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Sample records for acid pfoa perfluorononanoic

  1. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid in the mouse.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicology Curriculum, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its pre...

  2. Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

  3. Exposure to Perfluorononanoic acid during pregnancy: Evaluations of rat and mice model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its presence in humans is rising and is of concern. Previous studies have in...

  4. PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID AND PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID IN FETAL AND NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and its metabolites, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), are developmental toxicants, but metabolism and distribution during pregnancy is not known. To examine this, timed-pregnant mice received a single gavage dose (...

  5. PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID (PFNA) IN NEONATAL MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL (FTOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) are the probable precursors of a homologous series of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) detected globally in both mammalian and environmental samples. Recently, 8-2 FTOH has been classified as a xenoestrogen and its derivatives, perfluoro...

  6. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorononanoic acid in Rats and Mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (pFNA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is found at low concentrations in the environment, but detectable in humans and wildlife. Previous studies have examined the pharmacokinetics (PK) of shorter carbon-chain PFAAs, such as perfluorobutyric a...

  7. *Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorononanoic acid in rats and mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is found at low concentrations in the environment, but detectable in humans and wildlife. Previous studies have examined the pharmacokinetics (PK) of shorter carbon-chain PFAAs, such as perfluorobutyric a...

  8. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorononanoic acid in Rats and Mice*.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is found at low concentrations in the environment, but is also detectable in humans and wildlife. Previous studies have examined the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lower carbon-chain PFAAs, such as perfluorobut...

  9. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorononanoic acid in Rats and Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a fluorinated organic chemical found at low levels in the environment, but is detectable in humans and wildlife. This study compared the pharmacokinetic properties of PFNA in two laboratory rodent species. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n ...

  10. Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorononanoic acid in rat and mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a fluorinated organic chemical found at low levels in the environment, but is detectable in humans and wildlife. The present study compared the pharmacokinetic properties of PFNA in two laboratory rodent species. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rat...

  11. Aggregation behavior of Brij-35/perfluorononanoic acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Torres, María Florencia; Sales, Pablo S; de Rossi, Rita H; Fernández, Mariana A

    2010-12-07

    The mixed system of a nonionic hydrocarbon surfactant, polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35), and a perfluorinated surfactant, perfluorononanoic acid, was investigated by a combination of methods. The critical micelle concentrations (cmc's) have been determined over a wide range of sample compositions by fluorescence and UV-visible spectrophotometry using pyrene and N-(4-nitrophenyl) perfluorononanamide, respectively, as molecular probes. The values of the cmc's obtained were considerably different with the two techniques employed. Measurements of the (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift of the same mixtures showed two breaks in the plots of Δδ(f) versus molar fraction of the perfluorinated surfactant. Conductivity and surface tension measurements also showed two breaks. The behavior is attributed to the formation of mixed micelles that change their composition when the fraction of the fluorinated compound increases and some segregation of the fluorinated compound takes place at a high total surfactant concentration.

  12. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from textiles.

    PubMed

    Supreeyasunthorn, Phenpimuk; Boontanon, Suwanna K; Boontanon, Narin

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in textiles and to determine PFOS and PFOA contamination in textile washing water. Quantification analysis was performed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 32 textile samples by methanol extraction revealed that the average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 0.18 µg m(-2) (0.02 to 0.61 µg m(-2)) and 2.74 µg m(-2) (0.31 to 14.14 µg m(-2)), respectively. Although the average concentration of PFOS found in textile samples was below European Union (EU) Commission regulations (<1 µg m(-2)), the average concentration of PFOA was 2.74 µg m(-2), and 68.75% of textile samples had PFOA concentrations exceeding 1 µg m(-2). Thus, based on these results, the concentration of PFOA in products should also be regulated. Experiments on PFOS and PFOA leaching into washing water were conducted. The maximum concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were measured after the first washing; the concentrations gradually decreased with each subsequent washing. PFOS and PFOA migrated from textiles and were released into the environment, with disappearance percentages of 29.8% for PFOS and 99% for PFOA. The data presented in this study showed that textiles could be a significant direct and indirect source of PFOS and PFOA exposure for both humans and the environment.

  13. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one of the predominant perfluoroalkyl acids in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA strongly activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) in vitro and negatively impacts development ...

  14. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  15. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  16. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PPARs regulate metabolism and can be activated by environmental contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFOA induces neonatal mortality, developmental delay, and growth deficits in mice. Studies in genetically altered mice showed that PPARa is required for PFOA-induced developmental toxicity. In this study, pregnant CD-1 mice were dosed orally from GD1-17 with water or 5 mg PFO/kg to examine PPARa, PPARß, and PPARy expression and profile the effects of PFOA on PPAR-regulated genes. Prenatal and postnatal liver, heart, adrenal, kidney, intestine, stomach, lung, spleen, and thymus were collected at various developmental ages. RNA and protein were examined using qPCR and Western blot analysis. PPAR expression varied with age in all tissues, and in liver PPARa and PPARy expression correlated with nutritional changes as the pups matured. As early as GD14, PFOA affected expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose homeostatic control. The metabolic disruption produced by PFOA may contribute to poor postnatal survival and persistent weight deficits of neonates This paper represents the continuing efforts at ORD, in response to the call for assistance from OPPTS, to investigate the potential developmental toxicities of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a compound which persists and is found ubiquitously in the environment, wildlife and humans. Studies in our laboratory using an in vitro transfected cell model showed that PFO

  17. Developmental Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Mixtures in CD-1 Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) belong to a family of fluoro-organic compounds known as perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). PFAAs have been widely used in industrial and commercial applications, and have been found to be...

  18. Developmental Effects of Perfluorononanoic acid in the Mouse Are Dependent on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-alpha

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one ofthe perfluoroalkyl acids found in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. Prenatal exposure to PFNA negatively impacts survival and development of mice and activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated recept...

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AFTER CROSS FOSTER AND RESTRICTED GESTATIONAL EXPOSURES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a compound which persists and is found ubiquitously in the environment, wildlife and humans. PFOA affects growth, development and viability of offspring of mice exposed during pregnancy. This study segregates the contributions of gestational and...

  20. Extent of Sorption and Biodegradability of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in Aquifer Sediment (Maryland)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fluoropolymers such as Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) were used provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable clothing. PFOA is very persistent in the environment and is found at low concentrations in the environment and...

  1. Activated Persulfate Oxidation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Groundwater under Acidic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Penghua; Hu, Zhihao; Song, Xin; Liu, Jianguo; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an emerging contaminant of concern due to its toxicity for human health and ecosystems. However, successful degradation of PFOA in aqueous solutions with a cost-effective method remains a challenge, especially for groundwater. In this study, the degradation of PFOA using activated persulfate under mild conditions was investigated. The impact of different factors on persulfate activity, including pH, temperature (25 °C–50 °C), persulfate dosage and reaction time, was evaluated under different experimental conditions. Contrary to the traditional alkaline-activated persulfate oxidation, it was found that PFOA can be effectively degraded using activated persulfate under acidic conditions, with the degradation kinetics following the pseudo-first-order decay model. Higher temperature, higher persulfate dosage and increased reaction time generally result in higher PFOA degradation efficiency. Experimental results show that a PFOA degradation efficiency of 89.9% can be achieved by activated persulfate at pH of 2.0, with the reaction temperature of 50 °C, molar ratio of PFOA to persulfate as 1:100, and a reaction time of 100 h. The corresponding defluorination ratio under these conditions was 23.9%, indicating that not all PFOA decomposed via fluorine removal. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer analysis results indicate that both SO4−• and •OH contribute to the decomposition of PFOA. It is proposed that PFOA degradation occurs via a decarboxylation reaction triggered by SO4−•, followed by a HF elimination process aided by •OH, which produces one-CF2-unit-shortened perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, Cn−1F2n−1COOH). The decarboxylation and HF elimination processes would repeat and eventually lead to the complete mineralization all PFCAs. PMID:27322298

  2. Perfluorononanoic acid disturbed the metabolism of lipid in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xuemei; Gao, Guizhen; Zhang, Xingtao; Wang, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on the liver toxicity of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are focused on healthy individuals, whereas the effects of PFCs on individuals with diabetes mellitus have not been fully characterized. This study aimed to investigate the acute exposure of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the metabolism of lipid in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Male diabetic rats were orally dosed by gavage for 7 days with 0, 0.2, 1 and 5 mg/kg/day PFNA. The contents of lipid, the activities of enzyme, the expressions of protein in the liver and the serum parameters were detected. The results indicate that dose-dependent accumulation of triglyceride and total cholesterol occurred in the livers of diabetic rats after PFNA treatment. PFNA increased the activities of lipid synthetase, fatty acid synthease, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased the activity of lipolytic enzyme, hepatic lipase, in the liver of diabetic rats. The changes of the isocitrate dehydrogenase, malicenzyme and lipoprotein lipase were not obvious. The expressions of protein related to lipid homeostasis, liver X receptor α and apolipoprotein E, were decreased after PFNA administration. Exposure to PFNA also increased the activity of serum alanine aminotransferase in diabetic rats. In conclusion, this study discloses that exposure to PFNA impacts on enzymes and proteins related to liver lipid metabolism and lead to obvious accumulation of lipid in the liver of diabetic rats, which may be responsible for hepatotoxicity of this compound in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Identify biosorption effects of Thiobacillus towards perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): Pilot study from field to laboratory.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tieyu; Sun, Yajun; Wang, Pei; Yvette, Baninla; Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhou, Yunqiao

    2017-03-01

    The concentration of Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and the bacterial community composition along the Xiaoqing River were explored with HPLC-MS/MS and Illumina high-throughput sequencing in present study. The results showed that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAAs in all sediment samples, and high level of PFOA could lead to an evident increase in the abundance of Thiobacillus. Thiobacillus was identified with the survival ability in high concentrations of PFOA accordingly. Therefore, Thiobacillus thioparus and Thiobacillus denitrificans were selected as receptors to design indoor biosorption experiment. The growth curves under different PFOA concentrations and residual rates of PFOA in the processes of cultivation were analyzed. The results showed that upwards concentrations of PFOA below 5000 ng/L led to an obvious increase in the growth rate of T. thioparus. Whereas PFOA promoted the growth of T. denitrificans in a relatively limited range of concentration, and the effect was not obvious. The addition of different concentrations of PFOA had no apparent effects on pH values in the media of both T. thioparus and T. denitrificans. The concentrations of PFOA in liquid media reduced after the process of bacteria culturing. The removal rates of T. thioparus and T. denitrificans to PFOA were 21.1-26.8% and 13.5-18.4%, respectively. The current findings indicated that T. thioparus could play a significant role as potential biosorbent with the ability to eliminate PFOA effectively in aquatic environment, which would provide novel information for PFOA ecological decontamination and remediation.

  4. Life cycle analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its salts in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Giesy, John P; Sweetman, Andrew J; Li, Qifeng

    2017-03-15

    China has been the largest producer and emitter of perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts (PFOA/PFO). However, the flows of PFOA/PFO from manufacture and application to the environment are indistinct, especially flows from waste treatment sites to the environment. Here, a life cycle analysis of PFOA/PFO is conducted in which all major flows of PFOA/PFO have been characterized for 2012. Processes related to uses and possible releases of PFOA/PFO include manufacture and use, waste management, and environmental storage. During manufacture and use, emission from application was the most important (117.0 t), regardless of whether it flowed first to waste treatment facilities or was directly released to the environment, followed by manufacture of PFOA/PFO (3.9 t), while flows from the service life and end of life of consumer products were the lowest (1.2 t). Among five waste treatment routes, flows through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were the highest (10.6 t), which resulted in 12.8 t of PFOA/PFO being emitted into the environment. Masses of PFOA/PFO emission were estimated to be 96.3 t to the hydrosphere, 25.6 t to the atmosphere, and 3.2 t to soils. Therefore, control over reduction of PFOA/PFO should focus on application of reliable alternatives and emission reduction from WWTPs using effective treatment techniques.

  5. Absorption and excretion of 14C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane aulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are industrial chemicals that are environmentally persistent. Both PFOS and PFOA are found in biosolids, and the application of these contaminated biosolids to pastures has raised concerns about possi...

  6. Absorption and excretion of 14C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are industrial chemicals that are environmentally persistent. Both PFOS and PFOA are found in biosolids, and the application of these contaminated biosolids to pastures has raised concerns about possi...

  7. Photocatalytic decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by TiO2 in the presence of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Pengyi

    2011-09-15

    Heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of perfluoroocatanoic acid (PFOA) by TiO(2) under 254 nm UV light was investigated. Adding oxalic acid as a hole-scavenger significantly accelerated PFOA decomposition under nitrogen atmosphere. Fluoride ion, formic acid and six shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) bearing C(2)-C(7) were identified as intermediates. When using perchloric acid (HClO(4)) as a replacement of oxalic acid to maintain the same pH of the reaction solution, PFOA did not decomposition efficiently. Compared with oxalic acid, potassium iodide (KI, another hole-scavenger) also led to a slower PFOA decomposition, while the addition of an electron acceptor (potassium persulfate, K(2)S(2)O(8)) obviously inhibited PFOA decomposition. This suggested that oxalic acid played more than one role in PFOA decomposition rather than simply providing acidity and acting as a hole-scavenger. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements confirmed the existence of carboxyl anion radicals (CO(2)(-)) in the photocatalytic process, which was a result of the reaction between oxalic acid and photogenerated hole. These findings indicated that PFOA decomposition was primarily induced by CO(2)(-) radicals, although photogenerated electron was also conducive to PFOA decomposition. A possible mechanism for PFOA decomposition was proposed.

  8. Effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and nuclear receptor-regulated genes in fetal and postnatal mouse tissues.

    EPA Science Inventory

    PPARs regulate metabolism and can be activated by environmental contaminants such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). PFOA induces neonatal mortality, developmental delay, and growth deficits in mice. Studies in genetically altered mice showed that PPARa is required for PFOA-induce...

  9. Toxic effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lina; Xia, Mengjie; Wang, Li; Mao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    As a persistent organic pollutant in the environment, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been extensively investigated. It can accumulate in food chains and in the human body. This work investigated the effect of PFOA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germination and seedling growth by conducting a germination trial and a pot trial. A stimulatory effect of PFOA on seedling growth and root length of wheat was found at <0.2 mg kg(-1), while >800 mg kg(-1) PFOA inhibited germination rate, index, and root and shoot growth. In the pot trial, PFOA concentration in root was double that in the shoot. Soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) and plant height of wheat seedling were inhibited by adding 200 mg kg(-1) PFOA. Proline content and POD activity in wheat seedlings increased as PFOA increased, while CAT activity decreased. Using logarithmic equations, proline content was selected as the most sensitive index by concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50). Hence, the tolerance of wheat seedlings to PFOA levels could be evaluated on the basis of the physiological index.

  10. Developmental toxicity and serum levels of perfluorononanoic acid in the wild-type and PPAR-alpha knockout mouse after gestational exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid detected in.the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARa) in vitro and negatively impacts development and survival of CD1 mice. Our objective wa...

  11. Developmental Toxicity of Perfluorononanoic Acid in the Wild-Type and PPAR-alpha Knock-out Mouse After Gestational Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid detected in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife, and its concentration in human serum has increased in the past few years. PFNA negatively affects development and survival of CD1 mice and activates peroxisom...

  12. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) acts as a tumor promoter on Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, N; Maire, M A; Rast, C; Bonnard, M; Vasseur, P

    2011-08-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (C(8)F(17)SO(3)) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (C(8)HF(15)O(2)) are synthetic chemicals widely used in industrial applications for their hydrophobic and oleophobic properties. They are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to mammalian species. Their widespread distribution on earth and contamination of human serum raised concerns about long-term side effects. They are suspected to be carcinogenic through a nongenotoxic mode of action, a mechanism supported by recent findings that PFOS induced cell transformation but no genotoxicity in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. In the present study, we evaluated carcinogenic potential of PFOA using the cell transformation assay on SHE cells. The chemical was applied alone or in combination with a nontransformant concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, 0.4 μM) in order to detect PFOA ability to act as tumor initiator or tumor promoter. The results showed that PFOA tested alone in the range 3.7 × 10(-5) to 300 μM did not induce SHE cell transformation frequency in a 7-day treatment. On the other side, the combination BaP/PFOA induced cell transformation at all PFOA concentrations tested, which revealed synergistic effects. No genotoxicity of PFOA on SHE cells was detected using the comet assay after 5 and 24 h of exposure. No significant increase in DNA breakage was found in BaP-initiated cells exposed to PFOA in a 7-day treatment. The whole results showed that PFOA acts as a tumor promoter and a nongenotoxic carcinogen. Cell transformation in initiated cells was observed at concentrations equivalent to the ones found in human serum of nonoccupationally and occupationally exposed populations. An involvement of PFOA in increased incidence of cancer recorded in occupationally exposed population cannot be ruled out.

  13. [Photocatalytic degradation kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in TiO2 dispersion and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Jie; Yu, Ze-Bin; Chen, Ying; Wang, Li; Liu, Qing; Liu, Yu-Xin; He, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is of prime importance since it is recognized as a persistent organic pollutant and is widespread in the environment. Heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of PFOA by TiO2 (P25) was investigated under 254 nm UV light. Experimental conditions including initial pH, TiO2 content and PFOA concentration, were varied to demonstrate their effects on the decomposition of PFOA. It was observed that the photocatalytic degradation kinetics of PFOA could be fitted to the quasi-first-order equation. The pH played a determinant role in the decomposition of PFOA and the presence of O2 increased the degradation rate. Optimal conditions for a complete removal were obtained using 1.5 g x L(-1) TiO2 at pH 3 in air atmosphere, with a rate constant of 0.420 6 h(-1). The contribution experiments of various reactive species produced during the photocatalysis were also investigated with the addition of different scavengers and it was found that photogenerated holes (h+) was the major reactive species which was responsible for 66.1% of the degradation rate, and the *OH was involved in PFOA degradation as well. In addition, the photocatalytic experiment with the addition of NaF indicated that the adsorption of PFOA was of primary importance for the photocatalytic decomposition. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with shorter carbon chain length as intermediates and products were identified with UPLC-QTOF/MS, and a possible mechanism for PFOA decomposition was proposed.

  14. Occurrence and potential significance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) detected in New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Cooper, Keith R; Boros-Russo, Betty Jane; Lippincott, R Lee

    2009-06-15

    After detection of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in two New Jersey (NJ) public water systems (PWS) at concentrations up to 0.19 microg/L, a study of PFOA in 23 other NJ PWS was conducted in 2006. PFOA was detected in 15 (65%) of the systems at concentrations ranging from 0.005 to 0.039 microg/L. To assess the significance of these data, the contribution of drinking water to human exposure to PFOA was evaluated, and a health-based drinking water concentration protective for lifetime exposure of 0.04 microg/L was developed through a risk assessment approach. Both the exposure assessment and the health-based drinking water concentrations are based on the previously reported 100:1 ratio between the concentration of PFOA in serum and drinking water in a community with highly contaminated drinking water. The applicability of this ratio to lower drinking water concentrations was confirmed using data on serum levels and water concentrations from other communities. The health-based concentration is based on toxicological end points identified by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in its 2005 draft risk assessment Recent information on PFOA's toxicity not considered in the USEPA risk assessment urther supports the health-based concentration of 0.04 microg/L. In additional sampling of 18 PWS in 2007-2008, PFOA in most systems was below the health-based concentration. However, PFOA was detected above the health-based concentration in five systems, including one not previously sampled.

  15. Modeled Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) Exposure and Liver Function in a Mid-Ohio Valley Community

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Groth, Alyx C.; Winquist, Andrea; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Bartell, Scott M.; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA or C8) has hepatotoxic effects in animals. Cross-sectional epidemiologic studies suggest PFOA is associated with liver injury biomarkers. Objectives: We estimated associations between modeled historical PFOA exposures and liver injury biomarkers and medically validated liver disease. Methods: Participants completed surveys during 2008–2011 reporting demographic, medical, and residential history information. Self-reported liver disease, including hepatitis, fatty liver, enlarged liver and cirrhosis, was validated with healthcare providers. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and direct bilirubin, markers of liver toxicity, were obtained from blood samples collected in the C8 Health Project (2005–2006). Historically modeled PFOA exposure, estimated using environmental fate and transport models and participant residential histories, was analyzed in relation to liver biomarkers (n = 30,723, including 1,892 workers) and liver disease (n = 32,254, including 3,713 workers). Results: Modeled cumulative serum PFOA was positively associated with ALT levels (p for trend < 0.0001), indicating possible liver toxicity. An increase from the first to the fifth quintile of cumulative PFOA exposure was associated with a 6% increase in ALT levels (95% CI: 4, 8%) and a 16% increased odds of having above-normal ALT (95% CI: odds ratio: 1.02, 1.33%). There was no indication of association with either elevated direct bilirubin or GGT; however, PFOA was associated with decreased direct bilirubin. We observed no evidence of an effect of cumulative exposure (with or without a 10-year lag) on all liver disease (n = 647 cases), nor on enlarged liver, fatty liver, and cirrhosis only (n = 427 cases). Conclusion: Results are consistent with previous cross-sectional studies showing association between PFOA and ALT, a marker of hepatocellular damage. We did not observe evidence that PFOA increases the risk of clinically

  16. Electrochemical treatment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) in groundwater impacted by aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Charles E; Andaya, Christina; Urtiaga, Ana; McKenzie, Erica R; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-09-15

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the use of electrochemical treatment for the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), as well as other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), in aqueous film forming foam (AFFF)-impacted groundwater collected from a former firefighter training area and PFAA-spiked synthetic groundwater. Using a commercially-produced Ti/RuO2 anode in a divided electrochemical cell, PFOA and PFOS decomposition was evaluated as a function of current density (0-20 mA/cm(2)). Decomposition of both PFOA and PFOS increased with increasing current density, although the decomposition of PFOS did not increase as the current density was increased above 2.5 mA/cm(2). At a current density of 10 mA/cm(2), the first-order rate constants, normalized for current density and treatment volume, for electrochemical treatment of both PFOA and PFOS were 46 × 10(-5) and 70 × 10(-5) [(min(-1)) (mA/cm(2))(-1) (L)], respectively. Defluorination was confirmed for both PFOA and PFOS, with 58% and 98% recovery as fluoride, respectively (based upon the mass of PFOA and PFOS degraded). Treatment of other PFAAs present in the groundwater also was observed, with shorter chain PFAAs generally being more recalcitrant. Results highlight the potential for electrochemical treatment of PFAAs, particularly PFOA and PFOS, in AFFF-impacted groundwater.

  17. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) ON MICE EXPOSED IN UTERO AT SPECIFIC GESTATIONAL STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid is developmentally toxic resulting in embryonic and postnatal deaths and growth retardation. Previous studies showed that dosing mice from gestation day (GD)2-18 with 5 mg PFOA/kg body weight impacts the growth and development of the fetus and newborns. The...

  18. Phenotypic Dichotomy Following Developmental Exposure to Perfluorooctanic Acid (PFOA) Exposure in CD-1 Mice: Low Doses Induce Elevated Serum, Leptin, Insulin, and Overweight in Mid-Life.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The synthetic surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a proven developmental toxicant in mice, causing prenatal pregnancy loss, increased neonatal mortality, delayed eye opening, and abnormal mammary gland growth in animals exposed during fetal life. PFOA is found in the ser...

  19. Does developmental exposure to perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) induce immunopathologies commonly observed in neurodevelopmental disorders?

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing; Franklin, Jason N; Bryan, Ian; Morris, Erin; Wood, Andrew; DeWitt, Jamie C

    2012-12-01

    Immune comorbidities often are reported in subsets of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. A common immunopathology is an increase in serum autoantibodies against myelin basic protein (MBP) relative to control patients. Increases in autoantibodies suggest possible deficits in self-tolerance that may contribute to the formation of brain-specific autoantibodies and subsequent effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Oppositely, the formation of neuronal autoantibodies may be a reaction to neuronal injury or damage. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmental pollutant that induces multisystem toxicity in rodent models, including immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity. We hypothesized that developmental exposure to PFOA may induce immunotoxicity similar to that observed in subsets of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated subsets of T cells from spleens, serum markers of autoreactivity, and levels of MBP and T cell infiltration in the cerebella of adult offspring exposed to 0.02, 0.2, or 2mg/kg of PFOA given to dams from gestation through lactation. Litter weights of offspring from dams exposed to 2mg/kg of PFOA were reduced by 32.6%, on average, from postnatal day one (PND1) through weaning (PND21). The percentage of splenic CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in male and female offspring from dams exposed to 2mg/kg of PFOA was reduced by 22% relative to the control percentage. Ex vivo co-cultures of splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells and CD4+CD25- T cells from dosed male offspring produced less IL-10 relative to control cells. Anti-ssDNA, a serum marker of autoreactivity, was decreased by 26%, on average, in female offspring from dams exposed to 0.02 and 2mg/kg PFOA. No other endpoints were statistically different by dose. These data suggest that developmental PFOA exposure may impact T cell responses and may be a possible route to downstream effects on

  20. Developmental Toxicity of Perfluoronanoic Acid in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminant. Although its levels in the environment and in humans are lower than those of perfluorooctane sulfonate(PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a steady trend of increases in the general popula...

  1. PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL EFFECTS IN RATS OF PERFLUORONONANOIC ACID EXPOSURE IN UTERO

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, our understanding of the developmental toxicity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) has focused on the C8 compounds. Ubiquitous environmental contaminants, PFAA’s are utilized as surfactants in a variety of industrial applications. Although several PFAAs have been ex...

  2. Effects of chronic perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) at low concentration on morphometrics, gene expression, and fecundity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Jantzen, Carrie E; Toor, Fatima; Annunziato, Kate A; Cooper, Keith R

    2017-01-29

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent, toxic, anthropogenic chemical recalcitrant to biodegradation. Based on previous studies in lower and higher vertebrates, it was hypothesized that chronic, sub-lethal, embryonic exposure to PFOA in zebrafish (Danio rerio) would adversely impact fish development, survival, and fecundity. Zebrafish embryo/sac-fry were water exposed to 2.0 or 0nM PFOA from 3 to 120hpf, and juvenile to adult cohorts were fed spiked food (8 pM) until 6 months. After chronic exposure, PFOA exposed fish were significantly smaller in total weight and length. Gene expression analysis found a significant decrease of transporters slco2b1, slco4a1, slco3a1 and tgfb1a, and a significant increase of slco1d1 expression. PFOA exposed fish produced significantly fewer eggs with reduced viability and developmental stage delay in F1. Chronic, low-dose exposure of zebrafish to PFOA significantly altered normal development, survival and fecundity and would likely impact wild fish population fitness in watersheds chronically exposed to PFOA.

  3. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an emerging drinking water contaminant: a critical review of recent literature.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Cohn, Perry D; Cooper, Keith R

    2012-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an anthropogenic contaminant that differs in several ways from most other well-studied organic chemicals found in drinking water. PFOA is extremely resistant to environmental degradation processes and thus persists indefinitely. Unlike most other persistent and bioaccumulative organic pollutants, PFOA is water-soluble, does not bind well to soil or sediments, and bioaccumulates in serum rather than in fat. It has been detected in finished drinking water and drinking water sources impacted by releases from industrial facilities and waste water treatment plants, as well as in waters with no known point sources. However, the overall occurrence and population exposure from drinking water is not known. PFOA persists in humans with a half-life of several years and is found in the serum of almost all U.S. residents and in populations worldwide. Exposure sources include food, food packaging, consumer products, house dust, and drinking water. Continued exposure to even relatively low concentrations in drinking water can substantially increase total human exposure, with a serum:drinking water ratio of about 100:1. For example, ongoing exposures to drinking water concentrations of 10 ng/L, 40 ng/L, 100 ng/L, or 400 ng/L are expected to increase mean serum levels by about 25%, 100%, 250%, and 1000%, respectively, from the general population background serum level of about 4 ng/mL. Infants are potentially a sensitive subpopulation for PFOA's developmental effects, and their exposure through breast milk from mothers who use contaminated drinking water and/or from formula prepared with contaminated drinking water is higher than in adults exposed to the same drinking water concentration. Numerous health endpoints are associated with human PFOA exposure in the general population, communities with contaminated drinking water, and workers. As is the case for most such epidemiology studies, causality for these effects is not proven. Unlike most other

  4. Hepatic mitochondrial alteration in CD1 mice associated with prenatal exposures to low doses of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

    PubMed Central

    Quist, Erin M.; Filgo, Adam J.; Cummings, Connie A.; Kissling, Grace E.; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid primarily used as an industrial surfactant. It persists in the environment and has been linked to potentially toxic and/or carcinogenic effects in animals and people. As a known activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), PFOA exposure can induce defects in fatty acid oxidation, lipid transport, and inflammation. Here, pregnant CD-1 mice were orally gavaged with 0, 0.01, 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg of PFOA from gestation days (GD) 1 through 17. On postnatal day (PND) 21, histopathologic changes in the livers of offspring included hepatocellular hypertrophy and periportal inflammation that increased in severity by PND 91 in an apparent dose-dependent response. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of selected liver sections from PND 91 mice revealed PFOA-induced cellular damage and mitochondrial abnormalities with no evidence of peroxisome proliferation. Within hypertrophied hepatocytes, mitochondria were not only increased in number, but also exhibited altered morphologies suggestive of increased and/or uncontrolled fission and fusion reactions. These findings suggest that peroxisome proliferation is not a component of PFOA-induced hepatic toxicity in animals that are prenatally exposed to low doses of PFOA. PMID:25326589

  5. Photochemical defluorination of aqueous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by Fe(0)/GAC micro-electrolysis and VUV-Fenton photolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Hong; Cheng, Jian-Hua; You, Xia; Liang, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Yong-You

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is extremely persistent and bioaccumulative in the environment; thus, it is very urgent to investigate an effective and moderate technology to treat the pollution of PFOA. In this study, a process combined iron and granular activated carbon (Fe(0)/GAC) micro-electrolysis with VUV-Fenton system is employed for the remediation of PFOA. Approximately 50 % PFOA (10 mg L(-1)) could be efficiently defluorinated under the following conditions: pH 3.0, dosage of Fe 7.5 g L(-1), dosage of GAC 12.5 g L(-1), and concentration of H2O2 22.8 mmol L(-1). Meanwhile, during the process, evident defluorination was observed and the concentration of fluoride ion was eventually 3.23 mg L(-1). The intermediates including five shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), i.e., C7, C6, C5, C4, and C3, were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) and defluorination mechanisms of PFOA was proposed, which involved photochemical of OH·, direct photolysis (185-nm VUV), and photocatalytic degradation of PFOA in the presence of Fe(3+) (254-nm UV).

  6. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  7. An Evaluation of Gestational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): Effects on Body Composition and Physiological Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor for induction of metabolic disorders. This study examined if exposure to PFOA during development could alter body composition and other physiological outcomes. Study 1: Pregnant CD-1 mice were gavaged with PFOA at 0,0.001,0.01,...

  8. Highly efficient electrochemical degradation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) by F-doped Ti/SnO2 electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Jiang, Chaojin; Yu, Gang; Zhuo, Qiongfang; Deng, Shubo; Wu, Jinhua; Zhang, Hong

    2015-12-15

    The novel F-doped Ti/SnO2 electrode prepared by SnF4 as the single-source precursor was used for electrochemical degradation of aqueous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Higher oxidation reactivity and significantly longer service life were achieved for Ti/SnO2-F electrode than Ti/SnO2-X (X=Cl, Br, I, or Sb) electrode, which could decomposed over 99% of PFOA (50 mL of 100 mg L(-1)) within 30-min electrolysis. The property of Ti/SnO2-F electrode and its electrooxidation mechanism were investigated by XRD, SEM-EDX, EIS, LSV, and interfacial resistance measurements. We propose that the similar ionic radii of F and O as well as strong electronegativity of F caused its electrochemical stability with high oxygen evolution potential (OEP) and smooth surface to generate weakly adsorbed OH. The preparation conditions of electrode were also optimized including F doping amount, calcination temperature, and dip coating times, which revealed the formation process of electrode. Additionally, the major mineralization product, F(-), and low concentration of shorter chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in solution. So the reaction pathway of PFOA electrooxidation was proposed by intermediate analysis. These results demonstrate that Ti/SnO2-F electrode is promising for highly efficient treatment of PFOA in wastewater.

  9. Disposition of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in Pregnant and Lactating CD-1 Mice and Their Pups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies in mice prenatally-exposed to PFOA demonstrate growth and developmental effects, including impaired body weight gain and mammary gland development, delayed eye opening, and increased mortality. Those dose dependent effects appeared to worsen if offspring exposed ...

  10. ACTIVATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPAR ALPHA, GAMMA, BETA DELTA) BY PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in ...

  11. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA): emerging contaminants of increasing concern in fish from Lake Varese, Italy.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Ciccotelli, V; Prearo, M; Favaro, L; Scanzio, T; Foglini, C; Abete, M C

    2015-07-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) are highly fluorinated aliphatic compounds with high thermal and chemical stability, used in a range of industrial applications. Extensive screening analyses in biota samples from all over the world have shown the bioaccumulation of PFAS into higher trophic levels in the food chain. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroctanoic acid (PFOA) are potential reproductive and developmental toxicants and are considered to be emerging endocrine disrupters. Ingestion of fish and other seafood is considered the main source of exposure of these contaminants. Here, we quantified PFOS and PFOA by LC-MS/MS in muscle samples of European perch from Lake Varese, Italy. PFOS was detected in all samples with concentrations of up to 17.2 ng g(-1). Although the reported values were lower than the recommended total daily intake (TDI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish from Lake Varese may be a significant source of dietary PFOS exposure.

  12. Ecological risk assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in marine environment using Isochrysis galbana, Paracentrotus lividus, Siriella armata and Psetta maxima.

    PubMed

    Mhadhbi, Lazhar; Rial, Diego; Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2012-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are anthropogenic substances classified as persistent bioaccumulative compounds and are found in various environmental compartments throughout the world, from industrialized regions to remote zones far from areas of production. In this study, we assessed the effects of PFOA and PFOS on early life stages of marine test species belonging to three different trophic levels: one microalga (Isochrysis galbana), a primary consumer (Paracentrotus lividus) and two secondary consumers (Siriella armata and Psetta maxima). Acute EC(50) values for PFOS were 0.11 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 6.9 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 20 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 37.5 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. In the case of PFOA, the toxicity was lower but the ranking was the same; 11.9 mg L(-1) in P. maxima, 15.5 mg L(-1) in S. armata, 110 mg L(-1) in P. lividus and 163.6 mg L(-1) in I. galbana. The Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for PFOS and PFOA in marine water derived from these acute toxicity values are 1.1 μg L(-1) for PFOS and 119 μg L(-1) for PFOA. This study established a baseline dataset of toxicity of PFOS and PFOA on saltwater organisms. The data obtained suggest that PFOA pose a minor risk to these organisms through direct exposure. In the perspective of risk assessment, early life stage (ELS) endpoints provide rapid, cost-effective and ecologically relevant information, and links should be sought between these short-term tests and effects of long-term exposures in more realistic scenarios.

  13. Transcriptional changes in steroidogenesis by perfluoroalkyl acids (PFOA and PFOS) regulate the synthesis of sex hormones in H295R cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae Soon; Choi, Jin-Soo; Park, June-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are two of the most widely used perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Because of their strong persistence, they have become widely distributed throughout the environment and human bodies. PFOA and PFOS are suspected to disrupt the endocrine system based upon many in vivo studies, but the underlying mechanisms are currently unclear. In this study, we investigated the endocrine-related effects of PFOA and PFOS using in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivation assays and steroidogenesis assay. The results showed that PFOA and PFOS exhibited weak antagonistic ER transactivation but did not exhibit agonistic ER or AR transactivation. In the steroidogenesis assay, PFOA and PFOS induced 17β-estradiol (E2) level and reduced testosterone level, which would be caused by the induction of aromatase activity. The qPCR analysis of genes involved in steroidogenesis indicates that PFOA and PFOS associate with sex hormone synthesis by the transcriptional induction of two genes, cyp19 and 3β-hsd2. Moreover, the transcriptional induction of cyp11b2 by PFOS suggests that this chemical may underlie the disruption of several physiological functions related to aldosterone. The results of the current study suggest that PFOA and PFOS are potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and provide information for further studies on the molecular events that initiate the adverse endocrine effects.

  14. Derivation of a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) related to the maximum contaminant level goal for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent water soluble compound.

    PubMed

    Tardiff, Robert G; Carson, M Leigh; Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Tan, Yu-Mei; Andersen, Melvin; Bevan, Christopher; Gargas, Michael L

    2009-10-01

    Water soluble compounds persistent in humans and the environment pose a challenge for estimating safe levels in tap water. A viable approach to estimate a drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was applied to its extensive relevant information from human and laboratory animal studies. PFOA has been identified at 3.5 microg/L (mean) in tap water in proximity to a manufacturing facility; however, in most supplies, the levels were below 7.5 ng/L (usual limit of detection). PFOA has an average half-life in humans of 3.5years. From animal studies, PFOA is considered a possible hepatotoxicant and developmental toxicant for humans. Based on two chronic studies, PFOA was judged to be a possible human carcinogen, whose mode-of-action was likely to be related to receptor activation but not genotoxicity. The Benchmark Dose-Uncertainty Factor approach was selected for dose-response for noncancer and cancer. Based on internal dose of PFOA, the DWEL protective against cancer is 7.7 microgPFOA/L tap water, and the noncancer DWELs range from 0.88 to 2.4 microg/L. These DWELs can be considered a reliable, albeit conservative, basis to set a Maximum Concentration Level Goal under the US Safe Drinking Water Act.

  15. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Hu, Jiangyong; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the biological units of various full-scale municipal sewage treatment plants were measured. Samples of influent, primary effluent, aeration tank effluent, final effluent and grab samples of primary, activated, secondary and anaerobically digested sludge were collected by 5 sampling events over one year. The two sewage treatment plants (STPs) selected for this study include plant A receiving 95% domestic wastewater and plant B receiving 60% industrial wastewater and 40% domestic wastewater. PFOS and PFOA were observed at higher concentration in aqueous and sludge samples in plant B than that of plant A. Mass flow of PFOS increased significantly (mean 94.6%) in conventional activated sludge process (CAS) of plant B, while it remained consistent after the secondary treatment in plant A. Mass flow of PFOA increased 41.6% (mean) in CAS of plants A and B and 76.6% in membrane biological reactor (MBR), while it remained unchanged after the treatment of liquid treatment module (LTM). Our results suggest that mass flow of these two compounds remains consistent after treatment of activated sludge process operating at short sludge retention time (SRT). Seasonal variations of PFOS in concentrations of raw sewage were found in plant A, while PFOA did not have significant seasonal variation in both plants A and B.

  16. Modeling the Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) During Gestation and Lactation in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    To address the pharmacokinetics of PFOA during gestation and lactation, a biologically supported dynamic model was developed. A two compartment system linked via placental blood flow described gestation, while milk production linked the dam to a pup litter compartment during lact...

  17. Testing the Uterotrophic Activity of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in the Immature CD-1 Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uterotrophic assay is an in vivo screening tool used to determine the estrogenic or anti-estrogenic potential of an exogenously administered compound. Recent studies reported that PFOA increased activity of estrogen-responsive genes in fish, some in association with liver tum...

  18. Carryover of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from soil to plant and distribution to the different plant compartments studied in cultures of carrots (Daucus carota ssp. Sativus), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), and cucumbers (Cucumis Sativus).

    PubMed

    Lechner, Mareike; Knapp, Holger

    2011-10-26

    A vegetation study was carried out to investigate the carryover of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) from soil mixed with contaminated sewage sludge to potato, carrot, and cucumber plants. Analysis was done by liquid-extraction using acetonitrile with dispersive SPE cleanup and subsequent HPLC-MS/MS. In order to assess the transfer potential from soil, transfer factors (TF) were calculated for the different plant compartments: TF = [PFC](plant (wet substance))/[PFC](soil (dry weight)). The highest TF were found for the vegetative plant compartments with average values for PFOS below those for PFOA: cucumber, 0.17 (PFOS), 0.88 (PFOA); potato, 0.36 (PFOS), 0.40 (PFOA); carrot, 0.38 (PFOS), 0.53 (PFOA). Transfer of PFOA and PFOS into potato peelings (average values of TF: PFOA 0.03, PFOS 0.04) exceeded the carryover to the peeled tubers (PFOA 0.01, PFOS < 0.01). In carrots, this difference did not occur (average values of TF: PFOA 0.04, PFOS 0.04). Transfer of PFOS into the unpeeled cucumbers was low and comparable to that of peeled potatoes (TF < 0.01). For PFOA, it was higher (TF: 0.03).

  19. Analysis of PFOA in Dosed CD-1 Mice Part 2: Disposition of PFOA in Tissues and fluids from pregnant and lactating mice and their pups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies in mice with multiple gestational exposures to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) demonstrate numerous dose dependent growth and developmental effects which appeared to worsen if offspring exposed in utero nursed from PFOA-exposed dams. To evaluate the disposition of ...

  20. Behavior and Fate of PFOA and PFOS in Sandy Aquifer ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Microcosms were constructed with sediment from beneath a landfill that received waste containing PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate). The microcosms were amended with PFOA and PFOS, and sampled after 91, 210, 343, 463, 574, and 740 days of incubation. After 740 days, selected microcosms were extracted to determine the mass of PFOA and PFOS remaining. There was no evidence for degradation of PFOA or PFOS. Over time, the aqueous concentrations of PFOA and PFOS increased in the microcosms, indicating that PFOA and PFOS that had originally sorbed to the sediment was desorbing. At the beginning of the experiment, the adsorption coefficient, Kd, averaged 0.27 L/kg for PFOA and 1.2 L/kg for PFOS. After 740 days of incubation, sorption of PFOA was not detectable and the Kd of PFOS was undetectable in two microcosms and was 0.08 L/kg in a third microcosm. During incubation, the pH of the pore water in the microcosms increased from pH 7.2 to pH ranging from 8.1 to 8.8 and the zeta potential of the sediment decreased with increasing pH. These observations suggest sorption of PFOA and PFOS was controlled by electrostatic sorption on ferric oxide minerals, and not by sorption to organic carbon. These observations suggest sorption of PFOA and PFOS was controlled by electrostatic sorption on ferric oxide minerals, and not by sorption to organic carbon.

  1. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced developmental toxicity in the mouse is dependent on expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFOA is a member of a family of perfluorinated chemicals that have a variety of applications. PFOA persists in the environment and is found in wildlife and humans. In mice, PFOA is developmentally toxic producing mortality, delayed eye opening, growth deficits, and altered puber...

  2. IMMUNE FUNCTION IN INTACT AND PPARΑ KNOCKOUT MICE EXPOSED TO PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), used in fluoropolymer production, is environmentally persistent, present in human and wildlife populations worldwide, and associated with health effects in laboratory animals, including immunomodulation. PFOA toxicity may be mediated by the peroxiso...

  3. GENE PROFILING IN WILD TYPE AND PPARÁ NULL MICE EXPOSED TO PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a perfluoroalkyl acid used in a variety of commercial applications. Concerns have been raised because PFOA is ubiquitous in the environment and can be detected in human tissues. PFOA is a rodent carcinogen and a developmental toxicant in mice. W...

  4. CROSS-FOSTER STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perflourooctanoic acid (PFOA), a commercial surfactant, has recently been found in wildlife and human blood. Exposure of pregnant rats and mice to PFOA results in low body weight and poor survival of pups. However, it has not been determined whether the reduction in weight and ...

  5. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in rainbow trout ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used as stain resistant coatings for cloth, paper, and leather, and as surfactants, fire-fighting foams, and photographic developers. Individual PFAAs have been shown to accumulate in fish and wildlife; however, the extent of this accumulation varies widely. In general, the tendency of individual PFAAs to accumulate in fish is directly related to the length of a compound’s fluorinated carbon chain as well as the identity of the terminal group (sulfonate or carboxylate) which confers to the molecule its amphipathic character. Presently, however the mechanisms that underly these observations remain poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in rainbow trout. PFOA is not accumulated by fish. We also know that it is eliminated by mammals in urine. Our hypothesis, therefore, was that renal elimination of PFOA limits its accumulation in fish. Trout injected with an intra-arterial dose of PFOA were sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, urine, and expired water. The data were then analyzed by compartmental modeling to estimate rates of renal and branchial clearance. Averaged across all animals, the renal clearance rate was about ten times higher than the branchial clearance rate, confirming our hypothesis. The results of this effort provide a clear explanation for the observed absence of PFOA accumulation in fish. Moreover, these results suggest th

  6. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), with diverse and widespread commercial and industrial applications, has been detected in human and wildlife sera. Previous mouse studies linked prenatal PFOA exposure to decreased neonatal body weights (BWs) and survival in a dose-dependent manner. ...

  7. GESTATIONAL PFOA EXPOSURE OF MICE IS ASSOCIATED WITH ALTERED MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN DAMS AND FEMALE OFFSPRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a ubiquitous and persistent synthetic compound, has been detected in human serum. Previous studies in mice linked prenatal PFOA exposure to increased neonatal mortality and decreased pup weights, in a dose responsive manner. To determine whether dev...

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICOGENOMIC STUDIES OF PFOA AND PFOS IN MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. To better understand the mechanism(s) associated with this toxicity, we have conducted transcript profiling in mice. In an initial study, pregnant animals were dosed througho...

  9. Enhancing the Modeling of PFOA Pharmacokinetics with Bayesian Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detail sufficient to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and the methods necessary to combine information from multiple data sets are both subjects of ongoing investigation. Bayesian analysis provides tools to accommodate these goals. We exa...

  10. Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOA-exposed mouse fetuses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a stable perfluoroalkyl acid used to synthesize fluoropolymers during the manufacture of a wide variety of products. Concerns have been raised over the potential health effects of PFOA because it is persistent in the environment and can be detecte...

  11. Promotion of Hepatocarcinogenesis by Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Benninghoff, Abby D.; Orner, Gayle A.; Buchner, Clarissa H.; Hendricks, Jerry D.; Duffy, Aaron M.; Williams, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) promotes liver cancer in a manner similar to that of 17β-estradiol (E2) in rainbow trout. Also, other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are weakly estrogenic in trout and bind the trout liver estrogen receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether multiple PFAAs enhance hepatic tumorigenesis in trout, an animal model that represents human insensitivity to peroxisome proliferation. A two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model was employed in trout to evaluate PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2FtOH) as complete carcinogens or promoters of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)- and/or N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced liver cancer. A custom trout DNA microarray was used to assess hepatic transcriptional response to these dietary treatments in comparison with E2 and the classic peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate (CLOF). Incidence, multiplicity, and size of liver tumors in trout fed diets containing E2, PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were significantly higher compared with AFB1-initiated animals fed control diet, whereas PFOS caused a minor increase in liver tumor incidence. E2 and PFOA also enhanced MNNG-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. Pearson correlation analyses, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, and principal components analyses showed that the hepatic gene expression profiles for E2 and PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS were overall highly similar, though distinct patterns of gene expression were evident for each treatment, particularly for PFNA. Overall, these data suggest that multiple PFAAs can promote liver cancer and that the mechanism of promotion may be similar to that of E2. PMID:21984479

  12. Promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis by perfluoroalkyl acids in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Abby D; Orner, Gayle A; Buchner, Clarissa H; Hendricks, Jerry D; Duffy, Aaron M; Williams, David E

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we reported that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) promotes liver cancer in a manner similar to that of 17β-estradiol (E2) in rainbow trout. Also, other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are weakly estrogenic in trout and bind the trout liver estrogen receptor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether multiple PFAAs enhance hepatic tumorigenesis in trout, an animal model that represents human insensitivity to peroxisome proliferation. A two-stage chemical carcinogenesis model was employed in trout to evaluate PFOA, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2FtOH) as complete carcinogens or promoters of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))- and/or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced liver cancer. A custom trout DNA microarray was used to assess hepatic transcriptional response to these dietary treatments in comparison with E2 and the classic peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate (CLOF). Incidence, multiplicity, and size of liver tumors in trout fed diets containing E2, PFOA, PFNA, and PFDA were significantly higher compared with AFB(1)-initiated animals fed control diet, whereas PFOS caused a minor increase in liver tumor incidence. E2 and PFOA also enhanced MNNG-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis. Pearson correlation analyses, unsupervised hierarchical clustering, and principal components analyses showed that the hepatic gene expression profiles for E2 and PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS were overall highly similar, though distinct patterns of gene expression were evident for each treatment, particularly for PFNA. Overall, these data suggest that multiple PFAAs can promote liver cancer and that the mechanism of promotion may be similar to that of E2.

  13. Behavior and Fate of PFOA and PFOS in Sandy Aquifer Sediment (journal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcosms were constructed with sediment from beneath a landfill that received waste containing PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) and PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate). The microcosms were amended with PFOA and PFOS, and sampled after 91, 210, 343, 463, 574, and 740 days of incubat...

  14. Analysis of PFOA in Dosed CD1 Mice Part 1: Methods Development for the Analysis of Tissues and Fluids from Pregnant and Lactating Mice and Their Pups

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of studies involving the analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has 33 increased recently because PFOA is routinely detected in human blood samples from around the world. Recent studies with mice have shown that dosing pregnant dams with PFOA during gestation gives ...

  15. Identification of the source of PFOS and PFOA contamination at a military air base site.

    PubMed

    Arias E, Victor A; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Although the use of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-based aqueous fire-fighting foams (AFFF) has been banned due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity to biota, PFOS and PFOA are still present at significant levels in the environment due to their past usage. This study investigated the reasons for detection of PFOS and PFOA in an evaporation pond used to collect the wastewater arising from fire-fighting exercises at a military air base despite the replacement of PFOS/PFOA-based foam with no PFOS/PFOA-foam about 6 years ago. Concentrations in the wastewater stored in this pond ranged from 3.6 to 9.7 mg/L for PFOS and between 0.6 and 1.7 mg/L for PFOA. The hypothesis tested in a laboratory study was that PFOS and PFOA have accumulated in the sediments of the pond and can be released into the main body of the water. Concentrations detected in the sediments were 38 and 0.3 mg/g for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. These values exceed the recently reported average global values for sediments (0.2-3.8 ng/g for PFOS and from 0.1 to 0.6 ng/g for PFOA) by a factor of several thousands. PFOS and PFOA distribution coefficients were derived for the organic content of the pond sediment (1.6%). Identification of the source of contamination and knowledge of the partition between soil and aqueous phases are vital first steps in developing a sustainable remediation technology to remove the source from the site. This study clearly suggests that unless the sediment is cleaned of PFOS/PFOA, these chemicals will continue to be detected for a long period in the pond water, with potential adverse impacts on the ecosystem.

  16. PFOA and PFOS: Treatment and Analytics

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFOA and PFOS are not regulated by the USEPA. However, in 2016, USEPA established a Lifetime Drinking Water Health Advisory limit of 70 ng/L for the combined concentration of PFOA and PFOS. This presentation will cover the available technologies that can treat for PFOA and PFOS...

  17. Modeling Single and Repeated Dose Pharmacokinetics of PFOA in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) displays complicated pharmacokinetics in that plasma serum concentration indicates a long half life – 3.8 years in humans (Olsen et al. 2007) – but also rapidly achieves steady-state (Lau et al., 2006). Attempts to address this have included using d...

  18. Are Developmentally-Exposed C57BL/6 Mice Insensitive to Suppression of TDAR by PFOA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmentally persistent fluorinated compound that is present in biological samples worldwide and associated with multisystem toxicity in laboratory animal models. Several studies have reported suppression of T-cell-dependent antibody respons...

  19. PFOA and PFOS: Analytics

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Method 537 was developed for the analysis of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in drinking water to address the occurrence monitoring needs under EPA’s Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulation (UCMR). The method employs solid-phase extraction with analysis by liquid chr...

  20. PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ expression in prenatal and postnatal mouse tissues and an evaluation of the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) expression.

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFOA is developmentally toxic, reducing in utero and neonatal survival, and altering development and growth in mice. PFOA activates PPARα and studies in PPARα knockout mice showed that PPARα signaling is required to produce these effects. This study examines the expression of PPA...

  1. Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOA-exposed mouse fetuses.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Mitchell B; Thibodeaux, Julie R; Wood, Carmen R; Zehr, Robert D; Schmid, Judith E; Lau, Christopher

    2007-09-24

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a stable perfluoroalkyl acid used to synthesize fluoropolymers during the manufacture of a wide variety of products. Concerns have been raised over the potential health effects of PFOA because it is persistent in the environment and can be detected in blood and other tissues of many animal species, including humans. PFOA has also been shown to induce growth deficits and mortality in murine neonates. To better understand the mechanism of PFOA induced developmental toxicity, lung and liver gene expression profiling was conducted in PFOA-exposed full-term mouse fetuses. Thirty timed-pregnant CD-1 mice were orally dosed from gestation days 1-17 with either 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10mg/(kgday) PFOA in water. At term, fetal lung and liver were collected, total RNA prepared, and samples pooled from three fetuses per litter. Five biological replicates consisting of individual litter samples were then evaluated for each treatment group using Affymetrix mouse 430_2 microarrays. The expression of genes related to fatty acid catabolism was altered in both the fetal liver and lung. In the fetal liver, the effects of PFOA were robust and also included genes associated with lipid transport, ketogenesis, glucose metabolism, lipoprotein metabolism, cholesterol biosynthesis, steroid metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, retinol metabolism, proteosome activation, and inflammation. These changes are consistent with transactivation of PPARalpha, although, with regard to bile acid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism, non-PPARalpha related effects were suggested as well. Additional studies will be needed to more thoroughly address the role of PPARalpha, and other nuclear receptors, in PFOA mediated developmental toxicity.

  2. PFOA Stewardship Program Baseline Year Summary Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2006, EPA and the eight major companies in the industry launched the 2010/15 PFOA Stewardship Program, in which companies committed to reduce global facility emissions and product content of PFOA and related chemicals by 95 percent by 2010, and to work

  3. Concentrations and patterns of perfluoroalkyl acids in Georgia, USA surface waters near and distant to a major use source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konwick, B.J.; Tomy, G.T.; Ismail, N.; Peterson, J.T.; Fauver, R.J.; Higginbotham, D.; Fisk, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread contaminants emanating from, among other sources, the production/degradation of fluorinated chemicals used in surface repellant applications, such as carpet manufacturing. The goal of the present study was to assess the concentrations of PFAAs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), in surface waters both near a wastewater land application system (LAS) in Dalton (GA, USA), home to North America's largest carpet manufacturing site, and distant to this location (Altamaha River, GA, USA) to understand the fate of PFAAs in freshwater. Levels of PFAAs were high in the Conasauga River (GA, USA) downstream of the LAS (PFOA, 253-1,150 ng/L; PFOS, 192-318 ng/L; PFNA, 202-369 ng/L; PFDA, 30.1-113 ng/L; PFUA, 58.0-99.2 ng/L; PFOSA, 162-283 ng/L) and in streams and ponds in Dalton (PFOA, 49.9-299 ng/L; PFOS, 15.8-120 ng/L), and were among the highest measured at a nonspill or directrelease location. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the Altamaha River were much lower (PFOA, 3.0-3.1 ng/L; PFOS, 2.6-2.7 ng/L), but were a source of PFAAs to Georgia's estuaries. A preliminary hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFOS at two sites in the Conasauga River exceeded the threshold effect predicted for birds consuming aquatic organisms that are exposed continuously to the PFOS levels at these sites. Assuming that toxicity for all PFAAs quantified is equal to that of PFOS, the sum total PFAAs at two sites within the Conasauga River exceeded PFOS thresholds for aquatic and avian species, warranting additional research. ?? 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA.

  4. Determination of energies and sites of binding of PFOA and PFOS to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Salvalaglio, Matteo; Muscionico, Isabella; Cavallotti, Carlo

    2010-11-25

    Structure and energies of the binding sites of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to human serum albumin (HSA) were determined through molecular modeling. The calculations consisted of a compound approach based on docking, followed by molecular dynamics simulations and by the estimation of the free binding energies adopting WHAM-umbrella sampling and semiempirical methodologies. The binding sites so determined are common either to known HSA fatty acids sites or to other HSA sites known to bind to pharmaceutical compounds such as warfarin, thyroxine, indole, and benzodiazepin. Among the PFOA binding sites, five have interaction energies in excess of -6 kcal/mol, which become nine for PFOS. The calculated binding free energy of PFOA to the Trp 214 binding site is the highest among the PFOA complexes, -8.0 kcal/mol, in good agreement with literature experimental data. The PFOS binding site with the highest energy, -8.8 kcal/mol, is located near the Trp 214 binding site, thus partially affecting its activity. The maximum number of ligands that can be bound to HSA is 9 for PFOA and 11 for PFOS. The calculated data were adopted to predict the level of complexation of HSA as a function of the concentration of PFOA and PFOS found in human blood for different levels of exposition. The analysis of the factors contributing to the complex binding energy permitted to outline a set of guidelines for the rational design of alternative fluorinated surfactants with a lower bioaccumulation potential.

  5. Isomer-specific trophic transfer of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the marine food web of Liaodong Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong; Peng, Hui; Wan, Yi; Hu, Jianying

    2015-02-03

    Trophic transfers of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) have been well studied in aquatic food webs; however, most studies examined PFCAs as single compounds without differentiating isomers. In this study, an in-port derivatization GC-MS method was used to determine PFCA (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA; perfluorononanoic acid, PFNA; perfluorodecanoate acid, PFDA; perfluoroundecanoate acid, PFUnDA; perfluorododecanoate acid, PFDoDA; perfluorotridecanoate acid, PFTriDA, and perfluorotetradecanoate acid, PFTeDA) structural isomers in 11 marine species including benthic invertebrates, fishes, and gulls collected in November 2006 from Liaodong Bay in China. The total concentrations of linear PFCAs were 0.35-1.10, 0.93-2.61, and 2.13-2.69 ng/g ww, and the corresponding percentages of branched PFCAs to linear PFCAs were 6.6-15.5%, 4.2-9.9%, and 4.5-6.0% in invertebrates, fishes, and birds, respectively. Except for linear PFOA, significant positive relationships were found between the concentrations of all the target linear PFCAs and trophic levels, and the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged from 1.90 to 4.88. Positive correlations between the concentrations of branched PFCAs isomers and trophic levels were also observed but were without statistical significance. The relatively high biomagnification of linear isomers of PFCAs would lead to low percentages of branched PFCAs to total PFCAs in organisms at high trophic levels. This study for the first time clarified isomer-specific trophic transfers of PFCAs in a marine food web.

  6. Hypercholesterolemia with consumption of PFOA-laced Western diets is dependent on strain and sex of mice

    PubMed Central

    Rebholz, Sandra L.; Jones, Thomas; Herrick, Robert L.; Xie, Changchun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Woollett, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a man-made surfactant with a number of industrial applications. It has a long half-life environmentally and biologically. Past studies suggest a direct relationship between plasma cholesterol and PFOA serum concentrations in humans and an inverse one in rodents fed standard rodent chow, making it difficult to examine mechanisms responsible for the potential PFOA-induced hypercholesterolemia and altered sterol metabolism. To examine dietary modification of PFOA-induced effects, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were fed PFOA in a fat- and cholesterol-containing diet. When fed these high fat diets, PFOA ingestion resulted in marked hypercholesterolemia in male and female C57BL/6 mice and less robust hypercholesterolemia in male BALB/c mice. The PFOA-induced hypercholesterolemia appeared to be the result of increased liver masses and altered expression of genes associated with hepatic sterol output, specifically bile acid production. mRNA levels of genes associated with sterol input were reduced only in C57BL/6 females, the mice with the greatest increase in plasma cholesterol levels. Strain-specific PFOA-induced changes in cholesterol concentrations in mammary tissues and ovaries paralleled changes in plasma cholesterol levels. mRNA levels of sterol-related genes were reduced in ovaries of C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c mice and not in mammary tissues. Our data suggest that PFOA ingestion leads to hypercholesterolemia in mice fed fat and cholesterol and effects are dependent upon the genetic background and gender of the mice with C57BL/6 female mice being most responsive to PFOA. PMID:26942110

  7. Evaluating the additivity of perfluoroalkyl acids in binary combinations on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Cynthia J; Rider, Cynthia V; Lau, Christopher; Abbott, Barbara D

    2014-02-28

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment, detected in humans and wildlife, and are typically present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that responses to PFAAs are mediated in part by PPARα. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate PPARα transfected into COS-1 cells. The goal of the current study was to determine if binary combinations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and another PFAA act in an additive fashion to activate PPARα in the mouse one-hybrid in vitro model. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected with mouse PPARα luciferase reporter construct and exposed to either vehicle control (0.1% DMSO or water), PPARα agonist (WY14643, 10 μM), PFOA at 1-128μM, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at 1-128 μM, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) at 8-1024 μM, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at 4-384 μM or perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) at 8-2048 μM to generate sigmoidal concentration-response curves. In addition, cells were exposed to binary combinations of PFOA+either PFNA, PFHxA, PFOS or PFHxS in an 8×8 factorial design. The concentration-response data for individual chemicals were fit to sigmoidal curves and analyzed with nonlinear regression to generate EC₅₀s and Hillslopes, which were used in response-addition and concentration-addition models to calculate predicted responses for mixtures in the same plate. All PFOA+PFAA combinations produced concentration-response curves that were closely aligned with the predicted curves for both response addition and concentration addition at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations of all chemicals, the observed response curves deviated from the predicted models of additivity. We conclude that binary combinations of PFAAs behave additively at the lower concentration ranges in activating PPARα in this in vitro system.

  8. Development of PBPK models for PFOA and PFOS for human pregnancy and lactation life stages.

    PubMed

    Loccisano, Anne E; Longnecker, Matthew P; Campbell, Jerry L; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J

    2013-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acid carboxylates and sulfonates (PFAA) have many consumer and industrial applications. Developmental toxicity studies in animals have raised concern about potential reproductive/developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); however, in humans conflicting results have been reported for associations between maternal PFAA levels and these outcomes. Risk assessments and interpretation of available human data during gestation and lactation are hindered due to lack of a framework for understanding and estimating maternal, fetal, and neonatal pharmacokinetics (PK). Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were developed for PFOA and PFOS for the gestation and lactation life stages in humans to understand how the physiological changes associated with development affect pharmacokinetics of these compounds in the mother, fetus, and infant. These models were derived from PBPK models for PFOA/PFOS that were previously developed for adult humans and rats during gestation and lactation and from existing human pregnancy and lactation models developed for other chemicals. The models simulated PFOA and PFOS concentrations in fetal, infant, and maternal plasma and milk, were compared to available data in humans, and also were used to estimate maternal exposure. The models reported here identified several research needs, which include (1) the identification of transporters involved in renal resorption to explain the multiyear half-lives of these compounds in humans, (2) factors affecting clearance of PFOA/PFOS during gestation and lactation, and (3) data to estimate clearance of PFOA/PFOS in infants. These models may help address concerns regarding possible adverse health effects due to PFOA/PFOS exposure in the fetus and infant and may be useful in comparing pharmacokinetics across life stages.

  9. Effects of gestational exposure to PFOA on PPAR protein and mRNA expression in vital organs of fetal and postnatal mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is developmentally toxic, causing in utero and neonatal mortality, and altering development and growth in mice. PFOA activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)a and PPARa signaling is required for toxicity. This study examines the ex...

  10. Pathways of PFOA to the Arctic: variabilities and contributions of oceanic currents and atmospheric transport and chemistry sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, I.; Lammel, G.

    2010-05-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorinated compounds are industrial chemicals in use since decades which resist degradation in the environment and seem to accumulate in polar regions. Transport of PFOA was modeled using a spatially resolved global multicompartment model including fully coupled three-dimensional ocean and atmosphere general circulation models, and two-dimensional top soil, vegetation surfaces, and sea ice compartments. In addition to primary emissions, the formation of PFOA in the atmosphere from degradation of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol was included as a PFOA source. Oceanic transport, delivered 14.8±5.0 (8-23) t a-1 to the Arctic, strongly influenced by changes in water transport, which determined its interannual variability. This pathway constituted the dominant source of PFOA to the Arctic. Formation of PFOA in the atmosphere lead to episodic transport events (timescale of days) into the Arctic with small spatial extent. Deposition in the polar region was found to be dominated by wet deposition over land, and shows maxima in boreal winter. The total atmospheric deposition of PFOA in the Arctic in the 1990s was ≍1 t a-1, much higher than previously estimated, and is dominated by primary emissions rather than secondarily formed.

  11. Pathways of PFOA to the Arctic: variabilities and contributions of oceanic currents and atmospheric transport and chemistry sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmler, I.; Lammel, G.

    2010-10-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorinated compounds are industrial chemicals in use for decades which resist degradation in the environment and seem to accumulate in polar regions. Transport of PFOA was modeled using a spatially resolved global multicompartment model including fully coupled three-dimensional ocean and atmosphere general circulation models, and two-dimensional top soil, vegetation surfaces, and sea ice compartments. In addition to primary emissions, the formation of PFOA in the atmosphere from degradation of 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol was included as a PFOA source. Oceanic transport, delivered 14.8±5.0 (8-23) t a-1 to the Arctic, strongly influenced by changes in water transport, which determined its interannual variability. This pathway constituted the dominant source of PFOA to the Arctic. Formation of PFOA in the atmosphere led to episodic transport events (timescale of days) into the Arctic with small spatial extent. Deposition in the polar region was found to be dominated by wet deposition over land, and shows maxima in boreal winter. The total atmospheric deposition of PFOA in the Arctic in the 1990s was ≈1 t a-1, much higher than previously estimated, and is dominated by primary emissions rather than secondary formation.

  12. GENE PROFILING IN THE LUNG AND LIVER OF PFOA EXPOSED MOUSE FETUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a stable perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) used to synthesize fluoropolymers during the manufacture of a wide variety of products. Concerns have been raised over the potential health effects of PFAAs, in part, due to the persistence of these fluorinate...

  13. Contamination risk of raw drinking water caused by PFOA sources along a river reach in south-western Finland.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Maiju; Koivusalo, Harri; Malve, Olli; Perkola, Noora; Juntunen, Janne; Huttula, Timo

    2016-01-15

    Transport of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was simulated in the beginning of River Kokemäenjoki in Finland using one-dimensional SOBEK river model. River Kokemäenjoki is used as a raw water source for an artificial groundwater recharge plant, and the raw water intake plant is located near the downstream end of the model application area. Measured surface water and wastewater concentrations were used to determine the PFOA input to the river and to evaluate the simulation results. The maximum computed PFOA concentrations in the river at the location of the raw water intake plant during the simulation period Dec. 1, 2011-Feb. 16, 2014 were 0.92 ng/l and 3.12 ng/l for two alternative modeling scenarios. These concentration values are 2.3% and 7.8%, respectively, of the 40 ng/l guideline threshold value for drinking water. The current annual median and maximum PFOA loads to the river were calculated to be 3.9 kg/year and 10 kg/year respectively. According to the simulation results, the PFOA load would need to rise to a level of 57 kg/year for the 40 ng/l guideline value to be exceeded in river water at the raw water intake plant during a dry season. It is thus unlikely that PFOA concentration in raw water would reach the guideline value without the appearance of new PFOA sources. The communal wastewater treatment plants in the study area caused on average 11% of the total PFOA load. This raises a concern about the origin of the remaining 89% of the PFOA load and the related risk factors.

  14. Association between thyroid profile and perfluoroalkyl acids: Data from NHNAES 2007–2008

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ram B.

    2013-10-15

    The effect of six perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), namely, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDE), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide) acetic acid (MPAH), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) on the levels of six thyroid function variables, namely, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free and total thyroxine (FT4, TT4), free and total triiodothyronine (FT3, TT3), and thyroglobulin (TGN) was evaluated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2007–2008 were used for this evaluation. TSH levels increased with increase in levels of PFOA (p<0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between the levels of FT3, and FT4 with the levels of any of the six PFAAs. Levels of TT3 were found to increase with the levels of PFOA (p=0.01) and TT4 levels were found to increase with increase in PFHxS levels (p<0.01). Males had statistically significantly higher levels of FT3 than females and females had statistically significantly higher levels of TT4 than males. As compared to non-Hispanics whites and Hispanics, non-Hispanic blacks had lower levels of TSH, FT3, TT3, and TT4 but Hispanics had the lowest levels of TGN. Age was negatively associated with FT3 and TT3 but positively associated with FT4 and TT4. Non-smokers had higher levels of TSH and TT4 than smokers and smokers had higher levels of FT3 and TGN than non-smokers. Iodine deficiency was associated with increased levels of TSH, TT3, TT4, and TGN. -- Highlights: • Levels of total triiodothyronine were found to increase with the levels of PFOA. • Total thyroxine increased with increase in levels of perfluorohexane sulfonic acid. • There was a positive association between the levels of PFOA and TSH. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of TSH, total T3 and T4. • Iodine deficiency was associated with elevated levels of thyroglobulin.

  15. PFOA y PFOS - PREGUNTAS Y RESPUESTAS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Preguntas y respuestas sobre la decisión de la EPA de publicar avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estat

  16. PFOA and PFOS: Treatment and Analytics | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PFOA and PFOS are not regulated by the USEPA. However, in 2016, USEPA established a Lifetime Drinking Water Health Advisory limit of 70 ng/L for the combined concentration of PFOA and PFOS. This presentation will cover the available technologies that can treat for PFOA and PFOS and discuss the costs of those treatments. It will also cover the implementation of EPA's Method 537 that can be used to analyze for PFOA and PFOS. To present on the available treatments a community could use to treat PFOA or PFOS, and the analytical technique to analyze them.

  17. LONG-TERM HEALTH EFFECTS FOLLOWING GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PFOA IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is used in many commercial products as a surfactant. It has been shown to induce mammary tumors in lifetime fed adult female rats and to delay mammary gland development in mouse pups exposed to the compound prenatally. To evaluate the long-term healt...

  18. QUANTIFICATION OF FLUOROTELOMER-BASED CHEMICALS IN MAMMALIAN MATRICES BY MONITORING PERFLUOROALKYL CHAIN FRAGMENTS WITH GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), have been identified as persistent, bioaccurnulative and potentially toxic compounds. The structural analog, 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8-2 FTOH) is considered the probable ...

  19. PPAR involvement in PFAA developmental toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found in the environment and in serum of wildlife and humans. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are developmentally toxic in rodents. The effects of in utero exposure include increas...

  20. Differential expression of chicken hepatic genes responsive to PFOA and PFOS.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Miyazaki, Shigeru; Lam, Paul K S

    2007-07-31

    The effects of PFOS and PFOA on the gene expression patterns of chickens that were exposed to either PFOS or PFOA at low doses were investigated with the use of microarray techniques. Twelve Genechip Chicken Genome Arrays were used to study hepatic gene expression in 6-week-old chickens (Gallus gallus) that were exposed to either PFOA (0.1, 0.5, or 5mg/mL), PFOS (0.02 or 0.1mg/mL), or a saline vehicle control (0.9% NaCl in Milli-Q water) via subcutaneous implantation of a 2mL osmotic pump for 4 weeks or for 4 weeks with a further 4 weeks of depuration. Over 240 and 480 genes were significantly affected by PFOS after 4 weeks of exposure and after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration, respectively and over 290 and 320 genes were significantly affected by PFOA, correspondingly. For PFOS, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were mainly related to the transport of electrons and oxygen, and the metabolism of lipids and fatty acids; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were mainly related to the transport of electrons and ions, and protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis. For PFOA, the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure were related to the transport of ions, lipids, and electrons and cytochromes; while the genes that were affected after 4 weeks of exposure with a further 4 weeks of depuration were related to protein amino acid phosphorylation and proteolysis, the transport of ions, and the metabolism of fatty acids and lipids. The results also showed that the gene expression patterns between chickens that were treated with PFOS and those that were treated with PFOA were different, which points to the importance of the separate evaluation of the toxicities of PFOS and PFOA. Specifically, the gene expressions of CYP8B and NOV were studied.

  1. Estrogen-like activity of perfluoroalkyl acids in vivo and interaction with human and rainbow trout estrogen receptors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, Abby D; Bisson, William H; Koch, Daniel C; Ehresman, David J; Kolluri, Siva K; Williams, David E

    2011-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 15.2-289 μM. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ERα-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 10-1000 nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ERα ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ERα. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ERα from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern.

  2. Estrogen-Like Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids In Vivo and Interaction with Human and Rainbow Trout Estrogen Receptors In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Benninghoff, Abby D.; Bisson, William H.; Koch, Daniel C.; Ehresman, David J.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the structural characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that confer estrogen-like activity in vivo using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as an animal model and to determine whether these chemicals interact directly with the estrogen receptor (ER) using in vitro and in silico species comparison approaches. Perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic (PFDA), and perfluoroundecanoic (PFUnDA) acids were all potent inducers of the estrogen-responsive biomarker protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in vivo, although at fairly high dietary exposures. A structure-activity relationship for PFAAs was observed, where eight to ten fluorinated carbons and a carboxylic acid end group were optimal for maximal Vtg induction. These in vivo findings were corroborated by in vitro mechanistic assays for trout and human ER. All PFAAs tested weakly bound to trout liver ER with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.2–289μM. Additionally, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and perlfuorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) significantly enhanced human ERα-dependent transcriptional activation at concentrations ranging from 10–1000nM. Finally, we employed an in silico computational model based upon the crystal structure for the human ERα ligand-binding domain complexed with E2 to structurally investigate binding of these putative ligands to human, mouse, and trout ERα. PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, and PFOS all efficiently docked with ERα from different species and formed a hydrogen bond at residue Arg394/398/407 (human/mouse/trout) in a manner similar to the environmental estrogens bisphenol A and nonylphenol. Overall, these data support the contention that several PFAAs are weak environmental xenoestrogens of potential concern. PMID:21163906

  3. Perfluorinated acids in Arctic snow: new evidence for atmospheric formation.

    PubMed

    Young, Cora J; Furdui, Vasile I; Franklin, James; Koerner, Roy M; Muir, Derek C G; Mabury, Scott A

    2007-05-15

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) are ubiquitously found in water and biota, including remote regions such as the High Arctic. Under environmental conditions, PFAs exist mainly as anions and are not expected to be subject to long-range atmospheric transport in the gas phase. Fluorinated telomer alcohols (FTOHs) are volatile and can be atmospherically oxidized to form perfluorocarboxylic acids. Analogously, fluorosulfamido alcohols can be oxidized to form perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). High Arctic ice caps experience contamination solely from atmospheric sources. By examining concentrations of PFAs in ice cap samples, it is possible to determine atmospheric fluxes to the Arctic. Ice samples were collected from high Arctic ice caps in the spring of 2005 and 2006. Samples were concentrated using solid-phase extraction and analyzed by LC-MS-MS. PFAs were observed in all samples, dating from 1996 to 2005. Concentrations were in the low-mid pg L(-1) range and exhibited seasonality, with maximum concentrations in the spring-summer. The presence of perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) on the ice cap was indicative of atmospheric oxidation as a source. Ratios of PFAs to sodium concentrations were highly variable, signifying PFA concentrations on the ice cap were unrelated to marine chemistry. Fluxes of the PFAs were estimated to the area north of 65 degrees N for the 2005 season, which ranged from 114 to 587 kg year(-1) for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), 73 to 860 kg year(-1) for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), 16 to 84 kg year(-1) for PFDA, 26 to 62 kg year(-1) for PFUnA, and 18 to 48 kg year(-1) for PFOS. The PFOA and PFNA fluxes agreed with FTOH modeling estimations. A decrease in PFOS concentrations through time was observed, suggesting a fast response to changes in production. These data suggest that atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursors is a primary source of PFAs to the Arctic.

  4. PBPK modeling for PFOS and PFOA: validation with human experimental data.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Francesc; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2014-10-15

    In recent years, because of the potential human toxicity, concern on perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has increased notably with special attention to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Unfortunately, there is currently an important knowledge gap on the burdens of these chemicals in most human tissues, as the reported studies have been mainly focused on plasma. In order to overcome these limitations, the use of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models has been extended. The present study was aimed at testing an existing PBPK model for their predictability of PFOS and PFOA in a new case-study, and also to adapt it to estimate the PFAS content in human tissue compartments. Model validation was conducted by means of PFOA and PFOS concentrations in food and human drinking water from Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), and being the predicted results compared with those experimentally found in human tissues (blood, liver, kidney, liver and brain) of subjects from the same area of study. The use of human-derived partition coefficient (Pk) data was proven as more suitable for application to this PBPK model than rat-based Pk values. However, the uncertainty and variability of the data are still too high to get conclusive results. Consequently, further efforts should be carried out to reduce parametric uncertainty of PBPK models. More specifically, a deeper knowledge on the distribution of PFOA and PFOS within the human body should be obtained by enlarging the number of biological monitoring studies on PFASs.

  5. PRESENTED AT 15TH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE TRIANGLE CONSORTIUM FOR REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY, CHAPEL HILL, NC, 2/11/2006: CROSS-FOSTER STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perflourooctanoic acid (PFOA), a commercial surfactant, has recently been found in wildlife and human blood. Exposure of pregnant rats and mice to PFOA results in low body weight and poor survival of pups. However, it has not been determined whether the reduction in weight and ...

  6. Perfluoroalkyl acids: recent research highlights | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorinated compounds are organic chemicals in which all hydrogen molecules of the carbon-chain are substituted by fluorine molecules. Generally, there are two types of perfluorinated compounds, the perfluoroalkanes that are primarily used clinically for oxygenation and respiratory ventilation, and the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). Environmentally relevant PFAAs are a family of about 30 chemicals that consist of a carbon backbone typically 4-14 molecules in length and a charged functional group composed of either sulfonates, carboxylates or phosphonates (and to a lesser extent, phosphinates). While many (>100) derivatives ofPFAAs (such as alcohols, amides, esters and acids) are used for industrial and consumer applications, they can be degraded or metabolized to PFAAs as end-stage products. Thus, PFAAs, rather than their intermediates or derivatives, have drawn the most public attention and research interest. The most widely known PFAAs are the eight-carbon (C8) sulfonate (perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS) and carboxylate (perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA), although the C4 (perfluorobutane) and C6 (perfluorohexane) sulfonates, as well as the C4, C6 and C9 (perfluorononanoic) carboxylates have also been used in commerce. The perfluoroalkyl phosphonates (PFPAs) are fairly new entities for this class ofchemicals. They are typically used as leveling and wetting agents, and defoaming additives in the production of pesticides. They were considered biologically inert by

  7. 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship Program - 2014 Annual Progress Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2006, EPA and the eight major companies in the industry launched the 2010/15 PFOA Stewardship Program, in which companies committed to reduce global facility emissions and product content of PFOA and related chemicals by 95 percent by 2010, and to work

  8. Investigation of waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers as a potential source of PFOA in the environment.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P H; Yamada, T; Striebich, R C; Graham, J L; Giraud, R J

    2014-09-01

    In light of the widespread presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the environment, a comprehensive laboratory-scale study has developed data requested by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether municipal and/or medical waste incineration of commercial fluorotelomer-based polymers (FTBPs) at end of life is a potential source of PFOA that may contribute to environmental and human exposures. The study was divided into two phases (I and II) and conducted in accordance with EPA Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) as described in the quality assurance project plan (QAPP) for each phase. Phase I testing determined that the PFOA transport efficiency across the thermal reactor system to be used in Phase II was greater than 90%. Operating at 1000°C over 2s residence time with 3.2-6.6mgdscm(-1) hydrogen fluoride (HF), corrected to 7% oxygen (O2), and continuously monitored exhaust oxygen of 13%, Phase II testing of the FTBP composites in this thermal reactor system yielded results demonstrating that waste incineration of fluorotelomer-based polymers does not result in the formation of detectable levels of PFOA under conditions representative of typical municipal waste combustor (MWC) and medical waste incinerator (MWI) operations in the U.S. Therefore, waste incineration of these polymers is not expected to be a source of PFOA in the environment.

  9. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in environmental waters in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Hanh Thi; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shirasaka, Hanako; Hidaka, Rento; Chau, Hong Thi Cam; Kong, Lingxiao; Nguyen, Trung Quang; Nguyen, Thao Thanh

    2015-03-01

    This is the first nationwide study of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in environmental waters in Vietnam. Twenty-eight river water and 22 groundwater samples collected in four major cities and 14 river water samples from the Red River were screened to investigate the occurrence and sources of 16 PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were the most prevalent of 11 detected PFAAs with maximum concentrations in urban river water of 5.3, 18 and 0.93ngL(-1), respectively, and in groundwater of 8.2, 4.5 and 0.45ngL(-1), respectively. PFAAs in the Red River water were detected at low levels. PFAA concentrations in river water were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, possibly due to storm water runoff, a common phenomenon in Southeast Asian countries. The highest concentrations of PFAAs in river water were observed in samples from highly populated and industrialized areas, perhaps sourced from sewage. The PFAA concentrations observed were similar to those in other Southeast Asian countries, but lower than in developed nations. From the composition profiles of PFAAs, industrial products containing PFAAs imported from China and Japan might be one of the major sources of PFAAs in the Vietnamese aquatic environment. According to the health-based values and advisory issued by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the concentrations of detected PFAAs in this study do not pose an immediate health risk to humans and aquatic organisms.

  10. STUNTED MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT, IN THE ABSENCE OF BODY WEIGHT EFFECTS, FOLLOWING PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic compound resistant to severe weather and heat, is ubiquitous in the environment and is detected in serum of the human population and several wildlife species. Previous studies (Lau et al., 2004) have demonstrated that prenatal exposure ...

  11. Impact of treatment processes on the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from the drinking water production chain.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Beerendonk, Erwin; Scholte-Veenendaal, Petra; De Voogt, Pim

    2012-02-07

    The behavior of polyfluoralkyl acids (PFAAs) from intake (raw source water) to finished drinking water was assessed by taking samples from influent and effluent of the several treatment steps used in a drinking water production chain. These consisted of intake, coagulation, rapid sand filtration, dune passage, aeration, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, pellet softening, granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration, slow sand filtration, and finished drinking water. In the intake water taken from the Lek canal (a tributary of the river Rhine), the most abundant PFAA were PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), PFBS (perfluorobutane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). During treatment, longer chain PFAA such as PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFOS were readily removed by the GAC treatment step and their GAC effluent concentrations were reduced to levels below the limits of quantitation (LOQ) (0.23 and 0.24 ng/L for PFOS and PFNA, respectively). However, more hydrophilic shorter chain PFAA (especially PFBA and PFBS) were not removed by GAC and their concentrations remained constant through treatment. A decreasing removal capacity of the GAC was observed with increasing carbon loading and with decreasing carbon chain length of the PFAAs. This study shows that none of the treatment steps, including softening processes, are effective for PFAA removal, except for GAC filtration. GAC can effectively remove certain PFAA from the drinking water cycle.The enrichment of branched PFOS and PFOA isomers relative to non branched isomers during GAC filtration was observed during treatment. The finished water contained 26 and 19 ng/L of PFBA and PFBS. Other PFAAs were present in concentrations below 4.2 ng/L The concentrations of PFAA observed in finished waters are no reason for concern for human health as margins to existing guidelines are sufficiently large.

  12. Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 μg/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 μg/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

  13. Risk Belief and Attitude Formation From Translated Scientific Messages About PFOA, an Environmental Risk Associated With Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Hitt, Rose; Russell, Jessica; Nazione, Samantha; Silk, Kami; Atkin, Charles K; Keating, David

    2017-03-01

    Evidence regarding possible environmental causes of breast cancer is advancing. Often, however, the public is not informed about these advances in a manner that is easily understandable. This research translates findings from biologists into messages at two literacy levels about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a possible environmental contributor to breast cancer. The Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM) was used to investigate how ability, motivation, and systematic and heuristic processing lead to risk beliefs and, ultimately, to negative attitudes for individuals receiving translated scientific messages about PFOA. Participants (N = 1,389) came from the Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women. Findings indicated that ability, in the form of translated messages, predicted systematic processing, operationalized as knowledge gain, which was negatively associated with formation of risk beliefs that led to negative attitudes toward PFOA. Heuristic processing cues, operationalized as perceived message quality and source credibility, were positively associated with risk beliefs, which predicted negative attitudes about PFOA. Overall, more knowledge and lower literacy messages led to lower perceived risk, while greater involvement and ratings of heuristic cues led to greater risk perceptions. This is an example of a research, translation, and dissemination team effort in which biologists created knowledge, communication scholars translated and tested messages, and advocates were participants and those who disseminated messages.

  14. Effect of PFOA/PFOS pre-exposure on the toxicity of the herbicides 2,4-D, Atrazine, Diuron and Paraquat to a model aquatic photosynthetic microorganism.

    PubMed

    Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Makowski, Marcin; Gonzalo, Soledad; González-Pleiter, Miguel; Leganés, Francisco; Fernández-Piñas, Francisca

    2015-11-01

    Pre-exposure to the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctano sulphonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the toxicity of four herbicides of different types and modes of action towards the self-luminescent recombinant cyanobacterium Anabaena CPB4337 was evaluated. The rationale of the approach is that both PFOS and PFOA as surfactants are known to modify cell membrane properties and pre-exposure to them might alter herbicide toxicity towards the cyanobacterium. Anabaena CPB4337 was pre-exposed during 72h to PFOS or PFOA at a concentration below their no observed effect concentration (NOEC). After pre-exposure, cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of 2,4-D Atrazine, Diuron and Paraquat and the toxicity was compared to that of non-pre-exposed ones. The data clearly showed that PFCs pre-treatment significantly altered the toxicity of the tested herbicides. However the effects resulting from PFOA and PFOS pre-exposure were not homogeneous for all the herbicides. In general PFOA pre-exposure resulted in increased herbicide toxicity except for atrazine, while PFOS pre-exposure resulted in increased toxicity for paraquat and diuron, and reduced toxicity for atrazine with no significant effect on 2,4-D toxicity. The strongest modifying effect was found for paraquat whose toxicity doubled with PFOA pre-exposure. Further analysis of membrane properties by flow cytometry revealed that both PFOA and PFOS were able to modify membrane integrity and membrane potential of Anabaena CPB4337 at the concentrations used in the pre-exposure experiments. These results reveal relevant indirect effects of PFCs pollution with eco-toxicological implications.

  15. High-resolution atmospheric modeling of fluorotelomer alcohols and perfluorocarboxylic acids in the North American troposphere.

    PubMed

    Yarwood, Greg; Kemball-Cook, Susan; Keinath, Michael; Waterland, Robert L; Korzeniowski, Stephen H; Buck, Robert C; Russell, Mark H; Washburn, Stephen T

    2007-08-15

    A high spatial and temporal resolution atmospheric model is used to evaluate the potential contribution of fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) and perfluorocarboxylate (PFCA) emissions associated with the manufacture, use, and disposal of DuPont fluorotelomer-based products in North America to air concentrations of FTOH, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in North America and the Canadian Arctic. A bottom-up emission inventory for PFCAs and FTOHs was developed from sales and product composition data. A detailed FTOH atmospheric degradation mechanism was developed to simulate FTOH degradation to PFCAs and model atmospheric transport of PFCAs and FTOHs. Modeled PFCA yields from FTOH degradation agree with experimental smog-chamber results supporting the degradation mechanism used. Estimated PFCA and FTOH air concentrations and PFCA deposition fluxes are compared to monitoring data and previous global modeling. Predicted FTOH air concentrations are generally in agreement with available monitoring data. Overall emissions from the global fluorotelomer industry are estimated to contribute approximately 1-2% of the PFCAs in North American rainfall, consistent with previous global emissions estimates. Emission calculations and modeling results indicate that atmospheric inputs of PFCAs in North America from fluorotelomer-based products will decline by an order of magnitude in the near future as a result of current industry commitments to reduce manufacturing emissions and lower the residual fluorotelomer alcohol raw material and trace PFCA product content.

  16. PFOA INDUCES DYSMORPHOGENESIS IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PFOA Induces Dysmorphogenesis In Mouse Whole Embryo Culture.

    MR Blanton1, JM Padowski2, ES Hunter1, JM Rogers1, and C Lau1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC, USA. 2Curriculum in Toxicology, UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

    Perfluorooctanoa...

  17. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF PFOS AND PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) are fully-fluorinated organic chemicals with a carbon backbone (typically varying from C-4 to C-14) and a functional group (usually carboxylic acid or sulfonic acid). These chemicals are man-made, exceptionally stable to metabolic and environmental de...

  18. Influence of the uncertainty in the validation of PBPK models: A case-study for PFOS and PFOA.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Francesc; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are mathematical representations of the human body aimed at describing the time course distribution of chemicals in human tissues. Since parameterization of PBPK models is based on empirical estimation and experimental data, simulation results may have high degree of uncertainty. As a consequence, the reliability of model validation is highly affected. In this study, the parametric uncertainty associated with PBPK models developed for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were analyzed and the different validation approaches were discussed for a case-study in Tarragona County (NE of Spain). Physicochemical parameters and dietary intake of PFOS and PFOA were estimated from previous investigations performed in Tarragona County. A sensitivity analysis (SA) was performed to understand the degree of influence of input parameters on the final outcomes. The uncertainty of the PBPK models' outcome was assessed by propagating the parametric uncertainty using the Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The elimination constants (Tm and Kt) as well as the Free fraction and the Intake, were the most influential parameters according to the SA results, being up to 83% for PFOS and 99.9% for PFOA. The validation of the PBPK model, which was performed using different approaches, showed clear discrepancies in the visual validation when compared with the statistical analysis.

  19. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ehresman, David J.; Froehlich, John W.; Olsen, Geary W. . E-mail: gwolsen@mmm.com; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L.

    2007-02-15

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells.

  20. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals.

    PubMed

    Ehresman, David J; Froehlich, John W; Olsen, Geary W; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L

    2007-02-01

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells.

  1. Spatial distribution and partition of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in rivers of the Pearl River Delta, southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Liuwei; Li, Juying; Wang, Xinxuan; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Bo

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water from 67 sampling sites along rivers of the Pearl River Delta in southern China. Sixteen PFAAs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C5-14, C16 and C18) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, C4, C6, C8 and C10) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Total PFAA concentrations (∑ PFAAs) in the surface water ranged from 1.53 to 33.5 ng·L(-1) with an average of 7.58 ng·L(-1). Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the three most abundant PFAAs and on average accounted for 28%, 16% and 10% of ∑ PFAAs, respectively. Higher concentrations of ∑ PFAAs were found in the samples collected from Jiangmen section of Xijiang River, Dongguan section of Dongjiang River and the Pearl River flowing the cities which had very well-developed manufacturing industries. PCA model was employed to quantitatively calculate the contributions of extracted sources. Factor 1 (72.48% of the total variance) had high loading for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), PFBS and PFOS. For factor 2 (10.93% of the total variance), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) got high loading. The sorption of PFCAs on suspended particulate matter (SPM) increased by approximately 0.1 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that on sediment was approximately 0.8 log units lower than the SPM logKd values. In addition, the differences in the partition coefficients were influenced by the structure discrepancy of absorbents and influx of fresh river water. These data are essential for modeling the transport and environmental fate of PFAAs.

  2. Perfluorooctanoic acid induces human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell migration and invasion through activation of ERK/mTOR signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fujun; Wang, Yixong; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Ying, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xuesen

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a common environmental pollutant that has been associated with various diseases, including cancer. We explored the molecular mechanisms underlying PFOA-induced endometrial cancer cell invasion and migration. PFOA treatment enhanced migration and invasion by human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells, which correlated with decreased E-cadherin expression, a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PFOA also induced activation of ERK1/2/mTOR signaling. Treatment with rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, antagonized the effects of PFOA and reversed the effects of PFOA activation in a xenograft mouse model of endometrial cancer. Consistent with these results, pre-treatment with rapamycin abolished PFOA-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin expression. These results indicate that PFOA is a carcinogen that promotes endometrial cancer cell migration and invasion through activation of ERK/mTOR signaling. PMID:27589685

  3. Thermal mineralization behavior of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS during reactivation of granular activated carbon (GAC) in nitrogen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Takata, Mitsuyasu; Takemine, Shusuke; Yamamoto, Katsuya

    2015-09-11

    Waste disposal site is one of the important sinks of chemicals. A significant amount of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) have been brought into it. Because of their aqueous solubility, PFASs are released to landfill effluent waters, from which PFASs are efficiently collected by adsorption technique using granular activated carbon (GAC). The exhausted GAC is reactivated by heating processes. The mineralization of PFASs during the reactivation process was studied. Being thermally treated in N2 atmosphere, the recovery rate of mineralized fluorine and PFC homologues including short-chained perfluorocarboxylic acids was determined. If the reagent form of PFOA, PFHxA, and PFOS were treated at 700 °C, the recovery of mineralized fluorine was less than 30, 46, and 72 %, respectively. The rate increased to 51, 74, and 70 %, if PFASs were adsorbed onto GAC in advance; moreover, addition of excess sodium hydroxide (NaOH) improved the recovery to 74, 91, and 90 %. Residual PFAS homologue was less than 1 % of the original amount. Steamed condition did not affect destruction. The significant role of GAC was to suppress volatile release of PFASs from thermal ambient, whereas NaOH enhanced destruction and retained mineralized fluorine on the GAC surface. Comparing the recovery of mineralized fluorine, the degradability of PFOS was considered to be higher than PFOA and PFHxA. Whole mass balance missing 9~26 % of initial amount suggested formation of some volatile organofluoro compounds beyond analytical coverage.

  4. Isomer-Specific Binding Affinity of Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) to Serum Proteins.

    PubMed

    Beesoon, Sanjay; Martin, Jonathan W

    2015-05-05

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are among the most prominent contaminants in human serum, and these were historically manufactured as technical mixtures of linear and branched isomers. The isomers display unique pharmacokinetics in humans and in animal models, but molecular mechanisms underlying isomer-specific PFOS and PFOA disposition have not previously been studied. Here, ultrafiltration devices were used to examine (i) the dissociation constants (Kd) of individual PFOS and PFOA isomers with human serum albumin (HSA) and (ii) relative binding affinity of isomers in technical mixtures spiked to whole calf serum and human serum. Measurement of HSA Kd's demonstrated that linear PFOS (Kd=8(±4)×10(-8) M) was much more tightly bound than branched PFOS isomers (Kd range from 8(±1)×10(-5) M to 4(±2)×10(-4) M). Similarly, linear PFOA (Kd=1(±0.9)×10(-4) M) was more strongly bound to HSA compared to branched PFOA isomers (Kd range from 4(±2)×10(-4) M to 3(±2)×10(-4) M). The higher binding affinities of linear PFOS and PFOA to total serum protein were confirmed when both calf serum and human serum were spiked with technical mixtures. Overall, these data provide a mechanistic explanation for the longer biological half-life of PFOS in humans, compared to PFOA, and for the higher transplacental transfer efficiencies and renal clearance of branched PFOS and PFOA isomers, compared to the respective linear isomer.

  5. New Chemicals Program Review of Alternatives for PFOA and Related Chemicals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2006, EPA and the eight major companies in the industry launched the 2010/15 PFOA Stewardship Program, in which companies committed to reduce global facility emissions and product content of PFOA and related chemicals by 95 percent by 2010, and to work

  6. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Adgent, Margaret; Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Chen, Pau-Chung; Hsiung, Chao A.; Wang, Shu-Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic chemicals. PFCAs include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; C8) and long-chain PFCAs (C9–C20). Studies examining long-chain PFCAs and fetal and postnatal growth are limited. Objectives: We investigated the associations of prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs with fetal and postnatal growth. Methods: For 223 Taiwanese mothers and their term infants, we measured PFOA and four long-chain PFCAs (ng/mL) in third-trimester maternal serum; infant weight (kg), length and head circumference (cm) at birth; and childhood weight and height at approximately 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. For each sex, we used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between ln-transformed prenatal PFCAs and continuous infant measures, and logistic regression to examine small for gestational age (SGA). Linear mixed models were applied to prenatal PFCAs and childhood weight and height z-scores. Results: In girls, prenatal perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) concentrations were inversely associated with birth weight [e.g., βbirth weight (kg) = –0.06, 95% CI: –0.11, –0.01 per 1 ln-unit PFUnDA increase]; prenatal PFDeA and PFUnDA were associated with elevated odds of SGA; and PFDeA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA were associated with lower average childhood height z-score. In boys, prenatal PFNA, and PFDoDA were associated with reductions in height at certain ages in childhood, but not with size at birth. Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs may interfere with fetal and childhood growth in girls, and childhood growth in boys. Citation: Wang Y, Adgent M, Su PH, Chen HY, Chen PC, Hsiung CA, Wang SL. 2016. Prenatal exposure to perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and fetal and postnatal growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1794–1800;

  7. Formation of PFOA from 8:2 FTOH in closed-bottle experiments with brackish water.

    PubMed

    Keränen, Juha; Ahkola, Heidi; Knuutinen, Juha; Herve, Sirpa; Reinikainen, Marko; Koistinen, Jaana

    2013-11-01

    The formation of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanol (8:2 FTOH) was studied for the first time in laboratory experiments with brackish water. The water samples were collected from the Baltic Sea, which is one of the largest brackish water areas in the world and is polluted with PFOA and other perfluorinated compounds. The formation of PFOA was studied in closed-bottle experiments at different water temperatures. As a reference experiment, a modified OECD 310 test was conducted with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant and with brackish water. The PFOA and 8:2 FTOH were concentrated from water samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and were analysed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effect of oxygen concentration on the formation of PFOA was studied using surface water samples with high and low oxygen contents. Other experiments were performed with oxygen-rich surface water and oxygen-deficient bottom water. The formation of PFOA was observed in all experiments; it was higher in the trial performed with brackish water than in the reference test carried out with sludge. Clear temperature dependence was observed in the formation of PFOA in brackish water tests; after a 30-day test period, a sixfold increase was observed in the amount of PFOA in surface water between the temperatures of 15 and 20 °C. Microbes were suggested as the major cause of the formation of PFOA, but other environmental characteristics, such as oxygen, could also affect the formation potential of PFOA.

  8. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Metabolic Profiles in Brain and Liver of Mouse Revealed by a High-throughput Targeted Metabolomics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Li, Meiying; Yang, Jingping; Li, Kan; Jin, Ling; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl acid, can result in hepatotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects in animals. The metabolome, which serves as a connection among transcriptome, proteome and toxic effects, provides pathway-based insights into effects of PFOA. Since understanding of changes in the metabolic profile during hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were still incomplete, a high-throughput targeted metabolomics approach (278 metabolites) was used to investigate effects of exposure to PFOA for 28 d on brain and liver of male Balb/c mice. Results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that PFOA caused alterations in metabolic pathways in exposed individuals. Pathway analysis suggested that PFOA affected metabolism of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetics. Ten and 18 metabolites were identified as potential unique biomarkers of exposure to PFOA in brain and liver, respectively. In brain, PFOA affected concentrations of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate in brain, which provides novel insights into mechanisms of PFOA-induced neurobehavioral effects. In liver, profiles of lipids revealed involvement of β-oxidation and biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, while alterations in metabolism of arachidonic acid suggesting potential of PFOA to cause inflammation response in liver. These results provide insight into the mechanism and biomarkers for PFOA-induced effects.

  9. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Metabolic Profiles in Brain and Liver of Mouse Revealed by a High-throughput Targeted Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Li, Meiying; Yang, Jingping; Li, Kan; Jin, Ling; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl acid, can result in hepatotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects in animals. The metabolome, which serves as a connection among transcriptome, proteome and toxic effects, provides pathway-based insights into effects of PFOA. Since understanding of changes in the metabolic profile during hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were still incomplete, a high-throughput targeted metabolomics approach (278 metabolites) was used to investigate effects of exposure to PFOA for 28 d on brain and liver of male Balb/c mice. Results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that PFOA caused alterations in metabolic pathways in exposed individuals. Pathway analysis suggested that PFOA affected metabolism of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetics. Ten and 18 metabolites were identified as potential unique biomarkers of exposure to PFOA in brain and liver, respectively. In brain, PFOA affected concentrations of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate in brain, which provides novel insights into mechanisms of PFOA-induced neurobehavioral effects. In liver, profiles of lipids revealed involvement of β-oxidation and biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, while alterations in metabolism of arachidonic acid suggesting potential of PFOA to cause inflammation response in liver. These results provide insight into the mechanism and biomarkers for PFOA-induced effects. PMID:27032815

  10. Removal of PFOA and PFOS from aqueous solutions using activated carbon produced from Vitis vinifera leaf litter.

    PubMed

    Fagbayigbo, Bamidele Oladapo; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Fatoki, Olalekan Siyanbola; Akenga, Terresa Ayuko; Olatunji, Olatunde Stephen

    2017-04-05

    The removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solutions using agro-waste biomass of Vitis vinifera (grape) leaf litter was studied. Activated carbons were produced from the biomass and chemical activation achieved by using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the modification of the carbons' surface morphology. Activated carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) in order to understand removal mechanisms of the contaminants by activated carbons. The effect of solution concentration, pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature was evaluated to optimize the removal efficiency of activated carbons. Adsorption isotherm models were used to analyse the equilibrium data obtained, and kinetic models were applied to study sorption mechanisms. The results fitted well into Freundlich isotherm with both AC-KOH and AC-H3PO4 having high K f values. Maximum adsorption capacities for AC-H3PO4 were 78.90 and 75.13 mg/g for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. Equilibrium was reached before 60 min on both adsorbents, and thermodynamic studies indicated that the process was exothermic and spontaneous. Surface morphology showed the abundance of microspores (>60%) with BET total surface area of 295.488 and 158.67 m(2)/g for AC-H3PO4 and AC-KOH activated carbons, respectively. Removal efficiencies were 95 and 90% for PFOA using AC-H3PO4 and AC-KOH, respectively; corresponding values for PFOS were 94 and 88%. Adsorbents' removal capacities depended on the physicochemical characteristics of adsorbents.

  11. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  12. EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID EXPOSURE DURING PREGNANCY IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids that have wide commercial applications, has recently been detected in humans and wildlife. The current study characterizes the developmental toxicity of PFOA in the mouse. Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were given 1,...

  13. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IMMUNOTOXICITY IN ADULT MICE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is used in the manufacture of fluoropolymers and may be formed by metabolism or degradation of other perfluoroalkyl acids. Safety concerns led the U.S. EPA to conduct a risk assessment of PFOA and related compounds due to their environmental persist...

  14. Perfluorooctanoic Acid for Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Chandra Sekhar Rao; Tomechko, Sara E.; Miyagi, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    Here, we describe the novel use of a volatile surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), for shotgun proteomics. PFOA was found to solubilize membrane proteins as effectively as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). PFOA concentrations up to 0.5% (w/v) did not significantly inhibit trypsin activity. The unique features of PFOA allowed us to develop a single-tube shotgun proteomics method that used all volatile chemicals that could easily be removed by evaporation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. The experimental procedures involved: 1) extraction of proteins in 2% PFOA; 2) reduction of cystine residues with triethyl phosphine and their S-alkylation with iodoethanol; 3) trypsin digestion of proteins in 0.5% PFOA; 4) removal of PFOA by evaporation; and 5) LC-MS/MS analysis of the resulting peptides. The general applicability of the method was demonstrated with the membrane preparation of photoreceptor outer segments. We identified 75 proteins from 1 µg of the tryptic peptides in a single, 1-hour, LC-MS/MS run. About 67% of the proteins identified were classified as membrane proteins. We also demonstrate that a proteolytic 18O labeling procedure can be incorporated after the PFOA removal step for quantitative proteomic experiments. The present method does not require sample clean-up devices such as solid-phase extractions and membrane filters, so no proteins/peptides are lost in any experimental steps. Thus, this single-tube shotgun proteomics method overcomes the major drawbacks of surfactant use in proteomic experiments. PMID:21209883

  15. Investigating sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in aquifers in Tokyo using multiple tracers.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Keisuke; Murakami, Michio; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    We employed a multi-tracer approach to investigate sources and pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in urban groundwater, based on 53 groundwater samples taken from confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in Tokyo. While the median concentrations of groundwater PFAAs were several ng/L, the maximum concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 990 ng/L), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, 1800 ng/L) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA, 620 ng/L) in groundwater were several times higher than those of wastewater and street runoff reported in the literature. PFAAs were more frequently detected than sewage tracers (carbamazepine and crotamiton), presumably owing to the higher persistence of PFAAs, the multiple sources of PFAAs beyond sewage (e.g., surface runoff, point sources) and the formation of PFAAs from their precursors. Use of multiple methods of source apportionment including principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid ratio analysis highlighted sewage and point sources as the primary sources of PFAAs in the most severely polluted groundwater samples, with street runoff being a minor source (44.6% sewage, 45.7% point sources and 9.7% street runoff, by PCA-MLR). Tritium analysis indicated that, while young groundwater (recharged during or after the 1970s, when PFAAs were already in commercial use) in shallow aquifers (<50 m depth) was naturally highly vulnerable to PFAA pollution, PFAAs were also found in old groundwater (recharged before the 1950s, when PFAAs were not in use) in deep aquifers (50-500 m depth). This study demonstrated the utility of multiple uses of tracers (pharmaceuticals and personal care products; PPCPs, tritium) and source apportionment methods in investigating sources and pathways of PFAAs in multiple aquifer systems.

  16. Multi-generational xenoestrogenic effects of Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) mixture on Oryzias latipes using a flow-through exposure system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Lee, Jae-Woo; Shin, Yu-Jin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Ryu, Tae-Kwon; Ryu, Jisung; Lee, Jaean; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Park, Kyunghwa

    2017-02-01

    To elucidate the multi-generational estrogenic potential of Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) mixture, vitellogenin (VTG) expression, growth indices, histological alteration, fecundity, hatching rate, larval survival rate, and sex ratio of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were investigated by exposing the fish to a mixture of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluroroctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) for three generations (238 days). Mixture composition is in the ratio of 1:1:1:1. In addition, whole body burden for each PFAA was analyzed. According to the results, concentrated levels of the PFAAs in both F1 and F2 generation O. latipes were ordered PFOS > PFNA > PFOA > PFBS at both low concentration (0.5 μg/L) and high concentration (5 μg/L), whereas a significant difference in whole body burden based on sex or generation was not detected. Significant induction of VTG expression in F2 and the decline of the gonad somatic index (GSI) in F1 were observed following PFAAs mixture exposure (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA). Furthermore, suppression level of reproduction rate relative to the control increased as generation was transferred to the next in response to PFAAs mixture or 17 β-estradiol exposure, with the inhibition of hatchability observed in the F1 generation. The PFAA high concentration caused significant alteration of F1 generation sex ratio, suggesting the adverse effect of PFAA in population level (Chi-square test, P > 0.05). Overall, this study demonstrated that PFAA mixture could have the potential of multi-generational endocrine disruptors in O. latipes.

  17. ANALYSIS OF PERFLUORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN SOILS: DETECTION AND QUANTITATION ISSUES AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods were developed for the extraction from soil, identification, confirmation and quantitation by LC/MS/MS of trace levels of perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorinated nonanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorinated decanoic acid (PFDA). Whereas PFOA, PFNA and PFDA all can...

  18. Comparative hepatic effects of perfluorooctanoic acid and WY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmentally persistent chemical commonly found in humans and wildlife. Induction of liver tumors by PFOA in rodents is thought to be mediated by PPARα activation, although hepatic hypertrophy persists in PPARα-null mice. This study evaluated hepatocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and inflammation in CD-1, SV/129 (WT) or PPARα knock-out (KO) mice after 7 daily treatments of PFOA-NH4+ (1, 3, or 10 mg/kg, p.o.) or the prototype PPARα-agonist Wyeth 14,643 (WY, 50 mg/kg). Tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy, and proliferation was quantified by PCNA labeling index (LI). PFOA produced hepatocyte hypertrophy and increased LI in WT mice dose-dependently; these changes were similar to those elicited by WY. Ultrastructural alterations (primarily peroxisome proliferation) were similar between WY- and PFOA-treated WT mice. WY-treated KO mice were not different from KO-controls. Dose-dependent increase in accumulation of large, clear cytoplasmic vacuoles was seen in PFOA-exposed KO mice, but no hepatic inflammation was indicated, while increased LI was detected only at the 10 mg/kg. These data suggest that PPARα is required for WY- and PFOA-induced alterations in WT mouse liver. Hepatic enlargement in PPAR KO mice may be, in part, due to an accumulation of cytoplasmic vacuoles that contain PFOA. Perflurooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a persistent compound in the environment that has raised human health concer

  19. TOWARD A RISK ASSESSMENT OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS),and fluorotelomer alcoholsare surfactants that have wide applications in industrial and consumer products. Various fluorotelomer alcohols are known to be metabolized to perfluo...

  20. PHARMACOKINETIC PROFILES OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN MICE AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is highly persistent in humans, with serum half-life estimates of 2.3 to 3.8 years. In the mouse, elimination of PFOA appears to be first-order after a single oral administration, with serum half-life estimates of 16 days for females and 22 days for ...

  1. Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure Suppresses T-independent Antibody Responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to  3.75mg/kg of perfluoroocatnoic acid (PFOA) for 15d suppresses T-dependent antibody responses (TDAR), suggesting that T helper cells and/or B cells/plasma cells may be impacted. This study evaluated effects of PFOA exposure on the T cell-independent antibody response...

  2. Perflurooctanoic Acid Induces Developmental Cardiotoxicity in Chicken Embryos and Hatchlings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxi...

  3. HUMORAL AND CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE FUNCTION IN MICE EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID AS ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is used in the manufacture of fluoropolymers, and may be formed by metabolism or degradation of other perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorotelomers. Safety concerns lead the U.S. EPA to conduct a risk assessment of PFOA and related compounds due to their ...

  4. Involvement of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Liver Injury Caused by Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bei; Zou, Weiying; Hu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Fangming; Zhou, Ling; Yang, Shulong; Kuang, Haibin; Wu, Lei; Wei, Jie; Wang, Jinglei; Zou, Ting; Zhang, Dalei

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is widely present in the environment and has been reported to induce hepatic toxicity in animals and humans. In this study, mice were orally administered different concentrations of PFOA (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day). Histological examination showed that the exposure to PFOA for 14 consecutive days led to serious hepatocellular injury and obvious inflammatory cell infiltration. In addition, malondialdehyde formation and hydrogen peroxide generation, indicators of oxidative stress, were significantly induced by PFOA treatment in the liver of mice. Furthermore, hepatic levels of interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and C-reactive protein, markers of inflammatory response, were markedly increased by exposure to PFOA in mice. These results demonstrated that PFOA-induced hepatic toxicity may be involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory response in mice. PMID:24724082

  5. PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents, and biosolids of Chinese wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving marine environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Can; Han, Jianbo; Yu, Yixuan; Zhang, Peng

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in influents, effluents and sludges were investigated by analyzing the samples from twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influents were found to occur in municipal and industrial WWTPs, respectively. Relative to PFOS and PFOA concentrations in influents, elevated concentrations were observed in effluents from WWTPs applying anaerobic-anoxic-oxic wastewater treatment process. Importantly, application of previously reported organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (K(OC)) derived from sediment-based sorption experiments appear to underestimate the PFOS and PFOA levels in biosolids quantified in the current study. PFOS and PFOA levels in effluents were found to be approximately 27 and 2 times higher than those detected in the effluent-receiving seawater, respectively. However, their levels in this area of seawater haven't exceeded the provisional short-term health advisories in drinking water issued by U.S. EPA yet.

  6. High perfluorooctanoic acid exposure induces autophagy blockage and disturbs intracellular vesicle fusion in the liver.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shengmin; Zhang, Hongxia; Guo, Xuejiang; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been shown to cause hepatotoxicity and other toxicological effects. Though PPARα activation by PFOA in the liver has been well accepted as an important mechanism of PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, several pieces of evidence have shown that the hepatotoxic effects of PFOA may not be fully explained by PPARα activation. In this study, we observed autophagosome accumulation in mouse livers as well as HepG2 cells after PFOA exposure. Further in vitro study revealed that the accumulation of autophagosomes was not caused by autophagic flux stimulation. In addition, we observed that PFOA exposure affected the proteolytic activity of HepG2 cells while significant dysfunction of lysosomes was not detected. Quantitative proteomic analysis of crude lysosomal fractions from HepG2 cells treated with PFOA revealed that 54 differentially expressed proteins were related to autophagy or vesicular trafficking and fusion. The proteomic results were further validated in the cells in vitro and livers in vivo after PFOA exposure, which implied potential dysfunction at the late stage of autophagy. However, in HepG2 cells, it seemed that further inhibition of autophagy did not significantly alter the effects of PFOA on cell viability. Although these findings demonstrate that PFOA blocked autophagy and disturbed intracellular vesicle fusion in the liver, the changes in autophagy were observed only at high cytotoxic concentrations of PFOA, suggesting that autophagy may not be a primary target or mode of toxicity. Furthermore, since altered liver autophagy was not observed at concentrations of PFOA associated with human exposures, the relevance of these findings must be questioned.

  7. Avisos de salud sobre el PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales, tribales y locales sobre los riesgos de

  8. Parsimonious Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model for PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examine pharmacokinetic (PK) models of varying complexity with respect to a large data set for female CD1 mice (Lau et al.) exposed to a range of single and repeated oral doses of PFOA. These data can be broadly grouped into 1) plasma concentrations 2) liver and kidney concen...

  9. HOJA INFORMATIVA Presencia de PFOA y PFOS en el agua potable Avisos de salud

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La EPA estableció avisos de salud sobre el ácido perfluorooctanoico (PFOA) y el sulfonato de perfluorooctano (PFOS) para proporcionar información a los operadores de sistemas de agua potable y funcionarios estatales y locales para que puedan adoptar las me

  10. PREGNANCY LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pregnancy loss in the mouse due to perfluorooctanoic acids (PFOA) was investigated in this present study. Daily administration of PFOA (20 or 40 mg/kg) by oral gavage to pregnant CD-1 mice from GD 1-17 led to 75% and 100% incidence respectively, of total resorption at term with c...

  11. Mechanisms of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) toxicity: Involvement of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor alpha (PPAR) molecular signals.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of environmentally persistent perfluorinated compounds and are found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in rats and mice. Exposure in utero reduces...

  12. Cellular response of freshwater green algae to perfluorooctanoic acid toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chandan; Chen, Hong; Shao, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a kind of persistent organic pollutants and its aquatic eco-toxicity has attracted wide attention; however, the mechanism involved in its toxicity as well as the cell response against PFOA have not been well established. Herein, using single-celled green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum at the logarithmic growth stage as test organisms, we studied the toxic effects of PFOA on the cell permeability, The 96 h-EC(50) values of PFOA for C. pyrenoidosa and S. capricornutum were 207.46 mg L(-1) and 190.99 mg L(-1), respectively, lower than the 96 h-EC(50) values reported in the literatures. After 96 h of PFOA exposure, the permeability of the cell membranes of both algae was significantly decreased, and the chlorophyll concentration mirrored the trends of algal growth. In both algal species, after a 192-h exposure to a low concentration of PFOA, the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were greater than those of the control. At higher concentrations of PFOA, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were strongly inhibited. These results indicate that long-term exposure to low levels of PFOA may induce excessive generation of reactive oxygen species in algal cells, causing oxidative damage to cells.

  13. Impacts of geocoding uncertainty on reconstructed PFOA exposures and their epidemiological association with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Avanasi, Raghavendhran; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Vieira, Veronica M; Bartell, Scott M

    2016-11-01

    Many epidemiology studies have investigated associations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposures with a variety of adverse health outcomes for participants in the C8 Health Project. The exposure concentrations (i.e., air and groundwater) used in these studies were determined primarily based on participant's residential locations. However, for residential addresses that could not be geocoded to the street level, the exposure concentrations were assigned based on population-weighted ZIP code centroid, which may result in exposure mischaracterization. The aim of this current study is to evaluate the potential impact of mischaracterized exposure concentrations due to geocoding uncertainty on the predicted serum PFOA concentrations and the epidemiological association between PFOA exposure and preeclampsia. For both workplace addresses and incompletely geocoded residential addresses, we used Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to assign alternate geographic locations within the reported ZIP code (instead of population-weighted ZIP code centroids) and the corresponding exposure concentrations. We found that mischaracterization of residential exposure due to population-weighted ZIP code centroid assignment had no significant impact on the serum PFOA concentration predictions and the epidemiological association of PFOA exposure with preeclampsia. In contrast, the uncertainty in workplace exposure moderately impacted the rank exposure among the participants. We observed a 41% increase in the average adjusted odds ratio of preeclampsia occurrence that may be due to differing proportions of cases (64.3%) and controls (54.5%) with workplace address geocodes during pregnancy. This finding suggests that differential exposure mischaracterization can be reduced by obtaining accurate exposure information such as street addresses and tap water consumption, for both workplaces and residences. The analysis we present is one approach for estimating the potential impacts of positional errors in a

  14. Perflurooctanoic Acid Induces Developmental Cardiotoxicity in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPAR_). As the cardiovascular system is crucial for embryonic survival, PFOA-induced effects on the heart may partially explain embryonic mortality. To assess impacts of PFOA exposure on the developing heart in an avian model, we used histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for myosin to assess morphological alterations in 19-day-old chicken embryo hearts after PFOA exposure. Additionally, echocardiography and cardiac myofibril ATPase activity assays were used to assess functional alterations in 1-day-old hatchling chickens following developmental PFOA exposure. Overall thinning and thinning of a dense layer of myosin in the right ventricular wall were observed in PFOA-exposed chicken embryo hearts. Alteration of multiple cardiac structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular volume, heart rate, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were detected with echocardiography in the exposed hatchling chickens. Assessment of ATPase activity indicated that the ratio of cardiac myofibril calcium-independent ATPase activity to calcium-dependent ATPase activity was not affected, which suggests that d

  15. Proteomic analysis of mouse testis reveals perfluorooctanoic acid-induced reproductive dysfunction via direct disturbance of testicular steroidogenic machinery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxia; Lu, Yin; Luo, Bin; Yan, Shengmin; Guo, Xuejiang; Dai, Jiayin

    2014-07-03

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant suspected of being an endocrine disruptor; however, mechanisms of male reproductive disorders induced by PFOA are poorly understood. In this study, male mice were exposed to 0, 0.31, 1.25, 5, and 20 mg PFOA/kg/day by oral gavage for 28 days. PFOA significantly damaged the seminiferous tubules and reduced testosterone and progesterone levels in the testis in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PFOA exposure reduced sperm quality. We identified 93 differentially expressed proteins between the control and the 5 mg/kg/d PFOA treated mice using a quantitative proteomic approach. Among them, insulin like-factor 3 (INSL3) and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) as Leydig-cell-specific markers were significantly decreased. We examined in detail the expression patterns of CYP11A1 and associated genes involved in steroidogenesis in the mouse testis. PFOA inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of CYP11A1 and the mRNA levels of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, in vitro study showed the reduction in progesterone levels was accompanied by decreased expression of CYP11A1 in cAMP-stimulated mLTC-1 cells. Our findings indicate that PFOA exposure can impair male reproductive function, possibly by disturbing testosterone levels, and CPY11A1 may be a major steroidogenic enzyme targeted by PFOA.

  16. COMPARATIVE HEPATIC EFFECTS OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID AND WY 14,643 IN PPARÁ KNOCKED OUT AND WILD-TYPE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a fluorinated organic chemical widely used in consumer and industrial products. Its persistence in the environment and presence in humans and wildlife have raised considerable concerns. PFOA induces liver tumors in rodents, which is thought to be ...

  17. ANALYSIS OF PERFLUORINATED CARBOXYLIC ACIDS IN SOILS II: OPTIMIZATION OF CHROMATOGRAPHY AND EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorinated octanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary p...

  18. Perfluorooctanoic acid exposure for 28 days affects glucose homeostasis and induces insulin hypersensitivity in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shengmin; Zhang, Hongxia; Zheng, Fei; Sheng, Nan; Guo, Xuejiang; Dai, Jiayin

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used in many applications due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics. Because of the increasing prevalence of metabolic syndromes, including obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, concern has arisen about the roles of environmental pollutants in such diseases. Earlier epidemiologic studies showed a potential association between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and glucose metabolism, but how PFOA influences glucose homeostasis is still unknown. Here, we report on the modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-serine/threonine protein kinase (PI3K-AKT) signaling pathway in the livers of mice after 28 d of exposure to PFOA. Compared with normal mice, PFOA exposure significantly decreased the expression of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein and affected the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in the liver. Tolerance tests further indicated that PFOA exposure induced higher insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice. Biochemical analysis revealed that PFOA exposure reduced hepatic glycogen synthesis, which might be attributed to gluconeogenesis inhibition. The levels of several circulating proteins were altered after PFOA exposure, including proteins potentially related to diabetes and liver disease. Our results suggest that PFOA affected glucose metabolism and induced insulin hypersensitivity in mice.

  19. Suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses in mice exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid: Role of PPARalpha and T- and B-cell targeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    T-cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) are suppressed in female C57BL/6N mice exposed to ≥3.75 mg/kg of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for 15 days. To determine if suppression of humoral immunity by PFOA is peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARa)-dependent and...

  20. Comparative hepatic effects of perfluorooctanoic acid and WY 14,643 in PPARa-knocked out and wild-type mice.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an environmentally persistent chemical commonly found in humans and wildlife. Induction of liver tumors by PFOA in rodents is thought to be mediated by PPARα activation, although hepatic hypertrophy persists in PPARα-null mice. This study evalua...

  1. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widely used as stain resistant coatings for cloth, paper, and leather, and as surfactants, fire-fighting foams, and photographic developers. Individual PFAAs have been shown to accumulate in fish and wildlife; however, the extent of this accumulat...

  2. Evidence for the Involvement of Xenobiotic-responsive Nuclear Receptors in Transcriptional Effects Upon Perfluoroalkyl Acid Exposure in Diverse Species.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and other species have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotypic effects similar to pe...

  3. Evidence for the Involvement of Xenobiotic-response Nuclear Receptors in Transcriptional Effects Upon Perfluroroalkyl Acid Exposure in Diverse Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans and ecological species have been found to have detectable body burdens of a number of perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAA) including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). In mouse and rat liver these compounds elicit transcriptional and phenotyp...

  4. Assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in surface water - Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sunantha, Ganesan; Vasudevan, Namasivayam

    2016-08-15

    As an emerging class of environmentally persistent organic pollutants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), particularly perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); have been universally found in the environment. Wastewater and untreated effluents are likely the major causes for the accumulation of PFCs in surface water. There are very few reports on the contamination of PFCs in the developing countries, particularly in India. This study reports the quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS in Noyyal, Cauvery, and also lakes in and around Chennai, using Ultra-Fast liquid chromatograph. The concentration of PFOA and PFOS ranged from 4 to 93ng/L and 3 to 29ng/L, respectively. The concentration of PFOS was below detectable limit in Cauvery River. A reliable concentration of PFOA was recorded at all sites of River Cauvery (5ng/L). The present study could be useful for the assessment of future monitoring programs of PFOA and PFOS in the surface water.

  5. Inhibition of 3beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in rat Leydig cells by perfluorooctane acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Binghai; Chu, Yanhui; Hardy, Dianne O; Li, Xiao-kun; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Perfluorooctane acid (PFOA) is classified as a persistent organic pollutant and as an endocrine disruptor. The mechanism by which PFOA causes reduced testosterone production in males is not known. We tested our hypothesis that PFOA interferes with Leydig cell steroidogenic enzymes by measuring its effect on 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (17beta-HSD3) activities in rat testis microsomes and Leydig cells. The IC(50)s of PFOA and mode of inhibition were assayed. PFOA inhibited microsomal 3beta-HSD with an IC(50) of 53.2+/-25.9 microM and 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50) 17.7+/-6.8 microM. PFOA inhibited intact Leydig cell 3beta-HSD with an IC(50) of 146.1+/-0.9 microM and 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50) of 194.8+/-1.0 microM. The inhibitions of 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD3 by PFOA were competitive for the substrates. In conclusion, PFOA inhibits 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD3 in rat Leydig cells.

  6. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA.

  7. Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of Perfluorooctanoic Acid During Gestation And Lactation In Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is used industrially as a processing aid in the polymerization of commercially valuable fluoropolymers. Its widespread environmental distribution, presence in human serum, and adverse effects in animal toxicity studies have triggered attention to its...

  8. PEFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID-INDUCED IMMUNOMODULATION IN C57BL/6 FEMALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), used in fluoropolymer production, is environmentally persistent, present in human and wildlife populations worldwide, and associated with myriad health effects in laboratory animals. A preliminary risk assessment by the US EPA identified immunosuppr...

  9. TOXICOGENOMIC DISSECTION OF RODENT LIVER TRANSCRIPT PROFILES AFTER EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) leads to alterations in the balance between hepatocyte growth and apoptosis, increases in liver to body weight ratios and liver tumors. The perfluoroalkyl acids including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (...

  10. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID-INDUCED IMMUNOMODULATION IN ADULT C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), used in fluoropolymer production, is environmentally persistent, present in the human population worldwide, and is associated with myriad health effects under laboratory conditions. A preliminary risk assessment by the US EPA identified immunosuppre...

  11. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Perfluorooctanoic Acid During Gestation and Lactation in the Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a processing aid for the polymerization of commercially valuable fluoropolymers. Its widespread environmental distribution, presence in human blood, and adverse effects in animal toxicity studies have triggered attention to its potential adverse e...

  12. Isomers/enantiomers of perfluorocarboxylic acids: Method development and detection in environmental samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl substances are globally distributed in both urban and remote settings, and routinely are detected in wildlife, humans, and the environment. One of the most prominent and routinely detected perfluoroalkyl substances is perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been s...

  13. Effect of initial solution pH on photo-induced reductive decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Zhang, Chao-Jie; Chen, Pei; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Wei-Xian

    2014-07-01

    The effects of initial solution pH on the decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with hydrated electrons as reductant were investigated. The reductive decomposition of PFOA depends strongly on the solution pH. In the pH range of 5.0-10.0, the decomposition and defluorination rates of PFOA increased with the increase of the initial solution pH. The rate constant was 0.0295 min(-1) at pH 10.0, which was more than 49.0 times higher than that at pH 5.0. Higher pH also inhibits the generation of toxic intermediates during the PFOA decomposition. For example, the short-chain PFCAs reached a lower maximum concentration in shorter reaction time as pH increasing. The peak areas of accumulated fluorinated and iodinated hydrocarbons detected by GC/MS under acidic conditions were nearly 10-100 times more than those under alkaline conditions. In short, alkaline conditions were more favorable for photo-induced reduction of PFOA as high pH promoted the decomposition of PFOA and inhibited the accumulation of intermediate products. The concentration of hydrated electron, detected by laser flash photolysis, increased with the increase of the initial pH. This was the main reason why the decomposition of PFOA in the UV-KI system depended strongly on the initial pH.

  14. Influence of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on the Transport and Deposition Behaviors of Bacteria in Quartz Sand.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

    2016-03-01

    The significance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on the transport and deposition behaviors of bacteria (Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis) in quartz sand is examined in both NaCl and CaCl2 solutions at pH 5.6 by comparing both breakthrough curves and retained profiles with PFOA in solutions versus those without PFOA. All test conditions are found to be highly unfavorable for cell deposition regardless of the presence of PFOA; however, 7%-46% cell deposition is observed depending on the conditions. The cell deposition may be attributed to micro- or nanoscale roughness and/or to chemical heterogeneity of the sand surface. The results show that, under all examined conditions, PFOA in suspensions increases cell transport and decreases cell deposition in porous media regardless of cell type, presence or absence of extracellular polymeric substances, ionic strength, and ion valence. We find that the additional repulsion between bacteria and quartz sand caused by both acid-base interaction and steric repulsion as well as the competition for deposition sites on quartz sand surfaces by PFOA are responsible for the enhanced transport and decreased deposition of bacteria with PFOA in solutions.

  15. Promoted degradation of perfluorooctanic acid by persulfate when adding activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Lo, Shang-Lien; Kuo, Jeff; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2013-10-15

    Treatment of persistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water using persulfate (PS) oxidation typically requires an elevated temperature or UV irradiation, which is energy-consuming. Under relatively low temperatures of 25-45°C, activated carbon (AC) activated PS oxidation of PFOA was evaluated for its potential of practical applications. With presence of AC in PS oxidation, PFOA removal efficiency at 25°C reached 682% with a high defluorination efficiency of 549% after 12h and few intermediates of short-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were found. The removal and defluorination rates with the combined AC/PS system were approximately 12 and 19 times higher than those of the PS-only system, respectively. Activated carbon not only removes PFOA through adsorption, but also activates PS to form sulfate radicals that accelerate the decomposition and mineralization of PFOA. The activation energy for PS oxidation of PFOA was reduced from 668 to 261kJ/mol by the catalytic effect of AC, which implies a lower reaction temperature and a shorter reaction time would suffice. A 2-cycle schematic reaction mechanism was used to describe PS oxidation of PFOA with the generation of various intermediates and end-products.

  16. Temperature effect on photolysis decomposing of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiliang; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is recalcitrant to degrade and mineralize. Here, the effect of temperature on the photolytic decomposition of PFOA was investigated. The decomposition of PFOA was enhanced from 34% to 99% in 60 min of exposure when the temperature was increased from 25 to 85°C under UV light (201-600 nm). The limited degree of decomposition at 25°C was due to low quantum yield, which was increased by a factor of 12 at 85°C. Under the imposed conditions, the defluorination ratio increased from 8% at 25°C to 50% at 85°C in 60 min. Production of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C7-C5), PFCAs (C4-C3) and TFA (trifluoroacetic acid, C2) accelerated and attained a maximum within 30 to 90 min at 85°C. However, these reactions did not occur at 25°C despite extended irradiation to 180 min. PFOA was decomposed in a step-wise process by surrendering one CF2 unit. In each cyclical process, increased temperature enhanced the quantum yields of irradiation and reactions between water molecules and intermediates radicals. The energy consumption for removing each μmol of PFOA was reduced from 82.5 kJ at 25°C to 10.9 kJ at 85°C using photolysis. Photolysis coupled with heat achieved high rates of PFOA degradation and defluorination.

  17. Toxicogenomic analysis of the hepatic effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus)

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yanhong; Liu Yang; Wang Jianshe; Tao Yi; Dai Jiayin

    2008-02-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been detected in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. To assess the effects of PFOA in fish and predict its potential mode of action, a toxicogenomic approach was applied to hepatic gene expression profile analysis in male and female rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) using a custom cDNA microarray containing 1773 unique genes. Rare minnows were treated with continuous flow-through exposure to PFOA at concentrations of 3, 10, and 30 mg/L for 28 days. Based on the observed histopathological changes, the livers from fish exposed to 10 mg/L PFOA were selected for further hepatic gene expression analysis. While 124 and 171 genes were significantly altered by PFOA in males and females, respectively, of which 43 genes were commonly regulated in both sexes. The affected genes are involved in multiple biological processes, including lipid metabolism and transport, hormone action, immune responses, and mitochondrial functions. PFOA exposure significantly suppressed genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and transport but induced genes associated with intracellular trafficking of cholesterol. Alterations in expression of genes associated with mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation were only observed in female rare minnows. In addition, PFOA inhibited genes responsible for thyroid hormone biosynthesis and significantly induced estrogen-responsive genes. These findings implicate PFOA in endocrine disruption. This work contributes not only to the elucidation of the potential mode of toxicity of PFOA to aquatic organisms but also to the use of toxicogenomic approaches to address issues in environmental toxicology.

  18. Application of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Explore the Role of Kidney Transporters in Renal Reabsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in the male and female rat to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both the male and female rat indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contributes to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. PMID:26522833

  19. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferators, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are environmentally widespread and persistent and multiple toxicities have been reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds trigger biological activity via activation of the alpha isotype of pero...

  20. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Mouse Mammary Gland Development and Differentiation Resulting from Cross-Foster and Restricted Gestational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adverse consequences of developmental exposures to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have been established, and include impaired development of the offspring mammary gland (MG). However, the relationship between the timing or route of exposure, and the phenotypic consequences in ...

  1. [Photocatalytic Degradation of Perfluorooctanoic Acid by Pd-TiO2 Photocatalyst].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Yu, Ze-bin; Zhang, Rui-han; Li, Ming-jie; Chen, Ying; Wang, Li; Kuang, Yu; Zhang, Bo; Zhu, You-hui

    2015-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a new persistent organic pollutant which has got global concern for its wide distribution, high bioaccumulation and strong biological toxicity. In present study, the photocatalytic degradation of PFOA using palladium doped TiO2 (Pd-TiO2) prepared by chemical reduction method was investigated. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FESEM and UV-vis DRS and were used for PFOA degradation under 365 nm UV irradiation. The results indicated that the grain size of TiO2 was smaller while the specific surface area increased and the absorption of ultraviolet light also enhanced after using chemical reduction method, but all these changes had no influence on PFOA degradation. However, the degradation was significantly enhanced because of the deposition of Pd, the fluoride concentration of PFOA was 6.62 mg x L(-1) after 7 h irradiation which was 7.3 times higher than that of TiO2 (P25). Experiments with the addition of trapping agent and nitrogen indicated that *OH played an important role in PFOA degradation while the presence of O2 accelerated the degradation. The main intermediate products of photocatalytic degradation of PFOA were authenticated by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry systems (UPLC-QTOF-MS). The probable photocatalytic degradation mechanism involves h+ attacking the carboxyl of PFOA and resulting in decarboxylation. The produced *CnF(2n +1) was oxidized by *OH underwent defluorinetion to form shorter-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids. The significant enhancement of PFOA degradation can be ascribed to the palladium deposits, acting as electron traps on the Pd-TiO2 surface, which facilitated the transfer of photogenerated electrons and retarded the accumulation of electrons.

  2. Toxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid towards earthworm and enzymatic activities in soil.

    PubMed

    He, Wenxiang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread persistent organic contaminant in the environment that has recently raised much of regulatory and public concern. Therefore, assessment of its ecological risk is a top priority research. Hence, this study investigated the toxicity of PFOA to beneficial microbial processes in the soil such as activities of dehydrogenase, urease and potential nitrification in addition to earthworm survival, weight loss and PFOA bioaccumulation in two contrasting soils. In general, PFOA caused inhibition of all the measured microbial processes in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibition was higher in Williamtown (WT) soil than Edinburgh (EB) soil. Thus, WT soil being sandy in nature with low clay content showed higher PFOA bioavailability and hence showed higher toxicity. There was no mortality in earthworms exposed up to 100 mg PFOA/kilogram soil in both the soils; however, there was a significant weight loss from 25 mg/kg onwards. This study clearly demonstrates that soil contamination of PFOA can lead to adverse effects on soil health.

  3. Adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids by carbonaceous adsorbents: Effect of carbon surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2015-07-01

    Adsorption by carbonaceous sorbents is among the most feasible processes to remove perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) from drinking and ground waters. However, carbon surface chemistry, which has long been recognized essential for dictating performance of such sorbents, has never been considered for PFOS and PFOA adsorption. Thus, the role of surface chemistry was systematically investigated using sorbents with a wide range in precursor material, pore structure, and surface chemistry. Sorbent surface chemistry overwhelmed physical properties in controlling the extent of uptake. The adsorption affinity was positively correlated carbon surface basicity, suggesting that high acid neutralizing or anion exchange capacity was critical for substantial uptake of PFOS and PFOA. Carbon polarity or hydrophobicity had insignificant impact on the extent of adsorption. Synthetic polymer-based Ambersorb and activated carbon fibers were more effective than activated carbon made of natural materials in removing PFOS and PFOA from aqueous solutions.

  4. Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Glenys M.; Rauch, Stephen A.; Marie, Nathalie Ste; Mattman, Andre; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Venners, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs) are suspected thyroid toxicants, but results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Objectives: We examined associations between serum PFASs and thyroid hormones (THs) in a representative, cross-sectional sample of U.S. adults. We hypothesized that people with high thyroid peroxidase antibodies and low iodine would be more susceptible to PFAS-induced thyroid disruption. Methods: Our sample included 1,525 adults (≥ 18 years) from the 2007–2008 NHANES study with available serum PFASs and THs. We examined associations between four serum PFASs [perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)], and serum THs [free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), fT3/fT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total T3 (TT3), and total T4 (TT4)] using multivariable linear regression. We stratified subjects into four groups by two indicators of thyroid “stress”: thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb ≥ 9 IU/mL) and iodine status (< 100 μg/L urine). Results: Of 1,525 participants, 400 (26%) had low iodine only (T0I1), 87 (6%) had high TPOAb only (T1I0), and 26 (2%) had both high TPOAb and low iodine (T1I1). In general, associations were similar among participants in the groups with neither (T0I0) or only one thyroid stressor (T0I1 or T1I0), suggesting that PFAS–TH associations were not modified by high TPOAb or low iodine alone. However, PFHxS and PFOS were negatively associated (p < 0.05) with fT4, and all four PFASs were positively associated (p < 0.05) with fT3, fT3/fT4, TSH, and TT3 in the group with joint exposure to high TPOAb and low iodine (T1I1). Conclusions: We found evidence of PFAS-associated thyroid disruption in a subset of U.S. adults with high TPOAb (a marker of autoimmune hypothyroidism) and low iodine status, who may represent a vulnerable subgroup. However, the small sample size, cross-sectional design, and possibility of

  5. Gene Expression Profiling in the Liver and Lung of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Exposed Mouse Fetuses: Comparison to Changes Induced by Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are environmental contaminants found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. They are activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) and exhibit hepatocarcinogenic potential in rats. PFOS...

  6. Perfluorooctanoic acid effects on ovaries mediate its inhibition of peripubertal mammary gland development in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated compound and an agonist of peroxisomes proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), causes stunted mouse mammary gland development in various developmental stages. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly...

  7. Perfluorooctane sulphonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in drinking and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Rumsby, Paul C; McLaughlin, Clare L; Hall, Tom

    2009-10-13

    Perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are chemicals that have been used for many years as surfactants in a variety of industrial and consumer products. Owing to their persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) characteristics, PFOS has been phased out by its principal producer and the use of PFOA has been reduced. This PBT potential and a number of pollution incidents have led in recent years to an increase in studies surveying the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in environmental waters worldwide. This paper reviews the results of these studies, as well as the monitoring that was conducted after the pollution incidents. The results of surveys suggest that PFOS and PFOA are found in environmental waters worldwide at low levels. In general, these levels are below health-based values set by international authoritative bodies for drinking water. There have been limited measurements of these chemicals in drinking water, but again these are below health-based values, except in some cases following pollution incidents. Monitoring studies suggested that where PFOS and PFOA were detected, they were at similar levels in both source and drinking water, suggesting that drinking water treatment does not remove these chemicals. However, new data show that PFOS and PFOA are effectively removed by granular activated carbon absorbers in practice. Further research is required on the newer perfluorinated chemicals that appear to be safer, but their degradation products have not as yet been fully studied.

  8. A Study of Reverse Causation: Examining the Associations of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Serum Levels with Two Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Radhika; Winquist, Andrea; Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Steenland, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations.Background: Impaired kidney function and earlier menopause were associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum levels in previous cross-sectional studies. Reverse causation, whereby health outcomes increase serum PFOA, may underlie these associations. Objective: We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations.Objective: We compared measured (subject to reverse causation) versus modeled (unaffected by reverse causation) serum PFOA in association with these outcomes to examine the possible role of reverse causation in these associations. Methods: In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30–65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29,499) in a highly exposed Mid-Ohio Valley cohort. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, a marker of kidney function) and serum PFOA concentration were measured in blood samples collected during 2005–2006. Retrospective year-specific serum PFOA estimates were modeled independently of measured PFOA based on residential history and plant emissions. Using measured and modeled PFOA in 2005 or 2006 (predictor variables), cross-sectional associations were assessed for eGFR and menopause (yes/no). We also analyzed measured PFOA (dependent variable) in relation to the number of years since menopause.Methods: In cross-sectional analyses, we analyzed PFOA in relation to self-reported menopause among women (n = 9,192) 30–65 years old and in relation to kidney function among adults > 20 years old (n = 29

  9. One-year follow-up of perfluorinated compounds in plasma of German residents from Arnsberg formerly exposed to PFOA-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hölzer, Jürgen; Göen, Thomas; Rauchfuss, Knut; Kraft, Martin; Angerer, Jürgen; Kleeschulte, Peter; Wilhelm, Michael

    2009-09-01

    In Arnsberg, Sauerland area Germany, 40000 residents were exposed to PFOA-contaminated drinking water (500-640ng PFOA/l; May 2006). In July 2006, the PFOA-concentrations in drinking water were lowered significantly by activated charcoal filtering in the waterworks, mostly below the limit of detection (10ng/l). A first human biomonitoring study performed in autumn 2006 revealed that PFOA-concentrations in blood plasma of residents living in Arnsberg were 4.5-8.3 times higher than in the reference groups. One year after the first survey, all participants (2006: 164 mothers, 90 children, 101 men) were invited to take part in a follow-up study. It was the aim of the study to determine the decline of the PFOA-concentrations in blood plasma. 288 persons (81%) were included in the statistical analysis. The (geometric) mean PFOA-concentrations in blood plasma of Arnsberg's residents decreased from 22.1 to 17.4 microg/l in children, from 23.4 to 18.8 microg/l in mothers and from 25.3 to 23.4 microg/l in men within one year. The average (geometric mean) changes in each individual's PFOA-concentrations were approximately 10 (men), 17 (mothers) and 20 (children) percent/year. The observed decline in PFOA-concentrations indicates a slow elimination in humans. This finding in groups of the general population is in agreement with data on long elimination half-lives observed in occupationally exposed workers.

  10. Perfluorooctanoic Acid Degradation Using UV-Persulfate Process: Modeling of the Degradation and Chlorate Formation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yajie; Guo, Xin; Zhang, Yalei; Peng, Yue; Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua; Niu, Junfeng; Zhou, Xuefei; Crittenden, John C

    2016-01-19

    In this study, we investigated the destruction and by-product formation of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) using ultraviolet light and persulfate (UV-PS). Additionally, we developed a first-principles kinetic model to simulate both PFOA destruction and by-product and chlorate (ClO3(-)) formation in ultrapure water (UW), surface water (SW), and wastewater (WW). PFOA degradation was significantly suppressed in the presence of chloride and carbonate species and did not occur until all the chloride was converted to ClO3(-) in UW and for low DOC concentrations in SW. The model was able to simulate the PS decay, pH changes, radical concentrations, and ClO3(-) formation for UW and SW. However, our model was unable to simulate PFOA degradation well in WW, possibly from PS activation by NOM, which in turn produced sulfate radicals.

  11. Changes in morphometry and association between whole-body fatty acids and steroid hormone profiles in relation to bioaccumulation patterns in salmon larvae exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonic or perfluorooctane carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Arukwe, Augustine; Cangialosi, Maria V; Letcher, Robert J; Rocha, Eduardo; Mortensen, Anne S

    2013-04-15

    In the present study, we have used salmon embryos whose continuous exposure to waterborne PFOA or PFOS at 100 μg/L started as freshly fertilized eggs, and lasted for a total of 52 days. PFOS and PFOA were dissolved in methanol (carrier vehicle) whose concentration never exceeded 0.01% of total tank volume. Samples were collected at day 21, 28, 35, 52, 49 and 56 after the start of the exposure. Note that days 49 and 56 represent end of exposure and 1 week after a recovery period, respectively. Tissue bioaccumulations were determined by HPLC/MS/MS, steroid hormones, fatty acids (FAs) and lipids were determined by GC-MS, while mRNA expression levels of genes were determined by qPCR in whole body homogenate. We observed that PFOS and PFOA showed a steady increase in whole body burden during the exposure period, with a slight decrease after the recovery period. Calculated somatic indexes showed that PFOA produced increases in heart-, thymus-, liver- and kidney somatic indexes (HSI, TSI, LSI and KSI). PFOA and PFOS exposure produced significant decreases in whole body dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone and testosterone at sampling day 21 and a strong increase of cortisol and cholesterol at the end of recovery period (day 56). PFOA and PFOS effects differed with DHEA and estrone. While PFOS decreased DHEA levels, PFOA produced an increase at day 49, and while PFOS decreased estrone, PFOA produced a slight increase at day 56. We observed changes in FA composition that predominantly involved increases in FA methyl esters (FAMEs), mono- and poly-unsaturated FA (MUFA and PUFA) and a decrease in n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio by both PFOA and PFOS. Particularly, an increase in - pentadecenoic MUFA (15:1), two n-3 PUFAs α-linolenic acid [ALA: 18:3 n3] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA: 20:5 n-3] and n-6 PUFA: arachidonic acid [ARA: 20:4 n6], docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) by PFOA and PFOS were observed. These effects were associated with changes in mRNA expression of FA elongase (FAE), Δ5

  12. Decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid by ultraviolet light irradiation with Pb-modified titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Jia; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lee, Yu-Chi; Kuo, Jeff; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-02-13

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, C7H15COOH) is widely used in industrial and commercial applications. It has become a global concern due to its widespread occurrence in water bodies and adverse environmental impact. PFOA could not be effectively removed by the conventional UV/TiO2 system. This study synthesized Pb-modified TiO2 catalyst and used it as a catalyst with light irradiation for PFOA decomposition. It was found that the Pb-TiO2 catalyst could produce traps to capture photo-induced electrons or holes that lead to better photocatalytic efficiencies. Rate constant values for PFOA decomposition by the UV/TiO2 and UV/Pb-TiO2 systems were determined to be 0.0158 and 0.5136 h(-1), respectively. The PFOA decomposition in the UV/Pb-TiO2 system is 32.5 times faster than that in the UV/TiO2 system. The UV/Pb-TiO2 system yielded a better performance than those of the UV/Fe-TiO2 and UV/Cu-TiO2 systems. During the reaction, PFOA decomposed stepwisely into shorter-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids and F(-).

  13. Photocatalytic decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid by transition-metal modified titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Jia; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lee, Yu-Chi; Huang, Chang-Chieh

    2015-05-15

    Transition-metal modified TiO₂ was used in a UV reactor to assist in decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in aqueous solutions. Comparing TiO₂ and two types of metal-modified TiO₂ (Fe-TiO₂ and Cu-TiO₂), Cu-TiO₂ exhibited the highest catalytic activity during PFOA decomposition and defluorination. After 12 h of reaction, the PFOA decomposition and defluorination efficiencies by the UV/Cu-TiO₂ system reached 91% and 19%, respectively. PFOA was decomposed into fluoride ions (F(-)) and shorter perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) such as C₆ F₁₃COOH, C₅F₁₁COOH, C₄F₉COOH, C₃F₇COOH, C₂F₅COOH and CF₃COOH. The pseudo-first-order and pseudo-zero-order kinetics were used to model the decomposition and defluorination of PFOA, respectively. Rate constant values of PFOA decomposition for the UV/TiO₂, UV/Fe-TiO₂, and UV/Cu-TiO₂ systems were 0.0001, 0.0015, and 0.0031 min(-1), respectively, while rate constant values of PFOA defluorination for the UV/Fe-TiO₂, and UV/Cu-TiO₂ systems were 0.0048 and 0.0077 mg/L·min(-1), respectively. The photocatalysts were prepared by a photodeposition synthesis method and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The Fe-TiO₂ and Cu-TiO₂ catalysts exhibited considerably higher activities than that of TiO₂. The experimental results have demonstrated that the UV/Fe-TiO₂ and UV/Cu-TiO₂ systems could produce traps to capture photo-induced electrons, thereby reduce electron-hole recombination during photocatalytic reactions and consequently enhance the PFOA decomposition.

  14. Equilibrium and kinetics study on the adsorption of perfluorooctanoic acid from aqueous solution onto powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Zhang, Chaojie; Li, Fei; Bo, Xiaowen; Liu, Guangfu; Zhou, Qi

    2009-09-30

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was applied to remove perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the aqueous PFOA solution in this study. Contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature were analyzed as the effect factors in the adsorption reaction. The contact time of maximum PFOA uptake was around 1h while the sorption removal efficiency increased with the PAC concentrations. And the process of adsorption increased from 303 K to 313 K and then decreased from 313 K to 323 K. Among four applied models, the experimental isotherm data were discovered to follow Langmuir isotherm model more closely. Thermodynamically, adsorption was endothermic because enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs constants were 198.5 kJ/mol, 0.709 kJ/mol/K and negative, respectively, which also indicated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and feasible. From kinetic analysis, the adsorption was suggested to be pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption of PFOA on the PAC was mainly controlled by particle diffusion.

  15. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in soils and groundwater of a U.S. metropolitan area: migration and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Simcik, Matt F; Halbach, Thomas R; Gulliver, John S

    2015-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are emerging anthropogenic compounds that have recently become the target of global concern due to their ubiquitous presence in the environment, persistence, and bioaccumulative properties. This study was carried out to investigate the migration of PFOS and PFOA in soils and groundwater in a U.S. metropolitan area. We observed elevated levels in surface soils (median: 12.2 ng PFOS/g dw and 8.0 ng PFOA/g dw), which were much higher than the soil-screening levels for groundwater protection developed in this study. The measured levels in subsurface soils show a general increase with depth, suggesting a downward movement toward the groundwater table and a potential risk of aquifer contamination. Furthermore, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in monitoring wells in the source zone varied insignificantly over 5 years (2009-2013), suggesting limited or no change in either the source or the magnitude of the source. The analysis also shows that natural processes of dispersion and dilution can significantly attenuate the groundwater contamination; the adsorption on aquifer solids, on the other hand, appears to have limited effects on the transport of PFOS and PFOA in the aquifer. The probabilistic exposure assessment indicates that ingestion of contaminated groundwater constitutes a much more important exposure route than ingestion of contaminated soil. Overall, the results suggest that (i) the transport of PFOS and PFOA is retarded in the vadose zone, but not in the aquifer; (ii) the groundwater contamination of PFOS and PFOA often follows their release to surface soils by years, if not decades; and (iii) the aquifer can be a major source of exposure for communities living near point sources.

  16. Changes in the levels of l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine and propionyl-l-carnitine are involved in perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qixiao; Wang, Chunbo; Xue, Chan; Xue, Lingfang; Wang, Meiting; Li, Changhao; Deng, Ziwen; Wang, Qian

    2016-12-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant, is associated with developmental toxicity. This study investigated the mechanism of PFOA-induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo, focusing on the interactions between developmental exposure to PFOA and the levels of l-carnitine (LC), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) in the heart. To evaluate the developmental cardiotoxicity, fertile chicken eggs were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 or 5mg/kg PFOA via air cell injection. Furthermore, exposure to 2mg/kg PFOA, with or without 100mg/kg LC were applied to investigate the effects of LC supplement. The results of functional and morphological assessments confirmed PFOA induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo, which could be alleviated by co-exposure to LC. LC-MS/MS results also revealed remarkable decrease in LC, ALC and PLC levels in embryonic day six (ED6) chicken embryo hearts as well as LC level in embryonic day fifteen (ED15) chicken embryo hearts following developmental exposure to 2mg/kg PFOA. Meanwhile, co-exposure to 100mg/kg LC significantly elevated the levels of LC, ALC and PLC in chicken embryo hearts. Significantly elevated expression level of carnitine acetyltransferase (CRAT) in PFOA-exposed ED6 chicken embryo hearts was observed via western blotting, while LC co-exposure counteracted such changes. In conclusion, changes in the levels of LC, ALC and PLC in early embryonic stages are associated with PFOA induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos.

  17. Removal of emerging perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate contaminants from lake water.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-10-11

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are the major polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contaminating global water environment. This study investigated the efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) treatment for removing PFOS and PFOA contaminants from lake water. NF gave greater removal of all contaminant types (in terms of organic matter, PFOS and PFOA) than GAC treatment which in turn was greater than UF treatment. The lower removal by UF was due to larger pore size of the membrane compared to the size of the target contaminants. For all treatment processes, lower pH (4) in the feedwater showed greater rejection of the organics and selected PFASs. This was likely due to increase in the electrostatic repulsion between solute and sorbent. It could be observed that on increasing the concentration of organics in the feed solution, the rejection of PFOA/PFOS decreased which was due to competition between organics and PFOS/PFOA for binding sites on the membrane/activated carbon surface. It was also noted that protein content led to greater influence for lower rejection of the PFOA/PFOS than carbohydrate or DOC content. This study demonstrated the potential use of membrane processes for removing emerging persistent organic pollutant removal from lake water.

  18. Can the use of deactivated glass fibre filters eliminate sorption artefacts associated with active air sampling of perfluorooctanoic acid?

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jana H; Berger, Urs; Cousins, Ian T

    2017-05-01

    Experimental work was undertaken to test whether gaseous perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) sorbs to glass fibre filters (GFFs) during air sampling, causing an incorrect measure of the gas-particle equilibrium distribution. Furthermore, tests were performed to investigate whether deactivation by siliconisation prevents sorption of gaseous PFOA to filter materials. An apparatus was constructed to closely simulate a high-volume air sampler, although with additional features allowing introduction of gaseous test compounds into an air stream stripped from particles. The set-up enabled investigation of the sorption of gaseous test compounds to filter media, eliminating any contribution from particles. Experiments were performed under ambient outdoor air conditions at environmentally relevant analyte concentrations. The results demonstrate that gaseous PFOA sorbs to GFFs, but that breakthrough of gaseous PFOA on the GFFs occurs at trace-level loadings. This indicates that during high volume air sampling, filters do not quantitatively capture all the PFOA in the sampled air. Experiments with siliconised GFFs showed that this filter pre-treatment reduced the sorption of gaseous PFOA, but that sorption still occurred at environmentally relevant air concentrations. We conclude that deactivation of GFFs does not allow for the separation of gaseous and particle bound perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) during active air sampling. Consequently, the well-recognised theory that PFCAs do not prevail as gaseous species in the atmosphere may be based on biased measurements. Caution should be taken to ensure that this artefact will not bias the conclusions of future field studies.

  19. DISRUPTION OF THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS BY PERFLUROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) are man-made chemicals found ubiquitously in humans and wildlife; the major representatives of these are those with an 8-carbon chain (C-8, perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA). Presently, we have investigated the effects o...

  20. An integrated metabonomics and transcriptomics approach to understanding metabolic pathway disturbance induced by perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Peng, Siyuan; Yan, Lijuan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Zhanlin; Tian, Meiping; Shen, Heqing

    2013-12-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of the most representative perfluorinated compounds and liver is the major organ where PFOA is accumulated. Although the multiple toxicities had been reported, its toxicological profile remained unclear. In this study, a systems toxicology strategy integrating liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomics and transcriptomics analyses was applied for the first time to investigate the effects of PFOA on a representative Chinese normal human liver cell line L-02, with focusing on the metabolic disturbance. Fifteen potential biomarkers were identified on metabolic level and most observations were consistent with the altered levels of gene expression. Our results showed that PFOA induced the perturbations in various metabolic processes in L-02 cells, especially lipid metabolism-related pathways. The up-stream mitochondrial carnitine metabolism was proved to be influenced by PFOA treatment. The specific transformation from carnitine to acylcarnitines, which showed a dose-dependent effect, and the expression level of key genes involved in this pathway were observed to be altered correspondingly. Furthermore, the down-stream cholesterol biosynthesis was directly confirmed to be up-regulated by both increased cholesterol content and elevated expression level of key genes. The PFOA-induced lipid metabolism-related effects in L-02 cells started from the fatty acid catabolism in cytosol, fluctuated to the processes in mitochondria, extended to the cholesterol biosynthesis. Many other metabolic pathways like amino acid metabolism and tricarboxylic acid cycle might also be disturbed. The findings obtained from the systems biological research provide more details about metabolic disorders induced by PFOA in human liver.

  1. The roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in plants grown in biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bei; Wu, Yali; Zhang, Hongna; Liu, Yu; Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Honglin; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2016-09-01

    The roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in seven species of plants from biosolids-amended soils were investigated. The PFOS and PFOA root concentration factors (Croot/Csoil) ranged from 1.37 to 4.68 and 1.69 to 10.3 (ng/groot)/(ng/gsoil), respectively, while the translocation factors (Cshoot/Croot) ranged from 0.055 to 0.16 and 0.093 to 1.8 (ng/gshoot)/(ng/groot), respectively. The PFOS and PFOA accumulations in roots correlated positively with root protein contents (P < 0.05), while negatively with root lipid contents (P < 0.05). These suggested the promotion effects of protein and inhibition effects of lipid on root uptake. The translocation factors correlated positively with the ratios between protein contents in shoots to those in roots (P < 0.05), showing the importance of protein on PFOS and PFOA translocation. This study is the first to reveal the different roles of protein and lipid in the accumulation and distribution of PFOS and PFOA in plants.

  2. Human serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in Uyghurs from Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China: background levels study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Xian, Hong; Elder, Keith; Rodemich, Eugene; Bao, Jia; Jin, Yi-He; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-03-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in blood samples of humans and wildlife have become a growing concern. Despite PFOS and PFOA having been found in human blood and tissue samples from occupationally exposed workers and the general worldwide population, little systematic knowledge has accrued with respect to exposure levels in Uyghurs in the Sinkiang-Uighur Autonomous Region of China, which is predominantly agricultural and pastoral. Our goal was to provide background data for biological monitoring in the general population of this region. In this study, 110 self-reported healthy human serum samples were collected from nonoccupationally exposed Uyghurs volunteers and analyzed by microbore HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Among the 110 blood specimens, PFOS was detected in 102 samples (93%) and ranged from the lower limit of quantification of 0.01 to 22.63 μg/L with a median of 1.93 μg/L (interquartile range 1.00-3.43 μg/L). The median was higher among males (2.39 μg/L; interquartile range 1.23-4.40 μg/L) than that among females (1.20 μg/L; interquartile range 0.83-2.77 μg/L). No significant difference was observed with respect to age. The concentration of PFOA was lower than that of PFOS and was found only in seven samples (6%) at concentrations above the limit of quantification. This study is the first investigation to reveal serum PFOS and PFOA levels in the general population of Uyghurs. PFOS and PFOA concentrations found in the present investigation were lower than those found in recent studies consisting of subjects from different geographic locations (PFOS 5.0-44.7 μg/L, PFOA 1.5-10 μg/L).

  3. Estimating industrial and domestic environmental releases of perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts in China from 2004 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Zhai, Zihan; Liu, Jianguo; Hu, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    China has been documented as one of the few remaining producers of perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts (PFOA/PFO) and the world's major contamination hotspot. However, limited information has been available for evaluating their environmental releases in China and the contribution to global PFOA/PFO burden. Here we present the first source-specific inventory for environmental releases of PFOA/PFO in China from 2004 to 2012, using a bottom-up approach for industrial sources and an inverse approach for domestic sources. Our results show that China became the current world's largest PFOA/PFO emitter, with cumulative environmental releases reaching 250tonnes (t) over the period of nine years. The eastern region was identified as the hotspot of environmental releases. Most of the national environmental releases were due to the activities of the fluorochemical industry (94.0%) rather than domestic use of PFOA/PFO-related consumer products (6.0%). Fluoropolymer manufacturing and processing, a dominating industrial source, contributed 83.7% of the national environmental releases. In contrast to the general decline trends in annual industrial environmental releases of PFOA/PFO in most industrialized countries, the trend increased in China because of the expansion of production as a result of the global geographical transition in fluorochemical industry. Based on these results, we recommend that the future reduction options are required in industrial sector in China.

  4. PHARMACOKINETIC EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster is a collaboration between NHEERL and NERL. The NERL researchers developed methods for the analyses of Perfluorooctanoic Acids (PFOA) in various animal tissue isolates. The NHEERL researchers are developing an appropriate animal model to assess the distribution and de...

  5. Comparing models for perfluorooctanoic acid pharmacokinetics using Bayesian analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selecting the appropriate pharmacokinetic (PK) model given the available data is investigated for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been widely analyzed with an empirical, one-compartment model. This research examined the results of experiments [Kemper R. A., DuPont Haskel...

  6. Inverse association of colorectal cancer prevalence to serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in a large Appalachian population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation, inflammation, and other factors implicated in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the link between these compounds and CRC remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the association of CRC diagnosis to PFOA and PFOS blood levels in a large Appalachian population. Methods Participants were 47,359 adults ≥ 21 years of age and residing in six PFOA-contaminated water districts in the mid-Ohio Valley (N = 47,151 cancer-free adults, 208 cases of primary CRC). All participants completed a comprehensive health survey between 2005 and 2006; serum levels of PFOA, PFOS, and a range of other blood markers were also measured. Medical history was assessed via self report and cancer diagnosis confirmed via chart review. Results CRC showed a strong inverse, dose–response association with PFOS serum levels (odds ratio (OR) adjusted for potential confounders = 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2,0.3) for highest vs. lowest quartile of PFOS, P-trend < 0.00001) and a significant, but more modest inverse association with PFOA (adjusted OR = 0.6 (CI 0.4, 0.9) for highest vs. lowest quartile, P-trend = 0.001). These inverse associations were stronger in those diagnosed within the previous 6 years and resident in the same water district for a minimum of 10–15 years preceding assessment. The relationship between PFOA and CRC was also more pronounced in men and leaner adults, and showed a stronger linear trend at lower exposure levels. Conclusions In this large cross-sectional study, we found a strong, inverse association between PFOS and likelihood of CRC diagnosis and a significant, although more modest inverse association between PFOA and CRC. If confirmed in prospective investigations, these findings may aid in identifying new strategies for CRC

  7. Occurrence of Perfluorooctanoic Acid and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate in Milk and Yogurt and Their Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Zhenni; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zilong; Li, Shanman; Wang, Gehui; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Although perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been identified in milk and dairy products in many regions, knowledge on their occurrence in Xinjiang (China) is rare. This study was conducted to measure the levels of PFOA and PFOS in milk and yogurt from Xinjiang and to investigate the average daily intake (ADI) of these two compounds. PFOA and PFOS levels were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction with methanol and solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Retail milk and yogurt samples present higher detection rates (39.6% and 48.1%) and mean concentrations (24.5 and 31.8 ng/L) of PFOS than those of PFOA (33.0% and 37.0%; 16.2 and 22.6 ng/L, respectively). For raw milk samples, only PFOS was detected. The differences in the levels of the two compounds between samples from the north and south regions were observed, and northern regions showed higher pollution levels than southern regions. On the basis of the retail milk measurements and consumption data, the ADIs of PFOA and PFOS for Xinjiang adults were calculated to be 0.0211 and 0.0318 ng/kg/day, respectively. Furthermore, the estimated intakes of PFOA and PFOS varied among different groupings (age, area, gender, and race) and increased with increasing age. Relevant hazard ratios were found to be far less than 1.0, and this finding suggested that no imminent health damages were produced by PFOA and PFOS intake via milk and yogurt consumption in the Xinjiang population. PMID:27775680

  8. Genomic Profiling Reveals an Alternate Mechanism for Hepatic Tumor Promotion by Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Susan C.; Orner, Gayle A.; Benninghoff, Abby D.; Carpenter, Hillary M.; Hendricks, Jerry D.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a potent hepatocarcinogen and peroxisome proliferator (PP) in rodents. Humans are not susceptible to peroxisome proliferation and are considered refractory to carcinogenesis by PPs. Previous studies with rainbow trout indicate they are also insensitive to peroxisome proliferation by the PP dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), but are still susceptible to enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis after chronic exposure. Objectives In this study, we used trout as a unique in vivo tumor model to study the potential for PFOA carcinogenesis in the absence of peroxisome proliferation compared with the structurally diverse PPs clofibrate (CLOF) and DHEA. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis were identified from hepatic gene expression profiles phenotypically anchored to tumor outcome. Methods We fed aflatoxin B1 or sham-initiated animals 200–1,800 ppm PFOA in the diet for 30 weeks for tumor analysis. We subsequently examined gene expression by cDNA array in animals fed PFOA, DHEA, CLOF, or 5 ppm 17β-estradiol (E2, a known tumor promoter) in the diet for 14 days. Results PFOA (1,800 ppm or 50 mg/kg/day) and DHEA treatments resulted in enhanced liver tumor incidence and multiplicity (p < 0.0001), whereas CLOF showed no effect. Carcinogenesis was independent of peroxisome proliferation, measured by lack of peroxisomal β-oxidation and catalase activity. Alternately, both tumor promoters, PFOA and DHEA, resulted in estrogenic gene signatures with strong correlation to E2 by Pearson correlation (R = 0.81 and 0.78, respectively), whereas CLOF regulated no genes in common with E2. Conclusions These data suggest that the tumor-promoting activities of PFOA in trout are due to novel mechanisms involving estrogenic signaling and are independent of peroxisome proliferation. PMID:18709148

  9. PREGNANCY LOSS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN THE MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids that have unique surfactant properties and are widely used in industrial and consumer products. These chemicals are stable and persistent in the environment; recent bio-monitoring studies have indicated wide-sp...

  10. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACID ACTIVITY USING PRIMARY MOUSE AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is know about the biological activity of other environmental perfluoroalkyl acids (pFAAs). Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-l cells, our group has previ...

  11. Evaluation of Perfluoroalkyl Acid Activity Using Primary Mouse and Human Hepatocytes.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been studied at length, less is known about the biological activity of other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the environment. Using a transient transfection assay developed in COS-1 cells, our group h...

  12. Perfluorinated acids in air, rain, snow, surface runoff, and lakes: relative importance of pathways to contamination of urban lakes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2007-12-15

    Concentrations of perfluorinated acids (PFAs) were measured in various environmental matrices (air, rain, snow, surface runoff water, and lake water) in an urban area, to enable identification of sources and pathways of PFAs to urban water bodies. Total PFA concentrations ranged from 8.28 to 16.0 pg/ m3 (mean 11.3) in bulk air (sum of vapor and particulate phases), 0.91 to 13.2 ng/L (6.19) in rainwater, 0.91 to 23.9 ng/L (7.98) in snow, 1.11-81.8 ng/L (15.1 ng/L) in surface runoff water (SRW), and 9.49 to 35.9 ng/L (21.8) in lake water. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant compound, accounting for > 35% of the total PFA concentrations, in all environmental matrices analyzed. Concentrations and relative compositions of PFAs in SRW were similar to those found for urban lakes. SRW contributes to contamination by PFOA in urban lakes. The measured concentration ratios of FTOH to PFOA in air were 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the ratios calculated based on an assumption of exclusive atmospheric oxidation of FTOHs. Nevertheless, the mass balance analysis suggested the presence of an unknown input pathway that could contribute to a significant amount of total PFOA loadings to the lake. Flux estimates of PFOA at the air-water interface in the urban lake suggest net volatilization from water.

  13. Molecularly imprinted ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets-Based electrochemiluminescence sensing probe for sensitive detection of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sihua; Li, Aimin; Zhang, Lizhi; Gong, Jingming

    2015-10-08

    Driven by the urgent demand for the determination of low level perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) present in environment, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor has been first developed for the detection of PFOA using the molecularly imprinted polypyrrole modified two-dimensional ultrathin g-C3N4 (utg-C3N4) nanosheets as a cathodic ECL emitter with S2O8(2-) as coreactant. The prepared molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) functionalized utg-C3N4 nanosheets (MIP@utg-C3N4) exhibit a stable and significantly amplified ECL signal. It is found that the targets of PFOA could be efficiently oxidized by the electro-generated strong oxidants of SO4(-) (from the reduction of coreactant S2O8(2-)), thus leading to a low yield of the excited utg-C3N4 (g-C3N4*) and finally a decrease in ECL signal. Based on this, a highly sensitive and selective MIP@utg-C3N4-based signal-off ECL sensor is developed for sensing PFOA. Such a newly designed ECL sensor exhibits highly linear over the PFOA concentration in two ranges, from 0.02 to 40.0 ng mL(-1) and 50.0-400.0 ng mL(-1). The detection limit (S/N = 3) is estimated to be 0.01 ng mL(-1) (i.e. 0.01 ppb), comparable to the results obtained by using well-established liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Toward practical applications, this low-cost and sensitive assay was successfully applied to measure PFOA in real water samples, showing fine applicability for the detection of PFOA in real samples.

  14. Perfluorooctanoic acid induces gene promoter hypermethylation of glutathione-S-transferase Pi in human liver L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Meiping; Peng, Siyuan; Martin, Francis L; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Wang, Zhanlin; Dong, Sijun; Shen, Heqing

    2012-06-14

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of the most commonly used perfluorinated compounds. Being a persistent environmental pollutant, it can accumulate in human tissues via various exposure routes. PFOA may interfere in a toxic fashion on the immune system, liver, development, and endocrine systems. In utero human exposure had been associated with cord serum global DNA hypomethylation. In light of this, we investigated possible PFOA-induced DNA methylation alterations in L02 cells in order to shed light into its epigenetic-mediated mechanisms of toxicity in human liver. L02 cells were exposed to 5, 10, 25, 50 or 100 mg/L PFOA for 72h. Global DNA methylation levels were determined by LC/ESI-MS, glutathione-S-transferase Pi (GSTP) gene promoter DNA methylation was investigated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with bisulfite sequencing, and consequent mRNA expression levels were measured with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. A dose-related increase of GSTP promoter methylation at the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1) binding site was observed. However, PFOA did not significantly influence global DNA methylation; nor did it markedly alter the promoter gene methylation of p16 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A), ERα (estrogen receptor α) or PRB (progesterone receptor B). In addition, PFOA significantly elevated mRNA transcript levels of DNMT3A (which mediates de novo DNA methylation), Acox (lipid metabolism) and p16 (cell apoptosis). Considering the role of GSTP in detoxification, aberrant methylation may be pivotal in PFOA-mediated toxicity response via the inhibition of SP1 binding to GSTP promoter.

  15. Gestational Exposure to Low Doses of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Increases Adiposity, but not Body Weight, of Adult Offspring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluoroalkyl acids have numerous industrial and consumer product applications. Studies in mice have demonstrated lower birth weight and higher neonatal mortality in mice after prenatal dosages exceeding 1 mg/kg/day. However, at dosages lo...

  16. Photochemical decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid mediated by iron in strongly acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Masaki; Ito, Masataka; Ohkura, Ryouichi; Mino A, Esteban R; Kose, Tomohiro; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Kawata, Kuniaki; Nishijima, Wataru

    2014-03-15

    The performance of a ferric ion mediated photochemical process for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) decomposition in strongly acidic conditions of pH 2.0 was evaluated in comparison with those in weakly acidic conditions, pH 3.7 or pH 5.0, based on iron species composition and ferric ion regeneration. Complete decomposition of PFOA under UV irradiation was confirmed at pH 2.0, whereas perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and other intermediates were accumulated in weakly acidic conditions. Iron states at each pH were evaluated using a chemical equilibrium model, Visual MINTEQ. The main iron species at pH 2.0 is Fe(3+) ion. Although Fe(3+) ion is consumed and is transformed to Fe(2+) ion by photochemical decomposition of PFOA and its intermediates, the produced Fe(2+) ion will change to Fe(3+) ion to restore chemical equilibrium. Continuous decomposition will occur at pH 2.0. However, half of the iron cannot be dissolved at pH 3.7. The main species of dissolved iron is Fe(OH)(2+). At pH 3.7 or higher pH, Fe(3+) ion will only be produced from the oxidation of Fe(2+) ion by hydroxyl radical produced by Fe(OH)(2+) under UV irradiation. These different mechanisms of Fe(3+) regeneration that prevail in strongly and weakly acidic conditions will engender different performances of the ferric ion.

  17. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA.

  18. Problem formulation and option assessment (PFOA) linking governance and environmental risk assessment for technologies: a methodology for problem analysis of nanotechnologies and genetically engineered organisms.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kristen C; Andow, David A; Banker, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Societal evaluation of new technologies, specifically nanotechnology and genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), challenges current practices of governance and science. Employing environmental risk assessment (ERA) for governance and oversight assumes we have a reasonable ability to understand consequences and predict adverse effects. However, traditional ERA has come under considerable criticism for its many shortcomings and current governance institutions have demonstrated limitations in transparency, public input, and capacity. Problem Formulation and Options Assessment (PFOA) is a methodology founded on three key concepts in risk assessment (science-based consideration, deliberation, and multi-criteria analysis) and three in governance (participation, transparency, and accountability). Developed through a series of international workshops, the PFOA process emphasizes engagement with stakeholders in iterative stages, from identification of the problem(s) through comparison of multiple technology solutions that could be used in the future with their relative benefits, harms, and risk. It provides "upstream public engagement" in a deliberation informed by science that identifies values for improved decision making.

  19. Isomers/enantiomers of perfluorocarboxylic acids: Method development and detection in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Naile, Jonathan E; Garrison, A Wayne; Avants, Jimmy K; Washington, John W

    2016-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances are globally distributed in both urban and remote settings, and routinely are detected in wildlife, humans, and the environment. One of the most prominent and routinely detected perfluoroalkyl substances is perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been shown to be toxic to both humans and animals. PFOA exists as both linear and branched isomers; some of the branched isomers are chiral. A novel GC-NCI-MS method was developed to allow for isomer/enantiomer separation, which was achieved using two columns working in tandem; a 30-m DB-5MS column and a 30-m BGB-172 Analytik column. Samples were derivatized with diazomethane to form methyl esters of the PFOA isomers. In standards, at least eight PFOA isomers were detected, of which at least four were enantiomers of chiral isomers; one chiral isomer (P3) was sufficiently separated to allow for enantiomer-fraction calculations. Soil, sediment and plant samples from contaminated locations in Alabama and Georgia were analyzed. P3 was observed in most of these environmental samples, and was non-racemic in at least one sediment, suggesting the possibility of chirally selective generation from precursors or enantioselective sorption. In addition, the ratio of P3/linear PFOA was inversely related to distance from source, which we suggest might reflect a higher sorption affinity for the P3 over the linear isomer. This method focuses on PFOA, but preliminary results suggest that it should be broadly applicable to other chiral and achiral perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs); e.g., we detected several other homologous PFCA isomers in our PFCA standards and some environmental samples.

  20. Microminipigs as a new experimental animal model for toxicological studies: comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluoroalkyl acids.

    PubMed

    Guruge, Keerthi S; Noguchi, Michiko; Yoshioka, Koji; Yamazaki, Eriko; Taniyasu, Sachi; Yoshioka, Miyako; Yamanaka, Noriko; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Tanimura, Nobuhiko; Sato, Masumi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel minipig strain, the Microminipig (MMPig), as an animal model for studying the pharmacokinetics of a mixture of 10 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). After a single oral dose was given, we found that the blood depuration of PFAAs (blood t1/2), which we calculated using first-order elimination curves, ranged from 1.6 to 86.6 days. Among the five body compartments analyzed, the liver was the greatest site of accumulation of perfluorooctanesulfonate and longer chain perfluorinated carboxylates such as perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid and perfluorododecanoic acid. We observed an increasing accumulation trend of perfluorinated carboxylates in the organs associated with the fluorinated carbon chain length. The perfluorononanoic acid burden was the highest among the treated compounds 21 days after a single exposure, as 29% of the given perfluorononanoic acid dose was accumulated in the tissues. The persistence of PFAAs in edible pig tissues even after 21 days post-exposure raises concerns about the safety of swine products. This was the first study to use MMPigs to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of a group of environmental pollutants. We found that MMPigs could be excellent experimental animals for toxicological studies due to their easy handling, cost efficacy for target compounds and ease of waste treatment.

  1. Sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances to two types of minerals.

    PubMed

    Hellsing, Maja S; Josefsson, Sarah; Hughes, Arwel V; Ahrens, Lutz

    2016-09-01

    The sorption of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated for two model soil mineral surfaces, alumina (Al2O3) and silica (SiO2), on molecular level using neutron scattering. The PFASs were selected (i.e. perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)) to examine the role of hydrophobic chain length and hydrophilic functional group on their sorption behaviour. All four PFASs were found to sorb to alumina surface (positively charged) forming a hydrated layer consisting of 50% PFASs. The PFAS solubility limit, which decrease with chain length, was found to strongly influence the sorption behaviour. The sorbed PFAS layer could easily be removed by gentle rinsing with water, indicating release upon rainfall in the environment. No sorption was observed for PFOA and PFOS at silica surface (negatively charged), showing electrostatic interaction being the driving force in the sorption process.

  2. Supression of humoral immunity by perfluorooctanic acid is independent of elevated serum corticosterone concentration in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The T-cell-dependent antibody response is suppressed in mice exposed to 3.75, 7.5, 15, and 30 mg PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid)/kg body weight (bw). Reduced bw accompanied immunosuppression at 15 and 30 mg/kg. We investigated the hypothesis that the observed immunosuppression is s...

  3. Modeling the Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorooctanoic Acid During Gestation and Lactation In Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is used as a processing aid for the production of commercially valuable fluoropolymers and fluoroelastomers. It has been widely detected in biological organisms including humans whose estimated blood levels are in the low ppb levels for the general U...

  4. Understanding Potential Exposure Sources of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Mary A.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Barton, Catherine A.; Botelho, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates perspectives from analytical chemistry, environmental engineering, and industrial hygiene to better understand how workers may be exposed to perfluorinated carboxylic acids when handling them in the workplace in order to identify appropriate exposure controls. Due to the dramatic difference in physical properties of the protonated acid form and the anionic form, this family of chemicals provides unique industrial hygiene challenges. Workplace monitoring, experimental data, and modeling results were used to ascertain the most probable workplace exposure sources and transport mechanisms for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its ammonium salt (APFO). PFOA is biopersistent and its measurement in the blood has been used to assess human exposure since it integrates exposure from all routes of entry. Monitoring suggests that inhalation of airborne material may be an important exposure route. Transport studies indicated that, under low pH conditions, PFOA, the undissociated (acid) species, actively partitions from water into air. In addition, solid-phase PFOA and APFO may also sublime into the air. Modeling studies determined that contributions from surface sublimation and loss from low pH aqueous solutions can be significant potential sources of workplace exposure. These findings suggest that keeping surfaces clean, preventing accumulation of material in unventilated areas, removing solids from waste trenches and sumps, and maintaining neutral pH in sumps can lower workplace exposures. PMID:20974675

  5. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxicity and modulation of mechanisms associated with inflammation induced by perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in human colon myofibroblasts CCD-18Co.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Bastida, Juan Antonio; Surma, Magdalena; Zieliński, Henryk

    2015-10-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the most notable members of an emerging class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), poly- and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFASs). In this study, the CCD-18Co myofibroblasts were selected as a cell model to investigate the cytotoxic effects of PFOS and PFOA. The aim was to perform an in vitro evaluation of the ability of these compounds to induce cytotoxicity and modulate mechanisms associated with inflammation as measured by (i) colon fibroblasts viability, (ii) colon fibroblasts proliferation, and (iii) IL-6 production. The data provided in this study suggest that PFOS and PFOA can have cytotoxic potential and modulate processes associated with intestinal inflammation such as myofibroblasts proliferation and IL-6 production at concentrations similar to those detected in vivo. Our results also highlight the influence of culture serum concentration in cytotoxic in vitro studies, which should be considered in future toxicity studies involving PFOS and PFOA. The results contribute to a better knowledge of the effects of PFOS and PFOA in human cells, a phenomenon still not fully examined.

  6. Determination of polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, and perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids in lake trout from the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Reiner, Eric J; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Helm, Paul A; Mabury, Scott A; Braekevelt, Eric; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2012-11-01

    A comprehensive method to extract perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids, perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids, and polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters simultaneously from fish samples has been developed. The recoveries of target compounds ranged from 78 % to 121 %. The new method was used to analyze lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Great Lakes region. The results showed that the total perfluoroalkane sulfonate concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 145 ng/g (wet weight) with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) as the dominant contaminant. Concentrations in fish between lakes were in the order of Lakes Ontario ≈ Erie > Huron > Superior ≈ Nipigon. The total perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 18.2 ng/g wet weight. The aggregate mean perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentration in fish across all lakes was 0.045 ± 0.023 ng/g. Mean concentrations of PFOA were not significantly different (p > 0.1) among the five lakes. Perfluoroalkyl phosphinic acids were detected in lake trout from Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Lake Huron with concentration ranging from non-detect (ND) to 0.032 ng/g. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters were detected only in lake trout from Lake Huron, at levels similar to perfluorooctanoic acid.

  7. Toxicogenomic Dissection of the Perfluorooctanoic Acid Transcript Profile in Mouse Liver: Evidence for Involvement of the Nuclear Receptors PPARα and CAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of perfluorinated alkyl acids including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) elicit effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) in mouse and rat liver. There is strong evidence that PPC cause many of their effects related to liver carcinogenesis through the nucle...

  8. Toxicogenomic Dissection of the Perfluorooctanoic Acid Transcript Profile in Mouse Liver: Evidence for the Involvement of Nuclear Receptors PPARα and CAR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of perfluorinated alkyl acids including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) elicit effects similar to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) in mouse and rat liver. There is strong evidence that PPC cause many of their effects linked to liver cancer through the nuclear recep...

  9. Determination of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate in cooking oil and pig adipose tissue using reversed-phase liquid-liquid extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Caiming; Tan, Jianhua; Wang, Chunwei; Peng, Xianzhi

    2014-05-09

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are two perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) ubiquitously present in the environment, which could pose potential adverse effects on human health. Contamination and presence of PFOA and PFOS should be eliminated or rigidly restricted in food stuffs such as cooking oils and lard (from pig adipose tissue). This work describes a rapid, simple, reliable and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of PFOA and PFOS in cooking oils and pig adipose tissue with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The pretreatment mainly included a one-step reversed-phase liquid-liquid extraction using the mixture of basified water/methanol as the aqueous system, and dichloromethane (DCM) as the non-polar system. PFOA and PFOS can be successfully separated from the two lipid-rich matrices, i.e., cooking oil and adipose tissue, and extracted into the aqueous system, and then directly analyzed with LC-MS/MS. This method was validated in terms of accuracy (both intra- and inter-batch), precision, recovery, linearity, sensitivity and applicability. The intra-batch accuracies for PFOA and PFOS in cooking oil samples were within 93.9-101.9% with relative standard deviation (RSD) no more than 10.9%, and the inter-batch accuracies were 91.2-96.2% with RSD not exceeding 10.0%. The intra-batch accuracies of the analytes in pig adipose tissue samples were 102.9-113.0% with RSD of 8.8-13.1%. And the quantification ranges of PFOA and PFOS were 0.01-25ng/mL. This method has been applied to the analysis of PFOA and PFOS in real samples collected from local markets in Guangzhou, China.

  10. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged.

  11. Identification of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 as a new target of perfluoroalkyl acids in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Lv, Qi-Yan; Guo, Liang-Hong; Wan, Bin; Ren, Xiao-Min; Shi, Ya-Li; Cai, Ya-Qi

    2016-08-29

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are widespread environmental contaminants which have been detected in humans and linked to adverse health effects. Previous toxicological studies mostly focused on nuclear receptor-mediated pathways and did not support the observed toxic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of PFAA toxicities by identifying their biological targets in cells. Using a novel electrochemical biosensor, 16 PFAAs were evaluated for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 activity. Their potency increased with PFAA chain length, with perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFODA) showing the strongest inhibition. Three selected PFAAs, 25 μM perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, and PFODA, also inhibited SHP-2 activity in HepG2 cells and increased paxillin phosphorylation level. PFOA was detected in the immunoprecipitated SHP-2 from the cells exposed to 250 μM PFOA, providing unequivocal evidence for the direct binding of PFOA with SHP-2 in the cell. Molecular docking rationalized the formation of PFAA/SHP-2 complex and chain length-dependent inhibition potency. Our results have established SHP-2 as a new cellular target of PFAAs.

  12. COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN MALE, FEMALE AND PREGNANT MICE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL (FTOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in environmental and mammalian matrices has spurred regulatory interest in potential sources of this stable compound. 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol, a primary compound used in polymer synthesis, is found ubiquitously in the envi...

  13. Polyfluorinated compounds in dust from homes, offices, and vehicles as predictors of concentrations in office workers’ serum

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Alicia J; Webster, Thomas F; Watkins, Deborah J; Strynar, Mark J; Kato, Kayoko; Calafat, Antonia M; Vieira, Verónica M; McClean, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to characterize levels of polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in indoor dust from offices, homes, and vehicles; to investigate factors that may affect PFC levels in dust; and to examine the associations between PFCs in dust and office workers’ serum. Dust samples were collected in 2009 from offices, homes, and vehicles of 31 individuals in Boston, MA and analyzed for nineteen PFCs, including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FOSEs). Serum was collected from each participant and analyzed for eight PFCs including PFOA and PFOS. Perfluorononanoate, PFOA, perfluoroheptanoate, perfluorohexanoate, PFOS and 8:2 FTOH had detection frequencies >50% in dust from all three microenvironments. The highest geometric mean concentration in office dust was for 8:2 FTOH (309 ng/g), while PFOS was highest in homes (26.9 ng/g) and vehicles (15.8 ng/g). Overall, offices had the highest PFC concentrations, particularly for longer-chain carboxylic acids and FTOHs. Perfluorobutyrate was prevalent in homes and vehicles, but not offices. PFOA serum concentrations were not associated with PFC dust levels after adjusting for PFC concentrations in office air. Dust concentrations of most PFCs are higher in offices than in homes and vehicles. However, indoor dust may not be a significant source of exposure to PFCs for office workers. This finding suggests that our previously published observation of an association between FTOH concentrations in office air and PFOA concentrations in office workers was not due to confounding by PFCs in dust. PMID:24041736

  14. Occurrence of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in N.E. Spanish surface waters and their removal in a drinking water treatment plant that combines conventional and advanced treatments in parallel lines.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cintia; Ventura, Francesc; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; Caixach, Josep

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are two emerging contaminants that have been detected in all environmental compartments. However, while most of the studies in the literature deal with their presence or removal in wastewater treatment, few of them are devoted to their detection in treated drinking water and fate during drinking water treatment. In this study, analyses of PFOS and PFOA have been carried out in river water samples and in the different stages of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) which has recently improved its conventional treatment process by adding ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in a parallel treatment line. Conventional and advanced treatments have been studied in several pilot plants and in the DWTP, which offers the opportunity to compare both treatments operating simultaneously. From the results obtained, neither preoxidation, sand filtration, nor ozonation, removed both perfluorinated compounds. As advanced treatments, reverse osmosis has proved more effective than reverse electrodialysis to remove PFOA and PFOS in the different configurations of pilot plants assayed. Granular activated carbon with an average elimination efficiency of 64±11% and 45±19% for PFOS and PFOA, respectively and especially reverse osmosis, which was able to remove ≥99% of both compounds, were the sole effective treatment steps. Trace levels of PFOS (3.0-21 ng/L) and PFOA (<4.2-5.5 ng/L) detected in treated drinking water were significantly lowered in comparison to those measured in precedent years. These concentrations represent overall removal efficiencies of 89±22% for PFOA and 86±7% for PFOS.

  15. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals in the Serum and Milk of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) comprise a group of man-made organic compounds, some of which are persistent contaminants with developmental toxicity shown in laboratory animals. There is a paucity of human perinatal exposure data. The US EPA conducted a pilot study (Methods Advancement in Milk Analysis) including 34 breastfeeding women in North Carolina. Milk and serum samples were collected at 2-7 weeks and 3-4 months postpartum; 9 PFCs were assessed in milk and 7 in serum. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) were found in nearly 100% of the serum samples. PFOS and PFOA were found at the highest concentrations. PFCs were below the limit of detection in most milk samples. Serum concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS were lower (p<0.01) at the second visit compared to the first visit, and living in North Carolina 10 years or longer was related to elevated PFOS, PFOA and PFNA (p<0.03). These pilot data support the need to further explore perinatal PFC exposures and potentially related health effects, as planned in the upcoming National Children’s Study which provided the framework for this investigation. These data demonstrate very low transfer of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) to breast milk, even though PFCs are readily detected in the sera of lactating NC women. Our data correlation statistics suggest that there is an elevation of average serum PFCs i

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IN VITRO ASSAY FOR EVALUATING THE BINDING OF PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS (PFAAS) TO THE PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the binding of PFAAs to PPAR receptors and determine the potential for activation or antagonism of the pathway during embryonic development. Activation of mouse and human PPAR isoforms by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanes...

  17. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  18. Assessment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate and Perfluorooctanoic Acid Exposure Through Fish Consumption in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Barbarossa, Andrea; Gazzotti, Teresa; Farabegoli, Federica; Mancini, Francesca R.; Zironi, Elisa; Busani, Luca; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are pollutants of anthropic origin with possible side effects on human health. Diet, and in particular fish and seafood, is considered the major intake pathway for humans. The present study investigated the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination in twenty-five samples of fresh fillet of five widely consumed fish species purchased from large retailers in Italy, to be used for an estimation of the Italian population exposure to these contaminants. PFOS and PFOA were found in all samples, at concentrations up to 1896 (mean=627 ng/kg) and 487 ng/kg (mean = 75 ng/kg), respectively, confirming the role of fish as high contributor to human exposure. However, a remarkable inter-species variability was observed, and multiple factors were suggested as potentially responsible for such differences, suggesting that the preferential consumption of certain species could likely increase the intake, and thus the exposure. The exposure estimates for both average and high fish consumers resulted far below the tolerable daily intakes for PFOS and PFOA in all age groups, confirming the outcomes of EFSA’s scientific report. In particular, the calculated total dietary exposure for the 95th percentile consumers belonging to the toddler age class, the most exposed group, resulted equal to 9.72 ng/kg body weight (BW)/day for PFOS and 8.39 ng/kg BW/day for PFOA. PMID:28058243

  19. Perfluoroalkylated Substance Effects in Xenopus laevis A6 Kidney Epithelial Cells Determined by ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The effects of four perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs), namely, perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were assessed in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. Principal component analysis–linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) was used to visualize wavenumber-related alterations and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) allowed data processing considering the underlying experimental design. Both analyses evidenced a higher impact of low-dose PFAS-treatments (10–9 M) on A6 cells forming monolayers, while there was a larger influence of high-dose PFAS-treatments (10–5 M) on A6 cells differentiated into dome structures. The observed dose–response PFAS-induced effects were to some extent related to their cytotoxicity: the EC50-values of most influential PFAS-treatments increased (PFOS < PFNA < PFOA ≪ PFBS), and higher-doses of these chemicals induced a larger impact. Major spectral alterations were mainly attributed to DNA/RNA, secondary protein structure, lipids, and fatty acids. Finally, PFOS and PFOA caused a decrease in A6 cell numbers compared to controls, whereas PFBS and PFNA did not significantly change cell population levels. Overall, this work highlights the ability of PFASs to alter A6 cells, whether forming monolayers or differentiated into dome structures, and the potential of PFOS and PFOA to induce cell death. PMID:27078751

  20. Perfluoroalkyl acids in the water cycle from a freshwater river basin to coastal waters in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaobin; Jin, Ling; Yang, Jingping; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Beibei; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Wu, Jichun; Yu, Hongxia

    2017-02-01

    The distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), one class of persistent organic pollutants, in groundwater, especially in confined aquifers remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of 12 PFAAs through a water cycle from the Huai River Basin to the Yellow Sea, including confined aquifers, unconfined aquifers, rivers, and coastal waters. We found the ubiquity of PFAAs in all types of samples, including those from confined aquifers (2.7-6.8 ng/L). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the major PFAAs in all samples, accounting for an average of 49.1% (0.8-84.8%) and 33.3% (6.3-92.2%) of total PFAAs, respectively. Comparing the concentration of PFOA with that of PFOS, we found a higher concentration of PFOA in rivers and a higher concentration of PFOS in confined aquifers. Short-chain perfluoropentanoic acid accounted for an average of 10.3% (1.9-24.6%) of total PFAAs in rivers and coastal waters. Branched isomers of both PFOA and PFOS were detected in most samples (36/42 and 39/42, respectively). One-way analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in the profiles of PFAAs among the different types of water samples. Principal component analysis suggested that rainwater and recent uses of PFAAs could be the major sources of PFAAs in confined aquifers, while recent and current uses of PFAAs could be the major source of PFAAs in unconfined aquifers, rivers and coastal waters. The risk quotients of PFOA and PFOS in groundwater and rivers were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than unity, indicating no immediate risks via drinking water consumption.

  1. Kinetics of the electrochemical mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid on ultrananocrystalline boron doped conductive diamond electrodes.

    PubMed

    Urtiaga, Ane; Fernández-González, Carolina; Gómez-Lavín, Sonia; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2015-06-01

    This work deals with the electrochemical degradation and mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Model aqueous solutions of PFOA (100mg/L) were electro-oxidized under galvanostatic conditions in a flow-by undivided cell provided with a tungsten cathode and an anode formed by a commercial ultrananocrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) coating on a niobium substrate. A systematic experimental study was conducted in order to analyze the influence of the following operation variables: (i) the supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 (1.4 and 8.4g/L) and Na2SO4 (5g/L); (ii) the applied current density, japp, in the range 50-200 A/m(2) and (iii) the hydrodynamic conditions, in terms of flowrate in the range 0.4×10(-4)-1.7×10(-4)m(3)/s and temperature in the range 293-313K. After 6h of treatment and at japp 200A/m(2), PFOA removal was higher than 93% and the mineralization ratio, obtained from the decrease of the total organic carbon (TOC) was 95%. The electrochemical generation of hydroxyl radicals in the supporting electrolyte was experimentally measured based on their reaction with dimethyl sulfoxide. The enhanced formation of hydroxyl radicals at higher japp was related to the faster kinetics of PFOA removal. The fitting of experimental data to the proposed kinetic model provided the first order rate constants of PFOA degradation, kc(1) that moved from 2.06×10(-4) to 15.58×10(-4)s(-1), when japp varied from 50 to 200A/m(2).

  2. Suppression of antigen-specific antibody responses in mice exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid: Role of PPARα and T- and B-cell targeting.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Williams, Wanda C; Creech, N Jonathan; Luebke, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    T-cell-dependent antibody responses (TDAR) are suppressed in female C57BL/6N mice exposed to ≥3.75 mg/kg of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) for 15 days. To determine if suppression of humoral immunity by PFOA is peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα)-dependent and if suppression is associated with specific targeting of T- or B-cells, three separate experiments were conducted: (1) female PPARα constitutive knockout (PPARα KO; B6.129S4-Ppar(tm1Gonz)N12) and wild-type controls (WT; C57BL/6-Tac) exposed to 0, 7.5, or 30 mg PFOA/kg for 15 days were immunized on Day 11 with a T-cell-dependent antigen and sera then collected for measures of antigen-specific IgM titers (TDAR) 5 days later; (2) female C57BL/6N WT mice exposed to 0, 0.94, 1.88, 3.75, or 7.5 mg PFOA/kg for 15 days were immunized with a T-cell-independent antigen on Day 11 and sera were then collected for analyses of antigen-specific IgM titers (TIAR) 7 days later; and (3) splenic lymphocyte phenotypes were assessed in unimmunized female C57BL/6N WT mice exposed to 0, 3.75, or 7.5 mg PFOA/kg for 10 days to investigate effects of PFOA in the absence of specific immunization. Separate groups of mice were immunized with a T-cell-dependent antigen after 11 days of exposure and splenic lymphocyte sub-populations were assessed after 13 or 15 days of exposure to assess numbers of stimulated cells. The results indicated that exposure to ≥1.88 mg PFOA/kg suppressed the TIAR; exposure to 30 mg PFOA/kg suppressed the TDAR in both PPARα KO and WT mice. The percentage of splenic B-cells was unchanged. Results obtained in the PPARα KO mice indicated that PPARα suppression of TDAR was independent of PPARα involvement. Suppression of the TIAR and the TDAR with minimal lymphocyte sub-population effects suggested that effects on humoral immunity are likely mediated by disruption of B-cell/plasma cell function.

  3. Polar herbicides, pharmaceutical products, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates in surface and tap waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Wollgast, Jan; Huber, Tania; Hanke, Georg

    2007-02-01

    A survey of contamination of surface and drinking waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy with polar anthropogenic environmental pollutants has been conducted. The target analytes were polar herbicides, pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics), steroid estrogens, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (including perfluorooctanoate PFOA), nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates (NPEO surfactants), and triclosan, a bactericide used in personal-care products. Analysis of water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) then liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). By extraction of 1-L water samples and concentration of the extract to 100 microL, method detection limits (MDLs) as low as 0.05-0.1 ng L(-1) were achieved for most compounds. Lake-water samples from seven different locations in the Southern part of Lake Maggiore and eleven samples from different tributary rivers and creeks were investigated. Rain water was also analyzed to investigate atmospheric input of the contaminants. Compounds regularly detected at very low concentrations in the lake water included: caffeine (max. concentration 124 ng L(-1)), the herbicides terbutylazine (7 ng L(-1)), atrazine (5 ng L(-1)), simazine (16 ng L(-1)), diuron (11 ng L(-1)), and atrazine-desethyl (11 ng L(-1)), the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine (9 ng L(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (10 ng L(-1)), gemfibrozil (1.7 ng L(-1)), and benzafibrate (1.2 ng L(-1)), the surfactant metabolite nonylphenol (15 ng L(-1)), its carboxylates (NPE(1)C 120 ng L(-1), NPE(2)C 7 ng L(-1), NPE(3)C 15 ng L(-1)) and ethoxylates (NPE( n )Os, n = 3-17; 300 ng L(-1)), perfluorinated surfactants (PFOS 9 ng L(-1), PFOA 3 ng L(-1)), and estrone (0.4 ng L(-1)). Levels of these compounds in drinking water produced from Lake Maggiore were almost identical with those found in the lake itself, revealing the poor performance of sand filtration and chlorination applied by the local

  4. Analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid with a mixed-mode coating-based solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Jianping; Yang, Shaolei; Yan, Zhihong; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-09-30

    A novel mixed-mode coating-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared by chemical bonding dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine, the sol-gel precursors, on an anodized Ti wire, aiming to effectively adsorb perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The anodized Ti wire with uniform TiO2 nanotube arrays provides high mechanical strength and strong adhesion to the mixed-mode coating. The prepared fiber shows excellent organic solvent stability due to the covalent bonding between the coating and the fiber, and significantly higher extraction efficiency than the commercial fibers, 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane and 85 μm polyacrylate fiber, due to the synergistic extraction effects of the coating functional groups. Good linearity (R(2)=0.9994 for PFOS, R(2)=0.9992 for PFOA) was obtained with detection limits of 2.5 and 7.5 pg mL(-1) for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 88%-102%. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of PFOS and PFOA in a local river with the results of 0.05 and 0.06 ng mL(-1), respectively.

  5. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in food and water from Faroe Islands.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Ulrika; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; Mikkelsen, Bjørg; Dam, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Diet and drinking water are suggested to be major exposure pathways for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). In this study, food items and water from Faroe Islands sampled in 2011/2012 were analyzed for 11 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs). The food samples included milk, yoghurt, crème fraiche, potatoes, fish, and fish feed, and the water samples included surface water and purified drinking water. In total, nine PFCAs and four PFSAs were detected. Generally, the levels of PFAS were in the lower picogram per gram range. Perfluorobutanoic acid was a major contributor to the total PFASs concentration in water samples and had a mean concentration of 750 pg/L. Perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) was predominating in milk and wild fish with mean concentrations of 170 pg/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was most frequently detected in food items followed by PFUnDA, perfluorononanoic acid, and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Levels of PFUnDA and PFOA exceeded those of PFOS in milk and fish samples. Prevalence of long-chain PFCAs in Faroese food items and water is confirming earlier observations of their increase in Arctic biota. Predominance of short-chain and long-chain homologues indicates exposure from PFOS and PFOA replacement compounds.

  7. Comparative hepatotoxicity of 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid and 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid, two fluorinated alternatives to long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids, on adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Nan; Zhou, Xiujuan; Zheng, Fei; Pan, Yitao; Guo, Xuejiang; Guo, Yong; Sun, Yan; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-12-28

    Due to their structural similarities, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonic acid (6:2 FTSA) and 6:2 fluorotelomer carboxylic acid (6:2 FTCA) are often used as alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), respectively. With limited health risk data and 6:2 FTSA detection in water and sludge, the toxicity of these chemicals is of growing concern. Here, adult male mice were exposed with 5 mg/kg/day of 6:2 FTCA or 6:2 FTSA for 28 days to investigate their hepatotoxicological effects. In contrast to 6:2 FTCA, 6:2 FTSA was detected at high and very high levels in serum and liver, respectively, demonstrating bioaccumulation potential and slow elimination. Furthermore, 6:2 FTSA induced liver weight increase, inflammation, and necrosis, whereas 6:2 FTCA caused no obvious liver injury, with fewer significantly altered genes detected compared with that of 6:2 FTSA (39 vs. 412). Although PFOA and PFOS commonly activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), 6:2 FTSA induced an increase in PPARγ and related proteins, but not in lipid metabolism-related genes such as PPARα. Our results showed that 6:2 FTCA and 6:2 FTSA exhibited weak and moderate hepatotoxicity, respectively, compared with that reported for legacies PFOA and PFOS.

  8. A national discharge load of perfluoroalkyl acids derived from industrial wastewater treatment plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Young; Seok, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Hye-Ok; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Seok, Kwang-Seol; Oh, Jeong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Levels of 11 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), were measured in wastewater (influent and effluent) and sludge samples collected from 25 industrial wastewater treatment plants (I-WWTPs) in five industrial sectors (chemicals, electronics, metals, paper, and textiles) in South Korea. The highest ∑11PFAAs concentrations were detected in the influent and effluent from the paper (median: 411ng/L) and textile (median: 106ng/L) industries, and PFOA and PFOS were the predominant PFAAs (49-66%) in wastewater. Exceptionally high levels of PFAAs were detected in the sludge associated with the electronics (median: 91.0ng/g) and chemical (median: 81.5ng/g) industries with PFOS being the predominant PFAA. The discharge loads of 11 PFAAs from I-WWTP were calculated that total discharge loads for the five industries were 0.146ton/yr. The textile industry had the highest discharge load with 0.055ton/yr (PFOA: 0.039ton/yr, PFOS: 0.010ton/yr). Municipal wastewater contributed more to the overall discharge of PFAAs (0.489ton/yr) due to the very small industrial wastewater discharge compared to municipal wastewater discharge, but the contribution of PFAAs from I-WWTPs cannot be ignored.

  9. Oxidative conversion as a means of detecting precursors to perfluoroalkyl acids in urban runoff.

    PubMed

    Houtz, Erika F; Sedlak, David L

    2012-09-04

    A new method was developed to quantify concentrations of difficult-to-measure and unidentified precursors of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic (PFCA) and sulfonic (PFSA) acids in urban runoff. Samples were exposed to hydroxyl radicals generated by thermolysis of persulfate under basic pH conditions and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) precursors were transformed to PFCAs of related perfluorinated chain length. By comparing PFCA concentrations before and after oxidation, the concentrations of total PFAA precursors were inferred. Analysis of 33 urban runoff samples collected from locations around the San Francisco Bay, CA indicated that PFOS (2.6-26 ng/L), PFOA (2.1-16 ng/L), and PFHxA (0.9-9.7 ng/L) were the predominant perfluorinated compounds detected prior to sample treatment. Following oxidative treatment, the total concentrations of PFCAs with 5-12 membered perfluoroalkyl chains increased by a median of 69%, or between 2.8 and 56 ng/L. Precursors that produced PFHxA and PFPeA upon oxidation were more prevalent in runoff samples than those that produced PFOA, despite lower concentrations of their corresponding perfluorinated acids prior to oxidation. Direct measurements of several common precursors to PFOS and PFOA (e.g., perfluorooctanesulfonamide and 8:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate) accounted for less than 25% of the observed increase in PFOA, which increased by a median value of 37%. Exposure of urban runoff to sunlight, advanced oxidation processes, or microbes could result in modest, but measurable, increases in concentrations of PFCAs and PFSAs.

  10. A global mass balance analysis of the source of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wania, Frank

    2007-07-01

    Whereas the pervasive and abundant presence of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in the Arctic marine food chain is clearly established, their origin and transport pathway into the Arctic Ocean are not. Either the atmospheric oxidation of volatile precursor compounds, such as the fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), or the long-range oceanic transport of directly emitted PFCAs is seen as contributing the bulk of the PFCA input to the Arctic. Here simulations with the zonally averaged global fate and transport model Globo-POP, in combination with historical emission estimates for FTOHs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are used to evaluate the relative efficiency and importance of the two transport pathways. Estimates of the emission-independent Arctic Contamination Potential reveal that the oceanic transport of directly emitted PFCAs is more than 10-fold more efficient than the atmospheric degradation of FTOHs in delivering PFCAs to the Arctic, mostly because of the low yield of the reaction. The cumulative historic emissions of FTOHs are lower than those estimated for PFOA alone by a factor of 2-3, further limiting the contribution that precursor oxidation makes to the total PFCAs load in the Arctic Ocean. Accordingly, when fed only with FTOH emissions, the model predicts FTOH air concentrations in agreement with the reported measurements, but yields Arctic seawater concentrations for the PFOA that are 2 orders of magnitude too low. Whereas ocean transport is thus very likely the dominant pathway of PFOA into the Arctic Ocean, the major transport route of longer chain PFCAs depends on the size of their direct emissions relative to those of 10:2 FTOH. The predicted time course of Arctic seawater concentrations is very similar for directly emitted and atmospherically generated PFCAs, implying that neither past doubling times of PFCA concentrations in Arctic marine mammals nor any future time trends are likely to resolve the question of the dominant source of PFCAs.

  11. Perfluorinated acids as novel chemical tracers of global circulation of ocean waters.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Petrick, Gert; Wei, Si; Gamo, Toshitaka; Lam, Paul K S; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-01-01

    Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) such as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are global environmental contaminants. The physicochemical properties of PFAs are unique in that they have high water solubilities despite the low reactivity of carbon-fluorine bond, which also imparts high stability in the environment. Because of the high water solubilities, the open-ocean water column is suggested to be the final sink for PFOS and PFOA. However, little is known on the distribution of PFAs in the oceans around the world. Here we describe the horizontal (spatial) and vertical distribution of PFAs in ocean waters worldwide. PFOS and PFOA concentrations in the North Atlantic Ocean ranged from 8.6 to 36pg l(-1) and from 52 to 338pg l(-1), respectively, whereas the corresponding concentrations in the Mid Atlantic Ocean were 13-73pg l(-1) and 67-439pg l(-1). These were completely different from the surface waters of the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean (overall range of <5-11pg l(-1) for PFOS and PFOA). Vertical profiles of PFAs in the marine water column were associated with the global ocean circulation theory. Vertical profiles of PFAs in water columns from the Labrador Sea reflected the influx of the North Atlantic Current in surface waters, the Labrador Current in subsurface waters, and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water in deep layers below 2000m. Striking differences in the vertical and spatial distribution of PFAs, depending on the oceans, suggest that these persistent acids can serve as useful chemical tracers to allow us to study oceanic transportation by major water currents. The results provide evidence that PFA concentrations and profiles in the oceans adhere to a pattern consistent with the global "Broecker's Conveyor Belt" theory of open ocean water circulation.

  12. Effects of perfluorinated chemicals on adipocyte development ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Obesity is a growing concern in the US population. Current interest is high in the role played by environmental factors called obesogens that may contribute to obesity through developmental exposure. One class of potential obesogens is the family of perfluorinated chemicals used as surfactants in a variety of industrial applications. Given the importance of understanding the role these compounds play in lipid homeostasis we used pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblast cells (Zen-Bio, RTP NC) to study their effects on adipogenesis and lipid accumulation. These cells differentiate into adipocytes accumulating large lipid droplets. Cultures were treated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (1-200uM), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (5-lOOuM), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (5O-300uM), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (40- 250uM). Cell size number, and lipid content were assessed using morphomeiric analysis. All four compounds decreased cell size compared to control, and PFNA was most potent, in terms of lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC), whereas PFOA was least potent. Cell number increased for all perfluorinated chemicals tested, most potently for PFNA and least for PFOS. Interestingly, average lipid area per cell for all four chemicals decreased compared to control, but PFOS and PFHxS had increased total lipid area. Additionally, significant increases in total triglyceride were noted for all compounds compared to controls. PFOA and PFNA increased trigly

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substances and endometriosis in US women in NHANES 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Stephanie; Raza, Masooma; Pollack, Anna Z

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to endocrine-active perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), is nearly ubiquitous, but data on the association between PFASs and endometriosis diagnosis are limited. We aimed to examine the relationship between PFASs and endometriosis. Women aged 20-50 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006) were selected (n=753). Serum PFAS levels were measured and endometriosis status was determined by self-report of doctor diagnosis. Weighted survey sampling logistic regression was used. Women reporting endometriosis were older (39.4 vs. 33.7 years), and more likely to be non-Hispanic white. Geometric mean levels of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were significantly higher among women reporting endometriosis. Endometriosis was associated with select quartiles of PFOA, PFNA, and PFOS. Sensitivity analyses had similar results but wider confidence intervals. These findings suggest that PFOA, PFNA, and PFOS may be of interest in future studies with improved endometriosis diagnostic criteria and prospectively measured exposure.

  14. Mass balance of perfluoroalkyl acids in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs; McLachlan, Michael S

    2013-05-07

    A mass balance was assembled for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in the Baltic Sea. Inputs (from riverine discharge, atmospheric deposition, coastal wastewater discharges, and the North Sea) and outputs (to sediment burial, transformation of the chemical, and the North Sea), as well as the inventory in the Baltic Sea, were estimated from recently published monitoring data. Formation of the chemicals in the water column from precursors was not considered. River inflow and atmospheric deposition were the dominant inputs, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents made a minor contribution (<5%). A mass balance of the Oder River watershed was assembled to explore the sources of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the river inflow. It indicated that WWTP effluents made only a moderate contribution to riverine discharge (21% for PFOA, 6% for PFOS), while atmospheric deposition to the watershed was 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than WWTP discharges. The input to the Baltic Sea exceeded the output for all four PFAAs, suggesting that inputs were higher during 2005-2010 than during the previous 20 years despite efforts to reduce emissions of PFAAs. One possible explanation is the retention and delayed release of PFAAs from atmospheric deposition in the soils and groundwater of the watershed.

  15. Seasonal accumulation of persistent organic pollutants on a high altitude glacier in the Eastern Alps.

    PubMed

    Kirchgeorg, T; Dreyer, A; Gabrielli, P; Gabrieli, J; Thompson, L G; Barbante, C; Ebinghaus, R

    2016-11-01

    The seasonal accumulations of perfluorinated substances (PFAS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in a 10 m shallow firn core from a high altitude glacier at Mt. Ortles (Italy, 3830 m above sea level) in South Tyrol in the Italian Eastern Alps. The most abundant persistent organic pollutants of each group were perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (for PFASs); BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 209 (for PBDEs) and phenanthrene (PHE), fluoranthene (FLA) and pyrene (PYR) (for PAHs). All compounds show different extents of seasonality, with higher accumulation during summer time compared to winter. This seasonal difference mainly reflects meteorological conditions with a low and stable atmospheric boundary layer in winter and strong convective activity in summer, transformation processes during the transport of chemicals and/or post-depositional alterations. Change in the composition of the water-soluble PFCAs demonstrates the influence of meltwater percolation through the firn layers.

  16. A novel liquid plasma AOP device integrating microwaves and ultrasounds and its evaluation in defluorinating perfluorooctanoic acid in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Susumu; Abe, Masahiko; Serpone, Nick

    2011-09-01

    A simplified and energy-saving integrated device consisting of a microwave applicator and an ultrasonic homogenizer has been fabricated to generate liquid plasma in a medium possessing high dielectric factors, for example water. The microwave waveguide and the ultrasonic transducer were interconnected through a tungsten/titanium alloy stick acting both as the microwave antenna and as the horn of the ultrasonic homogenizer. Both microwaves and ultrasonic waves are simultaneously transmitted to the aqueous media through the tungsten tip of the antenna. The microwave discharge liquid plasma was easily generated in solution during ultrasonic cavitation. The simple device was evaluated by carrying out the degradation of the perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a system highly recalcitrant to degradation by conventional advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). PFOA is 59% degraded in an aqueous medium after only 90 s of irradiation by the plasma. Intermediates were identified by electrospray mass spectral techniques in the negative ion mode.

  17. Water dissociation in a radio-frequency electromagnetic field with ex situ electrodes—decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid and tetrahydrofuran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Jens; Holzer, Frank; Kraus, Markus; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Roland, Ulf

    2016-10-01

    The application of radio waves with a frequency of 13.56 MHz on electrolyte solutions in a capillary reactor led to the formation of reactive hydrogen and oxygen species and finally to molecular oxygen and hydrogen. This process of water splitting can be principally used for the elimination of hazardous chemicals in water. Two compounds, namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and tetrahydrofuran, were converted using this process. Their main decomposition products were highly volatile and therefore transferred to a gas phase, where they could be identified by GC-MS analyses. It is remarkable that the chemical reactions could benefit from both the oxidizing and reducing species formed in the plasma process, which takes place in gas bubbles saturated with water vapor. The breaking of C-C and C-F bonds was proven in the case of PFOA, probably initiated by electron impacts and radical reactions.

  18. Detection of a cyclic perfluorinated acid, perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate, in the Great Lakes of North America.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Scott, Brian F; Backus, Sean; Muir, Derek C G

    2011-10-01

    Perfluoroethylcyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) is a cyclic perfluorinated acid (PFA) mainly used as an erosion inhibitor in aircraft hydraulic fluids. It is expected to be as recalcitrant to environmental degradation as aliphatic PFAs including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). For the first time, PFECHS is reported in top predator fish (PFOA (0.65-5.5 ng/L). An impurity in the commercial PFECHS formulation, perfluoromethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFMeCHS), was also detected in the dissolved phase but not above detection limits in fish tissue. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were estimated by taking the ratio of fish to water concentrations. The mean log BAF values corresponded to 2.8 for PFECHS, 2.1 for PFOA, and 4.5 for PFOS. It is not certain whether the fish-water BAF for PFECHS is an overestimate due to the influence of precursor biotransformation. Further studies are recommended to understand the extent of PFECHS contamination.

  19. Variation in perfluoroalkyl acids in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge.

    PubMed

    Bangma, Jacqueline T; Reiner, Jessica L; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H; Nilsen, Frances; Rainwater, Thomas R; Somerville, Stephen; Guillette, Louis J; Bowden, John A

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting wetlands surrounding the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, USA located at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). Approximately 10 male and 10 female alligators (ntotal = 229) were sampled each month during 2008 and 2009 to determine if seasonal or spatial trends existed with PFAA burden. PFOS represented the highest plasma burden (median 185 ng/g) and PFHxS the second highest (median 7.96 ng/g). While no significant seasonal trends were observed, unique spatial trends emerged. Many of the measured PFAAs co-varied strongly together and similar trends were observed for PFOS, PFDA, PFUnA, and PFDoA, as well as for PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFTriA, and PFTA, suggesting more than one source of PFAAs at MINWR. Higher concentrations of PFOS and the PFAAs that co-varied with PFOS were collected from animals around sites that included the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) fire house and the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout (O&C) retention pond, while higher concentrations of PFOA and the PFAA that co-varied with PFOA were sampled from animals near the gun range and the old fire training facility. Sex-based differences and snout-vent length (SVL) correlations with PFAA burden were also investigated.

  20. Uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester and its degradation products by carrot and lettuce from compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Bizkarguenaga, E; Zabaleta, I; Prieto, A; Fernández, L A; Zuloaga, O

    2016-06-01

    The present work studied the uptake of 8:2 perfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (diPAP) by two different crops (lettuce and carrot) and two different amended soils. Firstly, the possible degradation of 8:2 diPAP in the absence of crop was studied and 8:2 monoPAP (monophosphate), 8:2 FTCA (saturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), 8:2 FTUCA (unsaturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), 7:3 FTCA (saturated fluorotelomer carboxylate), PFHpA (perfluoroheptanoic acid), PFHxA (perfluorohexanoic acid) and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid) were detected. In the presence of crops, different degradation products were detected in the soil and, while PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid), PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA (perfluoropentacoic acid), PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), 7:3 FTCA and PFOA were determined in the cultivation media when carrot was grown, PFOA was the only degradation product detected in the case of lettuce experiments. Regarding the uptake in carrot, all the degradation products except 7:3 FTCA were translocated from the soil to the carrot. Carrot core, peel and leaves bioconcentration factors, BCFs, were determined for 8:2 diPAP and its degradation products. Values lower than method detection limits for core and low BCFs in peel (0.025-0.042) and leaves (0.028-0.049) were achieved for 8:2 diPAP. Regarding to the degradation products, the higher their water solubility, the higher the plant translocation. In this sense, the lower the carbon chain length of PFCAs, the higher the BCFs determined (PFBA > PFHxA > PFHpA > PFOA > PFNA). In general, lower total BCFs were achieved when the total organic carbon of the soils increased. For lettuce experiments, 8:2 diPAP (0.04-0.18) and PFOA (0.28-1.57) were only determined in lettuce heart.

  1. Examining Models for the Pharmacokinetics of Perfluorooctanoic Acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a man-made surfactant used in a variety of industrial and consumer applications. Because of its wide-spread environmental distribution and stability, PFOA is found in human blood from the general population (Calafat et al., 2007). PFOA displays compl...

  2. Kinetics and Quantitative Structure—Activity Relationship Study on the Degradation Reaction from Perfluorooctanoic Acid to Trifluoroacetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chen; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Zhang, Xue; Niu, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the degradation kinetics of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been carried out to calculate rate constants of the main elementary reactions using the multichannel Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus theory and canonical variational transition state theory with small-curvature tunneling correction over a temperature range of 200~500 K. The Arrhenius equations of rate constants of elementary reactions are fitted. The decarboxylation is role step in the degradation mechanism of PFOA. For the perfluorinated carboxylic acids from perfluorooctanoic acid to trifluoroacetic acid, the quantitative structure–activity relationship of the decarboxylation was analyzed with the genetic function approximation method and the structure–activity model was constructed. The main parameters governing rate constants of the decarboxylation reaction from the eight-carbon chain to the two-carbon chain were obtained. As the structure–activity model shows, the bond length and energy of C1–C2 (RC1–C2 and EC1–C2) are positively correlated to rate constants, while the volume (V), the energy difference between EHOMO and ELUMO (ΔE), and the net atomic charges on atom C2 (QC2) are negatively correlated. PMID:25196516

  3. Perfluorinated chemicals: differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells.

    PubMed

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs--PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA--showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA>PFOS≫PFNA>PFOA>PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57-80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells.

  4. Emission of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCA) from heated surfaces made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) applied in food contact materials and consumer products.

    PubMed

    Schlummer, Martin; Sölch, Christina; Meisel, Theresa; Still, Mona; Gruber, Ludwig; Wolz, Gerd

    2015-06-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been widely discussed as a source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which has been used in the production of fluoropolymers. PTFE may also contain unintended perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) caused by thermolysis of PTFE, which has been observed at temperatures above 300°C. Common PTFE coated food contact materials and consumer goods are operated at temperatures above 200°C. However, knowledge on possible emissions of PFCAs is limited. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to investigate and evaluate the emission of PFCAs from PTFE coated products with both, normal use and overheating scenarios. Four pans, claimed to be PFOA free, and nine consumer products were investigated. At normal use conditions (<230°C), emissions from PTFE surfaces were trapped for 1h. Overheating scenarios (>260°C) recorded emissions during a 30min heating of empty pans on a stove. Emissions were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS. Results indicate the emission of PFCAs, whereas no perfluorinated sulfonic acids were traced. At normal use conditions total emissions of PFCAs accounted for 4.75ng per hour. Overheated pans, however, released far higher amounts with up to 12190ng PFCAs per hour at 370°C. Dominating contributors where PFBA and PFOA at normal use and PFBA and PFPeA during overheating. Temperature seems to be the main factor controlling the emission of PFCAs. A worst case estimation of human exposure revealed that emissions of PFCAs from heated PTFE surfaces would be far below the TDI of 1500ng PFOA per kg body weight.

  5. Parameters affecting the formation of perfluoroalkyl acids during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerra, P; Kim, M; Kinsman, L; Ng, T; Alaee, M; Smyth, S A

    2014-05-15

    This study examined the fate and behaviour of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in liquid and solid samples from five different wastewater treatment types: facultative and aerated lagoons, chemically assisted primary treatment, secondary aerobic biological treatment, and advanced biological nutrient removal treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest data set from a single study available in the literature to date for PFAAs monitoring study in wastewater treatment. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the predominant PFAA in wastewater with levels from 2.2 to 150ng/L (influent) and 1.9 to 140ng/L (effluent). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound in primary sludge, waste biological sludge, and treated biosolids with concentrations from 6.4 to 2900ng/g dry weight (dw), 9.7 to 8200ng/gdw, and 2.1 to 17,000ng/gdw, respectively. PFAAs were formed during wastewater treatment and it was dependant on both process temperature and treatment type; with higher rates of formation in biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operating at longer hydraulic retention times and higher temperatures. PFAA removal by sorption was influenced by different sorption tendencies; median log values of the solid-liquid distribution coefficient estimated from wastewater biological sludge and final effluent were: PFOS (3.73)>PFDA (3.68)>PFNA (3.25)>PFOA (2.49)>PFHxA (1.93). Mass balances confirmed the formation of PFAAs, low PFAA removal by sorption, and high PFAA levels in effluents.

  6. Perfluorinated chemicals in blood serum of inhabitants in central Poland in relation to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Hernik, Agnieszka; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Lenters, Virissa; Korcz, Wojciech; Minorczyk, Maria; Matuszak, Małgorzata; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to determine concentrations of seven selected perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs): perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) in the blood serum of men and women of reproductive age from the central region of Poland. The relation between sex of tested subjects and the levels of compounds in blood serum of humans will also be considered and analysed as an element of the risk assessment. The study was made on the blood serum samples collected from 253 women and 176 men of reproductive age between 20 and 44 years from Warsaw and surrounding areas. Higher concentrations of five (PFOS, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA) from among seven selected PFASs were observed in men in comparison to women from the same populations. Only the concentrations of PFHxS and PFDoDA were slightly higher in women than in men. These differences were statistically significant in all cases, except for PFUnDA. The hypothesis that the concentrations of said compounds increase with age of the test subjects, regardless of gender has not been confirmed.

  7. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Wang, Shiliang; Cao, Xuezhi; Cao, Yuanxin; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Hui; Liu, Jinfeng

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been observed in various environmental matrices globally in recent years. In this study, the levels, spatial distribution tendencies, and partitioning characteristics of the target 12 PFAAs were investigated in water and sediment from the coastal regions of Shandong peninsula in China, and two sediment core samples were also collected to study the vertical and historical variation of PFAAs. The ranges (means) of total PFAA concentrations were 23.69-148.48 ng/L (76.11 ng/L) in the water and 1.30-11.17 ng/g (5.93 ng/g) in the surface sediment, respectively. Among the target 12 PFAAs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the dominant component in water, followed by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). PFOS, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and PFOA were the dominant components in sediment. For their spatial distribution, higher levels of PFAAs were found at the locations close to much developed cities. The PFAA concentrations showed an overall decreasing tendency with depth increase in the two sediment cores, which indicates that the extent of PFAAs pollution is aggravating trend in recent years. Results of the partition coefficient (K d ) show that the compounds with longer carbon chains (C ≥ 7) generally had higher K d values, which suggest that long-chain PFAAs are prone to be adsorbed by sediment. In addition, the Log K d of PFHxA, PFOA, and PFOS were significantly and positively correlated to the salinity of the water. The results of risk assessment suggest appreciable risk of PFAAs to the local ecosystem.

  8. Perfluorinated compounds differentially affect steroidogenesis and viability in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) in vitro cell assay.

    PubMed

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Zimmer, Karin E; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven

    2011-08-10

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) comprise a large class of man-made chemicals of which some are persistent and present throughout the ecosystem. This raises concerns about potential harmful effects of such PFCs on humans and the environment. In order to investigate the effects of potentially harmful PFCs on steroid hormone production, human adrenocortical H295R cells were exposed to three persistent PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) at six different concentrations (6nM to 600μM) for 48h. Exposure to 600μM PFOS resulted in a dose-responsive increase in oestradiol as well as a smaller dose-responsive increase in progesterone and testosterone secretion measured using radioimmunoassay. The aromatase activity was not significantly altered by PFOS. Only small changes in hormone secretion were detected following exposure to PFOA and PFNA. Gene expression of CYP11A, quantified using qRT-PCR was decreased by all exposure doses of PFOA, whereas HMGR expression was decreased by 60nM PFNA. The viability markedly decreased by exposure to 600μM of PFOA or PFNA, but not PFOS. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in apoptosis following exposure to PFNA at the highest concentration. We conclude that PFOS is capable of altering steroidogenesis in the H295R in vitro model by a mechanism other than changes in gene expression or activity of aromatase. Additionally, PFCs appear to differentially affect cell viability with induction of cell death via apoptosis at high doses of PFNA.

  9. Contamination by perfluorinated compounds in water near waste recycling and disposal sites in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon-Woo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Isobe, Tomohiko; Misaki, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-04-01

    There are very few reports on the contamination by perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in the environment of developing countries, especially regarding their emission from waste recycling and disposal sites. This is the first study on the occurrence of a wide range of PFCs (17 compounds) in ambient water in Vietnam, including samples collected from a municipal dumping site (MD), an e-waste recycling site (ER), a battery recycling site (BR) and a rural control site. The highest PFC concentration was found in a leachate sample from MD (360 ng/L). The PFC concentrations in ER and BR (mean, 57 and 16 ng/L, respectively) were also significantly higher than those detected in the rural control site (mean, 9.4 ng/L), suggesting that municipal solid waste and waste electrical and electronic equipment are potential contamination sources of PFCs in Vietnam. In general, the most abundant PFCs were perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUDA; <1.4-100, <1.2-100, and <0.5-20 ng/L, respectively). Interestingly, there were specific PFC profiles: perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorohexanoic acid (88 and 77 ng/L, respectively) were almost as abundant as PFOA in MD leachate (100 ng/L), whereas PFNA was prevalent in ER and BR (mean, 17 and 6.2 ng/L, respectively) and PFUDA was the most abundant in municipal wastewater (mean, 5.6 ng/L), indicating differences in PFC contents in different waste materials.

  10. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  11. Perfluorinated alkylated acids in groundwater and drinking water: identification, origin and mobility.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Raat, Klaasjan J; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; De Voogt, Pim

    2013-08-01

    Human exposure to perfluorinated alkylated acids (PFAA) occurs primarily via the dietary intake and drinking water can contribute significantly to the overall PFAA intake. Drinking water is produced from surface water and groundwater. Waste water treatment plants have been identified as the main source for PFAA in surface waters and corresponding drinking water. However, even though groundwater is an important source for drinking water production, PFAA sources remain largely uncertain. In this paper, we identified different direct and indirect sources of PFAA to groundwater within the catchment area of a public supply well field (PSWF) in The Netherlands. Direct sources were landfill leachate and water draining from a nearby military base/urban area. Indirect sources were infiltrated rainwater. Maximum concentrations encountered in groundwater within the landfill leachate plume were 1.8 μg/L of non branched perfluorooctanoic acid (L-PFOA) and 1.2 μg/L of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA). Sum concentrations amounted to 4.4 μg/L total PFAA. The maximum concentration of ΣPFAA in the groundwater originating from the military camp was around 17 ng/L. Maximum concentrations measured in the groundwater halfway the landfill and the PWSF (15 years travel distance) were 29 and 160 ng/L for L-PFOA and PFBA, respectively. Concentrations in the groundwater pumping wells (travel distance >25 years) were much lower: 0.96 and 3.5 ng/L for L-PFOA and PFBA, respectively. The chemical signature of these pumping wells corresponded to the signature encountered in other wells sampled which were fed by water that had not been in contact with potential contaminant sources, suggesting a widespread diffuse contamination from atmospheric deposition.

  12. Programming of metabolic effects in C57BL/6JxFVB mice by in utero and lactational exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    van Esterik, J C J; Bastos Sales, L; Dollé, M E T; Håkansson, H; Herlin, M; Legler, J; van der Ven, L T M

    2016-03-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is known to cause developmental toxicity and is a suggested endocrine disrupting compound (EDC). Early life exposure to EDCs has been implicated in programming of the developing organism for chronic diseases later in life. Here we study perinatal metabolic programming by PFOA using an experimental design relevant for human exposure. C57BL/6JxFVB hybrid mice were exposed during gestation and lactation via maternal feed to seven low doses of PFOA at and below the NOAEL used for current risk assessment (3-3000 µg/kg body weight/day). After weaning, offspring were followed for 23-25 weeks without further exposure. Offspring showed a dose-dependent decrease in body weight from postnatal day 4 to adulthood. Growth under high fat diet in the last 4-6 weeks of follow-up was increased in male and decreased in female offspring. Both sexes showed increased liver weights, hepatic foci of cellular alterations and nuclear dysmorphology. In females, reductions in perigonadal and perirenal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides and cholesterol were also observed. Endocrine parameters, such as glucose tolerance, serum insulin and leptin, were not affected. In conclusion, our study with perinatal exposure to PFOA in mice produced metabolic effects in adult offspring. This is most likely due to disrupted programming of metabolic homeostasis, but the assayed endpoints did not provide a mechanistic explanation. The BMDL of the programming effects in our study is below the current point of departure used for calculation of the tolerable daily intake.

  13. A species difference in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-dependent response to the developmental effects of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Prajakta P; Torsell, Nicole E; Krishnan, Prasad; Ehresman, David J; Frame, Steven R; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L; Kennedy, Gerald L; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effect of prenatal perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) administration on pre- and postnatal development using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-humanized mice to determine if species differences in receptor activity might influence the developmental effects induced by PFOA. Pregnant mice were treated daily with water or PFOA (3mg/kg) by po gavage from gestation day 1 (GD1) until GD17 and then either euthanized on GD18 or allowed to give birth and then euthanized on postnatal day 20 (PND20). No changes in average fetal weight, crown-to-rump length, or placental weight were observed on GD18. Expression of mRNA encoding the PPARα target genes acyl CoA oxidase (Acox1) and cytochrome P450 4a10 (Cyp4a10) in maternal and fetal liver was increased on GD18 in wild-type and PPARα-humanized mice but not in Pparα-null mice. On PND20, relative liver weight was higher in wild-type mice but not in Pparα-null mice or PPARα-humanized mice. Hepatic expression of Acox1 and Cyp4a10 mRNA was higher in wild-type mice but not in Pparα-null mice or PPARα-humanized mice on PND20. The percentage of mice surviving postnatally was lower in wild-type litters but not in litters from Pparα-null mice or PPARα-humanized mice. No changes in pup weight gain, onset of eye opening, or mammary gland development were found in any genotype. Results from these studies demonstrate that the developmental/postnatal effects resulting from prenatal PFOA exposure in mice are differentially mediated by mouse and human PPARα.

  14. The Effects of Perfluorinated Chemicals on Adipoctye ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte culture system has been used to examine numerous compounds that influence adipocyte differentiation or function. The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), used as surfactants in a variety of industrial applications, are of concern as environmental contaminants that are detected worldwide in human serum and animal tissues. This study was designed to evaluate the potential for PFAAs to affect adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation using mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (5-100 IJM), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (5-100 1JM), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (50-300 IJM}, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (40-250 IJM), the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) PPARa agonist Wyeth-14,643 (WY-14,643), and the PPARy agonist rosiglitazone. The PPARy agonist was included as a positive control as this pathway is critical to adipocyte differentiation. The PPARa agonist was included as the PFAA compounds are known activators of this pathway. Cells were assessed morphometrically and biochemically for number, size, and lipid content. RNA was extracted for qPCR analysis of 13 genes selected for their importance in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. There was a significant concentration-related increase in cell number and decreased cell size after exposure to PFOA, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFNA. All four PFAA treatments produced a concentration-related decrease in the calculated average area oc

  15. Perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) atmospheric formation and transport to the Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pike-thackray, C.; Selin, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are highly persistent and toxic environmental contaminants that have been found in remote locations such as the Arctic, far from emission sources. These persistent organic pollutants are emitted directly to the atmosphere as well as being produced by the degradation of precursor compounds in the atmosphere, but recent trends towards increasing precursor emissions and decreasing direct emissions raise the importance of production in the atmosphere. Our work aims to improve understanding of the atmospheric degradation of fluorotelomer precursor compounds to form the long-chain PFCAs PFOA (C8) and PFNA (C9).Using the atmospheric chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, which uses assimilated meteorology to simulate the atmospheric transport of trace gas species, we investigate the interaction of the atmospheric formation of PFCAs and the atmospheric transport of their precursor species. Our simulations are a first application of the GEOS-Chem framework to PFCA chemistry. We highlight the importance of the spatial and temporal variability of background atmospheric chemical conditions experienced during transport. We find that yields and formation times of PFOA and PFNA respond differently and strongly to the photochemical conditions of the atmosphere, such as the abundance of NO, HO2, and other photochemical species.

  16. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord serum and association with growth indicators in newborns from Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Yang, Lin; Li, Jingguang; Lai, Jianqiang; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2017-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a group of environmental pollutants, persistently exist in the environment. To investigate the associations between PFASs levels in cord serum and birth weight, birth length and ponderal index, we measured PFASs in cord serum samples from 170 infants from Feb. 2012 to Jun. 2012 in Beijing, China. The mean concentrations in cord serum samples for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA) were 1.285 ng/mL, 1.228 ng/mL, 0.230 ng/mL, 0.224 ng/mL, 0.100 ng/mL and 0.085 ng/mL, respectively. First-born children had slightly higher exposure levels of PFHxS (p < 0.001) and PFOA (p = 0.03) than second-born or third-born children. The spearman correlation coefficients with gestation time were individually 0.160 (p = 0.038) for PFHxS and 0.202 (p = 0.008) for PFOA. Both univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the exposure levels of PFASs had no statistically significant associations with birth weight, birth length or ponderal index in the present population. For male infants, we observed that PFHxS positively correlated with birth length, but the levels of PFUnA were negatively associated with birth length.

  17. Photocatalytic decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid by iron and niobium co-doped titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Estrellan, Carl Renan; Salim, Chris; Hinode, Hirofumi

    2010-07-15

    The photocatalytic decomposition of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in aqueous solution using Fe and Nb co-doped TiO(2) (Fe:Nb-TiO(2)) prepared by sol-gel method was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe:Nb-TiO(2) towards PFOA degradation was compared to that of pure TiO(2) synthesized using the same method, and that of the commercially available TiO(2) photocatalyst, Aeroxide TiO(2) P25 (AO-TiO(2) P25). The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, DRS, BET-N(2) adsorption isotherm, and SEM-EDX techniques and the data were correlated to the photocatalytic activity. Fe:Nb-TiO(2) showed the highest activity compared to the undoped TiO(2) and the commercially available TiO(2). Such activity was attributable to the effects of co-doping both on the physico-chemical properties and surface interfacial charge transfer mechanisms. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with shorter carbon chain length and fluoride ions were identified as photocatalytic reaction intermediates and products.

  18. Determination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in various foodstuff packaging materials used in the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Costopoulou, Danae; Vassiliadou, Irene; Bakeas, Evangelos; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2014-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used in food packaging materials as coatings/additives for oil and moisture resistance. In the current study, foodstuff-packaging materials collected from the Greek market, made of paper, paperboard or aluminum foil were analyzed for the determination of PFCs. For the analysis of the samples, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) and isotope dilution method were applied to develop a specific and sensitive method of analysis for the quantification of 12 PFCs: perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and the qualitative detection of 5 more: perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA), perflyohexadecanoic acid (PFHxDA), perfluorooctadecanoic acid (PFODA) and perfluorodecane sulfonate (PFDS). No PFCs were quantified in aluminum foil wrappers, baking paper materials or beverage cups. PFTrDA, PFTeDA and PFHxDA were detected in fast food boxes. In the ice cream cup sample only PFHxA was found. On the other hand, several PFCs were quantified and detected in fast food wrappers, while the highest levels of PFCs were found in the microwave popcorn bag. PFOA and PFOS were not detected in any of the samples. Compared to other studies from different countries, very low concentrations of PFCs were detected in the packaging materials analyzed. Our results suggest that probably no serious danger for consumers’ health can be associated with PFCs contamination of packaging materials used in Greece.

  19. Alternative Fluoropolymers to Avoid the Challenges Associated with Perfluorooctanoic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Guo,J.; Resnick, P.; Efimenko, K.; Genzer, J.; DeSimones, J.

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of stain-resistant coating materials leads to the release of biopersistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the environment. In order to find the environmentally friendly substitutes, we have designed and synthesized a series of nonbiopersistant fluorinated polymers containing perfluorobutyl groups in the side chains. The surface properties of the new coating materials were characterized by static and dynamic contact angle measurements. The new coating materials demonstrate promising hydrophobic and oleophobic properties with low surfaces tensions. The wetting properties and surface structure of the polymers were tuned by varying the 'spacer' structures between the polymer backbones and the perfluorinated groups of the side chains. The relationship between orientations of the fluorinated side chains and performances of polymer surfaces were further investigated by near-edge X-ray fine absorption structure (NEXAFS) experiments and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  20. Increasing concentrations of perfluoroalkyl acids in Scandinavian otters (Lutra lutra) between 1972 and 2011: a new threat to the otter population?

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna; Berger, Urs; Järnberg, Ulf; van Dijk, Jiska; Bignert, Anders

    2013-10-15

    Liver samples from 140 otters (Lutra lutra) from Sweden and Norway were analyzed for 10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs; C6-C15), 4 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs; C4,C6,C8,C10) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA). Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant compound accounting for approximately 80% of the fluorinated contaminants and showing concentrations up to 16 μg/g wet weight. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the dominant PFCA (up to 640 ng/g wet weight) closely followed by the C10 and C11 homologues. A spatial comparison between otters from southwestern Norway, southern and northern Sweden sampled between 2005 and 2011 revealed that the samples from southern Sweden had generally the largest contaminant load, but two PFCAs and FOSA were higher concentrated in the Norwegian samples. A temporal trend study was performed on otters from southern Sweden collected between 1972 and 2011. Seven PFCAs (C8-C14), PFOS and perfluorodecane sulfonic acid (PFDS) showed significantly increasing trends with doubling times between 5.5 and 13 years. The PFCAs also showed significantly increasing trends over the period 2002 to 2011. These findings together with the exceptionally high liver concentrations of PFOS are of great concern for the Scandinavian otter populations.

  1. Biomonitoring of perfluorochemicals in plasma of New York State personnel responding to the World Trade Center disaster.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Aldous, Kenneth M; Mauer, Matthew P; Eadon, George A

    2008-05-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 resulted in the release of several airborne pollutants in and around the site. Perfluorochemicals including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), which are used in soil- and stain-resistant coatings on upholstery, carpets, leather, floor waxes, polishes, and in fire-fighting foams were potentially released during the collapse of the WTC. In this pilot study, we analyzed 458 plasma samples of New York State (NYS) employees and National Guard personnel assigned to work in the vicinity of the WTC between September 11 and December 23, 2001, to assess exposure to perfluorochemicals released in dust and smoke. The plasma samples collected from NYS WTC responders were grouped based on estimated levels of exposure to dust and smoke, as follows: more dust exposure (MDE), less dust exposure (LDE), more smoke exposure (MSE), and less smoke exposure (LSE). Furthermore, samples were grouped, based on self-reported symptoms at the time of sampling, as symptomatic and asymptomatic. Eight perfluorochemicals were measured in 458 plasma samples. PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), were consistently detected in almost all samples. PFOA and PFHxS concentrations were approximately 2-fold higher in WTC responders than the concentrations reported for the U.S. general population. No significant difference was observed in the concentrations of perfluorochemicals between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Concentrations of PFHxS were significantly (p < or = 0.05) higher in the MDE group than in the LDE group. Concentrations of PFNA were significantly higher in the MSE group than in the LSE group. Significantly higher concentrations of PFOA and PFHxS were found in individuals exposed to smoke than in individuals exposed to dust. A significant negative correlation existed between plasma lipid content and concentrations of certain perfluorochemicals

  2. Quantifying diffuse and point inputs of perfluoroalkyl acids in a nonindustrial river catchment.

    PubMed

    Müller, Claudia E; Spiess, Nora; Gerecke, Andreas C; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the role of diffuse inputs of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) into surface waters has been investigated. It has been observed that river loads increased during rain and that street runoff contained considerable loads of PFAAs. This study aims at quantifying these diffuse inputs and identifying the initial sources in a small nonindustrial river catchment. The river was sampled in three distinct subcatchments (rural, urban, and wastewater treatment plant) at high temporal resolution during two rain events and samples were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorosulfonates. Additionally, rain, stormwater runoff, wastewater effluent, and drinking water were sampled. PFAA concentrations in river water were all low (e.g., < 10 ng/L for perfluorooctanoate, PFOA), but increased during rainfall. PFAA concentrations and water discharge data were integrated into a mass balance assessment that shows that 30-60% of PFAA loads can be attributed to diffuse inputs. Rain contributed 10-50% of the overall loads, mobilization of dry deposition and outdoor release of PFAA from products with 20-60%. We estimated that within a year 2.5-5 g of PFOA originating from rain and surface runoff are emitted into this small catchment (6 km(2), 12,500 persons).

  3. Occurrence, temporal trends, and half-lives of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in occupational workers in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Cui, Lin; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Qu, Guangbo; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Aiqian; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-12-01

    Paired serum and urine samples were collected from workers in a fluorochemical plant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 302) to investigate the level, temporal trends, and half-lives of PFAAs in workers of a fluorochemical plant. High levels of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in serum with median concentrations of 764, 427, and 1725 ng mL‑1, respectively. The half-lives of PFAAs in workers were estimated by daily clearance rates and annual decline rates of PFAAs in serum by a first-order model. The geometric mean and median value for PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS were 14.7 and 11.7, 4.1 and 4.0, 32.6 and 21.6 years, respectively, by the daily clearance rates, and they were 3.6, 1.7, and 1.9 years estimated by annual decline rates. The half-lives estimated by the limited clearance route information could be considered as the upper limits for PFAAs, however, the huge difference between two estimated approaches indicated that there were other important elimination pathways of PFAAs other than renal clearance in human. The half-lives estimated by annual decline rates in the present study were the shortest values ever reported, and the intrinsic half-lives might even shorter due to the high levels of ongoing exposure to PFAAs.

  4. Occurrence, temporal trends, and half-lives of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in occupational workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Cui, Lin; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Qu, Guangbo; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Yawei; Zhang, Aiqian; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-01-01

    Paired serum and urine samples were collected from workers in a fluorochemical plant from 2008 to 2012 (n = 302) to investigate the level, temporal trends, and half-lives of PFAAs in workers of a fluorochemical plant. High levels of perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in serum with median concentrations of 764, 427, and 1725 ng mL−1, respectively. The half-lives of PFAAs in workers were estimated by daily clearance rates and annual decline rates of PFAAs in serum by a first-order model. The geometric mean and median value for PFHxS, PFOA, and PFOS were 14.7 and 11.7, 4.1 and 4.0, 32.6 and 21.6 years, respectively, by the daily clearance rates, and they were 3.6, 1.7, and 1.9 years estimated by annual decline rates. The half-lives estimated by the limited clearance route information could be considered as the upper limits for PFAAs, however, the huge difference between two estimated approaches indicated that there were other important elimination pathways of PFAAs other than renal clearance in human. The half-lives estimated by annual decline rates in the present study were the shortest values ever reported, and the intrinsic half-lives might even shorter due to the high levels of ongoing exposure to PFAAs. PMID:27905562

  5. Bioconcentration of perfluoroalkyl substances by Chironomus plumosus larvae in water with different types of dissolved organic matters.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wu; Xia, Xinghui; Chen, Xi; Wang, Haotian; Zhu, Baotong; Li, Husheng; Li, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The effects of four types of dissolved organic matters (DOM) on the bioconcentration of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Chironomus plumosus larvae have been studied. The PFASs included perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA). The DOM included humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), tannic acid (TA), and a protein, peptone (PEP), and their concentrations ranged from 0 to 50 mg L(-1). The results showed that, upon bioconcentration equilibrium, the body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs (PFOS, PFDA, PFUnA and PFDoA) decreased with PEP and HA concentrations while increased with FA and TA concentrations. When FA and TA concentrations increased from 0 to 50 mg L(-1), body burdens of these PFASs increased by 7.5%-148.8% and 5.7%-37.1%, respectively. However, the DOM had no significant impact on the body burdens of shorter perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs (PFOA and PFNA). All of the four types of DOM lowered not only the uptake rate constants (ku) of PFASs due to the decrease of freely dissolved PFAS concentrations, but also the elimination rate constants (ke) due to the inhibition effect of DOM on the PFAS elimination from the larvae. The reduction in the two constants varied with both DOM and PFAS types. In the presence of PEP and HA with larger molecular weights, the ku values decreased more than ke, leading to the decreased body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs. As for FA and TA with smaller molecular weights, the ke values decreased more than ku, resulting in increased body burdens of longer perfluoroalkyl chain PFASs. This study suggests that the effects of DOM on PFAS bioconcentration depend not only on the concentration but also on the molecule weight of DOM, which should be considered in the bioavailability assessment of PFASs.

  6. Synergistic effects of perfluoroalkyl acids mixtures with J-shaped concentration-responses on viability of a human liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiayue; Li, Juan; Wang, Jianshe; Zhang, Aiqian; Dai, Jiayin

    2014-02-01

    Some perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly persistent and bioaccumulative, resulting in their broad coexisting distribution in humans and the environment. Our aim was to investigate the individual and joint effects of PFAAs on cellular viability of a human liver cell line (HL-7702) using the MTT assay. Equipartition ray design and equivalent-effect concentration ratio (EECR) mixtures were used to investigate the binary and multiple effects of PFAAs, respectively. All tested PFAAs mixtures and the individuals (except perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) and perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTeDA)) showed obvious non-monotonic J-shaped concentration-response curves (CRC) on HL-7702. The inhibitory effect of individual PFAAs increased with the elongation of the carbon chain and was dominated by their molecular volume. The three binary mixtures (PFOA/S, PFHxA/S and PFBA/S) showed that synergistic effects occurred under effective inhibitory concentrations (IC) of IC0, IC10, and IC50 in mixtures, while for IC-20 the synergistic effect only occurred under higher PFSA proportion in mixtures. Furthermore, EECR mixtures of the nine individual PFAAs with J-shaped CRC also showed synergistic effects. However, mixtures of the eleven individual PFAAs including those with S-shaped CRC resulted in partial addition effects on HL-7702. Our results indicated that the individual stimulatory responses of HL-7702 to PFAA may produce adverse effects in mixtures at relevant dose levels.

  7. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorochemicals in albatrosses, elephant seals, penguins, and polar skuas from the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Costa, Monica M; Fillmann, Gilberto; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-12-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used as surfactants in industrial and commercial products for over 50 years. Earlier studies of the geographical distribution of PFCs focused primarily on the Northern Hemisphere, while little attention was paid to the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, livers from eight species of albatrosses, blood from elephant seal, and blood and eggs from penguins and polar skua collected from the Southern Ocean and the Antarctic during 1995-2005 were analyzed for 10 PFCs. In addition, for comparison with the Southern Ocean samples, we analyzed liver, sera, and eggs from two species of albatrosses from Midway Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were found in livers of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean. PFOS was the major contaminant, although the concentrations were <5 ng/g, wet wt, in 92% of the albatross livers analyzed. PFOA was detected in 30% of the albatross livers, with a concentration range of <0.6-2.45 ng/g,wet wt. Other PFCs, including long-chain perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), were below the limits of quantitation in livers of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean. In liver, sera, and eggs of albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean, long-chain PFCAs (perfluorononanoate, perfluorodecanoate, perfluoroundecanoate, and perfluorododecanoate) were found at concentrations similar to those of PFOS and PFOA. The mean concentration of PFOS in livers of Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean (5.1 ng/g, wet wt) was higher than that in several species of albatrosses from the Southern Ocean (2.2 ng/g, wetwt). Species-specific differences in the concentrations of PFOS were noted among Southern Ocean albatrosses, whereas geographical differences in PFOS concentrations among the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and South Atlantic Ocean were insignificant. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were, respectively, 2- and 17-fold higher in liver than in sera of Laysan

  8. Comparing humic substance and protein compound effects on the bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl substances by Daphnia magna in water.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinghui; Dai, Zhineng; Rabearisoa, Andry Harinaina; Zhao, Pujun; Jiang, Xiaoman

    2015-01-01

    The influence of humic substances and protein compounds on the bioaccumulation of six types of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Daphnia magna was compared. The humic substances included humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA), the protein compounds included chicken egg albumin (albumin) and peptone, and the PFASs included perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid, perfluoroundecanoic acid, and perfluorododecanoic acid. Four concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) of the four dissolved organic matter (DOM) types were investigated. At the 1 mg L(-1) level, HA and albumin enhanced all tested PFAS bioaccumulation, whereas FA and peptone only enhanced the bioaccumulation of shorter-chain PFASs (PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA). However, all four DOM types decreased all tested PFAS bioaccumulation at the 20 mg L(-1) level, and the decreasing ratios of bioaccumulation factors caused by FA, HA, albumin, and peptone were 1-49%, 23-77%, 17-58%, and 8-56%, respectively compared with those without DOM. This is because DOM not only reduced the bioavailable concentrations and uptake rates of PFASs but also lowered the elimination rates of PFASs in D. magna, and these opposite effects would change with different DOM types and concentrations. Although the partition coefficients (L kg(-1)) of PFASs between HA and water (10(4.21)-10(4.98)) were much lower than those between albumin and water (10(4.92)-10(5.86)), their effects on PFAS bioaccumulation were comparable. This study suggests that although PFASs are a type of proteinophilic compounds, humic substances also have important effects on their bioavailability and bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms.

  9. Modeling the air-soil transport pathway of perfluorooctanoic acid in the mid-Ohio Valley using linked air dispersion and vadose zone models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Ryan, P. Barry; Vieira, Verónica M.; Bartell, Scott M.

    2012-05-01

    As part of an extensive modeling effort on the air-soil-groundwater transport pathway of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), this study was designed to compare the performance of different air dispersion modeling systems (AERMOD vs. ISCST3), and different approaches to handling incomplete meteorological data using a data set with substantial soil measurements and a well characterized point source for air emissions. Two of the most commonly used EPA air dispersion models, AERMOD and ISCST3, were linked with the EPA vadose zone model PRZM-3. Predicted deposition rates from the air dispersion model were used as input values for the vadose zone model to estimate soil concentrations of PFOA at different depths. We applied 34 years of meteorological data including hourly surface measurements from Parkersburg Airport and 5 years of onsite wind direction and speed to the air dispersion models. We compared offsite measured soil concentrations to predictions made for the corresponding sampling depths, focusing on soil rather than air measurements because the offsite soil samples were less likely to be influenced by short-term variability in emission rates and meteorological conditions. PFOA concentrations in surface soil (0-30 cm depth) were under-predicted and those in subsurface soil (>30 cm depth) were over-predicted compared to observed concentrations by both linked air and vadose zone model. Overall, the simulated values from the linked modeling system were positively correlated with those observed in surface soil (Spearman's rho, Rsp = 0.59-0.70) and subsurface soil (Rsp = 0.46-0.48). This approach provides a useful modeling scheme for similar exposure and risk analyses where the air-soil-groundwater transport is a primary contamination pathway.

  10. Analysis of perfluorinated carboxylic acids in soils II: optimization of chromatography and extraction.

    PubMed

    Washington, John W; Henderson, W Matthew; Ellington, J Jackson; Jenkins, Thomas M; Evans, John J

    2008-02-15

    With the objective of detecting and quantitating low concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in soils, we compared the analytical suitability of liquid chromatography columns containing three different stationary phases, two different liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) systems, and eight combinations of sample-extract pretreatments, extractions and cleanups on three test soils. For the columns and systems we tested, we achieved the greatest analytical sensitivity for PFCAs using a column with a C(18) stationary phase in a Waters LC/MS/MS. In this system we achieved an instrument detection limit for PFOA of 270 ag/microL, equating to about 14 fg of PFOA on-column. While an elementary acetonitrile/water extraction of soils recovers PFCAs effectively, natural soil organic matter also dissolved in the extracts commonly imparts significant noise that appears as broad, multi-nodal, asymmetric peaks that coelute with several PFCAs. The intensity and elution profile of this noise is highly variable among soils and it challenges detection of low concentrations of PFCAs by decreasing the signal-to-noise contrast. In an effort to decrease this background noise, we investigated several methods of pretreatment, extraction and cleanup, in a variety of combinations, that used alkaline and unbuffered water, acetonitrile, tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate, methyl-tert-butyl ether, dispersed activated carbon and solid-phase extraction. For the combined objectives of complete recovery and minimization of background noise, we have chosen: (1) alkaline pretreatment; (2) extraction with acetonitrile/water; (3) evaporation to dryness; (4) reconstitution with tetrabutylammonium-hydrogen-sulfate ion-pairing solution; (5) ion-pair extraction to methyl-tert-butyl ether; (6) evaporation to dryness; (7) reconstitution with 60/40 acetonitrile/water (v/v); and (8) analysis by LC/MS/MS. Using this method, we

  11. Ion-pair sorptive extraction of perfluorinated compounds from water with low-cost polymeric materials: polyethersulfone vs polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Villaverde-de-Sáa, Eugenia; Racamonde, Inés; Quintana, José Benito; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael

    2012-08-31

    A method for the determination of seven perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in aqueous samples using low-cost polymeric sorptive extraction as sample preparation technique, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination has been developed and validated. Simplicity of the analytical procedure, low volume of solvent and sample required, low global price and a good selectivity providing cleaner extracts are the main advantages of this extraction technique. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyethersulfone (PES) materials were evaluated and compared to achieve the best extraction efficiencies. Hence, different variables have been optimized, viz.: sample pH, concentration of an ion-pairing agent (tetrabutylammonium), ionic strength, sample volume, extraction time, desorption solvent volume, desorption time and the need for auxiliary desorption techniques (sonication). Overall, PES leaded to a better sensitivity than PDMS, particularly for the most polar compounds, reaching detection limits (LODs) in the 0.2-20 ng L(-1) range. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was lower than 16%. Finally, the PES material was employed for the analysis of sea, sewage and fresh water samples. Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were detected in all the analyzed influent samples reaching levels of up to 401 ng L(-1). In surface water, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exhibited the highest concentrations, up to 137 ng L(-1).

  12. Assessing Uncertainty in the Toxicology of PFOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use an approach known as Bayesian statistics to characterize our knowledge about the behavior of a chemical prior to an experiment and make explicit our assumptions about how we think the chemical behaves. When we then analyze the results of an experiment, we determine probab...

  13. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies.

  14. Occurrence and transport of 17 perfluoroalkyl acids in 12 coastal rivers in south Bohai coastal region of China with concentrated fluoropolymer facilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Fu, Yaning; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Liu, Shijie; Xie, Shuangwei; Xiao, Yang; Giesy, John P

    2014-07-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are emerging contaminants that have raised great concern in recent years. While PFAAs manufacturing becomes regulated in developed countries, production has been partly shifted to China. Eight fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities located in the South Bohai coastal region, one of the most populated areas of China, have been used to manufacture PFAA-related substances since 2001. The environmental consequence of the intensive production of PFAAs in this region remains largely unknown. We analyzed 17 PFAAs in twelve coastal rivers of this region, and found staggeringly high concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) ranging from 0.96 to 4534.41 ng/L. The highest concentration was observed in the Xiaoqing River which received effluents from certain fluoropolymer facilities. Principal component analysis indicated similar sources of several perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) in all rivers, which indicated that atmospheric transport, wastewater treatment and surface runoff also acted as important supplements to direct discharge to surface water.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  16. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    SciTech Connect

    Monroy, Rocio; Morrison, Katherine; Teo, Koon; Atkinson, Stephanie; Kubwabo, Cariton; Stewart, Brian; Foster, Warren G.

    2008-09-15

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean{+-}S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1{+-}10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2{+-}10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3{+-}5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05{+-}12.3 and 5.05{+-}12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight.

  17. Genotoxicity of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) to the green mussel (Perna viridis).

    PubMed

    Liu, Changhui; Chang, Victor W C; Gin, Karina Y H; Nguyen, Viet Tung

    2014-07-15

    Concerns regarding perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have grown significantly in recent years. However, regulations and guidelines regarding the emission and treatment of PFCs are still missing in most parts of the world, mostly due to the lack of PFC toxicity data. In the current study, the genotoxic effects of four common PFCs, named perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroocanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) were investigated on marine mussels. The effects of exposure time and concentration on the toxic behavior of the compounds were also examined. Genotoxicity of PFCs was assessed in biomarker assays, showing that exposure to the target compounds could damage the organism's genetic material to varying extents, including DNA strand breaks and fragmentation, chromosomal breaks and apoptosis. The adverse effects increased with both exposure concentration and time and were related with the organism burden of PFCs. The integrated biomarker response analysis demonstrated that PFOS exhibited a higher genotoxicity than the other tested compounds. The EC50 values and confidence intervals based on integrative genotoxicity were 33 (29-37), 594 (341-1036), 195 (144-265) and 78 (73-84) μg/L for PFOS, PFOA, PFNA and PFDA respectively, classifying PFOS as a highly genotoxic compound. Although primary DNA damage was shown to be recoverable after exposure ceased, permanent genetic damage caused by elevated PFC concentrations was not restored. This is the first ecotoxicity study of PFCs that focuses on the genotoxic effects of the compounds, clearly indicating the genotoxicity of the tested PFCs and demonstrating that functional groups have a major impact on the compounds' genotoxic behavior.

  18. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances in limed biosolids from a large municipal water resource recovery facility.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Dana L; Lozano, Nuria; Rice, Clifford P; Ramirez, Mark; Torrents, Alba

    2016-01-01

    While the recycling of wastewater biosolids via land-application is a sustainable practice for nutrient recovery and soil reclamation that has become increasingly common worldwide, concerns remain that this practice may become a source of toxic, persistent organic pollutants to the environment. This study concentrates on assessing the presence and the temporal trends of 12 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pollutants of global consequence, in limed Class B biosolids from a municipal water resource recovery facility (WRRF), also know as a wastewater treatment plant. PFASs are of significant concern due to their extensive presence and persistence in environmental and biotic samples worldwide, most notably human blood samples. Class B biosolids were collected from the WRRF, prior to land-application, approximately every two to three months, from 2005 to 2013. Overall, this study found that concentrations of the 7 detectable PFAS compounds remained unchanged over the 8-year period, a result that is consistent with other temporal studies of these compounds in sewage sludges. From these analyzed compounds, the highest mean concentrations observed over the study period were 25.1 ng/g dw, 23.5 ng/g dw, and 22.5 ng/g dw for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), respectively, and these compounds were detected at concentrations 2.5-5 times higher than the remaining, detectable PFASs. Furthermore, it was observed that PFOS, while demonstrating no overall change during the study, exhibited a visible spike in concentration from late 2006 to early 2007. This study indicates that concentrations of PFASs in WRRFs have been stagnant over time, despite regulation. This study also demonstrates that the use of glass jars with polytetrafluoroethylene-lined lids, a common storage method for environmental samples, will not influence PFOA and PFNA concentrations in archived biosolids samples.

  19. Activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha by perfluoroalkyl acids of different functional groups and chain lengths.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Cynthia J; Takacs, Margy L; Schmid, Judith E; Lau, Christopher; Abbott, Barbara D

    2008-11-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are surfactants used in consumer products and persist in the environment. Some PFAAs elicit adverse effects on rodent development and survival. PFAAs can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and may act via PPARalpha to produce some of their effects. This study evaluated the ability of numerous PFAAs to induce mouse and human PPARalpha activity in a transiently transfected COS-1 cell assay. COS-1 cells were transfected with either a mouse or human PPARalpha receptor-luciferase reporter plasmid. After 24 h, cells were exposed to either negative controls (water or dimethyl sulfoxide, 0.1%); positive control (WY-14643, PPARalpha agonist); perfluorooctanoic acid or perfluorononanoic acid at 0.5-100 microM; perfluorobutanoic acid, perfluorohexanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonate, or perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) at 5-100 microM; or perfluorobutane sulfonate or perfluorooctane sulfonate at 1-250 microM. After 24 h of exposure, luciferase activity from the plasmid was measured. Each PFAA activated both mouse and human PPARalpha in a concentration-dependent fashion, except PFDA with human PPARalpha. Activation of PPARalpha by PFAA carboxylates was positively correlated with carbon chain length, up to C9. PPARalpha activity was higher in response to carboxylates compared to sulfonates. Activation of mouse PPARalpha was generally higher compared to that of human PPARalpha. We conclude that, in general, (1) PFAAs of increasing carbon backbone chain lengths induce increasing activity of the mouse and human PPARalpha with a few exceptions, (2) PFAA carboxylates are stronger activators of mouse and human PPARalpha than PFAA sulfonates, and (3) in most cases, the mouse PPARalpha appears to be more sensitive to PFAAs than the human PPARalpha in this model.

  20. Biomagnification and tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Goeritz, Ina; Falk, Sandy; Stahl, Thorsten; Schäfers, Christoph; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the biomagnification potential as well as the substance and tissue-specific distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout with an average body weight of 314 ± 21 g were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in the diet for 28 d. The accumulation phase was followed by a 28-d depuration phase, in which the test animals were fed with nonspiked trout feed. On days 0, 7, 14, 28, 31, 35, 42, and 56 of the present study, fish were sampled from the test basin for PFAS analysis. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all test compounds were determined based on a kinetic approach. Distribution factors were calculated for each test compound to illustrate the disposition of PFASs in rainbow trout after 28 d of exposure. Dietary exposure of market-size rainbow trout to PFASs did not result in biomagnification; BMF values were calculated as 0.42 for PFOS, >0.23 for PFNA, >0.18 for PFHxS, >0.04 for PFOA, and >0.02 for PFBS, which are below the biomagnification threshold of 1. Liver, blood, kidney, and skin were identified as the main target tissues for PFASs in market-size rainbow trout. Evidence was shown that despite relative low PFAS contamination, the edible parts of the fish (the fillet and skin) can significantly contribute to the whole-body burden.

  1. Devopmental toxicity of perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is not dependent on expression on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha)in the mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are members of a family of perfluorinated compounds. Both are environmentally persistent and found in the serum of wildlife and humans. PFOS and PFOA are developmentally toxic in laboratory rodents. Exposure to t...

  2. Effects of perfluorinated chemicals on thyroid function, markers of ovarian reserve, and natural fertility.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie M; Fenton, Suzanne E; Strynar, Mark; Hines, Erin P; Pritchard, David A; Steiner, Anne Z

    2017-01-19

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) can act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, but there has been limited study of their effects on ovarian reserve or fecundability. 99 women, 30-44 years old, without infertility were followed until pregnancy. Initially, serum was evaluated for Antimullerian hormone (AMH), thyroid hormones: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (fT4), and triiodothyronine (T3), and PFCs: perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS). Bivariate analyses assessed the relationship between thyroid hormones, AMH, and PFCs. Fecundability ratios (FR) were determined for each PFC using a discrete time-varying Cox model and a day-specific probability model. PFC levels were positively correlated with each other (r 0.24-0.90), but there was no correlation with TSH (r 0.02-0.15) or AMH (r -0.01 to -0.15). FR point estimates for each PFC were neither strong nor statistically significant. Although increased exposure to PFCs correlates with thyroid hormone levels, there is no significant association with fecundability or ovarian reserve.

  3. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in entire clutches of Audouin's gulls from the Ebro Delta.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Joana; Sanpera, Carola; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Pérez, Alba; Lacorte, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in three-egg clutches of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) breeding in Ebro Delta's colony according to the laying order (a, b and c eggs). Five PFASs were analyzed in 30 eggs (yolk and albumen separately), corresponding to 10 three-egg clutches. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured as dietary tracers. PFASs were not detected in albumen. In egg yolks, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the main compound detected followed by perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFBS) was not detected. Mean ΣPFASs for a-eggs was of 236±57 ng g(-1) yolk wet weight (ww), for b-eggs was of 140±56 ng g(-1) yolk ww and for c-eggs, 133±54 ng g(-1) yolk ww. PFOS concentration decreased according to the laying order of the eggs, showing significant differences between consecutive eggs. In addition, significant correlation (rs2=0.7-0.9) was observed for PFOS concentration within the eggs from the same clutch. No relationship was found between PFOS levels and stable isotopes signatures. Capsule: In Audouin gull's eggs, PFOS was the main PFASs detected and its concentration decreased according to the laying sequence.

  4. Accumulation of perfluorinated compounds in captive Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Yeung, Leo Wai Yin; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Xu, Muqi; Dai, Jiayin

    2008-11-01

    The accumulation of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the sera of captive wildlife species Bengal tigers (Panthera tigris tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus) from Harbin Wildlife Park, Heilongjiang Province, in China were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant contaminant with a mean serum concentration of 1.18 ng mL(-1) in tigers and 2.69 ng mL(-1) in lions. Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the second most prevalent contaminant in both species. The composition profiles of the tested PFCs differed between tigers and lions, and the percentages of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were greater in lions than in tigers, indicating different exposures and/or metabolic capabilities between the two species. Assessments of the risk of PFC contamination to the two species were obtained by comparing measured concentrations to points of departure or toxicity reference values (TRVs). Results suggest no risk of PFOS exposure or toxicity for the two species.

  5. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and mussels from the Cantabrian Sea (North Spain).

    PubMed

    Gómez, Cristian; Vicente, Joana; Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz; Porte, Cinta; Lacorte, Silvia

    2011-05-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as significant global environmental pollutants with persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of PFCs in water (wastewater, submarine emissaries and port-waters), sediment and transplanted mussels in estuarine areas of high urban and industrial impact from Northern Spain. Five PFCs of industrial use were studied: perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, perfluorobutanesulfonate, perfluorooctanoate acid and perfluorononanoate acid. After selective extraction, samples were analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. ΣPFCs ranged from 0.06 to 10.9 ng/L in water, with higher levels in wastewater treatment plants effluents and port waters than in submarine emissaries. Little accumulation was observed in sediments and mussels with ΣPFCs ranging from 0.01-0.13 ng/g dw and 0.01-0.06 ng/g ww, respectively. Most ubiquitous compounds were PFOS and PFOA. Mass fluxes of PFCs to the Cantabrian Sea are estimated and the impact to the coastal ecosystem is discussed.

  6. Contribution of diffuse inputs to the aqueous mass load of perfluoroalkyl acids in river and stream catchments in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Li, Dong-Hao; Shoeib, Mahiba; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies disagree regarding the contributions of point versus non-point sources to the aqueous mass loads of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). This study investigated the longitudinal change in PFAA mass load from upstream to downstream stations along rivers and/or streams to assess the relative contributions of point versus nonpoint inputs. With concentrations 10 to 100 times higher than running water, point sources such as wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluent and airport ditch-outlet (ADO) water were separated from neighboring upstream and downstream running waters using principal component analysis. Source waters were characterized by certain predominant components [e.g., perfluorobutylsulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in WWTP effluent and perfluorohexylsulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) in ADO water], which were minor components of running water. From a mass balance assessment of PFAA mass load, certain compounds such as PFOA and PFBS dominated the contribution of point sources to the mass load in the running water at downstream stations or in small catchment basins with high levels of industrial activity. Most of the mass load in the investigated catchments was attributable to upstream running water with a minor influence from industrial, commercial, and domestic human activities. Furthermore, the negative relationship of per capita emission factors (hereafter, EFs) with population density and a lower contribution of PFAA from WWTPs (~30% on average) compared to the running water-derived mass load at the national level indicated that diffuse inputs were more important contributors to aqueous PFAA contamination in each catchment basin as well as the entire watershed of the country (Korea). Volatile precursor compounds, which are readily dispersed to neighboring basins and transformed to PFAAs in the ambient environment, can be an important source of these diffuse inputs and will become more significant over time.

  7. Perfluorochemicals and Human Semen Quality: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Kim, Sungduk; Sweeney, Anne M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Lynch, Courtney D.; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relation between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality is evolving, although limited data exist for men recruited from general populations. Objectives: We examined the relation between perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning pregnancy. Methods: Using population-based sampling strategies, we recruited 501 couples discontinuing contraception from two U.S. geographic regions from 2005 through 2009. Baseline interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted, followed by blood collection for the quantification of seven serum PFCs (perfluorosulfonates, perfluorocarboxylates, and perfluorosulfonamides) using tandem mass spectrometry. Men collected a baseline semen sample and another approximately 1 month later. Semen samples were shipped with freezer packs, and analyses were performed on the day after collection. We used linear regression to estimate the difference in each semen parameter associated with a one unit increase in the natural log–transformed PFC concentration after adjusting for confounders and modeling repeated semen samples. Sensitivity analyses included optimal Box-Cox transformation of semen quality end points. Results: Six PFCs [2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)] were associated with 17 semen quality end points before Box-Cox transformation. PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area and perimeter, a lower percentage of DNA stainability, and a higher percentage of bicephalic and immature sperm. PFDeA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were associated with a lower percentage of sperm with coiled tails. Conclusions: Select PFCs were associated with certain semen end points, with the most significant associations observed for PFOSA but with results in varying directions. Citation

  8. Determination of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in food packaging using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Poothong, Somrutai; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Boontanon, Narin

    2012-02-29

    This research aimed to monitor the amounts of PFOS and PFOA in food packaging and study the migration of PFOS and PFOA from food packaging, using a saliva simulant and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to determine residues of PFOS and PFOA by using a gradient reversed-phase method with ammonium acetate/acetonitrile buffer. A good linearity was established for PFOS and PFOA in a range of 0.05-10 μgL(-1), with R2 ≥ 0.9998. Of the samples extracted by methanol, the highest concentration of PFOS was found in fast-food container samples, at a level of 92.48 ng dm(-2). For PFOA, the highest concentration in samples extracted by methanol was found in ice cream cup samples, at a level of 16.91 ng dm(-2). The amounts of PFOS and PFOA that migrated from food packaging samples through contact with saliva simulant were 4.80 and 4.55 ng dm(-2), respectively. Saliva simulant could leach PFOS and PFOA from the group of the thickest paper samples (≤1 dm2 g(-1)) at levels of 7.01 and 6.41 ng dm(-2), respectively, indicating that paper with greater thickness and less area might release larger quantities of coated/added PFOS or PFOA.

  9. Dietary predictors and plasma concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl acids in a Singapore population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Su, Jin; van Dam, Rob M; Prem, Kiesha; Hoong, Joey Y S; Zou, Li; Lu, Yonghai; Ong, Choon Nam

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a family of man-made organofluorinated compounds, have drawn much attention due to their ubiquitous existence in the environment and their bioaccumulation potential. Here, we examined the plasma concentrations of thirteen PFAAs in a healthy population (N = 270) in Singapore, and investigated the association between major food groups and plasma PFAA concentrations. We detected eight types of PFAAs in more than 75% of all samples (N = 270), and their median concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 8.34 ng mL(-1). Age- and gender-related differences were observed for the three dominant PFAAs, i.e., perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA), with concentrations being higher in men and older adults. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that fish, shellfish, red meat and poultry were associated with increased PFAAs concentrations in plasma, whereas grains and soy products showed inverse associations with PFAAs. Further, significant correlations were observed between various long-chain PFAAs and plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting seafood was a significant source of these PFAAs, within this population. Future studies on diet exposure to PFAAs are encouraged to focus more on the effects on diet pattern.

  10. Effects of chain length and pH on the uptake and distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Krippner, Johanna; Brunn, Hubertus; Falk, Sandy; Georgii, Sebastian; Schubert, Sven; Stahl, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Maize is the most important grain crop grown for human nutrition, animal fodder and biogas production worldwide. Nonetheless, no systematic studies have been undertaken on these plants to examine the uptake mechanisms for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) dependent upon chain length and pH value. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine the influence of chain length (C4 to C10) and pH value (pH 5, pH 6, pH 7) on the uptake and distribution of seven perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and three perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) by maize in nutrient solution experiments under controlled conditions in a climate chamber. A pH-dependent uptake was observed for perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) with an uptake rate of 2.51 μg g(-1) at pH 5 compared to 1.52 μg g(-1) root dry weight (DW) per day (d) at pH 7. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) had the highest uptake rate within the group of PFCAs with an average of 2.46 μg g(-1) root DWd(-1) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) had the highest uptake rate (3.63 μg g(-1) root DWd(-1)) within the group of PFSAs. The shoot:root ratio for shorter-chain PFCAs (≤ C7) and PFBS (C4) was >2.0, which indicates that shorter-chain PFASs are transferred predominantly and at higher concentrations to the shoot. In contrast, long-chain PFCAs such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) as well as the PFASs perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) accumulated at higher concentrations in the roots of maize plants with a shoot:root ratio of <1.0.

  11. Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids of specific French adult sub-populations: high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yamada, A; Bemrah, N; Veyrand, B; Pollono, C; Merlo, M; Desvignes, V; Sirot, V; Marchand, P; Berrebi, A; Cariou, R; Antignac, J P; Le Bizec, B; Leblanc, J C

    2014-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are globally found in various media, including food and especially fishery products. In the present study, the dietary exposure to 15 perfluoroalkyl acids was assessed for 3 French adult populations, namely high seafood consumers, high freshwater fish consumers, and pregnant women. Purified food extracts were analysed by LC-MS/MS and PFBA, PFPA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFTrDA, PFTeDA, PFBS, PFHxS, PFHpS, PFOS and PFDS were monitored and quantified according to the isotope dilution principle. Under lower bound (LB) hypothesis (i.e. contamination valuesPFOA (1.2 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)), PFNA (0.2 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)) and PFHxS (0.06 ng.kg(-1) bw.d(-1)). For all considered populations, the major exposure contributors are fish, seafood and water under LB hypothesis, while dairy products, bread and crispbread are the main contributors under upper bound (UB) hypothesis. Besides this food exposure assessment, further studies are needed to assess the more global PFAA exposure, taking into account indoor and outdoor air, dust and cutaneous contact, which could be other important contributors for this particular class of chemicals.

  12. Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in Swedish food: The relative importance of direct and indirect dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Berger, Urs

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed food market basket samples obtained in Sweden from 1999, 2005, and 2010 for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and a range of precursor compounds. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) precursors were detected in all food year pools with the highest concentrations in 1999. Six polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs, 4:2/6:2, 6:2/6:2, 6:2/8:2, 8:2/8:2, 6:2/10:2, and 10:2/10:2) were detected in the year pools with the highest ∑diPAP concentrations in 1999 and 2005. All precursors were predominantly found in meat, fish, and/or eggs based on analysis of individual food groups from 1999. Based on year pools, PFOS precursors contributed between 4 and 1% as an indirect source to total dietary PFOS intakes between 1999 and 2010. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) exposure originated entirely from diPAPs, whereas for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), diPAPs contributed between 1 and 19% to total exposure. The lowest precursor contributions were generally seen in food samples from 2010.

  13. Covalent triazine-based framework: A promising adsorbent for removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bingyu; Lee, Linda S; Wei, Chenhui; Fu, Heyun; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-09-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are highly stable, persistent, and ubiquitous in the environment with significant concerns growing with regards to both human and ecosystem health. Due to the high stability to both biological and chemical attack, the only currently feasible approach for their removal from water is adsorbent technology. The main objective of this study was to assess a covalent triazine-based framework (CTF) adsorbent for removal from aqueous solutions of perfluoro C4, C6, and C8 carboxylates and sulfonates including the two C8s most commonly monitored, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Adsorption affinity and capacity were quantified and compared to three commonly used sorbents: pulverized microporous activated carbon, single-walled carbon nanotubes, and Amberlite IRA-400 anion-exchange resin. CTF adsorbent exhibited pronouncedly higher adsorption affinity and capacity of PFAAs than other test sorbents. The remarkably strong adsorption to CTF can be attributed to the favored electrostatic interaction between the protonated triazine groups on the inner wall of the hydrophobic CTF pore and the negatively charged head groups of the PFAAs intercalated between the CTF layers. The homogeneous, nanosized pores (1.2 nm) of CTF hindered adsorption of a large-sized dissolved humic acid, thus minimizing the suppression of PFAA adsorption. Additionally, regeneration of CTF was easily accomplished by simply raising pH > 11, which inhibited the electrostatic adsorptive interaction of PFAAs.

  14. Spatiotemporal distribution and potential sources of perfluoroalkyl acids in Huangpu River, Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuyu; Zhang, Chaojie; Yan, Hong; Han, Changlai; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiangzhou; Zhou, Qi

    2017-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been found to be ubiquitously disseminated in the environment due to their widespread use in recent decades. In this study, the occurrence and spatiotemporal distribution of PFAAs in the surface water of Huangpu River, Shanghai, China were investigated from 2012 to 2014. The total concentration of 14 PFAAs (ΣPFAAs) ranged from 39.8 to 596.2 ng L(-1), with a mean value of 226.3 ng L(-1). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were dominant, with their mean concentrations of 139.6 and 46.5 ng L(-1), respectively. The concentration of ΣPFAAs increased greatly downstream especially in the lower reach of an industrial and urbanized area. Samples collected in different seasons were used to analyze the seasonal variation. The results showed that higher concentration of ΣPFAAs occurred in the wet season, especially downstream. Therefore, industrial discharges, municipal wastewater and surface runoff were identified as major potential sources. The annual discharge load of ΣPFAAs from Huangpu River to Yangtze River was estimated to be 2263.4 kg yr(-1). The hazard assessment suggested that the contamination of PFAAs in Huangpu River could pose risks to the aquatic environment and drinking water safety, which should draw more attention.

  15. First report of perfluoroalkyl substances in South African Odonata.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Velesia; Bouwman, Hindrik; Kinoshita, Ayako; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2017-05-01

    Perfluorinated substances are global and ubiquitous pollutants. However, very little is known about these substances in invertebrates, and even less in terrestrial invertebrates in particular. We analysed adult male dragonflies from six sites in South Africa for perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluro-n-undecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluoro-n-dodecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS). PFOS was detected in all individuals, with less quantifiable occurrences of the other substances. The dragonflies from the three northern sites located in farming areas had significantly lower ΣPFASs concentrations than the southern sites located closer to industrial areas (median ΣPFASs of 0.32 ng/g wm (wet mass) for North, and 9.3 ng/g wm for South). All substances except PFOS occurred at similar concentrations at all six sites when quantifiable, but PFOS dominated in the Southern sites. The highest median concentration was from Bloemhof Dam (ΣPFASs = 21 ng/g wm), which is known to be polluted by PFOS. Perfluorinated substances are not known to be manufactured in South Africa, therefore the residues detected are likely to have been derived from imported products. Odonata play a significant role in freshwater ecology. Any impacts on these aquatic and aerial predators are likely to have effects on aquatic and associated ecosystems. Further studies are required over a much larger geographic region and to investigate sources.

  16. An ultra-sensitive method for the analysis of perfluorinated alkyl acids in drinking water using a column switching high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dasu, Kavitha; Nakayama, Shoji F; Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Mills, Marc A; Wright, J Michael; Ehrlich, Shelley

    2017-04-21

    In epidemiological research, it has become increasingly important to assess subjects' exposure to different classes of chemicals in multiple environmental media. It is a common practice to aliquot limited volumes of samples into smaller quantities for specific trace level chemical analyses. A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in small volumes (10mL) of drinking water using off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-treatment followed by on-line pre-concentration on a WAX column before analysis on column-switching high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In general, large volumes (100-1000mL) have been used for the analysis of PFAAs in drinking water. The current method requires approximately 10mL of drinking water concentrated by using an SPE cartridge and eluted with methanol. A large volume injection of the extract was introduced on to a column-switching HPLC-MS/MS using a mix-mode SPE column for the trace level analysis of PFAAs in water. The recoveries for most of the analytes in the fortified laboratory blanks ranged from 73±14% to 128±5%. The lowest concentration minimum reporting levels (LCMRL) for the 14 PFAAs ranged from 0.59 to 3.4ng/L. The optimized method was applied to a pilot-scale analysis of a subset of drinking water samples from an epidemiological study. These samples were collected directly from the taps in the households of Ohio and Northern Kentucky, United States and the sources of drinking water samples are both surface water and ground water, and supplied by different water distribution facilities. Only five PFAAs, perfluoro-1-butanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro-1- -hexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoro-n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) are detected above the LCMRL values. The median concentrations of these five PFAAs detected in the samples was ≤4.1ng/L with PFOS at 7.6ng

  17. Phosphorus-containing fluorinated organics: polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAPs), perfluorophosphonates (PFPAs), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPIAs) in residential indoor dust.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Amila O; Allard, Cody N; Spencer, Christine; Webster, Glenys M; Shoeib, Mahiba

    2012-11-20

    Indoor dust is thought to be a source of human exposure to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), but exposures to emerging organofluorine compounds, including precursors to PFCAs and PFSAs via indoor dust, remain unknown. We report an analytical method for measuring several groups of emerging phosphorus-containing fluorinated compounds, including polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid diesters (diPAP), perfluorophosphonates (PFPA), and perfluorophosphinates (PFPIA), as well as perfluoroethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFECHS) in indoor dust. This method was used to analyze diPAP, PFPA, and PFPIA levels in 102 residential dust samples collected in 2007-2008 from Vancouver, Canada. The results indicated a predominant and ubiquitous presence of diPAPs (frequency of detection 100%, mean and median ΣdiPAPs 7637 and 2215 ng/g). Previously measured median concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in the same samples were 14-74 times lower than ΣdiPAP levels, i.e. 71 ng/g PFOS, 30 ng/g PFOA, and 152 ng/g ΣFTOHs. PFPAs and PFPIAs were detected in 62% and 85% of samples, respectively, at concentrations nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower than diPAPs (median 2.3 ng/g ΣPFPAs and 2.3 ng/g ΣPFPIAs). PFECHS was detected in only 8% of dust samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these compounds in indoor dust. In this study, diPAP concentrations represented 98% ± 7% of the total measured analytes in the dust samples. Detection of diPAPs at such high concentrations in indoor dust may represent an important and as-yet unrecognized indirect source of PFCA exposure in humans, given the identified biotransformation pathways. Identifying the sources of diPAPs to the indoor environment is a priority for future research to improve air quality in households.

  18. Efficient treatment of perfluorohexanoic acid by nanofiltration followed by electrochemical degradation of the NF concentrate.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Álvaro; Gorri, Daniel; Urtiaga, Ane

    2017-04-01

    The present study was aimed at the development of a strategy for removing and degrading perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) from industrial process waters at concentrations in the range 60-200 mg L(-1). The treatment train consisted of nanofiltration (NF) separation followed by electrochemical degradation of the NF concentrate. Using a laboratory-scale system and working in the total recirculation mode, the DowFilm NF270 membrane provided PFHxA rejections that varied in the range 96.6-99.4% as the operating pressure was increased from 2.5 to 20 bar. The NF operation in concentration mode enabled a volume reduction factor of 5 and increased the PFHxA concentration in the retentate to 870 mg L(-1). Results showed that the increase in PFHxA concentration and the presence of calcium sulfate salts did not induce irreversible membrane fouling. The NF retentate was treated in a commercial undivided electrochemical cell provided with two parallel flow-by compartments separated by bipolar boron doped diamond (BDD) electrode, BDD counter anode, and counter cathode. Current densities ranging from 20 to 100 A m(-2) were examined. The electrochemical degradation rate of PFHxA reached 98% and was accompanied by its efficient mineralization, as the reduction of total organic carbon was higher than 95%. Energy consumption, which was 15.2 kWh m(-3) of treated NF concentrate, was minimized by selecting operation at 50 A m(-2). While most of the previous research on the treatment of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) focused on the removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), these compounds have been phased out by chemical manufacturers. Our findings are relevant for the treatment of PFHxA, which appears to be one of the present alternatives to long-chain PFASs thanks to its lower bioaccumulative potential than PFOA and PFOS. However, PFHxA also behaves as a persistent pollutant. Moreover, our results highlight the potential of combining

  19. Generation of Perfluoroalkyl Acids from Aerobic Biotransformation of Quaternary Ammonium Polyfluoroalkyl Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Avendaño, Sandra; Vo Duy, Sung; Sauvé, Sébastien; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-09-20

    The aerobic biotransformation over 180 days of two cationic quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) with perfluoroalkyl chains was determined in soil microcosms, and biotransformation pathways were proposed. This is the first time that polyfluoroalkyl cationic surfactants used in aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) formulations were studied for their environmental fate. The biotransformation of perfluorooctaneamido quaternary ammonium salt (PFOAAmS) was characterized by a DT50 value (time necessary to consume half of the initial mass) of 142 days and significant generation of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFOA) at a yield of 30 mol % by day 180. The biotransformation of perfluorooctane sulfonamide quaternary ammonium salt (PFOSAmS) was very slow with unobservable change of the spiked mass; yet the generation of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) at a yield of 0.3 mol % confirmed the biotransformation of PFOSAmS. Three novel biotransformation intermediates were identified for PFOAAmS and three products including perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) for PFOSAmS through high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) analysis and t-MS(2) fragmentation. The significantly slower PFOSAmS biotransformation is hypothesized to be due to its stronger sorption to soil owing to a longer perfluoroalkyl chain and a bulkier sulfonyl group, when compared to PFOAAmS. This study has demonstrated that despite overall high stability of QACs and their biocide nature, the ones with perfluoroalkyl chains can be substantially biotransformed into perfluoroalkyl acids in aerobic soil.

  20. Watershed-based riverine discharge loads and emission factor of perfluorinated surfactants in Korean peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu

    2012-11-01

    Long-range transport of and exposure to perfluorinated substances (PFSs) strongly depend on their emission mode. In the present study, watershed-based riverine discharge loads and emission factors are estimated for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexylsulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) by using spatially distributed data of chemical concentrations together with water flows and a geographic information system (GIS). Average per capita emissions (emission factor, μg capita(-1) d(-1)) are 75 for PFOA, 36 for PFNA, 17 for PFHxS, and 43 for PFOS, which are several times lower than the estimates for Japan and the European continent. A relatively uniform distribution is observed for PFHxS and PFOS emission factors, while elevated values of PFOA and PFNA predominate in one of eight river basins. This may indicate the leading contribution of diffusive sources (e.g. nonpoint source) for PFHxS and PFOS versus the presence of localized point sources for PFOA and PFNA. The lower-upper bound of total riverine loads discharged annually from the Korean peninsula are in the range of 0.53-1.3 tons for PFOA, 0.09-0.60 tons for PFNA, 0.07-0.29 tons for PFHxS, and 0.19-0.73 tons for PFOS, accounting for <1% of global annual emissions. Furthermore, these riverine discharge loads are significantly greater than the discharge loads from a wastewater treatment plant, indicating the necessity of further study of nonpoint sources.

  1. Comparative in vivo and in vitro analysis of possible estrogenic effects of perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Li; Ehresman, David J; Rae, Jessica M Caverly; Chang, Shu-Ching; Frame, Steven R; Butenhoff, John L; Kennedy, Gerald L; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-04

    Previous studies suggested that perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) could activate the estrogen receptor (ER). The present study examined the hypothesis that PFOA can activate ER using an in vivo uterotrophic assay in CD-1 mice and an in vitro reporter assay. Pre-pubertal female CD-1 mice fed an estrogen-free diet from postnatal day (PND)14 through weaning on PND18 were administered 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, or 1mg/kg PFOA or 17β-estradiol (E2, 0.5mg/kg) from PND18-20. In contrast to E2, PFOA caused no changes in the relative uterine weight, the expression of ER target genes, or the morphology of the uterus/cervix and/or vagina on PND21. Treatment of a stable human cell line containing an ER-dependent luciferase reporter construct with a broad concentration range of PFOA caused no change in ER-dependent luciferase activity; whereas E2 caused a marked increase of ER-dependent luciferase activity. These data indicate that PFOA does not activate mouse or human ER.

  2. Impact of Microbial Growth on Subsurface Perfluoroalkyl Acid Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weathers, T. S.; Higgins, C. P.; Sharp, J.

    2014-12-01

    The fate and transport of poly and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the presence of active microbial communities has not been widely investigated. These emerging contaminants are commonly utilized in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF) and have often been detected in groundwater. This study explores the transport of a suite of perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluoroalkylsulfonates, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in microbially active settings. Single point organic carbon normalized sorption coefficients derived by exposing inactive cellular material to PFASs result in more than an order of magnitude increase in sorption compared to soil organic carbon sorption coefficients found in literature. For example, the sorption coefficients for PFOS are 4.05±0.07 L/kg and 2.80±0.08 L/kg for cellular organic carbon and soil organic carbon respectively. This increase in sorption, coupled with enhanced extracellular polymeric substance production observed during growth of a common hydrocarbon degrading soil microbe exposed to source-level concentrations of PFASs (10 mg/L of 11 analytes, 110 mg/L total) may result in PFAS retardation in situ. To address the upscaling of this phenomenon, flow-through columns packed with low-organic carbon sediment and biostimulated with 10 mg/L glucose were exposed to PFAS concentrations from 15 μg/L to 10 mg/L of each 11 analytes. Breakthrough and tailing of each analyte was measured and modeled with Hydrus-1D to explore sorption coefficients over time for microbially active columns.

  3. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  4. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  5. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  6. Association between perfluoroalkyl substance exposure and asthma and allergic disease in children as modified by MMR vaccination.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jensen, Tina Kold; Osuna, Christa Elyse; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike; Nielsen, Flemming; Poulsen, Lars K; Weihe, Pál; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are highly persistent chemicals that might be associated with asthma and allergy, but the associations remain unclear. Therefore, this study examined whether pre- and postnatal PFAS exposure was associated with childhood asthma and allergy. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination in early life may have a protective effect against asthma and allergy, and MMR vaccination is therefore taken into account when evaluating these associations. In a cohort of Faroese children whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy, serum concentrations of five PFASs - Perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - were measured at three timepoints (maternal serum in pregnancy week 34-36 and child serum at ages 5 and 13 years) and their association with immunoglobulin E (IgE) (cord blood and at age 7 years) and asthma/allergic diseases (questionnaires at ages 5 and 13 years and skin prick test at age 13 years) was determined. A total of 559 children were included in the analyses. Interactions with MMR vaccination were evaluated. Among 22 MMR-unvaccinated children, higher levels of the five PFASs at age 5 years were associated with increased odds of asthma at ages 5 and 13. The associations were reversed among MMR-vaccinated children. Prenatal PFAS exposure was not associated with childhood asthma or allergic diseases regardless of MMR vaccination status. In conclusion, PFAS exposure at age 5 was associated with increased risk of asthma among a small subgroup of MMR-unvaccinated children but not among MMR-vaccinated children. While PFAS exposure may impact immune system functions, this study suggests that MMR vaccination might be a potential effect-modifier.

  7. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A.; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Strynar, Mark; Denslow, Nancy D.; Toor, Gurpal S.

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other) of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas. PMID:26909512

  8. Footprints of Urban Micro-Pollution in Protected Areas: Investigating the Longitudinal Distribution of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Wildlife Preserves.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Jorquera, Ignacio A; Silva-Sanchez, Cecilia; Strynar, Mark; Denslow, Nancy D; Toor, Gurpal S

    2016-01-01

    Current approaches to protect biodiversity by establishing protected areas usually gloss over water pollution as a threat. Our objective was to determine the longitudinal and seasonal distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in water column and sediments from a wastewater dominated stream that enters preservation areas. Water samples were collected along the longitudinal section (six sites, 1000 m away from each other) of the stream during the dry and wet seasons. Sediments were collected from three sites along the stream from three depths. Water and sediments were analyzed for PFAAs using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eleven PFAAs with 5 to 14 carbon atoms were detected in the water column at all sampling points, with a minor reduction at the last point suggesting a dilution effect. The most detected PFAAs was PFOS, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA). Seasonal differences in PFAAs concentrations suggested contribution of stormwater runoff during the wet season. All analyzed PFAAs in sediments were under the limit of quantification, likely due to the high proportion of sand and low organic matter. However, high concentrations of PFAAs were detected in the water column inside the protected areas, which includes PFOS in concentrations considered not safe for avian wildlife. Water samples appear to be more relevant than sediments to determine PFAAs micro-pollution in water bodies with sandy sediments. Inclusion of a management plans on micro-pollution research, monitoring, and mitigation is recommended for protected areas.

  9. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  10. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  11. Serum perfluoroalkyl substances in children exposed to the world trade center disaster.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Koshy, Tony T; Gilbert, Joseph; Burdine, Lauren K; Attina, Teresa M; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Honda, Masato; Marmor, Michael; Chu, Dinh Binh; Han, Xiaoxia; Shao, Yongzhao; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-04-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released large amounts of various chemical substances into the environment, including perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Yet, no studies have examined exposures in children living or attending schools near the disaster site. We measured serum PFASs in WTC Health Registry (WTCHR) respondents who were ≤8 years of age on September 11, 2001 and a sociodemographically-matched comparison group. We also examined the relationship of PFASs levels with dust cloud exposure; home dust exposure, and with traumatic exposure, the latter to take into account differences related to possible mental health consequences and associated behavioral problems. Serum samples, collected between 2014 and 2016, were analyzed from 123 WTCHR participants and from 185 participants in the comparison group. In the WTCHR group, median perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) levels were 1.81ng/mL and 3.72ng/mL, respectively. Controlling for sex, caloric intake, race/ethnicity, and date of birth, significant increases among WTCHR participants compared with the matched comparison group were detected for perfluorohexanesulfonate (0.23ng/mL increase or 0.24log unit increase, p=0.006); PFOS (0.86ng/mL increase or 0.16log unit increase, p=0.011); PFOA (0.35ng/mL increase or 0.18log unit increase, p<0.001); perfluorononanoic acid (0.12ng/mL increase or 0.17log unit increase, p=0.003); perfluorodecanoic acid (0.06ng/mL increase or 0.42log unit increase, p<0.001); and perfluoroundecanoic acid (0.03ng/mL increase or 0.32log unit increase, p=0.019). Stronger associations were identified for home dust exposures and traumatic exposures than dust cloud. These findings highlight the importance of conducting longitudinal studies in this population to assess possible cardiometabolic and renal consequences related to these exposures.

  12. Trends of perfluorochemicals in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears: indications of shifts to decreasing trends.

    PubMed

    Rigét, Frank; Bossi, Rossana; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Dietz, Rune

    2013-11-01

    Time-series of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in East Greenland polar bears and East and West Greenland ringed seals were updated in order to deduce whether a response to the major reduction in perfluoroalkyl production in the early 2000s had occurred. Previous studies had documented an exponential increase of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in liver tissue from both species. In the present study, PFOS was still the far most dominant compound constituting 92% (West Greenland ringed seals), 88% (East Greenland ringed seals) and 85% (East Greenland polar bears). The PFOS concentrations increased up to 2006 with doubling times of approximately 6 years for the ringed seal populations and 14 years in case of polar bears. Since then a rapid decrease has occurred with clearing half-lives of approximately 1, 2 and 4 years, respectively. In polar bears perfluorohexane sulphonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulphonamide (PFOSA) also showed decreasing trends in recent years as do perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA). For the West Greenland ringed seal population perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), PFDA and PFUnA peaked in the mid 2000s, whereas PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA in the East Greenland population have been stable or increasing in recent years. The peak of PFASs in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears occurred at a later time than in Canadian seals and polar bears and considerably later than observed in seal species from more southern latitudes. We suggest that this could be explained by the distance to emission hot-spots and differences in long-range transport to the Arctic.

  13. Occurrence and sources of perfluorinated surfactants in rivers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Michio; Imamura, Eiji; Shinohara, Hiroyuki; Kiri, Kentaro; Muramatsu, Yuki; Harada, Arata; Takada, Hideshige

    2008-09-01

    We analyzed perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in 20 river samples and 5 wastewater secondary effluent samples in Japan to reveal their occurrence and sources. Nine PFS species were determined: perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUA), perfluorododecanoate (PFDDA), and perfluorotridecanoate (PFTDA). PFSs were detected in all rivers, revealing nationwide contamination of rivers. In particular, 11 out of 20 river samples exceeded New Jersey guidance for PFOA in drinking water (40 ng/L). PFOS, PFHpA, PFOA, and PFNA were major species in Japan. Concentrations of PFOS, PFHpA, and PFNA in rivers were strongly correlated with population density, suggesting that the chemicals were derived from urban activities. PFOA showed a significant but weak correlation. We used crotamiton, a marker of sewage effluent, for further source analysis. Concentrations of PFOS, PFHpA, and PFNAwere strongly correlated with those of crotamiton, and plots of secondary effluents fell near the regression lines of rivers, indicating that the PFOS, PFHpA, and PFNA in rivers were derived from sewage effluent. On the other hand, PFOA was found at remarkably high levels (54-192 ng/L) in seven river samples containing low levels of crotamiton, suggesting that it was derived from nonsewage point sources, as well as sewage effluent. The total fluxes of sewage-derived PFOS, PFHpA, PFOA, and PFNA from Japan were estimated to be 3.6, 2.6, 5.6, and 2.6 t/year, respectively. This is the first report to identify PFOA in several rivers, derived from nonsewage point sources, by using a marker of sewage effluent.

  14. Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous samples from Germany and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Umer; Schulze, Stefanie; Slawik, Christian; Böhme, Alexander; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-06-22

    Continuous monitoring of chemicals in the environment is important to control their fate and to protect human health, flora, and fauna. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been detected frequently in different environmental compartments during the last 15 years and have drawn much attention because of their environmental persistence, omnipresence, and bioaccumulation potential. Water is an important source of their transport. In the present study, distributions of PFAAs in river water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and tap water from eastern part of Germany and western part of Kenya were investigated. Eleven perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and five perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were analyzed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Sum of mean concentrations of eight PFAAs detected in drinking tap water from Leipzig was 11.5 ng L(-1), dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 6.2 ng L(-1)). Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs detected in Pleiße/White Elster, Saale, and Elbe (Germany) were 24.8, 54.3, and 26.8 ng L(-1), respectively. Annual flux of PFAAs from River Saale was estimated to be 164 ± 23 kg a(-1). The effluent of WWTP in Halle was found to contain four times higher levels of PFAAs than river water and was dominated by perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) with 32 times higher concentration than the riverine level. It advocates that WWTPs are the point source of contaminating water bodies with PFAAs, and short-chain PFAAs are substituting long-chain homologues. Sums of mean riverine concentrations of PFAAs in Sosiani (Kenya) in samples from sparsely populated and densely populated areas were 58.8 and 109.4 ng L(-1), respectively, indicating that population directly affected the emissions of PFAAs to surface waters. The discussion includes thorough review and comparison of recently published literature reporting occurrence of PFAAs in aqueous matrices. Graphical abstract Perfluoroalkyl acids in aqueous

  15. Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Plasma of American Alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Bowden, John A.; Brunell, Arnold M.; Christie, Ian; Finnell, Brendan; Guillette, Matthew P.; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitate fourteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at twelve sites across the southeastern US. Of those fourteen PFAAs, nine were detected in 65% - 100% of the samples: PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTriA, PFTA, PFHxS, and PFOS. Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of four PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Kiawah Nature Conservancy both exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length (SVL) were observed in both sexes suggesting PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. This study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, reveals potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and provides and additional contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health.

  16. Getting on with persistent pollutants: Decreasing trends of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Hanna; Freier, Korbinian P; Gierig, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Sewage sludge can be a relevant source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) for the environment. In order to reduce emissions from this source, Bavarian authorities enforced in 2008 an analysis of PFAAs from sewage sludge derived from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). 4981 sludge samples from 1165 different WWTPs were analyzed between 2008 and 2013 for 11 PFAAs compounds. During this period, 71 WWTPs exceeded the precautionary limit of 125 μg kg(-1) dm of total PFAAs in sludge samples at least once with a decreasing tendency. The yearly exceedances of the investigated WWTPs decreased from 6% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2013. At the same time, the percentage of uncontaminated WWTPs increased from 33% to 65%. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the predominant compound found in 41% of all sludge samples. Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) was detected in 19% and Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 7%. Very high PFAAs concentrations (>500 μg kg(-1) dm) in sewage sludge were generally caused by firefighting foams containing PFAAs or emissions from PFAAs-using industries including metal plating, textile, leather or paper industries. Trend analyses of the six year period show that PFAAs contamination in sewage sludge clearly decreased for 47% of the WWTPs. However, for 16% of the WWTPs an increasing trend was detected, even though the concentration levels were below the precautionary limit. During the six years of investigation the load of total PFAAs in sewage sludge was reduced by more than 90%, from 17 t a(-1) in 2008 to 1.5 t a(-1) in 2013.

  17. Increasing levels of long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in Arctic and North Atlantic marine mammals, 1984-2009.

    PubMed

    Rotander, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Polder, Anuschka; Rigét, Frank; Auðunsson, Guðjón Atli; Víkingsson, Gísli; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Bloch, Dorete; Dam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Temporal variations in concentrations of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and sulfonic acids (PFSAs), including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) structural isomers, were examined in livers of pilot whale (Globicephala melas), ringed seal (Phoca hisida), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and in muscle tissue of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). The sampling spanned over 20 years (1984-2009) and covered a large geographical area of the North Atlantic and West Greenland. Liver and muscle samples were homogenized, extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up using hexane and solid phase extraction (SPE), and analyzed by liquid chromatography with negative electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In general, the levels of the long-chained PFCAs (C9-C12) increased whereas the levels of PFOS remained steady over the studied period. The PFOS isomer pattern in pilot whale liver was relatively constant over the sampling years. However, in ringed seals there seemed to be a decrease in linear PFOS (L-PFOS) with time, going from 91% in 1984 to 83% in 2006.

  18. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  19. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  20. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  1. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  2. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  3. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  4. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  5. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  6. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  7. Are perfluoroalkyl acids in waste water treatment plant effluents the result of primary emissions from the technosphere or of environmental recirculation?

    PubMed

    Filipovic, Marko; Berger, Urs

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have been suggested to be one of the major pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from the technosphere to the aquatic environment. The origin of PFAAs in WWTP influents is either from current primary emissions or a result of recirculation of PFAAs that have been residing and transported in the environment for several years or decades. Environmental recirculation can then occur when PFAAs from the environment enter the wastewater stream in, e.g., tap water. In this study 13 PFAAs and perfluorooctane sulfonamide were analyzed in tap water as well as WWTP influent, effluent and sludge from three Swedish cities: Bromma (in the metropolitan area of Stockholm), Bollebygd and Umeå. A mass balance of the WWTPs was assembled for each PFAA. Positive mass balances were observed for PFHxA and PFOA in all WWTPs, indicating the presence of precursor compounds in the technosphere. With regard to environmental recirculation, tap water was an important source of PFAAs to the Bromma WWTP influent, contributing >40% for each quantified sulfonic acid and up to 30% for the carboxylic acids. The PFAAs in tap water from Bollebygd and Umeå did not contribute significantly to the PFAA load in the WWTP influents. Our results show that in order to estimate current primary emissions from the technosphere, it may be necessary to correct the PFAA emission rates in WWTP effluents for PFAAs present in tap water, especially in the case of elevated levels in tap water.

  8. Fact Sheet: 2010/2015 PFOA Stewardship Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  9. Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

  10. Sorption of PFOA and PFOS to Ground Water Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    During its years of operation, the Washington County Sanitary Landfill near St. Paul, Minnesota accepted both municipal and industrial solid waste. Several years of ground water monitoring performed by the MPCA indicates that, some of the waste disposed of at this landfill contai...

  11. Markers of anthropogenic contamination: A validated method for quantification of pharmaceuticals, illicit drug metabolites, perfluorinated compounds, and plasticisers in sewage treatment effluent and rain runoff.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, John L; Swinden, Julian; Hooda, Peter S; Barker, James; Barton, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An effective, specific and accurate method is presented for the quantification of 13 markers of anthropogenic contaminants in water using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Validation was conducted according to the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Method recoveries ranged from 77 to 114% and limits of quantification between 0.75 and 4.91 ng/L. A study was undertaken to quantify the concentrations and loadings of the selected contaminants in 6 sewage treatment works (STW) effluent discharges as well as concentrations in 5 rain-driven street runoffs and field drainages. Detection frequencies in STW effluent ranged from 25% (ethinylestradiol) to 100% (benzoylecgonine, bisphenol-A (BPA), bisphenol-S (BPS) and diclofenac). Average concentrations of detected compounds in STW effluents ranged from 3.62 ng/L (ethinylestradiol) to 210 ng/L (BPA). Levels of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) as well as the plasticiser BPA were found in street runoff at maximum levels of 1160 ng/L, 647 ng/L and 2405 ng/L respectively (8.52, 3.09 and 2.7 times more concentrated than maximum levels in STW effluents respectively). Rain-driven street runoff may have an effect on levels of PFCs and plasticisers in receiving rivers and should be further investigated. Together, this method with the 13 selected contaminants enables the quantification of various markers of anthropogenic pollutants: inter alia pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and their metabolites from humans and improper disposal of drugs, while the plasticisers and perfluorinated compounds may also indicate contamination from industrial and transport activity (street runoff).

  12. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts: Multi-Pollutant Models Based on Elastic Net Regression

    PubMed Central

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Toft, Gunnar; Bonde, Jens Peter; Heederik, Dick; Rylander, Lars; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Background Some legacy and emerging environmental contaminants are suspected risk factors for intrauterine growth restriction. However, the evidence is equivocal, in part due to difficulties in disentangling the effects of mixtures. Objectives We assessed associations between multiple correlated biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. Methods We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 557 from Ukraine, who were recruited during antenatal care visits in 2002‒2004. Secondary metabolites of diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. Results Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty regression. In an adjusted, unpenalized regression model of the four exposures, 2-SD increases in natural log–transformed MEHHP, PFOA, and p,p´-DDE were associated with lower birth weight: –87 g (95% CI: –137, –340 per 1.70 ng/mL), –43 g (95% CI: –108, 23 per 1.18 ng/mL), and –135 g (95% CI: –192, –78 per 1.82 ng/g lipid), respectively; and MOiNP was associated with higher birth weight (46 g; 95% CI: –5, 97 per 2.22 ng/mL). Conclusions This study suggests that several of the environmental contaminants, belonging to three chemical classes, may be independently associated with impaired fetal growth. These results warrant follow-up in other cohorts. Citation Lenters V, Portengen L, Rignell-Hydbom A, Jönsson BA, Lindh CH, Piersma AH, Toft G, Bonde JP

  13. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  14. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  15. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  16. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  17. Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Sex Hormones, and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 at 6–9 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Analysis within the C8 Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Mondal, Debapriya; Armstrong, Ben G.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Fletcher, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to some perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), may alter levels of sex hormones and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in animals. Human studies on this topic are scarce, and none have been conducted in young children. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between levels of PFAS and estradiol, total testosterone, and IGF-1 in 2,292 children (6–9 years of age) from the C8 Health Project who lived near a chemical plant in the Mid-Ohio Valley (USA) with local contamination from PFOA. Methods: Serum samples were collected in 2005–2006 and analyzed for PFAS, sex hormones, and IGF-1. Results from regression models were expressed as the adjusted percentage difference (95% CI) per sex-specific interquartile range (IQR) increment of each PFAS serum concentration. Analyses by PFAS quartiles were also conducted. Results: Median concentrations of PFHxS, PFOA, PFOS, and PFNA were 8, 35, 22, and 1.7 ng/mL in boys and 7, 30, 21, and 1.7 ng/mL in girls. In boys, PFOA concentrations were significantly associated with testosterone levels (–4.9%; 95% CI: –8.7, –0.8%); PFOS with estradiol (–4.0%; 95% CI: –7.7, –0.1%), testosterone (–5.8%; 95% CI: –9.4, –2.0%), and IGF-1 (–5.9%; 95% CI: –8.3, –3.3%); and PFNA with IGF-1 (–3.5%; 95% CI: –6.0, –1.0%). In girls, significant associations were found between PFOS and testosterone (–6.6%; 95% CI: –10.1, –2.8%) and IGF-1 (–5.6%; –8.2, –2.9%); and PFNA and IGF-1 (–3.8%; 95% CI: –6.4, –1.2%). In both sexes, the magnitudes of the associations decreased monotonically across quartiles for both testosterone and IGF-1 in relation to PFOS, and for IGF-1 and PFNA in girls. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that PFAS are associated with lower levels of IGF-1 and sex hormones in young children. Citation: Lopez

  18. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  19. Acid Rain

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Is Doing Acid Rain Program Cross-State Air Pollution Rule Progress Reports Educational Resources Kid's Site for ... Monitoring National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Exit Interstate Air Pollution Transport Contact Us to ask a question, provide ...

  20. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid can hide signs that you lack vitamin B12, which can cause nerve damage. 10 Do I ... Rosenberg, I.H., et al. (2007). Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis and cognitive ...

  1. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  2. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  3. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  4. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  5. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  6. Occurrence and distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water and sediment of a tropical coastal area (Bay of Bengal coast, Bangladesh).

    PubMed

    Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Ahmed, Md Kawser; Raknuzzaman, Mohammad; Islam, Md Saiful; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Sekine, Makoto; Tokumura, Masahiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2016-11-15

    This study reports the first evidence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface waters and sediments collected from the coastal area of Bangladesh. Fifteen target PFAAs, including C4-14-PFCAs (perfluoroalkyl carboxylates) and C4, C6, C8, and C10-PFSAs (perfluoroalkyl sulfonates), were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS. The ΣPFAAs in surface water and sediment samples were in the range of 10.6 to 46.8ng/L and 1.07 to 8.15ng/gdw, respectively. PFOA in water (3.17-27.8ng/L) and PFOS in sediment samples (0.60-1.14ng/gdw) were found to be the most abundant PFAAs, and these concentrations were comparable to or less than most other reported values, particularly those recorded from the coastal areas of China, Japan, Korea and Spain. The majority of the monitored PFAAs did not show clear seasonal variation. The southeastern part (Cox's Bazar and Chittagong) of the Bangladeshi coastal area was more contaminated with PFAAs than the southern (Meghna Estuary) and southwestern parts (Sundarbans). Industrial and municipal wastewater effluents, ship breaking and port activities were identified as potential sources of the PFAA contamination in this region. Field-based sediment water distribution coefficients (KD) were calculated and corrected for organic carbon content (KOC), which reduced the variability between samples. The values of log KD (1.63-2.88) and log KOC (4.02-5.16) were higher than previously reported values, which may indicate that the partitioning of PFAAs in a tropical coastal ecosystem is different from other ecosystems, such as temperate and sub-tropical regions. Although a preliminary environmental hazard assessment indicated that PFOA or PFOS levels do not currently exceed the acute safety thresholds, we should keep in mind that they are bioavailable and can accumulate in the food chain. Therefore, the ubiquity of PFAAs in the coastal area of Bangladesh warrants further studies characterizing their specific sources and the potential long-term risks they present to both

  7. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  8. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 007 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 79 - 43 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revi

  9. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  10. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  11. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  12. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  13. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Azelaic acid.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M

    1987-12-01

    This review is an update on the literature accumulated over the past 10 years following the original observation that azelaic acid, a naturally occurring and nontoxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, possesses significant biologic properties and a potential as a therapeutic agent. These studies have shown that azelaic acid is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and other oxidoreductases in vitro and that it inhibits mitochondrial respiration. It can also inhibit anaerobic glycolysis. Both in vitro and in vivo it has an antimicrobial effect on both aerobic and anaerobic (Propionibacterium acnes) microorganisms. In tissue culture it exerts a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on malignant melanocytes, associated with mitochondrial damage and inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Tumoral cell lines not containing tyrosinase are equally affected. Normal cells in culture exposed to the same concentrations of the diacid that are toxic for tumoral cells are in general not damaged. Radioactive azelaic acid has been shown to penetrate tumoral cells at a higher level than normal cells of the corresponding line. Topically applied (a 20% cream), it has been shown to be of therapeutic value in skin disorders of different etiologies. Its beneficial effect on various forms of acne (comedogenic, papulopustular, nodulocystic) has been clearly demonstrated. Particularly important is its action on abnormal melanocytes, which has led to the possibility of obtaining good results on melasma and highly durable therapeutic responses on lentigo maligna. It is also capable of causing regression of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but its role in melanoma therapy remains to be investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, and crop grain following a high application of municipal biosolids to a field.

    PubMed

    Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, D R

    2017-01-01

    Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field in fall 2008. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -197, -207, -209), other brominated flame retardants (BFRs; HBB, PBEB, DBDPE, BTBPE) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs; PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS, PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTA) were monitored in tile drainage, groundwater (2m, 4m and 6m depth), soil cores (0-0.3m) pre- and post-application, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-application, and in wheat (Triticum spp.) planted post-application. Several compounds were detected in soil and water pre-application and on a reference field plot. PBDEs, other BFRs and PFAAs were detected in tile drainage and 2m groundwater throughout the post-application study period; a few PBDEs were also detected sporadically at lower depths in groundwater. Some of these compounds had not been detected pre-application, while some exceeded reference field plot/pre-application levels (some significantly (p<0.05) in tile drainage); both cases indicating biosolid-based water contamination. In DMB aggregates, several PBDE congeners were found to have dissipated exponentially, with reductions >90% in many of them within 1year post-application. Exponential dissipation of other BFRs and PFAAs in DMB aggregates were not significant. No PBDEs, other BFRs, or PFAAs were detected in wheat grain.

  18. Spatial distribution and importance of potential perfluoroalkyl acid precursors in urban rivers and sewage treatment plant effluent--case study of Tama River, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Tokumura, Masahiro; Islam, Md Saiful; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Oh, Jungkeun; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2014-12-15

    Production and use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is regulated worldwide. However, numerous potential precursors that eventually decompose into PFOS and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are still being used and have not been studied in detail. Therefore, knowledge about the levels and sources of the precursors is essential. We investigated the total concentration of potential PFAA precursors in the Tama River, which is one of the major rivers flowing into the Tokyo Bay, by converting all the perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) precursors into PFCAs by chemical oxidation. The importance of controlling PFAA precursors was determined by calculating the ratios of PFCAs formed by oxidation to the PFAAs originally present (ΣΔ[PFCAC4-C12]/Σ[PFAAs]before oxidation) (average = 0.28 and 0.69 for main and tributary branch rivers, respectively). Higher total concentrations of Δ[PFCAs] were found in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. However, the ratios found in the effluents were lower (average = 0.21) than those found in the river water samples, which implies the decomposition of some precursors into PFAAs during the treatment process. On the other hand, higher ratios were observed in the upstream water samples and the existence of emission sources other than the STP effluents was indicated. This study showed that although the treatment process converting a part of the PFAA precursors into PFAAs, STPs were important sources of precursors to the Tama River. To reduce the levels of PFAAs in the aquatic environment, it is necessary to reduce the emission of the PFAA precursors as well.

  19. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl acids in selected wastewater treatment plants and their discharge load within the Lake Victoria basin in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chirikona, Florah; Filipovic, Marko; Ooko, Seline; Orata, Francis

    2015-05-01

    A major ecological challenge facing Lake Victoria basin is the influx of chemical contaminants from domestic, hospital, and industrial effluents. Determined levels of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in wastewater and sludge from selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Kenya are presented and their daily discharge loads calculated for the first time within the Lake Victoria basin. Samples were extracted and separated using solid-phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS or LC-MS/MS methodology. All sewage sludge and wastewater samples obtained from the WWTPs contained detectable levels of PFAAs in picogram per gram dry weight (d.w.) and in nanogram per liter, respectively. There was variability in distribution of PFAAs in domestic, hospital, and industrial waste with domestic WWPTs observed to contain higher levels. Almost all PFAA homologues of chain length C-6 and above were detected in samples analyzed, with long-chain PFAAs (C-8 and above chain length) being dominant. The discharge from hospital contributes significantly to the amounts of PFAAs released to the municipal water systems and the lake catchment. Using the average output of wastewater from the five WWTPs, a mass load of 1013 mg day(-1) PFAAs per day discharged has been calculated, with the highest discharge obtained at Kisumu City (656 mg day(-1)). The concentration range of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in wastewater was 1.3-28 and 0.9-9.8 ng L(-1) and in sludge samples were 117-673 and 98-683 pg g(-1), respectively.

  1. Perfluorinated acid isomer profiling in water and quantitative assessment of manufacturing source.

    PubMed

    Benskin, Jonathan P; Yeung, Leo W Y; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Lam, Paul K S; Martin, Jonathan W

    2010-12-01

    A method for isomer profiling of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in water was developed and applied to quantitatively assess the contributions from electrochemical (ECF) and telomer manufacturing processes around source regions of North America, Asia, and Europe. With the exception of 3 sites in Japan, over 80% of total perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C(7)F(15)COO(-)) was from ECF, with the balance attributable to strictly linear (presumably telomer) manufacturing source(s). Comparing PFOA isomer profiles in samples from China, with PFOA obtained from a local Chinese manufacturer, indicated <3% difference in overall branched isomer content; thus, exclusive contribution from local ECF production cannot be ruled out. In Tokyo Bay, ECF, linear-telomer, and isopropyl-telomer sources contributed to 33%, 53%, and 14% of total PFOA, respectively. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, C(8)F(17)SO(3)(-)) isomer profiles were enriched in branched content (i.e., >50% branched) in the Mississippi River but in all other locations were similar or only slightly enriched in branched content relative to historical ECF PFOS. Isomer profiles of other PFCs are also reported. Overall, these data suggest that, with the exception of Tokyo Bay, ECF manufacturing has contributed to the bulk of contamination around these source regions, but other sources are significant, and remote sites should be monitored.

  2. Acidic domains around nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, G; Pack, G R

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration in the vicinity of DNA was mapped out within the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Experimental conditions were modeled by assuming Na-DNA to be solvated in a buffer solution containing 45 mM Tris and 3 mM Mg cations at pH 7.5. Three regions of high H+ concentration (greater than 10 microM) are predicted: one throughout the minor groove of DNA and two localized in the major groove near N7 of guanine and C5 of cytosine for a G.C base pair. These acidic domains correlate well with the observed covalent binding sites of benzo[a]pyrene epoxide (N2 of guanine) and of aflatoxin B1 epoxide (N7 of guanine), chemical carcinogens that presumably undergo acid catalysis to form highly reactive carbocations that ultimately bind to DNA. It is suggested that these regions of high H+ concentration may also be of concern in understanding interactions involving proteins and noncarcinogenic molecules with or near nucleic acids. PMID:2123348

  3. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  4. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  5. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  6. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  7. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  8. Perfluorinated Compounds in House Dust from Ohio and North Carolina, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), have come under increasing scrutiny due to their persistence in the environment, global distribution, and animal toxicity. Given that human exposure routes for these c...

  9. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  10. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  11. Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

    2014-07-10

    Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications.

  12. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  13. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  14. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  15. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

  16. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid ...

  17. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  18. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  19. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  20. Association between perfluorinated compounds and pathological conditions in southern sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Perrotta, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of four perfluorinated contaminants, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were measured in liver tissue from 80 adult female sea otters collected from the California coast during 1992a??2002. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were in the ranges of <1a??884 and <5a??147 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Concentrations of PFOA in the livers of these sea otters were among the highest values reported for marine mammals to date. Liver tissue from 6 male sea otters also was analyzed and contained significantly higher concentrations of PFOS than did tissues from female otters. To examine the association between exposures and potential effects, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were compared among the adult female otters that died from infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, and from apparent emaciation. Concentrations of both PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in sea otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were not significantly different between noninfectious and emaciated otters, suggesting that the poor nutritive (body) status of emaciated otters did not affect the concentrations of perfluorochemicals in livers. Concentrations of PFOA increased significantly from 1992 to 2002, whereas PFOS concentrations increased from 1992 to 1998 and then decreased after 2000. Significant association between infectious diseases and elevated concentrations of PFOS/PFOA in the livers of sea otters is a cause for concern and suggests the need for further studies.

  1. Association between perfluorinated compounds and pathological conditions in southern sea otters.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Perrotta, Emily; Thomas, Nancy J

    2006-08-15

    Concentrations of four perfluorinated contaminants, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), were measured in liver tissue from 80 adult female sea otters collected from the California coast during 1992-2002. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were in the ranges of <1-884 and <5-147 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Concentrations of PFOA in the livers of these sea otters were among the highest values reported for marine mammals to date. Liver tissue from 6 male sea otters also was analyzed and contained significantly higher concentrations of PFOS than did tissues from female otters. To examine the association between exposures and potential effects, concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were compared among the adult female otters that died from infectious diseases, noninfectious causes, and from apparent emaciation. Concentrations of both PFOA and PFOS were significantly higher in sea otters in the infectious disease category than in the noninfectious category. Concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were not significantly different between noninfectious and emaciated otters, suggesting that the poor nutritive (body) status of emaciated otters did not affectthe concentrations of perfluorochemicals in livers. Concentrations of PFOA increased significantly from 1992 to 2002, whereas PFOS concentrations increased from 1992to 1998 and then decreased after 2000. Significant association between infectious diseases and elevated concentrations of PFOS/PFOA in the livers of sea otters is a cause for concern and suggests the need for further studies.

  2. Estimation of contribution from non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants in a river by using boron as a wastewater tracer.

    PubMed

    Nishikoori, Hiroshi; Murakami, Michio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The contribution of non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in a river was evaluated by estimating their fluxes and by using boron (B) as a tracer. The utility of PFSs/B as an indicator for evaluating the impact of non-point sources was demonstrated. River water samples were collected from the Iruma River, upstream of the intake of drinking water treatment plants in Tokyo, during dry weather and wet weather, and 13 PFSs, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and B were analyzed. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) were detected on all sampling dates. The concentrations and fluxes of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, e.g. PFOA and PFNA) were higher during wet weather, but those of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs, e.g. PFHxS and PFOS) were not. The wet/dry ratios of PFSs/B (ratios of PFSs/B during wet weather to those during dry weather) agreed well with those of PFS fluxes (ratios of PFS fluxes during wet weather to those during dry weather), indicating that PFSs/B is useful for evaluating the contribution from non-point sources to PFSs in rivers. The wet/dry ratios of PFOA and PFNA were higher than those of other PFSs, DOC, and TN, showing that non-point sources contributed greatly to PFOA and PFNA in the water. This is the first study to use B as a wastewater tracer to estimate the contribution of non-point sources to PFSs in a river.

  3. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  4. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  5. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  6. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  7. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  8. Multi-Platform Metabolomic Analyses of Rat Urine Following Exposure to Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), represent an emerging class of persistent and bioaccumulative compounds. Global occurrence of these fluorochemicals, coupled with probable human exposure, has prompted inv...

  9. Gene expression profiling in the lung and liver of PFOS-exposed mouse fetuses

    EPA Science Inventory

    The industrial surfactants perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are persistent environmental contaminants commonly found in the tissues of humans and wildlife. Both compounds are agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and...

  10. Results of the Analyses of Screening Surface and Well Water Samples from Decatur, Alabama for Selected Perfluorinated Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has conducted testing of agricultural sites in Alabama where sewage sludge was applied from a local wastewater treatment plant that receives wastewater from numerous industrial sources, including facilities that manufacture and use perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perf...

  11. DETERMINATION OF PERFLUORINATED CHEMICALS (PFCS) IN SOILS, SEDIMENT AND OTHER MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils that receive land application of treated wastewater from carpet manufacturing plants were sampled for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) that are potential degradation products of fluorotelomer-based polymers (FBPs). Soils from other pot...

  12. Application of WWTP Biosolids and Resulting Perfluorinated Compound Contamination of Surface and Well Water in Decatur, Alabama, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been produced and used in a wide range of industrial and consumer products for many decades. Their resistance to degradation has led to their widespread distribution in...

  13. Determination of Ten Perfluorinated Compounds in Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) Fillets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is known about the environmental distributions of the perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in part due to a lack of well characterized analytical methods that can be used to accurately mea...

  14. Concentrations and trends of Perfluorinated chemicals in potential indoor sources from 2007 through 2011 in the US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Certain perfluorinated chemicals in consumer products have been associated with developmental toxicity and other adverse health effects. Temporal trends in the concentrations of selected perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and other perfluoroc...

  15. U.S. Domestic Cats as Sentinels for Perfluoroalkyl Substances: Possible Linkages with Housing, Obesity and Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) , are persistent, globally distributed, anthropogenic compounds. The primary source(s) for human exposure are not well understood although within home exposure is likely i...

  16. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Andrea C; Rich, Courtney D; Sedlacko, Erin M; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Kumar, Kuldip; Lau, Christopher; Mills, Marc A; Harris, Kimberly M; Higgins, Christopher P

    2014-07-15

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var. dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids-amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA; 232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root-soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with increasing chain length (0.11 to 0.36 log decrease per CF2 group). The biggest decrease (0.54-0.58 log decrease per CF2 group) was seen in fruit-soil concentration factors (FCFs). Crop anatomy and PFAA properties were utilized to explain data trends. In general, fruit crops were found to accumulate fewer long-chain PFAAs than shoot or root crops presumably due to an increasing number of biological barriers as the contaminant is transported throughout the plant (roots to shoots to fruits). These data were

  17. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care. PMID:16812965

  19. Sulfuric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  20. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  1. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

  2. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  3. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  4. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  5. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cosmetics Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Ingredients Alpha Hydroxy Acids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... for Industry: Labeling for Cosmetics Containing Alpha Hydroxy Acids The following information is intended to answer questions ...

  6. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  7. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... breaks the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body's fuel. Your body can use this ... process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple ...

  8. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Valproic Acid and Pregnancy Wednesday, 01 July 2015 In every ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to valproic acid may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  9. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  10. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  11. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  13. Refining Lurgi tar acids

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, N.P.

    1984-04-17

    There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

  14. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  15. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic..., polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and ricinoleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 1357486-09- 9) when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a...

  16. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  17. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  18. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  19. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  20. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Acid Lipase Disease Information Page What research is being ... research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency. Additional research studies hope to identify ...

  1. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  2. Highly efficient and stable Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 electrode for mineralization of perfluorooctanoic acid in a sequential treatment system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zesheng; Yu, Yanxin; Liu, Han; Niu, Junfeng

    2017-02-01

    Zr-doped nanocrystalline PbO2 (Zr-PbO2) film electrodes were prepared at different bath temperatures. The Zr-PbO2 electrode doped at 75°C (75-Zr-PbO2) featured high oxygen evolution overpotential, large effective area and good electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and the effective area of 75-Zr-PbO2 achieved 1.91V (vs. SCE) and 9.1cm(2), respectively. The removal efficiency and the defluorination ratio of PFOA reached 97.0% and 88.1% after 90min electrolysis. The primary mineralization products (i.e., F(-) and intermediates) and their change trends were determined. The 75-Zr-PbO2 electrode was introduced to sequentially treat the PFOA wastewater. In an 116h of 75-Zr-PbO2 electrocatalysis sequential process, the PFOA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFPeA, PFBA, PFPrA, TFA, and TOC concentrations were reduced to below 30, 2.5, 1.3, 1.0, 0.5, 0.2, 0.1, and 9mgL(-1), respectively, demonstrating the promising application of the sequential treatment system for the treatment of PFOA wastewater.

  3. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  4. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  5. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  6. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  7. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  10. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  11. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  12. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  13. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  14. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  15. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  16. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  17. Perfluorinated compounds: levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E

    2013-11-15

    The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA.

  18. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  20. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  1. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  2. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  3. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  4. Serum concentrations of polyfluoroalkyl compounds in Faroese whale meat consumers.

    PubMed

    Weihe, Pal; Kato, Kayoko; Calafat, Antonia M; Nielsen, Flemming; Wanigatunga, Amal A; Needham, Larry L; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-08-15

    To learn the extent of human exposure to polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in a remote fishing population, we measured, in Faroese children and pregnant women, the serum concentrations of nine PFCs, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA), by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The serum samples analyzed had been collected between 1993 and 2005 from 103 children 7 years of age, 79 of these children at 14 years of age, and from 12 pregnant women and their children 5 years later. PFOS was detected in all samples analyzed, and both PFOA and PFNA were detected in all but one of the samples. The concentrations found are comparable tothose reported elsewhere. Correlations between paired concentrations were poor. However, PFOS and PFNA concentrations correlated well with the frequency of pilotwhale dinners and with concentrations of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls. One whale meal every two weeks increased the PFOS concentration in 14-year-olds by about 25% and PFNA by 50%. The high frequency of detection of most PFCs suggests widespread exposure in the Faroe Islands already by the early 1990s, with whale meat being an important source.

  5. Preconception perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances and incident pregnancy loss, LIFE Study.

    PubMed

    Louis, Germaine M Buck; Sapra, Katherine J; Barr, Dana Boyd; Lu, Zhaohui; Sundaram, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    Equivocal findings are reported for perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and self-reported pregnancy loss. We prospectively assessed PFASs and pregnancy loss in a cohort comprising 501 couples recruited preconception and followed daily through 7 post-conception weeks. Seven PFASs were quantified: 2-N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH); 2-N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH); perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA); perfluorononanoate (PFNA); perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Women used home pregnancy test kits. Loss denoted conversion from a positive to a negative pregnancy test, onset of menses or clinical confirmation (n=98; 28%). Chemicals were log transformed and rescaled by their standard deviations to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals. No significantly elevated HRs were observed for any PFASs suggesting no association with loss: Et-PFOSA-AcOH (1.04; 0.87, 1.23), Me-PFOSA-AcOH (0.79; 0.61, 1.00; p<0.05), PFDeA (0.83; 0.66, 1.04), PFNA (0.86; 0.70, 1.06), PFOSA (0.74; 0.50, 1.09), PFOS (0.81; 0.65, 1.00), and PFOA (0.93; 0.75, 1.16).

  6. Transport of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from an arctic glacier to downstream locations: implications for sources.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Karen Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Taniyasu, Sachi; Murphy, Margaret B; Horii, Yuichi; Petrick, Gert; Kallerborn, Roland; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Murano, Kentaro; Lam, Paul K S

    2013-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been globally detected in various environmental matrices, yet their fate and transport to the Arctic is still unclear, especially for the European Arctic. In this study, concentrations of 17 PFAS were quantified in two ice cores (n=26), surface snow (n=9) and surface water samples (n=14) collected along a spatial gradient in Svalbard, Norway. Concentrations of selected ions (Na(+), SO4(2-), etc.) were also determined for tracing the origins and sources of PFAS. Perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were the dominant compounds found in ice core samples. Taking PFOA, PFNA and perfluorooctane-sulfonate (PFOS) as examples, higher concentrations were detected in the middle layers of the ice cores representing the period of 1997-2000. Lower concentrations of C8-C12 perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) were detected in comparison with concentrations measured previously in an ice core from the Canadian Arctic, indicating that contamination levels in the European Arctic are lower. Average PFAS concentrations were found to be lower in surface snow and melted glacier water samples, while increased concentrations were observed in river water downstream near the coastal area. Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) was detected in the downstream locations, but not in the glacier, suggesting existence of local sources of this compound. Long-range atmospheric transport of PFAS was the major deposition pathway for the glaciers, while local sources (e.g., skiing activities) were identified in the downstream locations.

  7. Dietary Predictors and Plasma Concentrations of Perfluorinated Compounds in a Coastal Population from Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Brustad, Magritt; Falk, Helena; Sandanger, Torkjel M.

    2009-01-01

    Dietary intake, age, gender, and body mass index were investigated as possible predictors of perfluorinated compounds in a study population from northern Norway (44 women and 16 men). In addition to donating a blood sample, the participants answered a detailed questionnaire about diet and lifestyle. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (29 ng/mL), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (3.9 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (0.5 ng/mL), perfluorononanoate (PFNA) (0.8 ng/mL), and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS) (1.1 ng/mL) were detected in more than 95% of all samples. Of the dietary items investigated, fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the concentrations of PFOS and PFHpS, whereas fatty fish to a smaller extent significantly increased the levels of the same compounds. Men had significantly higher concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFHpS than women. There were significant differences in PFOS isomer pattern between genders, with women having the largest proportion of linear PFOS. PFOS, PFHxS, and PFHpS concentrations also increased with age. PMID:20111729

  8. Structure of Acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Araujo, César L; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important

  9. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid ... > For Parents > Folic Acid and Pregnancy A A A What's ...

  10. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  11. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  12. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  13. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  14. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  16. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  17. Production of shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2012-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed.

  18. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  19. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  20. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  1. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  2. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  3. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  4. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  5. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  6. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  7. Acid soldering flux poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in soldering fluxes are called hydrocarbons. They include: Ammonium chloride Rosin Hydrochloric acid Zinc ... Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  8. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Amoxicillin is in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth ... allergic to amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox, Wymox), clavulanic acid, penicillin, cephalosporins, or any other medications.tell your doctor ...

  9. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... acidemia? In ASA, the body can’t remove ammonia or a substance called argininosuccinic acid from the ... and children include: Breathing problems High levels of ammonia in the bloodIntense headache, especially after a high- ...

  10. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  11. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The normal range is 320 ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  12. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  13. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  14. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines.

    PubMed

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L M; Hollywood, R

    1979-09-01

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipoxidase, for trans fatty acid by infared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of linoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, respresenting various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated that two of them contained still higher levels of trans fatty acids (greater than 60%) and negligible amounts of linoleic acid. It is proposed that margarine could be a vehicle for the distribution of some dietary linoleic acid and that the level of linoleic acid and the summation of the saturated plus trans fatty acids be known to ascertain nutritional characteristics.

  15. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  16. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  17. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  18. The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia

    2005-01-01

    The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated.

  19. Differential activation of pregnane X receptor by carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Seow, Chun Ling; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2017-03-10

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of many genes, including those involved in drug metabolism and transport, and has been linked to various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we determined whether carnosic acid and other chemicals in rosemary extract (carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid) are PXR activators. As assessed in dual-luciferase reporter gene assays, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, activated human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR), whereas carnosol and ursolic acid, but not carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid, activated rat PXR (rPXR). Dose-response experiments indicated that carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid activated hPXR with EC50 values of 0.79, 2.22, and 10.77μM, respectively. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, transactivated the ligand-binding domain of hPXR and recruited steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), SRC-2, and SRC-3 to the ligand-binding domain of hPXR. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, increased hPXR target gene expression, as shown by an increase in CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and ABCB1 mRNA expression in LS180 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Rosmarinic acid did not attenuate the extent of hPXR activation by rifampicin, suggesting it is not an antagonist of hPXR. Overall, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, are hPXR agonists, and carnosic acid shows species-dependent activation of hPXR and mPXR, but not rPXR. The findings provide new mechanistic insight on the effects of carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid on PXR-mediated biological effects.

  20. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684