena I; Iqbal, Hafiz M N

    2017-01-01

    Marine-based resources such as algae and other marine by-products have been recognized as rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive peptides. Evidently, their structural characteristics including unique amino acid residues are responsible for their biological activity. Several of the above-mentioned marine-origin species show multi-functional bioactivities that are useful for a new discovery and/or reinvention of biologically active ingredients, nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceuticals. Therefore, in recent years, marine-derived bioactive peptides have gained a considerable attention with high-value biomedical and/or pharmaceutical potentials. Furthermore, a wider spectrum of bioactive peptides can be produced through proteolytic-assisted hydrolysis of various marine resources under controlled physicochemical (pH and temperature of the reaction media) environment. Owing to their numerous health-related beneficial effects and therapeutic potential in the treatment and/or prevention of many diseases, such marine-derived bioactive peptides exhibit a wider spectrum of biological activities such as anti-cancerous, anti-proliferative, anti-coagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-tumor activities among many others. Based on emerging evidence of marine-derived peptide mining, the above-mentioned marine resources contain noteworthy levels of high-value protein. The present review article mainly summarizes the marine-derived bioactive peptides and emphasizing their potential applications in biomedical and/or pharmaceutical sectors of the modern world. In conclusion, recent literature has provided evidence that marine-derived bioactive peptides play a critical role in human health along with many possibilities of designing new functional nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceuticals to clarify potent mechanisms of action for a wider spectrum of diseases.

  9. Methyl 2-((succinimidooxy)carbonyl)benzoate (MSB): a new, efficient reagent for N-phthaloylation of amino acid and peptide derivatives.

    PubMed

    Casimir, J Richard; Guichard, Gilles; Briand, Jean-Paul

    2002-05-31

    A new, efficient, and readily available reagent, methyl 2-((succinimidooxy)carbonyl)benzoate (MSB), for N-phthaloylation of amino acids and amino acid derivatives is described. The phthaloylation procedure is simple and racemization-free and gives excellent results with alpha-amino acids, alpha-amino alcohols, dipeptides, alpha-amino carboxamides, and alpha-amino esters.

  10. Identification of food-derived bioactive peptides in blood and other biological samples.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenji; Iwai, Koji; Aito-Inoue, Misako

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of food-derived peptides in human blood after ingestion of enzymatic hydrolysates of food proteins, while most peptides in food are degraded into amino acids during digestion and absorption. To capture and clarify the food-derived peptides in blood, solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a mini-spin column packed with a strong cation exchanger was developed. This technique allows the use of a nonvolatile acid such as trichloroacetic acid, a strong protein denaturant, for the deproteinizing procedure. To improve resolution of hydrophilic peptide and increase specificity and sensitivity in the detection of peptide by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) after subfractionation by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), peptides are derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate. The resultant phenyl thiocarbamyl (PTC)-peptides can be resolved with high resolution and sensitivity by RP-HPLC. By comparing chromatograms of PTC derivatives from blood before and after ingestion of a peptide sample, food-derived peptide can be detected. The isolated PTC-peptide can be applied to a peptide sequencer based on the Edman degradation reaction.

  11. Novel opioid peptide derived antagonists containing (2S)-2-methyl-3-(2,6-dimethyl-4-carbamoylphenyl)propanoic acid [(2S)-Mdcp].

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Animesh; Luo, Jie; Liu, Chen; Weltrowska, Grazyna; Lemieux, Carole; Chung, Nga N; Lu, Yixin; Schiller, Peter W

    2008-09-25

    A synthesis of the novel tyrosine analogue (2 S)-2-methyl-3-(2,6-dimethyl-4-carbamoylphenyl)propanoic acid [(2 S)-Mdcp] (15) was developed. In (2 S)-Mdcp, the amino and hydroxyl groups of 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine are replaced by a methyl and a carbamoyl group, respectively, and its substitution for Tyr (1) in opioid agonist peptides resulted in compounds showing antagonism at all three opioid receptors. The cyclic peptide (2 S)-Mdcp-c[D-Cys-Gly-Phe(pNO 2)-D-Cys]NH 2 (1) was a potent and selective mu antagonist, whereas (2 S)-Mdcp-c[D-Pen-Gly-Phe(pF)-Pen]-Phe-OH (3) showed subnanomolar delta antagonist activity and extraordinary delta selectivity.

  12. Overview of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Marine Resources: The Sources, Characteristic, Purification, and Evaluation Methods.

    PubMed

    Wu, RiBang; Wu, CuiLing; Liu, Dan; Yang, XingHao; Huang, JiaFeng; Zhang, Jiang; Liao, Binqiang; He, HaiLun; Li, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Marine organisms are rich sources of structurally diverse bioactive nitrogenous components. In recent years, numerous bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of marine protein resources, such as antioxidant peptides. Many studies have approved that marine antioxidant peptides have a positive effect on human health and the food industry. Antioxidant activity of peptides can be attributed to free radicals scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and metal ion chelating. Moreover, it has also been verified that peptide structure and its amino acid sequence can mainly affect its antioxidant properties. The aim of this review is to summarize kinds of antioxidant peptides from various marine resources. Additionally, the relationship between structure and antioxidant activities of peptides is discussed in this paper. Finally, current technologies used in the preparation, purification, and evaluation of marine-derived antioxidant peptides are also reviewed.

  13. Synthesis of hybrid hydrazino peptides: protected vs unprotected chiral α-hydrazino acids.

    PubMed

    Suć, Josipa; Jerić, Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Peptidomimetics based on hydrazino derivatives of α-amino acids represent an important class of peptidic foldamers with promising biological activities, like protease inhibition and antimicrobial activity. However, the lack of straightforward method for the synthesis of optically pure hydrazino acids and efficient incorporation of hydrazino building blocks into peptide sequence hamper wider exploitation of hydrazino peptidomimetics. Here we described the utility of N (α)-benzyl protected and unprotected hydrazino derivatives of natural α-amino acids in synthesis of peptidomimetics. While incorporation of N (α)-benzyl-hydrazino acids into peptide chain and deprotection of benzyl moiety proceeded with difficulties, unprotected hydrazino acids allowed fast and simple construction of hybrid peptidomimetics.

  14. Anticancer activities of bovine and human lactoferricin-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio; Hilchie, Ashley L; Haney, Evan F; Bolscher, Jan G M; Hyndman, M Eric; Hancock, Robert E W; Vogel, Hans J

    2017-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a mammalian host defense glycoprotein with diverse biological activities. Peptides derived from the cationic region of LF possess cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bovine lactoferricin (LFcinB), a peptide derived from bovine LF (bLF), exhibits broad-spectrum anticancer activity, while a similar peptide derived from human LF (hLF) is not as active. In this work, several peptides derived from the N-terminal regions of bLF and hLF were studied for their anticancer activities against leukemia and breast-cancer cells, as well as normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The cyclized LFcinB-CLICK peptide, which possesses a stable triazole linkage, showed improved anticancer activity, while short peptides hLF11 and bLF10 were not cytotoxic to cancer cells. Interestingly, hLF11 can act as a cell-penetrating peptide; when combined with the antimicrobial core sequence of LFcinB (RRWQWR) through either a Pro or Gly-Gly linker, toxicity to Jurkat cells increased. Together, our work extends the library of LF-derived peptides tested for anticancer activity, and identified new chimeric peptides with high cytotoxicity towards cancerous cells. Additionally, these results support the notion that short cell-penetrating peptides and antimicrobial peptides can be combined to create new adducts with increased potency.

  15. Pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid homologues: effect of ring size on hybridization properties.

    PubMed

    Mansawat, Woraluk; Vilaivan, Chotima; Balázs, Árpád; Aitken, David J; Vilaivan, Tirayut

    2012-03-16

    The effect of ring size of four- to six-membered cyclic β-amino acid on the hybridization properties of pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid with an alternating α/β peptide backbone is reported. The cyclobutane derivatives (acbcPNA) show the highest T(m) and excellent specificity with cDNA and RNA.

  16. Encapsulation of bioactive whey peptides in soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes: Influence of peptide molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Aishwarya; McClements, David Julian; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2016-12-15

    Encapsulation of peptides can be used to enhance their stability, delivery and bioavailability. This study focused on the effect of the molecular weight range of whey peptides on their encapsulation within soy lecithin-derived nanoliposomes. Peptide molecular weight did not have a major impact on encapsulation efficiency or liposome size. However, it influenced peptide distribution amongst the surface, core, and bilayer regions of the liposomes, as determined by electrical charge (ζ-potential) and FTIR analysis. The liposome ζ-potential depended on peptide molecular weight, suggesting that the peptide charged groups were in different locations relative to the liposome surfaces. FTIR analysis indicated that the least hydrophobic peptide fractions interacted more strongly with choline on the liposome surfaces. The results suggested that the peptides were unequally distributed within the liposomes, even at the same encapsulation efficiency. These findings are important for designing delivery systems for commercial production of encapsulated peptides with improved functional attributes.

  17. Chiral separation of amino acids and peptides by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wan, H; Blomberg, L G

    2000-04-14

    Chiral separation of amino acids and peptides by capillary electrophoresis (CE) is reviewed regarding the separation principles of different approaches, advantages and limitations, chiral recognition mechanisms and applications. The direct approach details various chiral selectors with an emphasis on cyclodextrins and their derivatives, antibiotics and chiral surfactants as the chiral selectors. The indirect approach deals with various chiral reagents applied for diastereomer formation and types of separation media such as micelles and polymeric pseudo-stationary phases. Many derivatization reagents used for high sensitivity detection of amino acids and peptides are also discussed and their characteristics are summarized in tables. A large number of relevant examples is presented illustrating the current status of enantiomeric and diastereomeric separation of amino acids and peptides. Strategies to enhance the selectivity and optimize separation parameters by the application of experimental designs are described. The reversal of enantiomeric elution order and the effects of organic modifiers on the selectivity are illustrated in both direct and indirect methods. Some applications of chiral amino acid and peptide analysis, in particular, regarding the determination of trace enantiomeric impurities, are given. This review selects more than 200 articles published between 1988 and 1999.

  18. Phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvertkina, L. V.; Khoklov, P. S.; Mironov, Vladimir F.

    1992-10-01

    The present state of work on the methods of synthesis, chemical properties, and practical applications of phosphorus-containing derivatives of salicylic acid has been reviewed. The characteristics of the chemical transformations of cyclic and acyclic phosphorus derivatives of salicylic acid related to the coordination state of the phosphorus atom have been examined. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  19. Fiber formation of a synthetic spider peptide derived from Nephila clavata.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Yuji; Kontani, Ko-Ichi; Taniguchi, Rina; Saiki, Masatoshi; Yokoi, Sayoko; Yukuhiro, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Dragline silk is a high-performance biopolymer with exceptional mechanical properties. Artificial spider dragline silk is currently prepared by a recombinant technique or chemical synthesis. However, the recombinant process is costly and large-sized synthetic peptides are needed for fiber formation. In addition, the silk fibers that are produced are much weaker than a fiber derived from a native spider. In this study, a small peptide was chemically synthesized and examined for its ability to participate in fiber formation. A short synthetic peptide derived from Nephila clavata was prepared by a solid-phase peptide method, based on a prediction using the hydrophobic parameter of each individual amino acid residue. After purification of the spider peptide, fiber formation was examined under several conditions. Fiber formation proceeded in the acidic pH range, and larger fibers were produced when organic solvents such as trifluoroethanol and acetonitrile were used at an acidic pH. Circular dichroism measurements of the spider peptide indicate that the peptide has a beta-sheet structure and that the formation of a beta-sheet structure is required for the spider peptide to undergo fiber formation.

  20. Nanotechnology for delivery of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anisha; Bahal, Raman; Gupta, Meera; Glazer, Peter M; Saltzman, W Mark

    2016-10-28

    Over the past three decades, peptide nucleic acids have been employed in numerous chemical and biological applications. Peptide nucleic acids possess enormous potential because of their superior biophysical properties, compared to other oligonucleotide chemistries. However, for therapeutic applications, intracellular delivery of peptide nucleic acids remains a challenge. In this review, we summarize the progress that has been made in delivering peptide nucleic acids to intracellular targets. In addition, we emphasize recent nanoparticle-based strategies for efficient delivery of conventional and chemically-modified peptides nucleic acids.

  1. Biologically and diagenetically derived peptide modifications in moa collagens

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, Timothy P.; Schroeter, Elena R.; Schweitzer, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    The modifications that occur on proteins in natural environments over time are not well studied, yet characterizing them is vital to correctly interpret sequence data recovered from fossils. The recently extinct moa (Dinornithidae) is an excellent candidate for investigating the preservation of proteins, their post-translational modifications (PTMs) and diagenetic alterations during degradation. Moa protein extracts were analysed using mass spectrometry, and peptides from collagen I, collagen II and collagen V were identified. We also identified biologically derived PTMs (i.e. methylation, di-methylation, alkylation, hydroxylation, fucosylation) on amino acids at locations consistent with extant proteins. In addition to these in vivo modifications, we detected novel modifications that are probably diagenetically derived. These include loss of hydroxylation/glutamic semialdehyde, carboxymethyllysine and peptide backbone cleavage, as well as previously noted deamidation. Moa collagen sequences and modifications provide a baseline by which to evaluate proteomic studies of other fossils, and a framework for defining the molecular relationship of moa to other closely related taxa. PMID:25972464

  2. Biologically and diagenetically derived peptide modifications in moa collagens.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-06-07

    The modifications that occur on proteins in natural environments over time are not well studied, yet characterizing them is vital to correctly interpret sequence data recovered from fossils. The recently extinct moa (Dinornithidae) is an excellent candidate for investigating the preservation of proteins, their post-translational modifications (PTMs) and diagenetic alterations during degradation. Moa protein extracts were analysed using mass spectrometry, and peptides from collagen I, collagen II and collagen V were identified. We also identified biologically derived PTMs (i.e. methylation, di-methylation, alkylation, hydroxylation, fucosylation) on amino acids at locations consistent with extant proteins. In addition to these in vivo modifications, we detected novel modifications that are probably diagenetically derived. These include loss of hydroxylation/glutamic semialdehyde, carboxymethyllysine and peptide backbone cleavage, as well as previously noted deamidation. Moa collagen sequences and modifications provide a baseline by which to evaluate proteomic studies of other fossils, and a framework for defining the molecular relationship of moa to other closely related taxa.

  3. Strategies for Vaccine Design Using Phage Display-Derived Peptides.

    PubMed

    Goulart, Luiz R; Santos, Paula de S

    2016-01-01

    Development of peptide vaccines through the phage display technology is a powerful strategy that relies on short peptides expressed in the phage capsid surface to induce highly targeted immune responses. Phage display-derived immunogenic peptides can be used directly as a phage-fused peptide reagent or as a synthetic peptide with specific modifications, according to target molecule and disease pathogen/parasite. Peptides' selection (mimotopes) can be performed against monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies to disclose determinant regions (epitopes) that can induce a neutralizing response. Validations of mimotopes are performed in vitro and in vivo, based on cell culture and animal models, to demonstrate its immunogenic potential for final vaccine formulations with an appropriate adjuvant. Here we present specific methods for the discovery of novel immunogenic peptides based on phage display.

  4. Isolation and nature of intracellular alpha-aminoadipic acid-containing peptides from Paecilomyces persicinus P-10.

    PubMed Central

    Eriquez, L A; Pisano, M A

    1979-01-01

    Small intracellular peptides containing alpha-aminoadipic acid, cysteine, and a valine moiety were obtained from mycelia of Paecilomyces persicinus P-10 by ethanol or trichloroacetic acid extraction. After performic acid oxidation and ion-exchange chromatography, analysis of the peptide fractions by two-dimensional thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography revealed the presence of three related peptides, as sulfonic acid derivatives, each containing alpha-aminoadipic acid. Each peptide was isolated in chromatographically pure form by semipreparative thin-layer electrophoresis and chromatography. The purified peptides were subjected to differential hydrolysis, dansylation, and combined dansylation-phenylisothiocyanate sequence analysis. Based on these studies, the structures of the isolated peptides were determined to be (i) glycl-delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinyl-beta-hydroxyvaline, (ii) glycyl-delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinylvaline, and (iii) delta-(alpha-aminoadipyl)-cysteinylvaline. The peptides isolated from Paecilomyces are similar to the alpha-aminoadipic acid-cysteine-valine moiety complex peptides isolated from Cephalosporium. PMID:574371

  5. Ternatin, a cyclic peptide isolated from mushroom, and its derivative suppress hyperglycemia and hepatic fatty acid synthesis in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Misato; Kawashima, Haruna; Takemori, Kumiko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Murai, Atsushi; Masuda, Shun; Yamada, Kaoru; Uemura, Daisuke; Horio, Fumihiko

    2012-10-19

    (-)-Ternatin is a highly methylated cyclic heptapeptide isolated from mushroom Coriolus versicolor. Ternatin has an inhibitory effect on fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. [D-Leu(7)]ternatin, a ternatin derivative, also inhibited fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, although the effectiveness of [D-Leu(7)]ternatin was lower than that of ternatin. In this study, we investigated the effects of ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin on obesity and type 2 diabetes in KK-A(y) mice, an animal model for spontaneously developed type 2 diabetes. We continuously administered ternatin (8.5 or 17 nmol/day) or [D-Leu(7)]ternatin (68 nmol/day) to mice via a subcutaneous osmotic pump. Unexpectedly, neither ternatin nor [D-Leu(7)]ternatin affected body weight or adipose tissue weight in KK-A(y) mice. In contrast, it was demonstrated that both ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin suppress the development of hyperglycemia. In liver, the SREBP-1c mRNA level tended to be lower or significantly decreased in mice treated with ternatin or [D-Leu(7)]ternatin, respectively. Moreover, we found that ternatin directly lowered the SREBP-1c mRNA level in Hepa1-6 hepatocyte cells. This study showed that ternatin and [D-Leu(7)]ternatin each had a preventive effect on hyperglycemia and a suppressive effect on fatty acid synthesis in KK-A(y) mice.

  6. C-terminal Amidation of an Osteocalcin-derived Peptide Promotes Hydroxyapatite Crystallization*

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Samaneh; Naderi-Manesh, Hossein; Mountassif, Driss; Cerruti, Marta; Vali, Hojatollah; Faghihi, Shahab

    2013-01-01

    Genesis of natural biocomposite-based materials, such as bone, cartilage, and teeth, involves interactions between organic and inorganic systems. Natural biopolymers, such as peptide motif sequences, can be used as a template to direct the nucleation and crystallization of hydroxyapatite (HA). In this study, a natural motif sequence consisting of 13 amino acids present in the first helix of osteocalcin was selected based on its calcium binding ability and used as substrate for nucleation of HA crystals. The acidic (acidic osteocalcin-derived peptide (OSC)) and amidic (amidic osteocalcin-derived peptide (OSN)) forms of this sequence were synthesized to investigate the effects of different C termini on the process of biomineralization. Electron microscopy analyses show the formation of plate-like HA crystals with random size and shape in the presence of OSN. In contrast, spherical amorphous calcium phosphate is formed in the presence of OSC. Circular dichroism experiments indicate conformational changes of amidic peptide to an open and regular structure as a consequence of interaction with calcium and phosphate. There is no conformational change detectable in OSC. It is concluded that HA crystal formation, which only occurred in OSN, is attributable to C-terminal amidation of a natural peptide derived from osteocalcin. It is also proposed that natural peptides with the ability to promote biomineralization have the potential to be utilized in hard tissue regeneration. PMID:23362258

  7. Functional significance of bioactive peptides derived from soybean.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brij Pal; Vij, Shilpa; Hati, Subrota

    2014-04-01

    Biologically active peptides play an important role in metabolic regulation and modulation. Several studies have shown that during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing and microbial proteolysis of various animals and plant proteins, small peptides can be released which possess biofunctional properties. These peptides are to prove potential health-enhancing nutraceutical for food and pharmaceutical applications. The beneficial health effects of bioactive peptides may be several like antihypertensive, antioxidative, antiobesity, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, hypocholesterolemic and anticancer. Soybeans, one of the most abundant plant sources of dietary protein, contain 36-56% of protein. Recent studies showed that soy milk, an aqueous extract of soybean, and its fermented product have great biological properties and are a good source of bioactive peptides. This review focuses on bioactive peptides derived from soybean; we illustrate their production and biofunctional attributes.

  8. Inhibition of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particle formation by Gag protein-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Niedrig, M; Gelderblom, H R; Pauli, G; März, J; Bickhard, H; Wolf, H; Modrow, S

    1994-06-01

    Sequential overlapping Gag protein-derived oligopeptides of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) 22 to 24 amino acids long, were synthesized and tested in vitro for antiviral activity. Two synthetic peptides, one derived from the matrix protein p17 (NPGLLETSEGCRQ, amino acids 47 to 59) and one located in the capsid protein p24 (PAATLEEMMTA, amino acids 339 to 349) inhibited the production of infectious virus when added to HIV-1-infected cultures when used in the range of 20 to 200 micrograms/ml. As shown by thin section electron microscopy, peptide treatment resulted in the release of immature, deformed virus particles suggesting that the two peptides interfered with assembly and maturation. Other Gag protein-derived oligopeptides had little or no influence on virus production. To characterize further the functionally active regions we synthesized peptide derivatives with three consecutive amino acids substituted by alanine; they did not cause inhibition. Therefore the regions responsible for inhibition were located between amino acids 50 to 61 in p17, and 342 to 350 in p24. These observations might lead to the development of a new antiviral strategy affecting the late stage of virus replication.

  9. Glutamic Acid Selective Chemical Cleavage of Peptide Bonds.

    PubMed

    Nalbone, Joseph M; Lahankar, Neelam; Buissereth, Lyssa; Raj, Monika

    2016-03-04

    Site-specific hydrolysis of peptide bonds at glutamic acid under neutral aqueous conditions is reported. The method relies on the activation of the backbone amide chain at glutamic acid by the formation of a pyroglutamyl (pGlu) imide moiety. This activation increases the susceptibility of a peptide bond toward hydrolysis. The method is highly specific and demonstrates broad substrate scope including cleavage of various bioactive peptides with unnatural amino acid residues, which are unsuitable substrates for enzymatic hydrolysis.

  10. Angioedema induced by a peptide derived from complement component C2

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic peptides that correspond to the COOH-terminal portion of C2b enhance vascular permeability in human and guinea pig skin. In human studies, 1 nmol of the most active peptide of 25-amino acid residues produced substantial local edema. A pentapeptide and a heptapeptide corresponding to the COOH-terminal sequence of C2b each induced contraction of estrous rat uterus in the micromole range; a peptide of 25 amino acids from this region induced a like contraction of rat uterus at a concentration 20-fold lower than the smaller peptides. The vascular permeability of guinea pig skin was enhanced by doses of these synthetic peptides in a similar fashion as that observed for the concentration of rat uterus. The induction of localized edema by intradermal injection in both the guinea pig and the human proceeds in the presence of antihistaminic drugs, suggesting that there is a histamine-independent component to the observed increase in vascular permeability. Cleavage of C2 with the enzymic subcomponent of C1, C1s, yields only C2a and C2b, and no small peptides, whereas cleavage of C2 with C1s and plasmin yields a set of small peptides. These plasmin- cleaved peptides are derived from the COOH terminus of C2b, and they induce the contraction of estrous rat uterus. PMID:2972793

  11. "Potential health benefits of lunasin: a multifaceted soy-derived bioactive peptide".

    PubMed

    Lule, Vaibhao Kisanrao; Garg, Sheenam; Pophaly, Sarang Dilip; Hitesh; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Bioactive peptides are small protein fragments derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins, fermentation with proteolytic starter cultures, and gastrointestinal digestion. These peptides have positive impacts on a number of physiological functions in living beings. Lunasin, a soy-derived bioactive peptide, is one of the most promising among them. Lunasin encoded within 2S albumin (GM2S-1) gene, identified as a novel peptide extracted from soybean seed. It is composed of 43 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 5.5 kDa. Extensive scientific studies have shown that lunasin possesses inherent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancerous properties and could also play a vital role in regulating of cholesterol biosynthesis in the body. Its high bioavailability and heat stable nature allow its potential use as dietary supplement. The present review summarizes some of the potential health and therapeutic benefits of lunasin reported hitherto.

  12. Remodeling of Hepatic Metabolism and Hyperaminoacidemia in Mice Deficient in Proglucagon-Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Chika; Seino, Yusuke; Miyahira, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Michiyo; Fukami, Ayako; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Sato, Jun; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi; Oiso, Yutaka; Murata, Yoshiharu; Hayashi, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon is believed to be one of the most important peptides for upregulating blood glucose levels. However, homozygous glucagon–green fluorescent protein (gfp) knock-in mice (Gcggfp/gfp: GCGKO) are normoglycemic despite the absence of proglucagon-derived peptides, including glucagon. To characterize metabolism in the GCGKO mice, we analyzed gene expression and metabolome in the liver. The expression of genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes for gluconeogenesis was only marginally altered. On the other hand, genes encoding enzymes involved in conversion of amino acids to metabolites available for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and/or gluconeogenesis showed lower expression in the GCGKO liver. The expression of genes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and nicotinamide was also altered. Concentrations of the metabolites in the GCGKO liver were altered in manners concordant with alteration in the gene expression patterns, and the plasma concentrations of amino acids were elevated in the GCGKO mice. The insulin concentration in serum and phosphorylation of Akt protein kinase in liver were reduced in GCGKO mice. These results indicated that proglucagon-derived peptides should play important roles in regulating various metabolic pathways, especially that of amino acids. Serum insulin concentration is lowered to compensate the impacts of absent proglucagon-derived peptide on glucose metabolism. On the other hand, impacts on other metabolic pathways are only partially compensated by reduced insulin action. PMID:22187375

  13. Fmoc/Trt-amino acids: comparison to Fmoc/tBu-amino acids in peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Barlos, K; Gatos, D; Koutsogianni, S

    1998-03-01

    Model peptides containing the nucleophilic amino acids Trp and Met have been synthesized with the application of Fmoc/Trt- and Fmoc/tBu-amino acids, for comparison. The deprotection of the peptides synthesized using Fmoc/Trt-amino acids in all cases leads to crude peptides of higher purity than that of the same peptides synthesized using Fmoc/tBu-amino acids.

  14. Synthesis, chiroptical properties, and configurational assignment of fulleroproline derivatives and peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, A.; Maggini, M.; Scorrano, G.; Toniolo, C.; Marconi, G.; Villani, C.; Prato, M.

    1996-05-01

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides to C{sub 60} leads to fulleroproline derivatives, in which a proline ring is fused on a 6,6-ring junction of the fullerene spheroid. This unnatural amino acid can be manipulated under standard coupling conditions to afford fulleroproline-containing peptides. All optically active fulleroproline derivatives and peptides display a characteristic maximum at 428 nm in CD spectra, which is diagnostic for the assignment of the absolute configuration of the C{sup {alpha}} atom of the proline ring. Calculation of the CD spectra confirm the configurational assignment. 34 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Inhibition of the ferric uptake regulator by peptides derived from anti-FUR peptide aptamers: coupled theoretical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Cissé, Cheickna; Mathieu, Sophie V; Abeih, Mohamed B Ould; Flanagan, Lindsey; Vitale, Sylvia; Catty, Patrice; Boturyn, Didier; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Crouzy, Serge

    2014-12-19

    The FUR protein (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-dependent global transcriptional regulator. Specific to bacteria, FUR is an attractive antibacterial target since virulence is correlated to iron bioavailability. Recently, four anti-FUR peptide aptamers, composed of 13 amino acid variable loops inserted into a thioredoxinA scaffold, were identified, which were able to interact with Escherichia coli FUR (EcFUR), inhibit its binding to DNA and to decrease the virulence of pathogenic E. coli in a fly infection model. The first characterization of anti-FUR linear peptides (pF1 6 to 13 amino acids) derived from the variable part of the F1 anti-FUR peptide aptamer is described herein. Theoretical and experimental approaches, in original combination, were used to study interactions of these peptides with FUR in order to understand their mechanism of inhibition. After modeling EcFUR by homology, docking with Autodock was combined with molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent to take into account the flexibility of the partners. All calculations were cross-checked either with other programs or with experimental data. As a result, reliable structures of EcFUR and its complex with pF1 are given and an inhibition pocket formed by the groove between the two FUR subunits is proposed. The location of the pocket was validated through experimental mutation of key EcFUR residues at the site of proposed peptide interaction. Cyclisation of pF1, mimicking the peptide constraint in F1, improved inhibition. The details of the interactions between peptide and protein were analyzed and a mechanism of inhibition of these anti-FUR molecules is proposed.

  16. Clickable Cγ-azido(methylene/butylene) peptide nucleic acids and their clicked fluorescent derivatives: synthesis, DNA hybridization properties, and cell penetration studies.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak R; Ganesh, Krishna N

    2014-07-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and DNA complementation studies of clickable C(γ)-substituted methylene (azm)/butylene (azb) azido PNAs show that these analogues enhance the stability of the derived PNA:DNA duplexes. The fluorescent PNA oligomers synthesized by their click reaction with propyne carboxyfluorescein are seen to accumulate around the nuclear membrane in 3T3 cells.

  17. Prevention of passively transferred experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis by a phage library-derived cyclic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Natarajan; Im, Sin-Heyog; Balass, Moshe; Fuchs, Sara; Katchalski-Katzir, Ephraim

    2000-01-01

    Many pathogenic antibodies in myasthenia gravis (MG) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG), are directed against the main immunogenic region (MIR) of the acetylcholine receptor (AcChoR). These antibodies are highly conformation dependent; hence, linear peptides derived from native receptor sequences are poor candidates for their immunoneutralization. We employed a phage-epitope library to identify peptide-mimotopes capable of preventing the pathogenicity of the anti-MIR mAb 198. We identified a 15-mer peptide (PMTLPENYFSERPYH) that binds specifically to mAb 198 and inhibits its binding to AcChoR. A 10-fold increase in the affinity of this peptide was achieved by incorporating flanking amino acid residues from the coat protein as present in the original phage library. This extended peptide (AEPMTLPENYFSERPYHPPPP) was constrained by the addition of cysteine residues on both ends of the peptide, thus generating a cyclic peptide that inhibited the binding of mAb 198 to AcChoR with a potency that is three orders of magnitude higher when compared with the parent library peptide. This cyclic peptide inhibited the in vitro binding of mAb 198 to AcChoR and prevented the antigenic modulation of AcChoR caused by mAb 198 in human muscle cell cultures. The cyclic peptide also reacted with several other anti-MIR mAbs and the sera of EAMG rats. In addition, this peptide blocked the ability of mAb 198 to passively transfer EAMG in rats. Further derivatization of the cyclic peptide may aid in the design of suitable synthetic mimotopes for modulation of MG. PMID:10639153

  18. Novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides use different antimicrobial mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavia, Kathryn E; Spinella, Sara A; Elmore, Donald E

    2012-03-01

    The increase in multidrug resistant bacteria has sparked an interest in the development of novel antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides that operate by crossing the cell membrane may also have the potential to deliver drugs to intracellular targets. Buforin 2 (BF2) is an antimicrobial peptide that shares sequence identity with a fragment of histone subunit H2A and whose bactericidal mechanism depends on membrane translocation and DNA binding. Previously, novel histone-derived antimicrobial peptides (HDAPs) were designed based on properties of BF2, and DesHDAP1 and DesHDAP3 showed significant antibacterial activity. In this study, their DNA binding, permeabilization, and translocation abilities were assessed independently and compared to antibacterial activity to determine whether they share a mechanism with BF2. To investigate the importance of proline in determining the peptides' mechanisms of action, proline to alanine mutants of the novel peptides were generated. DesHDAP1, which shows significant similarities to BF2 in terms of secondary structure, translocates effectively across lipid vesicle and bacterial membranes, while the DesHDAP1 proline mutant shows reduced translocation abilities and antimicrobial potency. In contrast, both DesHDAP3 and its proline mutant translocate poorly, though the DesHDAP3 proline mutant is more potent. Our findings suggest that a proline hinge can promote membrane translocation in some peptides, but that the extent of its effect on permeabilization depends on the peptide's amphipathic properties. Our results also highlight the different antimicrobial mechanisms exhibited by histone-derived peptides and suggest that histones may serve as a source of novel antimicrobial peptides with varied properties.

  19. Synthesis and biological properties of amino acids and peptides containing a tetrazolyl moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Trifonov, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    Literature data published mainly in the last 15 years on the synthesis and biological properties of amino acid analogues and derivatives containing tetrazolyl moieties are analyzed. Tetrazolyl analogues and derivatives of amino acids and peptides are shown to be promising for medicinal chemistry. Being polynitrogen heterocyclic systems comprising four endocyclic nitrogen atoms, tetrazoles can behave as acids and bases and form strong hydrogen bonds with proton donors (more rarely, with acceptors). They have high metabolic stability and are able to penetrate biological membranes. The review also considers the synthesis and properties of linear and cyclic peptides based on modified amino acids incorporating a tetrazolyl moiety. A special issue is the discussion of the biological properties of tetrazole-containing amino acids and peptides, which exhibit high biological activity and can be used to design new drugs. The bibliography includes 200 references.

  20. Derivatives of the Mouse Cathelicidin-Related Antimicrobial Peptide (CRAMP) Inhibit Fungal and Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    De Brucker, Katrijn; Delattin, Nicolas; Robijns, Stijn; Steenackers, Hans; Verstraeten, Natalie; Landuyt, Bart; Luyten, Walter; Schoofs, Liliane; Dovgan, Barbara; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Michiels, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    We identified a 26-amino-acid truncated form of the 34-amino-acid cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in the islets of Langerhans of the murine pancreas. This peptide, P318, shares 67% identity with the LL-37 human antimicrobial peptide. As LL-37 displays antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, we tested antifungal and antibiofilm activity of P318 against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. P318 shows biofilm-specific activity as it inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.15 μM without affecting planktonic survival at that concentration. Next, we tested the C. albicans biofilm-inhibitory activity of a series of truncated and alanine-substituted derivatives of P318. Based on the biofilm-inhibitory activity of these derivatives and the length of the peptides, we decided to synthesize the shortened alanine-substituted peptide at position 10 (AS10; KLKKIAQKIKNFFQKLVP). AS10 inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.22 μM and acted synergistically with amphotericin B and caspofungin against mature biofilms. AS10 also inhibited biofilm formation of different bacteria as well as of fungi and bacteria in a mixed biofilm. In addition, AS10 does not affect the viability or functionality of different cell types involved in osseointegration of an implant, pointing to the potential of AS10 for further development as a lead peptide to coat implants. PMID:24982087

  1. The enthalpies of formation and sublimation of amino acids and peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagadeev, E. V.; Gimadeev, A. A.; Barabanov, V. P.

    2010-02-01

    The experimental enthalpies of formation of L-amino acids and peptides were analyzed using the additive scheme and group contributions. Group contributions to the enthalpies of formation were calculated (increment denotations corresponded to the Benson-Buss symbols). The thermochemical characteristics of a wide range of amino acids and their derivatives were calculated.

  2. Human lactoferricin derived di-peptides deploying loop structures induce apoptosis specifically in cancer cells through targeting membranous phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Sabrina; Leber, Regina; Rinner, Beate; Schaider, Helmut; Lohner, Karl; Zweytick, Dagmar

    2015-11-01

    Host defense-derived peptides have emerged as a novel strategy for the development of alternative anticancer therapies. In this study we report on characteristic features of human lactoferricin (hLFcin) derivatives which facilitate specific killing of cancer cells of melanoma, glioblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma compared with non-specific derivatives and the synthetic peptide RW-AH. Changes in amino acid sequence of hLFcin providing 9-11 amino acids stretched derivatives LF11-316, -318 and -322 only yielded low antitumor activity. However, the addition of the repeat (di-peptide) and the retro-repeat (di-retro-peptide) sequences highly improved cancer cell toxicity up to 100% at 20 μM peptide concentration. Compared to the complete parent sequence hLFcin the derivatives showed toxicity on the melanoma cell line A375 increased by 10-fold and on the glioblastoma cell line U-87mg by 2-3-fold. Reduced killing velocity, apoptotic blebbing, activation of caspase 3/7 and formation of apoptotic DNA fragments proved that the active and cancer selective peptides, e.g. R-DIM-P-LF11-322, trigger apoptosis, whereas highly active, though non-selective peptides, such as DIM-LF11-318 and RW-AH seem to kill rapidly via necrosis inducing membrane lyses. Structural studies revealed specific toxicity on cancer cells by peptide derivatives with loop structures, whereas non-specific peptides comprised α-helical structures without loop. Model studies with the cancer membrane mimic phosphatidylserine (PS) gave strong evidence that PS only exposed by cancer cells is an important target for specific hLFcin derivatives. Other negatively charged membrane exposed molecules as sialic acid, heparan and chondroitin sulfate were shown to have minor impact on peptide activity.

  3. Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Mediated siRNA Transfection by Melittin-Derived Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Kirk K.; Pan, Hua; Ratner, Lee; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Wickline, Samuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional peptide-mediated siRNA transfection via peptide transduction domains exhibits limited cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA due to endosomal entrapment. This work overcomes these limitations with the use of membrane-destabilizing peptides derived from melittin for the knockdown of NFkB signaling in a model of adult T-Cell leukemia/lymphoma. While the mechanism of siRNA delivery into the cytoplasmic compartment by peptide transduction domains has not been well studied, our analysis of melittin derivatives indicates that concurrent nanocomplex disassembly and peptide-mediated endosomolysis are crucial to siRNA transfection. Importantly, in the case of the most active derivative, p5RHH, this process is initiated by acidic pH, indicating that endosomal acidification after macropinocytosis can trigger siRNA release into the cytoplasm. These data provide general principles regarding nanocomplex response to endocytosis which may guide the development of peptide/siRNA nanocomplex-based transfection. PMID:24053333

  4. Installing amino acids and peptides on N-heterocycles under visible-light assistance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yunhe; Jiang, Min; Wang, Hui; Fu, Hua

    2016-02-02

    Readily available natural α-amino acids are one of nature's most attractive and versatile building blocks in synthesis of natural products and biomolecules. Peptides and N-heterocycles exhibit various biological and pharmaceutical functions. Conjugation of amino acids or peptides with N-heterocycles provides boundless potentiality for screening and discovery of diverse biologically active molecules. However, it is a great challenge to install amino acids or peptides on N-heterocycles through formation of carbon-carbon bonds under mild conditions. In this article, eighteen N-protected α-amino acids and three peptides were well assembled on phenanthridine derivatives via couplings of N-protected α-amino acid and peptide active esters with substituted 2-isocyanobiphenyls at room temperature under visible-light assistance. Furthermore, N-Boc-proline residue was successfully conjugated with oxindole derivatives using similar procedures. The simple protocol, mild reaction conditions, fast reaction, and high efficiency of this method make it an important strategy for synthesis of diverse molecules containing amino acid and peptide fragments.

  5. Installing amino acids and peptides on N-heterocycles under visible-light assistance

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yunhe; Jiang, Min; Wang, Hui; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Readily available natural α-amino acids are one of nature’s most attractive and versatile building blocks in synthesis of natural products and biomolecules. Peptides and N-heterocycles exhibit various biological and pharmaceutical functions. Conjugation of amino acids or peptides with N-heterocycles provides boundless potentiality for screening and discovery of diverse biologically active molecules. However, it is a great challenge to install amino acids or peptides on N-heterocycles through formation of carbon-carbon bonds under mild conditions. In this article, eighteen N-protected α-amino acids and three peptides were well assembled on phenanthridine derivatives via couplings of N-protected α-amino acid and peptide active esters with substituted 2-isocyanobiphenyls at room temperature under visible-light assistance. Furthermore, N-Boc-proline residue was successfully conjugated with oxindole derivatives using similar procedures. The simple protocol, mild reaction conditions, fast reaction, and high efficiency of this method make it an important strategy for synthesis of diverse molecules containing amino acid and peptide fragments. PMID:26830014

  6. Peptide and amino acid separation with nanofiltration membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuru, Toshinori; Shutou, Takatoshi; Nakao, Shin-Ichi; Kimura, Shoji )

    1994-05-01

    Several nanofiltration membranes [UTC-20, 60 (Toray Industries), NF-40 (Film-Tech Corporation), Desal-5, G-20 (Desalination Systems), and NTR-7450 (Nitto Electric Industrial Co.)] were applied to separate amino acids and peptides on the basis of charge interaction with the membranes since most of them contain charged functional groups. Nanofiltration membranes having a molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) below 300 (UTC-20, 60, NF-40 and Desal-5) were not suitable for separation of amino acids. On the other hand, separation of amino acids and peptides with nanofiltration membranes having a MWCO around 2000-3000 (NTR-7450 and G-20) was satisfactory based on a charge effect mechanism; charged amino acids and peptides were rejected while neutral amino acids and peptides permeated through the membranes. Separation of peptides having different isoelectric points with nanofiltration membranes was possible by adjusting the pH. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Synthesis of peptide sequences derived from fibril-forming proteins.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Denis B; Karas, John A

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of a large number of diseases, including Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), is associated with protein aggregation and the formation of amyloid, fibrillar deposits. Peptide fragments of amyloid-forming proteins have been found to form fibrils in their own right and have become important tools for unlocking the mechanism of amyloid fibril formation and the pathogenesis of amyloid diseases. The synthesis and purification of peptide sequences derived from amyloid fibril-forming proteins can be extremely challenging. The synthesis may not proceed well, generating a very low quality crude product which can be difficult to purify. Even clean crude peptides can be difficult to purify, as they are often insoluble or form fibrils rapidly in solution. This chapter presents methods to recognise and to overcome the difficulties associated with the synthesis, and purification of fibril-forming peptides, illustrating the points with three synthetic examples.

  8. Peptiderive server: derive peptide inhibitors from protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sedan, Yuval; Marcu, Orly; Lyskov, Sergey; Schueler-Furman, Ora

    2016-01-01

    The Rosetta Peptiderive protocol identifies, in a given structure of a protein–protein interaction, the linear polypeptide segment suggested to contribute most to binding energy. Interactions that feature a ‘hot segment’, a linear peptide with significant binding energy compared to that of the complex, may be amenable for inhibition and the peptide sequence and structure derived from the interaction provide a starting point for rational drug design. Here we present a web server for Peptiderive, which is incorporated within the ROSIE web interface for Rosetta protocols. A new feature of the protocol also evaluates whether derived peptides are good candidates for cyclization. Fast computation times and clear visualization allow users to quickly assess the interaction of interest. The Peptiderive server is available for free use at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org/peptiderive. PMID:27141963

  9. Peptide-decorated chitosan derivatives enhance fibroblast adhesion and proliferation in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Patrulea, V; Hirt-Burri, N; Jeannerat, A; Applegate, L A; Ostafe, V; Jordan, O; Borchard, G

    2016-05-20

    RGD peptide sequences are known to regulate cellular activities by interacting with α5β1, αvβ5 and αvβ3 integrin, which contributes to the wound healing process. In this study, RGDC peptide was immobilized onto chitosan derivative 1,6-diaminohexane-O-carboxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (DAH-CMTMC) to display RGDC-promoting adhesion for enhanced wound healing. The efficiency of N-methylation, O-carboxymethylation and spacer grafting was quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed by (1)H NMR and FTIR, yielding 0.38 degree of substitution for N-methylation and >0.85 for O-carboxymethylation. The glass transition temperatures for chitosan derivatives were also studied. Peptide immobilization was achieved through sulfhydryl groups using sulfosuccinimidyl (4-iodoacetyl)amino-benzoate (sulfo-SIAB method). RGDC immobilized peptide onto DAH-CMTMC was found to be about 15.3 μg/mg of chitosan derivative by amino acid analysis (AAA). The significant increase of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) viability in vitro over 7 days suggests that RGDC-functionalized chitosan may lead to enhanced wound healing (viability >140%). Moreover, bio-adhesion and proliferation assays confirmed that coatings of RGDC-functionalized chitosan derivatives exhibit in vitro wound healing properties by enhancing fibroblast proliferation and adhesion. These results showed that RGDC peptide-functionalized chitosan provides an optimal environment for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation.

  10. Activation of carboxyl group with cyanate: peptide bond formation from dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Danger, Grégoire; Charlot, Solenne; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The reaction of cyanate with C-terminal carboxyl groups of peptides in aqueous solution was considered as a potential pathway for the abiotic formation of peptide bonds under the condition of the primitive Earth. The catalytic effect of dicarboxylic acids on cyanate hydrolysis was definitely attributed to intramolecular nucleophilic catalysis by the observation of the 1H-NMR signal of succinic anhydride when reacting succinic acid with KOCN in aqueous solution (pH 2.2-5.5). The formation of amide bonds was noticed when adding amino acids or amino acid derivatives into the solution. The reaction of N-acyl aspartic acid derivatives was observed to proceed similarly and the scope of the cyanate-promoted reaction was analyzed from the standpoint of prebiotic peptide formation. The role of cyanate in activating peptide C-terminus constitutes a proof of principle that intramolecular reactions of adducts of peptides C-terminal carboxyl groups with activating agents represent a pathway for peptide activation in aqueous solution, the relevance of which is discussed in connexion with the issue of the emergence of homochirality.

  11. Identification of candidate antimicrobial peptides derived from abalone hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jun; Coates, Christopher J; Zhu, Hongtao; Zhu, Ping; Wu, Zujian; Xie, Lianhui

    2015-03-01

    Hemocyanins present in invertebrate hemolymph are multifunctional proteins, responsible for oxygen transport and contributing to innate immunity through phenoloxidase-like activity. In arthropods, hemocyanin has been identified as a source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides during infection. Conversely, no hemocyanin-derived antimicrobial peptides have been reported for molluscs. The present study describes a putative antimicrobial region, termed haliotisin, located within the linking sequence between the α-helical domain and β-sheet domain of abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) hemocyanin functional unit E. A series of synthetic peptides based on overlapping fragments of the haliotisin region were tested for their bactericidal potential. Incubating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in the presence of certain haliotisin peptides, notably peptides 3-4-5 (DTFDYKKFGYRYDSLELEGRSISRIDELIQQRQEKDRTFAGFLLKGFGTSAS) led to reductions in microbial growth. Furthermore, transmission electron micrographs of haliotisin-treated bacteria revealed damages to the microbial cell wall. Data discussed here provides the first evidence to suggest that molluscan hemocyanin may act as a source of anti-infective peptides.

  12. Fatty acid conjugation enhances the activities of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhining; Yuan, Penghui; Xing, Meng; He, Zhumei; Dong, Chuanfu; Cao, Yongchang; Liu, Qiuyun

    2013-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity in multi-cellular organisms, and usually expressed and secreted constantly at basal levels to prevent infection, but local production can be augmented upon an infection. The clock is ticking as rising antibiotic abuse has led to the emergence of many drug resistance bacteria. Due to their broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal activities as well as anti-viral and anti-tumor activities, efforts are being made to develop antimicrobial peptides into future microbial agents. This article describes some of the recent patents on antimicrobial peptides with fatty acid conjugation. Potency and selectivity of antimicrobial peptide can be modulated with fatty acid tails of variable length. Interaction between membranes and antimicrobial peptides was affected by fatty acid conjugation. At concentrations above the critical miscelle concentration (CMC), propensity of solution selfassembly hampered binding of the peptide to cell membranes. Overall, fatty acid conjugation has enhanced the activities of antimicrobial peptides, and occasionally it rendered inactive antimicrobial peptides to be bioactive. Antimicrobial peptides can not only be used as medicine but also as food additives.

  13. [Antiaggregation activity of arachidonic acid conjugates with neurotropic peptides proglyprol and semax].

    PubMed

    Bezuglov, V V; Gretskaia, N M; Vasil'eva, T M; Petrukhina, G N; Andreeva, L A; Miasoedov, N F; Makarov, V A

    2014-01-01

    The influence two original derivatives of a therapeutically important peptide, bearing arachidonic acid residue with semax and proglyprol, upon platelet aggregation have been studied in vitro. It is established that both derivatives, in contrast to the parent peptide, possess moderate anti-aggregant properties and produce a dose-dependent decrease in the interplatelet interaction induced by ADP, epinephrine, and arachidonic acid within the concentration range of 0.018 - 1.8 mM. This activity was more pronounced for arachidonoylsemax in comparison with arachidonoylproglyprol.

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; E-mail: hiokada@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2007-02-23

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1{sub IIIB} infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent.

  15. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D'Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J P; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  16. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D’Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J. P.; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis. PMID:26555143

  17. Peptides derived from CXCL8 based on in silico analysis inhibit CXCL8 interactions with its receptor CXCR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Liou, Je-Wen; Chang, Chun-Chun; Chung, Yi; Lin, Lee-Fong; Hsu, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Chemokine CXCL8 is crucial for regulation of inflammatory and immune responses via activating its cognate receptor CXCR1. In this study, molecular docking and binding free energy calculations were combined to predict the initial binding event of CXCL8 to CXCR1 for peptide drug design. The simulations reveal that in the initial binding, the N-loop of CXCL8 interacts with the N-terminus of CXCR1, which is dominated by electrostatic interactions. The derived peptides from the binding region of CXCL8 are synthesized for further confirmation. Surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that the CXCL8 derived peptide with 14 residues is able to bind to the receptor CXCR1 derived peptide with equilibrium KD of 252 μM while the peptide encompassing a CXCL8 K15A mutation hardly binds to CXCR1 derived peptide (KD = 1553 μM). The cell experiments show that the designed peptide inhibits CXCL8-induced and LPS-activated monocytes adhesion and transmigration. However, when the peptides were mutated on two lysine residues (K15 and K20), the inhibition effects were greatly reduced indicating these two amino acids are key residues for the initial binding of CXCL8 to CXCR1. This study demonstrates that in silico prediction based functional peptide design can be effective for developing anti-inflammation drugs.

  18. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Rivero-Gutiérrez, Belén; Mascaraque, Cristina; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF) whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action. PMID:25501338

  19. Food derived bioactive peptides and intestinal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Rivero-Gutiérrez, Belén; Mascaraque, Cristina; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín

    2014-12-09

    A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF) whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action.

  20. Di-heterometalation of thiol-functionalized peptide nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Tanmaya; Patra, Malay; Spiccia, Leone; Gasser, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    As a proof-of-principle, two hetero-bimetallic PNA oligomers containing a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl and a cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl complex have been prepared by serial combination of solid-phase peptide coupling and in-solution thiol chemistry. Solid-phase N-terminus attachment of Ru(II)-polypyridyl carboxylic acid derivative, C1, onto the thiol-functionalized PNA backbone (H-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) has been performed by standard peptide coupling method. As two parallel approaches, the strong affinity of thiols for maleimide and haloacetyl group has been exploited for subsequent post-SPPS addition of cymantrene-based organometallic cores, C2 and C3. Michael-like addition and thioether ligation of thiol functionalized PNA1 (H-gly-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) and PNA2 (C1-a-a-g-t-c-t-g-c-linker-cys-NH2) to cymantrene maleimide and chloroacetyl derivatives, C2 and C3, respectively, has been performed. The synthesized ruthenium(II)-cymantrenyl PNA oligomers have been characterized by mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and IR spectroscopy. The distinct Mn-CO vibrational IR stretches, between 1,924–2,074 cm−1, have been used as markers to confirm the presence of cymantrenyl units in the PNA sequences and the purity of the HPLC-purified PNA thioethers assessed using LC-MS. PMID:23422249

  1. Linear aliphatic dialkynes as alternative linkers for double-click stapling of p53-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yu Heng; de Andrade, Peterson; McKenzie, Grahame J; Venkitaraman, Ashok R; Spring, David R

    2014-12-15

    We investigated linear aliphatic dialkynes as a new structural class of i,i+7 linkers for the double-click stapling of p53-based peptides. The optimal combination of azido amino acids and dialkynyl linker length for MDM2 binding was determined. In a direct comparison between aliphatic and aromatic staple scaffolds, the aliphatic staples resulted in superior binding to MDM2 in vitro and superior p53-activating capability in cells when using a diazidopeptide derived from phage display. This work demonstrates that the nature of the staple scaffold is an important factor that can affect peptide bioactivity in cells.

  2. The expanding roles of the ghrelin-gene derived peptide obestatin in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Seim, Inge; Walpole, Carina; Amorim, Laura; Josh, Peter; Herington, Adrian; Chopin, Lisa

    2011-06-20

    Obestatin is a 23 amino acid, ghrelin gene-derived peptide hormone produced in the stomach and a range of other tissues throughout the body. While it was initially reported that obestatin opposed the actions of ghrelin with regards to appetite and food intake, it is now clear that obestatin is not an endogenous ghrelin antagonist, but it is a multi-functional peptide hormone in its own right. In this review we will discuss the controversies associated with the discovery of obestatin and explore emerging central and peripheral roles of obestatin, which includes adipogenesis, pancreatic homeostasis and cancer.

  3. NMR-derived model for a peptide-antibody complex

    SciTech Connect

    Zilber, B.; Scherf, T.; Anglister, J. ); Levitt, M. )

    1990-10-01

    The TE34 monoclonal antibody against cholera toxin peptide 3 (CTP3; VEVPGSQHIDSQKKA) was sequenced and investigated by two-dimensional transferred NOE difference spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The V{sub H} sequence of TE34, which does not bind cholera toxin, shares remarkable homology to that of TE32 and TE33, which are both anti-CTP3 antibodies that bind the toxin. However, due to a shortened heavy chain CDR3, TE34 assumes a radically different combining site structure. The assignment of the combining site interactions to specific peptide residues was completed by use of AcIDSQRKA, a truncated peptide analogue in which lysine-13 was substituted by arginine, specific deuteration of individual polypeptide chains of the antibody, and a computer model for the Fv fragment of TE34. NMR-derived distance restraints were then applied to the calculated model of the Fv to generate a three-dimensional structure of the TE34/CTP3 complex. The combining site was found to be a very hydrophobic cavity composed of seven aromatic residues. Charged residues are found in the periphery of the combining site. The peptide residues HIDSQKKA form a {beta}-turn inside the combining site. The contact area between the peptide and the TE34 antibody is 388 {Angstrom}{sup 2}, about half of the contact area observed in protein-antibody complexes.

  4. Amino Acid and Peptide Immobilization on Oxidized Nanocellulose: Spectroscopic Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Barazzouk, Saïd; Daneault, Claude

    2012-01-01

    In this work, oxidized nanocellulose (ONC) was synthesized and chemically coupled with amino acids and peptides using a two step coupling method at room temperature. First, ONC was activated by N-ethyl-N’-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride, forming a stable active ester in the presence of N-hydroxysuccinimide. Second, the active ester was reacted with the amino group of the amino acid or peptide, forming an amide bond between ONC and the grafted molecule. Using this method, the intermolecular interaction of amino acids and peptides was avoided and uniform coupling of these molecules on ONC was achieved. The coupling reaction was very fast in mild conditions and without alteration of the polysaccharide. The coupling products (ONC-amino acids and ONC-peptides) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and by the absorption, emission, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopic techniques.

  5. Peptide nucleic acid probes with charged photocleavable mass markers

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Rachel J; Green, Philip S; Gale, Nittaya; Langley, G John

    2010-01-01

    Halogen-labelled peptide organic acid (HPOA) monomers have been synthesised and incorporated into sequence-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Three different types of probe have been prepared; the unmodified PNA probe, the PNA probe with a mass marker, and the PNA probe with photocleavable mass marker. All three types of probe have been used in model studies to develop a mass spectrometry-based hybridisation assay for detection of point mutations in DNA. PMID:21687524

  6. [Functional activity of bone marrow-derived peptides (myelopeptides)].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova, A A; Petrov, R V

    2009-12-01

    The review describes structure and functions of bone marrow-derived peptides (myelopeptides). The final biological effects of these endogenous bioregulators (antitumor, antiviral, anti-infectious, antileukemia etc.) are due to their immunocorrecting and differentiating activity. Myelopeptides are the integral parts of the immune homeostasis maintenance system. Nowadays, medical preparations with no side effects and natural mechanisms of action are being developed on the basis of synthesized myelopeptides.

  7. [Food-derived opioid peptides and their neurological impact].

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, E A; Sarycheva, N Y; Dubynin, V A; Kamensky, A A

    2015-01-01

    In this review the up-to-date literature data about exorphins are analysed. Exorphins are short opioid-like food-derived peptides. Different reports about their physiological impact in animals and humans are reviewed with focus on neurotropic effects. Clinical data (case reports and clinical trials' results), on the one hand, and the results of experiments with animals of different taxons, on the other hand, are summarized. The influence of exorphins on infants' development is emphasized.

  8. Characterization of the triphenylphosphonium derivative of peptides by fast atom bombardment-tandem mass spectrometry, and investigations of the mechanisms of fragmentation of peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fast atom bombardment collisionally activated dissociation tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for the determination of the primary structure of peptides. However, there are factors that frequently prevent successful sequence analysis by mass spectrometry. Two such factors are the poor ionization efficiency of some hydrophilic peptides and, for many peptides, ambiguities in interpretation of the spectra when key sequence ions are weak or absent. Novel and simple procedures for preparing ethyl-triphenylphosphonium derivatives of peptides are described. These procedures allow an ethyl-triphenylphosphonium moiety to be selectively attached to either the N- or C-terminus. Modification of peptides by these chemical methods significantly enhances the efficiency of fast atom bombardment ionization. Moreover, upon collisionally activated dissociation, the derivatized peptides generate a predictable series of sequence ions from either the C-terminus or the N-terminus, depending on the location of the ethyl-triphenylphosphonium moiety. The potential utility of the ethyl-triphenylphosphonium derivative in structure elucidation is illustrated by a comparison of the mass spectra of underivatized and derivatized peptides containing up to 20 amino acid residues, or contain an N-terminal blocking group, or contain a phosphate group, or contain a disulfide bond, or contain a backbone modification. When protonated peptide molecules and cationized peptide molecules are subjected to high-energy collisionally activated dissociation, skeletal bonds cleave generating sequence-specific fragment ions. These bond cleavages usually involve H-shifts. The utility of selective deuterium labeling was applied here to elucidate fragmentation mechanisms. Skeletal bond cleavages in the ionized peptide H-VGVAPG-OH were investigated, in which the molecule was analyzed in the protonated form, cationized form, or as the charge-localized ethyl-triphenylphosphonium derivative.

  9. Fragmentation reactions of deprotonated peptides containing aspartic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Alex G.; Young, Alex B.

    2006-09-01

    The fragmentation reactions of deprotonated peptides containing aspartic acid have been elucidated using MS2 and MS3 experiments and accurate mass measurements where necessary. The disposition of labile (N and O bonded) hydrogens in the fragmentation products has been studied by exchanging the labile hydrogens for deuterium whereby the [MD]- ion is formed on electrospray ionization. [alpha]-Aspartyl and [beta]-aspartyl dipeptides give very similar fragment ion spectra on collisional activation, involving for both species primarily formation of the y1 ion and loss of H2O from [MH]- followed by further fragmentation, thus precluding the distinction of the isomeric species by negative ion tandem mass spectrometry. Dipeptides of sequence HXxxAspOH give characteristic spectra different from the [alpha]- and [beta]-isomers. For larger peptides containing aspartic acid a common fragmentation reaction involves nominal cleavage of the NC bond N-terminal to the aspartic acid residue to form a c ion (deprotonated amino acid amide (c1) or peptide amide (cn)) and the complimentary product involving elimination of a neutral amino acid amide or peptide amide. When aspartic acid is in the C-terminal position this fragmentation reaction occurs from the [MH]- ion while when the aspartic acid is not in the C-terminal position the fragmentation reaction occurs mainly from the [MHH2O]- ion. The products of this NC bond cleavage reaction serve to identify the position of the aspartic acid residue in the peptide.

  10. Deglycosylation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and derived peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, S.C.; Krueger, R.C.; Schwartz, N.B. )

    1990-01-30

    In order to define the domain structure of proteoglycans as well as identify primary amino acid sequences specific for attachment of the various carbohydrate substituents, reliable techniques for deglycosylating proteoglycans are required. In this study, deglycosylation of cartilage chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) with minimal core protein cleavage was accomplished by digestion with chondroitinase ABC and keratanase, followed by treatment with anhydrous HF in pyridine. Nearly complete deglycosylation of secreted proteoglycan was verified within 45 min of HF treatment by loss of incorporated ({sup 3}H)glucosamine label from the proteoglycan as a function of time of treatment, as well as by direct analysis of carbohydrate content and xylosyltransferase acceptor activity of unlabeled core protein preparations. The deglycosylated CSPG preparations were homogeneous and of high molecular weight. Comparison of the intact deglycosylated core protein preparations with newly synthesized unprocessed precursors suggested that extensive proteolytic cleavage of the core protein did not occur during normal intracellular processing. Furthermore, peptide patterns generated after clostripain digestion of core protein precursor and of deglycosylated secreted proteoglycan were comparable. With the use of the clostripain digestion procedure, peptides were produced from unlabeled proteoglycan, and two predominant peptides from the most highly glycosylated regions were isolated, characterized, and deglycosylated. These peptides were found to follow similar kinetics of deglycosylation and to acquire xylose activity comparable to the intact core protein.

  11. A Review of Potential Marine-derived Hypotensive and Anti-obesity Peptides.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, V; Vasiljevic, T; Donkor, O N; Mathai, M L

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are food derived components, usually consisting of 3-20 amino acids, which are inactive when incorporated within their parent protein. Once liberated by enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis, during food processing and gastrointestinal transit, they can potentially provide an array of health benefits to the human body. Owing to an unprecedented increase in the worldwide incidence of obesity and hypertension, medical researchers are focusing on the hypotensive and anti-obesity properties of nutritionally derived bioactive peptides. The role of the renin-angiotensin system has long been established in the aetiology of metabolic diseases and hypertension. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system by inhibiting the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and preventing the formation of angiotensin II can be a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of hypertension and obesity. Fish-derived proteins and peptides can potentially be excellent sources of bioactive components, mainly as a source of ACE inhibitors. However, increased use of marine sources, poses an unsustainable burden on particular fish stocks, so, the underutilized fish species and by-products can be exploited for this purpose. This paper provides an overview of the techniques involved in the production, isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive peptides from marine sources, as well as the evaluation of the ACE inhibitory (ACE-I) activity and bioavailability.

  12. HIV-1 enhancing effect of prostatic acid phosphatase peptides is reduced in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Martellini, Julie A; Cole, Amy L; Svoboda, Pavel; Stuchlik, Olga; Chen, Li-Mei; Chai, Karl X; Gangrade, Bhushan K; Sørensen, Ole E; Pohl, Jan; Cole, Alexander M

    2011-01-20

    We recently reported that HIV-1 infection can be inhibited by innate antimicrobial components of human seminal plasma (SP). Conversely, naturally occurring peptidic fragments from the SP-derived prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) have been reported to form amyloid fibrils called "SEVI" and enhance HIV-1 infection in vitro. In order to understand the biological consequence of this proviral effect, we extended these studies in the presence of human SP. PAP-derived peptides were agitated to form SEVI and incubated in the presence or absence of SP. While PAP-derived peptides and SEVI alone were proviral, the presence of 1% SP ablated their proviral activity in several different anti-HIV-1 assays. The anti-HIV-1 activity of SP was concentration dependent and was reduced following filtration. Supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI incubated with diluted SP were degraded within hours, with SP exhibiting proteolytic activity at dilutions as high as 1:200. Sub-physiological concentrations of two prominent proteases of SP, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and matriptase, could degrade physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI. While human SP is a complex biological fluid, containing both antiviral and proviral factors, our results suggest that PAP peptides and SEVI may be subject to naturally occurring proteolytic components capable of reducing their proviral activity.

  13. Thiol-disulfide exchange in peptides derived from human growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Epling, Daniel E; Sophocleous, Andreas M; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-04-01

    Disulfide bonds stabilize proteins by cross-linking distant regions into a compact three-dimensional structure. They can also participate in hydrolytic and oxidative pathways to form nonnative disulfide bonds and other reactive species. Such covalent modifications can contribute to protein aggregation. Here, we present experimental data for the mechanism of thiol-disulfide exchange in tryptic peptides derived from human growth hormone in aqueous solution. Reaction kinetics was monitored to investigate the effect of pH (6.0-10.0), temperature (4-50°C), oxidation suppressants [ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and N2 sparging], and peptide secondary structure (amide cyclized vs. open form). The concentrations of free thiol containing peptides, scrambled disulfides, and native disulfide-linked peptides generated via thiol-disulfide exchange and oxidation reactions were determined using reverse-phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration versus time data were fitted to a mathematical model using nonlinear least squares regression analysis. At all pH values, the model was able to fit the data with R(2) ≥ 0.95. Excluding oxidation suppressants (EDTA and N2 sparging) resulted in an increase in the formation of scrambled disulfides via oxidative pathways but did not influence the intrinsic rate of thiol-disulfide exchange. In addition, peptide secondary structure was found to influence the rate of thiol-disulfide exchange.

  14. A Peptide Derived from Endostatin Ameliorates Organ Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yukie; Takihara, Takahisa; Chambers, Roger A.; Veraldi, Kristen L.; Larregina, Adriana T.; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroproliferative disorders such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and systemic sclerosis have no effective therapies and result in significant morbidity and mortality due to progressive organ fibrosis. We examined the effect of peptides derived from endostatin on existing fibrosis and fibrosis triggered by two potent mediators, transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) and bleomycin, in human and mouse tissues in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We identified one peptide, E4, with potent antifibrotic activity. E4 prevented TGF-β–induced dermal fibrosis in vivo in a mouse model, ex vivo in human skin, and in bleomycin-induced dermal and pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, demonstrating that E4 exerts potent antifibrotic effects. In addition, E4 significantly reduced existing fibrosis in these preclinical models. E4 amelioration of fibrosis was accompanied by reduced cell apoptosis and lower levels of lysyl oxidase, an enzyme that cross-links collagen, and Egr-1 (early growth response gene–1), a transcription factor that mediates the effects of several fibrotic triggers. Our findings identify E4 as a peptide with potent antifibrotic activity and a possible therapeutic agent for organ fibrosis. PMID:22649092

  15. Simple peptides derived from the ribosomal core potentiate RNA polymerase ribozyme function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagami, Shunsuke; Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    The emergence of functional interactions between nucleic acids and polypeptides was a key transition in the origin of life and remains at the heart of all biology. However, how and why simple non-coded peptides could have become critical for RNA function is unclear. Here, we show that putative ancient peptide segments from the cores of both ribosomal subunits enhance RNA polymerase ribozyme (RPR) function, as do derived homopolymeric peptides comprising lysine or the non-proteinogenic lysine analogues ornithine or, to a lesser extent, diaminobutyric acid, irrespective of chirality or chiral purity. Lysine decapeptides enhance RPR function by promoting holoenzyme assembly through primer-template docking, accelerate RPR evolution, and allow RPR-catalysed RNA synthesis at near physiological (≥1 mM) Mg2+ concentrations, enabling templated RNA synthesis within membranous protocells. Our results outline how compositionally simple, mixed-chirality peptides may have augmented the functional potential of early RNAs and promoted the emergence of the first protocells.

  16. Simple peptides derived from the ribosomal core potentiate RNA polymerase ribozyme function.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Shunsuke; Attwater, James; Holliger, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    The emergence of functional interactions between nucleic acids and polypeptides was a key transition in the origin of life and remains at the heart of all biology. However, how and why simple non-coded peptides could have become critical for RNA function is unclear. Here, we show that putative ancient peptide segments from the cores of both ribosomal subunits enhance RNA polymerase ribozyme (RPR) function, as do derived homopolymeric peptides comprising lysine or the non-proteinogenic lysine analogues ornithine or, to a lesser extent, diaminobutyric acid, irrespective of chirality or chiral purity. Lysine decapeptides enhance RPR function by promoting holoenzyme assembly through primer-template docking, accelerate RPR evolution, and allow RPR-catalysed RNA synthesis at near physiological (≥1 mM) Mg(2+) concentrations, enabling templated RNA synthesis within membranous protocells. Our results outline how compositionally simple, mixed-chirality peptides may have augmented the functional potential of early RNAs and promoted the emergence of the first protocells.

  17. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding.

    PubMed

    Memczak, Henry; Lauster, Daniel; Kar, Parimal; Di Lella, Santiago; Volkmer, Rudolf; Knecht, Volker; Herrmann, Andreas; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F; Stöcklein, Walter F M

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing.

  18. Anti-Hemagglutinin Antibody Derived Lead Peptides for Inhibitors of Influenza Virus Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Parimal; Di Lella, Santiago; Volkmer, Rudolf; Knecht, Volker; Herrmann, Andreas; Ehrentreich-Förster, Eva; Bier, Frank F.; Stöcklein, Walter F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies against spike proteins of influenza are used as a tool for characterization of viruses and therapeutic approaches. However, development, production and quality control of antibodies is expensive and time consuming. To circumvent these difficulties, three peptides were derived from complementarity determining regions of an antibody heavy chain against influenza A spike glycoprotein. Their binding properties were studied experimentally, and by molecular dynamics simulations. Two peptide candidates showed binding to influenza A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2. One of them, termed PeB, with the highest affinity prevented binding to and infection of target cells in the micromolar region without any cytotoxic effect. PeB matches best the conserved receptor binding site of hemagglutinin. PeB bound also to other medical relevant influenza strains, such as human-pathogenic A/California/7/2009 H1N1, and avian-pathogenic A/Mute Swan/Rostock/R901/2006 H7N1. Strategies to improve the affinity and to adapt specificity are discussed and exemplified by a double amino acid substituted peptide, obtained by substitutional analysis. The peptides and their derivatives are of great potential for drug development as well as biosensing. PMID:27415624

  19. Lactobacillus gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, for growth in milk.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, K; Matsunaga, K; Takihiro, S; Moritoki, A; Ryuto, S; Kawai, Y; Masuda, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-03-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri is a widespread commensal lactic acid bacterium inhabiting human mucosal niches and has many beneficial effects as a probiotic. However, L. gasseri is difficult to grow in milk, which hurts usability for the food industry. It had been previously reported that supplementation with yeast extract or proteose peptone, including peptides, enables L. gasseri to grow well in milk. In this study, our objective was to confirm peptide requirement of L. gasseri and evaluate efficacy of peptide release by enzymatic proteolysis on growth of L. gassei in milk. Three strains of L. gasseri did not grow well in modified DeMan, Rogosa, Sharpe broth without any nitrogen sources (MRS-N), but addition of a casein-derived peptide mixture, tryptone, promoted growth. In contrast, little effect was observed after adding casein or a casein-derived amino acid mixture, casamino acids. These results indicate that L. gasseri requires peptides, not proteins or free amino acids, among milk-derived nitrogen sources for growth. Lactobacillus gasseri JCM 1131T hardly had growth capacity in 6 kinds of milk-based media: bovine milk, human milk, skim milk, cheese whey, modified MRS-N (MRSL-N) supplemented with acid whey, and MRSL-N supplemented with casein. Moreover, treatment with digestive proteases, particularly pepsin, to release peptides made it grow well in each milk-based medium. The pepsin treatment was the most effective for growth of strain JCM 1131T in skim milk among the tested food-grade proteases such as trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, calf rennet, ficin, bromelain, and papain. As well as strain JCM 1131T, pepsinolysis of milk improved growth of other L. gasseri strains and some strains of enteric lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus johnsonii, and Lactobacillus reuteri. These results suggest that some relatives of L. gasseri also use peptides as desirable nitrogen sources, and that milk may be a good supplier of nutritious

  20. Oxidative diversification of amino acids and peptides by small-molecule iron catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberger, Thomas J.; Rogness, Donald C.; Kohrt, Jeffrey T.; Stepan, Antonia F.; White, M. Christina

    2016-09-01

    Secondary metabolites synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases display diverse and complex topologies and possess a range of biological activities. Much of this diversity derives from a synthetic strategy that entails pre- and post-assembly oxidation of both the chiral amino acid building blocks and the assembled peptide scaffolds. The vancomycin biosynthetic pathway is an excellent example of the range of oxidative transformations that can be performed by the iron-containing enzymes involved in its biosynthesis. However, because of the challenges associated with using such oxidative enzymes to carry out chemical transformations in vitro, chemical syntheses guided by these principles have not been fully realized in the laboratory. Here we report that two small-molecule iron catalysts are capable of facilitating the targeted C-H oxidative modification of amino acids and peptides with preservation of α-centre chirality. Oxidation of proline to 5-hydroxyproline furnishes a versatile intermediate that can be transformed to rigid arylated derivatives or flexible linear carboxylic acids, alcohols, olefins and amines in both monomer and peptide settings. The value of this C-H oxidation strategy is demonstrated in its capacity for generating diversity: four ‘chiral pool’ amino acids are transformed to twenty-one chiral unnatural amino acids representing seven distinct functional group arrays; late-stage C-H functionalizations of a single proline-containing tripeptide furnish eight tripeptides, each having different unnatural amino acids. Additionally, a macrocyclic peptide containing a proline turn element is transformed via late-stage C-H oxidation to one containing a linear unnatural amino acid.

  1. Oxidative diversification of amino acids and peptides by small-molecule iron catalysis.

    PubMed

    Osberger, Thomas J; Rogness, Donald C; Kohrt, Jeffrey T; Stepan, Antonia F; White, M Christina

    2016-09-08

    Secondary metabolites synthesized by non-ribosomal peptide synthetases display diverse and complex topologies and possess a range of biological activities. Much of this diversity derives from a synthetic strategy that entails pre- and post-assembly oxidation of both the chiral amino acid building blocks and the assembled peptide scaffolds. The vancomycin biosynthetic pathway is an excellent example of the range of oxidative transformations that can be performed by the iron-containing enzymes involved in its biosynthesis. However, because of the challenges associated with using such oxidative enzymes to carry out chemical transformations in vitro, chemical syntheses guided by these principles have not been fully realized in the laboratory. Here we report that two small-molecule iron catalysts are capable of facilitating the targeted C-H oxidative modification of amino acids and peptides with preservation of α-centre chirality. Oxidation of proline to 5-hydroxyproline furnishes a versatile intermediate that can be transformed to rigid arylated derivatives or flexible linear carboxylic acids, alcohols, olefins and amines in both monomer and peptide settings. The value of this C-H oxidation strategy is demonstrated in its capacity for generating diversity: four 'chiral pool' amino acids are transformed to twenty-one chiral unnatural amino acids representing seven distinct functional group arrays; late-stage C-H functionalizations of a single proline-containing tripeptide furnish eight tripeptides, each having different unnatural amino acids. Additionally, a macrocyclic peptide containing a proline turn element is transformed via late-stage C-H oxidation to one containing a linear unnatural amino acid.

  2. FKBPL and Peptide Derivatives: Novel Biological Agents That Inhibit Angiogenesis by a CD44-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Andrea; O’Rourke, Martin; Yakkundi, Anita; Worthington, Jenny; Hookham, Michelle; Bicknell, Roy; McCarthy, Helen O.; McClelland, Keeva; McCallum, Lynn; Dyer, Hayder; McKeen, Hayley; Waugh, David; Roberts, Jennifer; McGregor, Joanne; Cotton, Graham; James, Iain; Harrison, Timothy; Hirst, David G.; Robson, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Anti-angiogenic therapies can be an important adjunct to the management of many malignancies. Here we investigated a novel protein, FKBPL, and peptide derivative for their anti-angiogenic activity and mechanism of action. Experimental Design Recombinant FKBPL (rFKBPL) and its peptide derivative were assessed in a range of human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) assays in vitro. Their ability to inhibit proliferation, migration and Matrigel dependent tubule formation was determined. They were further evaluated in an ex-vivo rat model of neo-vascularisation and in two in vivo mouse models of angiogenesis; the sponge implantation and the intra-vital microscopy models. Anti-tumor efficacy was determined in two human tumor xenograft models grown in SCID mice. Finally, the dependence of peptide on CD44 was determined using a CD44 targeted siRNA approach or in cell lines of differing CD44 status. Results rFKBPL inhibited endothelial cell migration, tubule formation and microvessel formation in vitro and in vivo. The region responsible for FKBPL’s anti-angiogenic activity was identified and a 24 amino acid peptide (AD-01) spanning this sequence was synthesised. It was potently anti-angiogenic and inhibited growth in two human tumor xenograft models (DU145 and MDA-231) when administered systemically, either on its own, or in combination with docetaxel. The anti-angiogenic activity of FKBPL and AD-01 was dependent on the cell surface receptor CD44 and signalling downstream of this receptor promoted an anti-migratory phenotype. Conclusion FKBPL and its peptide derivative AD-01 have potent anti-angiogenic activity. Thus, these agents offer the potential of an attractive new approach to anti-angiogenic therapy. PMID:21364036

  3. A High Affinity hRpn2-Derived Peptide That Displaces Human Rpn13 from Proteasome in 293T Cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiuxiu; Liu, Fen; Durham, Sarah E; Tarasov, Sergey G; Walters, Kylie J

    2015-01-01

    Rpn13 is a proteasome ubiquitin receptor that has emerged as a therapeutic target for human cancers. Its ubiquitin-binding activity is confined to an N-terminal Pru (pleckstrin-like receptor for ubiquitin) domain that also docks it into the proteasome, while its C-terminal DEUBAD (DEUBiquitinase ADaptor) domain recruits deubiquitinating enzyme Uch37 to the proteasome. Bis-benzylidine piperidone derivatives that were found to bind covalently to Rpn13 C88 caused the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins as well as ER stress-related apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, including bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma lines. We find that a 38-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminus of proteasome PC repeat protein hRpn2/PSMD1 binds to hRpn13 Pru domain with 12 nM affinity. By using NMR, we identify the hRpn13-interacting amino acids in this hRpn2 fragment, some of which are conserved among eukaryotes. Importantly, we find the hRpn2-derived peptide to immunoprecipitate endogenous Rpn13 from 293T cells, and to displace it from the proteasome. These findings indicate that this region of hRpn2 is the primary binding site for hRpn13 in the proteasome. Moreover, the hRpn2-derived peptide was no longer able to interact with endogenous hRpn13 when a strictly conserved phenylalanine (F948 in humans) was replaced with arginine or a stop codon, or when Y950 and I951 were substituted with aspartic acid. Finally, over-expression of the hRpn2-derived peptide leads to an increased presence of ubiquitinated proteins in 293T cells. We propose that this hRpn2-derived peptide could be used to develop peptide-based strategies that specifically target hRpn13 function in the proteasome.

  4. Considerations for the process development of insect-derived antimicrobial peptide production.

    PubMed

    Müller, Hagen; Salzig, Denise; Czermak, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could evolve into new therapeutic lead molecules against multi-resistant bacteria. As insects are a rich source of AMP, the identification and characterization of insect-derived AMPs is particularly emphasized. One challenge of bringing these molecules into market, e.g., as a drug, is to develop a cost-efficient large-scale production process. Due to the fact that a direct AMP isolation from insects is not economical and that chemical synthesis is recommended for peptide sizes below 40 amino acids, a viable option is heterologous AMP production. Therefore, previous knowledge concerning the expression of larger proteins can be adapted, but due to the AMP nature (e.g., small size, bactericide) additional challenges have to be faced during up and downstream processing. Nonetheless the bottleneck for large-scale AMP production is the same as for proteins; mainly the downstream process. This review introduces opportunities for insect-derived AMP production, like the choice of the expression system (based on previously derived data), depending on the AMP nature, as well as new purification strategies like elastin-like peptide/intein based purification strategies. All of these aspects are discussed with regard to large-scale processes and costs.

  5. Entropy reduction in unfolded peptides (and proteins) due to conformational preferences of amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard; Toal, Siobhan E

    2014-11-07

    As established by several groups over the last 20 years, amino acid residues in unfolded peptides and proteins do not exhibit the unspecific random distribution as assumed by the classical random coil model. Individual amino acid residues in small peptides were found to exhibit different conformational preferences. Here, we utilize recently obtained conformational distributions of guest amino acid residues in GxG peptides to estimate their conformational entropy, which we find to be significantly lower than the entropy of an assumed random coil like distribution. Only at high temperature do backbone entropies approach random coil like values. We utilized the obtained backbone entropies of the investigated amino acid residues to estimate the loss of conformational entropy caused by a coil → helix transition and identified two subsets of amino acid residues for which the thus calculated entropy losses correlate well with the respective Gibbs energy of helix formation obtained for alanine based host-guest systems. Calculated and experimentally derived entropic losses were found to be in good agreement. For most of the amino acid residues investigated entropic losses derived from our GxG distributions correlate very well with corresponding values recently obtained from MD simulations biased by conformational propensities derived from truncated coil libraries. Both, conformational entropy and the entropy of solvation exhibit a strong, residue specific temperature dependence, which can be expected to substantially affect the stability of unfolded states. Altogether, our results provide strong evidence for the notion that conformational preferences of amino acid residues matter with regard to the thermodynamics of peptide and protein folding.

  6. Free tyrosine and tyrosine-rich peptide-dependent superoxide generation catalyzed by a copper-binding, threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide derived from prion protein.

    PubMed

    Yokawa, Ken; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Goto, Kaishi; Kawano, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    Previously, generation of superoxide anion (O(2)(*-)) catalyzed by Cu-binding peptides derived from human prion protein (model sequence for helical Cu-binding motif VNITKQHTVTTTT was most active) in the presence of catecholamines and related aromatic monoamines such as phenylethylamine and tyramine, has been reported [Kawano, T., Int J Biol Sci 2007; 3: 57-63]. The peptide sequence (corresponding to helix 2) tested here is known as threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide. In the present article, the redox behaviors of aromatic monoamines, 20 amino acids and prion-derived tyrosine-rich peptide sequences were compared as putative targets of the oxidative reactions mediated with the threonine-rich prion-peptide. For detection of O(2)(*-), an O(2)(*-)-specific chemiluminescence probe, Cypridina luciferin analog was used. We found that an aromatic amino acid, tyrosine (structurally similar to tyramine) behaves as one of the best substrates for the O(2)(*-) generating reaction (conversion from hydrogen peroxide) catalyzed by Cu-bound prion helical peptide. Data suggested that phenolic moiety is required to be an active substrate while the presence of neither carboxyl group nor amino group was necessarily required. In addition to the action of free tyrosine, effect of two tyrosine-rich peptide sequences YYR and DYEDRYYRENMHR found in human prion corresponding to the tyrosine-rich region was tested as putative substrates for the threonine-rich neurotoxic peptide. YYR motif (found twice in the Y-rich region) showed 2- to 3-fold higher activity compared to free tyrosine. Comparison of Y-rich sequence consisted of 13 amino acids and its Y-to-F substitution mutant sequence revealed that the tyrosine-residues on Y-rich peptide derived from prion may contribute to the higher production of O(2)(*-). These data suggest that the tyrosine residues on prion molecules could be additional targets of the prion-mediated reactions through intra- or inter-molecular interactions. Lastly, possible

  7. Histidine-lysine peptides as carriers of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Leng, Qixin; Goldgeier, Lisa; Zhu, Jingsong; Cambell, Patricia; Ambulos, Nicholas; Mixson, A James

    2007-03-01

    With their biodegradability and diversity of permutations, peptides have significant potential as carriers of nucleic acids. This review will focus on the sequence and branching patterns of peptide carriers composed primarily of histidines and lysines. While lysines within peptides are important for binding to the negatively charged phosphates, histidines are critical for endosomal lysis enabling nucleic acids to reach the cytosol. Histidine-lysine (HK) polymers by either covalent or ionic bonds with liposomes augment transfection compared to liposome carriers alone. More recently, we have examined peptides as sole carriers of nucleic acids because of their intrinsic advantages compared to the bipartite HK/liposome carriers. With a protocol change and addition of a histidine-rich tail, HK peptides as sole carriers were more effective than liposomes alone in several cell lines. While four-branched polymers with a primary repeating sequence pattern of -HHK- were more effective as carriers of plasmids, eight-branched polymers with a sequence pattern of -HHHK- were more effective as carriers of siRNA. Compared to polyethylenimine, HK carriers of siRNA and plasmids had reduced toxicity. When injected intravenously, HK polymers in complex with plasmids encoding antiangiogenic proteins significantly decreased tumor growth. Furthermore, modification of HK polymers with polyethylene glycol and vascular-specific ligands increased specificity of the polyplex to the tumor by more than 40-fold. Together with further development and insight on the structure of HK polyplexes, HK peptides may prove to be useful as carriers of different forms of nucleic acids both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Amyloid fibril formation of peptides derived from the C-terminus of CETP modulated by lipids

    SciTech Connect

    García-González, Victor; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •The secondary structure of a C-terminal peptide derived from CETP was studied. •Lipids modulate secondary structure changes of a C-terminal peptide derived from CETP. •Lysophosphatidic acid maintains a functional α-helix and prevents fibril formation. •Transfer of lipids by CETP is related to the presence of an α-helix at its C-end. -- Abstract: Cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasmatic protein involved in neutral lipid transfer between lipoproteins. Focusing on the last 12 C-terminus residues we have previously shown that mutation D{sub 470}N promotes a conformational change towards a β-secondary structure. In turn, this modification leads to the formation of oligomers and fibrillar structures, which cause cytotoxic effects similar to the ones provoked by amyloid peptides. In this study, we evaluated the role of specific lipid arrangements on the structure of peptide helix-Z (D{sub 470}N) through the use of thioflavin T fluorescence, peptide bond absorbance, circular dichroism and electron microscopy. The results indicate that the use of micelles formed with lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) under neutral pH induce a conformational transition of peptide helix-Z containing a β-sheet conformation to a native α-helix structure, therefore avoiding the formation of amyloid fibrils. In contrast, incubation with phosphatidic acid does not change the profile for the β-sheet conformation. When the electrostatic charge at the surface of micelles or vesicles is regulated through the use of lipids such as phospholipid and LPA, minimal changes and the presence of β-structures were recorded. Mixtures with a positive net charge diminished the percentage of β-structure and the amount of amyloid fibrils. Our results suggest that the degree of solvation determined by the presence of a free hydroxyl group on lipids such as LPA is a key condition that can modulate the secondary structure and the consequent formation of

  9. Effects of lactoferrin derived peptides on simulants of biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Sijbrandij, Tjitske; Ligtenberg, Antoon J; Nazmi, Kamran; Veerman, Enno C I; Bolscher, Jan G M; Bikker, Floris J

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an important immune protein in neutrophils and secretory fluids of mammals. Bovine LF (bLF) harbours two antimicrobial stretches, lactoferricin and lactoferampin, situated in close proximity in the N1 domain. To mimic these antimicrobial domain parts a chimeric peptide (LFchimera) has been constructed comprising parts of both stretches (LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284). To investigate the potency of this construct to combat a set of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria which are regarded as simulants for biological warfare agents, the effect on bacterial killing, membrane permeability and membrane polarity were determined in comparison to the constituent peptides and the native bLF. Furthermore we aimed to increase the antimicrobial potency of the bLF derived peptides by cationic amino acid substitutions. Overall, the bactericidal activity of the peptides could be related to membrane disturbing effects, i.e. membrane permeabilization and depolarization. Those effects were most prominent for the LFchimera. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for displaying antimicrobial activity, as lysine to arginine substitutions resulted in an increased antimicrobial activity, affecting mostly LFampin265-284 whereas arginine to lysine substitutions resulted in a decreased bactericidal activity, predominantly in case of LFcin17-30.

  10. Quinacrine reactivity with prion proteins and prion-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zbigniew; Šafařík, Martin; Dvořáková, Eva; Janoušková, Olga; Březinová, Anna; Stibor, Ivan; Holada, Karel; Bouř, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan; Sebestík, Jaroslav

    2013-05-01

    Quinacrine is a drug that is known to heal neuronal cell culture infected with prions, which are the causative agents of neurodegenerative diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. However, the drug fails when it is applied in vivo. In this work, we analyzed the reason for this failure. The drug was suggested to "covalently" modify the prion protein via an acridinyl exchange reaction. To investigate this hypothesis more closely, the acridine moiety of quinacrine was covalently attached to the thiol groups of cysteines belonging to prion-derived peptides and to the full-length prion protein. The labeled compounds were conveniently monitored by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions. The acridine moiety demonstrated characteristic UV-vis spectrum, depending on the substituent at the C-9 position of the acridine ring. These results confirm that quinacrine almost exclusively reacts with the thiol groups present in proteins and peptides. The chemical reaction alters the prion properties and increases the concentration of the acridine moiety in the prion protein.

  11. Antibacterial activity of synthetic peptides derived from lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212.

    PubMed

    León-Calvijo, María A; Leal-Castro, Aura L; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E; García-Castañeda, Javier E; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4-33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10-33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield.

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Synthetic Peptides Derived from Lactoferricin against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212

    PubMed Central

    León-Calvijo, María A.; Leal-Castro, Aura L.; Almanzar-Reina, Giovanni A.; Rosas-Pérez, Jaiver E.; García-Castañeda, Javier E.; Rivera-Monroy, Zuly J.

    2015-01-01

    Peptides derived from human and bovine lactoferricin were designed, synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS. Specific changes in the sequences were designed as (i) the incorporation of unnatural amino acids in the sequence, the (ii) reduction or (iii) elongation of the peptide chain length, and (iv) synthesis of molecules with different number of branches containing the same sequence. For each peptide, the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 was evaluated. Our results showed that Peptides I.2 (RWQWRWQWR) and I.4 ((RRWQWR)4K2Ahx2C2) exhibit bigger or similar activity against E. coli (MIC 4–33 μM) and E. faecalis (MIC 10–33 μM) when they were compared with lactoferricin protein (LF) and some of its derivate peptides as II.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGA) and IV.1 (FKCRRWQWRMKKLGAPSITCVRRAE). It should be pointed out that Peptides I.2 and I.4, containing the RWQWR motif, are short and easy to synthesize; our results demonstrate that it is possible to design and obtain synthetic peptides that exhibit enhanced antibacterial activity using a methodology that is fast and low-cost and that allows obtaining products with a high degree of purity and high yield. PMID:25815317

  13. Purification and characterisation of antibacterial peptide-containing compound derived from palm kernel cake.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yen Nee; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Wan Yaacob, Wan Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Palm kernel cake (PKC), the most useful by-product resulted from palm kernel oil production. In this study, PKC-derived protein product was found suitable for use as an antimicrobial agent with potent antibacterial activity, particularly against Bacillus species, after enzymatic hydrolysis with alcalase. The hydrolysate was further purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified fraction was found to have 14.63±0.70% (w/w) protein, a molecular mass of 2.4kDa and low hemolytic activity (<50% hemolysis of human erythrocytes at concentration of 1000μg/ml). The presence of lysine and the major component lauric acid derivative, as indicated by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) direct infusion and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, may have contributed to the antibacterial effect of purified PKC fraction. This study suggests that the antibacterial PKC compound may be not a pure peptide but instead a peptide-containing compound high in lauric acid derivative.

  14. Oxidative diversification of amino acids and peptides by small-molecule iron catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Osberger, Thomas J.; Rogness, Donald C.; Kohrt, Jeffrey T.; Stepan, Antonia F.; White, M. Christina

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) display diverse and complex topologies and possess an impressive range of biological activities1,2 Much of this diversity derives from a synthetic strategy that entails the oxidation of both the chiral amino acid building blocks and the assembled peptide scaffolds pre-3 and post-assembly2. The vancomycin biosynthetic pathway is an excellent example of the range of oxidative transformations that can be performed by the iron-containing enzymes involved in its biosynthesis.4 However, because of the challenges associated with using such oxidative enzymes to carry out chemical transformations in vitro, chemical syntheses guided by these principles have not been fully realized outside of nature.5 In this manuscript, we report that two small-molecule iron catalysts are capable of facilitating the targeted C—H oxidative modification of amino acids and peptides with preservation of α-center chirality. Oxidation of proline to 5-hydroxyproline furnishes a versatile intermediate that can be transformed to rigid arylated derivatives or flexible linear carboxylic acids, alcohols, olefins, and amines in both monomer and peptide settings. The value of this C—H oxidation strategy is demonstrated in its capacity for generating diversity: four 'chiral pool' amino acids are transformed to twenty-one chiral unnatural amino acids (UAAs) representing seven distinct functional group arrays; late-stage C—H functionalizations of a single proline-containing tripeptide furnish eight tripeptides, each having different UAAs. Additionally, a macrocyclic peptide containing a proline turn element is transformed via late-stage C—H oxidation to one containing a linear UAA. PMID:27479323

  15. Systematic amino acid substitutions improved efficiency of GD2-peptide mimotope vaccination against neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Bleeke, Matthias; Fest, Stefan; Huebener, Nicole; Landgraf, Christiane; Schraven, Burkhart; Gaedicke, Gerhard; Volkmer, Rudolf; Lode, Holger N

    2009-11-01

    The likelihood of identifying peptides of sufficient quality for the development of effective cancer vaccines by screening of phage display libraries is low. Here, we introduce the sequential application of systematic amino acid substitution by SPOT synthesis. After the substitution of two amino acids within the sequence of a phage display-derived mimotope of disialoganglioside GD2 (mimotope MA), the novel mimotope C3 showed improved GD2 mimicry in vitro. Peptide vaccination with the C3 mimotope induced an 18-fold increased anti-GD2 serum response associated with reduction of primary tumour growth and spontaneous metastasis in contrast to MA mimotope controls in a syngeneic neuroblastoma model. In summary, SPOT provides an ideal optimisation tool for the development of phage display-derived cancer vaccines.

  16. Ribosomal Synthesis of Macrocyclic Peptides in Vitro and in Vivo Mediated by Genetically Encoded Amino-Thiol Unnatural Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Frost, John R.; Jacob, Nicholas T.; Papa, Louis J.; Owens, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    A versatile method for orchestrating the formation of side-chain-to-tail cyclic peptides from ribosomally derived polypeptide precursors is reported. Upon ribosomal incorporation into intein-containing precursor proteins, designer unnatural amino acids bearing side-chain 1,3- or 1,2-aminothiol functionalities are able to promote the cyclization of a downstream target peptide sequence via a C-terminal ligation/ring contraction mechanism. Using this approach, peptide macrocycles of variable size and composition could be generated in a pH-triggered manner in vitro, or directly in living bacterial cells. This methodology furnishes a new platform for the creation and screening of genetically encoded libraries of conformationally constrained peptides. This strategy was applied to identify and isolate a low micromolar streptavidin binder (KD = 1.1 µM) from a library of cyclic peptides produced in E. coli, thereby illustrating its potential toward aiding the discovery of functional peptide macrocycles. PMID:25933125

  17. Synthesis of stable C-linked ferrocenyl amino acids and their use in solution-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Philip, Anijamol T; Chacko, Shibin; Ramapanicker, Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Incorporation of ferrocenyl group to peptides is an efficient method to alter their hydrophobicity. Ferrocenyl group can also act as an electrochemical probe when incorporated onto functional peptides. Most often, ferrocene is incorporated onto peptides post-synthesis via amide, ester or triazole linkages. Stable amino acids containing ferrocene as a C-linked side chain are potentially useful building units for the synthesis of ferrocene-containing peptides. We report here an efficient route to synthesize ferrocene-containing amino acids that are stable and can be used in peptide synthesis. Coupling of 2-ferrocenyl-1,3-dithiane and iodides derived from aspartic acid or glutamic acid using n-butyllithium leads to the incorporation of a ferrocenyl unit to the δ-position or ε-position of an α-amino acid. The reduction or hydrolysis of the dithiane group yields an alkyl or an oxo derivative. The usability of the synthesized amino acids is demonstrated by incorporating one of the amino acids in both C-terminus and N-terminus of tripeptides in solution phase.

  18. How Amino Acids and Peptides Shaped the RNA World

    PubMed Central

    van der Gulik, Peter T.S.; Speijer, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The “RNA world” hypothesis is seen as one of the main contenders for a viable theory on the origin of life. Relatively small RNAs have catalytic power, RNA is everywhere in present-day life, the ribosome is seen as a ribozyme, and rRNA and tRNA are crucial for modern protein synthesis. However, this view is incomplete at best. The modern protein-RNA ribosome most probably is not a distorted form of a “pure RNA ribosome” evolution started out with. Though the oldest center of the ribosome seems “RNA only”, we cannot conclude from this that it ever functioned in an environment without amino acids and/or peptides. Very small RNAs (versatile and stable due to basepairing) and amino acids, as well as dipeptides, coevolved. Remember, it is the amino group of aminoacylated tRNA that attacks peptidyl-tRNA, destroying the bond between peptide and tRNA. This activity of the amino acid part of aminoacyl-tRNA illustrates the centrality of amino acids in life. With the rise of the “RNA world” view of early life, the pendulum seems to have swung too much towards the ribozymatic part of early biochemistry. The necessary presence and activity of amino acids and peptides is in need of highlighting. In this article, we try to bring the role of the peptide component of early life back into focus. We argue that an RNA world completely independent of amino acids never existed. PMID:25607813

  19. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    SciTech Connect

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-20

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III{sub 8-11}) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III{sub 8-11} scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin {beta}1 but not with {alpha}v{beta}3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials.

  20. Milk-derived proteins and peptides in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Artym, Jolanta; Zimecki, Michał

    2013-08-06

    Clinical trials are reviewed, involving proteins and peptides derived from milk (predominantly bovine), with the exception of lactoferrin, which will be the subject of another article. The most explored milk fraction is α-lactalbumin (LA), which is often applied with glycomacropeptide (GMP) - a casein degradation product. These milk constituents are used in health-promoting infant and adult formulae as well as in a modified form (HAMLET) to treat cancer. Lactoperoxidase (LCP) is used as an additive to mouth hygiene products and as a salivary substitute. Casein derivatives are applied, in addition, in the dry mouth syndrome. On the other hand, casein hydrolysates, containing active tripeptides, found application in hypertension and in type 2 diabetes. Lysozyme is routinely used for food conservation and in pharmaceutical products. It was successfully used in premature infants with concomitant diseases to improve health parameters. When used as prophylaxis in patients with scheduled surgery, it significantly reduced the incidence of hepatitis resulting from blood transfusion. Lysozyme was also used in infected children as an antimicrobial agent showing synergistic effects in combination with different antibiotics. Proline-rich polypeptide (PRP) was introduced to therapy of Alzheimer's disease patients. The therapeutic value of PRP was proved in several clinical trials and supported by studies on its mechanism of action. Concentrated immunoglobulin preparations from colostrum and milk of hyperimmunized cows showed efficacy in prevention of infections by bacteria, viruses and protozoa. A nutrition formula with milk-derived TGF-β2 (Modulen IBD®) found application in treatment of pediatric Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the preparations containing milk-derived products are safe and effective measures in prevention and treatment of infections as well as autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.

  1. Intracellular protein delivery activity of peptides derived from insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Natsuko; Tenno, Takeshi; Inomata, Kosuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tanaka, Toshiki; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have various IGF-independent cellular activities, including receptor-independent cellular uptake followed by transcriptional regulation, although mechanisms of cellular entry remain unclear. Herein, we focused on their receptor-independent cellular entry mechanism in terms of protein transduction domain (PTD) activity, which is an emerging technique useful for clinical applications. The peptides of 18 amino acid residues derived from IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, which involve heparin-binding regions, mediated cellular delivery of an exogenous protein into NIH3T3 and HeLa cells. Relative protein delivery activities of IGFBP-3/5-derived peptides were approximately 20-150% compared to that of the HIV-Tat peptide, a potent PTD. Heparin inhibited the uptake of the fusion proteins with IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5, indicating that the delivery pathway is heparin-dependent endocytosis, similar to that of HIV-Tat. The delivery of GST fused to HIV-Tat was competed by either IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5-derived synthetic peptides. Therefore, the entry pathways of the three PTDs are shared. Our data has shown a new approach for designing protein delivery systems using IGFBP-3/5 derived peptides based on the molecular mechanisms of IGF-independent activities of IGFBPs.

  2. Antimicrobial activity and interactions of cationic peptides derived from Galleria mellonella cecropin D-like peptide with model membranes.

    PubMed

    Oñate-Garzón, José; Manrique-Moreno, Marcela; Trier, Steven; Leidy, Chad; Torres, Rodrigo; Patiño, Edwin

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are effector molecules of the innate immune system against invading pathogens. The cationic charge in their structures has a strong correlation with antimicrobial activity, being responsible for the initial electrostatic interaction between peptides and the anionic microbial surface. This paper contains evidence that charge modification in the neutral peptide Gm cecropin D-like (WT) improved the antimicrobial activity of the modified peptides. Two cationic peptides derived from WT sequence named as ΔM1 and ΔM2, with net charge of +5 and +9, respectively, showed at least an eightfold increase in their antimicrobial activity in comparison to WT. The mechanism of action of these peptides was investigated using small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) as model membranes. To study permeabilization effects of the peptides on cell membranes, entrapped calcein liposomes were used and the results showed that all peptides induced calcein release from 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) SUVs, whereas in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), POPC/POPG and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE)/POPG SUVs, only ΔM1 and ΔM2 induced a notable permeabilization. In addition, interactions of these peptides with phospholipids at the level of the glycerol backbone and hydrophobic domain were studied through observed changes in generalized polarization and fluorescence anisotropy using probes such as Laurdan and DPH, respectively. The results suggest that peptides slightly ordered the bilayer structure at the level of glycerol backbone and on the hydrophobic core in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) SUVs, whereas in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)/DMPG SUVs, only ΔM1 and ΔM2 peptides increased the order of bilayers. Thus, peptides would be inducing clustering of phospholipids creating phospholipid domains with a higher phase transition temperature.

  3. Antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophage chemotaxis via formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Jung; Lee, Ha Young; Jung, Young Su; Park, Joon Seong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we report that one of the antimicrobial peptides scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates actin polymerization and the subsequent chemotactic migration of macrophages through the activation of ERK and protein kinase B (Akt) activity. The scolopendrasin VII-induced chemotactic migration of macrophages is inhibited by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) antagonist cyclosporine H. We also found that scolopendrasin VII stimulate the chemotactic migration of FPR1-transfected RBL-2H3 cells, but not that of vector-transfected cells; moreover, scolopendrasin VII directly binds to FPR1. Our findings therefore suggest that the antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophages, resulting in chemotactic migration via FPR1 signaling, and the peptide can be useful in the study of FPR1-related biological responses.

  4. Structure activity relationship modelling of milk protein-derived peptides with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Nongonierma, Alice B; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative structure activity type models were developed in an attempt to predict the key features of peptide sequences having dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory activity. The models were then employed to help predict the potential of peptides, which are currently reported in the literature to be present in the intestinal tract of humans following milk/dairy product ingestion, to act as inhibitors of DPP-IV. Two models (z- and v-scale) for short (2-5 amino acid residues) bovine milk peptides, behaving as competitive inhibitors of DPP-IV, were developed. The z- and the v-scale models (p<0.05, R(2) of 0.829 and 0.815, respectively) were then applied to 56 milk protein-derived peptides previously reported in the literature to be found in the intestinal tract of humans which possessed a structural feature of DPP-IV inhibitory peptides (P at the N2 position). Ten of these peptides were synthetized and tested for their in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory properties. There was no agreement between the predicted and experimentally determined DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for the competitive peptide inhibitors. However, the ranking for DPP-IV inhibitory potency of the competitive peptide inhibitors was conserved. Furthermore, potent in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity was observed with two peptides, LPVPQ (IC50=43.8±8.8μM) and IPM (IC50=69.5±8.7μM). Peptides present within the gastrointestinal tract of human may have promise for the development of natural DPP-IV inhibitors for the management of serum glucose.

  5. The bioactive acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif peptide.

    PubMed

    Minamizaki, Tomoko; Yoshiko, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The organic component of the bone matrix comprises 40% dry weight of bone. The organic component is mostly composed of type I collagen and small amounts of non-collagenous proteins (NCPs) (10-15% of the total bone protein content). The small integrin-binding ligand N-linked glycoprotein (SIBLING) family, a NCP, is considered to play a key role in bone mineralization. SIBLING family of proteins share common structural features and includes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif and acidic serine- and aspartic acid-rich motif (ASARM). Clinical manifestations of gene mutations and/or genetically modified mice indicate that SIBLINGs play diverse roles in bone and extraskeletal tissues. ASARM peptides might not be primary responsible for the functional diversity of SIBLINGs, but this motif is suggested to be a key domain of SIBLINGs. However, the exact function of ASARM peptides is poorly understood. In this article, we discuss the considerable progress made in understanding the role of ASARM as a bioactive peptide.

  6. Metabolism of hop-derived bitter acids.

    PubMed

    Cattoor, Ko; Dresel, Michael; De Bock, Lies; Boussery, Koen; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Remon, Jean-Paul; De Keukeleire, Denis; Deforce, Dieter; Hofmann, Thomas; Heyerick, Arne

    2013-08-21

    In this study, in vitro metabolism of hop-derived bitter acids was investigated. Besides their well-known use as bitter compounds in beer, in several studies, bioactive properties have been related to these types of molecules. However, scientific data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion aspects of these compounds are limited. More specific, in this study, α-acids, β-acids, and iso-α-acids were incubated with rabbit microsomes, and fractions were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for identification of oxidative biotransformation products. Metabolism of β-acids was mainly characterized by conversion into hulupones and the formation of a series of tricyclic oxygenated products. The most important metabolites of α-acids were identified as humulinones and hulupones. Iso-α-acids were found to be primarly metabolized into cis- and trans-humulinic acids, next to oxidized alloiso-α-acids. Interestingly, the phase I metabolites were highly similar to the oxidative degradation products in beer. These findings show a first insight into the metabolites of hop-derived bitter acids and could have important practical implications in the bioavailability aspects of these compounds, following ingestion of hop-based food products and nutraceuticals.

  7. Marine algae-derived bioactive peptides for human nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaodan; Bai, Lu; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xuewu

    2014-09-24

    Within the parent protein molecule, most peptides are inactive, and they are released with biofunctionalities after enzymatic hydrolysis. Marine algae have high protein content, up to 47% of the dry weight, depending on the season and the species. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using marine algae protein as a source of bioactive peptides due to their health promotion and disease therapy potentials. This review presents an overview of marine algae-derived bioactive peptides and especially highlights some key issues, such as in silico proteolysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies, in vivo fate of bioactive peptides, and novel technologies in bioactive peptides studies and production.

  8. Synthesis of Diketopiperizine Peptide Derivatives by Cross-Metathesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    derivatives using Grubbs’ second generation ruthenium catalyst 13 [(H2IMes)(PCy 3)( Cl )2Ru=CHPh] (1) to couple amino acids to the diketopiperazine...catalyst [(PCy3)2( Cl )2Ru=CHPh] where they employed allyl and homoallylamides. 14 Here we report the product yields and distributions of CM reactions of... Fmoc - kin 0 -ý " N R 2 Mes-N N-Mes = cyclohexyl, CP"’ I PhMes = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl CI Ph PCY3 1 R - PG O R N 0 PG PG. 0 k~ N 0n PG R Heterodimer

  9. Effects of histatin 5 and derived peptides on Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Ruissen, A L; Groenink, J; Helmerhorst, E J; Walgreen-Weterings, E; Van't Hof, W; Veerman, E C; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2001-01-01

    Three anti-microbial peptides were compared with respect to their killing activity against Candida albicans and their ability to disturb its cellular and internal membranes. Histatin 5 is an anti-fungal peptide occurring naturally in human saliva, while dhvar4 and dhvar5 are variants of its active domain, with increased anti-microbial activity. dhvar4 has increased amphipathicity compared with histatin 5, whereas dhvar5 has amphipathicity comparable with that of histatin 5. All three peptides caused depolarization of the cytoplasmic and/or mitochondrial membrane, indicating membranolytic activity. For the variant peptides both depolarization and killing occurred at a faster rate. With FITC-labelled peptides, no association with the cytoplasmic membrane was observed, contradicting the formation of permanent transmembrane multimeric peptide pores. Instead, the peptides were internalized and act on internal membranes, as demonstrated with mitochondrion- and vacuole-specific markers. In comparison with histatin 5, the variant peptides showed a more destructive effect on mitochondria. Entry of the peptides and subsequent killing were dependent on the metabolic state of the cells. Blocking of the mitochondrial activity led to complete protection against histatin 5 activity, whereas that of dhvar4 was hardly affected and that of dhvar5 was affected only intermediately. PMID:11368762

  10. Behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents: Implications for schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Lister, Josh; Fletcher, Paul J; Nobrega, José N; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Dohan proposed that an overload of dietary peptides, such as those derived from wheat gluten and milk casein, could be a factor relevant to the development or maintenance of schizophrenia (SZ) symptoms in at least a subset of vulnerable individuals. Rodent behavioral models may offer insight into the plausibility of Dohan's exorphin hypothesis by providing a means to directly study the effects of such peptides. Accordingly, a review of the literature on the behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents was undertaken. Studies using a variety of behavioral tests to examine the effects of several classes of food-derived opioid-like peptides were identified and reviewed. Peptides derived from casein (β-casomorphins; BCMs, n=19), spinach (rubiscolins; RCs, n=4), and soy (soymorphins; SMs, n=1) were behaviorally active in various paradigms assessing nociception, spontaneous behavior, and memory. Surprisingly, only a single study evaluating a gluten-derived peptide (gliadorphin-7; GD-7, n=1) was identified and included in this review. In conclusion, food-derived peptides can affect rodent behavior, but more studies of GDs using diverse behavioral batteries are warranted. Assuming they occur in sufficient quantities during protein digestion and can access central opioid receptors (which entails crossing both the gastrointestinal and blood-brain barriers intact), these peptides may affect human behavior. Although BCMs and GDs may not be directly pathogenic in SZ, documented associations of casein and gluten sensitivity with SZ justify increased patient screening and dietary intervention where necessary.

  11. Short communication: Measuring the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of an 8-amino acid (8mer) fragment of the C12 antihypertensive peptide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An eight amino acid fragment (PFPEVFGK) of a known milk protein-derived antihypertensive peptide was synthesized by microwave-assisted solid phase peptide synthesis and purified by reverse phase HPLC. Its ability to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme was assessed and compared to that of the ...

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Single Amino Acid Variant Peptides Associated with Pancreatic Cancer in Serum by an Isobaric Labeling Quantitative Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Single amino acid variations are highly associated with many human diseases. The direct detection of peptides containing single amino acid variants (SAAVs) derived from nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in serum can provide unique opportunities for SAAV associated biomarker discovery. In the present study, an isobaric labeling quantitative strategy was applied to identify and quantify variant peptides in serum samples of pancreatic cancer patients and other benign controls. The largest number of SAAV peptides to date in serum including 96 unique variant peptides were quantified in this quantitative analysis, of which five variant peptides showed a statistically significant difference between pancreatic cancer and other controls (p-value < 0.05). Significant differences in the variant peptide SDNCEDTPEAGYFAVAVVK from serotransferrin were detected between pancreatic cancer and controls, which was further validated by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis. The novel biomarker panel obtained by combining α-1-antichymotrypsin (AACT), Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) and this variant peptide showed an excellent diagnostic performance in discriminating pancreatic cancer from healthy controls (AUC = 0.98) and chronic pancreatitis (AUC = 0.90). These results suggest that large-scale analysis of SAAV peptides in serum may provide a new direction for biomarker discovery research. PMID:25393578

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria as Cell Factories for the Generation of Bioactive Peptides.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lucia; Pingitore, Esteban Vera; Mozzi, Fernanda; Saavedra, Lucila; Villegas, Josefina M; Hebert, Elvira M

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the incorporation of functional foods in the daily diet to achieve health promotion and disease risk reduction. Numerous studies have focused on the production of biologically active peptides as nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients due to their health benefits. These short peptides, displaying antihypertensive, antioxidant, mineral binding, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities are hidden in a latent state within the primary sequences of food proteins requiring enzymatic proteolysis for their release. While microbial fermentation is one of the major and economically most convenient processes used to generate bioactive peptides, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the production of diverse fermented foods. This article reviews the current knowledge on LAB as cell factories for the production of bioactive peptides from a variety of food protein sources. These microorganisms depend on a complex proteolytic system to ensure successful fermentation processes. In the dairy industry, LAB containing cell envelope-associated proteinases (CEPs) are employed as biocatalysts for the first step of casein breakdown releasing bioactive peptides during milk fermentation. A better understanding of the functionality and regulation of the proteolytic system of LAB opens up future opportunities for the production of novel food-derived compounds with potential health-promoting properties.

  14. A salt-regulated peptide derived from the CAP superfamily protein negatively regulates salt-stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chien, Pei-Shan; Nam, Hong Gil; Chen, Yet-Ran

    2015-08-01

    High salinity has negative impacts on plant growth through altered water uptake and ion-specific toxicities. Plants have therefore evolved an intricate regulatory network in which plant hormones play significant roles in modulating physiological responses to salinity. However, current understanding of the plant peptides involved in this regulatory network remains limited. Here, we identified a salt-regulated peptide in Arabidopsis. The peptide was 11 aa and was derived from the C terminus of a cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP) superfamily. This peptide was found by searching homologues in Arabidopsis using the precursor of a tomato CAP-derived peptide (CAPE) that was initially identified as an immune signal. In searching for a CAPE involved in salt responses, we screened CAPE precursor genes that showed salt-responsive expression and found that the PROAtCAPE1 (AT4G33730) gene was regulated by salinity. We confirmed the endogenous Arabidopsis CAP-derived peptide 1 (AtCAPE1) by mass spectrometry and found that a key amino acid residue in PROAtCAPE1 is critical for AtCAPE1 production. Moreover, although PROAtCAPE1 was expressed mainly in the roots, AtCAPE1 was discovered to be upregulated systemically upon salt treatment. The salt-induced AtCAPE1 negatively regulated salt tolerance by suppressing several salt-tolerance genes functioning in the production of osmolytes, detoxification, stomatal closure control, and cell membrane protection. This discovery demonstrates that AtCAPE1, a homologue of tomato immune regulator CAPE1, plays an important role in the regulation of salt stress responses. Our discovery thus suggests that the peptide may function in a trade-off between pathogen defence and salt tolerance.

  15. The cytotoxic activity of ursolic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao-Mei; Cai, Shao-Qing; Cui, Jing-Rong; Wang, Rui-Qing; Tu, Peng-Fei; Hattori, Masao; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2005-06-01

    Ursolic acid and 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid isolated from apple peels were found to show growth inhibitory activity against four tumor cell lines, HL-60, BGC, Bel-7402 and Hela. Structural modifications were performed on the C-3, C-28 and C-11 positions of ursolic acid and the cytotoxicity of the derivatives was evaluated. The SAR revealed that the triterpenes possessing two hydrogen-bond forming groups (an H-donor and a carbonyl group) at positions 3 and 28 exhibit cytotoxic activity. The configuration at C-3 was found to be important for the activity. Introduction of an amino group increased the cytotoxicity greatly. A 3beta-amino derivative was 20 times more potent than the parent ursolic acid. The 28-aminoalkyl dimer compounds showed selective cytotoxicity.

  16. Ionic liquid crystals derived from amino acids.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Markus; Frey, Wolfgang; Laschat, Sabine

    2013-11-18

    Novel chiral amino acid derived ionic liquid crystals with amine and amide moieties as spacers between the imidazolium head group and the alkyl chain were synthesised. The key step in the synthesis utilised the relatively uncommon SO3 leaving group in a microwave-assisted reaction. The mesomorphic properties of the mesogens were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarising optical microscopy (POM) and X-ray diffraction. All liquid crystalline salts exhibit a smectic A mesophase geometry with strongly interdigitated bilayer structures. An increase of the steric bulk of the stereogenic centre hindered the formation of mesophases. In case of phenylalanine-derived derivatives a mesomorphic behaviour was observed for shorter alkyl chains as compared to other amino acid derivatives indicating an additional stabilising effect by the phenyl moiety.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of antihypertensive food-derived peptides and selected alanine analogues.

    PubMed

    McClean, Stephen; Beggs, Louise B; Welch, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated four food-derived peptides with known antihypertensive activities for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms, and assessed structure-function relationships using alanine analogues. The peptides (EVSLNSGYY, barley; PGTAVFK, soybean; TTMPLW, α-casein; VHLPP, α-zein) and the six alanine substitution peptides of PGTAVFK were synthesised, characterised and evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the bacteria, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus and the yeast, Candida albicans. The peptides TTMPLW and PGTAVFK inhibited growth of all four microorganisms tested, with activities of a similar order of magnitude to ampicillin and ethanol controls. EVSLNSGYY inhibited the growth of the bacteria, but VHLPP showed no antimicrobial activity. The alanine analogue, PGAAVFK showed the highest overall antimicrobial activity and PGTAVFA showed no activity; overall, the activities of the analogues were consistent with their structures. Some peptides with antihypertensive activity also show antimicrobial activity, suggesting that food-derived peptides may exert beneficial effects via a number of mechanisms.

  18. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and their health beneficial potentials: an update.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Behare, Pradip; Rana, Rajiv; Kumar, Ashwani; Kumar, Manoj; Arora, Sanu; Morotta, Fransesco; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2011-01-01

    It has been well recognized that dietary proteins provide a rich source of biologically active peptides. Today, milk proteins are considered the most important source of bioactive peptides and an increasing number of bioactive peptides have been identified in milk protein hydrolysates and fermented dairy products. Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins offer a promising approach for the promotion of health by means of a tailored diet and provide interesting opportunities to the dairy industry for expansion of its field of operation. The potential health benefits of milk protein-derived peptides have been a subject of growing commercial interest in the context of health-promoting functional foods. Hence, these peptides are being incorporated in the form of ingredients in functional and novel foods, dietary supplements and even pharmaceuticals with the purpose of delivering specific health benefits.

  19. Food protein-derived bioactive peptides: production, processing, and potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive peptides (BAPs), derived through enzymatic hydrolysis of food proteins, have demonstrated potential for application as health-promoting agents against numerous human health and disease conditions, including cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. The feasibility of pharmacological application of these peptides depends on absorption and bioavailability in intact forms in target tissues, which in turn depends on structure of the peptides. Therefore, production and processing of peptides based on important structure-function parameters can lead to the production of potent peptides. This article reviews the literature on BAPs with emphasis on strategic production and processing methods as well as antihypertensive, anticancer, anticalmodulin, hypocholesterolemic, and multifunctional properties of the food protein-derived peptides. It is recommended that future research efforts on BAP should be directed toward elucidation of their in vivo molecular mechanisms of action, safety at various doses, and pharmacological activity in maintaining homeostasis during aberrant health conditions in human subjects.

  20. Production and characterization of a fusion peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG29).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Jiao; Zhao, Ping-Sen; Wu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Hua-Lei; Zhao, Li-Li; Xue, Xiang-Hong; Gai, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yu-Wei; Yang, Song-Tao; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2014-12-01

    Gene therapy targeting the brain holds great promise in curing nervous system degenerative diseases in clinical applications. With this in mind, in a previous study a 29 amino-acid peptide derived from the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG29) with a nonamer stretch of arginine residues (RVG29-9R) at its carboxy-terminus was exploited as a ligand for brain-targeting gene delivery. Importantly, the report demonstrated that the RVG29-9R vector was able to cross the blood-brain barrier. RVG29-9R is currently synthesized by commercial companies with high associated costs. In this study, in order to reduce the costs of producing RVG29-9R, we have expressed and purified 6mg of a recombinant peptide (RVG29-9R-6His) from 0.4g of cultured Escherichia coli. We assessed the physiochemical properties of RVG29-9R-6His, its cytotoxicity, and the in vitro transfection efficiency in Neuro 2a cells (which express the acetylcholine receptor). Our results reveal that the RVG29-9R-6His peptide recognized Neuro 2a cells in a dose-dependent manner and it was also able to bind plasmid DNA and deliver it into the Neuro 2a cells effectively. Therefore, our study has demonstrated that the recombinant RVG29-9R-6His peptide retains the functions of RVG29-9R and so may provide an economically viable and alternative production method for the manufacture of RVG29-9R.

  1. A novel antimicrobial peptide derived from fish goose type lysozyme disrupts the membrane of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Ganesh, Munuswamy-Ramanujam; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arasu, MariadhasValan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Marimuthu, Kasi; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-12-01

    In aquaculture, accumulation of antibiotics resulted in development of resistance among bacterial pathogens. Consequently, it became mandatory to find alternative to synthetic antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which are described as evolutionary ancient weapons have been considered as promising alternates in recent years. In this study, a novel antimicrobial peptide had been derived from goose type lysozyme (LyzG) which was identified from the cDNA library of freshwater fish Channa striatus (Cs). The identified lysozyme cDNA contains 585 nucleotides which encodes a protein of 194 amino acids. CsLyzG was closely related to Siniperca chuatsi with 92.8% homology. The depicted protein sequence contained a GEWL domain with conserved GLMQ motif, 7 active residues and 2 catalytic residues. Gene expression analysis revealed that CsLyzG was distributed in major immune organs with highest expression in head kidney. Results of temporal expression analysis after bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila) and fungal (Aphanomyces invadans) challenges indicated a stimulant-dependent expression pattern of CsLyzG. Two antimicrobial peptides IK12 and TS10 were identified from CsLyzG and synthesized. Antibiogram showed that IK12 was active against Salmonella enterica, a major multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogen which produces beta lactamase. The IK12 induced loss of cell viability in the bacterial pathogen. Flow cytometry assay revealed that IK12 disrupt the membrane of S. enterica which is confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis that reveals blebs around the bacterial cell membrane. Conclusively, CsLyzG is a potential innate immune component and the identified antimicrobial peptide has great caliber to be used as an ecofriendly antibacterial substance in aquaculture.

  2. Biodegradable polymers derived from amino acids.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wahid; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Farah, Shady; Kumar, Neeraj; Domb, Abraham J

    2011-12-08

    In the past three decades, the use of polymeric materials has increased dramatically for biomedical applications. Many α-amino acids derived biodegradable polymers have also been intensely developed with the main goal to obtain bio-mimicking functional biomaterials. Polymers derived from α-amino acids may offer many advantages, as these polymers: (a) can be modified further to introduce new functions such as imaging, molecular targeting and drugs can be conjugated chemically to these polymers, (b) can improve on better biological properties like cell migration, adhesion and biodegradability, (c) can improve on mechanical and thermal properties and (d) their degradation products are expected to be non-toxic and readily metabolized/excreted from the body. This manuscript focuses on biodegradable polymers derived from natural amino acids, their synthesis, biocompatibility and biomedical applications. It is observed that polymers derived from α-amino acids constitute a promising family of biodegradable materials. These provide innovative multifunctional polymers possessing amino acid side groups with biological activity and with innumerous potential applications.

  3. Transporters for ammonium, amino acids and peptides are expressed in pitchers of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Schulze, W; Frommer, W B; Ward, J M

    1999-03-01

    Insect capture and digestion contribute substantially to the nitrogen budget of carnivorous plants. In Nepenthes, insect-derived nitrogenous compounds are imported from the pitcher fluid and transported throughout the plant via the vascular tissue to support growth. Import and distribution of nutrients may require transmembrane nitrogen transporters. Representatives of three classes of genes encoding transporters for the nitrogenous compounds ammonium, amino acids and peptides were identified in Nepenthes pitchers. The expression at the cellular level of an ammonium transporter gene, three amino acid transporter genes, and one peptide transporter gene were investigated in the insect trapping organs of Nepenthes. Expression of the ammonium transporter gene NaAMT1 was detected in the head cells of digestive glands in the lower part of the pitcher where NaAMT1 may function in ammonium uptake from the pitcher fluid. One amino acid transporter gene, NaAAP1, was expressed in bundle sheath cells surrounding the vascular tissue. To understand the locations where transmembrane transport could be required within the pitcher, symplasmic and apoplasmic continuity was probed using fluorescent dyes. Symplasmic connections were not found between cortical cells and vascular bundles. Therefore, the amino acid transporter encoded by NaAAP1 may be involved in transport of amino acids into the vascular tissue. In contrast, expression of the peptide transporter gene NaNTR1 was detected in phloem cells of the vascular tissue within pitchers. NaNTR1 may function in the export of nitrogen from the pitcher by loading peptides into the phloem.

  4. Kojic Acid Peptide: A New Compound with Anti-Tyrosinase Potential

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Birendra Kumar; Park, Seok Hoon; Lee, Hyang-Bok; Goo, Young-Aae; Kim, Hyoung Shik; Cho, Seung Hee; Lee, Jeong Hun; Ahn, Ghe Whan; Kim, Jin Pyo; Kang, Su Myoung

    2016-01-01

    Background Kojic acid was used for decades in the cosmetic industry as an antimelanogenic agent. However, there are two major drawbacks of Kojic acid, one is cytotoxicity and second are instability on storage. These limitations led the scientist to synthesize the active Kojic acid peptides. Objective In the present study, we synthesize and investigate the effect of five Kojic acid peptides to overcome the limitation of Kojic acid. Methods The peptide was analyzed and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy. Further, the tyrosinase activities of the Kojic acid and Kojic acid peptides were compared. The toxicity was measured and the melanin content is recorded in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Results Maximum tyrosinase activity was measured by Kojic acid peptides. Therefore, Kojic acid peptides were subjected to melanin assay and cytotoxicity assay and finally the stability of the Kojic acid peptide was measured. Conclusion It was observed that this newly synthesized Kojic acid peptide is stable and potent to inhibit the tyrosinase activity and melanin content of B16F10 mouse melanoma cells without exhibiting cell toxicity. Together, these preliminary results suggest that a further exploration is being needed to establish Kojic acid peptide as antimelanogenic agent. PMID:27746633

  5. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076.

    PubMed

    Huertas Méndez, Nataly De Jesús; Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Gómez Chimbi, Anyelith Katherine; Hernández, Edith; Leal Castro, Aura Lucia; Melo Diaz, Javier Mauricio; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo

    2017-03-12

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B-containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a peptide nucleic acid conjugated to a D-peptide analog of insulin-like growth factor 1 for increased cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Wickstrom, E

    1997-01-01

    DNA therapeutics show great potential for gene-specific, nontoxic therapy of a wide variety of diseases. The deoxyribose phosphate backbone of DNA has been modified in a number of ways to improve nuclease stability and cell membrane permeability. Recently, a new DNA derivative with an amide backbone instead of a deoxyribose phosphate backbone, peptide nucleic acid (PNA), has shown tremendous potential as an antisense agent. Although PNAs hybridize very strongly and specifically to RNA and DNA, they are taken up by cells very poorly, limiting their potential as nucleic acid binding agents. To improve cellular uptake of a PNA sequence, it was conjugated to a D-amino acid analog of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), which binds selectively to the cell surface receptor for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1R). The IGF1 D-peptide analog was assembled on (4-methylbenzhydryl)amine resin, and then the PNA was extended as a continuation of the peptide. The conjugate and control sequences were radiolabeled with 14C or fluorescently labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Cellular uptake of the PNA-peptide conjugate, a control with two alanines in the peptide, and a control PNA without the peptide segment were studied in murine BALB/c 3T3 cells, which express low levels of murine IGF1R, in p6 cells, which are BALB/c 3T3 cells which overexpress a transfected human IGF1R gene, and in human Jurkat cells, which do not express IGF1R, as a negative control. The specific PNA-peptide conjugate displayed much higher uptake than the control PNA, but only in cells expressing IGF1R. This approach may allow cell-specific and tissue-specific application of PNAs as gene-regulating agents in vivo.

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gia-Sheu; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2006-04-01

    Using Novozym 435 as catalyst, the syntheses of ethyl ferulate (EF) from ferulic acid (4-hydroxy 3-methoxy cinnamic acid) and ethanol, and octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) from p-methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethyl hexanol were successfully carried out in this study. A conversion of 87% was obtained within 2 days at 75 degrees C for the synthesis of EF. For the synthesis of OMC at 80 degrees C, 90% conversion can be obtained within 1 day. The use of solvent and high reaction temperature resulted in better conversion for the synthesis of cinnamic acid derivatives. Some cinnamic acid esters could also be obtained with higher conversion and shorter reaction times in comparison to other methods reported in the literature. The enzyme can be reused several times before significant activity loss was observed.

  8. Lactoferricin B-derived peptides with inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; López-Díez, José Javier; Torregrosa, Germán; Vallés, Salvador; Alborch, Enrique; Manzanares, Paloma; Salom, Juan B

    2010-10-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), a key peptidase in the endothelin (ET) system, cleaves inactive big ET-1 to produce active ET-1, which binds to ET(A) receptors to exert its vasoconstrictor and pressor effects. ECE inhibition could be beneficial in the treatment of hypertension. In this study, a set of eight lactoferricin B (LfcinB)-derived peptides, previously characterized in our laboratory as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides, was examined for their inhibitory effects on ECE. In vitro inhibitory effects on ECE activity were assessed using both the synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate V (FPS V) and the natural substrate big ET-1. To study vasoactive effects, an ex vivo functional assay was developed using isolated rabbit carotid artery segments. With FPS V, only four LfcinB-derived peptides induced inhibition of ECE activity, whereas the eight peptides showed ECE inhibitory effects with big ET-1 as substrate. Regarding the ex vivo assays, six LfcinB-derived peptides showed inhibition of big ET-1-induced, ECE-dependent vasoconstriction. A positive correlation between the inhibitory effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ECE activity when using big ET-1 and the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction was shown. ECE-independent vasoconstriction induced by ET-1 was not affected, thus discarding effects of LfcinB-derived peptides on ET(A) receptors or intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. In conclusion, a combined in vitro and ex vivo method to assess the effects of potentially antihypertensive peptides on the ET system has been developed and applied to show the inhibitory effects on ECE-dependent vasoconstriction of six LfcinB-derived peptides, five of which were dual vasopeptidase (ACE/ECE) inhibitors.

  9. Antifungal Activities of Peptides Derived from Domain 5 of High-Molecular-Weight Kininogen

    PubMed Central

    Sonesson, Andreas; Nordahl, Emma Andersson; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2011-01-01

    In both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, Candida and Malassezia are causing or triggering clinical manifestations such as cutaneous infections and atopic eczema. The innate immune system provides rapid responses to microbial invaders, without requiring prior stimulation, through a sophisticated system of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). High molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and components of the contact system have previously been reported to bind to Candida and other pathogens, leading to activation of the contact system. A cutaneous Candida infection is characterized by an accumulation of neutrophils, leading to an inflammatory response and release of enzymatically active substances. In the present study we demonstrate that antifungal peptide fragments are generated through proteolytic degradation of HMWK. The recombinant domain 5 (rD5) of HMWK, D5-derived peptides, as well as hydrophobically modified D5-derived peptides efficiently killed Candida and Malassezia. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of modified peptides was studied at physiological conditions. Binding of a D5-derived peptide, HKH20 (His479-His498), to the fungal cell membrane was visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Our data disclose a novel antifungal activity of D5-derived peptides and also show that proteolytic cleavage of HMWK results in fragments exerting antifungal activity. Of therapeutic interest is that structurally modified peptides show an enhanced antifungal activity. PMID:21941573

  10. Caffeic acid derivatives from Bupleurum chinense

    PubMed Central

    Haghi, G.; Hatami, A.; Mehran, M.; Hosseini, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, caffeic acid (CA) and its three derivatives including 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA, neochlorogenic acid), 4-caffeoylquinic acid (4-CQA, cryptochlorogenic acid), and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA, chlorogenic acid) were identified in Bupleurum chinense aerial parts using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector, reference compounds and chemical reactions. Separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution with 4% (v/v) aqueous acetic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase at ambient temperature. In addition, the flavonoid aglycones were characterized and quantified after acid hydrolysis of the plant material. The flavonols profile showed quercetin (0.36 g per 100 g), kaempferol (1.11 g per 100 g) and isorhamnetin (0.16 g per 100 g). Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents ranged from 7.3 to 18.7% and 0.58 to 2.72% in dry plant material, respectively. PMID:25657804

  11. Small Peptides Derived from Penetratin as Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, Oscar; Somlai, Csaba; Andujar, Sebastián A; Garro, Adriana D; Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Feresin, Gabriela; Perczel, Andras; Tóth, Gabor; Cascales, Javier López; Rodríguez, Ana M; Enriz, Ricardo D

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation and conformational study of several small-size peptides acting as antibacterial agents are reported. Among the compounds evaluated, the peptides Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Trp-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Lys-Lys-NH2 , Arg-Gln-Ile-Lys-Ile-Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Arg-NH2 , and Arg-Gln-Ile-Trp-Trp-Trp-Trp-Gln-Arg-NH2 exhibited significant antibacterial activity. These were found to be very active antibacterial compounds, considering their small molecular size. In order to better understand the antibacterial activity obtained for these peptides, an exhaustive conformational analysis was performed, using both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Molecular dynamics simulations using two different media (water and trifluoroethanol/water) were employed. The results of these theoretical calculations were corroborated by experimental circular dichroism measurements. A brief discussion on the possible mechanism of action of these peptides at molecular level is also presented. Some of the peptides reported here constitute very interesting structures to be used as starting compounds for the design of new small-size peptides possessing antibacterial activity.

  12. Combined 3D-QSAR, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Study on Derivatives of Peptide Epoxyketone and Tyropeptin-Boronic Acid as Inhibitors Against the β5 Subunit of Human 20S Proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianling; Zhang, Hong; Xiao, Zhengtao; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Xia; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-01-01

    An abnormal ubiquitin-proteasome is found in many human diseases, especially in cancer, and has received extensive attention as a promising therapeutic target in recent years. In this work, several in silico models have been built with two classes of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) by using 3D-QSAR, homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The study resulted in two types of satisfactory 3D-QSAR models, i.e., the CoMFA model (Q2 = 0.462, R2pred = 0.820) for epoxyketone inhibitors (EPK) and the CoMSIA model (Q2 = 0.622, R2pred = 0.821) for tyropeptin-boronic acid derivatives (TBA). From the contour maps, some key structural factors responsible for the activity of these two series of PIs are revealed. For EPK inhibitors, the N-cap part should have higher electropositivity; a large substituent such as a benzene ring is favored at the C6-position. In terms of TBA inhibitors, hydrophobic substituents with a larger size anisole group are preferential at the C8-position; higher electropositive substituents like a naphthalene group at the C3-position can enhance the activity of the drug by providing hydrogen bond interaction with the protein target. Molecular docking disclosed that residues Thr60, Thr80, Gly106 and Ser189 play a pivotal role in maintaining the drug-target interactions, which are consistent with the contour maps. MD simulations further indicated that the binding modes of each conformation derived from docking is stable and in accord with the corresponding structure extracted from MD simulation overall. These results can offer useful theoretical references for designing more potent PIs. PMID:21673924

  13. T cell responses to HLA-A*0201-restricted peptides derived from human alpha fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, L H; Meng, W S; Koh, A; Vollmer, C M; Ribas, A; Dissette, V B; Faull, K; Glaspy, J A; McBride, W H; Economou, J S

    2001-04-15

    alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-derived peptide epitopes can be recognized by human T cells in the context of MHC class I. We determined the identity of AFP-derived peptides, presented in the context of HLA-A*0201, that could be recognized by the human (h) T cell repertoire. We screened 74 peptides and identified 3 new AFP epitopes, hAFP(137-145), hAFP(158-166), and hAFP(325-334), in addition to the previously reported hAFP(542-550.) Each possesses two anchor residues and stabilized HLA-A*0201 on T2 cells in a concentration-dependent class I binding assay. The peptides were stable for 2-4 h in an off-kinetics assay. Each peptide induced peptide-specific T cells in vitro from several normal HLA-A*0201 donors. Importantly, these hAFP peptide-specific T cells also were capable of recognizing HLA-A*0201(+)/AFP(+) tumor cells in both cytotoxicity assays and IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays. The immunogenicity of each peptide was tested in vivo with HLA-A*0201/K(b)-transgenic mice. After immunization with each peptide emulsified in CFA, draining lymph node cells produced IFN-gamma on recognition of cells stably transfected with hAFP. Furthermore, AFP peptide-specific T cells could be identified in the spleens of mice immunized with dendritic cells transduced with an AFP-expressing adenovirus (AdVhAFP). Three of four AFP peptides could be identified by mass spectrometric analysis of surface peptides from an HLA-A*0201 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. Thus, compelling immunological and physiochemical evidence is presented that at least four hAFP-derived epitopes are naturally processed and presented in the context of class I, are immunogenic, and represent potential targets for hepatocellular carcinoma immunotherapy.

  14. Novel cajaninstilbene acid derivatives as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Lin, Jing; Huang, Mei-Yan; An, Lin-Kun; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Sun, Ping-Hua; Ye, Wen-Cai; Chen, Wei-Min

    2015-07-15

    Discovery of novel antibacterial agents with new structural scaffolds that combat drug-resistant pathogens is an urgent task. Cajaninstilbene acid, which is isolated from pigeonpea leaves, has shown antibacterial activity. In this study, a series of cajaninstilbene acid derivatives were designed and synthesized. The antibacterial activities of these compounds against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as nine strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are evaluated,and the related structure-activity relationships are discussed. Assays suggest that some of the synthetic cajaninstilbene acid derivatives exhibit potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacterial strains and MRSA. Among these compounds, 5b, 5c, 5j and 5k show better antibacterial activity than the positive control compounds. The results of MTT assays illustrate the low cytotoxicity of the active compounds.

  15. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by Acylated Peptides Derived from the Large Viral Surface Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Gripon, Philippe; Cannie, Isabelle; Urban, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The lack of an appropriate in vitro infection system for the major human pathogen hepatitis B virus (HBV) has prevented a molecular understanding of the early infection events of HBV. We used the novel HBV-infectible cell line HepaRG and primary human hepatocytes to investigate the interference of infection by HBV envelope protein-derived peptides. We found that a peptide consisting of the authentically myristoylated N-terminal 47 amino acids of the pre-S1 domain of the large viral envelope protein (L protein) specifically prevented HBV infection, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8 nM. The replacement of myristic acid with other hydrophobic moieties resulted in changes in the inhibitory activity, most notably by a decrease in the IC50 to picomolar concentrations for longer unbranched fatty acids. The obstruction of HepaRG cell susceptibility to HBV infection after short preincubation times with the peptides suggested that the peptides efficiently target and inactivate a receptor at the hepatocyte surface. Our data both shed light on the molecular mechanism of HBV entry into hepatocytes and provide a basis for the development of potent hepadnaviral entry inhibitors as a novel therapeutic concept for the treatment of hepatitis Β. PMID:15650187

  16. Inhibition of iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation by an N-terminal peptide of bovine lactoferrin and its acylated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, H; Matsumoto, H; Hashimoto, K; Teraguchi, S; Takase, M; Hayasawa, H

    1999-05-01

    Bovine lactoferrin (LF) and lactoferricin B (LFcin B), an antimicrobial peptide derived from bovine LF, inhibited thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) formation in a iron/ascorbate-induced liposomal phospholipid peroxidation system. The inhibition of TBARS formation occurred with N-acylated 9-mer peptides with a core sequence of LFcin B and, compared to LFcin B, their antioxidant effect was clearly observed at a concentration almost 100 times lower.

  17. [The synthesis of RGD peptide derivatives containing glutaric and adipic residues].

    PubMed

    Vigorov, A Iu; Demin, A M; Nizova, I A; Krasnov, V P

    2014-01-01

    A method of the synthesis of RGD peptide derivatives containing glutaric or adipic residues linked with α-amino group of L-arginine and allowing carrying out their coupling with other biomolecules and nanoparticles.

  18. Antibacterial activity and dual mechanisms of peptide analog derived from cell-penetrating peptide against Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lirong; Shi, Yonghui; Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Su, Guanfang; Le, Guowei

    2013-02-01

    A number of research have proven that antimicrobial peptides are of greatest potential as a new class of antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides and cell-penetrating peptides share some similar structure characteristics. In our study, a new peptide analog, APP (GLARALTRLLRQLTRQLTRA) from the cell-penetrating peptide ppTG20 (GLFRALLRLLRSLWRLLLRA), was identified simultaneously with the antibacterial mechanism of APP against Salmonella typhimurium and Streptococcus pyogenes. APP displayed potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration was in the range of 2 to 4 μM. APP displayed higher cell selectivity (about 42-fold increase) as compared to the parent peptide for it decreased hemolytic activity and increased antimicrobial activity. The calcein leakage from egg yolk L-α-phosphatidylcholine (EYPC)/egg yolk L-α-phosphatidyl-DL-glycerol and EYPC/cholesterol vesicles demonstrated that APP exhibited high selectivity. The antibacterial mechanism analysis indicated that APP induced membrane permeabilization in a kinetic manner for membrane lesions allowing O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactoside uptake into cells and potassium release from APP-treated cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that APP induced bacterial live cell membrane damage. Circular dichroism, fluorescence spectra, and gel retardation analysis confirmed that APP interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs after penetrating the cell membrane. Cell cycle assay showed that APP affected DNA synthesis in the cell. Our results suggested that peptides derived from the cell-penetrating peptide have the potential for antimicrobial agent development, and APP exerts its antibacterial activity by damaging bacterial cell membranes and binding to bacterial DNA to inhibit cellular functions, ultimately leading to cell death.

  19. Solution Structures, Dynamics, and Ice Growth Inhibitory Activity of Peptide Fragments Derived from an Antarctic Yeast Protein

    PubMed Central

    Asmawi, Azren A.; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin A.; Murad, Abdul Munir A.; Mahadi, Nor M.; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha A.; Salleh, Abu B.; Chatterjee, Subhrangsu; Tejo, Bimo A.; Bhunia, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Exotic functions of antifreeze proteins (AFP) and antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP) have recently been attracted with much interest to develop them as commercial products. AFPs and AFGPs inhibit ice crystal growth by lowering the water freezing point without changing the water melting point. Our group isolated the Antarctic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica that expresses antifreeze protein to assist it in its survival mechanism at sub-zero temperatures. The protein is unique and novel, indicated by its low sequence homology compared to those of other AFPs. We explore the structure-function relationship of G. antarctica AFP using various approaches ranging from protein structure prediction, peptide design and antifreeze activity assays, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies and molecular dynamics simulation. The predicted secondary structure of G. antarctica AFP shows several α-helices, assumed to be responsible for its antifreeze activity. We designed several peptide fragments derived from the amino acid sequences of α-helical regions of the parent AFP and they also showed substantial antifreeze activities, below that of the original AFP. The relationship between peptide structure and activity was explored by NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. NMR results show that the antifreeze activity of the peptides correlates with their helicity and geometrical straightforwardness. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation also suggests that the activity of the designed peptides can be explained in terms of the structural rigidity/flexibility, i.e., the most active peptide demonstrates higher structural stability, lower flexibility than that of the other peptides with lower activities, and of lower rigidity. This report represents the first detailed report of downsizing a yeast AFP into its peptide fragments with measurable antifreeze activities. PMID:23209600

  20. The nature of peptide interactions with acid end-group PLGAs and facile aqueous-based microencapsulation of therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Andreas M.; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Mazzara, J. Maxwell; Tong, Ling; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Olsen, Karl F.; Schwendeman, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    An important poorly understood phenomenon in controlled-release depots involves the strong interaction between common cationic peptides and low Mw free acid end-group poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) (PLGAs) used to achieve continuous peptide release kinetics. The kinetics of peptide sorption to PLGA was examined by incubating peptide solutions of 0.2-4 mM octreotide or leuprolide acetate salts in 0.1 M HEPES buffer, pH 7.4, with polymer particles or films at 4-37 °C for 24 h. The extent of absorption/loading of peptides in PLGA particles/films was assayed by two-phase extraction and amino acid analysis. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and laser scanning confocal imaging techniques were used to examine peptide penetration in the polymer phase. The release of sorbed peptide from leuprolide-PLGA particles was evaluated both in vitro (PBST + 0.02% sodium azide, 37 °C) and in vivo (male Sprague-Dawley rats). We found that when the PLGA-COOH chains are sufficiently mobilized, therapeutic peptides not only bind at the surface, a common belief to date, but can also internalized and distributed throughout the polymer phase at physiological temperature forming a salt with low-molecular weight PLGA-COOH. Importantly, absorption of leuprolide into low MW PLGA-COOH particles yielded ~17 wt% leuprolide loading in the polymer (i.e., ~70% of PLGA-COOH acids occupied), and the absorbed peptide was released from the polymer for > 2 weeks in a controlled fashion in vitro and as indicated by sustained testosterone suppression in male Sprague-Dawley rats. This new approach, which bypasses the traditional encapsulation method and associated production cost, opens up the potential for facile production of low-cost controlled-release injectable depots for leuprolide and related peptides. PMID:24021356

  1. CE study of neuroprotective humanin peptide and its derivatives: interactions with phosphate, sulphate, alkylsulphonates and sulphated-beta-CD.

    PubMed

    Havel, Josef; Li, Rong; Macka, Mirek

    2008-02-01

    Humanin (HN), Met-Ala-Pro-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Cys-Leu-Leu-Leu-Leu-Thr-Ser-Glu-IIe-Asp-Leu-Pro-Val-Lys-Arg-Arg-Ala, recently discovered in the human brain, is an important neuroprotective peptide. Some derivatives of HN show even higher biological activity, for example [G-14]-HN, where Ser at position 14 is replaced with Gly. As structurally related HN peptide derivatives have similar chemical properties, their separation by CE is difficult. In this work, the electrophoretic behaviour of HN derivatives including [G-14]-HN, a tryptophan HN derivative [W-14]-HN, several other HN derivatives and HN fragments was studied. While phosphate buffer was used as the general BGE, the effects of the buffer concentration and various additives were examined, including sulphate, heptane sulphonate, 2-morpholinoethanesulphonic acid N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]-2-aminoethane sulphonic acid (TES), sulphated-beta-CD and beta-CD. Separation efficiency of 200,000 theoretical plates was achieved in a BGE of 80 mM phosphate at pH 2.5 where seven out of nine major peaks were partially separated. By investigating the influence of concentration of the interrogated ions on peptides migration, the association between positively charged protonated sites of peptides and various anions was proved. Especially a strong interaction with phosphate, sulphate and sulphonate groups was established. Conditional stability constant of the [Pep(z+), (H(2)PO(4)(-))(n)](z - n) ion associate (n = 1) for [G-14]-HN equals to log K approximately 1.78.

  2. Analysis of Dengue Virus Enhancing Epitopes Using Peptide Antigens Derived from the Envelope Glycoprotein Gene Sequence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-27

    AD________ AD-A230 976 ARMY PROJECT NO: 89PP9961 TITLE: ANALYSIS OF DENGUE VIRUS ENHANCING EPITOPES USING PEPTIDE ANTIGENS DERIVED FROM THE ENVELOPE...INO. INO r CCESSION NO I1I TITLE (Include Security Classification) Analysis of Dengue Virus Enhancing Epitopes Using Peptide Antigens Derived From the...necessary and identify by block number) Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) ot dengue (DEN) virus infection in human mononuclear cells in vitro has been

  3. Preparation and ectopic osteogenesis in vivo of scaffold based on mineralized recombinant human-like collagen loaded with synthetic BMP-2-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Zheng, Qixin; Guo, Xiaodong; Wu, Yongchao; Wang, Yu; Cui, Fuzai

    2008-12-01

    The ideal bone graft material must be biocompatible, biodegradable, osteoconductive and osteoinductive. In this study, a new biomimetic scaffold based on mineralized recombinant collagen, nano-hydroxyapatite/recombinant human-like collagen/poly(lactic acid) (nHA/RHLC/PLA), was prepared and the synthetic P24 peptide derived from BMP-2 was introduced into the porous nHA/RHLC/PLA scaffold to improve its osteoinductive property. The nHA/RHLC/PLA implants loaded with 3 mg, 2 mg, 1 mg and 0 mg P24 peptide were implanted subcutaneously into rats. At the 4th, 8th and 12th weeks after implantation, the rats were sacrificed in batch and the samples were harvested. Their osteogenic capability was detected by CT scan and histological observation. The results indicated that the osteogenic capability of 3 mg, 2 mg and 1 mg of the P24 peptide was superior to the implants without the P24 peptide. There was no significant difference between implants with 3 mg and 2 mg P24 peptide, but the osteogenic capability of the two dosage groups was significantly better than that of the 1 mg group. It was concluded that BMP-2-derived peptide can increase the osteoinduction of nHA/RHLC/PLA scaffold and the P24 peptide induced new bone formation in a dose-dependent manner. The nHA/RHLC/PLA scaffold loaded with the synthetic BMP-2-derived peptide is a kind of ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering.

  4. A descriptor of amino acids: SVRG and its application to peptide quantitative structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Tong, J; Che, T; Li, Y; Wang, P; Xu, X; Chen, Y

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a descriptor, SVRG (principal component scores vector of radial distribution function descriptors and geometrical descriptors), was derived from principal component analysis (PCA) of a matrix of two structural variables of coded amino acids, including radial distribution function index (RDF) and geometrical index. SVRG scales were then applied in three panels of peptide quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) which were modelled by partial least squares regression (PLS). The obtained models with the correlation coefficient (R²(cum)), cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q²(LOO)) were 0.910 and 0.863 for 48 bitter-tasting dipeptides; 0.968 and 0.931 for 21 oxytocin analogues; and 0.992 and 0.954 for 20 thromboplastin inhibitors. Satisfactory results showed that SVRG contained much chemical information relating to bioactivities. The approach may be a useful structural expression methodology for studies on peptide QSAR.

  5. Molecular self-assembly using peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Berger, Or; Gazit, Ehud

    2017-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are extensively studied for the control of genetic expression since their design in the 1990s. However, the application of PNAs in nanotechnology is much more recent. PNAs share the specific base-pair recognition characteristic of DNA together with material-like properties of polyamides, both proteins and synthetic polymers, such as Kevlar and Nylon. The first application of PNA was in the form of PNA-amphiphiles, resulting in the formation of either lipid integrated structures, hydrogels or fibrillary assemblies. Heteroduplex DNA-PNA assemblies allow the formation of hybrid structures with higher stability as compared with pure DNA. A systematic screen for minimal PNA building blocks resulted in the identification of guanine-containing di-PNA assemblies and protected guanine-PNA monomer spheres showing unique optical properties. Finally, the co-assembly of PNA with thymine-like three-faced cyanuric acid allowed the assembly of poly-adenine PNA into fibers. In summary, we believe that PNAs represent a new and important family of building blocks which converges the advantages of both DNA- and peptide-nanotechnologies.

  6. Beta2-amino acids-syntheses, occurrence in natural products, and components of beta-peptides1,2.

    PubMed

    Lelais, Gérald; Seebach, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    Although they are less abundant than their alpha-analogues, beta-amino acids occur in nature both in free form and bound to peptides. Oligomers composed exclusively of beta-amino acids (so-called beta-peptides) might be the most thoroughly investigated peptidomimetics. Beside the facts that they are stable to metabolism, exhibit slow microbial degradation, and are inherently stable to proteases and peptidases, they fold into well-ordered secondary structures consisting of helices, turns, and sheets. In this respect, the most intriguing effects have been observed when beta2-amino acids are present in the beta-peptide backbone. This review gives an overview of the occurrence and importance of beta2-amino acids in nature, placing emphasis on the metabolic pathways of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (beta-Aib) and the appearance of beta2-amino acids as secondary metabolites or as components of more complex natural products, such as peptides, depsipeptides, lactones, and alkaloids. In addition, a compilation of the syntheses of both achiral and chiral beta2-amino acids is presented. While there are numerous routes to achiral beta2-amino acids, their EPC synthesis is currently the subject of many investigations. These include the diastereoselective alkylation and Mannich-type reactions of cyclic- or acyclic beta-homoglycine derivatives containing chiral auxiliaries, the Curtius degradation, the employment of transition-metal catalyzed reactions such as enantioselective hydrogenations, reductions, C-H insertions, and Michael-type additions, and the resolution of rac. beta2-amino acids, as well as several miscellaneous methods. In the last part of the review, the importance of beta2-amino acids in the formation of beta-peptide secondary structures is discussed.

  7. Antimycobacterial evaluation of pyrazinoic acid reversible derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Martin; Kesetovic, Diana; Zitko, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Design, results of in vitro antimycobacterial evaluation, and study of structure-activity relationships of various pyrazinecarboxylic acid reversible derivatives are presented. This review deals with some pyrazinamide analogues/prodrugs derived from Nphenylpyrazine- 2-carboxamides (1), arylaminopyrazine-2,5-dicarbonitriles (2), aryl/alkylsulphanylpyrazines (3,4), and aroylpyrazines (5) effecting >50% inhibition in the primary antimycobacterial screen. The promising pyrazine candidates for further antimycobacterial evaluation were discovered. Results give good view onto structure-activity relationships of these analogues and promise even better activity of new compounds prepared after some structure optimization experiments.

  8. Taenia saginata derived synthetic peptides with potential for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, E; Benitez, L; Foster-Cuevas, M; Bryce, D; Wamae, L W; Onyango-Abuje, J A; Garate, T; Harrison, L J S; Parkhouse, R M E

    2003-01-20

    Immunity in Taeniids is predominantly antibody mediated and thus many serological immuno-determinants will have potential in both protection and diagnosis. The antigenicity of six peptides derived from four potentially protective molecules cloned from a Taenia saginata oncospheres cDNA library have been evaluated as targets for the specific diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis. The six peptides consist of: two peptides (HP6-2 and HP6-3) derived from the sequence of the 18 kDa surface/secreted oncospheral adhesion antigen identified by McAb-HP6, two peptides (Ts45W-1 and Ts45W-5) derived from the sequence of the T. saginata homologue of the T. ovis 45W protective gene family, one peptide (TS45S-10) derived from a T. saginata sequence with significant similarity to the T. ovis 45S protective antigen, and one peptide (TEG-1) derived from the sequence of the T. saginata homologue of Echinococcus spp. main surface protein. Longitudinal studies indicate that T. saginata infected cattle respond to all six peptides by 3-4 weeks post-infection and that the antibody levels remain high for at least 12 weeks post-infection. As protection against Taeniid parasites is predominantly antibody mediated, some of these six peptides may be of value as immuno-prophylactic tools and hence also in assays to determine resistance to infection with the parasite. For diagnosis, on the other hand, only three peptides (HP6-2, TEG-1 and Ts45S-10) performed with the necessary sensitivity and specificity to determine exposure to infection with T. saginata, and now merit an exhaustive evaluation prior to employment as routine diagnostic tools.

  9. Emerging biopharmaceuticals from bioactive peptides derived from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Komal; Abbas, Syed Qamar; Akhter, Najeeb; Shagufta, Bibi Ibtesam; Shah, Sayed Asmat Ali; Hassan, Syed Shams Ul

    2016-12-22

    Biologically active natural products are spontaneous medicinal entrants, which encourage synthetic access for enhancing and supporting drug discovery and development. Marine bioactive peptides are considered as a rich source of natural products that may provide long-term health, in addition to many prophylactic and curative medicinal drug treatments. The large literature concerning marine peptides has been collected, which shows high potential of nutraceutical and therapeutic efficacy encompassing wide spectra of bioactivities against a number of infection-causing agents. Their antimicrobial, antimalarial, antitumor, antiviral, and cardioprotective actions have achieved the attention of the pharmaceutical industry toward new design of drug formulations, for treatment and prevention of several infections. However, the mechanism of action of many peptide molecules has been still untapped. So in this regard, this paper reviews several peptide compounds by which they interfere with human pathogenesis. This knowledge is one of the key tools to be understood especially for the biotransformation of biomolecules into targeted medicines. The fact that different diseases have the capability to fight at different sites inside the body can lead to a new wave of increasing the chances to produce targeted medicines.

  10. Heterogeneity of glucagonomas due to differential processing of proglucagon-derived peptides

    PubMed Central

    Challis, Benjamin G; Albrechtsen, Nicolai J Wewer; Bansiya, Vishakha; Burling, Keith; Barker, Peter; Hartmann, Bolette; Gribble, Fiona; O'Rahilly, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) secreting proglucagon are associated with phenotypic heterogeneity. Here, we describe two patients with pNETs and varied clinical phenotypes due to differential processing and secretion of proglucagon-derived peptides (PGDPs). Case 1, a 57-year-old woman presented with necrolytic migratory erythema, anorexia, constipation and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. She was found to have a grade 1 pNET, small bowel mucosal thickening and hyperglucagonaemia. Somatostatin analogue (SSA) therapy improved appetite, abolished hypoglycaemia and improved the rash. Case 2, a 48-year-old male presented with diabetes mellitus, diarrhoea, weight loss, nausea, vomiting and perineal rash due to a grade 1 metastatic pNET and hyperglucagonaemia. In both cases, plasma levels of all measured PGDPs were elevated and attenuated following SSA therapy. In case 1, there was increased production of intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2, similar to that of the enteroendocrine L cell. In case 2, pancreatic glucagon was elevated due to a pancreatic α-cell-like proglucagon processing profile. In summary, we describe two patients with pNETs and heterogeneous clinical phenotypes due to differential processing and secretion of PGDPs. This is the first description of a patient with symptomatic hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia and marked gastrointestinal dysfunction due to, in part, a proglucagon-expressing pNET. Learning points PGDPs exhibit a diverse range of biological activities including critical roles in glucose and amino acid metabolism, energy homeostasis and gastrointestinal physiology.The clinical manifestations of proglucagon-expressing tumours may exhibit marked phenotypic variation due to the biochemical heterogeneity of their secreted peptide repertoire.Specific and precise biochemical assessment of individuals with proglucagon-expressing tumours may provide opportunities for improved diagnosis and clinical management. PMID

  11. The Prebiotic C-Terminal Elongation of Peptides can be Initiated by N-Carbamoyl Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Abou Mrad, Ninette; Ajram, Ghinwa; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Boiteau, Laurent; Duvernay, Fabrice; Pascal, Robert; Danger, Gregoire

    2017-04-05

    The formation of peptides upon EDC promoted activation of N-carbamoylamino acids (CAA), was considered in the scope of our recent works on carbodiimide promoted C-terminus elongation of peptides in a prebiotic context. Thus EDC promoted activation of CAA derivatives of Tyr(Me) or Ala in dilute aqueous medium pH 5.5-6.5 in the presence of excess of AA, resulted in peptide formation via C-terminus activation / elongation. Kinetic results similar to those of EDC-mediated activation of N-acyl-AA lead us to postulate the formation of a 2-amino-5(4H)-oxazolone intermediate by cyclization of the activated CAA, in spite of the absence of epimerization occurred at CAA residues. Thus, in a prebiotic context, CAA may have played a similar role as N-acyl-AA in the initiation of C-terminus peptide elongation.

  12. Isolation and characterisation of a novel antibacterial peptide from a native swine intestinal tract-derived bacterium.

    PubMed

    Xin, Haiyun; Ji, Shengyue; Peng, Jiayin; Han, Peng; An, Xiaopeng; Wang, Shan; Cao, Binyun

    2017-02-27

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly associated with antipathogenic activity, without generating drug resistance in targeted bacteria. In this study, the existence of AMPs in the Tibetan swine, a China-native, cold-resistant and seldom-sick breed of pig, was investigated. A peptide secreted by a Tibetan swine intestinal tract-derived Bacillus strain was isolated using reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), ultrafiltration and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The peptide was identified by mass spectrometry and was characterised for activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The 16-amino acid peptide (ASVVNKLTGGVAGLLK), named TP, had a molecular mass of 1568.919 Da and exhibited inhibitory activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria [minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5-5 µM and 10-20 µM for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively] as well as human MKN-45 and NB4 tumour cell lines [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 4.686 µM and 11.479 µM, respectively]. TP also exhibited weak haemolytic activity. Furthermore, TP enhanced cell membrane permeability and K(+) outflow, bound with E. coli genomic DNA in vitro and inhibited E. coli growth. Thus, TP represents a strong candidate as an antibacterial peptide.

  13. Amino acids derived from Titan tholins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.; Ogino, H.; Nagy, B.; Er, C.; Schram, K. H.; Arakawa, E. T.

    1986-01-01

    An organic heteropolymer (Titan tholin) was produced by continuous dc discharge through a 0.9 N2/0.1 CH4 gas mixture at 0.2 mbar pressure, roughly simulating the cloudtop atmosphere of Titan. Treatment of this tholin with 6N HCl yielded 16 amino acids by gas chromatography after derivatization of N-trifluroacetyl isopropyl esters on two different capillary columns. Identifications were confirmed by GC/MS. Glycine, aspartic acid, and alpha- and beta-alanine were produced in greatest abundance; the total yield of amino acids was approximately 10(-2), approximately equal to the yield of urea. The presence of "nonbiological" amino acids, the absence of serine, and the fact that the amino acids are racemic within experimental error together indicate that these molecules are not due to microbial or other contamination, but are derived from the tholin. In addition to the HCN, HC2CN, and (CN)2 found by Voyager, nitriles and aminonitriles should be sought in the Titanian atmosphere and, eventually, amino acids on the surface. These results suggest that episodes of liquid water in the past or future of Titan might lead to major further steps in prebiological organic chemistry on that body.

  14. Amino acid sequence of atrial natriuretic peptides in human coronary sinus plasma.

    PubMed

    Yandle, T; Crozier, I; Nicholls, G; Espiner, E; Carne, A; Brennan, S

    1987-07-31

    Two atrial natriuretic peptides were purified from pooled human coronary sinus plasma by Sep-Pak extraction, immunoaffinity chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. The amino acid sequences of the two peptides were homologous with 99-126 human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) and 106-126 hANP, the latter being most probably linked to 99-105 ANP by the disulphide bond. The molar ratio of the peptides in plasma, as assessed by radioimmunoassay was 10:3.

  15. A novel recombinant slow-release TNF α-derived peptide effectively inhibits tumor growth and angiogensis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi; Zhao, Shaojun; Shen, Shutao; Fang, Shixiong; Ye, Zulu; Shi, Zhi; Hong, An

    2015-01-01

    RMP16, a recombinant TNF α-derived polypeptide comprising a specific human serum albumin (HSA)-binding 7-mer peptide identified by phage display screening (WQRPSSW), a cleavage peptide for Factor Xa (IEGR), and a 20-amino acid bioactive peptide P16 (TNF α segment including amino acid residues 75–94), was prepared by gene-engineering technology. RMP16 showed prolonged half-life, 13.11 hours in mice (half-lives of P16 and TNF α are 5.77 and 29.0 minutes, respectively), and obviously higher receptor selectivity for TNFRI than TNF α. RMP16 had significant inhibition effects for multiple tumor cells, especially prostate cancer Du145 cells, and human vascular endothelial cells but not for human mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells. RMP16 can more effectively induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation for DU145 cells than P16 and TNF α via the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In nude mice with transplanted tumor of DU145 cells, RMP16 significantly induced apoptosis and necrosis of tumor tissues but causing less side effects, and tumor inhibitory rate reached nearly 80%, furthermore, RMP16 can potently inhibit tumor angiogenesis and neovascularization. These findings suggest that RMP16 may represent a promising long-lasting antitumor therapeutic peptide with less TNF α-induced toxicity. PMID:26337231

  16. A novel recombinant slow-release TNF α-derived peptide effectively inhibits tumor growth and angiogensis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Zhao, Shaojun; Shen, Shutao; Fang, Shixiong; Ye, Zulu; Shi, Zhi; Hong, An

    2015-09-04

    RMP16, a recombinant TNF α-derived polypeptide comprising a specific human serum albumin (HSA)-binding 7-mer peptide identified by phage display screening (WQRPSSW), a cleavage peptide for Factor Xa (IEGR), and a 20-amino acid bioactive peptide P16 (TNF α segment including amino acid residues 75-94), was prepared by gene-engineering technology. RMP16 showed prolonged half-life, 13.11 hours in mice (half-lives of P16 and TNF α are 5.77 and 29.0 minutes, respectively), and obviously higher receptor selectivity for TNFRI than TNF α. RMP16 had significant inhibition effects for multiple tumor cells, especially prostate cancer Du145 cells, and human vascular endothelial cells but not for human mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells. RMP16 can more effectively induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation for DU145 cells than P16 and TNF α via the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In nude mice with transplanted tumor of DU145 cells, RMP16 significantly induced apoptosis and necrosis of tumor tissues but causing less side effects, and tumor inhibitory rate reached nearly 80%, furthermore, RMP16 can potently inhibit tumor angiogenesis and neovascularization. These findings suggest that RMP16 may represent a promising long-lasting antitumor therapeutic peptide with less TNF α-induced toxicity.

  17. Immunohistochemical Localization of Chromostatin and Pancreastatin, Chromogranin A-Derived Bioactive Peptides, in Normal and Neoplastic Neuroendocrine Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Noriko; Funakoshi, Akihiro; Aunis, Dominique; Tateishi, Kayoko; Miura, Wakako; Nagura, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    Despite the widespread distribution of chromogranin A (CgA) in neuroendocrine tissues, the biological function of CgA has not yet been elucidated. The primary amino acid sequence of CgA, elucidated by cDNA analysis, has been revealed to include several pairs of basic amino acid residues that are homologous to the bioactive peptides, such as pancreastatin (PST) and chromostatin (CST). Using antibodies for human PST and CST, the immunohistochemical localization of these peptides was investigated in neuroendocrine tissues, including human pituitary glands, pancreas, adrenal medulla, various types of neuroendocrine neoplasms (13 pheochromocytomas, 10 medullary thyroid carcinomas, 11 pancreatic endocrine tumors, and 19 carcinoid tumors), and the cell line QGP-1N derived from human somatostatin-producing pancreatic endocrine tumor. Variable immunoreactive intensities of PST and CST were seen, but both peptides were detectable in all neuroendocrine tissues and in most of the neoplasms. Immunoreactivity for both PST and CST was observed in 100 and 73%, respectively, of pancreatic endocrine tumors, all pheochromocytomas, and 80 and 40%, respectively, of medullary thyroid carcinomas, as well as all nonrectal carcinoid tumors. In rectal carcinoids, cells immunoreactive for PST and CST were sparse. The distribution of PST and CST was similar to that of CgA, and it is considered that these peptides are simultaneously processed from CgA, and may play roles in autocrine and paracrine regulation on various hormones in addition to their previously known functions.

  18. Utilization of host-derived cysteine-containing peptides overcomes the restricted sulphur metabolism of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Hanne; Mohr, Juliane; Huber, Claudia; Wensel, Olga; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Gripp, Eugenia; Josenhans, Christine; Schomburg, Dietmar; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Hofreuter, Dirk

    2014-09-01

    The non-glycolytic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni successfully colonizes the intestine of various hosts in spite of its restricted metabolic properties. While several amino acids are known to be used by C. jejuni as energy sources, none of these have been found to be essential for growth. Here we demonstrated through phenotype microarray analysis that cysteine utilization increases the metabolic activity of C. jejuni. Furthermore, cysteine was crucial for its growth as C. jejuni was unable to synthesize it from sulphate or methionine. Our study showed that C. jejuni compensates this limited anabolic capacity by utilizing sulphide, thiosulphate, glutathione and the dipeptides γGlu-Cys, Cys-Gly and Gly-Cys as sulphur sources and cysteine precursors. A panel of C. jejuni mutants in putative peptidases and peptide transporters were generated and tested for their participation in the catabolism of the cysteine-containing peptides, and the predicted transporter protein CJJ81176_0236 was discovered to facilitate the growth with the dipeptide Cys-Gly, Ile-Arg and Ile-Trp. It was named Campylobacter peptide transporter A (CptA) and is the first representative of the oligopeptide transporter OPT family demonstrated to participate in the glutathione-derivative Cys-Gly catabolism in prokaryotes. Our study provides new insights into how host- and microbiota-derived substrates like sulphide, thiosulphate and short peptides are used by C. jejuni to compensate its restricted metabolic capacities.

  19. Bioavailability of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides: a glycaemic management perspective.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy; Drummond, Elaine; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Milk protein-derived peptides have been reported to have potential benefits for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, what the active components are and whether intact peptides exert this bioactivity has received little investigation in human subjects. Furthermore, potentially useful bioactive peptides can be limited by low bioavailability. Various peptides have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream after milk-protein ingestion, providing valuable insights into their potential bioavailability. However, these studies are currently limited and the structure and sequence of milk peptides exerting bioactivity for glycaemic management has received little investigation in human subjects. The present article reviews the bioavailability of milk protein-derived peptides in human studies to date, and examines the evidence on milk proteins and glycaemic management, including potential mechanisms of action. Areas in need of advancement are identified. Only by establishing the bioavailability of milk protein-derived peptides, the active components and the mechanistic pathways involved can the benefits of milk proteins for the prevention or management of type 2 diabetes be fully realised in future.

  20. Determination of CK2 specificity and substrates by proteome-derived peptide libraries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunli; Ye, Mingliang; Bian, Yangyang; Liu, Fangjie; Cheng, Kai; Dong, Mingming; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2013-08-02

    Understanding the specificity of kinases enables prediction of their substrates and uncovering kinase functions in signaling pathways. Traditionally synthesized peptide libraries are used to determine the kinase specificity. In this study, a proteomics-based method was developed to determine the specificity of kinase by taking the advantages of proteome-derived peptide libraries and quantitative proteomics. Proteome-derived peptide libraries were constructed by digesting proteins in total cell lysate followed with dephosphorylation of the resulting peptides. After incubating the peptide libraries with/without CK2 for in vitro kinase assay, stable isotopic labeling based quantitative phosphoproteomics was applied to distinguish the in vitro phosphosites generated by CK2. By using the above approach, 404 CK2 in vitro phosphosites were identified by 1D LC-MS/MS. Those sites allowed the statistic determination of the CK2 specificity. In addition to the easy construction of the proteome-derived peptide library, another significant advantage of this method over the method with synthesized peptide libraries is that the identified phosphosites could be directly mapped to proteins for the screening of putative kinase substrates. It was found that the confidence for substrate identification could be significantly improved by comparing the in vitro CK2 sites with the in vivo sites identified by phosphoproteomics analysis of the same cell lines. By applying this integrated strategy, 138 phosphosites from 105 putative CK2 substrates of high confidence were determined.

  1. Isolation, Purification and Molecular Mechanism of a Peanut Protein-Derived ACE-Inhibitory Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Aimin; Liu, Hongzhi; Liu, Li; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qiang; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of bioactive peptides are capable of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effects, little is known regarding the mechanism of peanut peptides using molecular simulation. The aim of this study was to obtain ACE inhibiting peptide from peanut protein and provide insight on the molecular mechanism of its ACE inhibiting action. Peanut peptides having ACE inhibitory activity were isolated through enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. Further chromatographic fractionation was conducted to isolate a more potent peanut peptide and its antihypertensive activity was analyzed through in vitro ACE inhibitory tests and in vivo animal experiments. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS was used to identify its amino acid sequence. Mechanism of ACE inhibition of P8 was analyzed using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. A peanut peptide (P8) having Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence was obtained which had the highest ACE inhibiting activity of 85.77% (half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50): 0.0052 mg/ml). This peanut peptide is a competitive inhibitor and show significant short term (12 h) and long term (28 days) antihypertensive activity. Dynamic tests illustrated that P8 can be successfully docked into the active pocket of ACE and can be combined with several amino acid residues. Hydrogen bond, electrostatic bond and Pi-bond were found to be the three main interaction contributing to the structural stability of ACE-peptide complex. In addition, zinc atom could form metal-carboxylic coordination bond with Tyr, Met residues of P8, resulting into its high ACE inhibiting activity. Our finding indicated that the peanut peptide (P8) having a Lys-Leu-Tyr-Met-Arg-Pro amino acid sequence can be a promising candidate for functional foods and prescription drug aimed at control of hypertension. PMID:25347076

  2. Metal solubility enhancing peptides derived from barley protein.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Ewelina; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Chen, Lingyun

    2014-09-15

    Mineral supplements are required to be soluble as their bioavailability is highly correlated to their solubility in body fluids. In this study, metal binding capacity of barley protein hydrolysates and their purified fractions was investigated and expressed as increase in solubility of metal ions. Metal ions in the presence of hydrolysates exhibited a remarkable increase in solubility: 118, 32, 10, 29 and 35-fold for Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. A mixture of low molecular weight peptides possesses a synergistic combination of both charged and hydrophobic residues and achieves the best binding metal ions. Electrostatic interactions via charged side chains and coordination binding with His and Cys, initially attract the metal ions and, afterward, hydrophobic interactions and aromatic ring stacking stabilize the positioning of metal ions in the structure of the peptide. Barley hordein hydrolysates show potential as dietary supplements that enhance both mineral solubility and bioavailability.

  3. An overview of antifungal peptides derived from insect.

    PubMed

    Faruck, Mohammad Omer; Yusof, Faridah; Chowdhury, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are not classified as plants or animals. They resemble plants in many ways but do not produce chlorophyll or make their own food photosynthetically like plants. Fungi are useful for the production of beer, bread, medicine, etc. More complex than viruses or bacteria; fungi can be destructive human pathogens responsible for various diseases in humans. Most people have a strong natural immunity against fungal infection. However, fungi can cause diseases when this immunity breaks down. In the last few years, fungal infection has increased strikingly and has been accompanied by a rise in the number of deaths of cancer patients, transplant recipients, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients owing to fungal infections. The growth rate of fungi is very slow and quite difficult to identify. A series of molecules with antifungal activity against different strains of fungi have been found in insects, which can be of great importance to tackle human diseases. Insects secrete such compounds, which can be peptides, as a part of their immune defense reactions. Active antifungal peptides developed by insects to rapidly eliminate infectious pathogens are considered a component of the defense munitions. This review focuses on naturally occurring antifungal peptides from insects and their challenges to be used as armaments against human diseases.

  4. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  5. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  6. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  7. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  8. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  9. Technological options for the production of health-promoting proteins and peptides derived from milk and colostrum.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, H; Pihlanto, A

    2007-01-01

    Milk proteins are known to exert a wide range of nutritional, functional and biological activities. Apart from being a balanced source of valuable amino acids, milk proteins contribute to the consistency and sensory properties of various dairy products. Furthermore, many milk proteins possess specific biological properties which make them potential ingredients of health-promoting foods. These properties are attributed to both native protein molecules and to physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein molecules. Considerable progress has been made over the last twenty years in technologies aimed at separation, fractionation and isolation in a purified form of many interesting proteins occurring in bovine colostrum and milk. Industrial-scale methods have been developed for native whey proteins such as immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin. Their large-scale manufacture and commercial exploitation is still limited although validated research data about their physiological health benefits is rapidly accumulating. Promising product concepts and novel fields of use have emerged recently, and some of these molecules have already found commercial applications. The same applies to bioactive peptides derived from different milk proteins. Active peptides can be liberated during gastrointestinal digestion or milk fermentation with proteolytic enzymes. Such peptides may exert a number of physiological effects in vivo on the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, nervous and other body systems. However, at present the industrial-scale production of such peptides is limited by a lack of suitable technologies. On the other hand, a number of bioactive peptides have been identified in fermented dairy products, and there are already a few commercial dairy products enriched with blood pressure-reducing milk protein peptides. There is a need to develop methods to optimise the activity of bioactive peptides in

  10. Role of Arginine and Lysine in the Antimicrobial Mechanism of Histone-derived Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Cutrona, Kara J.; Kaufman, Bethany A.; Figueroa, Dania M.; Elmore, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides is often promoted by increased content of arginine or other guanidinum groups. However, relatively little research has considered the role of these functional groups on antimicrobial peptide activity. This study compared the activity of three histone-derived antimicrobial peptides—buforin II, DesHDAP1, and parasin— with variants that contain only lysine or arginine cationic residues. These peptides operate via different mechanisms as parasin causes membrane permeabilization while buforin II and DesHDAP1 translocate into bacteria. For all peptides, antibacterial activity increased with increased arginine content. Higher arginine content increased permeabilization for parasin while it improved translocation for buforin II and DesHDAP1. These observations provide insight into the relative importance of arginine and lysine in these antimicrobial peptides. PMID:26555191

  11. VCD studies on cyclic peptides assembled from L-α-amino acids and a trans-2-aminocyclopentane- or trans-2-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Vass, E; Strijowski, U; Wollschläger, K; Mándity, I M; Szilvágyi, G; Jewgiński, M; Gaus, K; Royo, S; Majer, Z; Sewald, N; Hollósi, M

    2010-11-01

    The increasing interest in peptidomimetics of biological relevance prompted us to synthesize a series of cyclic peptides comprising trans-2-aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid (Achc) or trans-2-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (Acpc). NMR experiments in combination with MD calculations were performed to investigate the three-dimensional structure of the cyclic peptides. These data were compared to the conformational information obtained by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. Experimental VCD spectra were compared to theoretical VCD spectra computed quantum chemically at B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional theory (DFT) level. The good agreement between the structural features derived from the VCD spectra and the NMR-based structures underlines the applicability of VCD in studying the conformation of small cyclic peptides.

  12. Bioactive peptides derived from human milk proteins--mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yasuaki; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-05-01

    Human milk contains a multitude of bioactive proteins with very diverse functions, which are beneficial for the rapidly growing neonate. The large variety of bioactivities is accomplished by the combination of bioactive proteins per se and gastrointestinal release of bioactive peptides derived from them. The bioactivities exerted by these peptides include enhancement of mineral absorption, immunomodulation, opioid, antihypertensive and antimicrobial activities. Notably, several of the activities are not attributed to the parental proteins, but exclusively to released bioactive peptides. This article reviews studies on bioactive peptides derived from major human milk proteins, such as caseins, α-lactalbumin and lactoferrin, during gastrointestinal digestion. Studies of bovine milk counterparts are also cited as a comparison.

  13. Pipa carvalhoi skin secretion profiling: absence of peptides and identification of kynurenic acid as the major constitutive component.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Douglas Oscar Ceolin; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Jared, Carlos; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The presence of peptides has been identified in all African pipid genera; nevertheless, little is known about skin secretion of South American frog genus Pipa. Skin secretion from captive and wild Pipa carvalhoi were obtained in the presence or absence of norepinephrine stimulation. The <10 kDa fraction was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, searching for peptides. Chromatographic profiles show the presence of a major component in this secretion, regardless of the stimulation method (norepinephrine or mechanical stimulation) and the origin of the animal (captivity or wild), as well as in the absence of any stimulus. The general mass distribution profile in P. carvalhoi skin secretion shows numerous components below 800 Da. Moreover, no peptide could be identified, regardless of the chromatographic approach. The major component was purified and identified as kynurenic acid, an L-tryptophan derivative. P. carvalhoi does not secrete peptides as toxins in its skin. In addition, we here report that kynurenic acid is the main component of P. carvalhoi skin secretion. Although no biological activity was associated with kynurenic acid, we propose that this molecule is a pheromone that signals the presence of a co-specific in the shady environment in which this animal lives. In this study we demonstrate the absence of peptidic toxins in the skin secretion of P. carvalhoi, a break of paradigm in the pipid family.

  14. Assessment of multifunctional activity of bioactive peptides derived from fermented milk by specific Lactobacillus plantarum strains.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Toalá, J E; Santiago-López, L; Peres, C M; Peres, C; Garcia, H S; Vallejo-Cordoba, B; González-Córdova, A F; Hernández-Mendoza, A

    2017-01-01

    Milk-derived bioactive peptides with a single activity (e.g., antioxidant, immunomodulatory, or antimicrobial) have been previously well documented; however, few studies describe multifunctional bioactive peptides, which may be preferred over single-activity peptides, as they can simultaneously trigger, modulate, or inhibit multiple physiological pathways. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, antihemolytic, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antimicrobial activities of crude extracts (CE) and peptide fractions (<3 and 3-10 kDa) obtained from fermented milks with specific Lactobacillus plantarum strains. Overall, CE showed higher activity than both peptide fractions (<3 and 3-10 kDa) in most of the activities assessed. Furthermore, activity of <3 kDa was generally higher, or at least equal, to the 3 to 10 kDa peptide fractions. In particular, L. plantarum 55 crude extract or their fractions showed the higher anti-inflammatory (723.68-1,759.43μg/mL of diclofenac sodium equivalents), antihemolytic (36.65-74.45% of inhibition), and antioxidant activity [282.8-362.3µmol of Trolox (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) equivalents]. These results provide valuable evidence of multifunctional role of peptides derived of fermented milk by the action of specific L. plantarum strains. Thus, they may be considered for the development of biotechnological products to be used to reduce the risk of disease or to enhance a certain physiological function.

  15. Specific interactions between amyloid-β peptide and curcumin derivatives: Ab initio molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimura, Hiromi; Kadoya, Ryushi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Murakawa, Takeru; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, it is effective to inhibit the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases. However, because the secretases also play important roles to produce vital proteins for human body, inhibitors for the secretases may have side effects. To propose new agents for protecting the cleavage site of APP from the attacking of the γ-secretase, we have investigated here the specific interactions between a short APP peptide and curcumin derivatives, using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations.

  16. New mechanisms that regulate Saccharomyces cerevisiae short peptide transporter achieve balanced intracellular amino acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Melnykov, Artem V

    2016-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to take up large quantities of amino acids in the form of di- and tripeptides via a short peptide transporter, Ptr2p. It is known that PTR2 can be induced by certain peptides and amino acids, and the mechanisms governing this upregulation are understood at the molecular level. We describe two new opposing mechanisms of regulation that emphasize potential toxicity of amino acids: the first is upregulation of PTR2 in a population of cells, caused by amino acid secretion that accompanies peptide uptake; the second is loss of Ptr2p activity, due to transporter internalization following peptide uptake. Our findings emphasize the importance of proper amino acid balance in the cell and extend understanding of peptide import regulation in yeast.

  17. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui

    2017-03-15

    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel.

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Fusion Peptides of Influenza A Viruses, a Promising Approach to Designing Potent Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhong, Wenjing; Lin, Dongguo; Xia, Fan; Wu, Wenjiao; Zhang, Heyuan; Lv, Lin; Liu, Shuwen; He, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have spurred the urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial agents with different mode of action. In this respect, we turned several fusogenic peptides (FPs) derived from the hemagglutinin glycoproteins (HAs) of IAV into potent antibacterials by replacing the negatively or neutrally charged residues of FPs with positively charged lysines. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated by testing the MICs against a panel of bacterial strains including S. aureus, S. mutans, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli. The results showed that peptides HA-FP-1, HA-FP-2-1, and HA-FP-3-1 were effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MICs ranging from 1.9 to 16.0 μm, while the toxicities toward mammalian cells were low. In addition, the mode of action and the secondary structure of these peptides were also discussed. These data not only provide several potent peptides displaying promising potential in development as broad antimicrobial agents, but also present a useful strategy in designing new antimicrobial agents.

  19. A p7 Ion Channel-derived Peptide Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Vitro*

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Wei; Lang, Yange; Li, Tian; Zeng, Zhengyang; Song, Yu; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection is an early stage of its life cycle and represents a promising target for antiviral drug development. Here we designed and characterized three peptide inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection based on the structural features of the membrane-associated p7 polypeptide of HCV. The three peptides exhibited low toxicity and high stability while potently inhibiting initial HCV infection and suppressed established HCV infection at non-cytotoxic concentrations in vitro. The most efficient peptide (designated H2-3), which is derived from the H2 helical region of HCV p7 ion channel, inhibited HCV infection by inactivating both intracellular and extracellular viral particles. The H2-3 peptide inactivated free HCV with an EC50 (50% effective concentration) of 82.11 nm, which is >1000-fold lower than the CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration) of Huh7.5.1 cells. H2-3 peptide also bound to cell membrane and protected host cells from viral infection. The peptide H2-3 did not alter the normal electrophysiological profile of the p7 ion channel or block viral release from Huh7.5.1 cells. Our work highlights a new anti-viral peptide design strategy based on ion channel, giving the possibility that ion channels are potential resources to generate antiviral peptides. PMID:26251517

  20. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-hong; Zhang, Wan-gang

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides. PMID:27657142

  1. A Review of Antioxidant Peptides Derived from Meat Muscle and By-Products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Lujuan; Fu, Qingquan; Zhou, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wan-Gang

    2016-09-20

    Antioxidant peptides are gradually being accepted as food ingredients, supplemented in functional food and nutraceuticals, to positively regulate oxidative stress in the human body against lipid and protein oxidation. Meat muscle and meat by-products are rich sources of proteins and can be regarded as good materials for the production of bioactive peptides by use of enzymatic hydrolysis or direct solvent extraction. In recent years, there has been a growing number of studies conducted to characterize antioxidant peptides or hydrolysates derived from meat muscle and by-products as well as processed meat products, including dry-cured hams. Antioxidant peptides obtained from animal sources could exert not only nutritional value but also bioavailability to benefit human health. This paper reviews the antioxidant peptides or protein hydrolysates identified in muscle protein and by-products. We focus on the procedure for the generation of peptides with antioxidant capacity including the acquisition of crude peptides, the assessment of antioxidant activity, and the purification and identification of the active fraction. It remains critical to perform validation experiments with a cell model, animal model or clinical trial to eliminate safety concerns before final application in the food system. In addition, some of the common characteristics on structure-activity relationship are also reviewed based on the identified antioxidant peptides.

  2. Milk derived bioactive peptides and their impact on human health - A review.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, D P; Mohapatra, S; Misra, S; Sahu, P S

    2016-09-01

    Milk-derived bioactive peptides have been identified as potential ingredients of health-promoting functional foods. These bioactive peptides are targeted at diet-related chronic diseases especially the non-communicable diseases viz., obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Peptides derived from the milk of cow, goat, sheep, buffalo and camel exert multifunctional properties, including anti-microbial, immune modulatory, anti-oxidant, inhibitory effect on enzymes, anti-thrombotic, and antagonistic activities against various toxic agents. Majority of those regulate immunological, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neurological responses, thereby playing a vital role in the prevention of cancer, osteoporosis, hypertension and other disorders as discussed in this review. For the commercial production of such novel bioactive peptides large scale technologies based on membrane separation and ion exchange chromatography methods have been developed. Separation and identification of those peptides and their pharmacodynamic parameters are necessary to transfer their potent functional properties into food applications. The present review summarizes the preliminary classes of bioactive milk-derived peptides along with their physiological functions, general characteristics and potential applications in health-care.

  3. Comparative studies of adhesion peptides based on l- or d-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Sergey; Palmer, Daniel; Meldal, Morten; Diness, Frederik

    2016-10-01

    Detailed studies comparing solid-supported l- or d-amino acid adhesion peptides based on the sequence KLHRIRA were performed. Stability towards proteases and levels of cellular adhesion to the otherwise inert surface of PEGA resin were compared by using fluorescently labelled peptides. A clear difference in the peptide stability towards cleavage by subtilisin, trypsin, or papain was observed. However, all of the on-bead peptides provided an optimal surface for cell adhesion and proliferation. In long-term experiments, these properties were still found to be similar on the resins modified either with l- or with d-amino acids and unaffected by the nature of their fluorescence labelling at either terminus. These results support that the more accessible l-amino acids can be utilized for cell adhesion experiments and confirm the nonspecific interaction mechanism of cell binding to these peptides on the bead surface. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6097 - Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid derivative (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6097 Phosphoric acid derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance... phosphoric acid derivative (PMN P-95-284) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  9. Partial d-amino acid substitution: Improved enzymatic stability and preserved Ab recognition of a MUC2 epitope peptide

    PubMed Central

    Tugyi, Regina; Uray, Katalin; Iván, Dóra; Fellinger, Erzsébet; Perkins, Alan; Hudecz, Ferenc

    2005-01-01

    The stability of an immunogen against enzymatic degradation is considered an important factor for the design of synthetic vaccines. For our studies, we have selected an epitope from the tandem-repeat unit of the high-molecular-weight MUC2 mucin glycoprotein, which can be underglycosylated in case of colon cancer. In this study, we prepared a MUC2 peptide containing the PTGTQ epitope of a MUC2 protein backbone-specific mAb 996 and its derivatives. In these peptides, the N- and C-terminal flanking regions were systematically substituted by up to three d-amino acids. Peptides prepared by solid-phase synthesis were tested for their mAb 996 binding in competitive ELISA experiments, and their stability was studied in serum and lysosomal preparation. Our data show that the epitope function of peptide 15TPTPTGTQTPT25 is retained even in the presence of two d-amino acid residues at its N-terminal flanking region and up to three at its C-terminal flanking region (tpTPTGTQtpt). Also, this partly d peptide shows high resistance against proteolytic degradation in diluted human serum and in lysosomal preparation. These findings suggest that, by appropriate combination of structural modifications (namely, d-amino acid substitution) in the flanks of an Ab epitope, it is feasible to construct a synthetic antigen with preserved recognition properties and high stability against enzymatic degradation. Peptides tPTPTGTQTpt and tpTPTGTQTpt derived from this study can be used for immunization experiments and as potential components of synthetic vaccines for tumor therapy. PMID:15630090

  10. Protective Role of PEDF-Derived Synthetic Peptide Against Experimental Diabetic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Y; Matsui, T; Taira, J; Higashimoto, Y; Yamagishi, S

    2016-09-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a glycoprotein with complex neuroprotective, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, all of which could potentially be exploited as a therapeutic option for vascular complications in diabetes. We have previously shown that PEDF-derived synthetic peptide, P5-3 (FIFVLRD) has a comparable ability with full PEDF protein to inhibit rat corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization. However, the effects of PEDF peptide on experimental diabetic nephropathy remain unknown. To address the issue, we modified P5-3 to stabilize and administered the modified peptide (d-Lys-d-Lys-d-Lys-Gln-d-Pro-P5-3-Cys-amide, 0.2 nmol/day) or vehicle to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats) intraperitoneally by an osmotic mini pump for 2 weeks. We further examined the effects of modified peptide on human proximal tubular cells. Renal PEDF expression was decreased in STZ-rats. Although the peptide administration did not affect blood glucose or blood pressure, it decreased urinary excretion levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression, and suppressed glomerular expansion in the diabetic kidneys. High glucose or advanced glycation end products stimulated oxidative stress generation and PAI-1 gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were significantly suppressed by 10 nM modified P5-3 peptide. Our present study suggests that PEDF-derived synthetic modified peptide could protect against experimental diabetic nephropathy and inhibit tubular cell damage under diabetes-like conditions through its anti-oxidative properties. Supplementation of modified P5-3 peptide may be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Formulation of pH responsive peptides as inhalable dry powders for pulmonary delivery of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wanling; Kwok, Philip C.L.; Chow, Michael Y.T.; Tang, Patricia; Mason, A. James; Chan, Hak-Kim; Lam, Jenny. K.W.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acids have the potential to be used as therapies or vaccines for many different types of disease but delivery remains the most significant challenge to their clinical adoption. pH responsive peptides containing either histidine or derivatives of 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap) can mediate effective DNA transfection in lung epithelial cells with the latter remaining effective even in the presence of lung surfactant containing bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), making this class of peptides attractive candidates for delivering nucleic acids to lung tissues. To further assess the suitability of pH responsive peptides for pulmonary delivery by inhalation, dry powder formulations of pH responsive peptides and plasmid DNA, with mannitol as carrier, were produced by either spray drying (SD) or spray freeze drying (SFD). The properties of the two types of powders were characterised and compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), next generation impaction (NGI), gel retardation and in vitro transfection via a twin-stage impinger (TSI) following aerosolisation by a dry powder inhaler (Osmohaler™). Although the aerodynamic performance and transfection efficacy of both powders were good, the overall performance revealed SD powders to have a number of advantages over SFD powders and are the more effective formulation with potential for efficient nucleic acid delivery through inhalation. PMID:23702276

  12. Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Malav S; Shah, Jayni S; Al-Mughairy, Sara; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Simms, Benjamin; Trooskens, Geert A; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deth, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Dietary interventions like gluten-free and casein-free diets have been reported to improve intestinal, autoimmune and neurological symptoms in patients with a variety of conditions; however, the underlying mechanism of benefit for such diets remains unclear. Epigenetic programming, including CpG methylation and histone modifications, occurring during early postnatal development can influence the risk of disease in later life, and such programming may be modulated by nutritional factors such as milk and wheat, especially during the transition from a solely milk-based diet to one that includes other forms of nutrition. The hydrolytic digestion of casein (a major milk protein) and gliadin (a wheat-derived protein) releases peptides with opioid activity, and in the present study, we demonstrate that these food-derived proline-rich opioid peptides modulate cysteine uptake in cultured human neuronal and gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells via activation of opioid receptors. Decreases in cysteine uptake were associated with changes in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine. Bovine and human casein-derived opioid peptides increased genome-wide DNA methylation in the transcription start site region with a potency order similar to their inhibition of cysteine uptake. Altered expression of genes involved in redox and methylation homeostasis was also observed. These results illustrate the potential of milk- and wheat-derived peptides to exert antioxidant and epigenetic changes which may be particularly important during the postnatal transition from placental to GI nutrition. Differences between peptides derived from human and bovine milk may contribute to developmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Restricted antioxidant capacity, caused by wheat- and milk-derived opioid peptides, may predispose susceptible individuals to inflammation and systemic oxidation, partly explaining the benefits of gluten

  13. Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Malav S; Shah, Jayni S; Al-Mughairy, Sara; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Simms, Benjamin; Trooskens, Geert A; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deth, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Dietary interventions like gluten-free and casein-free diets have been reported to improve intestinal, autoimmune and neurological symptoms in patients with a variety of conditions; however, the underlying mechanism of benefit for such diets remains unclear. Epigenetic programming, including CpG methylation and histone modifications, occurring during early postnatal development can influence the risk of disease in later life, and such programming may be modulated by nutritional factors such as milk and wheat, especially during the transition from a solely milk-based diet to one that includes other forms of nutrition. The hydrolytic digestion of casein (a major milk protein) and gliadin (a wheat-derived protein) releases peptides with opioid activity, and in the present study, we demonstrate that these food-derived proline-rich opioid peptides modulate cysteine uptake in cultured human neuronal and gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells via activation of opioid receptors. Decreases in cysteine uptake were associated with changes in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine. Bovine and human casein-derived opioid peptides increased genome-wide DNA methylation in the transcription start site region with a potency order similar to their inhibition of cysteine uptake. Altered expression of genes involved in redox and methylation homeostasis was also observed. These results illustrate the potential of milk- and wheat-derived peptides to exert antioxidant and epigenetic changes that may be particularly important during the postnatal transition from placental to GI nutrition. Differences between peptides derived from human and bovine milk may contribute to developmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Restricted antioxidant capacity, caused by wheat- and milk-derived opioid peptides, may predispose susceptible individuals to inflammation and systemic oxidation, partly explaining the benefits of gluten-free or

  14. LL-37-derived peptides eradicate multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from thermally wounded human skin equivalents.

    PubMed

    Haisma, Elisabeth M; de Breij, Anna; Chan, Heelam; van Dissel, Jaap T; Drijfhout, Jan W; Hiemstra, Pieter S; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb; Nibbering, Peter H

    2014-08-01

    Burn wound infections are often difficult to treat due to the presence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains and biofilms. Currently, mupirocin is used to eradicate methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from colonized persons; however, mupirocin resistance is also emerging. Since we consider antimicrobial peptides to be promising candidates for the development of novel anti-infective agents, we studied the antibacterial activities of a set of synthetic peptides against different strains of S. aureus, including mupirocin-resistant MRSA strains. The peptides were derived from P60.4Ac, a peptide based on the human cathelicidin LL-37. The results showed that peptide 10 (P10) was the only peptide more efficient than P60.4Ac, which is better than LL-37, in killing MRSA strain LUH14616. All three peptides displayed good antibiofilm activities. However, both P10 and P60.4Ac were more efficient than LL-37 in eliminating biofilm-associated bacteria. No toxic effects of these three peptides on human epidermal models were detected, as observed morphologically and by staining for mitochondrial activity. In addition, P60.4Ac and P10, but not LL-37, eradicated MRSA LUH14616 and the mupirocin-resistant MRSA strain LUH15051 from thermally wounded human skin equivalents (HSE). Interestingly, P60.4Ac and P10, but not mupirocin, eradicated LUH15051 from the HSEs. None of the peptides affected the excretion of interleukin 8 (IL-8) by thermally wounded HSEs upon MRSA exposure. In conclusion, the synthetic peptides P60.4Ac and P10 appear to be attractive candidates for the development of novel local therapies to treat patients with burn wounds infected with multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  15. Ion/ion reactions of MALDI-derived peptide ions: increased sequence coverage via covalent and electrostatic modification upon charge inversion.

    PubMed

    Stutzman, John R; McLuckey, Scott A

    2012-12-18

    Atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (AP-MALDI)-derived tryptic peptide ions have been subjected to ion/ion reactions with doubly deprotonated 4-formyl-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (FBDSA) in the gas-phase. The ion/ion reaction produces a negatively charged electrostatic complex composed of the peptide cation and reagent dianion, whereupon dehydration of the complex via collision-induced dissociation (CID) produces a Schiff base product anion. Collisional activation of modified lysine-terminated tryptic peptide anions is consistent with a covalent modification of unprotonated primary amines (i.e., N-terminus and ε-NH(2) of lysine). Modified arginine-terminated tryptic peptides have shown evidence of a covalent modification at the N-terminus and a noncovalent interaction with the arginine residue. The modified anions yield at least as much sequence information upon CID as the unmodified cations for the small tryptic peptides examined here and more sequence information for the large tryptic peptides. This study represents the first demonstration of gas-phase ion/ion reactions involving MALDI-derived ions. In this case, covalent and electrostatic modification charge inversion is shown to enhance MALDI tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides.

  16. Amino acid sequences of peptides from a tryptic digest of a urea-soluble protein fraction (U.S.3) from oxidized wool

    PubMed Central

    Corfield, M. C.; Fletcher, J. C.; Robson, A.

    1967-01-01

    1. A tryptic digest of the protein fraction U.S.3 from oxidized wool has been separated into 32 peptide fractions by cation-exchange resin chromatography. 2. Most of these fractions have been resolved into their component peptides by a combination of the techniques of cation-exchange resin chromatography, paper chromatography and paper electrophoresis. 3. The amino acid compositions of 58 of the peptides in the digest present in the largest amounts have been determined. 4. The amino acid sequences of 38 of these have been completely elucidated and those of six others partially derived. 5. These findings indicate that the parent protein in wool from which the protein fraction U.S.3 is derived has a minimum molecular weight of 74000. 6. The structures of wool proteins are discussed in the light of the peptide sequences determined, and, in particular, of those sequences in fraction U.S.3 that could not be elucidated. PMID:16742497

  17. Translational medicine in fish-derived peptides: from fish endocrinology to human physiology and diseases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2004-02-01

    Recent studies have revealed the importance of fish-derived peptide hormones to human endocrinology. These peptides include melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), urocortins (human urotensin-I), and urotensin-II. MCH, a hypothalamic peptide, is a potent stimulator on appetite. Urocortins, e.g. urocortin 1 and urocortin 3 (stresscopin), are endogenous ligands for the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors, particularly CRF type 2 receptor, that mediates a vasodilator action, a positive inotropic action and a central appetite-inhibiting action. These actions mediated by CRF type 2 receptor may ameliorate the stress response. Human urotensin-II is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, while it acts as a vasodilator on some arteries. Human urotensin-II is expressed in various types of cells and tissues, including cardiovascular tissues, as well as many types of tumor cells. Thus, these fish-derived peptides appear to play important roles in human physiology, such as appetite regulation, stress response and cardiovascular regulation, and also in diseases, for example, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and tumors. Development of antagonists/agonists against the receptors for these peptides may open new strategies for the treatment of various diseases, including obesity-related diseases, hypertension, heart failure and malignant tumors.

  18. Self-Assembly and Anti-Amyloid Cytotoxicity Activity of Amyloid beta Peptide Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Castelletto, V; Ryumin, P; Cramer, R; Hamley, I W; Taylor, M; Allsop, D; Reza, M; Ruokolainen, J; Arnold, T; Hermida-Merino, D; Garcia, C I; Leal, M C; Castaño, E

    2017-03-08

    The self-assembly of two derivatives of KLVFF, a fragment Aβ(16-20) of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, is investigated and recovery of viability of neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ (1-42) is observed at sub-stoichiometric peptide concentrations. Fluorescence assays show that NH2-KLVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse and amyloid formation at the same critical aggregation concentration (cac). In contrast, NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse at a low concentration, followed by amyloid formation at a higher cac. These findings are supported by the β-sheet features observed by FTIR. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicates that NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 forms a significant population of oligomeric species above the cac. Cryo-TEM, used together with SAXS to determine fibril dimensions, shows that the length and degree of twisting of peptide fibrils seem to be influenced by the net peptide charge. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering from thin peptide films shows features of β-sheet ordering for both peptides, along with evidence for lamellar ordering of NH2-KLVFF-CONH2. This work provides a comprehensive picture of the aggregation properties of these two KLVFF derivatives and shows their utility, in unaggregated form, in restoring the viability of neuroblastoma cells against Aβ-induced toxicity.

  19. Self-Assembly and Anti-Amyloid Cytotoxicity Activity of Amyloid beta Peptide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Castelletto, V.; Ryumin, P.; Cramer, R.; Hamley, I. W.; Taylor, M.; Allsop, D.; Reza, M.; Ruokolainen, J.; Arnold, T.; Hermida-Merino, D.; Garcia, C. I.; Leal, M. C.; Castaño, E.

    2017-01-01

    The self-assembly of two derivatives of KLVFF, a fragment Aβ(16–20) of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, is investigated and recovery of viability of neuroblastoma cells exposed to Aβ (1–42) is observed at sub-stoichiometric peptide concentrations. Fluorescence assays show that NH2-KLVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse and amyloid formation at the same critical aggregation concentration (cac). In contrast, NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 undergoes hydrophobic collapse at a low concentration, followed by amyloid formation at a higher cac. These findings are supported by the β-sheet features observed by FTIR. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry indicates that NH2-K(Boc)LVFF-CONH2 forms a significant population of oligomeric species above the cac. Cryo-TEM, used together with SAXS to determine fibril dimensions, shows that the length and degree of twisting of peptide fibrils seem to be influenced by the net peptide charge. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering from thin peptide films shows features of β-sheet ordering for both peptides, along with evidence for lamellar ordering of NH2-KLVFF-CONH2. This work provides a comprehensive picture of the aggregation properties of these two KLVFF derivatives and shows their utility, in unaggregated form, in restoring the viability of neuroblastoma cells against Aβ-induced toxicity. PMID:28272542

  20. Peptide derived from Pvfp-1 as bioadhesive on bio-inert surface.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhen; Yu, Yabiao; Du, Lina; Ding, Xiyu; Xu, Hui; Sun, Yanan; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-02-01

    Surface property is one important characteristic of materials, especially for ones that are bio-inert but designed for bio-medical application. In this study, we designed a series of peptides and compared their capacities as bioadhesive to improve the surface bioactivity of bio-inert material. The peptides were designed according to the sequence of Perna viridis foot protein 1 (Pvfp-1), one of the Mfp-1s (mussel foot protein 1) which play key roles in wet adhesion of mussel byssus. And the Teflon (PTFE) was chosen as a model of bio-inert material. With adsorption, adhesion and coating analysis, it was found that peptide C2 (M) (derived from the non-repeating region of Pvfp-1, contains modified DOPA) has superior coating and adhesion abilities especially on the bio-inert surface of PTFE. After coating with peptide C2 (M), the cell adhesion and spreading of osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells on PTFE were significantly improved compared with those on non-coated surface, and the peptide-coating did not show any cell toxicity. Therefore, peptide C2 (M) is effective for improving the bioactivity of bio-inert PTFE, and could be potentially used as a bioadhesive on other bio-inert materials for biomedical application. Moreover, this study also provided new insights in designing other peptide-based bioadhesive materials.

  1. Insights into the Mechanism of Peptide Cyclodehydrations Achieved Through the Chemoenzymatic Generation of Amide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Kyle L.; Mitchell, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Current strategies for generating peptides and proteins bearing amide carbonyl derivatives rely on solid-phase peptide synthesis for amide functionalization. Although such strategies have been successfully implemented, technical limitations restrict both the length and sequence of the synthetic fragments. Herein we report the repurposing of a thiazole/oxazole-modified microcin (TOMM) cyclodehydratase to site-specifically install amide backbone labels onto diverse peptide substrates, a method we refer to as azoline-mediated peptide backbone labeling (AMPL). This convenient chemoenzymatic strategy can generate both thioamides and amides with isotopically labeled oxygen atoms. Moreover, we demonstrate the first leader peptide-independent activity of a TOMM synthetase, circumventing the requirement that sequences of interest be fused to a leader peptide for modification. Through bioinformatics-guided site-directed mutagenesis, we also convert a strictly dehydrogenase-dependent TOMM azole synthetase into an azoline synthetase. This vastly expands the spectrum of substrates modifiable by AMPL by allowing any in vitro reconstituted TOMM synthetase to be employed. To demonstrate the utility of AMPL for mechanistic enzymology studies, an 18O-labeled substrate was generated to provide direct evidence that cyclodehydrations in TOMMs occur through the phosphorylation of the carbonyl oxygen preceding the cyclized residue. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AMPL is a useful tool for establishing the location of azolines both on in vitro modified peptides and azoline-containing natural products. PMID:23721104

  2. Mapping of radiolabeled peptides derived from proteolysis of polypeptides bound to nitrocellulose after Western blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Carrey, E.A.; Hardie, D.G.

    1986-11-01

    Sections of nitrocellulose containing bound /sup 32/P-labeled polypeptides were excised from Western blots and exhaustively digested by trypsin in order to analyze the distribution of phosphorylation sites between the products of limited proteolysis of the multifunctional protein CAD. Using the criterion of analytical isoelectric focusing, the /sup 32/P-peptides obtained by this method were found to be similar, although not identical, to peptides obtained by a more conventional digestion of trichloroacetic acid precipitates. Digestion on Western blots is more straightforward than electrophoretic elution of individual gel slices, gives better recoveries than direct digestion of gel slices, and is particularly suitable for peptide mapping of small peptides which bind to nitrocellulose but would diffuse out of polyacrylamide gels during the commonly used fixing and staining procedures.

  3. A cactus-derived toxin-like cystine knot Peptide with selective antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Aboye, Teshome L; Strömstedt, Adam A; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham; Rosengren, K Johan; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-05-04

    Naturally occurring cystine knot peptides show a wide range of biological activity, and as they have inherent stability they represent potential scaffolds for peptide-based drug design and biomolecular engineering. Here we report the discovery, sequencing, chemical synthesis, three-dimensional solution structure determination and bioactivity of the first cystine knot peptide from Cactaceae (cactus) family: Ep-AMP1 from Echinopsis pachanoi. The structure of Ep-AMP1 (35 amino acids) conforms to that of the inhibitor cystine knot (or knottin) family but represents a novel diverse sequence; its activity was more than 500 times higher against bacterial than against eukaryotic cells. Rapid bactericidal action and liposome leakage implicate membrane permeabilisation as the mechanism of action. Sequence homology places Ec-AMP1 in the plant C6-type of antimicrobial peptides, but the three dimensional structure is highly similar to that of a spider neurotoxin.

  4. Structure-Activity Relations of Myxinidin, an Antibacterial Peptide Derived from the Epidermal Mucus of Hagfish

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Marco; Leone, Marilisa; Mignogna, Eleonora; Kampanaraki, Katerina; Falanga, Annarita; Morelli, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    The structure-activity relations of myxinidin, a peptide derived from epidermal mucus of hagfish, Myxine glutinosa L., were investigated. Analysis of key residues allowed us to design new peptides with increased efficiency. Antimicrobial activity of native and modified peptides demonstrated the key role of uncharged residues in the sequence; the loss of these residues reduces almost entirely myxinidin antimicrobial activity, while insertion of arginine at charged and uncharged position increases antimicrobial activity compared with that of native myxinidin. Particularly, we designed a peptide capable of achieving a high inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. Experiments were conducted using both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies showed that myxinidin is able to form an amphipathic α-helical structure at the N terminus and a random coil region at the C terminus. PMID:24002100

  5. Central cell-derived peptides regulate early embryo patterning in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Costa, Liliana M; Marshall, Eleanor; Tesfaye, Mesfin; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Mori, Masashi; Umetsu, Yoshitaka; Otterbach, Sophie L; Papareddy, Ranjith; Dickinson, Hugh G; Boutiller, Kim; VandenBosch, Kathryn A; Ohki, Shinya; Gutierrez-Marcos, José F

    2014-04-11

    Plant embryogenesis initiates with the establishment of an apical-basal axis; however, the molecular mechanisms accompanying this early event remain unclear. Here, we show that a small cysteine-rich peptide family is required for formation of the zygotic basal cell lineage and proembryo patterning in Arabidopsis. EMBRYO SURROUNDING FACTOR 1 (ESF1) peptides accumulate before fertilization in central cell gametes and thereafter in embryo-surrounding endosperm cells. Biochemical and structural analyses revealed cleavage of ESF1 propeptides to form biologically active mature peptides. Further, these peptides act in a non-cell-autonomous manner and synergistically with the receptor-like kinase SHORT SUSPENSOR to promote suspensor elongation through the YODA mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Our findings demonstrate that the second female gamete and its sexually derived endosperm regulate early embryonic patterning in flowering plants.

  6. Conjugates of amino acids and peptides with 5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide and their interaction with the ribosomal exit tunnel.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, Anna; Makarov, Gennady; Tereshchenkov, Andrey; Korshunova, Galina; Sumbatyan, Nataliya; Golovin, Andrey; Svetlov, Maxim; Bogdanov, Alexey

    2013-11-20

    During protein synthesis the nascent polypeptide chain (NC) extends through the ribosomal exit tunnel (NPET). Also, the large group of macrolide antibiotics binds in the nascent peptide exit tunnel. In some cases interaction of NC with NPET leads to the ribosome stalling, a significant event in regulation of translation. In other cases NC-ribosome interactions lead to pauses in translation that play an important role in cotranslational folding of polypeptides emerging from the ribosome. The precise mechanism of NC recognition in NPET as well as factors that determine NC conformation in the ribosomal tunnel are unknown. A number of derivatives of the macrolide antibiotic 5-O-mycaminosyltylonolide (OMT) containing N-acylated amino acid or peptide residues were synthesized in order to study potential sites of NC-NPET interactions. The target compounds were prepared by conjugation of protected amino acids and peptides with the C23 hydroxyl group of the macrolide. These OMT derivatives showed high although varying abilities to inhibit the firefly luciferase synthesis in vitro. Three glycil-containing derivatives appeared to be strong inhibitors of translation, more potent than parental OMT. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of complexes of tylosin, OMT, and some of OMT derivatives with the large ribosomal subunit of E. coli illuminated a plausible reason for the high inhibitory activity of Boc-Gly-OMT. In addition, the MD study detected a new putative site of interaction of the nascent polypeptide chain with the NPET walls.

  7. Mutual Amino Acid Catalysis in Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Supports this Mechanism's Role in Prebiotic Peptide Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    The presence of some amino acids and dipeptides under the conditions of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction (aqueous solution at 85 °C, Cu(II) and NaCl) has been found to catalyze the formation of homopeptides of other amino acids, which are otherwise produced only in traces or not at all by this reaction. The condensation of Val, Leu and Lys to form their homodipeptides can occur to a considerable extent due to catalytic effects of other amino acids and related compounds, among which glycine, histidine, diglycine and diketopiperazine exhibit the most remarkable activity. These findings also lead to a modification of the table of amino acid sequences preferentially formed by the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction, previously used for a comparison with the sequence preferences in membrane proteins of primitive organisms

  8. Possible role of milk-derived bioactive peptides in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Herrera, Manuel Olalla; Artacho, Reyes

    2012-04-01

    The growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome as well as its impact on public health has garnered increased attention in recent years. As a result, metabolic syndrome is now considered one of the world's leading public health problems. Bioactive peptides deriving from milk proteins may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and its complications via several mechanisms, such as the satiety response, the regulation of insulinemia levels and blood pressure, the uptake of free radicals, and alteration of the lipid profile. These peptides can be incorporated into functional foods or administered via nutraceuticals to decrease the risk of obesity, atherogenesis, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. Recent findings have generated considerable scientific and commercial interest in milk-derived bioactive peptides, leading to numerous publications on the effectiveness of these substances. This review summarizes the current knowledge on bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins and examines the potential value of these peptides in the treatment and prevention of metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  9. MEPE-Derived ASARM Peptide Inhibits Odontogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Impairs Mineralization in Tooth Models of X-Linked Hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Naji, Jiar; Coyac, Benjamin R.; Baroukh, Brigitte; Letourneur, Franck; Lesieur, Julie; Decup, Franck; Le Denmat, Dominique; Nicoletti, Antonino; Poliard, Anne; Rowe, Peter S.; Huet, Eric; Vital, Sibylle Opsahl; Linglart, Agnès; McKee, Marc D.; Chaussain, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X-chromosome) cause X-linked familial hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH), a disorder having severe bone and tooth dentin mineralization defects. The absence of functional PHEX leads to abnormal accumulation of ASARM (acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif) peptide − a substrate for PHEX and a strong inhibitor of mineralization − derived from MEPE (matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein) and other matrix proteins. MEPE-derived ASARM peptide accumulates in tooth dentin of XLH patients where it may impair dentinogenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of ASARM peptides in vitro and in vivo on odontoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization. Dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) were seeded into a 3D collagen scaffold, and induced towards odontogenic differentiation. Cultures were treated with synthetic ASARM peptides (phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated) derived from the human MEPE sequence. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide inhibited SHED differentiation in vitro, with no mineralized nodule formation, decreased odontoblast marker expression, and upregulated MEPE expression. Phosphorylated ASARM peptide implanted in a rat molar pulp injury model impaired reparative dentin formation and mineralization, with increased MEPE immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, using complementary models to study tooth dentin defects observed in XLH, we demonstrate that the MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits both odontogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization, while increasing MEPE expression. These results contribute to a partial mechanistic explanation of XLH pathogenesis: direct inhibition of mineralization by ASARM peptide leads to the mineralization defects in XLH teeth. This process appears to be positively reinforced by the increased MEPE expression induced by ASARM. The MEPE-ASARM system can therefore be considered as a potential therapeutic

  10. Interaction of heparin with internally quenched fluorogenic peptides derived from heparin-binding consensus sequences, kallistatin and anti-thrombin III.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Daniel C; Nantes, Iseli L; de Souza, Eduardo S; Le Bonniec, Bernard; Ito, Amando S; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Oliveira, Vitor; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz

    2002-09-01

    Internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) peptides bearing the fluorescence donor/acceptor pair o-aminobenzoic acid (Abz)/N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine (EDDnp) at N- and C-terminal ends were synthesized containing heparin-binding sites from the human serpins kallistatin and antithrombin, as well as consensus heparin-binding sequences (Cardin clusters). The dissociation constant (K(d)), as well as the stoichiometry for the heparin-peptide complexes, was determined directly by measuring the decrease in fluorescence of the peptide solution. Experimental procedures were as sensitive as those used to follow the fluorescence change of tryptophan in heparin-binding proteins. The conformation of the peptides and the heparin-peptide complexes were obtained from measurements of time-resolved fluorescence decay and CD spectra. Kallistatin (Arg(300)-Pro(319))-derived peptide (HC2) and one derived from antithrombin III helix D [(AT3D), corresponding to Ser(112)-Lys(139)], which are the heparin-binding sites in these serpins, showed significant affinity for 4500 Da heparin, for which K(d) values were 17 nM and 100 nM respectively. The CD spectra of the heparin-HC2 peptide complex did not show any significant alpha-helix content, different from the situation with peptide AT3D, for which complex-formation with heparin resulted in 24% alpha-helix content. The end-to-end distance distribution and the time-resolved fluorescence-decay measurements agree with the CD spectra and K(d) values. The synthetic alpha-methyl glycoside pentasaccharide AGA*IA(M) (where A represents N,6-O-sulphated alpha-d-glucosamine; G, beta-d-glucuronic acid; A*, N,3,6-O-sulphated alpha-d-glucosamine; I, 2-O-sulphated alpha-l-iduronic acid; and A(M), alpha-methyl glycoside of A) also binds to AT3D and other consensus heparin-binding sequences, although with lower affinity. The interaction of IQF peptides with 4500 Da heparin was displaced by protamine. In conclusion, IQF peptides containing Abz/EDDnp as the

  11. Interaction of heparin with internally quenched fluorogenic peptides derived from heparin-binding consensus sequences, kallistatin and anti-thrombin III.

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Daniel C; Nantes, Iseli L; de Souza, Eduardo S; Le Bonniec, Bernard; Ito, Amando S; Tersariol, Ivarne L S; Oliveira, Vitor; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    Internally quenched fluorogenic (IQF) peptides bearing the fluorescence donor/acceptor pair o-aminobenzoic acid (Abz)/N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)ethylenediamine (EDDnp) at N- and C-terminal ends were synthesized containing heparin-binding sites from the human serpins kallistatin and antithrombin, as well as consensus heparin-binding sequences (Cardin clusters). The dissociation constant (K(d)), as well as the stoichiometry for the heparin-peptide complexes, was determined directly by measuring the decrease in fluorescence of the peptide solution. Experimental procedures were as sensitive as those used to follow the fluorescence change of tryptophan in heparin-binding proteins. The conformation of the peptides and the heparin-peptide complexes were obtained from measurements of time-resolved fluorescence decay and CD spectra. Kallistatin (Arg(300)-Pro(319))-derived peptide (HC2) and one derived from antithrombin III helix D [(AT3D), corresponding to Ser(112)-Lys(139)], which are the heparin-binding sites in these serpins, showed significant affinity for 4500 Da heparin, for which K(d) values were 17 nM and 100 nM respectively. The CD spectra of the heparin-HC2 peptide complex did not show any significant alpha-helix content, different from the situation with peptide AT3D, for which complex-formation with heparin resulted in 24% alpha-helix content. The end-to-end distance distribution and the time-resolved fluorescence-decay measurements agree with the CD spectra and K(d) values. The synthetic alpha-methyl glycoside pentasaccharide AGA*IA(M) (where A represents N,6-O-sulphated alpha-d-glucosamine; G, beta-d-glucuronic acid; A*, N,3,6-O-sulphated alpha-d-glucosamine; I, 2-O-sulphated alpha-l-iduronic acid; and A(M), alpha-methyl glycoside of A) also binds to AT3D and other consensus heparin-binding sequences, although with lower affinity. The interaction of IQF peptides with 4500 Da heparin was displaced by protamine. In conclusion, IQF peptides containing Abz/EDDnp as the

  12. A non-canonical peptide synthetase adenylates 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid for auriculamide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Daniel; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Auriculamide is the first natural product known from the predatory bacterium Herpetosiphon aurantiacus. It is composed of three unusual building blocks, including the non-proteinogenic amino acid 3-chloro-L-tyrosine, the α-hydroxy acid L-isoleucic acid, and a methylmalonyl-CoA-derived ethane unit. A candidate genetic locus for auriculamide biosynthesis was identified and encodes four enzymes. Among them, the non-canonical 199 kDa four-domain nonribosomal peptide synthetase, AulA, is extraordinary in that it features two consecutive adenylation domains. Here, we describe the functional characterization of the recombinantly produced AulA. The observed activation of 3-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid by the enzyme supports the hypothesis that it participates in the biosynthesis of auriculamide. An artificially truncated version of AulA that lacks the first adenylation domain activated this substrate like the full-length enzyme which shows that the first adenylation domain is dispensable. Additionally, we provide evidence that the enzyme tolerates structural variation of the substrate. α-Carbon substituents significantly affected the substrate turnover. While all tested aliphatic α-keto acids were accepted by the enzyme and minor differences in chain size and branches did not interfere with the enzymatic activity, molecules with methylene α-carbons led to low turnover. Such enzymatic plasticity is an important attribute to help in the perpetual search for novel molecules and to access a greater structural diversity by mutasynthesis. PMID:28144348

  13. Investigation on enantiomeric separations of fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl amino acids and peptides by high-performance liquid chromatography using native cyclodextrins as chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Zukowski, J; Armstrong, D W

    1996-09-06

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate enantiomeric separations of fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (FMOC) amino acids and their peptides. Twenty amino acids were derivatized by 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) and its analogues, FMOC-glycyl-Cl and FMOC-beta-alanyl-Cl. All derivatives were chromatographed on native beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin columns using acetonitrile as the main mobile phase component. The results indicated that glycyl and beta-alanyl groups between FMOC and amino acid moieties enhanced chiral selectivities of amino acid derivatives. The addition of modifiers, triethylamine, acetic acid and methanol, into the mobile phase caused alterations in retention, enantiorecognition and elution order. The structures of amino acids and the type of chiral stationary phase employed exhibited significant impacts on chiral resolutions. It is also found that the number and position of glycyl moieties affect the retentions and enantioselectivities of FMOC derivatized glycyl containing peptides.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10039 - Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic acid derivative, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10039 Section... Substances § 721.10039 Diethoxybenzenamine derivative, diazotized, coupled with aminonaphthalenesulfonic...

  19. Antiprion properties of prion protein-derived cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Kajsa; Wahlström, Anna; Lundberg, Pontus; Langel, Ulo; Gräslund, Astrid; Bedecs, Katarina

    2008-07-01

    In prion diseases, the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) becomes misfolded into the pathogenic scrapie isoform (PrP(Sc)) responsible for prion infectivity. We show here that peptides derived from the prion protein N terminus have potent antiprion effects. These peptides are composed of a hydrophobic sequence followed by a basic segment. They are known to have cell-penetrating ability like regular cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), short peptides that can penetrate cellular membranes. Healthy (GT1-1) and scrapie-infected (ScGT1-1) mouse neuronal hypothalamic cells were treated with various CPPs, including the prion protein-derived CPPs. Lysates were analyzed for altered protein levels of PrP(C) or PrP(Sc). Treatment with the prion protein-derived CPPs mouse mPrP(1-28) or bovine bPrP(1-30) significantly reduced PrP(Sc) levels in prion-infected cells but had no effect on PrP(C) levels in noninfected cells. Further, presence of prion protein-derived CPPs significantly prolonged the time before infection was manifested when infecting GT1-1 cells with scrapie. Treatment with other CPPs (penetratin, transportan-10, or poly-L-arginine) or prion protein-derived peptides lacking CPP function (mPrP(23-28,) mPrP(19-30,) or mPrP(23-50)) had no effect on PrP(Sc) levels. The results suggest a mechanism by which the signal sequence guides the prion protein-derived CPP into a cellular compartment, where the basic segment binds specifically to PrP(Sc) and disables formation of prions.

  20. Phospholipid conjugate for intracellular delivery of peptide nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Gang; Fang, Huafeng; Song, Yinyin; Bielska, Agata A.; Wang, Zhenghui; Taylor, John-Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have a number of attractive features that have made them an ideal choice for antisense and antigene-based tools, probes and drugs, but their poor membrane permeability has limited their application as therapeutic or diagnostic agents. Herein we report a general method for the synthesis of phospholipid-PNAs (LP-PNAs), and compare the effect of non-cleavable lipids and bioreductively cleavable lipids (L and LSS) and phospholipid (LP) on the splice-correcting bioactivity of a PNA bearing the cell penetrating Arg9 group (PNA-R9). While the three constructs show similar and increasing bioactivity at 1–3 μM, the activity of LP-PNA-R9 continues to increase from 4–6 μM while the activity of L-PNA-R9 remains constant and LSS-PNA-R9 decreases rapidly in parallel with their relative cytotoxicity. The activity of both LP-PNA-R9 and L-PNA-R9 were found to dramatically increase with chloroquine, as expected for an endocytotic entry mechanism. Both constructs were also found to have CMC values of 1.0 and 4.5 μM in 150 mM NaCl, pH 7 water, suggesting that micelle formation may play a hitherto unrecognized role in modulating toxicity and/or facilitating endocytosis. PMID:19678628

  1. Antidepressant-like effect of food-derived pyroglutamyl peptides in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yukako; Mizushige, Takafumi; Mori, Yukiha; Shimmura, Yuki; Fukutomi, Ruuta; Kanamoto, Ryuhei; Ohinata, Kousaku

    2015-06-01

    The N-terminal glutamine residue, exposed by enzymatic cleavage of precursor proteins, is known to be modified to a pyroglutamyl residue with a cyclic structure in not only endogenous but also food-derived peptides. We investigated the effects of wheat-derived pyroglutamyl peptides on emotional behaviors. Pyroglutamyl leucine (pyroGlu-Leu, pEL) and pyroglutamyl glutaminyl leucine (pyroGlu-Gln-Leu, pEQL) exhibited antidepressant-like activity in the tail suspension and forced swim tests in mice. pEQL exhibited more potent antidepressant-like activity than pEL after i.p. and i.c.v. administration. pEQL exhibited antidepressant-like activity at a lower dose than Gln-Gln-Leu, suggesting that pyroglutamyl peptide had more potent activity. To examine whether pyroglutamyl peptides increased hippocampus neurogenesis, associated with the effects of antidepressants, we measured 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. pEL and pEQL increased BrdU-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Intriguingly, pEL did not increase hippocampal mRNA and protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a factor associated with both neuropoietic and antidepressive effects. Thus, pyroglutamyl peptides may enhance hippocampal neurogenesis via a pathway independent of BDNF. We also confirmed that pEL and pEQL were produced in the subtilisin digest of major wheat proteins, glutenin and gliadin, after heat treatment. pEL and pEQL are the first peptides derived from wheat proteins to be shown to exhibit an antidepressant-like activity.

  2. Enhanced immunogenicity of a sequence derived from hepatitis B virus surface antigen in a composite peptide that includes the immunostimulatory region from human interleukin 1.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K V; Nayak, A R

    1990-01-01

    The effect on immunogenicity of coupling the immunostimulatory nonapeptide sequence (residues 163-171) from human interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) to a small immunogen was examined. A 21-amino acid sequence spanning positions 12-32 on the large protein of hepatitis B surface antigen was chosen as a model. Three peptides were synthesized corresponding to the IL-1 beta-derived sequence [peptide IL-(163-171)], the hepatitis B surface antigen-derived sequence [peptide S1-(12-32)] and a composite peptide that included both these sequences separated by a spacer of two glycine residues [peptide S1-(12-32)-IL-(163-171)]. In an in vitro thymocyte proliferation assay, both peptides S1-(12-32)-IL-(163-171) and IL-(163-171) showed comparable activity, whereas peptide S1-(12-32) was inactive. Groups of five to seven mice each from C3H/CH, BALB/c, SJL/J, and C57BL/6 strains were immunized with equimolar amounts of either peptide S1-(12-32), peptide S1-(12-32)-IL-(163-171), or a mixture of peptides S1-(12-32) and IL-(163-171), and sera were screened for anti-S1-(12-32) antibodies. In all strains, peptide S1-(12-32)-IL-(163-171) elicited an increased primary and secondary anti-S1-(12-32) antibody response compared to the other two groups. Further, peptide S1-(12-32)-IL-(163-171) also induced an increased number of responders to primary immunization, though the number of responders was quantitative in all groups following secondary immunization. At least part of the enhanced immunogenicity of the S1-(12-32) sequence in peptide S1-(12-32)-IL-(163-171) appears to be due to augmented T-helper cell activity. These results suggest that coupling of the immunostimulatory IL-1 beta-derived sequence in tandem with an immunogen may confer inbuilt adjuvanticity. PMID:2371286

  3. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines

    PubMed Central

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the main nitrogen compounds produced by LAB are considered. Besides biogenic amines derived from the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ornithine, and glutamate by decarboxylation, interesting peptides can be decrypted by the proteolytic activity of LAB. LAB proteolytic system is very efficient in releasing encrypted molecules from several proteins present in different food matrices. Alpha and beta-caseins, albumin and globulin from milk and dairy products, rubisco from spinach, beta-conglycinin from soy and gluten from cereals constitute a good source of important bioactive compounds. These encrypted peptides are able to control nutrition (mineral absorption and oxidative stress protection), metabolism (blood glucose and cholesterol lowering) cardiovascular function (antithrombotic and hypotensive action), infection (microbial inhibition and immunomodulation) and gut-brain axis (opioids and anti-opioids controlling mood and food intake). Very recent results underline the role of food-encrypted peptides in protein folding (chaperone-like molecules) as well as in cell cycle and apoptosis control, suggesting new and positive aspects of fermented food, still unexplored. In this context, the detailed (transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) characterization of LAB of food interest (as starters, biocontrol agents, nutraceuticals, and probiotics) can supply a solid evidence-based science to support beneficial effects and it is a promising approach as well to obtain

  4. Bioactive Molecules Released in Food by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Encrypted Peptides and Biogenic Amines.

    PubMed

    Pessione, Enrica; Cirrincione, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce a huge amount of bioactive compounds. Since their elective habitat is food, especially dairy but also vegetal food, it is frequent to find bioactive molecules in fermented products. Sometimes these compounds can have adverse effects on human health such as biogenic amines (tyramine and histamine), causing allergies, hypertensive crises, and headache. However, some LAB products also display benefits for the consumers. In the present review article, the main nitrogen compounds produced by LAB are considered. Besides biogenic amines derived from the amino acids tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ornithine, and glutamate by decarboxylation, interesting peptides can be decrypted by the proteolytic activity of LAB. LAB proteolytic system is very efficient in releasing encrypted molecules from several proteins present in different food matrices. Alpha and beta-caseins, albumin and globulin from milk and dairy products, rubisco from spinach, beta-conglycinin from soy and gluten from cereals constitute a good source of important bioactive compounds. These encrypted peptides are able to control nutrition (mineral absorption and oxidative stress protection), metabolism (blood glucose and cholesterol lowering) cardiovascular function (antithrombotic and hypotensive action), infection (microbial inhibition and immunomodulation) and gut-brain axis (opioids and anti-opioids controlling mood and food intake). Very recent results underline the role of food-encrypted peptides in protein folding (chaperone-like molecules) as well as in cell cycle and apoptosis control, suggesting new and positive aspects of fermented food, still unexplored. In this context, the detailed (transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic) characterization of LAB of food interest (as starters, biocontrol agents, nutraceuticals, and probiotics) can supply a solid evidence-based science to support beneficial effects and it is a promising approach as well to obtain

  5. Chebulin: Terminalia chebula Retz. fruit-derived peptide with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Sornwatana, Thakorn; Bangphoomi, Kunan; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Wetprasit, Nuanchawee; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Ratanapo, Sunanta

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. In this study, an ACE-hexapeptide inhibitor (Asp-Glu-Asn-Ser-Lys-Phe) designated as chebulin was produced from the fruit protein of Terminalia chebula Retz. by pepsin digestion, ultrafiltrated through a 3 KDa cut-off membrane, a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Chebulin was found to inhibit ACE in a noncompetitive manner, as supported by the structural model. It bounds to ACE by the hydrogen bond, hydrophobic and ionic interactions via the interactions of C-terminal Phe (Phe-6), and N-terminal residues (Asp-1 and Glu-2) with the amino acid residues on noncatalytic sites of the ACE. The results showed that chebulin derived from fruits of T. chebula Retz. is a potential ACE-peptide inhibitor that could be used as a functional food additive for the prevention of hypertension and as an alternative to ACE inhibitor drug.

  6. Elastin-Derived Peptides Are New Regulators of Insulin Resistance Development in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Blaise, Sébastien; Romier, Béatrice; Kawecki, Charlotte; Ghirardi, Maxime; Rabenoelina, Fanja; Baud, Stéphanie; Duca, Laurent; Maurice, Pascal; Heinz, Andrea; Schmelzer, Christian E.H.; Tarpin, Michel; Martiny, Laurent; Garbar, Christian; Dauchez, Manuel; Debelle, Laurent; Durlach, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Although it has long been established that the extracellular matrix acts as a mechanical support, its degradation products, which mainly accumulate during aging, have also been demonstrated to play an important role in cell physiology and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In the current study, we show that elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) may be involved in the development of insulin resistance (IRES) in mice. In chow-fed mice, acute or chronic intravenous injections of EDPs induced hyperglycemic effects associated with glucose uptake reduction and IRES in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Based on in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches, we propose that this IRES is due to interaction between the insulin receptor (IR) and the neuraminidase-1 subunit of the elastin receptor complex triggered by EDPs. This interplay was correlated with decreased sialic acid levels on the β-chain of the IR and reduction of IR signaling. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate that EDPs, which mainly accumulate with aging, may be involved in the insidious development of IRES. PMID:23919962

  7. Supramolecular control of self-assembling terthiophene-peptide conjugates through the amino acid side chain

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrman, Jessica A.; Cui, Honggang; Tsai, Wei-Wen; Moyer, Tyson J.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2013-07-30

    The self-assembly of oligothiophene–peptide conjugates can be directed through the systematic variation of the peptide sequence into different nanostructures, including flat spicules, nanotubes, spiral sheets, and giant, flat sheets. Furthermore, the assembly of these molecules is not controlled by steric interactions between the amino acid side chains.

  8. Conformational characterization of the 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid residue in model peptides.

    PubMed

    Gatos, M; Formaggio, F; Crisma, M; Toniolo, C; Bonora, G M; Benedetti, Z; Di Blasio, B; Iacovino, R; Santini, A; Saviano, M; Kamphuis, J

    1997-01-01

    A series of N- and C-protected, monodispersed homo-oligopeptides (to the dodecamer level) from the small-ring alicyclic C alpha, alpha-dialkylated glycine 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (Ac4c) and two Ala/Ac4c tripeptides were synthesized by solution methods and fully characterized. The conformational preferences of all the model peptides were determined in deuterochloroform solution by FT-IR absorption and 1H-NMR. The molecular structures of the amino acid derivatives Z-Ac4c-OH and Z2-Ac4c-OH, the tripeptides Z-(Ac4c)3-OtBu, Z-Ac4c-(L-Ala)2-OMe and Z-L-Ala-Ac4c-L-Ala-OMe, and the tetrapeptide Z-(Ac4c)4-OtBu were determined in the crystal state by X-ray diffraction. The average geometry of the cyclobutyl moiety of the Ac4c residue was assessed and the tau(N-C alpha-C') bond angle was found to be significantly expanded from the regular tetrahedral value. The conformational data are strongly in favour of the conclusion that the Ac4c residue is an effective beta-turn and helix former. A comparison with the structural propensities of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, the prototype of C alpha, alpha-dialkylated glycines, and the other extensively investigated members of the family of 1-aminocycloalkane-1-carboxylic acids (Acnc, with n = 3, 5-8) is made and the implications for the use of the Ac4c residue in conformationally constrained peptide analogues are briefly examined.

  9. Quantification of hydroxyl radical-derived oxidation products in peptides containing glycine, alanine, valine, and proline.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Philip E; Pattison, David I; Davies, Michael J

    2012-01-15

    Proteins are a major target for oxidation due to their abundance and high reactivity. Despite extensive investigation over many years, only limited quantitative data exist on the contributions of different pathways to the oxidation of peptides and proteins. This study was designed to obtain quantitative data on the nature and yields of oxidation products (alcohols, carbonyls, hydroperoxides, fragment species) formed by a prototypic oxidant system (HO(•)/O(2)) on small peptides of limited, but known, amino acid composition. Peptides composed of Gly, Ala, Val, and Pro were examined with particular emphasis on the peptide Val-Gly-Val-Ala-Pro-Gly, a repeat motif in elastin with chemotactic activity and metalloproteinase regulation properties. The data obtained indicate that hydroperoxide formation occurs nonrandomly (Pro > Val > Ala > Gly) with this inversely related to carbonyl yields (both peptide-bound and released). Multiple alcohols are generated at both side-chain and backbone sites. Backbone fragmentation has been characterized at multiple positions, with sites adjacent to Pro residues being of major importance. Summation of the product concentrations provides clear evidence for the occurrence of chain reactions in peptides exposed to HO(•)/O(2), with the overall product yields exceeding that of the initial HO(•) generated.

  10. Structurally novel highly potent proteasome inhibitors created by the structure-based hybridization of nonpeptidic belactosin derivatives and peptide boronates.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Unno, Yuka; Asai, Akira; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Shuto, Satoshi

    2014-03-27

    We previously developed highly potent proteasome inhibitor 1 (IC50 = 5.7 nM) and its nonpeptide derivative 2 (IC50 = 29 nM) by systematic structure-activity relationship studies of the peptidic natural product belactosin A and subsequent rational topology-based scaffold hopping, respectively. Their cell growth inhibitory activities, however, were only moderate (IC50 = 1.8 μM (1) and >10 μM (2)). We therefore planned to replace the unstable β-lactone warhead with a more stable boronic acid warhead. Importantly, belactosin derivatives bind mainly to the proteasome binding site, which is different from that occupied by known peptide boronate proteasome inhibitors such as bortezomib, suggesting that their hybridization might lead to the development of novel potent inhibitors. Here we describe design, synthesis, and biological activities of the newly developed potent hybrid proteasome inhibitors. Interestingly, these hybrids, unlike bortezomib, were highly selective for proteasomes and have long residence times despite having the same boronic acid warhead.

  11. Proglucagon-Derived Peptides Do Not Significantly Affect Acute Exocrine Pancreas in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akalestou, Elina; Christakis, Ioannis; Solomou, Antonia M.; Minnion, James S.; Rutter, Guy A.; Bloom, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reports have suggested a link between treatment with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues and an increased risk of pancreatitis. Oxyntomodulin, a dual agonist of both GLP-1 and glucagon receptors, is currently being investigated as a potential anti-obesity therapy, but little is known about its pancreatic safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of oxyntomodulin and other proglucagon-derived peptides on the rat exocrine pancreas. Methods GLP-1, oxyntomodulin, glucagon and exendin-4 were infused into anaesthetised rats to measure plasma amylase concentration changes. Additionally, the effect of each peptide on both amylase release and proliferation in rat pancreatic acinar (AR42J) and primary isolated ductal cells was determined. Results Plasma amylase did not increase post peptide infusion, compared to vehicle and cholecystokinin (CCK); however, oxyntomodulin inhibited plasma amylase when co-administered with CCK. None of the peptides caused a significant increase in proliferation rate or amylase secretion from acinar and ductal cells. Conclusions The investigated peptides do not have an acute effect on the exocrine pancreas with regard to proliferation and plasma amylase, when administered individually. Oxyntomodulin appears to be a potent inhibitor of amylase release, potentially making it a safer anti-obesity agent regarding pancreatitis, compared to GLP-1 agonists. PMID:26731187

  12. Synthesis and characterization of designed BMHP1-derived self-assembling peptides for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Diego; Natalello, Antonino; Sanii, Babak; Vasita, Rajesh; Saracino, Gloria; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Doglia, Silvia Maria; Gelain, Fabrizio

    2012-12-01

    The importance of self-assembling peptides (SAPs) in regenerative medicine is becoming increasingly recognized. The propensity of SAPs to form nanostructured fibers is governed by multiple forces including hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions and π-π aromatic interactions among side chains of the amino acids. Single residue modifications in SAP sequences can significantly affect these forces. BMHP1-derived SAPs is a class of biotinylated oligopeptides, which self-assemble in β-structured fibers to form a self-healing hydrogel. In the current study, selected modifications in previously described BMHP1-derived SAPs were designed in order to investigate the influence of modified residues on self-assembly kinetics and scaffold formation properties. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis demonstrated the secondary structure (β-sheet) formation in all modified SAP sequences, whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis further confirmed the presence of nanofibers. Furthermore, the fiber shape and dimension analysis by AFM showed flattened and twisted fiber morphology ranging from ~8 nm to ~70 nm. The mechanical properties of the pre-assembled and post assembled solution were investigated by rheometry. The shear-thinning behavior and rapid re-healing properties of the pre-assembled solutions make them a preferable choice for injectable scaffolds. The wide range of stiffnesses (G') -from ~1000 to ~27 000 Pa - exhibited by the post-assembled scaffolds demonstrated their potential for a variety of tissue engineering applications. The extra cellular matrix (ECM) mimicking (physically and chemically) properties of SAP scaffolds enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. The capability of the scaffold to facilitate murine neural stem cell (mNSC) proliferation was evaluated in vitro: the increased mNSCs adhesion and proliferation demonstrated the potential of newly synthesized SAPs for regenerative medicine approaches

  13. Monoterpene-based chiral β-amino acid derivatives prepared from natural sources: syntheses and applications.

    PubMed

    Szakonyi, Zsolt; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2011-08-01

    Natural monoterpenes have proved to be good starting materials for the synthesis of β-amino acid derivatives. In the past decade, a number of well-known synthetic procedures have been applied for the preparation of monoterpene-based β-amino acid derivatives, e.g. from β-lactams via the 1,2-dipolar cycloaddition of chlorosulfonyl isocyanate to commercial or readily available monoterpenes [e.g. (+)- and (-)-α- or δ-pinene, (+)-3- and 2-carene, (+)- and (-)-apopinene], the conjugate addition of amides to monoterpene-based α,β-unsaturated esters or the transformations of (-)-cis-pinonoic acid prepared by the oxidative cleavage of (+)- and (-)-verbenone. β-Amino acid derivatives are excellent building blocks for versatile transformations, e.g. multicomponent reactions resulting in β-lactams, syntheses of 1,3-heterocycles and diaminopyrimidine derivatives or the formation of peptides containing an H12 helix. 1,3-Amino alcohol derivatives prepared from β-amino esters have been applied as chiral catalysts in enantioselective transformations. Several of these compounds are of noteworthy pharmacological importance, such as tyrosine kinase Axl inhibitor diaminopyrimidine-coupled β-aminocarboxamides, MDR inhibitor thiourea derivatives of β-amino esters or 2-imino-1,3-oxazines, which exhibit marked growth inhibitory activity on multiple cancer cell lines. The present review summarizes recent developments relating to the syntheses, applications and pharmaceutical importance of monoterpene-based β-amino acids and their derivatives.

  14. Ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes using HER2 targeted peptide-lipid derivatives for targeted delivery in breast cancer cells: The effect of serine-glycine repeated peptides as a spacer.

    PubMed

    Suga, Tadaharu; Fuchigami, Yuki; Hagimori, Masayori; Kawakami, Shigeru

    2017-02-22

    Ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes have been widely studied for targeted drug delivery systems. Because ligand peptides are commonly grafted using PEG as a spacer on the surface of PEGylated liposomes, the interaction between ligand peptides and their corresponding receptors can be interrupted by steric hindrance of the PEG layer. Therefore, we aimed to develop ligand peptide-lipid derivatives to enhance the targeting efficiency of ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes, and designed a new ligand peptide-lipid derivatives having serine-glycine repeats (SG)n as a spacer based on the peptide length calculated by PyMol (v0.99). We selected KCCYSL (KCC) as the ligand peptide for binding to human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). We synthesized new KCC-(SG)n-lipid derivatives (n=3, 5, 7) and evaluated their cellular association in breast cancer cells. KCC-(SG)n/PEGylated liposomes dramatically increased cellular association on HER2-positive breast cancer cells. The results suggest that KCC can be grafted on the surface of KCC-(SG)n/PEGylated liposomes prepared from KCC-(SG)n-lipid derivatives (n=3, 5, 7). In summary, we succeeded in developing KCC-(SG)n-lipid derivatives for the preparation of ligand peptide-grafted PEGylated liposomes.

  15. Antiviral Activity of the Human Cathelicidin, LL-37, and Derived Peptides on Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Shweta; Wang, Guangshun; White, Mitchell; Qi, Li; Taubenberger, Jeffery; Hartshorn, Kevan L.

    2015-01-01

    Human LL-37, a cationic antimicrobial peptide, was recently shown to have antiviral activity against influenza A virus (IAV) strains in vitro and in vivo. In this study we compared the anti-influenza activity of LL-37 with that of several fragments derived from LL-37. We first tested the peptides against a seasonal H3N2 strain and the mouse adapted H1N1 strain, PR-8. The N-terminal fragment, LL-23, had slight neutralizing activity against these strains. In LL-23V9 serine 9 is substituted by valine creating a continuous hydrophobic surface. LL-23V9 has been shown to have increased anti-bacterial activity compared to LL-23 and we now show slightly increased antiviral activity compared to LL-23 as well. The short central fragments, FK-13 and KR-12, which have anti-bacterial activity did not inhibit IAV. In contrast, a longer 20 amino acid central fragment of LL-37 (GI-20) had neutralizing activity similar to LL-37. None of the peptides inhibited viral hemagglutination or neuraminidase activity. We next tested activity of the peptides against a strain of pandemic H1N1 of 2009 (A/California/04/09/H1N1 or “Cal09”). Unexpectedly, LL-37 had markedly reduced activity against Cal09 using several cell types and assays of antiviral activity. A mutant viral strain containing just the hemagglutinin (HA) of 2009 pandemic H1N1 was inhibited by LL-37, suggested that genes other than the HA are involved in the resistance of pH1N1. In contrast, GI-20 did inhibit Cal09. In conclusion, the central helix of LL-37 incorporated in GI-20 appears to be required for optimal antiviral activity. The finding that GI-20 inhibits Cal09 suggests that it may be possible to engineer derivatives of LL-37 with improved antiviral properties. PMID:25909853

  16. Cyclic Sulfamidate Enabled Syntheses of Amino Acids, Peptides, Carbohydrates, and Natural Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article reviews the emergence of cyclic sulfamidates as versatile intermediatesfor the synthesis of unnatural amino acids, chalcogen peptides, modified sugars, drugs and drug candidates, and important natural products.

  17. Peptide nucleic acid probe for protein affinity purification based on biotin-streptavidin interaction and peptide nucleic acid strand hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tse, Jenny; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zengeya, Thomas; Rozners, Eriks; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new method for protein affinity purification that capitalizes on the high affinity of streptavidin for biotin but does not require dissociation of the biotin-streptavidin complex for protein retrieval. Conventional reagents place both the selectively reacting group (the "warhead") and the biotin on the same molecule. We place the warhead and the biotin on separate molecules, each linked to a short strand of peptide nucleic acid (PNA), synthetic polymers that use the same bases as DNA but attached to a backbone that is resistant to attack by proteases and nucleases. As in DNA, PNA strands with complementary base sequences hybridize. In conditions that favor PNA duplex formation, the warhead strand (carrying the tagged protein) and the biotin strand form a complex that is held onto immobilized streptavidin. As in DNA, the PNA duplex dissociates at moderately elevated temperature; therefore, retrieval of the tagged protein is accomplished by a brief exposure to heat. Using iodoacetate as the warhead, 8-base PNA strands, biotin, and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, we demonstrate retrieval of the cysteine protease papain. We were also able to use our iodoacetyl-PNA:PNA-biotin probe for retrieval and identification of a thiol reductase and a glutathione transferase from soybean seedling cotyledons.

  18. New tris-alkoxycarbonyl arginine derivatives for peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Izdebski, Jan; Gers, Tomasz; Kunce, Danuta; Markowski, Paweł

    2005-01-01

    alpha-Alkoxycarbonyl protected ornithines were treated with N,N'-[Z(2Cl)](2)-S-methylisothiourea and N,N'-[Z(2Br)](2)-S-methylisothiourea, N,N'-Z(2)-S-methylisothiourea and N,N'-Boc(2)-S-methylisothiourea to form N(alpha, omega, omega')-tris-alkoxycarbonyl arginines. Two of them, Boc-Arg-{omega,omega'-[Z(2Br)](2)}-OH and Boc-Arg-{omega,omega'-[Z(2Cl)](2)}-OH, were used for the synthesis of dermorphin fragments containing two or three arginine residues. Examination of the products by HPLC and ESI-MS revealed that the purity of the materials obtained with the use of the new derivatives was higher than that obtained in concurrent syntheses in which Boc-Arg(Tos) was used.

  19. Membrane-disruptive properties of the bioinsecticide Jaburetox-2Ec: implications to the mechanism of the action of insecticidal peptides derived from ureases.

    PubMed

    Barros, Pedro R; Stassen, Hubert; Freitas, Mônica S; Carlini, Célia R; Nascimento, Marco A C; Follmer, Cristian

    2009-12-01

    Jaburetox-2Ec, a recombinant peptide derived from an urease isoform (JBURE-II), displays high insecticidal activity against important pests such as Spodoptera frugiperda and Dysdercus peruvianus. Although the molecular mechanism of action of ureases-derived peptides remains unclear, previous ab initio data suggest the presence of structural motifs in Jaburetox-2Ec with characteristics similar to those found in a class of pore-forming peptides. Here, we investigated the molecular aspects of the interaction between Jaburetox-2Ec and large unilamellar vesicles. Jaburetox-2Ec displays membrane-disruptive ability on acidic lipid bilayers and this effect is greatly influenced by peptide aggregation. Corroborating with this finding, molecular modeling studies revealed that Jaburetox-2Ec might adopt a well-defined beta-hairpin conformation similar to those found in antimicrobial peptides with membrane disruption properties. In addition, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the protein is able to anchor at a polar/non-polar interface. In the light of these findings, for the first time it was possible to point out some evidence that the peptide Jaburetox-2Ec interacting with lipid vesicles promotes membrane permeabilization.

  20. Systematic studies of the mass spectrometric properties of alkaline earth metal cationized amino acids and peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küjckelmann, Ulrich; Müller, Dietrich; Weber, Carsten

    1997-07-01

    The results of a systematic study of the gas phase interactions of α-amino acids and peptides (4-15 amino acids) with alkaline earth metals, observed with mass spectrometric techniques, are presented. Furthermore, a model for the cationization with calcium at the C-terminal amino acid arginine in rotaviral polypeptides is presented.

  1. [A new SVRDF 3D-descriptor of amino acids and its application to peptide quantitative structure activity relationship].

    PubMed

    Tong, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Sheng-Wan; Cheng, Su-Li; Li, Gai-Xian

    2007-01-01

    To establish a new amino acid structure descriptor that can be applied to polypeptide quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies, a new descriptor, SVRDF, was derived from a principal components analysis of a matrix of 150 radial distribution function index of amino acids. The scale was then applied in three panels of peptide QSAR that were molded by partial least squares regression. The obtained models with the correlation coefficients (R2(cum)), cross-validation correlation coefficients (Q2(cum)) were 0.766 and 0.724 for 48 bitter tasting dipeptides; 0.941 and 0.811 for 21 oxytocin analogues; 0.996 and 0.919 for 20 thromboplastin inhibitors. Satisfactory results showed that information related to biological activity can be systemically expressed by SVRDF scales, which may be an useful structural expression methodology for the study of peptides QSAR.

  2. Hemopressin: a novel bioactive peptide derived from the alpha1-chain of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Dale, Camila Squarzoni; Pagano, Rosana de Lima; Rioli, Vanessa

    2005-03-01

    Hemopressin (PVNFKFLSH), a novel bioactive peptide derived from the alpha1-chain of hemoglobin, was originally isolated from rat brain homogenates. Hemopressin causes hypotension in anesthetized rats and is metabolized in vivo and in vitro by endopeptidase 24.15 (EP24.15), neurolysin (EP24.16), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Hemopressin also exerts an antinociceptive action in experimental inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by carrageenin or bradykinin via a mechanism that is independent of opioids. These findings suggest that this peptide may have important regulatory physiological actions in vivo.

  3. PEDF-derived peptide inhibits corneal angiogenesis by suppressing VEGF expression.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takanori; Nishino, Yuri; Maeda, Sayaka; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-07-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a glycoprotein that belongs to the superfamily of serine protease inhibitors, has been recently shown to be the most potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in the mammalian eye. However, which active domain of PEDF protein could be involved in its anti-angiogenic properties remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, we examined which PEDF-derived synthetic peptides could inhibit corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization in vivo. Rats treated with topical application of PEDF protein had 31% less corneal neovascularization at day 7 after the injury than phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated rats. P5-2 and P5-3 peptides (residues 388-393 and 394-400 of PEDF protein, respectively) significantly suppressed the corneal neovascularization after chemical cauterization at day 7, and its anti-angiogenic potential was almost equal to that of full-length PEDF protein. Further, full-length PEDF protein and P5-3 peptide significantly decreased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in the corneal. Our present study suggests that PEDF-derived synthetic peptide, P5-3 could inhibit the corneal neovascularization induced by chemical cauterization in rats by suppressing VEGF expression via its anti-oxidative properties.

  4. Efficacy of peptide nucleic acid and selected conjugates against specific cellular pathologies of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Browne, Elisse C; Parakh, Sonam; Duncan, Luke F; Langford, Steven J; Atkin, Julie D; Abbott, Belinda M

    2016-04-01

    Cellular studies have been undertaken on a nonamer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) sequence, which binds to mRNA encoding superoxide dismutase 1, and a series of peptide nucleic acids conjugated to synthetic lipophilic vitamin analogs including a recently prepared menadione (vitamin K) analog. Reduction of both mutant superoxide dismutase 1 inclusion formation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, two of the key cellular pathological hallmarks in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, by two of the prepared PNA oligomers is reported for the first time.

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides Containing Unnatural Amino Acid Exhibit Potent Bactericidal Activity against ESKAPE Pathogens

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides containing unnatural amino acid exhibit potent bactericidal activity against ESKAPE pathogens R. P. Hicks a, J. J. Abercrombie...tic classes, membrane-disruptors and non -membrane-disrup- tors.30,31 Five different mechanisms have been proposed at one time or another to explain...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Antimicrobial Peptides Containing Unnatural Amino Acid Exhibit Potent Bactericidal Activity Against

  6. Simultaneous separation of acid and basic bioactive peptides by electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Jean-François; Amiot, Jean; Bazinet, Laurent

    2006-05-29

    beta-Lactoglobulin (beta-lg), one of the major whey components, can release by enzymatic hydrolysis different bioactive peptidic sequences according to the enzyme used. However, these protein hydrolysates have to be fractionated to obtain peptides in a more purified form. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of separating peptides from a beta-lg hydrolysate using an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane stacked in an electrodialysis (ED) cell and to study the effect of pH on the migration of basic/cationic and acid/anionic peptides in the ED configuration. Electrodialysis with ultrafiltration membrane (EDUF) appeared to be a selective method of separation since amongst a total of 40 peptides in the raw hydrolysate, only 13 were recovered in the separated adjacent solutions (KCl 1 and KCl 2). Amongst these 13 migrating peptides, 3 acid/anionic peptides migrated only in one compartment (KCl 1), while 3 basic/cationic peptides migrated only in the second compartment (KCl 2) and that whatever the pH conditions of the hydrolysate solution. Furthermore, the highest migration was obtained for the ACE-inhibitory peptide beta-lg 142-148, with a value of 10.75%. The integrity of the UF membrane was kept and EDUF would minimize the fouling of UF membrane.

  7. Caffeic acid derivatives in the roots of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Makiko; Yan, Xiaojun; Ono, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Nagata, Tadahiro; Nakanishi, Tateo

    2003-01-29

    Five caffeic acid derivatives were found in the roots of yacon, Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. and Endl.) H. Robinson, Asteraceae, as the major water-soluble phenolic compounds. The structures of these compounds were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. Two of these were chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid) and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, common phenolic compounds in plants of the family Asteraceae. Three were esters of caffeic acid with the hydroxy groups of aldaric acid, derived from hexose. The structure of the aldaric moiety was determined by hydrolysis and comparison of NMR spectra with those of standard aldaric acids. The compounds were novel caffeic acid esters of altraric acid: 2,4- or 3,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, 2,5-dicaffeoylaltraric acid, and 2,3,5- or 2,4,5-tricaffeoylaltraric acid.

  8. CycloPs: generating virtual libraries of cyclized and constrained peptides including nonnatural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Fergal J; Verniere, Mélanie; Devocelle, Marc; Bernard, Elise; Shields, Denis C; Chubb, Anthony J

    2011-04-25

    We introduce CycloPs, software for the generation of virtual libraries of constrained peptides including natural and nonnatural commercially available amino acids. The software is written in the cross-platform Python programming language, and features include generating virtual libraries in one-dimensional SMILES and three-dimensional SDF formats, suitable for virtual screening. The stand-alone software is capable of filtering the virtual libraries using empirical measurements, including peptide synthesizability by standard peptide synthesis techniques, stability, and the druglike properties of the peptide. The software and accompanying Web interface is designed to enable the rapid generation of large, structurally diverse, synthesizable virtual libraries of constrained peptides quickly and conveniently, for use in virtual screening experiments. The stand-alone software, and the Web interface for evaluating these empirical properties of a single peptide, are available at http://bioware.ucd.ie .

  9. Acidity and metal (Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+) affinity of L-γ-carboxyglutamic acid and its peptide analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remko, Milan; Broer, Ria; Remková, Anna; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.

    2014-10-01

    Density functional theory methods with the B3LYP and B97D functionals with triple-zeta 6-311++G(d,p) basis set have been used to study the acidity, basicity and metal affinity of L-γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA) and its peptide derivative [2-acetylamino-3-(methylamino)-3-oxopropyl]malonic acid (AMD-GLA). The Gibbs interaction energies of the GLA2-…M2+ and AMD-GLA2-…M2+ (M = Mg, Ca, Zn) complexes show an increasing binding affinity in the order Ca2+ < Mg2+ < Zn2+ The transition metal Zn2+ is most effectively recognized by the dianions of GLA and AMD-GLA. Of the dianions studied the AMD-GLA dianion is the strongest Lewis base. Computations that include the effect of solvation showed that in water the relative stability of GLA2-…M2+ and AMD-GLA2-…M2+ ionic bonds is rapidly diminished. The computed interaction Gibbs energy in water is small and negative.

  10. Dissecting the Structure-Function Relationship of a Fungicidal Peptide Derived from the Constant Region of Human Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Ciociola, Tecla; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Magliani, Walter; Ferrari, Elena; Gatti, Rita; D'Adda, Tiziana; Spisni, Alberto; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic peptides encompassing sequences related to the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies or derived from their constant region (Fc peptides) were proven to exert differential antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and/or immunomodulatory activities in vitro and/or in vivo, regardless of the specificity and isotype of the parental antibody. Alanine substitution derivatives of these peptides exhibited unaltered, increased, or decreased candidacidal activities in vitro. The bioactive IgG-derived Fc N10K peptide (NQVSLTCLVK) spontaneously self-assembles, a feature previously recognized as relevant for the therapeutic activity of another antibody-derived peptide. We evaluated the contribution of each residue to the peptide self-assembling capability by circular-dichroism spectroscopy. The interaction of the N10K peptide and its derivatives with Candida albicans cells was studied by confocal, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The apoptosis and autophagy induction profiles in yeast cells treated with the peptides were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the therapeutic efficacy against candidal infection was studied in a Galleria mellonella model. Overall, the results indicate a critical role for some residues in the self-assembly process and a correlation of that capability with the candidacidal activities of the peptides in vitro and their therapeutic effects in vivo. PMID:26856836

  11. Antiprotozoal activity of betulinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Carmona, D B; Escalante-Erosa, F; García-Sosa, K; Ruiz-Pinell, G; Gutierrez-Yapu, D; Chan-Bacab, M J; Giménez-Turba, A; Peña-Rodríguez, L M

    2010-04-01

    Betulinic acid (1), isolated from the crude extract of the leaves of Pentalinon andrieuxii (Apocynaceae), together with betulinic acid acetate (2), betulonic acid (3), betulinic acid methyl ester (4), and betulin (5) were evaluated for their antiprotozoal activity. The results showed that modifying the C-3 position increases leishmanicidal activity while modification of the C-3 and C-28 positions decreases trypanocidal activity.

  12. In Vivo Detection of Human TRPV6-Rich Tumors with Anti-Cancer Peptides Derived from Soricidin

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Chris V.; DeBay, Drew; Ewart, H. Stephen; Gallant, Pamela; Gormley, Sean; Ilenchuk, T. Toney; Iqbal, Umar; Lutes, Tyler; Martina, Marzia; Mealing, Geoffrey; Merkley, Nadine; Sperker, Sandra; Moreno, Maria J.; Rice, Christopher; Syvitski, Raymond T.; Stewart, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Soricidin is a 54-amino acid peptide found in the paralytic venom of the northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda) and has been found to inhibit the transient receptor potential of vallinoid type 6 (TRPV6) calcium channels. We report that two shorter peptides, SOR-C13 and SOR-C27, derived from the C-terminus of soricidin, are high-affinity antagonists of human TRPV6 channels that are up-regulated in a number of cancers. Herein, we report molecular imaging methods that demonstrate the in vivo diagnostic potential of SOR-C13 and SOR-C27 to target tumor sites in mice bearing ovarian or prostate tumors. Our results suggest that these novel peptides may provide an avenue to deliver diagnostic and therapeutic reagents directly to TRPV6-rich tumors and, as such, have potential applications for a range of carcinomas including ovarian, breast, thyroid, prostate and colon, as well as certain leukemia's and lymphomas. PMID:23554944

  13. Osteoinductive Effects of Free and Immobilized Bone Forming Peptide-1 on Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianghui; Ge, Yanjun; Chen, Tong; Liu, Yunsong; Zhou, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Most synthetic polymeric materials currently used for bone tissue engineering lack specific signals through which cells can identify and interact with the surface, resulting in incompatibility and compromised osteogenic activity. Soluble inductive factors also have issues including a short half-live in vivo. Bone forming peptide-1 is a truncated peptide from the immature form of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) that displays higher osteogenic activity than full-length, mature BMP-7. In this study, we used a mussel-inspired immobilization strategy mediated by polymerization of dopamine to introduce recently discovered stimulators of bone forming peptide-1 (BFP-1) onto the surface of poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) substrate to form a biomaterial that overcomes these challenges. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), being abundant and easy accessible, were used to test the osteogenic activity of BFP-1 and the novel biomaterial. Under osteoinductive conditions, cells treated with both BFP-1 alone and BFP-1-coated biomaterials displayed elevated expression of the osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), and RUNX2. Furthermore, hASCs associated with poly-dopamine-assisted BFP-1-immobilized PLGA (pDA-BFP-1-PLGA) scaffolds promoted in vivo bone formation in nude mice. Our novel materials may hold great promise for future bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26930062

  14. New highly toxic bile acids derived from deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid.

    PubMed

    Májer, Ferenc; Sharma, Ruchika; Mullins, Claire; Keogh, Luke; Phipps, Sinead; Duggan, Shane; Kelleher, Dermot; Keely, Stephen; Long, Aideen; Radics, Gábor; Wang, Jun; Gilmer, John F

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared a new panel of 23 BA derivatives of DCA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) in order to study the effect of dual substitution with 3-azido and 24-amidation, features individually associated with cytotoxicity in our previous work. The effect of the compounds on cell viability of HT-1080 and Caco-2 was studied using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthizol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Compounds with high potency towards reduction of cell viability were further studied using flow cytometry in order to understand the mechanism of cell death. Several compounds were identified with low micromolar IC₅₀ values for reducing cell viability in the Caco-2 and HT1080 cell lines, making them among the most potent BA apoptotic agents reported to date. There was no evidence of relationship between overall hydrophobicity and cytotoxicity supporting the idea that cell death induction by BAs may be structure-specific. Compounds derived from DCA caused cell death through apoptosis. There was some evidence of selectivity between the two cell lines studied which may be due to differing expression of CD95/FAS. The more toxic compounds increased ROS production in Caco-2 cells, and co-incubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine blunted pro-apoptotic effects. The properties these compounds suggest that there may be specific mechanism(s) mediating BA induced cell death. Compound 8 could be useful for investigating this phenomenon.

  15. Analysis of the antimicrobial activities of a chemokine-derived peptide (CDAP-4) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Becerra, Francisco; Dominguez-Ramirez, Lenin; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Lopez-Vidal, Yolanda; Soldevila, Gloria . E-mail: garciaze@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-04-06

    Chemokines are key molecules involved in the control of leukocyte trafficking. Recently, a novel function as antimicrobial proteins has been described. CCL13 is the only member of the MCP chemokine subfamily displaying antimicrobial activity. To determine Key residues involved in its antimicrobial activity, CCL13 derived peptides were synthesized and tested against several bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. One of these peptides, corresponding to the C-terminal region of CCL13 (CDAP-4) displayed good antimicrobial activity. Electron microscopy studies revealed remarkable morphological changes after CDAP-4 treatment. By computer modeling, CDAP-4 in {alpha} helical configuration generated a positive electrostatic potential that extended beyond the surface of the molecule. This feature is similar to other antimicrobial peptides. Altogether, these findings indicate that the antimicrobial activity was displayed by CCL13 resides to some extent at the C-terminal region. Furthermore, CDAP-4 could be considered a good antimicrobial candidate with a potential use against pathogens including P. aeruginosa.

  16. Detection of DBD-carbamoyl amino acids in amino acid sequence and D/L configuration determination of peptides with fluorogenic Edman reagent 7-[(N,N-dimethylamino)sulfonyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Matsunaga, H; Toriba, A; Santa, T; Fukushima, T; Imai, K

    1999-06-01

    A method for amino acid sequence and D/L configuration identification of peptides by using fluorogenic Edman reagent 7-[(N, N-dimethylamino)sulfonyl]-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl isothiocyanate (DBD-NCS) has been developed. This method was based on the Edman degradation principle with some modifications. A peptide or protein was coupled with DBD-NCS under basic conditions and then cyclized/cleaved to produce DBD-thiazolinone (TZ) derivative by BF3, a Lewis acid, which could significantly suppress the amino acid racemization. The liberated DBD-TZ amino acid was hydrolyzed to DBD-thiocarbamoyl (TC) amino acid under a weakly acidic condition and then oxidized by NaNO2/H+ to DBD-carbamoyl (CA) amino acid which was a stable and had a strong fluorescence intensity. The individual DBD-CA amino acids were separated on a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) for amino acid sequencing and their enantiomers were resolved on a chiral stationary-phase HPLC for identifying their D/L configurations. Combination of the two HPLC systems, the amino acid sequence and D/L configuration of peptides could be determined. This method will be useful for searching D-amino-acid-containing peptides in animals.

  17. Synthesis of new kojic acid based unnatural α-amino acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, C; Payili, Nagaraju; Yennam, Satyanarayana; Devi, P Uma; Behera, Manoranjan

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method for the preparation of kojic acid based α-amino acid derivatives by alkylation of glycinate schiff base with bromokojic acids have been described. Using this method, mono as well as di alkylated kojic acid-amino acid conjugates have been prepared. This is the first synthesis of C-linked kojic acid-amino acid conjugate where kojic acid is directly linked to amino acid through a C-C bond.

  18. MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins.

    PubMed

    Koehbach, Johannes; Gruber, Christian W; Becker, Christian; Kreil, David P; Jilek, Alexander

    2016-05-06

    Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods.

  19. Killing of Mycobacterium avium by Lactoferricin Peptides: Improved Activity of Arginine- and d-Amino-Acid-Containing Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Tânia; Magalhães, Bárbara; Maia, Sílvia; Gomes, Paula; Nazmi, Kamran; Bolscher, Jan G. M.; Rodrigues, Pedro N.; Bastos, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes respiratory disease in susceptible individuals, as well as disseminated infections in immunocompromised hosts, being an important cause of morbidity and mortality among these populations. Current therapies consist of a combination of antibiotics taken for at least 6 months, with no more than 60% overall clinical success. Furthermore, mycobacterial antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, urging the need to develop novel classes of antimicrobial drugs. One potential and interesting alternative strategy is the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMP). These are present in almost all living organisms as part of their immune system, acting as a first barrier against invading pathogens. In this context, we investigated the effect of several lactoferrin-derived AMP against M. avium. Short peptide sequences from both human and bovine lactoferricins, namely, hLFcin1-11 and LFcin17-30, as well as variants obtained by specific amino acid substitutions, were evaluated. All tested peptides significantly inhibited the axenic growth of M. avium, the bovine peptides being more active than the human. Arginine residues were found to be crucial for the display of antimycobacterial activity, whereas the all-d-amino-acid analogue of the bovine sequence displayed the highest mycobactericidal activity. These findings reveal the promising potential of lactoferricins against mycobacteria, thus opening the way for further research on their development and use as a new weapon against mycobacterial infections. PMID:24709266

  20. MALDI TOF/TOF-Based Approach for the Identification of d- Amino Acids in Biologically Active Peptides and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Several biologically active peptides contain a d- amino acid in a well-defined position, which is position 2 in all peptide epimers isolated to date from vertebrates and also some from invertebrates. The detection of such D- residues by standard analytical techniques is challenging. In tandem mass spectrometric (MS) analysis, although fragment masses are the same for all stereoisomers, peak intensities are known to depend on chirality. Here, we observe that the effect of a d- amino acid in the second N-terminal position on the fragmentation pattern in matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) strongly depends on the peptide sequence. Stereosensitive fragmentation (SF) is correlated to a neighborhood effect, but the d- residue also exerts an overall effect influencing distant bonds. In a fingerprint analysis, multiple peaks can thus serve to identify the chirality of a sample in short time and potentially high throughput. Problematic variations between individual spots could be successfully suppressed by cospotting deuterated analogues of the epimers. By identifying the [d-Leu2] isomer of the predicted peptide GH-2 (gene derived bombininH) in skin secretions of the toad Bombina orientalis, we demonstrated the analytical power of SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF measurements. In conclusion, SF-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS combines high sensitivity, versatility, and the ability to complement other methods. PMID:26985971

  1. Stability analysis of glutamic acid linked peptides coupled to NOTA through different chemical linkages.

    PubMed

    Lang, Lixin; Ma, Ying; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-11-03

    Glutamic acid is a commonly used linker to form dimeric peptides with enhanced binding affinity than their corresponding monomeric counterparts. We have previously labeled NOTA-Bn-NCS-PEG3-E[c(RGDyK)]2 (NOTA-PRGD2) [1] with [(18)F]AlF and (68)Ga for imaging tumor angiogenesis. The p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was attached to E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2] through a mini-PEG with a thiourea linkage, and the product [1] was stable at radiolabeling condition of 100 °C and pH 4.0 acetate buffer. However, when the same p-SCN-Bn-NOTA was directly attached to the α-amine of E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], the product NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] became unstable under similar conditions and the release of monomeric c(RGDfK) [5] was observed. The purpose of this work was to use HPLC and LC-MS to monitor the decomposition of glutamic acid linked dimeric peptides and their NOTA derivatives. A c(RGDyK) [6] and bombesin (BBN) [7] heterodimer c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and a dimeric bombesin E(BBN)2 [9], both with a glutamic acid as the linker, along with a model compound PhSCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10] were also studied. All the compounds were dissolved in 0.5 M pH 4.0 acetate buffer at the concentration of 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mL of each sample was heated at 100 °C for 10 min and the more stable compounds were heated for another 30 min. The samples at both time points were analyzed with analytical HPLC to monitor the decomposition of the heated samples. The samples with decomposition were further analyzed by LC-MS to determine the mass of products from the decomposition for possible structure elucidation. After 10 min heating, the obvious release of c(RGDfK) [5] was observed for NOTA-Bn-NCS-E[c(RGDfK)]2 [4] and Ph-SCN-E[c(RGDfK)] [10]. Little or no release of monomers was observed for the remaining samples at this time point. After further heating, the release of monomers was clearly observed for E[c(RGDyK)]2 [2], E[c(RGDfK)]2 [3], c(RGDyK)-E-BBN [8], and E(BBN)2 [9]. No decomposition or little decomposition was observed for NOTA

  2. Formation of Amino Acid Thioesters for Prebiotic Peptide Synthesis: Catalysis By Amino Acid Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The origin of life can be described as a series of events in which a prebiotic chemical process came increasingly under the control of its catalytic products. In our search for this prebiotic process that yielded catalytic takeover products (such as polypeptides), we have been investigating a reaction system that generates peptide-forming amino acid thioesters from formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and ammonia in the presence of thiols. As shown below, this model process begins by aldol condensation of formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde to give trioses and releases. These sugars then undergo beta-dehydration yielding their respective alpha-ketoaldehydes. Addition of ammonia to the alpha-ketoaldehydes yields imines which can either: (a) rearrange in the presence of thesis to give amino acid thioesters or (be react with another molecule of aldehyde to give imidazoles. This 'one-pot' reaction system operates under mild aqueous conditions, and like modem amino acid biosynthesis, uses sugar intermediates which are converted to products by energy-yielding redox reactions. Recently, we discovered that amino acids, such as the alanine reaction product, catalyze the first and second steps of the process. In the presence of ammonia the process also generates other synthetically useful products, like the important biochemical -- pyruvic acid.

  3. A chirality change in XPC- and Sfi1-derived peptides affects their affinity for centrin.

    PubMed

    Grecu, Dora; Irudayaraj, Victor Paul Raj; Martinez-Sanz, Juan; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Assairi, Liliane

    2016-04-01

    The Ca(2+)-binding protein centrin binds to a hydrophobic motif (W(1)xxL(4)xxxL(8)) included in the sequence of several cellular targets: XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein), Sfi1 (suppressor of fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance protein1), and Sac3 [the central component of the transcription and mRNA export (TREX-2) complex]. However, centrin binding occurs in a reversed orientation (L(8)xxxL(4)xxW(1)) for Sfi1 and Sac3 compared with XPC. Because D-peptides have been investigated for future therapeutic use, we analyzed their centrin-binding properties. Their affinity for centrin was measured using isothermal titration calorimetry. The chirality change in the target-derived peptides affected their ability to bind centrin in a specific manner depending on the sequence orientation of the centrin-binding motif. In contrast to L-XPC-P10, D-XPC-P10 bound C-HsCen1 in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner and to a lesser extent. D-XPC-P10 exhibited a reduced affinity for C-HsCen1 (Ka=0.064 × 10(6) M(-1)) by a factor of 2000 compared with L-XPC-P10 (Ka=132 × 10(6) M(-1)). D-peptides have a lower affinity than L-peptides for centrin, and the strength of this affinity depends on the sequence orientation of the target-derived peptides. The residual affinity observed for D-XPC suggests that the use of d-peptides represents a promising strategy for inhibiting centrin binding to its targets.

  4. Collagen IV and CXC chemokine derived anti-angiogenic peptides suppress glioma xenograft growth

    PubMed Central

    Rosca, Elena V.; Lal, Bachchu; Koskimaki, Jacob E.; Popel, Aleksander S.; Laterra, John

    2012-01-01

    Peptides are receiving increased attention as therapeutic agents, due to their high binding specificity and versatility to be modified as targeting or carrier molecules. Particularly, peptides with anti-angiogenic activity are of high interest due to their applicability to a wide range of cancers. In this study we investigate the biological activity of two novel antiangiogenic peptides in pre-clinical glioma models. One peptide SP2000 is derived from collagen IV and the other peptide SP3019 belongs to the CXC family. We previously characterized the capacity of SP2000 and SP3019 to inhibit multiple biological endpoints linked to angiogenesis in human endothelial cells in several assays. Here we report additional studies using endothelial cells and focus on the activity of these peptides against human glioma cell growth, migration and adhesion in vitro and growth as tumor xenografts in vivo. We found that SP2000 completely inhibits migration of the glioma cells at 50 μM and SP3019 produced 50% inhibition at 100 μM. Their relative anti-adhesion activities were similar with SP2000 and SP3019 generating 50% adhesion inhibition at 4.9 ± 0.82 μM and 21.3 ± 5.92 μM respectively. In vivo glioma growth inhibition was 63 % for SP2000 and 76% for SP3019 after 2 weeks of administration at daily doses of 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively. The direct activity of these peptides against glioma cells in conjunction with their anti-angiogenic activities warrants their further development as either stand-alone agents or in combination with standard cytotoxic or emerging targeted therapies in malignant brain tumors. PMID:22495619

  5. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Phycobiliproteins of Dulse Palmaria palmata

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Tomoe; Miyabe, Yoshikatsu; Yasui, Hajime; Kinoshita, Yasunori; Kishimura, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    We examined the inhibitory activity of angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) in protein hydrolysates from dulse, Palmaria palmata. The proteins extracted from dulse were mainly composed of phycoerythrin (PE) followed by phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC). The dulse proteins showed slight ACE inhibitory activity, whereas the inhibitory activity was extremely enhanced by thermolysin hydrolysis. The ACE inhibitory activity of hydrolysates was hardly affected by additional pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin treatments. Nine ACE inhibitory peptides (YRD, AGGEY, VYRT, VDHY, IKGHY, LKNPG, LDY, LRY, FEQDWAS) were isolated from the hydrolysates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and it was demonstrated that the synthetic peptide LRY (IC50: 0.044 μmol) has remarkably high ACE inhibitory activity. Then, we investigated the structural properties of dulse phycobiliproteins to discuss the origin of dulse ACE inhibitory peptides. Each dulse phycobiliprotein possesses α-subunit (Mw: 17,477–17,638) and β-subunit (Mw: 17,455–18,407). The sequences of YRD, AGGEY, VYRT, VDHY, LKNPG and LDY were detected in the primary structure of PE α-subunit, and the LDY also exists in the APC α- and β-subunits. In addition, the LRY sequence was found in the β-subunits of PE, PC and APC. From these results, it was suggested that the dulse ACE inhibitory peptides were derived from phycobiliproteins, especially PE. To make sure the deduction, we carried out additional experiment by using recombinant PE. We expressed the recombinant α- and β-subunits of PE (rPEα and rPEβ, respectively), and then prepared their peptides by thermolysin hydrolysis. As a result, these peptides showed high ACE inhibitory activities (rPEα: 94.4%; rPEβ: 87.0%). Therefore, we concluded that the original proteins of dulse ACE inhibitory peptides were phycobiliproteins. PMID:26861357

  6. Milk proteins-derived bioactive peptides in dairy products: molecular, biological and methodological aspects.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Bartłomiej; Dziuba, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Proteins are one of the primary components of the food, both in terms of nutrition and function. They are main source of amino acids, essential for synthesis of proteins, and also source of energy. Additionally, many proteins exhibit specific biological activities, which may have effect on functional or pro-health properties of food products. These proteins and their hydrolysis products, peptides, may influence the properties of food and human organism. The number of commercially available food products containing bioactive peptides is very low, apart from that milk proteins are their rich source. It could be supposed that number of available products with declared activity will rise in near future because of observed strong uptrend on interest in such products. Molecular and biological properties of milk proteins, as precursors of bioactive peptides was characterised in the work. Therefore, the strategy of research and obtaining of such peptides both in laboratory and industrial scale, as well as the range of their commercial application, was presented. Several examples of research efforts presenting high potential to develop new products containing bioactive peptides from milk proteins and predetermined as nutraceuticals was described.

  7. The possible roles of food-derived bioactive peptides in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Kati; Cheung, Belinda W Y; Schröder, Henning

    2008-10-01

    Vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke or myocardial infarction are a significant public health problem worldwide. Attempts to prevent vascular diseases often imply modifications and improvement of causative risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, an unfavorable profile of blood lipids or insulin resistance. In addition to numerous preventive and therapeutic drug regimens, there has been increased focus on identifying dietary compounds that may contribute to cardiovascular health in recent years. Food-derived bioactive peptides represent one such source of health-enhancing components. They can be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing from a multitude of plant and animal proteins, especially milk, soy or fish proteins. Biologically active peptides are considered to promote diverse activities, including opiate-like, mineral binding, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive actions. By modulating and improving physiological functions, bioactive peptides may provide new therapeutic applications for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. As components of functional foods or nutraceuticals with certain health claims, bioactive peptides are of commercial interest as well. The current review centers on bioactive peptides with properties relevant to cardiovascular health.

  8. Opioid peptides derived from food proteins suppress aggregation and promote reactivation of partly unfolded stressed proteins.

    PubMed

    Artemova, N V; Bumagina, Z M; Kasakov, A S; Shubin, V V; Gurvits, B Ya

    2010-02-01

    A new view of the opioid peptides is presented. The potential of small peptides derived from precursor food proteins, to bind to partly unfolded stressed proteins to prevent their irreversible aggregation and inactivation has been demonstrated in various in vitro test systems: dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of alpha-lactalbumin (LA), heat-induced aggregation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aggregation and inactivation of bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the process of its refolding after removal of stress conditions. Using dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidimetry, fluorescence, and circular dichroism measurements protective effects of the synthetic opioid peptides: exorphin C from wheat gluten (Tyr-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu), rubiscolin-5 from spinach ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu), and hemorphin-6 from bovine hemoglobin (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Thr-Gln-Arg) have been revealed. We have demonstrated the concentration-dependent suppression of light scattering intensity of aggregates of LA and ADH in the presence of the peptides, the population of nanoparticles with higher hydrodynamic radii being shifted to the lower ones, accompanied by an increase in the lag period of aggregation. The presence of the peptides in the refolding solution was shown to assist reactivation of CA and enhance the yield of the CA soluble protein. The results suggest that bioactive food protein fragments may be regarded as exogenous supplements to the endogenous defense mechanisms of the human organism under stress conditions.

  9. Molecular mechanics and dynamics studies on the interaction of gallic acid with collagen-like peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhan, B.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Subramanian, V.; Raghava Rao, J.; Unni Nair, Balachandran; Ramasami, T.

    2001-10-01

    Molecular modelling approaches have been used to understand the interaction of collagen-like peptides with gallic acid, which mimic vegetable tanning processes involved in protein stabilization. Several interaction sites have been identified and the binding energies of the complexes have been calculated. The calculated binding energies for various geometries are in the range 6-13 kcal/mol. It is found that some complexes exhibit hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction plays a dominant role in the stabilization of the peptide by gallic acid. The π-OH type of interaction is also observed in the peptide stabilization. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for 600 ps revealed the possibility of hydrogen bonding between the collagen-like peptide and gallic acid.

  10. Noninvasive molecular imaging of MYC mRNA expression in human breast cancer xenografts with a [99mTc]peptide-peptide nucleic acid-peptide chimera.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaobing; Aruva, Mohan R; Qin, Wenyi; Zhu, Weizhu; Sauter, Edward R; Thakur, Mathew L; Wickstrom, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Human estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells typically display elevated levels of Myc protein due to overexpression of MYC mRNA, and elevated insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) due to overexpression of IGF1R mRNA. We hypothesized that scintigraphic detection of MYC peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes with an IGF1 peptide loop on the C-terminus, and a [99mTc]chelator peptide on the N-terminus, could measure levels of MYC mRNA noninvasively in human IGF1R-overexpressing MCF7 breast cancer xenografts in nude mice. We prepared the chelator-MYC PNA-IGF1 peptide, as well as a 4-nt mismatch PNA control, by solid-phase synthesis. We imaged MCF7 xenografts scintigraphically and measured the distribution of [99mTc]probes by scintillation counting of dissected tissues. MCF7 xenografts in nude mice were visualized at 4 and 24 h after tail vein administration of the [99mTc]PNA probe specific for MYC mRNA, but not with the mismatch control. The [99mTc]probes distributed normally to the kidneys, livers, tumors, and other tissues. Molecular imaging of oncogene mRNAs in solid tumors with radiolabel-PNA-peptide chimeras might provide additional genetic characterization of preinvasive and invasive breast cancers.

  11. Amino Acid- vs. Peptide-Odorants: Responses of Individual Olfactory Receptor Neurons in an Aquatic Species

    PubMed Central

    Hassenklöver, Thomas; Pallesen, Lars P.; Schild, Detlev; Manzini, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are widely used waterborne olfactory stimuli proposed to serve as cues in the search for food. In natural waters the main source of amino acids is the decomposition of proteins. But this process also produces a variety of small peptides as intermediate cleavage products. In the present study we tested whether amino acids actually are the natural and adequate stimuli for the olfactory receptors they bind to. Alternatively, these olfactory receptors could be peptide receptors which also bind amino acids though at lower affinity. Employing calcium imaging in acute slices of the main olfactory epithelium of the fully aquatic larvae of Xenopus laevis we show that amino acids, and not peptides, are more effective waterborne odorants. PMID:23300867

  12. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of a New Scorpion Venom Peptide Derivative Kn2-7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoqing; Cao, Luyang; Zhong, Maohua; Zhang, Yan; Han, Chen; Li, Qiaoli; Yang, Jingyi; Zhou, Dihan; Shi, Wei; He, Benxia; Liu, Fang; Yu, Jie; Sun, Ying; Cao, Yuan; Li, Yaoming; Li, Wenxin; Guo, Deying; Cao, Zhijian; Yan, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1). In this investigation, a panel of scorpion venom peptides and their derivatives were designed and chosen for assessment of their anti-HIV activities. A new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7 was identified as the most potent anti-HIV-1 peptide by screening assays with an EC50 value of 2.76 µg/ml (1.65 µM) and showed low cytotoxicity to host cells with a selective index (SI) of 13.93. Kn2-7 could inhibit all members of a standard reference panel of HIV-1 subtype B pseudotyped virus (PV) with CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 PV strain. Furthermore, it also inhibited a CXCR4-tropic replication-competent strain of HIV-1 subtype B virus. Binding assay of Kn2-7 to HIV-1 PV by Octet Red system suggested the anti-HIV-1 activity was correlated with a direct interaction between Kn2-7 and HIV-1 envelope. These results demonstrated that peptide Kn2-7 could inhibit HIV-1 by direct interaction with viral particle and may become a promising candidate compound for further development of microbicide against HIV-1. PMID:22536342

  13. Radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides and proteins in relation to the radiation sterilization of high-protein foods

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, W. M.

    1981-12-01

    An important source of information on the question of whether or not toxic or other deleterious substances are formed in the radiation sterilization of foods is the chemical study of reaction products and reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of individual food components. The present evaluation of the radiation chemistry of amino acids, peptides, and proteins outlines the various radiation-induced processes which lead to amino acid degradation and to the synthesis of amino acid derivatives of higher molecular weight. Among the latter are the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino dicarboxylic acids which are formed as major products in the radiolysis of peptides both in aqueous solution and in the solid state. The ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are of particular interest as irradiation products because they represent a class of compounds not normally encountered in plant and animal protein sources. Such compounds have, however, been isolated from certain types of bacteria and bacterial products. All of the available data strongly suggest that the ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..'-diamino acids are produced in significant yield in the radiation sterilization of high protein foods. The importance of initiating extensive chemical and biological studies of these and of other high molecular weight products in irradiated food is emphasized.

  14. A toy model of prebiotic peptide evolution: the possible role of relative amino acid abundances.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical-computational toy model based on the assumed dynamic principles of prebiotic peptide evolution. Starting from a pool of amino acid monomers, the model describes in a generalized manner the generation of peptides and their sequential information. The model integrates the intrinsic and dynamic key elements of the initiation of biopolymerization, such as the relative amino acid abundances and polarities, as well as the oligomer reversibility, i.e. fragmentation and recombination, and peptide self-replication. Our modeling results suggest that the relative amino acid abundances, as indicated by Miller-Urey type electric discharge experiments, played a principal role in the early sequential information of peptide profiles. Moreover, the computed profiles display an astonishing similarity to peptide profiles observed in so-called biological common ancestors found in the following three microorganisms; E. coli, M. jannaschii, and S. cereviasiae. The prebiotic peptide fingerprint was obtained by the so-called polarity index method that was earlier reported as a tool for the identification of cationic amphipathic antibacterial short peptides.

  15. Maintaining the Phenotype Stability of Chondrocytes Derived from MSCs by C-Type Natriuretic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Quan; Qian, Zhiyong; Liu, Donghua; Sun, Jie; Xu, Juan; Guo, Ximin

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a critical role in cartilage tissue engineering. However, MSCs-derived chondrocytes or cartilage tissues are not stable and easily lose the cellular and cartilage phenotype during long-term culture in vitro or implantation in vivo. As a result, chondrocytes phenotypic instability can contribute to accelerated ossification. Thus, it is a big challenge to maintain their correct phenotype for engineering hyaline cartilage. As one member of the natriuretic peptide family, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is found to correlate with the development of the cartilage, affect the chondrocytes proliferation and differentiation. Besides, based on its biological effects on protection of extracellular matrix of cartilage and inhibition of mineralization, we hypothesize that CNP may contribute to the stability of chondrocyte phenotype of MSCs-derived chondrocytes. PMID:28337152

  16. Analysis of Endogenous D-Amino Acid-Containing Peptides in Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lu; Sheeley, Sarah; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides are chiral molecules with their structure determined by the composition and configuration of their amino acid building blocks. The naturally occurring amino acids, except glycine, possess two chiral forms. This allows the formation of multiple peptide diastereomers that have the same sequence. Although living organisms use L-amino acids to make proteins, a group of D-amino acid-containing peptides (DAACPs) has been discovered in animals that have at least one of their residues isomerized to the D-form via an enzyme-catalyzed process. In many cases, the biological functions of these peptides are enhanced due to this structural conversion. These DAACPs are different from those known to occur in bacterial cell wall and antibiotic peptides, the latter of which are synthesized in a ribosome-independent manner. DAACPs have now also been identified in a number of distinct groups throughout the Metazoa. Their serendipitous discovery has often resulted from discrepancies observed in bioassays or in chromatographic behavior between natural peptide fractions and peptides synthesized according to a presumed all-L sequence. Because this L-to-D post-translational modification is subtle and not detectable by most sequence determination approaches, it is reasonable to suspect that many studies have overlooked this change; accordingly, DAACPs may be more prevalent than currently thought. Although diastereomer separation techniques developed with synthetic peptides in recent years have greatly aided in the discovery of natural DAACPs, there is a need for new, more robust methods for naturally complex samples. In this review, a brief history of DAACPs in animals is presented, followed by discussion of a variety of analytical methods that have been used for diastereomeric separation and detection of peptides. PMID:20490347

  17. Dissecting the Structure-Function Relationship of a Fungicidal Peptide Derived from the Constant Region of Human Immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Ciociola, Tecla; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Magliani, Walter; Ferrari, Elena; Gatti, Rita; D'Adda, Tiziana; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-04-01

    Synthetic peptides encompassing sequences related to the complementarity-determining regions of antibodies or derived from their constant region (Fc peptides) were proven to exert differential antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, and/or immunomodulatory activitiesin vitroand/orin vivo, regardless of the specificity and isotype of the parental antibody. Alanine substitution derivatives of these peptides exhibited unaltered, increased, or decreased candidacidal activitiesin vitro The bioactive IgG-derived Fc N10K peptide (NQVSLTCLVK) spontaneously self-assembles, a feature previously recognized as relevant for the therapeutic activity of another antibody-derived peptide. We evaluated the contribution of each residue to the peptide self-assembling capability by circular-dichroism spectroscopy. The interaction of the N10K peptide and its derivatives withCandida albicanscells was studied by confocal, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy. The apoptosis and autophagy induction profiles in yeast cells treated with the peptides were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the therapeutic efficacy against candidal infection was studied in aGalleria mellonellamodel. Overall, the results indicate a critical role for some residues in the self-assembly process and a correlation of that capability with the candidacidal activities of the peptidesin vitroand their therapeutic effectsin vivo.

  18. Interaction of PiB-derivative metal complexes with beta-amyloid peptides: selective recognition of the aggregated forms.

    PubMed

    Martins, André F; Dias, David M; Morfin, Jean-François; Lacerda, Sara; Laurents, Douglas V; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2015-03-27

    Metal complexes are increasingly explored as imaging probes in amyloid peptide related pathologies. We report the first detailed study on the mechanism of interaction between a metal complex and both the monomer and the aggregated form of Aβ1-40 peptide. We have studied lanthanide(III) chelates of two PiB-derivative ligands (PiB=Pittsburgh compound B), L(1) and L(2), differing in the length of the spacer between the metal-complexing DO3A macrocycle (DO3A=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) and the peptide-recognition PiB moiety. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy revealed that they both bind to aggregated Aβ1-40 (KD =67-160 μM), primarily through the benzothiazole unit. HSQC NMR spectroscopy on the (15) N-labeled, monomer Aβ1-40 peptide indicates nonsignificant interaction with monomeric Aβ. Time-dependent circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM investigations of the secondary structure and of the aggregation of Aβ1-40 in the presence of increasing amounts of the metal complexes provide coherent data showing that, despite their structural similarity, the two complexes affect Aβ fibril formation distinctly. Whereas GdL(1), at higher concentrations, stabilizes β-sheets, GdL(2) prevents aggregation by promoting α-helical structures. These results give insight into the behavior of amyloid-targeted metal complexes in general and contribute to a more rational design of metal-based diagnostic and therapeutic agents for amyloid- associated pathologies.

  19. The Prebiotic Synthesis of Ethylenediamine Monoacetic Acid, The Repeating Unit of Peptide Nucleic Acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Kevin E.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1992-01-01

    The polymerization of ribonucleic acids or their precursors constitutes an important event in prebiotic chemistry. The various problems using ribonucleotides to make RNA suggest that there may have been a precursor. An attractive possibility are the peptide nucleic acids (PNA). PNAs are nucleotide analogs that make use of a polymer of ethylenediamine monoacetic acid (EDMA or 2-amninoethyl glycine) with the bases attached by an acetic acid. EDMA is an especially attractive alternative to the ribose phosphate or deoxyribose phosphate backbone because it contains no chiral centers and is potentially prebiotic, but there is no reported prebiotic synthesis. We have synthesized both EDMA and ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) from the prebiotic compounds ethylenediamine, formaldehyde, and hydrogen cyanide. The yields of EDMA range from 11 to 79% along with some sEDDA and uEDDA. These reactions work with concentrations of 10(exp -1)M and as low as 10(exp -4)M, and the reaction is likely to be effective at even lower concentrations. Ethylenediamine is a likely prebiotic compound, but it has not yet been demonstrated, although compounds such as ethanolamine and cysteamine have been proven to be prebiotic. Under neutral pH and heating at l00 C, EDMA is converted to the lactam, monoketopiperazine (MKP). The cyclization occurs and has an approximate ratio of MKP/EDMA = 3 at equilibrium. We have measured the solubilities of EDMA center dot H20 as 6.4 m, EDMA center dot HCl center dot H20 as 13.7 m, and EDMA center dot 2HCl center dot H20 as 3.4 m. These syntheses together with the high solubility of EDMA suggest that EDMA would concentrate in drying lagoons and might efficiently form polymers. Given the instability of ribose and the poor polymerizability of nucleotides, the prebiotic presence of EDMA and the possibility of its polymerization raises the possibility that PNAs are the progenitors of present day nucleic acids. A pre-RNA world may have existed in which PNAs or

  20. Analysis of Dengue Virus Enhancing Epitopes Using Peptide Antigens Derived From the Envelope Glycoprotein Gene Sequence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-29

    AD-A261 707 AD____ ARMY PROJECT ORDER NO: 89PP9961 TITLE: ANALYSIS OF DENGUE VIRUS ENHANCING EPITOPES USING PEPTIDE ANTIGENS DERIVED FROM THE...DATES COVERED 29 Nov 91 Final Report (9/1/89 - 11/30/91) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ana ysis or Dengue Vnrus nancing 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Epitopes Using...biological events leading to the development of severe disease manifestations of dengue infections ( dengue hemorrhagic fever/ dengue shock syndrome

  1. Milk-derived bioactive peptides and their health promoting effects: a potential role in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Marcone, Simone; Belton, Orina; Fitzgerald, Desmond J

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins are food components that, in addition to their nutritional value, retain many biological properties and have therapeutic effects in several health disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Amongst these, atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of heart attack and strokes. It is a progressive dyslipidaemic and inflammatory disease where accumulation of oxidized lipids and inflammatory cells leads to the formation of an atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel wall. Milk-derived bioactive peptides can be released during gastrointestinal digestion, food processing or by enzymatic and bacterial fermentation and are considered to promote diverse beneficial effects such as lipid lowering, antihypertensive, immnomodulating, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic effects. In this review, an overview of the diverse biological effects of these compounds is given, particularly focusing on their beneficial properties on cardiovascular disease and proposing novel mechanisms of action responsible for their bioactivity. Attempts to prevent cardiovascular diseases target modifications of several risk factors such as high blood pressure, obesity, high blood concentrations of lipids or insulin resistance. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are a source of health-enhancing components and the potential health benefit of these compounds has a growing commercial potential. Consequently, they have been incorporated as ingredients in functional foods, as dietary supplements and as pharmaceuticals to promote health and reduce risk of chronic diseases.

  2. Antimicrobial effects of helix D-derived peptides of human antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-10-24

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a key antiproteinase involved in blood coagulation. Previous investigations have shown that ATIII is degraded by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, leading to release of heparin binding fragments derived from its D helix. As heparin binding and antimicrobial activity of peptides frequently overlap, we here set out to explore possible antibacterial effects of intact and degraded ATIII. In contrast to intact ATIII, the results showed that extensive degradation of the molecule yielded fragments with antimicrobial activity. Correspondingly, the heparin-binding, helix D-derived, peptide FFFAKLNCRLYRKANKSSKLV (FFF21) of human ATIII, was found to be antimicrobial against particularly the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that FFF21 binds to and permeabilizes bacterial membranes. Analogously, FFF21 was found to induce membrane leakage of model anionic liposomes. In vivo, FFF21 significantly reduced P. aeruginosa infection in mice. Additionally, FFF21 displayed anti-endotoxic effects in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest novel roles for ATIII-derived peptide fragments in host defense.

  3. Short communication: Inhibition of angiotensin 1-converting enzyme by peptides derived from variants of bovine β-casein upon apical exposure to a Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Petrat-Melin, Bjørn; Le, Thao T; Møller, Hanne S; Larsen, Lotte B; Young, Jette F

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the consequence of genetically contingent amino acid substitutions in bovine β-casein (CN) genetic variants A(1), A(2), B, and I on the structure and bioactive potential of peptides following in vitro digestion. The β-CN variants were digested in vitro using pepsin and pancreatin, and a peptide profile was obtained by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealing among others, the β-casomorphin precursor peptides VYPFPGPIHN and VYPFPGPIPN, derived from variant A(1)/B and from A(2)/I, respectively. These 2 peptides were synthesized and assessed for angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory capacity before and after incubation with a monolayer of Caco-2 intestinal cells. The VYPFPGPIHN was a stronger ACE inhibitor than VYPFPGPIPN, with the concentration needed to reach half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 123 ± 14.2 μM versus 656 ± 7.6 μM. Exposure to a Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayer did not affect ACE inhibition by VYPFPGPIHN, but resulted in an almost 2-fold increase in inhibition by VYPFPGPIPN after incubation. Subsequent tandem mass spectrometric analysis identified the truncated peptide VYPFPGPIP, suggesting hydrolysis by a cell membrane associated peptidase. Thus, genetic variation in bovine β-CN results in the generation of peptides that differ in bioactivity, and are differently affected by intestinal brush border peptidases.

  4. Identification of IgE binding to Api g 1-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Elvira; Aÿ, Bernhard; Boisguerin, Prisca; Dölle, Sabine; Worm, Margitta; Volkmer, Rudolf

    2010-11-02

    Celery is a frequent cause of food allergy in pollen-sensitized patients and can induce severe allergic reactions. Clinical symptoms cannot be predicted by skin prick tests (SPTs) or by determining allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE). Our aim was to identify specific IgE binding peptides by using an array technique. For our study, the sera of 21 patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) to celery, as well as the sera of 17 healthy patients were used. Additionally, all patients underwent skin tests along with determinations of specific IgE binding. The major allergen of celery Api g 1.0101 (Apium graveolens) was synthesized as an array of overlapping peptides and probed with the patients' sera. We developed an improved immunoassay protocol by investigating peptide lengths, peptide densities, incubation parameters, and readout systems, which could influence IgE binding. Sera of celery-allergic patients showed binding to three distinct regions of Api g 1.0101. The region including amino acids 100 to 126 of Api g 1.0101 is the most important region for IgE binding. This region caused a fivefold higher binding of IgE from the sera of celery-allergic patients compared to those of healthy individuals. In particular, one peptide (VLVPTADGGSIC) was recognized by all sera of celery-allergic patients. In contrast, no binding to this peptide was detected in sera of the healthy controls. Our improved assay strategy allows us to distinguish between celery-allergic and healthy individuals, but needs to be explored in a larger cohort of well-defined patients.

  5. Binding properties of a peptide derived from beta-lactamase inhibitory protein.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, G W; Huang, W; Palzkill, T

    2001-12-01

    To overcome the antibiotic resistance mechanism mediated by beta-lactamases, small-molecule beta-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, have been used. This approach, however, has applied selective pressure for mutations that result in beta-lactamases no longer sensitive to beta-lactamase inhibitors. On the basis of the structure of beta-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP), novel peptide inhibitors of beta-lactamase have been constructed. BLIP is a 165-amino-acid protein that is a potent inhibitor of TEM-1 beta-lactamase (K(i) = 0.3 nM). The cocrystal structure of TEM-1 beta-lactamase and BLIP indicates that residues 46 to 51 of BLIP make critical interactions with the active site of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. A peptide containing this six-residue region of BLIP was found to retain sufficient binding energy to interact with TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Inhibition assays with the BLIP peptide reveal that, in addition to inhibiting TEM-1 beta-lactamase, the peptide also inhibits a class A beta-lactamase and a class C beta-lactamase that are not inhibited by BLIP. The crystal structures of class A and C beta-lactamases and two penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) reveal that the enzymes have similar three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the active site. This similarity suggests that the BLIP peptide inhibitor may have a broad range of activity that can be used to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors of various classes of beta-lactamases and PBPs.

  6. Binding Properties of a Peptide Derived from β-Lactamase Inhibitory Protein

    PubMed Central

    Rudgers, Gary W.; Huang, Wanzhi; Palzkill, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    To overcome the antibiotic resistance mechanism mediated by β-lactamases, small-molecule β-lactamase inhibitors, such as clavulanic acid, have been used. This approach, however, has applied selective pressure for mutations that result in β-lactamases no longer sensitive to β-lactamase inhibitors. On the basis of the structure of β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP), novel peptide inhibitors of β-lactamase have been constructed. BLIP is a 165-amino-acid protein that is a potent inhibitor of TEM-1 β-lactamase (Ki = 0.3 nM). The cocrystal structure of TEM-1 β-lactamase and BLIP indicates that residues 46 to 51 of BLIP make critical interactions with the active site of TEM-1 β-lactamase. A peptide containing this six-residue region of BLIP was found to retain sufficient binding energy to interact with TEM-1 β-lactamase. Inhibition assays with the BLIP peptide reveal that, in addition to inhibiting TEM-1 β-lactamase, the peptide also inhibits a class A β-lactamase and a class C β-lactamase that are not inhibited by BLIP. The crystal structures of class A and C β-lactamases and two penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) reveal that the enzymes have similar three-dimensional structures in the vicinity of the active site. This similarity suggests that the BLIP peptide inhibitor may have a broad range of activity that can be used to develop novel small-molecule inhibitors of various classes of β-lactamases and PBPs. PMID:11709298

  7. Hydrolysis of milk-derived bioactive peptides by cell-associated extracellular peptidases of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Zeeshan; Cakir-Kiefer, Céline; Girardet, Jean-Michel; Jardin, Julien; Perrin, Clarisse; Dary, Annie; Miclo, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The trend to confer new functional properties to fermented dairy products by supplementation with bioactive peptides is growing in order to encounter the challenge of health-promoting foods. But these functional ingredients have not to be hydrolysed by proteases of bacteria used in the manufacture of these products. One of the two yoghurt bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus, has long been considered as weakly proteolytic since its only cell wall-associated subtilisin-like protease, called PrtS, is not always present. Nevertheless, a recent study pointed out a possible peptidase activity in certain strains. In this present study, the stability of milk-derived bioactive peptides, e.g. the anxiolytic peptide, αs1-CN-(f91-97), in the presence of two different S. thermophilus strains with PrtS+ or PrtS− phenotype was studied. Both strains appeared to be capable of hydrolysing the αs1-CN-(f91-97) and other bioactive peptides by recurrent removal of N-terminal residues. The hydrolysis was neither due to intracellular peptidases nor to HtrA protease. Results obtained showed that the observed activity originates from the presence at the surface of both strains of an extracellular aminopeptidase activity. Moreover, a cell wall-associated X-prolyl dipeptidyl peptidase activity was also highlighted when β-casomorphin-7 was used as substrate. All of these findings suggest that, in order to use fermented milks as vector of bioactive peptides, the stability of these bioactive peptides in this kind of products implies to carefully characterize the potential action of the surface proteolytic enzymes of S. thermophilus.

  8. Small Retinoprotective Peptides Reveal a Receptor-binding Region on Pigment Epithelium-derived Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Kenealey, Jason; Subramanian, Preeti; Comitato, Antonella; Bullock, Jeanee; Keehan, Laura; Polato, Federica; Hoover, David; Marigo, Valeria; Becerra, S. Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The cytoprotective effects of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) require interactions between an as of a yet undefined region with a distinct ectodomain on the PEDF receptor (PEDF-R). Here we characterized the area in PEDF that interacts with PEDF-R to promote photoreceptor survival. Molecular docking studies suggested that the ligand binding site of PEDF-R interacts with the neurotrophic region of PEDF (44-mer, positions 78–121). Binding assays demonstrated that PEDF-R bound the 44-mer peptide. Moreover, peptide P1 from the PEDF-R ectodomain had affinity for the 44-mer and a shorter fragment within it, 17-mer (positions 98–114). Single residue substitutions to alanine along the 17-mer sequence were designed and tested for binding and biological activity. Altered 17-mer[R99A] did not bind to the P1 peptide, whereas 17-mer[H105A] had higher affinity than the unmodified 17-mer. Peptides 17-mer, 17-mer[H105A], and 44-mer exhibited cytoprotective effects in cultured retina R28 cells. Intravitreal injections of these peptides and PEDF in the rd1 mouse model of retinal degeneration decreased the numbers of dying photoreceptors, 17-mer[H105A] being most effective. The blocking peptide P1 hindered their protective effects both in retina cells and in vivo. Thus, in addition to demonstrating that the region composed of positions 98–114 of PEDF contains critical residues for PEDF-R interaction that mediates survival effects, the findings reveal distinct small PEDF fragments with neurotrophic effects on photoreceptors. PMID:26304116

  9. A method for the 32P labeling of peptides or peptide nucleic acid oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Nielsen, P. E.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A novel approach to the radioactive labeling of peptides and PNA oligomers is described. It is based on the conjugation of a deoxynucleoside 3'-phosphate with the terminal amine of the substrate, followed by phosphorylation of the 5'-hydroxyl group of the nucleotide using T4 polynucleotide kinase and [gamma-32P]ATP.

  10. A mastoparan-derived peptide has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against enveloped viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Christopher J.; Hudak, Kathryn E.; Barefoot, Brice E.; Koci, Matthew D.; Wanyonyi, Moses S.; Abraham, Soman; Staats, Herman F.; Ramsburg, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs are urgently needed to treat individuals infected with new and re-emerging viruses, or with viruses that have developed resistance to antiviral therapies. Mammalian natural host defense peptides (mNHP) are short, usually cationic, peptides that have direct antimicrobial activity, and which in some instances activate cell-mediated antiviral immune responses. Although mNHP have potent activity in vitro, efficacy trials in vivo of exogenously provided mNHP have been largely disappointing, and no mNHP are currently licensed for human use. Mastoparan is an invertebrate host defense peptide that penetrates lipid bilayers, and we reasoned that a mastoparan analog might interact with the lipid component of virus membranes and thereby reduce infectivity of enveloped viruses. Our objective was to determine whether mastoparan-derived peptide MP7-NH2 could inactivate viruses of multiple types, and whether it could stimulate cell-mediated antiviral activity. We found that MP7-NH2 potently inactivated a range of enveloped viruses. Consistent with our proposed mechanism of action, MP7-NH2 was not efficacious against a non-enveloped virus. Pre-treatment of cells with MP7-NH2 did not reduce the amount of virus recovered after infection, which suggested that the primary mechanism of action in vitro was direct inactivation of virus by MP7-NH2. These results demonstrate for the first time that a mastoparan derivative has broad-spectrum antiviral activity in vitro and suggest that further investigation of the antiviral properties of mastoparan peptides in vivo is warranted. PMID:23891650

  11. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA): a model structure for the primordial genetic material?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, P E

    1993-12-01

    It is proposed that the primordial genetic material could have been peptide nucleic acids, i.e., DNA analogues having a peptide backbone. PNA monomers based on the amino acid, alpha, gamma-diaminobutyric acid or ornithine are suggested as compounds that could have been formed in the prebiotic soup. Finally, the possibility of a PNA/RNA world is presented, in which PNA constitutes the stable genetic material, while RNA which may be polymerized using the PNA as template accounts for enzymatic activities including PNA replication.

  12. Effects of carbohydrate polymers applicable in saliva substitutes on the anti-Candida activity of a histatin-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Ruissen, Anita L A; Groenink, Jasper; Lommerse, Cock H; Van 't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V

    2002-11-01

    The effects of polymers applicable in saliva substitutes on the anti-Candida activity of the cationic antimicrobial peptide dhvar1 were investigated. Dhvar1 is a derivative of the 14 C-terminal amino acids of histatin 5. The effects of the following polymers were tested: uncharged hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), negatively charged xanthan (XG) and three types of negatively charged carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) of identical mass but different degrees of carboxylic acid-group substitution (DS). The effects were tested at pH 4.0, 7.0 and 8.5 in a killing assay. HEC had no effect at any pH tested; XG and the three types of CMC caused a decrease in activity at increasing concentrations. Within the CMC group, inhibition increased slightly with increasing DS. These results suggest that the reduction in activity associated with these polymers is the result of electrostatic interaction between the positively charged peptides and the negatively charged polymers. In the absence of polymers, no effect of pH was found on the activity of dhvar1. In the presence of the charged polymers XG and CMC, lowering the pH from 7.0 to 4.0 resulted in a decrease of dhvar1 activity. It was concluded that, with respect to the retention of activity, HEC is the most appropriate polymer for use in combination with dhvar1. However, for use in saliva substitutes XG seems more suitable because of its rheological properties. If XG or CMC are to be used, their reductive effect on the anti-Candida activity of dhvar1 should be compensated for by increasing the peptide dose.

  13. Abhisin: a potential antimicrobial peptide derived from histone H2A of disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Lee, Jehee

    2009-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play an important role in the immune defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, a histone H2A full-length cDNA was cloned from disk abalone Haliotis discus discus. We identified a 40-amino acid AMP designated as abhisin from the N-terminus of the abalone histone H2A sequence. Abhisin shows the characteristic features of AMPs including net positive charge (+13), higher hydrophobic residues (27%) and 2.82 kcal/mol protein binding potential. Abhisin shares 80% amino acid identity with the buforin I peptide that is derived from Asian toad histone H2A. We synthesized the synthetic peptide of abhisin, and characterized its antimicrobial activities. Our results showed the growth inhibition of Gram positive (G+) Listeria monocytogenes, Gram negative (G-) Vibrio ichthyoenteri bacteria, and fungi (yeast) Pityrosporum ovale by abhisin treatment at 250 microg/mL. However, stronger activity was displayed against the G+ than G- bacteria. Additionally, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation results confirmed that P. ovale cells were damaged by abhisin treatment. Interestingly, abhisin treatment (50 microg/mL) decreased the viability of THP-1 leukemia cancer cells approximately by 25% but there was no effect on the normal vero cells, suggesting that abhisin has cytotoxicity against cancer cells but not normal cells. Quantitative real time RT-PCR results revealed that histone H2A transcription was significantly induced at 3 h post-infection with bacteria in abalone gills and digestive tract. These results suggest that abhisin is a potential antimicrobial agent, and its precursor histone H2A may be involved in the innate immune defense system in abalone.

  14. Inhibition of HIV-1 enhancer-controlled transcription by artificial enhancer-binding peptides derived from bacteriophage 434 repressor.

    PubMed

    Caderas, G; Klauser, S; Liu, N; Bienz, A; Gutte, B

    1999-12-01

    An artificial HIV-1 enhancer-binding 42-residue peptide (R42) that had been derived from bacteriophage 434 repressor inhibited the cell-free in vitro transcription of HIV-1 enhancer-containing plasmids [Hehlgans, T., Stolz, M., Klauser, S., Cui, T., Salgam, P., Brenz Verca, S., Widmann, M., Leiser, A., Städler, K. & Gutte, B. (1993) FEBS Lett. 315, 51-55; Caderas, G. (1997) PhD Thesis, University of Zürich]. Here we show that, after N-terminal extension of R42 with a viral nuclear localization signal, the resulting nucR42 peptide was active in intact cells. NucR42 could be detected immunologically in nuclear extracts and produced a 60-70% reduction of the rate of transcription of an HIV-1 enhancer-carrying plasmid in COS-1 cells that had been cotransfected with the HIV enhancer plasmid, an expression plasmid for nucR42, and a control. NucR42 was also synthesized chemically and the synthetic product characterized by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and quantitative amino acid analysis. Band shift, footprint, and in vitro transcription assays in the presence of exogenous NF-kappaBp50 indicated that the binding sites of nucR42 and NF-kappaB on the HIV enhancers overlapped and that a relatively small excess of nucR42 sufficed to displace NF-kappaBp50. Band shift and in vitro transcription experiments showed also that exchange of the 434 repressor-derived nine-residue recognition helix of nucR42 for four glycines abolished the HIV enhancer binding specificity whereas leucine zipper- or retro-leucine zipper-mediated dimerization of R42 analogues increased it suggesting the potential application of such dimeric HIV enhancer-binding peptides as intracellular inhibitors of HIV replication.

  15. Site-Specific Characterization of d-Amino Acid Containing Peptide Epimers by Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the d-amino acid containing peptide (DAACP) candidate can be discovered by observing the differences of biological activity and chromatographic retention time between the synthetic peptides and naturally occurring peptides. However, it is difficult to determine the exact position of d-amino acid in the DAACP candidates. Herein, we developed a novel site-specific strategy to rapidly and precisely localize d-amino acids in peptides by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) analysis of mass spectrometry (MS)-generated epimeric fragment ions. Briefly, the d/l-peptide epimers were separated by online reversed-phase liquid chromatography and fragmented by collision-induced dissociation (CID), followed by IMS analysis. The epimeric fragment ions resulting from d/l-peptide epimers exhibit conformational differences, thus showing different mobilities in IMS. The arrival time shift between the epimeric fragment ions was used as criteria to localize the d-amino acid substitution. The utility of this strategy was demonstrated by analysis of peptide epimers with different molecular sizes, [d-Trp]-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, [d-Ala]-deltorphin, [d-Phe]-achatin-I, and their counterparts that contain all-l amino acids. Furthermore, the crustacean hyperglycemia hormones (CHHs, 8.5 kDa) were isolated from the American lobster Homarus americanus and identified by integration of MS-based bottom-up and top-down sequencing approaches. The IMS data acquired using our novel site-specific strategy localized the site of isomerization of l- to d-Phe at the third residue of the CHHs from the N-terminus. Collectively, this study demonstrates a new method for discovery of DAACPs using IMS technique with the ability to localize d-amino acid residues. PMID:24328107

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties of some benzoic acid derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Melike; Kiliç, Deryanur; Ünver, Yaǧmur; Şentürk, Murat; Askin, Hakan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to acetic acid and choline. AChE inhibitors are used in treatment of several neurodegeneartive disorder and Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, inhibition of AChE with some benzoic acid derivatives were investigated. 3-Chloro-benzoic acid (1), 2-hydroxy-5-sulfobenzoic acid (2), 2-(sulfooxy) benzoic acid (3), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic (6) were calculated IC50 values AChE enzyme. Kinetic investigations showed that similarly to AChE inhibitors. Benzoic acid derivatives (1-6) investigated are encouraging agents which may be used as lead molecules in order to derivative novel AChE inhibitors that might be useful in medical applications.

  17. Assessing the Chemical Accuracy of Protein Structures via Peptide Acidity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Janet S.; Hernández, Griselda; LeMaster, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the protein native state is a Boltzmann conformational ensemble, practical applications often require a representative model from the most populated region of that distribution. The acidity of the backbone amides, as reflected in hydrogen exchange rates, is exquisitely sensitive to the surrounding charge and dielectric volume distribution. For each of four proteins, three independently determined X-ray structures of differing crystallographic resolution were used to predict exchange for the static solvent-exposed amide hydrogens. The average correlation coefficients range from 0.74 for ubiquitin to 0.93 for Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, reflecting the larger range of experimental exchange rates exhibited by the latter protein. The exchange prediction errors modestly correlate with the crystallographic resolution. MODELLER 9v6-derived homology models at ~60% sequence identity (36% identity for chymotrypsin inhibitor CI2) yielded correlation coefficients that are ~0.1 smaller than for the cognate X-ray structures. The most recently deposited NOE-based ubiquitin structure and the original NMR structure of CI2 fail to provide statistically significant predictions of hydrogen exchange. However, the more recent RECOORD refinement study of CI2 yielded predictions comparable to the X-ray and homology model-based analyses. PMID:23182463

  18. Screening of integrin-binding peptides in a laminin peptide library derived from the mouse laminin β chain short arm regions.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Takagi, Masaharu; Nakamura, Minako; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Hozumi, Kentaro; Kikkawa, Yamato; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2014-05-15

    Laminins, major components of basement membrane, consist of three different subunits, α, β, and γ chains, and so far, five α, three β, and three γ chains have been identified. We have constructed synthetic peptide libraries derived from the laminin sequences and identified various cell-adhesive peptides. Ten active peptides from the laminin α chain sequences (α1-α5) were found to promote integrin-mediated cell adhesion. Previously, we found fourteen cell-adhesive peptides from the β1 chain sequence but their receptors have not been analyzed. Here, we expanded the synthetic peptide library to add peptides from the short arm regions of the laminin β2 and β3 chains and screened for integrin-binding peptides. Twenty-seven peptides promoted human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment in a peptide-coated plate assay. The morphological appearance of HDFs on the peptide-coated plates differed depending on the peptides. B34 (REKYYYAVYDMV, mouse laminin β1 chain, 255-266), B67 (IPYSMEYEILIRY, mouse laminin β1 chain, 604-616), B2-105 (APNFWNFTSGRG, mouse laminin β2 chain, 1081-1092), and B3-19 (GHLTGGKVQLNL, mouse laminin β3 chain, 182-193) promoted HDF spreading and HDF attachment was inhibited by EDTA, suggesting that the peptides interact with integrins. Immunostaining analyses revealed that B67 induced well-organized actin stress fibers and focal contacts containing vinculin, however, B34, B2-105, and B3-19 did not exhibit stress fiber formation or focal contacts. The inhibition assay using anti-integrin antibodies indicated that B67 interacts with α3, α6, and β1 integrins, and B34 and B3-19 interact with β1 integrin. Based on adhesion analysis of peptides modified with an alanine scan and on switching analysis with the homologous inactive sequence B2-64 (LPRAMDYDLLLRW, mouse laminin β2 chain, 618-630), the Glu(8) residue in the B67 peptide was critical for HDF adhesion. These findings are useful for identifying an integrin binding motif. The B67 peptide

  19. Milk-derived proteins and peptides of potential therapeutic and nutritive value.

    PubMed

    Zimecki, Michal; Kruzel, Marian L

    2007-01-01

    Milk and colostrum are rich in proteins and peptides which play a crucial role in development of the immune system in mammalian offspring. Immunotropic properties of these compounds prompted investigators to search for their utility in prevention and therapy of various disorders in humans. The following constituents of milk are of particular interest: 1) Lactoferrin (LF)--exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiparasite and antitumor activities. It is protective with regard to intestinal epithelium, promotes bone growth and accelerates recovery of the immune system function in immunocompromised animal; 2) A Proline-Rich Polypeptide (PRP) shows a variety of immunotropic functions, including promotion of T-cell maturation and inhibition'of autoimmune disorders. PRP was recently found to improve or stabilize the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living status in Alzheimer's disease patients. 3) Casein--has been protective in experimental bacteremia by eliciting myelopoiesis. Casein hydrolyzates were also protective in diabetic animals, reduced the tumor growth and diminished colicky symptoms in infants. Casein-derived peptides have been found to have antihypertensive effects. Glycomacropeptide (GMP)--a peptide derived from kappa casein, exhibits antibacterial and antithrombotic activities. 4) Alpha lactalbumin (LA)--demonstrates antiviral, antitumor and anti-stress properties. LA-enriched diets were anxiolytic, lowered blood pressure in rats, prevented diarrhea and led to a better weight gain in malnourished children. 5) Lysozyme--is effective in treatment of periodentitis and prevention of tooth decay. Milk enriched in lysozyme was used in feeding premature infants suffering from concomitant diseases. 6) Lactoperoxidase--shows antibacterial properties. In conclusion, milk-derived proteins and peptides are bio-accessible and safe for the prevention and treatment of numerous disorders in humans.

  20. Multimerized HIV-gp41-derived peptides as fusion inhibitors and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru; Mizuguchi, Takaaki; Tamamura, Hirokazu

    2016-11-04

    To date, several antigens based on the amino-terminal leucine/isoleucine heptad repeat (NHR) region of an HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 and fusion inhibitors based on the carboxy-terminal leucine/isoleucine heptad repeat (CHR) region of gp41 have been reported. We have developed a synthetic antigen targeting the membrane-fusion mechanism of HIV-1. This uses a template designed with C3-symmetric linkers and mimics the trimeric form of the NHR-derived peptide N36. The antiserum obtained by immunization of the N36 trimeric antigen binds preferentially to the N36 trimer and blocks HIV-1 infection effectively, compared with the antiserum obtained by immunization of the N36 monomer. Using another template designed with different C3-symmetric linkers, we have also developed a synthetic peptide mimicking the trimeric form of the CHR-derived peptide C34, with ∼100 times the inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 fusion mechanism than that of the monomer C34 peptide. A dimeric derivative of C34 has potent inhibitory activity at almost the same levels as this C34 trimer mimic, suggesting that presence of a dimeric form of C34 is structurally critical for fusion inhibitors. As examples of rising mid-size drugs, this review describes an effective strategy for the design of HIV vaccines and fusion inhibitors based on a relationship with the native structure of proteins involved in HIV fusion mechanisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 622-628, 2016.

  1. Surface force measurements and simulations of mussel-derived peptide adhesives on wet organic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Levine, Zachary A; Rapp, Michael V; Wei, Wei; Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Wu, Chun; Zerze, Gül H; Mittal, Jeetain; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2016-04-19

    Translating sticky biological molecules-such as mussel foot proteins (MFPs)-into synthetic, cost-effective underwater adhesives with adjustable nano- and macroscale characteristics requires an intimate understanding of the glue's molecular interactions. To help facilitate the next generation of aqueous adhesives, we performed a combination of surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurements and replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations on a synthetic, easy to prepare, Dopa-containing peptide (MFP-3s peptide), which adheres to organic surfaces just as effectively as its wild-type protein analog. Experiments and simulations both show significant differences in peptide adsorption on CH3-terminated (hydrophobic) and OH-terminated (hydrophilic) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), where adsorption is strongest on hydrophobic SAMs because of orientationally specific interactions with Dopa. Additional umbrella-sampling simulations yield free-energy profiles that quantitatively agree with SFA measurements and are used to extract the adhesive properties of individual amino acids within the context of MFP-3s peptide adhesion, revealing a delicate balance between van der Waals, hydrophobic, and electrostatic forces.

  2. Surface force measurements and simulations of mussel-derived peptide adhesives on wet organic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Zachary A.; Rapp, Michael V.; Wei, Wei; Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Wu, Chun; Zerze, Gül H.; Mittal, Jeetain; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2016-01-01

    Translating sticky biological molecules—such as mussel foot proteins (MFPs)—into synthetic, cost-effective underwater adhesives with adjustable nano- and macroscale characteristics requires an intimate understanding of the glue’s molecular interactions. To help facilitate the next generation of aqueous adhesives, we performed a combination of surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurements and replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations on a synthetic, easy to prepare, Dopa-containing peptide (MFP-3s peptide), which adheres to organic surfaces just as effectively as its wild-type protein analog. Experiments and simulations both show significant differences in peptide adsorption on CH3-terminated (hydrophobic) and OH-terminated (hydrophilic) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), where adsorption is strongest on hydrophobic SAMs because of orientationally specific interactions with Dopa. Additional umbrella-sampling simulations yield free-energy profiles that quantitatively agree with SFA measurements and are used to extract the adhesive properties of individual amino acids within the context of MFP-3s peptide adhesion, revealing a delicate balance between van der Waals, hydrophobic, and electrostatic forces. PMID:27036002

  3. Penetration of Milk-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides into Phospholipid Monolayers as Model Biomembranes

    PubMed Central

    Rogalska, Ewa; Więcław-Czapla, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Three antimicrobial peptides derived from bovine milk proteins were examined with regard to penetration into insoluble monolayers formed with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(1-glycerol) sodium salt (DPPG). Effects on surface pressure (Π) and electric surface potential (ΔV) were measured, Π with a platinum Wilhelmy plate and ΔV with a vibrating plate. The penetration measurements were performed under stationary diffusion conditions and upon the compression of the monolayers. The two type measurements showed greatly different effects of the peptide-lipid interactions. Results of the stationary penetration show that the peptide interactions with DPPC monolayer are weak, repulsive, and nonspecific while the interactions with DPPG monolayer are significant, attractive, and specific. These results are in accord with the fact that antimicrobial peptides disrupt bacteria membranes (negative) while no significant effect on the host membranes (neutral) is observed. No such discrimination was revealed from the compression isotherms. The latter indicate that squeezing the penetrant out of the monolayer upon compression does not allow for establishing the penetration equilibrium, so the monolayer remains supersaturated with the penetrant and shows an under-equilibrium orientation within the entire compression range, practically. PMID:24455264

  4. Fetoprotein Derived Short Peptide Coated Nanostructured Amphiphilic Surfaces for Targeting Mouse Breast Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexandra M.; Miranda-Alarćon, Yoliem S.; Knoll, Grant A.; Santora, Anthony M.; Banerjee, Ipsita A.

    In this work, self-assembled tumor targeting nanostructured surfaces were developed from a newly designed amphiphile by conjugating boc protected isoleucine with 2,2‧ ethylenedioxy bis ethylamine (IED). To target mouse mammary tumor cells, a short peptide sequence derived from the human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), LSEDKLLACGEG was attached to the self-assembled nanostructures. Tumor targeting and cell proliferation were examined in the presence of nanoscale assemblies. To further obliterate mouse breast tumor cells, the chemotherapeutic drug tamoxifen was then entrapped into the nanoassemblies. Our studies indicated that the targeting systems were able to efficiently encapsulate and release tamoxifen. Cell proliferation studies showed that IED-AFP peptide loaded with tamoxifen decreased the proliferation of breast cancer cells while in the presence of the IED-AFP peptide nanoassemblies alone, the growth was relatively slower. In the presence of human dermal fibroblasts however cell proliferation continued similar to controls. Furthermore, the nanoscale assemblies were found to induce apoptosis in mouse breast cancer cells. To examine live binding interactions, SPR analysis revealed that tamoxifen encapsulated IED-AFP peptide nanoassemblies bound to the breast cancer cells more efficiently compared to unencapsulated assemblies. Thus, we have developed nanoscale assemblies that can specifically bind to and target tumor cells, with increased toxicity in the presence of a chemotherapeutic drug.

  5. Chicken cathelicidin-2-derived peptides with enhanced immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities against biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Molhoek, E Margo; van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Dijk-Knijnenburg, Helma; Mars-Groenendijk, Roos H; Boele, Linda C L; Kaman-van Zanten, Wendy E; Haagsman, Henk P; Bikker, Floris J

    2010-09-01

    Host defence peptides (HDPs) are considered to be excellent candidates for the development of novel therapeutic agents. Recently, it was demonstrated that the peptide C1-15, an N-terminal segment of chicken HDP cathelicidin-2, exhibits potent antibacterial activity while lacking cytotoxicity towards eukaryotic cells. In the present study, we report that C1-15 is active against bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis that may potentially be used by bioterrorists. Substitution of single and multiple phenylalanine (Phe) residues to tryptophan (Trp) in C1-15 resulted in variants with improved antibacterial activity against B. anthracis and Y. pestis as well as decreased salt sensitivity. In addition, these peptides exhibited enhanced neutralisation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The antibacterial and LPS-neutralising activities of these C1-15-derived peptides are exerted at concentrations far below the concentrations that are toxic to human PBMCs. Taken together, we show that Phe-->Trp substitutions in C1-15 variants enhances the antibacterial and LPS-neutralising activities against pathogenic bacteria, including those that may potentially be used as biological warfare agents.

  6. Tyrosine sulfation influences the chemokine binding selectivity of peptides derived from chemokine receptor CCR3.

    PubMed

    Zhu, John Z; Millard, Christopher J; Ludeman, Justin P; Simpson, Levi S; Clayton, Daniel J; Payne, Richard J; Widlanski, Theodore S; Stone, Martin J

    2011-03-08

    The interactions of chemokines with their G protein-coupled receptors play critical roles in the control of leukocyte trafficking in normal homeostasis and in inflammatory responses. Tyrosine sulfation is a common post-translational modification in the amino-terminal regions of chemokine receptors. However, tyrosine sulfation of chemokine receptors is commonly incomplete or heterogeneous. To investigate the possibility that differential sulfation of two adjacent tyrosine residues could bias the responses of chemokine receptor CCR3 to different chemokines, we have studied the binding of three chemokines (eotaxin-1/CCL11, eotaxin-2/CCL24, and eotaxin-3/CCL26) to an N-terminal CCR3-derived peptide in each of its four possible sulfation states. Whereas the nonsulfated peptide binds to the three chemokines with approximately equal affinity, sulfation of Tyr-16 gives rise to 9-16-fold selectivity for eotaxin-1 over the other two chemokines. Subsequent sulfation of Tyr-17 contributes additively to the affinity for eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 but cooperatively to the affinity for eotaxin-3. The doubly sulfated peptide selectively binds to both eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-3 approximately 10-fold more tightly than to eotaxin-2. Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift mapping indicates that these variations in affinity probably result from only subtle differences in the chemokine surfaces interacting with these receptor peptides. These data support the proposal that variations in sulfation states or levels may regulate the responsiveness of chemokine receptors to their cognate chemokines.

  7. Hexokinase II–derived cell-penetrating peptide targets mitochondria and triggers apoptosis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Woldetsadik, Abiy D.; Vogel, Maria C.; Rabeh, Wael M.; Magzoub, Mazin

    2017-01-01

    Overexpression of mitochondria-bound hexokinase II (HKII) in cancer cells plays an important role in their metabolic reprogramming and protects them against apoptosis, thereby facilitating their growth and proliferation. Here, we show that covalently coupling a peptide corresponding to the mitochondrial membrane–binding N-terminal 15 aa of HKII (pHK) to a short, penetration-accelerating sequence (PAS) enhances the cellular uptake, mitochondrial localization, and cytotoxicity of the peptide in HeLa cells. Further analysis revealed that pHK-PAS depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, and depleted intracellular ATP levels. The effects of pHK-PAS were correlated with dissociation of endogenous full-length HKII from mitochondria and release of cytochrome c. Of significance, pHK-PAS treatment of noncancerous HEK293 cells resulted in substantially lower cytotoxicity. Thus, pHK-PAS effectively disrupted the mitochondria-HKII association in cancer cells, which led to mitochondrial dysfunction and, finally, apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the potential of the pHK-PAS cell-penetrating peptide as a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer.—Woldetsadik, A. D., Vogel, M. C., Rabeh, W. M., Magzoub, M. Hexokinase II–derived cell-penetrating peptide targets mitochondria and triggers apoptosis in cancer cells.

  8. Predicting three-dimensional conformations of peptides constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine.

    PubMed

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  9. Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  10. Identification of the peptide derived from S1 domain that inhibits type I and type II feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Koyama, Yusuke; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-06-02

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) can cause a lethal disease in cats, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A therapeutic drug that is effective against FIP has not yet been developed. Peptides based on viral protein amino acid sequences have recently been attracting attention as new antiviral drugs. In the present study, we synthesized 30 overlapping peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the S1 domain of the type I FIPV strain KU-2 S protein, and investigated their inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. To evaluate the inhibitory effects on type I FIPV infection of these peptides, we investigated a method to increase the infection efficiency of poorly replicative type I FIPV. The efficiency of type I FIPV infection was increased by diluting the virus with medium containing a polycation. Of the 30 peptides, I-S1-8 (S461-S480), I-S1-9 (S471-S490), I-S1-10 (S481-S500), I-S1-16 (S541-S560), and I-S1-22 (S601-S620) significantly decreased the infectivity of FIPV strain KU-2 while I-S1-9 and I-S1-16 exhibited marked inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. The inhibitory effects on FIPV infection of these 2 peptides on other type I and type II FIPV strains, feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) were also examined. These 2 peptides specifically inhibited type I and type II FIPV, but did FHV or FCV infection. In conclusion, the possibility of peptides derived from the S protein of type I FIPV strain KU-2 as anti-FIPV agents effective not only for type I, but also type II FIPV was demonstrated in vitro.

  11. REACTION OF AMINO-ACIDS AND PEPTIDE BONDS WITH FORMALDEHYDE AS MEASURED BY CHANGES IN THE ULTRA-VIOLET SPECTRA,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AMINO ACIDS , CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*PEPTIDES, CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*FORMALDEHYDE, CHEMICAL REACTIONS), (*ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY, PROTEINS), ABSORPTION SPECTRA, CHEMICAL BONDS, AMIDES, CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM, REACTION KINETICS

  12. A GBP 130 derived peptide from Plasmodium falciparum binds to human erythrocytes and inhibits merozoite invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suarez, J E; Urquiza, M; Curtidor, H; Rodriguez, L E; Ocampo, M; Torres, E; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-01-01

    The malarial GBP 130 protein binds weakly to intact human erythrocytes; the binding sites seem to be located in the repeat region and this region's antibodies block the merozoite invasion. A peptide from this region (residues from 701 to 720) which binds to human erythrocytes was identified. This peptide named 2220 did not bind to sialic acid; the binding site on human erythrocyte was affected by treatment with trypsin but not by chymotrypsin. The peptide was able to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. The residues F701, K703, L705, T706, E713 (FYKILTNTDPNDEVERDNAD) were found to be critical for peptide binding to erythrocytes.

  13. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid and derivatives: convenient reagents for reversible modification of arginine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, C.S.; Pelzig, M.; Glass, J.D.

    1980-02-01

    Camphorquinone-10-sulfonic acid hydrate was prepared by the action of selenous acid on camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Camphorquinone-10-sulfonylnorleucine was prepared either from the sulfonic acid via the sulfonyl chloride or by selenous acid oxidation of camphor-10-sulfonylnorleucine. These reagents are useful for specific, reversible modification of the guanidino groups of arginine residues. Camphorquinonsulfonic acid is a crystalline water-soluble reagent that is especially suitable for use with small arginine-containing molecules, because the sulfonic acid group of the reagent is a convenient handle for analytical and preparative separation of products. Camphorquinonesulfonylnorleucine is more useful for work with large polypeptides and proteins, because hydrolysates of modified proteins may be analyzed for norleucine to determine the extent of arginine modification. The adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are stable to 0.5 M hydroxylamine solutions at pH 7, the recommended conditions for cleavage of the corresponding cyclohexanedione adducts. At pH 8-9 the adducts of the camphorquinone derivatives with the guanidino group are cleaved by o-phenylenediamine. The modification and regeneration of arginine, of the dipeptide arginylaspartic acid, of ribonuclease S-peptide, and of soybean trypsin inhibitor are presented as demonstrations of the use of the reagents.The use of camphorquinonesulfonyl chloride to prepare polymers containing arginine-specific ligands is discussed.

  14. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo.

  15. NMR structures of anti-HIV D-peptides derived from the N-terminus of viral chemokine vMIP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Mayuko; Liu Dongxiang; Kumar, Santosh; Huang Ziwei; E-mail: ziweihuang@burnham.org

    2005-09-30

    The viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II (vMIP-II) encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus has unique biological activities in that it blocks the cell entry by several different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains via chemokine receptors including CXCR4 and CCR5. In this paper, we report the solution structure of all-D-amino acid peptides derived from the N-terminus of vMIP-II, which have been shown to have strong CXCR4 binding activity and potently inhibit HIV-1 entry via CXCR4, by using long mixing time two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy experiments. Both of all-D-peptides vMIP-II (1-10) and vMIP-II (1-21), which are designated as DV3 and DV1, respectively, have higher CXCR4 binding ability than their L-peptide counterparts. They are partially structured in aqueous solution, displaying a turn-like structure over residues 5-8. The small temperature coefficients of His-6 amide proton for both peptides also suggest the formation of a small hydrophobic pocket centered on His-6. The structural features of DV3 are very similar to the reported solution structure of all-L-peptide vMIP-II (1-10) [M.P. Crump, E. Elisseeva, J. Gong, I. Clark-Lewis, B.D. Sykes, Structure/function of human herpesvirus-8 MIP-II (1-71) and the antagonist N-terminal segment (1-10), FEBS Lett. 489 (2001) 171], which is consistent with the notion that D- and L-enantiomeric peptides can adopt mirror image conformations. The NMR structures of the D-peptides provide a structural basis to understand their mechanism of action and design new peptidomimetic analogs to further explore the structure-activity relationship of D-peptide ligand binding to CXCR4.

  16. Effect of enamel matrix derivative and of proline-rich synthetic peptides on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells toward the osteogenic lineage.

    PubMed

    Ramis, Joana Maria; Rubert, Marina; Vondrasek, Jiri; Gayà, Antoni; Lyngstadaas, Staale Petter; Monjo, Marta

    2012-06-01

    With the aim of discovering new molecules for induction of bone formation and biomineralization, combination of bioinformatics and simulation methods were used to design the structure of artificial peptides based on proline-rich domains of enamel matrix proteins. In this study, the effect of such peptides on the differentiation toward the osteogenic lineage of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) was evaluated with or without osteogenic supplements (hydrocortisone, β-glycerol phosphate, and ascorbic acid) and compared to the effect of the commercially available enamel matrix derivative (EMD). It was hypothesized that the differentiation toward the osteogenic lineage of hUCMSCs would be promoted by the treatment with the synthetic peptides when combined with differentiation media, or it could even be directed exclusively by the synthetic peptides. Osteoinductivity was assessed by cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2 secretion, and gene expression of osteogenic markers after 1, 3, and 14 days of treatment. All peptides were safe with the dosages used, showing lower cell toxicity. P2, P4, and P6 reduced cell proliferation with growing media by 10%-15%. Higher expression of early osteoblast markers was found after 3 days of treatment with EMD in combination with osteogenic supplements, while after 14 days of treatment, cells treated by the different synthetic peptides in combination with osteogenic supplements showed higher osteocalcin mRNA levels. We can conclude that osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs is promoted by short-term EMD treatment in combination with osteogenic supplements and by long-term treatment by the synthetic peptides in combination with osteogenic supplements, showing similar results for all the peptide variants analyzed in this study.

  17. Natural cinnamic acids, synthetic derivatives and hybrids with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Juan David

    2014-11-25

    Antimicrobial natural preparations involving cinnamon, storax and propolis have been long used topically for treating infections. Cinnamic acids and related molecules are partly responsible for the therapeutic effects observed in these preparations. Most of the cinnamic acids, their esters, amides, aldehydes and alcohols, show significant growth inhibition against one or several bacterial and fungal species. Of particular interest is the potent antitubercular activity observed for some of these cinnamic derivatives, which may be amenable as future drugs for treating tuberculosis. This review intends to summarize the literature data on the antimicrobial activity of the natural cinnamic acids and related derivatives. In addition, selected hybrids between cinnamic acids and biologically active scaffolds with antimicrobial activity were also included. A comprehensive literature search was performed collating the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each cinnamic acid or derivative against the reported microorganisms. The MIC data allows the relative comparison between series of molecules and the derivation of structure-activity relationships.

  18. Influence of peptides and amino acids on fermentation rate and de novo synthesis of amino acids by mixed micro-organisms from the sheep rumen.

    PubMed

    Atasoglu, C; Valdés, C; Newbold, C J; Wallace, R J

    1999-04-01

    The influence of different N sources on fermentation rate and de novo amino acid synthesis by rumen micro-organisms was investigated in vitro using rumen fluid taken from four sheep receiving a mixed diet comprising (g/kg DM): grass hay 500, barley 299.5, molasses 100, fish meal 91, minerals and vitamins 9.5. Pancreatic casein hydrolysate (P; comprising mainly peptides with some free amino acids; 10 g/l), free amino acids (AA; casein acid hydrolysate + added cysteine and tryptophan; 10 g/l), or a mixture of L-proline, glycine, L-valine and L-threonine (M; 0.83 g/l each) were added to diluted (1:3, v/v), strained rumen fluid along with 15NH4Cl (A; 1.33 g/l) and 6.7 g/l of a mixture of starch, cellobiose and xylose (1:1:1, by weight). P and AA, but not M, stimulated net gas production after 4 and 8 h incubation (P < 0.05) in comparison with A alone. P increased microbial-protein synthesis (P < 0.05) compared with the other treatments. All of the microbial-N formed after 10 h was synthesized de novo from 15NH3 in treatment A, and the addition of pre-formed amino acids decreased the proportion to 0.37, 0.55, and 0.86 for P, AA, and M respectively. De novo synthesis of amino acids (0.29, 0.42 and 0.69 respectively) was lower than cell-N. Enrichment of alanine, glutamate and aspartate was slightly higher than that of other amino acids, while enrichment in proline was much lower, such that 0.83-0.95 of all proline incorporated into particulate matter was derived from pre-formed proline. Glycine, methionine, lysine, valine and threonine tended to be less enriched than other amino acids. The form in which the amino acids were supplied, as P or AA, had little influence on the pattern of de novo synthesis. When the concentration of peptides was decreased, the proportion of microbial-N formed from NH3 increased, so that at an initial concentration of 1 g peptides/l, similar to the highest reported ruminal peptide concentrations, 0.68 of cell-N was formed from NH3. Decreasing

  19. Identification of Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships, Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-17

    Universal Phylogenetic Tree of Bacteria Based on SSU rRNA Sequences Aquificae Termotogae Planctomycetes Actinobacteria Firmicutes Cyanobacteria...Identification of Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins Jacek P...Bacteria Using Phylogenetic Relationships Revealed by MS/MS Sequencing of Tryptic Peptides Derived from Cellular Proteins 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  20. Gallotannins and Tannic Acid: First Chemical Syntheses and In Vitro Inhibitory Activity on Alzheimer's Amyloid β-Peptide Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sylla, Tahiri; Pouységu, Laurent; Da Costa, Grégory; Deffieux, Denis; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Quideau, Stéphane

    2015-07-06

    The screening of natural products in the search for new lead compounds against Alzheimer's disease has unveiled several plant polyphenols that are capable of inhibiting the formation of toxic β-amyloid fibrils. Gallic acid based gallotannins are among these polyphenols, but their antifibrillogenic activity has thus far been examined using "tannic acid", a commercial mixture of gallotannins and other galloylated glucopyranoses. The first total syntheses of two true gallotannins, a hexagalloylglucopyranose and a decagalloylated compound whose structure is commonly used to depict "tannic acid", are now described. These depsidic gallotannins and simpler galloylated glucose derivatives all inhibit amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) aggregation in vitro, and monogalloylated α-glucogallin and a natural β-hexagalloylglucose are shown to be the strongest inhibitors.

  1. Diversity in prokaryotic glycosylation: an archaeal-derived N-linked glycan contains legionaminic acid.

    PubMed

    Kandiba, Lina; Aitio, Olli; Helin, Jari; Guan, Ziqiang; Permi, Perttu; Bamford, Dennis H; Eichler, Jerry; Roine, Elina

    2012-05-01

    VP4, the major structural protein of the haloarchaeal pleomorphic virus, HRPV-1, is glycosylated. To define the glycan structure attached to this protein, oligosaccharides released by β-elimination were analysed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Such analyses showed that the major VP4-derived glycan is a pentasaccharide comprising glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, sulphated glucuronic acid and a terminal 5-N-formyl-legionaminic acid residue. This is the first observation of legionaminic acid, a sialic acid-like sugar, in an archaeal-derived glycan structure. The importance of this residue for viral infection was demonstrated upon incubation with N-acetylneuraminic acid, a similar monosaccharide. Such treatment reduced progeny virus production by half 4 h post infection. LC-ESI/MS analysis confirmed the presence of pentasaccharide precursors on two different VP4-derived peptides bearing the N-glycosylation signal, NTT. The same sites modified by the native host, Halorubrum sp. strain PV6, were also recognized by the Haloferax volcanii N-glycosylation apparatus, as determined by LC-ESI/MS of heterologously expressed VP4. Here, however, the N-linked pentasaccharide was the same as shown to decorate the S-layer glycoprotein in this species. Hence, N-glycosylation of the haloarchaeal viral protein, VP4, is host-specific. These results thus present additional examples of archaeal N-glycosylation diversity and show the ability of Archaea to modify heterologously expressed proteins.

  2. Peptide modules for overcoming barriers of nucleic acids transport to cells.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Anna A; Kiselev, Anton V

    2016-01-01

    Absence of safe and efficient methods of nucleic acids delivery is one of the major issues which limits the development of human gene therapy. Highly efficient viral vectors raise questions due to safety reasons. Among non-viral vectors peptide-based carriers can be considered as good candidates for the development of "artificial viruses"--multifunctional polyplexes that mimic viruses. Suggested strategy to obtain multifunctionality is to combine several peptide modules into one modular carrier. Different kinds of peptide modules are needed for successful overcoming barriers of nucleic acids transport into the cells. Design of such modules and establishment of structure-function relationships are issues of importance to researchers working in the field of nucleic acids delivery.

  3. Effect of Fatty Acid Conjugation on Antimicrobial Peptide Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    killing mechanism of antimicrobial peptides makes them an interesting alternative to traditional antibiotics, as target bacteria may be less able...C14-AKK and C16-AKK to within a 7% error are 220 and 16mM respectively. Since amphipathicity is requisite for antimicrobial action KAK is not...Schnaare, 2000: Antimicrobial evaluation of N-alkyl betaines and N-alkyl-N,N-dimethylamine oxides with variations in chain length. Antimicrobial Agents

  4. Targeting pre-miRNA by Peptide Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Avitabile, Concetta; Saviano, Michele; D'Andrea, Luca; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Fabbri, Enrica; Brognara, Eleonora; Gambari, Roberto; Romanelli, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    PNAs conjugated to carrier peptides have been employed for the targeting of miRNA precursor, with the aim to develop molecules able to interfere in the pre-miRNA processing. The capability of the molecules to bind pre-miRNA has been tested in vitro by fluorescence assayes on Thiazole Orange labeled molecules and in vivo, in K562 cells, evaluating the amount of miRNA produced after treatment of cells with two amounts of PNAs. PMID:22699795

  5. Novel strategy for protein production using a peptide tag derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Aa.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tohru; Sato, Shinya; Iwamoto, Shigehisa; Sudo, Shigeo; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Yamashita, Takaaki; Uchida, Motoaki; Matsushima, Kenji; Kashino, Yohko; Sakai, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Numerous proteins cannot be sufficiently prepared by ordinary recombinant DNA techniques because they are unstable or have deleterious effects on the host cell. One idea to prepare such proteins is to produce them as protein inclusions. Here we developed a novel system to effectively prepare proteins by using peptide tags derived from the insecticidal Cry toxin of a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. Fusion with this peptide tag, designated 4AaCter, facilitates the formation of protein inclusions of glutathione S-transferase in Escherichia coli without losing the enzyme activity. Application of 4AaCter to the production of syphilis antigens TpN15, TpN17 and TpN47 from Treponema pallidum yielded excellent results, including a dramatic increase in the production level, simplification of the product purification and high reactivity with syphilis antibody. The use of 4AaCter may provide an innovational strategy for the efficient production of proteins.

  6. Antioxidant activity of a novel synthetic hexa-peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin by-products.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kwon, Hyuck-Ju; Kang, Seo-Hee; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2013-12-01

    A peptide was synthesized on the basis of our previous study from solid phase peptide synthesis using ASP48S (Peptron Inc.) and identified by the reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Vydac Everest C18 column. The molecular mass of the peptide found to be 693.90 Da, and the amino acid sequences of the peptide was Trp-Tyr-Pro-Ala-Ala-Pro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antioxidant effects of the peptide by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer, and on t-BHP-induced liver cells damage in Chang cells. The antioxidative activity of the peptide was evaluated by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, alkyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity using an ESR spectrometer. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of the peptide for hydroxyl, DPPH, alkyl, and superoxide radical scavenging activity were 45.2, 18.5, 31.5, and 33.4 μM, respectively. In addition, the peptide inhibited productions of cell death against t-BHP-induced liver cell damage in Chang cells. It was presumed to be peptide involved in regulating the apoptosis-related gene expression in the cell environment. The present results indicate that the peptide substantially contributes to antioxidative properties in liver cells.

  7. Effects of Acidic Peptide Size and Sequence on Trivalent Praseodymium Adduction and Electron Transfer Dissociation Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Commodore, Juliette J; Cassady, Carolyn J

    2017-02-07

    Using the lanthanide ion praseodymium, Pr(III), metallated ion formation and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) were studied for 25 biological and model acidic peptides. For chain lengths of seven or more residues, even highly acidic peptides that can be difficult to protonate by electrospray ionization will metallate and undergo abundant ETD fragmentation. Peptides composed of predominantly acidic residues form only the deprotonated ion, [M + Pr - H](2+) ; this ion yields near complete ETD sequence coverage for larger peptides. Peptides with a mixture of acidic and neutral residues, generate [M + Pr](3+) , which cleaves between every residue for many peptides. Acidic peptides that contain at least one residue with a basic side chain also produce the protonated ion, [M + Pr + H](4+) ; this ion undergoes the most extensive sequence coverage by ETD. Primarily metallated and non-metallated c- and z-ions form for all peptides investigated. Metal adducted product ions are only present when at least half of the peptide sequence can be incorporated into the ion; this suggests that the metal ion simultaneously attaches to more than one acidic site. The only site consistently lacking dissociation is at the N-terminal side of a proline residue. Increasing peptide chain length generates more backbone cleavage for metal-peptide complexes with the same charge state. For acidic peptides with the same length, increasing the precursor ion charge state from 2+ to 3+ also leads to more cleavage. The results of this study indicate that highly acidic peptides can be sequenced by ETD of complexes formed with Pr(III).

  8. Pharmacokinetics of butyric acid derivative with xylitol.

    PubMed

    Desmet, G; Brazier, M; Cerutti, J; Chany, C; Arnould-Guerin, M L

    1991-01-01

    The short chain fatty acids, especially butyric acid salts have interesting biological properties. In some cases, transformed cells can recover a normal phenotype and in animal, butyrate salts increase antitumor resistance. Butyrate may be considered as possibly useful for antitumor therapy. But these products exhibit two essential disadvantages which restrict their clinical use in man: high concentrations required to achieve therapeutic effects and rapid excretion with short half life. In order to optimize the clinical use of butyrate, we studied a n-butyric acid ester obtained with xylitol selected for its physiological and metabolic inertia. Structure determination of tributyryl xylitol was carried out by mass and NMR spectrometry (MW = 344). The low toxicity and the antitumor effects of this ester, especially in association with Corynebacterium parvum and interferon, confirm its therapeutic interest. The slow excretion of this prodrug should make butyrate clinical use easier by preventing extensive systemic metabolism and metabolic side-effects due to cations of butyrate salts.

  9. Calcium Binding to Amino Acids and Small Glycine Peptides in Aqueous Solution: Toward Peptide Design for Better Calcium Bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-06-01

    Deprotonation of amino acids as occurs during transfer from stomach to intestines during food digestion was found by comparison of complex formation constants as determined electrochemically for increasing pH to increase calcium binding (i) by a factor of around 6 for the neutral amino acids, (ii) by a factor of around 4 for anions of the acidic amino acids aspartic and glutamic acid, and (iii) by a factor of around 5.5 for basic amino acids. Optimized structures of the 1:1 complexes and ΔHbinding for calcium binding as calculated by density functional theory (DFT) confirmed in all complexes a stronger calcium binding and shorter calcium-oxygen bond length in the deprotonated form. In addition, the stronger calcium binding was also accompanied by a binding site shift from carboxylate binding to chelation by α-amino group and carboxylate oxygen for leucine, aspartate, glutamate, alanine, and asparagine. For binary amino acid mixtures, the calcium-binding constant was close to the predicted geometric mean of the individual amino acid binding constants indicating separate binding of calcium to two amino acids when present together in solution. At high pH, corresponding to conditions for calcium absorption, the binding affinity increased in the order Lys < Arg < Cys < Gln < Gly ∼ Ala < Asn < His < Leu < Glu< Asp. In a series of glycine peptides, calcium-binding affinity was found to increase in the order Gly-Leu ∼ Gly-Gly < Ala-Gly < Gly-His ∼ Gly-Lys-Gly < Glu-Cys-Gly < Gly-Glu, an ordering confirmed by DFT calculations for the dipeptides and which also accounted for large synergistic effects in calcium binding for up to 6 kJ/mol when compared to the corresponding amino acid mixtures.

  10. Predicting anticancer peptides with Chou's pseudo amino acid composition and investigating their mutagenicity via Ames test.

    PubMed

    Hajisharifi, Zohre; Piryaiee, Moien; Mohammad Beigi, Majid; Behbahani, Mandana; Mohabatkar, Hassan

    2014-01-21

    Cancer is an important reason of death worldwide. Traditional cytotoxic therapies, such as radiation and chemotherapy, are expensive and cause severe side effects. Currently, design of anticancer peptides is a more effective way for cancer treatment. So there is a need to develop a computational method for predicting the anticancer peptides. In the present study, two methods have been developed to predict these peptides using support vector machine (SVM) as a powerful machine learning algorithm. Classifiers have been applied based on the concept of Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC) and local alignment kernel. Since a number of HIV-1 proteins have cytotoxic effect, therefore we predicted the anticancer effect of HIV-1 p24 protein with these methods. After the prediction, mutagenicity of 2 anticancer peptides and 2 non-anticancer peptides was investigated by Ames test. Our results show that, the accuracy and the specificity of local alignment kernel based method are 89.7% and 92.68%, respectively. The accuracy and specificity of PseAAC-based method are 83.82% and 85.36%, respectively. By computational analysis, out of 22 peptides of p24 protein, 4 peptides are anticancer and 18 are non-anticancer. In the Ames test results, it is clear that anticancer peptides (ARP788.8 and ARP788.21) are not mutagenic. Therefore the results demonstrate that the described computation methods are useful to identify potential anticancer peptides, which are worthy of further experimental validation and 2 peptides (ARP788.8 and ARP788.21) of HIV-1 p24 protein can be used as new anticancer candidates without mutagenicity.

  11. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA): A model structure for the primordial genetic material?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Peter Egil

    1993-12-01

    It is proposed that the primordial genetic material could have been peptide nucleic aicds,i.e., DNA analogues having a peptide backbone. PNA momomers based on the amino acid, α, γ-diaminobutyric acid or ornithine are suggested as compounds that could have been formed in the prebiotic soup. Finally, the possibility of a PNA/RNA world is presented, in which PNA constitutes the stable genetic material, while RNA which may be polymerized using the PNA as template accounts for enzymatic activities including PNA replication.

  12. Supra-molecular assembly of a lumican-derived peptide amphiphile enhances its collagen-stimulating activity.

    PubMed

    Walter, Merlin N M; Dehsorkhi, Ashkan; Hamley, Ian W; Connon, Che J

    2016-02-01

    C16-YEALRVANEVTLN, a peptide amphiphile (PA) incorporating a biologically active amino acid sequence found in lumican, has been examined for its influence upon collagen synthesis by human corneal fibroblasts in vitro, and the roles of supra-molecular assembly and activin receptor-like kinase ALK receptor signaling in this effect were assessed. Cell viability was monitored using the Alamar blue assay, and collagen synthesis was assessed using Sirius red. The role of ALK signaling was studied by receptor inhibition. Cultured human corneal fibroblasts synthesized significantly greater amounts of collagen in the presence of the PA over both 7-day and 21-day periods. The aggregation of the PA to form nanotapes resulted in a notable enhancement in this activity, with an approximately two-fold increase in collagen production per cell. This increase was reduced by the addition of an ALK inhibitor. The data presented reveal a stimulatory effect upon collagen synthesis by the primary cells of the corneal stroma, and demonstrate a direct influence of supra-molecular assembly of the PA upon the cellular response observed. The effects of PA upon fibroblasts were dependent upon ALK receptor function. These findings elucidate the role of self-assembled nanostructures in the biological activity of peptide amphiphiles, and support the potential use of a self-assembling lumican derived PA as a novel biomaterial, intended to promote collagen deposition for wound repair and tissue engineering purposes.

  13. [The Qualitative Analysis of the Amide Derivative of HLDF-6 Peptide and Its Metabolites with the Use of Tritium- and Deuterium-Labeled Derivatives].

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, A; Dadayan, A K; Kost, N V; Voevodina, M E; Sokolov, O Y; Kozik, V S; Shram, S I; Azev, V N; Bocharov, E V; Bogachouk, A P; Lipkin, V M; Myasoedov, N F

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to elaborate the pharmacokinetics methods of the amide derivative of peptide HLDF-6 (TGENHR-NH2) and its range of nootropic and neuroprotective activity is wide. The hexapeptide 41TGENHR46 is a fragment of the HDLF differentiation factor. It forms the basis for the development of preventive and therapeutic preparations for treating cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative conditions. Pharmacokinetic and molecular mechanisms of the action of the HLDF-6 peptide were studied using tritium- and deuterium-labeled derivatives of this peptide, produced with the use of the high-temperature solid-state catalytic isotope exchange reaction (HSCIE). This reaction was employed to produce the tritium-labeled peptide [3H]TGENHR-NH2 with a molar radioactivity of 230 Ci/mmol and the deuterium-labeled peptide [2H]TGENHR-NH2 with an average deuterium incorporation equal to 10.5 atoms. It was shown by the NMR spectroscopy that the isotope label distribution over the labeled peptide's molecule was uniform, which allowed qualitative analysis ofboth the peptide itself and its fragments in the organism's tissues to be conducted. The newly developed pharmacokinetics method makes it possible to avoid almost completely losses of the peptides under study due to biodegradation during the analysis of tissues. These labeled peptides were used in mice, rats and rabbits to study the pharmacokinetics of the peptide and to calculate the values of its principal pharmacokinetic parameters. Characteristics of its pharmacokinetic profile in the blood were obtained, the hypothesis of pharmacokinetics linearity tested, its metabolism analyzed and its bioavailability value, 34%, calculated. It has been shown that the studied TGENHR-NH2 peptide shows high resistance to hydrolysis in the blood plasma, with dipeptidyl aminopeptidases making the largest contribution to its hydrolysis.

  14. Peptide interfacial biomaterials improve endothelial cell adhesion and spreading on synthetic polyglycolic acid materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Zauscher, Stefan; Klitzman, Bruce; Truskey, George A; Reichert, William M; Kenan, Daniel J; Grinstaff, Mark W

    2010-06-01

    Resorbable scaffolds such as polyglycolic acid (PGA) are employed in a number of clinical and tissue engineering applications owing to their desirable property of allowing remodeling to form native tissue over time. However, native PGA does not promote endothelial cell adhesion. Here we describe a novel treatment with hetero-bifunctional peptide linkers, termed "interfacial biomaterials" (IFBMs), which are used to alter the surface of PGA to provide appropriate biological cues. IFBMs couple an affinity peptide for the material with a biologically active peptide that promotes desired cellular responses. One such PGA affinity peptide was coupled to the integrin binding domain, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), to build a chemically synthesized bimodular 27 amino acid peptide that mediated interactions between PGA and integrin receptors on endothelial cells. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCMD) was used to determine the association constant (K (A) 1 x 10(7) M(-1)) and surface thickness (~3.5 nm). Cell binding studies indicated that IFBM efficiently mediated adhesion, spreading, and cytoskeletal organization of endothelial cells on PGA in an integrin-dependent manner. We show that the IFBM peptide promotes a 200% increase in endothelial cell binding to PGA as well as 70-120% increase in cell spreading from 30 to 60 minutes after plating.

  15. Secretion modification region-derived peptide disrupts HIV-1 Nef's interaction with mortalin and blocks virus and Nef exosome release.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Martin N; Huang, Ming-Bo; Ali, Syed A; Powell, Michael D; Bond, Vincent C

    2012-01-01

    Nef is secreted from infected cells in exosomes and is found in abundance in the sera of HIV-infected individuals. Secreted exosomal Nef (exNef) induces apoptosis in uninfected CD4⁺ T cells and may be a key component of HIV pathogenesis. The exosomal pathway has been implicated in HIV-1 virus release, suggesting a possible link between these two viral processes. However, the underlying mechanisms and cellular components of exNef secretion have not been elucidated. We have previously described a Nef motif, the secretion modification region (SMR; amino acids 66 to 70), that is required for exNef secretion. In silico modeling data suggest that this motif can form a putative binding pocket. We hypothesized that the Nef SMR binds a cellular protein involved in protein trafficking and that inhibition of this interaction would abrogate exNef secretion. By using tandem mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation with a novel SMR-based peptide (SMRwt) that blocks exNef secretion and HIV-1 virus release, we identified mortalin as an SMR-specific cellular protein. A second set of coimmunoprecipitation experiments with full-length Nef confirmed that mortalin interacts with Nef via Nef's SMR motif and that this interaction is disrupted by the SMRwt peptide. Overexpression and microRNA knockdown of mortalin revealed a positive correlation between exNef secretion levels and mortalin protein expression. Using antibody inhibition we demonstrated that the Nef/mortalin interaction is necessary for exNef secretion. Taken together, this work constitutes a significant step in understanding the underlying mechanism of exNef secretion, identifies a novel host-pathogen interaction, and introduces an HIV-derived peptide with antiviral properties.

  16. Synthesis and antifungal activities of glycosylated derivatives of the cyclic peptide fungicide caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junxiang; Hu, Honggang; Zhao, Qingjie; Wang, Ting; Zou, Yan; Yu, Shichong; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by systemic fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem in recent decades. A series of glycosyl derivatives of the approved cyclic peptide antifungal drug caspofungin conjugated with β-D-glucopyranose, β-D-galactopyranose, β-D-xylopyranose, β-L-rhamnopyranose, β-maltose and β-lactose units were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as new potential antifungal drugs. The compounds were obtained by coupling the corresponding glycosyl amines to the free primary amino groups of caspofungin through a bifunctional glutaryl linker. In contrast to caspofungin, these glycosylated derivatives are soluble in water, but are not hygroscopic and moreover, are more stable than caspofungin under high humidity and temperature. CD studies showed that glycosylation has very little impact on the conformation of the cyclic peptide of caspofungin. In vitro antifungal tests against seven human pathogenic fungi revealed that the caspofungin-monosaccharide conjugates, but not the disaccharide conjugates, have increased antifungal activities against the majority of tested fungus species relative to caspofungin. The β-D-glucopyranosyl derivative 2 a showed the strongest and broadest antifungal activity, providing a lead for further studies.

  17. Synthesis of lipoic acid-peptide conjugates and their effect on collagen and melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chichong; Kim, Bo Mi; Lee, Duckhee; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Jin Hwa; Pyo, Hyeong-Bae; Chai, Kyu Yun

    2013-11-01

    We report new examples of lipoic acid (LA)-peptide conjugates, their potential as codrugs having anti-melanogenic and anti-aging properties was evaluated. These multifunctional molecules were prepared by linking lipophilic moiety (LA) to the pentapeptide KTTKS. The inhibitory effect of LA-peptide conjugates on melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity is stronger than that of LA or the pentapeptide alone. Importantly, the conjugates display no cytotoxicity at a high concentration. LA-KTTKS and LA-PEG-KTTKS also inhibit UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression up to 49.5% and 69.5% at 0.5 mM, respectively. LA-peptide conjugates stimulate collagen biosynthesis in fibroblasts more efficiently than their parent molecules do. These data suggest that LA-peptide conjugates may have cosmeceutical application as anti-melanogenic and anti-aging agents.

  18. Surface Functionalization of Piezoelectric Aluminum Nitride with Selected Amino Acid and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Edmund Ho Man

    In the present contribution, we elaborate on the covalent attachment of the amino acid cysteine and selected cysteine-bearing peptides, in aqueous buffered media, onto AlN surfaces modified with adlayers of one of our homemade bifunctional alkyltrichlorosilane cross-linking molecules bearing the benzenethiosulfonate head group. Surface characterizations confirmed the successful covalent immobilization of cysteine in buffered media, whereas the attachment of the peptides proved to be difficult as the undesired partial destruction of the adlayer on AlN by hydrolysis in aqueous/buffered solvent systems, which was confirmed in a separate study, appeared to have interfered with the covalent attachment and resulted in one of the peptides failing to immobilize. Future directions from this will focus on optimizing the solvent conditions for the cysteine/peptide immobilizations and the implementation of the surface chemistry to the covalent functionalization of AlN with biologically significant protein fragments, among them the antigen-binding fragment of antibodies.

  19. New biological aspects of chromogranin A-derived peptides: focus on vasostatins.

    PubMed

    Tota, Bruno; Quintieri, Anna Maria; Di Felice, Valentina; Cerra, Maria Carmela

    2007-05-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA), one component of the granin family, represents the major soluble protein co-stored and co-released with catecholamines, within chromaffin cells secretory granules. It is considered a diagnostic and prognostic marker of several diseases, including a variety of tumours and cardiac heart failure. It also represents a precursor of biologically active fragments, generated after proteolytic cleavage at the level of the multiple pairs of dibasic sites which enrich its sequence. CgA, and its derived fragments show an old evolutionary history being ubiquitously present throughout the animal word, from mammals to invertebrates. Their biological functions include control of hormone production, and several paracrine and autocrine actions mainly attributed to its derived peptides. Two N-terminal fragments, named vasostatins 1 (VS-1: CgA(1-76)) and vasostatin 2 (VS-2: CgA(1-113)) due to their ability to dilate pre-constricted vessels, exert a large spectrum of homeostatic actions, including antifungal and antimicrobial effect, modulation of cell adhesion, and inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion. Recently, on isolated heart preparations from eel, frog and rat they were shown to act as negative inotropic agents able to counteract the effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation. This short note introduces the abstracts of the contributions at the "International Workshop on Vasostatins and Chromogranin A-derived peptides" (Island of Capri, Italy; September 2005). The Workshop was focused on recent findings on the role of vasostatins (VSs) in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, extracellular fluids composition, and innate immunity. Particular attention has been given to the still elusive mechanism of action of these peptides.

  20. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep–wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress …) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis

  1. Ghrelin-Derived Peptides: A Link between Appetite/Reward, GH Axis, and Psychiatric Disorders?

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Alexandra; Fiquet, Oriane; Hassouna, Rim; Zizzari, Philippe; Lanfumey, Laurence; Ramoz, Nicolas; Grouselle, Dominique; Epelbaum, Jacques; Tolle, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles, and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators. Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic, and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia) as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity) and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress …) but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe (1) the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, (2) how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH axis.

  2. The potential use of rabies virus glycoprotein-derived peptides to facilitate drug delivery into the central nervous system: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Huey, Rachel; Hawthorne, Susan

    2016-08-31

    Rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG), a 505 amino acid type-1 glycoprotein, is responsible for the neurotrophic nature of the rabies virus infection. Despite varying reports in the literature as to which receptor is ultimately responsible for interaction of RVG with the nervous system, there is a strong argument for major nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) involvement. Peptide derivatives of RVG, such as rabies virus-derived peptide (RDP) and RVG-29 are emerging as promising targeting ligands for the delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS). The neurotrophic nature of RVG and indeed its derivatives may be due to interaction with ubiquitous nAChRs principally, but also association with other neural cell-specific molecules such as neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). It is possible that nAChR-mediated uptake of RVG-derived peptides may serve as an attractive new approach for targeting drug delivery to the brain. Potential application of this type of drug delivery system extends to many diseases affecting the CNS, where specific and effective drug delivery is normally a challenging process.

  3. Characterization of bioactive RGD peptide immobilized onto poly(acrylic acid) thin films by plasma polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyun Suk; Ko, Yeong Mu; Shim, Jae Won; Lim, Yun Kyong; Kook, Joong-Ki; Cho, Dong-Lyun; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Plasma surface modification can be used to improve the surface properties of commercial pure Ti by creating functional groups to produce bioactive materials with different surface topography. In this study, a titanium surface was modified with acrylic acid (AA) using a plasma treatment and immobilized with bioactive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, which may accelerate the tissue integration of bone implants. Both terminals containing the -NH2 of RGD peptide sequence and -COOH of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) thin film were combined with a covalent bond in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). The chemical structure and morphology of AA film and RGD immobilized surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analysis showed full coverage of the Ti substrate with the PAA thin film containing COOH groups and the RGD peptide. The MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on each specimen, and the cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were examined. The surface-immobilized RGD peptide has a significantly increased the ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that the RGD peptide immobilization on the titanium surface has an effect on osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and potential use in osteo-conductive bone implants.

  4. [Designation, solid-phase synthesis and antimicrobial activity of Mytilin derived peptides based on Mytilin-1 from Mytilus coruscus].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Wu, Mei; Zhou, Shiquan; Gao, Peng; Lu, Tao; Wang, Rixin; Shi, Ge; Liao, Zhi

    2010-04-01

    As a key role in mussel defense system, Mytilin is an important antibacterial peptide isolated from the mussel serum. The structural and functional researches on Mytilin showed that the fragment connecting two beta-sheets in a stable beta-hairpin structure was probably required for antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the structural features and the antimicrobial activity of this fragment, we re-designed and synthesized two peptides corresponding to the main mimic structures of Mytilin-1 from Mytilus coruscus, we named these two peptides Mytilin Derived Peptide-1 and Mytilin Derived Peptide-2, respectively. Using a liquid growth inhibition assay, we evaluated their activity towards Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. The results showed that both peptides can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Besides, these two peptides showed high stability in heat water and human serum. These works laid the foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of Mytilin and for further exploitation of antibacterial peptides with lower molecular mass and more stable structure.

  5. Successful immunotherapy with matrix metalloproteinase-derived peptides in adjuvant arthritis depends on the timing of peptide administration

    PubMed Central

    van Bilsen, Jolanda HM; Wagenaar-Hilbers, Josée PA; van der Cammen, Maarten JF; van Dijk, Mariska EA; van Eden, Willem; Wauben, Marca HM

    2002-01-01

    We have recently found that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are targets for T-cell and B-cell reactivity in experimental arthritis. In the present article, we investigate whether modulation of MMP-specific T-cell responses could influence the course of adjuvant arthritis (AA). Lewis rats were treated nasally with MMP peptides prior to or after AA induction. Administration of the MMP-10 or the MMP-16 peptide prior to AA induction reduced the arthritic symptoms. In contrast, administration of the MMP-10 peptide after AA induction aggravated the arthritic symptoms. The present study shows the possible usefulness of MMP peptides for immunotherapy. However, a clear understanding of proper timing of peptide administration is crucial for the development of such therapies. PMID:12106501

  6. A potent antimicrobial peptide derived from the protein LsGRP1 of Lilium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Chang, Min-Wei; Chen, Chao-Ying

    2014-04-01

    LsGRP1 is a defense-related gene differentially expressed in lily leaves in response to pathogen attack. The difficulty in the expression of LsGRP1 in Escherichia coli suggested the presence of antimicrobial activity in LsGRP1. To evaluate the antimicrobial trait of LsGRP1, three LsGRP1-derived peptides were chemically synthesized; namely LsGRP1(N) (N-terminal region without the signal peptide), LsGRP1(G) (glycine-rich region), and LsGRP1(C) (C-terminal cysteine-rich region). LsGRP1(C) was proposed to be a potential antimicrobial agent according to its broad-spectrum and effective antimicrobial activity. LsGRP1(C) displayed inhibition effects on bacterial and fungal growth, possibly by altering the integrity of the cell membrane, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy and SYTOX Green staining assays. Additionally, LsGRP1(C) induced programmed cell death-like phenomenon in the tested fungal species as indicated by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole assays. Further immunofluorescence staining showed that LsGRP1(C) was located at the fungal cell surface. According to these observations, we concluded that LsGRP1(C) originated from the plant defense-related protein LsGRP1 would play a role as an antimicrobial peptide and have a potential for practical use.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Oat Proteins Derived Peptides in Stressed Hepatic HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yichen; Esfandi, Ramak; Willmore, William G.; Tsopmo, Apollinaire

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, antioxidant activities of seven peptides (P1–P7) derived from hydrolysis of oat proteins in a cellular model. In the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that P2 had the highest radical scavenging activity (0.67 ± 0.02 µM Trolox equivalent (TE)/µM peptide) followed by P5, P3, P6, P4, P1, and P7 whose activities were between 0.14–0.61 µM TE/µM). In the hepatic HepG2 cells, none of the peptides was cytotoxic at 20–300 µM. In addition to having the highest ORAC value, P2 was also the most protective (29% increase in cell viability) against 2,2′-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride -induced oxidative stress. P1, P6, and P7 protected at a lesser extent, with an 8%–21% increase viability of cells. The protection of cells was attributed to several factors including reduced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, increased cellular glutathione, and increased activities of three main endogenous antioxidant enzymes. PMID:27775607

  8. Cell-permeable stapled peptides based on HIV-1 integrase inhibitors derived from HIV-1 gene products.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru; Aikawa, Haruo; Ohashi, Nami; Urano, Emiko; Métifiot, Mathieu; Fujino, Masayuki; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Ozaki, Taro; Nozue, Ami; Narumi, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Chie; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Pommier, Yves; Yamamoto, Naoki; Komano, Jun A; Murakami, Tsutomu; Tamamura, Hirokazu

    2013-10-18

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an enzyme which is indispensable for the stable infection of host cells because it catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the genome and thus is an attractive target for the development of anti-HIV agents. Earlier, we found Vpr-derived peptides with inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IN. These Vpr-derived peptides are originally located in an α-helical region of the parent Vpr protein. Addition of an octa-arginyl group to the inhibitory peptides caused significant inhibition against HIV replication associated with an increase in cell permeability but also relatively high cytotoxicity. In the current study, stapled peptides, a new class of stabilized α-helical peptidomimetics were adopted to enhance the cell permeability of the above lead peptides. A series of stapled peptides, which have a hydrocarbon link formed by a ruthenium-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis reaction between successive turns of α-helix, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for biological activity. In cell-based assays some of the stapled peptides showed potent anti-HIV activity comparable with that of the original octa-arginine-containing peptide (2) but with lower cytotoxicity. Fluorescent imaging experiments revealed that these stapled peptides are significantly cell permeable, and CD analysis showed they form α-helical structures, whereas the unstapled congeners form β-sheet structures. The application of this stapling strategy to Vpr-derived IN inhibitory peptides led to a remarkable increase in their potency in cells and a significant reduction of their cytotoxicity.

  9. Tetramer-organizing polyproline-rich peptides differ in CHO cell-expressed and plasma-derived human butyrylcholinesterase tetramers.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana

    2016-06-01

    Tetrameric butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in human plasma is the product of multiple genes, namely one BCHE gene on chromosome 3q26.1 and multiple genes that encode polyproline-rich peptides. The function of the polyproline-rich peptides is to assemble BChE into tetramers. CHO cells transfected with human BChE cDNA express BChE monomers and dimers, but only low quantities of tetramers. Our goal was to identify the polyproline-rich peptides in CHO-cell derived human BChE tetramers. CHO cell-produced human BChE tetramers were purified from serum-free culture medium. Peptides embedded in the tetramerization domain were released from BChE tetramers by boiling and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 270 proline-rich peptides were sequenced, ranging in size from 6-41 residues. The peptides originated from 60 different proteins that reside in multiple cell compartments including the nucleus, cytoplasm, and endoplasmic reticulum. No single protein was the source of the polyproline-rich peptides in CHO cell-expressed human BChE tetramers. In contrast, 70% of the tetramer-organizing peptides in plasma-derived BChE tetramers originate from lamellipodin. No protein source was identified for polyproline peptides containing up to 41 consecutive proline residues. In conclusion, the use of polyproline-rich peptides as a tetramerization motif is documented only for the cholinesterases, but is expected to serve other tetrameric proteins as well. The CHO cell data suggest that the BChE tetramer-organizing peptide can arise from a variety of proteins.

  10. Immunologic evaluation of peptides derived from BCR/ABL-out-of-frame fusion protein in HLA A2.1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Casnici, Claudia; Volpe, Gisella; Crotta, Katia; Lattuada, Donatella; Saglio, Giuseppe; Marelli, Ornella

    2012-05-01

    Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia express, besides the main BCR/ABL transcripts, novel BCR/ABL transcripts derived from alternative splicing between BCR exons 1, 13, or 14 with ABL exons 4 and 5. Their translational products present at C-terminus an amino acid portion derived from out-of-frame (OOF) reading of the ABL gene. The presence of OOF-peptide-specific T cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia patients was demonstrated and a first study in in vivo model demonstrated that OOF ABL portion was immunogenic in human leukcocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 transgenic mice. Here we immunized HLA A2.1 mice with novel peptides designed on the ABL OOF sequence, containing epitopes with high affinity for HLA A2.1 molecule. The specific immune response, cellular and humoral, obtained ex vivo against HLA A2.1-positive human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells using peptide 22-53 and the cytotoxic activity induced by peptide 32mer confirm the possibility to use the ABL OOF portion as target to evoke a specific and multiple immune response in Philadelphia positive leukemic patients in cytogenetic remission.

  11. A new flavellagic acid derivative and phloroglucinol from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Hiranrat, A; Chitbankluoi, W; Mahabusarakam, W; Limsuwan, S; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2012-01-01

    A new flavellagic acid derivative, 3,3',4,4'-tetra-O-methylflavellagic acid and six known compounds were isolated from the stems of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa while a new phloroglucinol, named rhodomyrtosone I, and six known compounds were isolated from the fruit. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses as well as by comparisons with related compounds.

  12. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  13. Synthesis of peptides from amino acids and ATP with lysine-rich proteinoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakashima, T.; Fox, S. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the synthesis of peptides from aminoacids and ATP with a lysine-rich protenoid. The latter in aqueous solution catalyzes the formation of peptides from free amino acids and ATP; this catalytic activity is not found in acidic protenoids, even though the latter contain a basic aminoacid. The pH optimum for the synthesis is about 11, but it is appreciable below 8 and above 13. Temperature data indicate an optimum at 20 C or above, with little increase in rate up to 60 C. Pyrophosphate can be used instead of ATP, but the yields are lower. The ATP-aided syntheses of peptides in aqueous solution occur with several types of proteinous aminoacids.

  14. Antimicrobial peptides incorporating non-natural amino acids as agents for plant protection.

    PubMed

    Ng-Choi, Iteng; Soler, Marta; Güell, Imma; Badosa, Esther; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Bardaji, Eduard; Montesinos, Emilio; Planas, Marta; Feliu, Lidia

    2014-04-01

    The control of plant pathogens is mainly based on copper compounds and antibiotics. However, the use of these compounds has some limitations. They have a high environmental impact and the use of antibiotics is not allowed in several countries. Moreover, resistance has been developed to these pathogens. The identification of new agents able to fight plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi will represent an alternative to currently used antibiotics or pesticides. Antimicrobial peptides are widely recognized as promising candidates, however naturally occurring sequences present drawbacks that limit their development. These include susceptibility to protease degradation and low bioavailability. To overcome these problems, research has focused on the introduction of unnatural amino acids into lead peptide sequences. In particular, we have improved the biological profile of antimicrobial peptides active against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi by incorporating triazolyl, biaryl and D-amino acids into their sequence. These modifications and their influence on the biological activity are summarized.

  15. Antibacterial activity of lactoferrin and a pepsin-derived lactoferrin peptide fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, K; Tomita, M; Giehl, T J; Ellison, R T

    1993-01-01

    Although the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin has been well described, its mechanism of action has been poorly characterized. Recent work has indicated that in addition to binding iron, human lactoferrin damages the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we determined whether bovine lactoferrin and a pepsin-derived bovine lactoferrin peptide (lactoferricin) fragment have similar activities. We found that both 20 microM bovine lactoferrin and 20 microM lactoferricin release intrinsically labeled [3H]lipopolysaccharide ([3H]LPS) from three bacterial strains, Escherichia coli CL99 1-2, Salmonella typhimurium SL696, and Salmonella montevideo SL5222. Under most conditions, more LPS is released by the peptide fragment than by whole bovine lactoferrin. In the presence of either lactoferrin or lactoferricin there is increased killing of E. coli CL99 1-2 by lysozyme. Like human lactoferrin, bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin have the ability to bind to free intrinsically labeled [3H]LPS molecules. In addition to these effects, whereas bovine lactoferrin was at most bacteriostatic, lactoferricin demonstrated consistent bactericidal activity against gram-negative bacteria. This bactericidal effect is modulated by the cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe3+ but is independent of the osmolarity of the medium. Transmission electron microscopy of bacterial cells exposed to lactoferricin show the immediate development of electron-dense "membrane blisters." These experiments offer evidence that bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin damage the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, the peptide fragment lactoferricin has direct bactericidal activity. As lactoferrin is exposed to proteolytic factors in vivo which could cleave the lactoferricin fragment, the effects of this peptide are of both mechanistic and physiologic relevance. Images PMID:8423097

  16. Acyl Meldrum's acid derivatives: application in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janikowska, K.; Rachoń, J.; Makowiec, S.

    2014-07-01

    This review is focused on an important class of Meldrum's acid derivatives commonly known as acyl Meldrum's acids. The preparation methods of these compounds are considered including the recently proposed and rather rarely used ones. The chemical properties of acyl Meldrum's acids are described in detail, including thermal stability and reactions with various nucleophiles. The possible mechanisms of these transformations are analyzed. The bibliography includes 134 references.

  17. Release of free amino acids upon oxidation of peptides and proteins by hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fobang; Lai, Senchao; Tong, Haijie; Lakey, Pascale S J; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Weller, Michael G; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kampf, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    Hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of proteins and peptides can lead to the cleavage of the peptide, leading to a release of fragments. Here, we used high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and pre-column online ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) derivatization-based amino acid analysis by HPLC with diode array detection and fluorescence detection to identify and quantify free amino acids released upon oxidation of proteins and peptides by hydroxyl radicals. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), ovalbumin (OVA) as model proteins, and synthetic tripeptides (comprised of varying compositions of the amino acids Gly, Ala, Ser, and Met) were used for reactions with hydroxyl radicals, which were generated by the Fenton reaction of iron ions and hydrogen peroxide. The molar yields of free glycine, aspartic acid, asparagine, and alanine per peptide or protein varied between 4 and 55%. For protein oxidation reactions, the molar yields of Gly (∼32-55% for BSA, ∼10-21% for OVA) were substantially higher than those for the other identified amino acids (∼5-12% for BSA, ∼4-6% for OVA). Upon oxidation of tripeptides with Gly in C-terminal, mid-chain, or N-terminal positions, Gly was preferentially released when it was located at the C-terminal site. Overall, we observe evidence for a site-selective formation of free amino acids in the OH radical-induced oxidation of peptides and proteins, which may be due to a reaction pathway involving nitrogen-centered radicals.

  18. Distinguishing Aspartic and Isoaspartic Acids in Peptides by Several Mass Spectrometric Fragmentation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraan-Weber, Nick; Zhang, Jun; Reilly, James P.

    2016-12-01

    Six ion fragmentation techniques that can distinguish aspartic acid from its isomer, isoaspartic acid, were compared. MALDI post-source decay (PSD), MALDI 157 nm photodissociation, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide (TMPP) charge tagging in PSD and photodissociation, ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and free-radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) with CID were applied to peptides containing either aspartic or isoaspartic acid. Diagnostic ions, such as the y-46 and b+H2O, are present in PSD, photodissociation, and charge tagging. c•+57 and z-57 ions are observed in ETD and FRIPS experiments. For some molecules, aspartic and isoaspartic acid yield ion fragments with significantly different intensities. ETD and charge tagging appear to be most effective at distinguishing these residues.

  19. 2-Chlorotrityl chloride resin. Studies on anchoring of Fmoc-amino acids and peptide cleavage.

    PubMed

    Barlos, K; Chatzi, O; Gatos, D; Stavropoulos, G

    1991-06-01

    The esterification of 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin with Fmoc-amino acids in the presence of DIEA is studied under various conditions. High esterification yields are obtained using 0.6 equiv. Fmoc-amino acid/mmol resin in DCM or DCE, in 25 min, at room temperature. The reaction proceeds without by product formation even in the case of Fmoc-Asn and Fmoc-Gln. The quantitative and easy cleavage of amino acids and peptides from 2-chlorotrityl resin, by using AcOH/TFE/DCM mixtures, is accomplished within 15-60 min at room temperature, while t-butyl type protecting groups remain unaffected. Under these exceptionally mild conditions 2-chlorotrityl cations generated during the cleavage of amino acids and peptides from resin do not attack the nucleophilic side chains of Trp, Met, and Tyr.

  20. Negative Ion In-Source Decay Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Sequencing Acidic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Chelsea L.; Wright, Patience M.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2016-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in-source decay was studied in the negative ion mode on deprotonated peptides to determine its usefulness for obtaining extensive sequence information for acidic peptides. Eight biological acidic peptides, ranging in size from 11 to 33 residues, were studied by negative ion mode ISD (nISD). The matrices 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, 5-amino-1-naphthol, 3-aminoquinoline, and 9-aminoacridine were used with each peptide. Optimal fragmentation was produced with 1,5-diaminonphthalene (DAN), and extensive sequence informative fragmentation was observed for every peptide except hirudin(54-65). Cleavage at the N-Cα bond of the peptide backbone, producing c' and z' ions, was dominant for all peptides. Cleavage of the N-Cα bond N-terminal to proline residues was not observed. The formation of c and z ions is also found in electron transfer dissociation (ETD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and positive ion mode ISD, which are considered to be radical-driven techniques. Oxidized insulin chain A, which has four highly acidic oxidized cysteine residues, had less extensive fragmentation. This peptide also exhibited the only charged localized fragmentation, with more pronounced product ion formation adjacent to the highly acidic residues. In addition, spectra were obtained by positive ion mode ISD for each protonated peptide; more sequence informative fragmentation was observed via nISD for all peptides. Three of the peptides studied had no product ion formation in ISD, but extensive sequence informative fragmentation was found in their nISD spectra. The results of this study indicate that nISD can be used to readily obtain sequence information for acidic peptides.

  1. Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria Synthesize Antioxidant Peptides during Sourdough Fermentation of Cereal Flours

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Rossana; Pinto, Daniela; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    A pool of selected lactic acid bacteria was used for the sourdough fermentation of various cereal flours with the aim of synthesizing antioxidant peptides. The radical-scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from sourdoughs was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of chemically acidified doughs. The highest activity was found for whole wheat, spelt, rye, and kamut sourdoughs. Almost the same results were found for the inhibition of linoleic acid autoxidation. WSE were subjected to reverse-phase fast protein liquid chromatography. Thirty-seven fractions were collected and assayed in vitro. The most active fractions were resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Twenty-five peptides of 8 to 57 amino acid residues were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Almost all of the sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. All of the purified fractions showed ex vivo antioxidant activity on mouse fibroblasts artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrates the capacity of sourdough lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through the proteolysis of native cereal proteins. PMID:22156436

  2. Recognition of core and flanking amino acids of MHC class II-bound peptides by the T cell receptor.

    PubMed

    Sant'Angelo, Derek B; Robinson, Eve; Janeway, Charles A; Denzin, Lisa K

    2002-09-01

    CD4 T cells recognize peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Most MHC class II molecules have four binding pockets occupied by amino acids 1, 4, 6, and 9 of the minimal peptide epitope, while the residues at positions 2, 3, 5, 7, and 8 are available to interact with the T cell receptor (TCR). In addition MHC class II bound peptides have flanking residues situated outside of this peptide core. Here we demonstrate that the flanking residues of the conalbumin peptide bound to I-A(k) have no effect on recognition by the D10 TCR. To study the role of peptide flanks for recognition by a second TCR, we determined the MHC and TCR contacting amino acids of the I-A(b) bound Ealpha peptide. The Ealpha peptide is shown to bind I-A(b) using four alanines as anchor residues. TCR recognition of Ealpha peptides with altered flanking residues again suggested that, in general, no specific interactions occurred with the peptide flanks. However, using an HLA-DM-mediated technique to measure peptide binding to MHC class II molecules, we found that the peptide flanking residues contribute substantially to MHC binding.

  3. Rice seed ER-derived protein body as an efficient delivery vehicle for oral tolerogenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hidenori; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirose, Sakiko; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2010-08-01

    Mucosal delivery of peptide/protein therapeutics via the oral route is a desirable strategy in human immunotherapy. A key step for enhancing the bioavailability of orally administered therapeutics is to protect them from enzymatic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we generated transgenic rice seeds accumulating allergen-derived T cell epitopes, a model tolerogen for the control of pollen allergy, in either ER-derived protein body-I (PB-I) or protein storage vacuole protein body-II (PB-II). Compared with PB-II-localized or chemically synthesized forms, PB-I-localized T cell epitopes showed higher resistance to enzymatic digestion in simulated gastric fluid. Moreover, the dose of T cell epitope required for suppression of allergen-specific IgE in mice was about 20-fold lower when fed in PB-I localized form than when unprotected. These findings demonstrate the potential of bioencapsulation in PB-I for broad applications as a viable strategy to achieve efficient mucosal delivery of oral peptide/protein therapeutics.

  4. Ndel1-derived peptides modulate bidirectional transport of injected beads in the squid giant axon

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Michal; Soifer, Ilya; Petzold, Heike; Howard, Jonathon; Elbaum, Michael; Reiner, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bidirectional transport is a key issue in cellular biology. It requires coordination between microtubule-associated molecular motors that work in opposing directions. The major retrograde and anterograde motors involved in bidirectional transport are cytoplasmic dynein and conventional kinesin, respectively. It is clear that failures in molecular motor activity bear severe consequences, especially in the nervous system. Neuronal migration may be impaired during brain development, and impaired molecular motor activity in the adult is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases leading to neuronal cell death. The mechanisms that regulate or coordinate kinesin and dynein activity to generate bidirectional transport of the same cargo are of utmost importance. We examined how Ndel1, a cytoplasmic dynein binding protein, may regulate non-vesicular bidirectional transport. Soluble Ndel1 protein, Ndel1-derived peptides or control proteins were mixed with fluorescent beads, injected into the squid giant axon, and the bead movements were recorded using time-lapse microscopy. Automated tracking allowed for extraction and unbiased analysis of a large data set. Beads moved in both directions with a clear bias to the anterograde direction. Velocities were distributed over a broad range and were typically slower than those associated with fast vesicle transport. Ironically, the main effect of Ndel1 and its derived peptides was an enhancement of anterograde motion. We propose that they may function primarily by inhibition of dynein-dependent resistance, which suggests that both dynein and kinesin motors may remain engaged with microtubules during bidirectional transport. PMID:23213412

  5. Derivatization and fluorescence detection of amino acids and peptides with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate on the surface of a solid adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, D; Zhao, Y; Han, H; Zhao, R; Liu, G

    2001-05-01

    An approach that exploits the surface of a solid adsorbent is proposed for precolumn FMOC derivatization of amino acids and peptides. Amino acids (Ser, Glu, GABA, Val, Phe, Lys) and two neuropeptides (substance P and Leuenkephalin) were adsorbed on alkaline silica gel cartridges. After drying, they were reacted with 9-fluorenyl-methyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) in toluene. After washing off the excess FMOC-Cl with ethyl acetate, the derivatives were eluted with aqueous eluant. The eluates were separated and detected by means of HPLC with fluorescence detection. Compared with the traditional derivatization in the liquid phase, the extent of formation of byproducts of FMOC-Cl with water was greatly decreased, and the excess FMOC-Cl was eliminated completely.

  6. Laser ion beam photodissociation studies of model amino acids and peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Techlenburg, R.E. Jr.; Miller, M.N.; Russell, D.H. )

    1989-02-15

    Visible (458-514.5 nm) and uv (333-385 nm) photodissociation of the (M + H){sup +} ions of dinitrophenyl (DNP) derivatized amino acids and peptides is reported. Photoexcitation of the DNP peptides by a visible proton results in fragmentation of the peptide chain with little fragmentation within the chromophore. Conversely, uv photoexcitation of the DNP peptides results in fragmentation of the chromophore as well as the peptide chain, but loss of NO or NO{sub 2} (within the chromophore) often dominates the photofragment ion spectrum. These results are rationalized with particular emphasis on energy-selective dissociation channels of large ionic systems. DNP-leucine and DNP-isoleucine (M + H){sup +} can be differentiated on the basis of photodissociation reactions which yield distonic radical cations. The rate of dissociation of photoexcited ions of DNP peptides is shown to decrease with increasing molecular weight (degrees of freedom). Lastly, comparisons between photodissociation and collision-induced dissociation as a structural probe are presented. 55 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Single amino acid fingerprinting of the human antibody repertoire with high density peptide arrays.

    PubMed

    Weber, Laura K; Palermo, Andrea; Kügler, Jonas; Armant, Olivier; Isse, Awale; Rentschler, Simone; Jaenisch, Thomas; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Dübel, Stefan; Nesterov-Mueller, Alexander; Breitling, Frank; Loeffler, Felix F

    2017-04-01

    The antibody species that patrol in a patient's blood are an invaluable part of the immune system. While most of them shield us from life-threatening infections, some of them do harm in autoimmune diseases. If we knew exactly all the antigens that elicited all the antibody species within a group of patients, we could learn which ones correlate with immune protection, are irrelevant, or do harm. Here, we demonstrate an approach to this question: First, we use a plethora of phage-displayed peptides to identify many different serum antibody binding peptides. Next, we synthesize identified peptides in the array format and rescreen the serum used for phage panning to validate antibody binding peptides. Finally, we systematically vary the sequence of validated antibody binding peptides to identify those amino acids within the peptides that are crucial for binding "their" antibody species. The resulting immune fingerprints can then be used to trace them back to potential antigens. We investigated the serum of an individual in this pipeline, which led to the identification of 73 antibody fingerprints. Some fingerprints could be traced back to their most likely antigen, for example the immunodominant capsid protein VP1 of enteroviruses, most likely elicited by the ubiquitous poliovirus vaccination. Thus, with our approach, it is possible, to pinpoint those antibody species that correlate with a certain antigen, without any pre-information. This can help to unravel hitherto enigmatic diseases.

  8. Antimicrobial Peptides Targeting Gram-negative Pathogens, Produced and Delivered by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Volzing, Katherine; Borrero, Juan; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of tests with recombinant Lactococcus lactis that produce and secrete heterologous antimicrobial peptides with activity against Gram-negative pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella. In an initial screening, the activities of numerous candidate antimicrobial peptides, made by solid state synthesis, were assessed against several indicator pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains. Peptides A3APO and Alyteserin were selected as top performers based on high antimicrobial activity against the pathogens tested and on significantly lower antimicrobial activity against L. lactis. Expression cassettes containing the signal peptide of the protein Usp45 fused to the codon optimized sequence of mature A3APO and Alyteserin were cloned under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter nisA and transformed into L. lactis IL1403. The resulting recombinant strains were induced to express and secrete both peptides. A3APO- and Alyteserin-containing supernatants from these recombinant L. lactis inhibited the growth of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella by up to 20-fold, while maintaining the host’s viability. This system may serve as a model for the production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides by lactic acid bacteria to target Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria populations. PMID:23808914

  9. Aromatic amino acids providing characteristic motifs in the Raman and SERS spectroscopy of peptides.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fang; Zhang, Dongmao; Halas, Naomi J; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2008-07-31

    Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies (SERS) are potentially important tools in the characterization of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA. In this work, SERS spectra of three cysteine-containing aromatic peptides: tryptophan-cysteine, tyrosine-cysteine, and phenylalanine-cysteine, bound to Au nanoshell substrates, were obtained, and compared to their respective normal Raman spectra. While the linewidths of the SERS peaks are significantly broadened (up to 70%), no significant spectral shifts (<6 cm (-1)) of the major Stokes modes were observed between the two modalities. We show that the Raman and SERS spectra of penetratin, a cell-penetrating peptide oligomer, can be comprised quite reliably from the spectra of its constituent aromatic amino acids except in the backbone regions where the spectral intensities are critically dependent on the length and conformations of the probed molecules. From this study we conclude that, together with protein backbone groups, aromatic amino acid residues provide the overwhelmingly dominant features in the Raman and SERS spectra of peptides and proteins when present. It follows that the Raman modes of these three small constructed peptides may likely apply to the assignment of Raman and SERS features in the spectra of other peptides and proteins.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity of Peptides Derived from Olive Flounder Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein/Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Protein (LBP/BPI)

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Bo-Hye; Moon, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kong, Hee Jeong; Kim, Woo-Jin; Jee, Young Ju; An, Cheul Min; Park, Nam Gyu; Seo, Jung-Kil

    2014-01-01

    We describe the antimicrobial function of peptides derived from the C-terminus of the olive flounder LBP BPI precursor protein. The investigated peptides, namely, ofLBP1N, ofLBP2A, ofLBP4N, ofLBP5A, and ofLBP6A, formed α-helical structures, showing significant antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and the yeast Candida albicans, but very limited hemolytic activities. The biological activities of these five analogs were evaluated against biomembranes or artificial membranes for the development of candidate therapeutic agents. Gel retardation studies revealed that peptides bound to DNA and inhibited migration on an agarose gel. In addition, we demonstrated that ofLBP6A inhibited polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that the ofLBP-derived peptide bactericidal mechanism may be related to the interaction with intracellular components such as DNA or polymerase. PMID:25329706

  11. Somatomedin-like peptide(s) isolated from fetal bovine cartilage (cartilage-derived factor): isolation and some properties.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Y; Nomura, Y; Tsuji, M; Kinoshita, M; Ohmae, H; Suzuki, F

    1981-01-01

    Fetal bovine cartilage contains a polypeptide(s) that has somatomedin-like effects on rat and rabbit costal chondrocytes in culture. This factor, named the cartilage-derived factor, was extracted from fetal bovine cartilage, fractionated with acetone, and purified by gel filtration on Toyopearl HW 55-F in 4 M guanidine hydrochloride, preparative isoelectric focusing, and subsequent gel filtration on Toyopearl HW 55-F in 1 M formic acid. The resulting preparation, which focused in the neutral pH region and eluted from a Toyopearl column in a fraction with apparent Mr 10,000--11,000, appeared homogenous by NaDodSO4 gel electrophoresis. The purified preparation markedly enhanced not only proteoglycan synthesis but also DNA synthesis in rabbit costal chondrocytes and, on a protein basis, it was 1000 times more active than insulin and 1,000,000 times more active than fetal calf serum in stimulating proteoglycan synthesis. Images PMID:6947256

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of a bacterial sialidase with an aryl azide derivative of sialic acid

    SciTech Connect

    van der Horst, G.T.; Mancini, G.M.; Brossmer, R.; Rose, U.; Verheijen, F.W. )

    1990-07-05

    A photoreactive radioiodinatable derivative of 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-5-N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc2en), 5-N-acetyl-9-(4-azidosalicoylamido)-2-deoxy-2,3-didehydroneuram inic acid (ASA-NeuAc2-en) has been synthesized and used to label the active site of Clostridium perfringens sialidase. Like NeuAc2en, its aryl azide derivative is a strong competitive inhibitor of sialidase (Ki approximately 15 microM). The absorbance spectrum of ASA-NeuAc2en shows a characteristic aryl azide peak, which disappears upon photolysis with UV light. When its radioiodinated counterpart 5-N-acetyl-9-(4-iodoazidosalicoylamido)-2-deoxy-2,3-didehydrone uraminic acid (({sup 125}I)IASA-NeuAc2en) was photolyzed in the presence of C. perfringens sialidase a 72-kDa protein was labeled. Labeling occurred specifically in the active site since it was inhibited in the presence of NeuAc2en. Chemical cleavage of the photoaffinity-labeled 72-kDa protein demonstrates that specifically labeled peptides involved in the formation of the active site can easily be determined. ASA-NeuAc2en is a valuable new tool for the identification and structural/functional analysis of sialidases and other proteins, recognizing this sialic acid derivative.

  13. Interaction of cationic peptides with lipoteichoic acid and gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Scott, M G; Gold, M R; Hancock, R E

    1999-12-01

    Compounds with antiendotoxin properties have been extensively studied for their potential as therapeutic agents for sepsis attributable to gram-negative bacteria. However, with the increasing incidence of gram-positive sepsis, there is interest in identifying compounds with a broad spectrum of action against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A series of synthetic alpha-helical cationic peptides related to bee melittin and silk moth cecropin have previously been shown to bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with high affinity, inhibit LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in vitro and in vivo, and kill gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we analyzed whether these peptides were active against gram-positive bacteria; whether they could bind to lipoteichoic acid (LTA), the major proinflammatory structure on gram-positive bacteria; and whether they could block the ability of LTA to promote the release of cytokines by the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. We found that the cationic peptides demonstrated moderate growth-inhibitory activity toward gram-positive bacteria. In addition, the peptides bound LTA with high affinity. This correlated with the ability of the peptides to block LTA-induced production of TNF and interleukin-6 by RAW 264.7 cells but did not correlate with their ability to kill the bacteria. The peptides also effectively inhibited LTA-induced TNF production in a whole human blood assay. The peptides were also able to partly block the ability of heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus, as well as soluble products of live S. aureus, to stimulate cytokine production by macrophages. Our results indicate that these cationic peptides may be useful to prevent sepsis and inflammation caused by both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

  14. Stable Isotope Peptide Mass Spectrometry To Decipher Amino Acid Metabolism in Dehalococcoides Strain CBDB1

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Seifert, Jana; von Bergen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Dehalococcoides species are key players in the anaerobic transformation of halogenated solvents at contaminated sites. Here, we analyze isotopologue distributions in amino acid pools from peptides of Dehalococcoides strain CBDB1 after incubation with 13C-labeled acetate or bicarbonate as a carbon source. The resulting data were interpreted with regard to genome annotations to identify amino acid biosynthesis pathways. In addition to using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for analyzing derivatized amino acids after protein hydrolysis, we introduce a second, much milder method, in which we directly analyze peptide masses after tryptic digest and peptide fragments by nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). With this method, we identify isotope incorporation patterns for 17 proteinaceous amino acids, including proline, cysteine, lysine, and arginine, which escaped previous analyses in Dehalococcoides. Our results confirmed lysine biosynthesis via the α-aminoadipate pathway, precluding lysine formation from aspartate. Similarly, the isotopologue pattern obtained for arginine provided biochemical evidence of its synthesis from glutamate. Direct peptide MS/MS analysis of the labeling patterns of glutamine and asparagine, which were converted to glutamate and aspartate during protein hydrolysis, gave biochemical evidence of their precursors and confirmed glutamate biosynthesis via a Re-specific citrate synthase. By addition of unlabeled free amino acids to labeled cells, we show that in strain CBDB1 none of the 17 tested amino acids was incorporated into cell mass, indicating that they are all synthesized de novo. Our approach is widely applicable and provides a means to analyze amino acid metabolism by studying specific proteins even in mixed consortia. PMID:22661690

  15. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from glycinin, the 11S globulin of soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun Gouda, K G; Gowda, Lalitha R; Rao, A G Appu; Prakash, V

    2006-06-28

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase, catalyzes the conversion of Angiotensin I to the potent vasoconstrictor Angiotensin II and plays an important physiological role in regulating blood pressure. Inhibitors of angiotensin 1-converting enzyme derived from food proteins are utilized for pharmaceuticals and physiologically functional foods. ACE inhibitory properties of different enzymatic hydrolysates of glycinin, the major storage protein of soybean, have been demonstrated. The IC50 value for the different enzyme digests ranges from 4.5 to 35 microg of N2. The Protease P hydrolysate contained the most potent suite of ACE inhibitory peptides. The ACE inhibitory activity of the Protease P hydrolysate after fractionation by RP-HPLC and ion-pair chromatography was ascribed to a single peptide. The peptide was homogeneous as evidenced by MALDI-TOF and identified to be a pentapeptide. The sequence was Val-Leu-Ile-Val-Pro. This peptide was synthesized using solid-phase FMOC chemistry. The IC50 for ACE inhibition was 1.69 +/- 0.17 microM. The synthetic peptide was a potent competitive inhibitor of ACE with a Ki of 4.5 +/- 0.25 x 10(-6) M. This peptide was resistant to digestion by proteases of the gastrointestinal tract. The antihypertensive property of this peptide derived from glycinin might find importance in the development of therapeutic functional foods.

  16. Human platelet-rich plasma- and extracellular matrix-derived peptides promote impaired cutaneous wound healing in vivo.

    PubMed

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Wolf, Lindsey; Deckenback, Jeffry; Hamblin, Michael R; Herman, Ira M

    2012-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has described several pro-angiogenic short peptides derived from endothelial extracellular matrices degraded by bacterial collagenase. Here we tested whether these peptides could stimulate wound healing in vivo. Our experiments demonstrated that a peptide created as combination of fragments of tenascin X and fibrillin 1 (comb1) applied into cranial dermal wounds created in mice treated with cyclophosphamide to impair wound healing, can improve the rate of wound closure. Furthermore, we identify and characterize a novel peptide (UN3) created and modified from two naturally-occurring peptides, which are present in human platelet-rich plasma. In vitro testing of UN3 demonstrates that it causes a 50% increase in endothelial proliferation, 250% increase in angiogenic response and a tripling of epithelial cell migration in response to injury. Results of in vivo experiments where comb1 and UN3 peptides were added together to cranial wounds in cyclophosphamide-treated mice leads to improvement of wound vascularization as shown by an increase of the number of blood vessels present in the wound beds. Application of the peptides markedly promotes cellular responses to injury and essentially restores wound healing dynamics to those of normal, acute wounds in the absence of cyclophosphamide impairment. Our current work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms underlying the stimulatory effects of these peptides as well as identification of the cellular receptors mediating these effects.

  17. The Unexpected Advantages of Using D-Amino Acids for Peptide Self-Assembly into Nanostructured Hydrogels for Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Melchionna, Michele; Styan, Katie E.; Marchesan, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembled peptide hydrogels have brought innovation to the medicinal field, not only as responsive biomaterials but also as nanostructured therapeutic agents or as smart drug delivery systems. D-amino acids are typically introduced to increase the peptide enzymatic stability. However, there are several reports of unexpected effects on peptide conformation, self-assembly behavior, cytotoxicity and even therapeutic activity. This mini-review discusses all the surprising twists of heterochiral self-assembled peptide hydrogels, and delineates emerging key findings to exploit all the benefits of D-amino acids in this novel medicinal area. PMID:26876522

  18. Question 1: Peptide nucleic acids and the origin and homochirality of life.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2007-10-01

    The possibilities of pseudo peptide DNA mimics like PNA (peptide nucleic acid) having a role for the prebiotic origin of life prior to an RNA world is discussed. In particular a scenario is proposed in which protocells with an achiral genetic material through several generations stepwise is converted into a chiral genetic material, e.g., by incorporation of RNA units. Provided that a sufficiently large sequence space is occupied, a selection process based on catalytic function in which a single cell (first common ancestor) has a definite evolutionary advantage, selection of this cell would by contingency also lock it into homochirality.

  19. Applications of hydrophilic interaction chromatography to amino acids, peptides, and proteins.

    PubMed

    Periat, Aurélie; Krull, Ira S; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-02-01

    This review summarizes the recent advances in the analysis of amino acids, peptides, and proteins using hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Various reports demonstrate the successful analysis of amino acids under such conditions. However, a baseline resolution of the 20 natural amino acids has not yet been published and for this reason, there is often a need to use mass spectrometry for detection to further improve selectivity. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography is also recognized as a powerful technique for peptide analysis, and there are a lot of papers showing its applicability for proteomic applications (peptide mapping). It is expected that its use for peptide mapping will continue to grow in the future, particularly because this analytical strategy can be combined with reversed-phase liquid chromatography, in a two-dimensional setup, to reach very high resolving power. Finally, the interest in hydrophilic interaction chromatography for intact proteins analysis is less evident due to possible solubility issues and a lack of suitable hydrophilic interaction chromatography stationary phases. To date, it has been successfully employed only for the characterization of membrane proteins, histones, and the separation of glycosylated isoforms of an intact glycoprotein. From our point of view, the number of hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns compatible with intact proteins (higher upper temperature limit, large pore size, etc.) is still too limited.

  20. Oleic acid-derived oleoylethanolamide: A nutritional science perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kate J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Shearer, Gregory C; West, Sheila G; Reddivari, Lavanya; Jones, Peter J H

    2017-04-04

    The fatty acid ethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator derived from the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid. OEA is synthesized from membrane glycerophospholipids and is a high-affinity agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α). Dietary intake of oleic acid elevates circulating levels of OEA in humans by increasing substrate availability for OEA biosynthesis. Numerous clinical studies demonstrate a beneficial relationship between high-oleic acid diets and body composition, with emerging evidence to suggest OEA may mediate this response through modulation of lipid metabolism and energy intake. OEA exposure has been shown to stimulate fatty acid uptake, lipolysis, and β-oxidation, and also promote food intake control. Future research on high-oleic acid diets and body composition is warranted to confirm these outcomes and elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which oleic acid exerts its biological effects. These findings have significant practical implications, as the oleic acid-derived OEA molecule may be a promising therapeutic agent for weight management and obesity treatment.

  1. Stabilization Effect of Amino Acid Side Chains in Peptide Assemblies on Graphite Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Hou, Jingfei; Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen

    2017-02-03

    An analysis is presented of the effects of amino acid side chains on peptide assemblies in ambient conditions on a graphite surface. The molecularly resolved assemblies of binary peptides are examined with scanning tunneling microscopy. A comparative analysis of the assembly structures reveals that the lamellae width has an appreciable dependence on the peptide sequence, which could be considered as a manifestation of a stabilizing effect of side-chain moieties of amino acids with high (phenylalanine) and low (alanine, asparagine, histidine and aspartic acid) propensities for aggregation. These amino acids are representative for the chemical structures involving the side chains of charged (histidine and aspartic acid), aromatic (phenylalanine), hydrophobic (alanine), and hydrophilic (asparagine) amino acids. These results might provide useful insight for understanding the effects of sequence on the assembly of surface-bound peptides.

  2. Design and synthesis of collagen mimetic peptide derivatives for studying triple helix assembly and collagen mimetic peptide-collagen binding interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Xiao

    2008-10-01

    Collagen is the principal tensile clement of the extra-cellular matrix in mammals and is the basic scaffold for cells and tissues. Collagen molecules are comprised of homo-trimeric helices (e.g. collagen type II and type III), ABB type hetero-trimeric helices (e.g. collagen type I, type IV, and type V), or ABC type hetero-trimeric helices (e.g. type V). Mimicry of collagen structures can help elucidate collagen triple helical conformation and provide insights into making novel collagen-like biomaterials. Our group previously reported a new physical collagen modification method, which was based on non-covalent interaction between collagen mimetic peptide (CMP: -(Pro-Hyp-Gly) x-) and natural collagen. We hypothesized that CMP binds to collagen through a process involving both strand invasion and triple helix assembly. The aim of this dissertation is to study structural formation and stability of collagen triple helix, and to investigate CMP-collagen binding interactions using two types of CMP derivatives: covalently templated CMP trimer and CMP-nanoparticle conjugates. We demonstrated that covalently templated ABB type CMP hetero-trimers could be prepared by a versatile synthetic strategy involving both solid phase and solution peptide coupling. Our thermal melting studies showed that the templated CMP hetero-trimers formed collagen-like triple helices and their folding kinetics correlated with the amino acid compositions of the individual CMP strands. We also studied the thermal melting behavior and folding kinetics of a templated hetero-trimer complex comprised of CMP and a peptide derived from collagen. This synthetic strategy can be readily extended to synthesize other ABB type hetero-trimers to investigate their local melting behavior and biological activity. We also prepared colloidally stable CMP functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au-CMPs) as a TEM marker for investigating the CMP-collagen interaction. Au-CMP showed preferential binding to collagen fiber's gap

  3. Anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory effects of peptide fragments sequentially derived from the antimicrobial peptide centrocin 1 isolated from the green sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis.

    PubMed

    Björn, Camilla; Håkansson, Joakim; Myhrman, Emma; Sjöstrand, Veronika; Haug, Tor; Lindgren, Kerstin; Blencke, Hans-Matti; Stensvåg, Klara; Mahlapuu, Margit

    2012-12-13

    Bacterial resistance against antibiotic treatment has become a major threat to public health. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as promising alternative agents for treatment of infectious diseases. This study characterizes novel synthetic peptides sequentially derived from the AMP centrocin 1, isolated from the green sea urchin, for their applicability as anti-infective agents.The microbicidal effect of centrocin 1 heavy chain (CEN1 HC-Br), its debrominated analogue (CEN1 HC), the C-terminal truncated variants of both peptides, i.e. CEN1 HC-Br (1-20) and CEN1 HC (1-20), as well as the cysteine to serine substituted equivalent CEN1 HC (Ser) was evaluated using minimal microbicidal concentration assay. The anti-inflammatory properties were assessed by measuring the inhibition of secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. All the peptides tested exhibited marked microbicidal and anti-inflammatory properties. No difference in efficacy was seen comparing CEN1 HC-Br and CEN1 HC, while the brominated variant had higher cytotoxicity. C-terminal truncation of both peptides reduced salt-tolerability of the microbicidal effect as well as anti-inflammatory actions. Also, serine substitution of cysteine residue decreased the microbicidal effect. Thus, from the peptide variants tested, CEN1 HC showed the best efficacy and safety profile. Further, CEN1 HC significantly reduced bacterial counts in two different animal models of infected wounds, while Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) failed to develop resistance against this peptide under continued selection pressure. In summary, CEN1 HC appears a promising new antimicrobial agent, and clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the applicability of this AMP for local treatment of infections in man.

  4. Enhancement of acid tolerance in Zymomonas mobilis by a proton-buffering peptide.

    PubMed

    Baumler, David J; Hung, Kai F; Bose, Jeffrey L; Vykhodets, Boris M; Cheng, Chorng M; Jeong, Kwang-Cheol; Kaspar, Charles W

    2006-07-01

    A portion of the cbpA gene from Escherichia coli K-12 encoding a 24 amino acid proton-buffering peptide (Pbp) was cloned via the shuttle vector pJB99 into E. coli JM105 and subsequently into Zymomonas mobilis CP4. Expression of Pbp was confirmed in both JM105 and CP4 by HPLC. Z. mobilis CP4 carrying pJB99-2 (Pbp) exhibited increased acid tolerance (p < 0.05) in acidified TSB (HCl [pH 3.0] or acetic acid [pH 3.5]), glycine-HCl buffer (pH 3.0), and sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer (pH 3.5) in comparison to the parent strain (CP4) and CP4 with pJB99 (control plasmid). Although the expression of Pbp influenced survival at a low pH, the minimum growth pH was unaffected. Growth of Z. mobilis in the presence of ampicillin also significantly increased acid tolerance by an unknown mechanism. Results from this study demonstrate that the production of a peptide with a high proportion of basic amino acids can contribute to protection from low pH and weak organic acids such as acetic acid.

  5. Influence of Amino Acid Compositions and Peptide Profiles on Antioxidant Capacities of Two Protein Hydrolysates from Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Dark Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Chang-Feng; Hu, Fa-Yuan; Wang, Bin; Li, Zhong-Rui; Luo, Hong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Influence of amino acid compositions and peptide profiles on antioxidant capacities of two protein hydrolysates from skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) dark muscle was investigated. Dark muscles from skipjack tuna were hydrolyzed using five separate proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, Neutrase, papain and Alcalase. Two hydrolysates, ATH and NTH, prepared using Alcalase and Neutrase, respectively, showed the strongest antioxidant capacities and were further fractionated using ultrafiltration and gel filtration chromatography. Two fractions, Fr.A3 and Fr.B2, isolated from ATH and NTH, respectively, showed strong radical scavenging activities toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (EC50 1.08% ± 0.08% and 0.98% ± 0.07%), hydroxyl radicals (EC50 0.22% ± 0.03% and 0.48% ± 0.05%), and superoxide anion radicals (EC50 1.31% ± 0.11% and 1.56% ± 1.03%) and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation. Eighteen peptides from Fr.A3 and 13 peptides from Fr.B2 were isolated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, and their amino acid sequences were determined. The elevated antioxidant activity of Fr.A3 might be due to its high content of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues (181.1 and 469.9 residues/1000 residues, respectively), small molecular sizes (3–6 peptides), low molecular weights (524.78 kDa), and amino acid sequences (antioxidant score 6.11). This study confirmed that a smaller molecular size, the presence of hydrophobic and aromatic amino acid residues, and the amino acid sequences were the key factors that determined the antioxidant activities of the proteins, hydrolysates and peptides. The results also demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and fractions from skipjack tuna (K. pelamis) dark muscles could prevent oxidative reactions and might be useful for food preservation and medicinal purposes. PMID:25923316

  6. Properties of synthetic ferrihydrite as an amino acid adsorbent and a promoter of peptide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Matrajt, G; Blanot, D

    2004-03-01

    Ferrihydrite, an iron oxide hydroxide, is found in all kinds of environments, from hydrothermal hot springs to extraterrestrial materials. It has been shown that this material is nanoporous, and because of its high surface area, it has outstanding adsorption properties and in some cases catalysis properties. In this work we studied the adsorption properties of ferrihydrite with respect to amino acids. Samples of pure ferrihydrite were synthesised and exposed to solutions of amino acids including both proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous species. These experiments revealed important characteristics of this mineral as both an adsorbent of amino acids and a promoter of peptide bond formation.

  7. The Antifungal Activity of Lactoferrin and Its Derived Peptides: Mechanisms of Action and Synergy with Drugs against Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Kenya E.; Carter, Dee A.

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein belonging to the transferrin family. It is found abundantly in milk and is present as a major protein in human exocrine secretions where it plays a role in the innate immune response. Various antifungal functions of lactoferrin have been reported including a wide spectrum of activity across yeasts and molds and synergy with other antifungal drugs in combination therapy, and various modes of action have been proposed. Bioactive peptides derived from lactoferrin can also exhibit strong antifungal activity, with some surpassing the potency of the whole protein. This paper reviews current knowledge of the spectrum of activity, proposed mechanisms of action, and capacity for synergy of lactoferrin and its peptides, including the three most studied derivatives: lactoferricin, lactoferrampin, and Lf(1–11), as well as some lactoferrin-derived variants and modified peptides. PMID:28149293

  8. The Antifungal Activity of Lactoferrin and Its Derived Peptides: Mechanisms of Action and Synergy with Drugs against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Kenya E; Carter, Dee A

    2017-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein belonging to the transferrin family. It is found abundantly in milk and is present as a major protein in human exocrine secretions where it plays a role in the innate immune response. Various antifungal functions of lactoferrin have been reported including a wide spectrum of activity across yeasts and molds and synergy with other antifungal drugs in combination therapy, and various modes of action have been proposed. Bioactive peptides derived from lactoferrin can also exhibit strong antifungal activity, with some surpassing the potency of the whole protein. This paper reviews current knowledge of the spectrum of activity, proposed mechanisms of action, and capacity for synergy of lactoferrin and its peptides, including the three most studied derivatives: lactoferricin, lactoferrampin, and Lf(1-11), as well as some lactoferrin-derived variants and modified peptides.

  9. Ni(II)-NTA modified poly(ethylene imine) glycopolymers: physicochemical properties and first in vitro study of polyplexes formed with HIV-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Hauptmann, Nicole; Pion, Marjorie; Muñoz-Fernández, María-Ángeles; Komber, Hartmut; Werner, Carsten; Voit, Brigitte; Appelhans, Dietmar

    2013-05-01

    Alternative delivery entities are desirable in immunotherapies in which polyplexes are widely formed by electrostatic interactions to induce cellular uptake processes for bioactive molecules. In our study, biocompatible Ni(II)-nitrilo(triacetic acid)-modified poly(ethylene imine)-maltose (Ni-NTA-DG) is realized and evaluated as complexation agent against His-tagged peptides using fluorescence polarization and dynamic light scattering. The polyplexes are stable until a pH of 6.5-6.0, and also up to 50 mM of imidazole. A first uptake approach shows that polyplexes lead to an increase in peptide uptake in monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells. In summary, Ni-NTA-DG represents a promising (delivery) platform for forthcoming in vitro applications.

  10. Development of a new class of proteasome inhibitors with an epoxyketone warhead: Rational hybridization of non-peptidic belactosin derivatives and peptide epoxyketones.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Shuhei; Unno, Yuka; Asai, Akira; Arisawa, Mitsuhiro; Shuto, Satoshi

    2014-06-15

    Proteasome inhibitors are currently a focus of increased attention as anticancer drug candidates. We recently performed systematic structure-activity relationship studies of the peptidic natural product belactosin A and identified non-peptidic derivative 2 as a highly potent proteasome inhibitor. However, the cell growth inhibitory effect of 2 is only moderate, probably due to the biologically unstable β-lactone warhead. Peptide epoxyketones are an important class of proteasome inhibitors exhibit high potency in cellular systems based on the efficient α,β-epoxyketone warhead. Importantly, belactosin derivatives bind primarily to the primed binding site, while peptide epoxyketones bind only to the non-primed binding site of proteasome, suggesting that hybridization of them might lead to the development of a new class of proteasome inhibitors. Thus, we successfully identified a novel chemotype of proteasome inhibitors 3 and 4 by rational structure-based design, which are expected to bind to both the primed and non-primed binding sites of proteasome.

  11. Role of Proopiomelanocortin-Derived Peptides and Their Receptors in the Osteoarticular System: From Basic to Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Grässel, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides such as melanocortins and β-endorphin (β-ED) exert their pleiotropic effects via binding to melanocortin receptors (MCR) and opioid receptors (OR). There is now compelling evidence for the existence of a functional POMC system within the osteoarticular system. Accordingly, distinct cell types of the synovial tissue and bone have been identified to generate POMC-derived peptides like β-ED, ACTH, or α-MSH. MCR subtypes, especially MC1R, MC2R (the ACTH receptor), MC3R, and MC4R, but also the μ-OR and δ-OR, have been detected in various cells of the synovium, cartilage, and bone. The respective ligands of these POMC-derived peptide receptors mediate an increasing number of newly recognized biological effects in the osteoarticular system. These include bone mineralization and longitudinal growth, cell proliferation and differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis, osteoprotection, and immunomodulation. Importantly, bone formation is also regulated by the central melanocortin system via a complex hormonal interplay with other organs and tissues involved in energy metabolism. Among the POMC-derived peptides examined in cell culture systems from osteoarticular tissue and in animal models of experimentally induced arthritis, α-MSH, ACTH, and MC3R-specific agonists appear to have the most promising antiinflammatory actions. The effects of these melanocortin peptides may be exploited in future for the treatment of patients with inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases. PMID:22736674

  12. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins.

  14. Poly(α-hydroxy alkanoic acid)s derived from α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Arazi, Naomi; Domb, Abraham J; Katzhendler, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polyesters derived from hydrophobic amino acids are synthesized by various techniques, resulting in a wide range of molecular weights. The polymers are prepared via a) direct condensation with p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) as catalyst, b) ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of O-carboxyanhydrides, and c) ROP of cyclic dilactones. The polymers obtained by the first method reach a molecular weight ranging from 1000 to 3000 Da, whereas those formed by the second and third method yield extended molecular weights of 15000-30000 Da. The purity of the monomers as well as their steric bulkiness are key factors affecting the polymerizability of cyclic monomers by ROP. Other parameters such as spatial ring alignment and proximity organization may also play a role.

  15. Peptide-derived Method to Transport Genes and Proteins Across Cellular and Organellar Barriers in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Jo-Ann; Horii, Yoko; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    The capacity to introduce exogenous proteins and express (or down-regulate) specific genes in plants provides a powerful tool for fundamental research as well as new applications in the field of plant biotechnology. Viable methods that currently exist for protein or gene transfer into plant cells, namely Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment, have disadvantages of low transformation frequency, limited host range, or a high cost of equipment and microcarriers. The following protocol outlines a simple and versatile method, which employs rationally-designed peptides as delivery agents for a variety of nucleic acid- and protein-based cargoes into plants. Peptides are selected as tools for development of the system due to their biodegradability, reduced size, diverse and tunable properties as well as the ability to gain intracellular/organellar access. The preparation, characterization and application of optimized formulations for each type of the wide range of delivered cargoes (plasmid DNA, double-stranded DNA or RNA, and protein) are described. Critical steps within the protocol, possible modifications and existing limitations of the method are also discussed. PMID:28060264

  16. Kocurin, the True Structure of PM181104, an Anti-Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Thiazolyl Peptide from the Marine-Derived Bacterium Kocuria palustris

    PubMed Central

    Martín, Jesús; Sousa, Thiciana da S.; Crespo, Gloria; Palomo, Sara; González, Ignacio; Tormo, José R.; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Anderson, Matthew; Hill, Russell T.; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Reyes, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A new thiazolyl peptide, kocurin (1), was isolated from culture broths of a marine-derived Kocuria palustris. Its structural elucidation was accomplished using a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods, including HRMS, extensive 1D and 2D NMR analysis, MS/MS fragmentation, and chemical degradation and Marfey’s analysis of the resulting amino acid residues. The structure herein reported corrects that previously assigned to PM181104 (3). Kocurin displayed activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with MIC values in the submicromolar range. PMID:23380989

  17. Identification of Antihypertensive Peptides Derived from Low Molecular Weight Casein Hydrolysates Generated during Fermentation by Bifidobacterium longum KACC 91563

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Go Eun; Chang, Oun Ki; Jo, Su-Mi; Han, Gi-Sung; Park, Beom-Young; Ham, Jun-Sang; Jeong, Seok-Geun

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was evaluated for the low-molecular-weight fraction (<3 kDa) obtained from milk fermentation by Bifidobacterium longum KACC91563. The ACE inhibitory activity in this fraction was 62.3%. The peptides generated from the <3 kDa fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quantitative time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Of the 28 peptides identified, 11 and 16 were identified as β-casein (CN) and αs1-CN, respectively. One peptide was identified as κ-CN. Three peptides, YQEPVLGPVRGPFPIIV, QEPVLGPVRGPFPIIV, and GPVRGPFPIIV, from β-CN corresponded to known antihypertensive peptides. We also found 15 peptides that were identified as potential antihypertensive peptides because they included a known antihypertensive peptide fragment. These peptides were as follows: RELEELNVPGEIVE (f1-14), YQEPVLGPVRGPFP (f193-206), EPVLGPVRGPFPIIV (f195-206), PVLGPVRGPFPIIV (f196-206), VLGPVRGPFPIIV (f197-206), and LGPVRGPFPIIV (f198-206) for β-CN; and APSFSDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f176-199), SFSDIPNPIGSENSEKT- TMPLW (f178-199), FSDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f179-199), SDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f180-199), DIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f181-199), IPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f182-199), PIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f185-199), IGSENSEKTTMPLW (f186-199), and SENSEKTTMPLW (f188-199) for αs1-CN. From these results, B. longum could be used as a starter culture in combination with other lactic acid bacteria in the dairy industry, and/or these peptides could be used in functional food manufacturing as additives for the development of a product with beneficial effects for human health. PMID:26877633

  18. A prawn core histone 4: derivation of N- and C-terminal peptides and their antimicrobial properties, molecular characterization and mRNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Kasi, Marimuthu; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the complete molecular characterization including bioinformatics characterization, gene expression, synthesis of N and C terminal peptides and their antimicrobial activity of the core histone 4 (H4) from freshwater giant prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). A cDNA encoding MrH4 was identified from the constructed cDNA library of M. rosenbergii during screening and the sequence was obtained using internal sequencing primers. The MrH4 coding region possesses a polypeptide of 103 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 11kDa and an isoelectric point of 11.5. The bioinformatics analysis showed that the MrH4 polypeptide contains a H4 signature at (15)GAKRH(19). Multiple sequence alignment of MrH4 showed that the N-terminal (21-42) and C-terminal (87-101) antimicrobial peptide regions and the pentapeptide or H4 signature (15-19) are highly conserved including in humans. The phylogenetic tree formed two separate clades of vertebrate and invertebrate H4, wherein MrH4 was located within the arthropod monophyletic clade of invertebrate H4 groups. Three-dimensional model of MrH4 was established using I-TASSER program and the model was validated using Ramachandran plot analysis. Schiffer-Edmundson helical wheel modeling was used to predict the helix propensity of N (21-42) and C (87-101) terminal derived Mr peptides. The highest gene expression was observed in gills and is induced by viral [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) infections. The N and C terminal peptides were synthesized and their antimicrobial and hemolytic properties were examined. Both peptides showed activity against the tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria; however, the highest activity was noticed against Gram negative bacteria. Among the two peptides used in this study, C-terminal peptide yielded better results than the N-terminal peptide. Therefore, C terminal

  19. MOTS-c: A novel mitochondrial-derived peptide regulating muscle and fat metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Kim, Kyung Hwa; Cohen, Pinchas

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are ancient organelles that are thought to have emerged from once free-living α-proto-bacteria. As such, they still possess several bacterial-like qualities, including a semi-autonomous genetic system, complete with an independent genome and a unique genetic code. The bacterial-like circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been described to encode 37 genes, including 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 13 mRNAs. Two additional peptides reported to originate from the mtDNA, namely humanin (Hashimoto et al., 2001; Ikone et al., 2003; Guo et al., 2003) [1–3] and MOTS-c (mitochondrial ORF of the twelve S c) (Lee et al., 2015) [4], indicate a larger mitochondrial genetic repertoire (Shokolenko and Alexeyev, 2015) [5]. These mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs) have profound and distinct biological activities and provide a paradigm-shifting concept of active mitochondrial-encoded signals that act at the cellular and organismal level (i.e. mitochondrial hormone) (da Cunha et al., 2015; Quiros et al., 2016) [6,7]. Considering that mitochondria are the single most important metabolic organelle, it is not surprising that these MDPs have metabolic actions. MOTS-c has been shown to target the skeletal muscle and enhance glucose metabolism. As such, MOTS-c has implications in the regulation of obesity, diabetes, exercise, and longevity, representing an entirely novel mitochondrial signaling mechanism to regulate metabolism within and between cells. PMID:27216708

  20. Interaction between tachyplesin I, an antimicrobial peptide derived from horseshoe crab, and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kushibiki, Takahiro; Kamiya, Masakatsu; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kumaki, Yasuhiro; Kikukawa, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Demura, Makoto; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Kawano, Keiichi

    2014-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is the very first site of interactions with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In order to gain better insight into the interaction between LPS and AMPs, we determined the structure of tachyplesin I (TP I), an antimicrobial peptide derived from horseshoe crab, in its bound state with LPS and proposed the complex structure of TP I and LPS using a docking program. CD and NMR measurements revealed that binding to LPS slightly extends the two β-strands of TP I and stabilizes the whole structure of TP I. The fluorescence wavelength of an intrinsic tryptophan of TP I and fluorescence quenching in the presence or absence of LPS indicated that a tryptophan residue is incorporated into the hydrophobic environment of LPS. Finally, we succeeded in proposing a structural model for the complex of TP I and LPS by using a docking program. The calculated model structure suggested that the cationic residues of TP I interact with phosphate groups and saccharides of LPS, whereas hydrophobic residues interact with the acyl chains of LPS.

  1. A polyalanine peptide derived from polar fish with anti-infectious activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Marlon H.; Ribeiro, Suzana M.; Nolasco, Diego O.; de La Fuente-Núñez, César; Felício, Mário R.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Matos, Carolina O.; Liao, Luciano M.; Santos, Nuno C.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Franco, Octávio L.; Migliolo, Ludovico

    2016-02-01

    Due to the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant microbial infections, increasing support has been given to new drug discovery programs. A promising alternative to counter bacterial infections includes the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have emerged as model molecules for rational design strategies. Here we focused on the study of Pa-MAP 1.9, a rationally designed AMP derived from the polar fish Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP 1.9 was active against Gram-negative planktonic bacteria and biofilms, without being cytotoxic to mammalian cells. By using AFM, leakage assays, CD spectroscopy and in silico tools, we found that Pa-MAP 1.9 may be acting both on intracellular targets and on the bacterial surface, also being more efficient at interacting with anionic LUVs mimicking Gram-negative bacterial surface, where this peptide adopts α-helical conformations, than cholesterol-enriched LUVs mimicking mammalian cells. Thus, as bacteria present varied physiological features that favor antibiotic-resistance, Pa-MAP 1.9 could be a promising candidate in the development of tools against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria.

  2. MOTS-c: A novel mitochondrial-derived peptide regulating muscle and fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Kim, Kyung Hwa; Cohen, Pinchas

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria are ancient organelles that are thought to have emerged from once free-living α-proto-bacteria. As such, they still possess several bacterial-like qualities, including a semi-autonomous genetic system, complete with an independent genome and a unique genetic code. The bacterial-like circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been described to encode 37 genes, including 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and 13 mRNAs. Two additional peptides reported to originate from the mtDNA, namely humanin (Hashimoto et al., 2001; Ikone et al., 2003; Guo et al., 2003) [1-3] and MOTS-c (mitochondrial ORF of the twelve S c) (Lee et al., 2015) [4], indicate a larger mitochondrial genetic repertoire (Shokolenko and Alexeyev, 2015) [5]. These mitochondrial-derived peptides (MDPs) have profound and distinct biological activities and provide a paradigm-shifting concept of active mitochondrial-encoded signals that act at the cellular and organismal level (i.e. mitochondrial hormone) (da Cunha et al., 2015; Quiros et al., 2016) [6,7]. Considering that mitochondria are the single most important metabolic organelle, it is not surprising that these MDPs have metabolic actions. MOTS-c has been shown to target the skeletal muscle and enhance glucose metabolism. As such, MOTS-c has implications in the regulation of obesity, diabetes, exercise, and longevity, representing an entirely novel mitochondrial signaling mechanism to regulate metabolism within and between cells.

  3. A polyalanine peptide derived from polar fish with anti-infectious activities

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marlon H.; Ribeiro, Suzana M.; Nolasco, Diego O.; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Felício, Mário R.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Matos, Carolina O.; Liao, Luciano M.; Santos, Nuno C.; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Franco, Octávio L.; Migliolo, Ludovico

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant microbial infections, increasing support has been given to new drug discovery programs. A promising alternative to counter bacterial infections includes the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which have emerged as model molecules for rational design strategies. Here we focused on the study of Pa-MAP 1.9, a rationally designed AMP derived from the polar fish Pleuronectes americanus. Pa-MAP 1.9 was active against Gram-negative planktonic bacteria and biofilms, without being cytotoxic to mammalian cells. By using AFM, leakage assays, CD spectroscopy and in silico tools, we found that Pa-MAP 1.9 may be acting both on intracellular targets and on the bacterial surface, also being more efficient at interacting with anionic LUVs mimicking Gram-negative bacterial surface, where this peptide adopts α-helical conformations, than cholesterol-enriched LUVs mimicking mammalian cells. Thus, as bacteria present varied physiological features that favor antibiotic-resistance, Pa-MAP 1.9 could be a promising candidate in the development of tools against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26916401

  4. Antinociception by neutrophil-derived opioid peptides in noninflamed tissue--role of hypertonicity and the perineurium.

    PubMed

    Rittner, H L; Hackel, D; Yamdeu, R-S; Mousa, S A; Stein, C; Schäfer, M; Brack, A

    2009-05-01

    Inflammatory pain can be controlled by intraplantar opioid injection or by secretion of endogenous opioid peptides from leukocytes in inflamed rat paws. Antinociception requires binding of opioid peptides to opioid receptors on peripheral sensory nerve terminals. In the absence of inflammation, hydrophilic opioid peptides do not penetrate the perineurial barrier and, thus, do not elicit antinociception. This study was designed to examine the conditions under which endogenous, neutrophil-derived hydrophilic opioid peptides (i.e. Met-Enkephalin and beta-endorphin) can raise nociceptive thresholds in noninflamed tissue in rats. Intraplantar injection of the chemokine CXCL2/3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-2) induced selective neutrophil recruitment without overt signs of inflammation or changes in mechanical nociceptive thresholds (paw pressure threshold). Following intraplantar injection of hypertonic saline, the perineurial barrier was permeable for hours and intraplantar injection of opioid peptides increased mechanical nociceptive thresholds. While formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) triggered opioid peptide release from neutrophils in vitro, nociceptive thresholds were unchanged in vivo. In vitro, hypertonicity interfered with fMLP-induced p38 mitogen activated kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and opioid peptide release from neutrophils. These inhibitory effects were fully reversible by washout. In vivo, return to normotonicity occurred within 30min while the perineurium remained permeable for hours. Under these conditions, fMLP triggered MAPK phosphorylation and induced opioid peptide-mediated increases in nociceptive thresholds in the noninflamed paw. Taken together, antinociception mediated by endogenous opioids in noninflamed tissue has two important requirements: (i) opening of the perineurial barrier for opioid peptide access and (ii) opioid peptide release from neutrophils involving p38 MAPK.

  5. N-( p-Ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives of amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters - Synthesis and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eißmann, Frank; Weber, Edwin

    2011-11-01

    A series of N-( p-ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives ( 1-4) of the amino acids glycine and L-alanine as well as the dipeptides glycylglycine and L-alanylglycine has been synthesized via a two-step reaction sequence including the reaction of an appropriate N-( p-bromobenzoyl) precursor with trimethylsilylacetylene followed by deprotection of the trimethylsilyl protecting group, respectively. X-ray crystal structures of the amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters 1-4 are reported. The amide and peptide bonds within each molecular structure are planar and adopt the trans-configuration. The packing structures are governed by N sbnd H⋯O interactions leading to the formation of characteristic strand motifs. Further stabilization results from weaker C sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯π contacts.

  6. Biological Activity of Aminophosphonic Acids and Their Short Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejczak, Barbara; Kafarski, Pawel

    The biological activity and natural occurrence of the aminophosphonic acids were described half a century ago. Since then the chemistry and biology of this class of compounds have developed into the separate field of phosphorus chemistry. Today it is well acknowledged that these compounds possess a wide variety of promising, and in some cases commercially useful, physiological activities. Thus, they have found applications ranging from agrochemical (with the herbicides glyphosate and bialaphos being the most prominent examples) to medicinal (with the potent antihypertensive fosinopril and antiosteoporetic bisphosphonates being examples).

  7. The involvement of Nek2 and Notch in the proliferation of rat adrenal cortex triggered by POMC-derived peptides.

    PubMed

    de Mendonca, Pedro Omori Ribeiro; Costa, Ismael Cabral; Lotfi, Claudimara Ferini Pacicco

    2014-01-01

    The adrenal gland is a dynamic organ that undergoes constant cell turnover. This allows for rapid organ remodeling in response to the physiological demands of the HPA axis, which is controlled by proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and N-Terminal peptides (N-POMC). In the rat adrenal cortex, POMC-derived peptides trigger a mitogenic effect, and this process increases cyclins D and E, while inhibiting p27Kip1. The goal of the present study was to further explore the mitogenic effect of ACTH and synthetic N-POMC1-28 peptides by investigating the differences in the expression of key genes involved in the cell cycle of the rat adrenal cortex, following inhibition of the HPA axis. Moreover, we evaluated the differences between the inner and outer fractions of the adrenal cortex (ZF-fraction and ZG-fraction) in terms of their response patterns to different stimuli. In the current study, the inhibition of the HPA axis repressed the expression of Ccnb2, Camk2a, and Nek2 genes throughout the adrenal cortex, while treatments with POMC-derived peptides stimulated Nek2, gene and protein expression, and Notch2 gene expression. Furthermore, Notch1 protein expression was restricted to the subcapsular region of the cortex, an area of the adrenal cortex that is well-known for proliferation. We also showed that different regions of the adrenal cortex respond to HPA-axis inhibition and to induction with POMC-derived peptides at different times. These results suggest that cells in the ZG and ZF fractions could be at different phases of the cell cycle. Our results contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in cell cycle regulation in adrenocortical cells triggered by N-POMC peptides and ACTH, and highlight the involvement of genes such as Nek2 and Notch.

  8. Role of Amino Acid Insertions on Intermolecular Forces between Arginine Peptide Condensed DNA Helices

    PubMed Central

    DeRouchey, Jason E.; Rau, Donald C.

    2011-01-01

    In spermatogenesis, chromatin histones are replaced by arginine-rich protamines to densely compact DNA in sperm heads. Tight packaging is considered necessary to protect the DNA from damage. To better understand the nature of the forces condensing protamine-DNA assemblies and their dependence on amino acid content, the effect of neutral and negatively charged amino acids on DNA-DNA intermolecular forces was studied using model peptides containing six arginines. We have previously observed that the neutral amino acids in salmon protamine decrease the net attraction between protamine-DNA helices compared with the equivalent homo-arginine peptide. Using osmotic stress coupled with x-ray scattering, we have investigated the component attractive and repulsive forces that determine the net attraction and equilibrium interhelical distance as a function of the chemistry, position, and number of the amino acid inserted. Neutral amino acids inserted into hexa-arginine increase the short range repulsion while only slightly affecting longer range attraction. The amino acid content alone of salmon protamine is enough to rationalize the forces that package DNA in sperm heads. Inserting a negatively charged amino acid into hexa-arginine dramatically weakens the net attraction. Both of these observations have biological implications for protamine-DNA packaging in sperm heads. PMID:21994948

  9. Food-derived sensory cues modulate longevity via distinct neuroendocrine insulin-like peptides

    PubMed Central

    Artan, Murat; Jeong, Dae-Eun; Lee, Dongyeop; Kim, Young-Il; Son, Heehwa G.; Husain, Zahabiya; Kim, Jinmahn; Altintas, Ozlem; Kim, Kyuhyung; Alcedo, Joy; Lee, Seung-Jae V.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations influence organismal aging by affecting various regulatory systems. One such system involves sensory neurons, which affect life span in many species. However, how sensory neurons coordinate organismal aging in response to changes in environmental signals remains elusive. Here, we found that a subset of sensory neurons shortens Caenorhabditis elegans’ life span by differentially regulating the expression of a specific insulin-like peptide (ILP), INS-6. Notably, treatment with food-derived cues or optogenetic activation of sensory neurons significantly increases ins-6 expression and decreases life span. INS-6 in turn relays the longevity signals to nonneuronal tissues by decreasing the activity of the transcription factor DAF-16/FOXO. Together, our study delineates a mechanism through which environmental sensory cues regulate aging rates by modulating the activities of specific sensory neurons and ILPs. PMID:27125673

  10. Nucleic Acid-Peptide Complex Phase Controlled by DNA Hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieregg, Jeffrey; Lueckheide, Michael; Leon, Lorraine; Marciel, Amanda; Tirrell, Matthew

    When polyanions and polycations are mixed, counterion release drives formation of polymer-rich complexes that can either be solid (precipitates) or liquid (coacervates) depending on the properties of the polyelectrolytes. These complexes are important in many fields, from encapsulation of industrial polymers to membrane-free segregation of biomolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins. Condensation of long double-stranded DNA has been studied for several decades, but comparatively little attention has been paid to the polyelectrolyte behavior of oligonucleotides. We report here studies of DNA oligonucleotides (10 - 88 nt) complexed with polylysine (10 - 100 aa). Unexpectedly, we find that the phase of the resulting complexes is controlled by the hybridization state of the nucleic acid, with double-stranded DNA forming precipitates and single-stranded DNA forming coacervates. Stability increases with polyelectrolyte length and decreases with solution salt concentration, with complexes of the longer double-stranded polymers undergoing precipitate/coacervate/soluble transitions as ionic strength is increased. Mixing coacervates formed by complementary single-stranded oligonucleotides results in precipitate formation, raising the possibility of stimulus-responsive material design.

  11. Retention of caffeic acid derivatives in dried Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H O; Durance, T D; Scaman, C H; Kitts, D D

    2000-09-01

    Different drying methods were applied to fresh Canadian-grown Echinacea purpurea flowers to determine optimal drying procedures for preserving caffeic acid derivatives. Fresh flowers of E. purpurea were dried by freeze-drying (FD), vacuum microwave drying with full vacuum (VMD), and air-drying (AD) at 25, 40, and 70 degrees C. Using HPLC, chicoric acid and caftaric acid levels were quantitated in dried flowers. These acids were significantly affected by the drying method conditions used. Although significant (p < 0.05) loss of chicoric acid was observed when flowers were stored at high moisture, VMD flowers with a low moisture content retained the highest levels of chicoric acid and caftaric acid similar to FD flowers. Flowers that were AD at 25 degrees C retained about 50%, while those dried by AD at 70 degrees C resulted in the lowest retention of these acids. Although flowers dried by AD at 40 degrees C retained relatively high amounts of chicoric acid and caftaric acid, the time (55 h) required to reach optimal drying was considerably longer than that (47 min) for VMD.

  12. Characterisation of neuroprotective efficacy of modified poly-arginine-9 (R9) peptides using a neuronal glutamic acid excitotoxicity model.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adam B; Anderton, Ryan S; Knuckey, Neville W; Meloni, Bruno P

    2017-02-01

    In a recent study, we highlighted the importance of cationic charge and arginine residues for the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine and arginine-rich peptides. In this study, using cortical neuronal cultures and an in vitro glutamic acid excitotoxicity model, we examined the neuroprotective efficacy of different modifications to the poly-arginine-9 peptide (R9). We compared an unmodified R9 peptide with R9 peptides containing the following modifications: (i) C-terminal amidation (R9-NH2); (ii) N-terminal acetylation (Ac-R9); (iii) C-terminal amidation with N-terminal acetylation (Ac-R9-NH2); and (iv) C-terminal amidation with D-amino acids (R9D-NH2). The three C-terminal amidated peptides (R9-NH2, Ac-R9-NH2, and R9D-NH2) displayed neuroprotective effects greater than the unmodified R9 peptide, while the N-terminal acetylated peptide (Ac-R9) had reduced efficacy. Using the R9-NH2 peptide, neuroprotection could be induced with a 10 min peptide pre-treatment, 1-6 h before glutamic acid insult, or when added to neuronal cultures up to 45 min post-insult. In addition, all peptides were capable of reducing glutamic acid-mediated neuronal intracellular calcium influx, in a manner that reflected their neuroprotective efficacy. This study further highlights the neuroprotective properties of poly-arginine peptides and provides insight into peptide modifications that affect efficacy.

  13. PEDF-derived peptide promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through its mitogenic effect on muscle progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tsung-Chuan; Chiang, Yi-Pin; Chuang, Chih-Kuang; Chen, Show-Li; Hsieh, Jui-Wen; Lan, Yu-Wen; Tsao, Yeou-Ping

    2015-08-01

    In response injury, intrinsic repair mechanisms are activated in skeletal muscle to replace the damaged muscle fibers with new muscle fibers. The regeneration process starts with the proliferation of satellite cells to give rise to myoblasts, which subsequently differentiate terminally into myofibers. Here, we investigated the promotion effect of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF) on muscle regeneration. We report that PEDF and a synthetic PEDF-derived short peptide (PSP; residues Ser(93)-Leu(112)) induce satellite cell proliferation in vitro and promote muscle regeneration in vivo. Extensively, soleus muscle necrosis was induced in rats by bupivacaine, and an injectable alginate gel was used to release the PSP in the injured muscle. PSP delivery was found to stimulate satellite cell proliferation in damaged muscle and enhance the growth of regenerating myofibers, with complete regeneration of normal muscle mass by 2 wk. In cell culture, PEDF/PSP stimulated C2C12 myoblast proliferation, together with a rise in cyclin D1 expression. PEDF induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 in C2C12 myoblasts. Blocking the activity of ERK, Akt, or STAT3 with pharmacological inhibitors attenuated the effects of PEDF/PSP on the induction of C2C12 cell proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine pulse-labeling demonstrated that PEDF/PSP stimulated primary rat satellite cell proliferation in myofibers in vitro. In summary, we report for the first time that PSP is capable of promoting the regeneration of skeletal muscle. The signaling mechanism involves the ERK, AKT, and STAT3 pathways. These results show the potential utility of this PEDF peptide for muscle regeneration.

  14. Myostatin inhibition by a follistatin-derived peptide ameliorates the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy model mice.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, K

    2008-07-01

    Gene-targeted therapies, such as adeno-associated viral vector (AAV)-mediated gene therapy and cell-mediated therapy using myogenic stem cells, are hopeful molecular strategies for muscular dystrophy. In addition, drug therapies based on the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy patients are desirable. Multidisciplinary approaches to drug design would offer promising therapeutic strategies. Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is predominantly produced by skeletal muscle and negatively regulates the growth and differentiation of cells of the skeletal muscle lineage. Myostatin inhibition would increase the skeletal muscle mass and prevent muscle degeneration, regardless of the type of muscular dystrophy. Myostatin inhibitors include myostatin antibodies, myostatin propeptide, follistatin and follistatin-related protein. Although follistatin possesses potent myostatin-inhibiting activity, it works as an efficient inhibitor of activins. Unlike myostatin, activins regulate the growth and differentiation of nearly all cell types, including cells of the gonads, pituitary gland and skeletal muscle. We have developed a myostatin-specific inhibitor derived from follistatin, designated FS I-I. Transgenic mice expressing this myostatin-inhibiting peptide under the control of a skeletal muscle-specific promoter showed increased skeletal muscle mass and strength. mdx mice were crossed with FS I-I transgenic mice and any improvement of the pathological signs was investigated. The resulting mdx/FS I-I mice exhibited increased skeletal muscle mass and reduced cell infiltration in muscles. Muscle strength was also recovered in mdx/FS I-I mice. Our data indicate that myostatin inhibition by this follistatin-derived peptide has therapeutic potential for muscular dystrophy.

  15. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Solarte, Víctor A; Rosas, Jaiver E; Rivera, Zuly J; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L; García, Javier E; Vernot, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20-25)4, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90%) in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC.

  16. A Tetrameric Peptide Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibits Specific Cytotoxic Effects against Oral Squamous-Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Solarte, Víctor A.; Rosas, Jaiver E.; Rivera, Zuly J.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.; García, Javier E.; Vernot, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Several short linear peptides derived from cyclic bovine lactoferricin were synthesized and tested for their cytotoxic effect against the oral cavity squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines CAL27 and SCC15. As a control, an immortalized and nontumorigenic cell line, Het-1A, was used. Linear peptides based on the RRWQWR core sequence showed a moderate cytotoxic effect and specificity towards tumorigenic cells. A tetrameric peptide, LfcinB(20–25)4, containing the RRWQWR motif, exhibited greater cytotoxic activity (>90%) in both OSCC cell lines compared to the linear lactoferricin peptide or the lactoferrin protein. Additionally, this tetrameric peptide showed the highest specificity towards tumorigenic cells among the tested peptides. Interestingly, this effect was very fast, with cell shrinkage, severe damage to cell membrane permeability, and lysis within one hour of treatment. Our results are consistent with a necrotic effect rather than an apoptotic one and suggest that this tetrameric peptide could be considered as a new candidate for the therapeutic treatment of OSCC. PMID:26609531

  17. Investigation of the antimicrobial activities of Snakin-Z, a new cationic peptide derived from Zizyphus jujuba fruits.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Fatemeh; Zare-Zardini, Hadi; Ebrahimi, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Snakin-Z is a novel antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that is identified from the fruit of Zizyphus jujuba. This peptide is composed of 31 amino acids which is determined with the sequence of CARLNCVPKGTSGNTETCPCYASLHSCRKYG and molecular weight of 3318.82 Da. Snakin-Z is not identical to any AMP in the peptide database. According to this study, Snakin-Z potentially has antimicrobial property against bacteria and fungi. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of this peptide is suitable for antimicrobial activity. We assessed that Snakin-Z could affect Phomopsis azadirachtae with the MIC value of 7.65 μg/mL and vice versa Staphylococcus aureus with the MIC value of 28.8 μg/mL. Interestingly, human red blood cells also showed good tolerance to the Snakin-Z. On the basis of this study, Snakin-Z can be an appropriate candidate for therapeutic applications in the future due to its antimicrobial property.

  18. Early in-situ cellularization of a supramolecular vascular graft is modified by synthetic stromal cell-derived factor-1α derived peptides.

    PubMed

    Muylaert, Dimitri E P; van Almen, Geert C; Talacua, Hanna; Fledderus, Joost O; Kluin, Jolanda; Hendrikse, Simone I S; van Dongen, Joost L J; Sijbesma, Eline; Bosman, Anton W; Mes, Tristan; Thakkar, Shraddha H; Smits, Anthal I P M; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2016-01-01

    In an in-situ approach towards tissue engineered cardiovascular replacement grafts, cell-free scaffolds are implanted that engage in endogenous tissue formation. Bioactive molecules can be incorporated into such grafts to facilitate cellular recruitment. Stromal cell derived factor 1α (SDF1α) is a powerful chemoattractant of lymphocytes, monocytes and progenitor cells and plays an important role in cellular signaling and tissue repair. Short SDF1α-peptides derived from its receptor-activating domain are capable of activating the SDF1α-specific receptor CXCR4. Here, we show that SDF1α-derived peptides can be chemically modified with a supramolecular four-fold hydrogen bonding ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) moiety, that allows for the convenient incorporation of the UPy-SDF1α-derived peptides into a UPy-modified polymer scaffold. We hypothesized that a UPy-modified material bioactivated with these UPy-SDF1α-derived peptides can retain and stimulate circulating cells in an anti-inflammatory, pro-tissue formation signaling environment. First, the early recruitment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to the scaffolds was analyzed in vitro in a custom-made mesofluidic device applying physiological pulsatile fluid flow. Preferential adhesion of lymphocytes with reduced expression of inflammatory factors TNFα, MCP1 and lymphocyte activation marker CD25 was found in the bioactivated scaffolds, indicating a reduction in inflammatory signaling. As a proof of concept, in-vivo implantation of the bioactivated scaffolds as rat abdominal aorta interposition grafts showed increased cellularity by CD68+ cells after 7 days. These results indicate that a completely synthetic, cell-free biomaterial can attract and stimulate specific leukocyte populations through supramolecular incorporation of short bioactive SDF1α derived peptides.

  19. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Each Enantiomer of Orthogonally-Protected 4,4-Difluoroglutamic Acid – A Candidate Monomer for Chiral Brønsted-Acid Peptide-Based Catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang

    2011-01-01

    We have accomplished an asymmetric synthesis of each enantiomer of 4,4-difluoroglutamic acid. This α-amino acid has been of interest in medicinal chemistry circles. Key features of the synthesis include highly scalable procedures, a Reformatsky-based coupling reaction, and straightforward functional group manipulations to make the parent amino acid. Enantioenrichment derives from an enzymatic resolution of the synthetic material. Conversion of the optically enriched compounds to orthogonally protected forms allows selective formation of peptide bonds. 4,4- Difluoroglutamic acid, in a suitably protected form, is also shown to exhibit enhanced catalytic activity in both an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction, in comparison to the analogous glutamic acid derivative. PMID:22039908

  20. Ion source-dependent performance of 4-vinylpyridine, iodoacetamide, and N-maleoyl derivatives for the detection of cysteine-containing peptides in complex proteomics.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Wiebke; Berg, Regina; Walch, Philipp; Hanke, Sabrina; Baalmann, Mathis; Kerner, Alexander; Trumpp, Andreas; Roesli, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Cysteine is unique among the proteinogenic amino acids due to its ability to form disulfide bonds. While this property is of vital importance for protein structures and biological processes, it causes difficulties for the mass spectrometric identification of cysteine-containing peptides. A common approach to overcome these problems in bottom-up proteomics is the reduction and covalent modification of sulfhydryl groups prior to enzymatic digestion. In this study, established alkylating agents and N-maleoyl amino acids with variable hydrophobicity were characterized with respect to a variety of relevant parameters and subsequently evaluated in a large-scale analysis using different ion sources. Depending on the compound, the ion source had a profound impact on the relative and absolute identification of cysteine-containing peptides. The best results were obtained by derivatization of the cysteine residues with 4-vinylpyridine and subsequent matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI). Modification with 4-vinylpyridine increased the number of cysteine-containing peptides identified with any other compound using LC-MALDI/MS at least by a factor of 2. This experimental observation is mirrored by differences in the gas-phase basicities, which were computed for methyl thiolate derivatives of the compounds using density functional theory. With electrospray ionization (ESI), complementary use of reagents from three different compound classes, e.g., iodoacetamide, 4-vinylpyridine, and N-maleoyl beta-alanine, was beneficial compared to the application of a single reagent.

  1. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    1994-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  2. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, Earl Philip; Gatrone, Ralph Carl; Nash, Kenneth LaVerne

    1997-01-01

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described.

  3. Membrane extraction with thermodynamically unstable diphosphonic acid derivatives

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-14

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulphur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  4. Extracting metal ions with diphosphonic acid, or derivative thereof

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Gatrone, R.C.; Nash, K.L.

    1994-07-26

    Thermodynamically-unstable complexing agents which are diphosphonic acids and diphosphonic acid derivatives (or sulfur containing analogs), like carboxyhydroxymethanediphosphonic acid and vinylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, are capable of complexing with metal ions, and especially metal ions in the II, III, IV, V and VI oxidation states, to form stable, water-soluble metal ion complexes in moderately alkaline to highly-acidic media. However, the complexing agents can be decomposed, under mild conditions, into non-organic compounds which, for many purposes are environmentally-nondamaging compounds thereby degrading the complex and releasing the metal ion for disposal or recovery. Uses for such complexing agents as well as methods for their manufacture are also described. 1 fig.

  5. Isoelectric focusing of proteins and peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egen, N.

    1979-01-01

    Egg-white solution was chosen as the reference solution in order to assess the effects of operational parameters (voltage, flow rate, ampholine pH range and concentration, and protein concentration) of the RIEF apparatus on protein resolution. Topics of discussion include: (1) comparison of RIEF apparatus to conventional IEF techniques (column and PAG) with respect to resolution and throughput; (2) peptide and protein separation (AHF, Thymosin - Fraction 5, vasoactive peptide, L-asparaginase and ACP); and (3) detection of peptides - dansyl derivatives of amino acids and peptides, post-focusing fluorescent labeling of amino acids, peptides and proteins, and ampholine extraction from focused gels.

  6. Conformational characterization of peptides rich in the cycloaliphatic C alpha,alpha-disubstituted glycine 1-aminocyclononane-1-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Gatos, M; Formaggio, F; Crisma, M; Valle, G; Toniolo, C; Bonora, G M; Saviano, M; Iacovino, R; Menchise, V; Galdiero, S; Pedone, C; Benedetti, E

    1997-01-01

    A series of N- and C-protected, monodispersed homo-oligopeptides (to the pentamer level) from the cycloaliphatic C alpha,alpha-dialkylated glycine 1-aminocyclononane-1-carboxylic acid (Ac9c) and two Ala/Ac9c tripeptides have been synthesized by solution methods and fully characterized. The conformational preferences of all the model peptides were determined in deuterochloroform solution by FT-IR absorption and 1H-NMR. The molecular structures of the amino acid derivatives mCIAc-Ac9c-OH and Z-Ac9c-OtBu, the dipeptide pBrBz-(Ac9c)2-OtBu, the tetrapeptide Z-(Ac9c)4-OtBu, and the pentapeptide Z-(Ac9c)5-OtBu were determined in the crystal state by X-ray diffraction. Based on this information, the average geometry and the preferred conformation for the cyclononyl moiety of the Ac9c residue have been assessed. The backbone conformational data are strongly in favour of the conclusion that the Ac9c residue is a strong beta-turn and helix former. A comparison with the structural propensity of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, the prototype of C alpha,alpha-dialkylated glycines, and the other extensively investigated members of the family of 1-aminocycloalkane-1-carboxylic acids (Acnc, with n = 3-8) is made and the implications for the use of the Ac9c residue in conformationally constrained analogues of bioactive peptides are briefly examined.

  7. Palladium(III)-Catalyzed Fluorination of Arylboronic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Pingping; Murphy, Jennifer M.; Ritter, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    A practical, palladium-catalyzed synthesis of aryl fluorides from arylboronic acid derivatives is presented. The reaction is operationally simple and amenable to multi-gram-scale synthesis. Evaluation of the reaction mechanism suggests a single-electron-transfer pathway, involving a Pd(III) intermediate that has been isolated and characterized. PMID:24040932

  8. Palladium(III)-catalyzed fluorination of arylboronic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, Anthony R; Campbell, Michael G; Tang, Pingping; Murphy, Jennifer M; Ritter, Tobias

    2013-09-25

    A practical, palladium-catalyzed synthesis of aryl fluorides from arylboronic acid derivatives is presented. The reaction is operationally simple and amenable to multigram-scale synthesis. Evaluation of the reaction mechanism suggests a single-electron-transfer pathway, involving a Pd(III) intermediate that has been isolated and characterized.

  9. The Synthesis and Evaluation of Arctigenin Amino Acid Ester Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cai, En-Bo; Yang, Li-Min; Jia, Cai-Xia; Zhang, Wei-Yuan; Zhao, Yan; Li, Wei; Song, Xing-Zhuo; Zheng, Man-Ling

    2016-10-01

    The use of arctigenin (ARG), a traditional medicine with many pharmacological activities, has been restricted due to its poor solubility in water. Five amino acid derivatives of ARG have been synthesized using glycine, o-alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine, which have t-butyloxy carbonyl (BOC) as a protective group. In this study, we examined the effects of removing these protective groups. The results showed that the amino acid derivatives have better solubility and nitrite-clearing ability than ARG. Among the compounds tested, the amino acid derivatives without protective group were the best. Based on these results, ARG and its two amino acid derivatives without protective group (ARG8, ARG10) were selected to evaluate their anti-tumor activity in vivo at a dosage of 40 mg/kg. The results indicated that ARG8 and ARG10 both exhibit more anti-tumor activity than ARG in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The tumor inhibition rates of ARG8 and ARG10 were 69.27 and 43.58%, which was much higher than ARG. Furthermore, the mice treated with these compounds exhibited less damage to the liver, kidney and immune organs compared with the positive group. Furthermore, ARG8 and ARG10 improved the serum cytokine levels significantly compared to ARG. In brief, this study provides a method to improve the water solubility of drugs, and we also provide a reference basis for new drug development.

  10. Derivatives of diphosphonic acids: synthesis and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotukhina, M. M.; Krutikov, V. I.; Lavrent'ev, A. N.

    1993-07-01

    The scientific-technical and patent literature on the synthesis of derivatives of diphosphonic acids is surveyed. Various methods of synthesis of diphosphonate, phosphonylphosphinyl, and phosphonophosphate compounds are described. The principal aspects of the use of the above compounds in medicine, biochemistry, and agriculture are examined. The bibliography includes 174 references.

  11. A Limulus antilipopolysaccharide factor-derived peptide exhibits a new immunological activity with potential applicability in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallespi, M G; Glaria, L A; Reyes, O; Garay, H E; Ferrero, J; Araña, M J

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that cyclic peptides corresponding to residues 35 to 52 of the Limulus antilipopolysaccharide (anti-LPS) factor (LALF) bind and neutralize LPS-mediated in vitro and in vivo activities. Therapeutic approaches based on agents which bind and neutralize LPS activities are particularly attractive because these substances directly block the primary stimulus for the entire proinflammatory cytokine cascade. Here we describe new activities of the LALF(31-52) peptide, other than its LPS binding ability. Surprisingly, supernatants from human mononuclear cells stimulated with the LALF peptide are able to induce in vitro antiviral effects on the Hep-2 cell line mediated by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and IFN-alpha. Analysis of the effect of LALF(31-52) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages revealed that a pretreatment with the peptide decreased LPS-induced TNF production but did not affect NO generation. This indicates that the LALF peptide modifies the LPS-induced response. In a model in mice with peritoneal fulminating sepsis, LALF(31-52) protected the mice when administered prophylactically, and this effect is related to reduced systemic TNF-alpha levels. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory properties of the LALF-derived peptide. These properties widen the spectrum of the therapeutic potential for this LALF-derived peptide and the molecules derived from it. These agents may be useful in the prophylaxis and therapy of viral and bacterial infectious diseases, as well as for septic shock.

  12. [Use of peptide bioregulators in intoxication with the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid].

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, S N; Zhamsaranova, S D

    2004-01-01

    The paper shows it promising to use peptide bioregulators--fractions obtained from the cattle immune system (thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes) during immunotherapy for intoxication experimentally caused by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Oral administration of the fractions in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg body weight eliminated the suppressive effect of the herbicide on murine cellular and humoral immune reactions, which manifested by the recovery of the studied parameters to those in control animals.

  13. Antiprotozoal Activity of Triazole Derivatives of Dehydroabietic Acid and Oleanolic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pertino, Mariano Walter; Vega, Celeste; Rolón, Miriam; Coronel, Cathia; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2017-02-28

    Tropical parasitic diseases such as Chagas disease and leishmaniasis are considered a major public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As the drugs currently used to treat these diseases have several disadvantages and side effects, there is an urgent need for new drugs with better selectivity and less toxicity. Structural modifications of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds using click chemistry have enabled access to derivatives with promising antiparasitic activity. The antiprotozoal activity of the terpenes dehydroabietic acid, dehydroabietinol, oleanolic acid, and 34 synthetic derivatives were evaluated against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and promastigotes of Leishmaniabraziliensis and Leishmania infantum. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed on NCTC-Clone 929 cells. The activity of the compounds was moderate and the antiparasitic effect was associated with the linker length between the diterpene and the triazole in dehydroabietinol derivatives. For the oleanolic acid derivatives, a free carboxylic acid function led to better antiparasitic activity.

  14. Development of SI-traceable C-peptide certified reference material NMIJ CRM 6901-a using isotope-dilution mass spectrometry-based amino acid analyses.

    PubMed

    Kinumi, Tomoya; Goto, Mari; Eyama, Sakae; Kato, Megumi; Kasama, Takeshi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2012-07-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) is a higher-order calibration material used to enable a traceable analysis. This paper describes the development of a C-peptide CRM (NMIJ CRM 6901-a) by the National Metrology Institute of Japan using two independent methods for amino acid analysis based on isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. C-peptide is a 31-mer peptide that is utilized for the evaluation of β-cell function in the pancreas in clinical testing. This CRM is a lyophilized synthetic peptide having the human C-peptide sequence, and contains deamidated and pyroglutamylated forms of C-peptide. By adding water (1.00 ± 0.01) g into the vial containing the CRM, the C-peptide solution in 10 mM phosphate buffer saline (pH 6.6) is reconstituted. We assigned two certified values that represent the concentrations of total C-peptide (mixture of C-peptide, deamidated C-peptide, and pyroglutamylated C-peptide) and C-peptide. The certified concentration of total C-peptide was determined by two amino acid analyses using pre-column derivatization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and hydrophilic chromatography-mass spectrometry following acid hydrolysis. The certified concentration of C-peptide was determined by multiplying the concentration of total C-peptide by the ratio of the relative area of C-peptide to that of the total C-peptide measured by liquid chromatography. The certified value of C-peptide (80.7 ± 5.0) mg/L represents the concentration of the specific entity of C-peptide; on the other hand, the certified value of total C-peptide, (81.7 ± 5.1) mg/L can be used for analyses that does not differentiate deamidated and pyroglutamylated C-peptide from C-peptide itself, such as amino acid analyses and immunochemical assays.

  15. Evaluation of benzoic acid derivatives as sirtuin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Pei; Catbagan, Chad C; Bowler, Jeannette T; Gokey, Trevor; Goodwin, Natalie D M; Guliaev, Anton B; Wu, Weiming; Amagata, Taro

    2014-01-01

    Employing a genetically modified yeast strain as a screening tool, 4-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (5) was isolated from the marine sediment-derived Streptomyces sp. CP27-53 as a weak yeast sirtuin (Sir2p) inhibitor. Using this compound as a scaffold, a series of disubstituted benzene derivatives were evaluated to elucidate the structure activity relationships for Sir2p inhibition. The results suggested that 4-alkyl or 4-alkylaminobenzoic acid is the key structure motif for Sir2p inhibitory activity. The most potent Sir2p inhibitor, 4-tert-butylbenzoic acid (20), among the tested compounds in this study turned out to be a weak but selective SIRT1 inhibitor. The calculated binding free energies between the selected compounds and the catalytic domain of SIRT1 were well correlated to their measured SIRT1 inhibitory activities.

  16. [Prospects for use of peptides and their derivatives, structurally corresponding to the G protein-coupled receptors, in medicine].

    PubMed

    Shpakov, A O; Shpakova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of signaling pathways involved in the control of many physiological functions is carried out via the heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The search of effective and selective regulators of GPCR and intracellular signaling cascades coupled with them is one of the important problems of modern fundamental and clinical medicine. Recently data suggest that synthetic peptides and their derivatives, structurally corresponding to the intracellular and transmembrane regions of GPCR, can interact with high efficiency and selectivity with homologous receptors and influence, thus, the functional activity of intracellular signaling cascades and fundamental cellular processes controlled by them. GPCR-peptides are active in both in vitro and in vivo. They regulate hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and cell proliferation, inhibit tumor growth and metastasis, and prevent the inflammatory diseases and septic shock. These data show greatest prospects in the development of the new generations of drugs based on GPCR-derived peptides, capable of regulating the important functions of the organism.

  17. New derivatives of nonactic and homononactic acids from Bacillus pumilus derived from Breynia fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Huo, Peiyuan; Chen, Huahong; Li, Songtao; Jiang, Yi; Li, Liya; Xu, Lihua; Jiang, Chenglin; Huang, Xueshi

    2014-07-01

    Six new nonactic and homononactic acid derivatives, ethyl homononactate (1), ethyl nonactate (2), homononactyl homononactate (6), ethyl homononactyl nonactate (7), ethyl homononactyl homononactate (8), and ethyl nonactyl nonactate (9), as well as four known compounds, homononactic acid (3), nonactic acid (4), homononactyl nonactate (5), and bishomononactic acid (10), were isolated from culture broth of Bacillus pumilus derived from Breynia fruticosa. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The optical purities of 1-6 were determined by HPLC/MS after treatment with L-phenylalanine methyl ester. The dimeric compounds 5-9 showed weak cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (IC50 19-100 μg/ml).

  18. Investigating the inclusion properties of aromatic amino acids complexing beta-cyclodextrins in model peptides.

    PubMed

    Caso, Jolanda Valentina; Russo, Luigi; Palmieri, Maddalena; Malgieri, Gaetano; Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Isernia, Carla; Iacovino, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Cyclodextrins are commonly used as complexing agents in biological, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications since they have an effect on protein thermal and proteolytic stability, refolding yields, solubility, and taste masking. β-cyclodextrins (β-CD), because of their cavity size are a perfectly suited complexing agent for many common guest moieties. In the case of peptide-cyclodextrin and protein-cyclodextrin host-guest complexes the aromatic amino acids are reported to be the principal responsible of the interaction. For these reasons, we have investigated the inclusion properties of nine designed tripeptides, obtained permuting the position of two L-alanines (Ala, A) with that of one L-tryptophan (Trp, W), L-phenylalanine (Phe, F), or L-tyrosine (Tyr, Y), respectively. Interestingly, the position of the aromatic side-chain in the sequence appears to modulate the β-CD:peptide binding constants, determined via UV-Vis and NMR spectroscopy, which in turn assumes values higher than those reported for the single amino acid. The tripeptides containing a tyrosine showed the highest binding constants, with the central position in the Ac-AYA-NH2 peptide becoming the most favorite for the interaction. A combined NMR and Molecular Docking approach permitted to build detailed complex models, highlighting the stabilizing interactions of the neighboring amino acids backbone atoms with the upper rim of the β-CD.

  19. Acid-base titration of melanocortin peptides: evidence of Trp rotational conformers interconversion.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto M; Vieira, Renata F F; Nakaie, Clóvis R; Lamy, M Teresa; Ito, Amando S

    2005-01-01

    Tryptophantime-resolved fluorescence was used to monitor acid-base titration properties of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and the biologically more potent analog [Nle4, D-Phe7]alpha -MSH (NDP-MSH), labeled or not with the paramagnetic amino acid probe 2,2,6,6-tetramthylpiperidine-N-oxyl-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid (Toac). Global analysis of fluorescence decay profiles measured in the pH range between 2.0 and 11.0 showed that, for each peptide, the data could be well fitted to three lifetimes whose values remained constant. The less populated short lifetime component changed little with pH and was ascribed to Trp g+ chi1 rotamer, in which electron transfer deactivation predominates over fluorescence. The long and intermediate lifetime preexponential factors interconverted along that pH interval and the result was interpreted as due to interconversion between Trp g- and trans chi1 rotamers, driven by conformational changes promoted by modifications in the ionization state of side-chain residues. The differences in the extent of interconversion in alpha-MSH and NDP-MSH are indicative of structural differences between the peptides, while titration curves suggest structural similarities between each peptide and its Toac-labeled species, in aqueous solution. Though less sensitive than fluorescence, the Toac electron spin resonance (ESR) isotropic hyperfine splitting parameter can also monitor the titration of side-chain residues located relatively far from the probe.

  20. Remote Enantioselection Transmitted by an Achiral Peptide Nucleic Acid Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, Igor A.; Orgel, Leslie E.; Nielsen, Peter E.

    2000-01-01

    short homochiral segment of DNA into a PNA helix could have guaranteed that the next short segment of DNA to be incorporated would have the same handedness as the first. Once two segments of the same handedness were present, the probability that a third segment would have the same handedness would increase, and so on. Evolution could then slowly dilute out the PNA part. This scenario would ultimately allow the formation of a chiral oligonucleotide by processes that are largely resistant to enantiomeric crossinhibition. It is important to note that the ligation of homochiral dinucleotides on a nucleic acid template would probably be at least as enantiospecific as the reaction that we have studied. The disadvantage of using chiral monomers as components of a replicating system arises from the difficulty of generating a first long homochiral template from a racemic mixture of monomers, although results of experiments designed to overcome this difficulty by employing homochiral tetramers have been reported.l l The probability of obtaining a homochiral n-mer from achiral substrates is approximately 1P-I if the nontemplate-directed extension of the primer is not enantioselective. Hence, it would be very hard to get started with a homochiral 40-mer, for example. No such difficulty exists in a scenario that originates with an achiral genetic material and in which the incorporation of very few chiral monomers in this achiral background gradually progresses towards homochirality. It seems possible that some PNA sequences could act as catalysts, analogous to ribozymes, even though PNA lacks clear metal binding sites. Although such catalysts could not be enantioselective, the incorporation of as few as two chiral nucleotides could then impose chiral specificity on the system. Furthermore, such patch chimeras could help to bridge the gap in catalytic potential between PNA and RNA, while guaranteeing enantioselectivity.

  1. Application of hydrophilic interaction chromatography retention coefficients for predicting peptide elution with TFA and methanesulfonic acid ion-pairing reagents.

    PubMed

    Wujcik, Chad E; Tweed, Joseph; Kadar, Eugene P

    2010-03-01

    Hydrophilic retention coefficients for 17 peptides were calculated based on retention coefficients previously published for TSKgel silica-60 and were compared with the experimental elution profile on a Waters Atlantis HILIC silica column using TFA and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as ion-pairing reagents. Relative peptide retention could be accurately determined with both counter-ions. Peptide retention and chromatographic behavior were influenced by the percent acid modifier used with increases in both retention and peak symmetry observed at increasing modifier concentrations. The enhancement of net peptide polarity through MSA pairing shifted retention out by nearly five-fold for the earliest eluting peptide, compared with TFA. Despite improvements in retention and efficiency (N(eff)) for MSA over TFA, a consistent reduction in calculated selectivity (alpha) was observed. This result is believed to be attributed to the stronger polar contribution of MSA masking and diminishing the underlying influence of the amino acid residues of each associated peptide. Finally, post-column infusion of propionic acid and acetic acid was evaluated for their potential to recover signal intensity for TFA and MSA counter-ions for LC-ESI-MS applications. Acetic acid generally yielded more substantial signal improvements over propionic acid on the TFA system while minimal benefits and some further reductions were noted with MSA.

  2. The Telomerase-Derived Anticancer Peptide Vaccine GV1001 as an Extracellular Heat Shock Protein-Mediated Cell-Penetrating Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong; Seo, Eun-Hye; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), which can facilitate the transport of molecular cargo across the plasma membrane, have become important tools in promoting the cellular delivery of macromolecules. GV1001, a peptide derived from a reverse-transcriptase subunit of telomerase (hTERT) and developed as a vaccine against various cancers, reportedly has unexpected CPP properties. Unlike typical CPPs, such as the HIV-1 TAT peptide, GV1001 enabled the cytosolic delivery of macromolecules such as proteins, DNA and siRNA via extracellular heat shock protein 90 (eHSP90) and 70 (eHSP70) complexes. The eHSP-GV1001 interaction may have biological effects in addition to its cytosolic delivery function. GV1001 was originally designed as a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-binding cancer epitope, but its CPP properties may contribute to its strong anti-cancer immune response relative to other telomerase peptide-based vaccines. Cell signaling via eHSP-GV1001 binding may lead to unexpected biological effects, such as direct anticancer or antiviral effects. In this review, we focus on the CPP effects of GV1001 bound to eHSP90 and eHSP70. PMID:27941629

  3. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of betulinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Dariana Pimentel Gomes; de Brum Vieira, Patrícia; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Menezes, Camila Braz; Senger, Franciane Rios; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Baggio Gnoatto, Simone Cristina; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-12-01

    Caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral STD worldwide. Currently, metronidazole and tinidazole are the only drugs approved for treatment of the condition. However, problems such as metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis isolates and allergic reactions have been reported. Based on data previously published by our group, structural changes in betulinic acid (1) were performed, generating three new compounds that were tested for in vitro anti-T.vaginalis activity in this study. Whereas derivative 2 did not demonstrate anti-T. vaginalis activity, derivatives 3 and 4 reduced trophozoite viability by 100%, with MIC values of 50μM. The structural difference of two compounds was performed only on the C-28 position. Derivative 3 showed low cytotoxicity against Vero cells in 24h; however, derivative 4 was highly cytotoxic, but efficient when associated with metronidazole in the synergism assay. ROS production by neutrophils was reduced, and derivative 3 showed anti-inflammatory effect. Collectively, the results of this study provide in vitro evidence that betulinic acid derivatives 3 and 4 are potential compounds with anti-T. vaginalis activity.

  4. An albumin-derived peptide scaffold capable of binding and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Immacolata; Pavan, Silvia; Fontanive, Giampaolo; Tossi, Alessandro; Benedetti, Fabio; Savoini, Adriano; Maurizio, Elisa; Sgarra, Riccardo; Sblattero, Daniele; Berti, Federico

    2013-01-01

    We have identified a 101-amino-acid polypeptide derived from the sequence of the IIA binding site of human albumin. The polypeptide contains residues that make contact with IIA ligands in the parent protein, and eight cysteine residues to form disulfide bridges, that stabilize the polypeptide structure. Seventy-four amino acids are located in six α-helical regions, while the remaining thirty-seven amino acids form six connecting coil/loop regions. A soluble GST fusion protein was expressed in E. coli in yields as high as 4 mg/l. This protein retains the IIA fragment's capacity to bind typical ligands such as warfarin and efavirenz and other albumin's functional properties such as aldolase activity and the ability to direct the stereochemical outcome of a diketone reduction. This newly cloned polypeptide thus represents a valuable starting point for the construction of libraries of binders and catalysts with improved proficiency.

  5. Anticoagulant Effects of Heparin Complexes with Prolyl-Glycine Peptide and Glycine and Proline Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, M E; Obergan, T Yu; Maystrenko, E S; Kalugina, M D

    2016-05-01

    The study demonstrates the formation of heparin complexes with prolyl-glycine peptide and proline and glycine amino acids. The method was developed for in vitro production of these complexes at 1:1 dipeptide to heparin molar ratio and 2:1 amino acid to heparin molar ratio. These complexes, unlike the constituents, proline and glycine, exhibited significant anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and fibrin-depolymerization activities of varying degree in vitro and in vivo. The heparin-dipeptide complex produced maximum effect. The dipeptide by itself also showed anticoagulant properties, but less pronounced than in the complex with heparin.

  6. Click Chemistry Route to the Synthesis of Unusual Amino Acids, Peptides, Triazole-Fused Heterocycles and Pseudodisaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan; Ramapanicker,