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Sample records for acid phosphate content

  1. Selective decrease of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content in macrophages by high supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jérôme; Zemski Berry, Karin A; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Geloën, Alain; Murphy, Robert C; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid (PL) preferentially found in late endosomal membranes, where it forms specialized lipid domains. Recently, using cultured macrophages treated with anti-BMP antibody, we showed that BMP-rich domains are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. We had previously stressed the high propensity of BMP to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared with other PUFAs. Because phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was reported as a precursor for BMP synthesis in RAW macrophages, we examined the effects of PG supplementation on both FA composition and amount of BMP in this cell line. Supplementation with dioleoyl-PG (18:1/18:1-PG) induced BMP accumulation, together with an increase of oleate proportion. Supplementation with high concentrations of didocosahexaenoyl-PG (22:6/22:6-PG) led to a marked enrichment of DHA in BMP, resulting in the formation of diDHA molecular species. However, the amount of BMP was selectively decreased. Similar effects were observed after supplementation with high concentrations of nonesterified DHA. Addition of vitamin E prevented the decrease of BMP and further increased its DHA content. Supplementation with 22:6/22:6-PG promoted BMP accumulation with an enhanced proportion of 22:6/22:6-BMP. DHA-rich BMP was significantly degraded after cell exposure to oxidant conditions, in contrast to oleic acid-rich BMP, which was not affected. Using a cell-free system, we showed that 22:6/22:6-BMP is highly oxidizable and partially protects cholesterol oxidation, compared with 18:1/18:1-BMP. Our data suggest that high DHA content in BMP led to specific degradation of this PL, possibly through the diDHA molecular species, which is very prone to peroxidation and, as such, a potential antioxidant in its immediate vicinity. PMID:18809971

  2. Apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer in simulated body fluid: effects of phosphate group content.

    PubMed

    Hamai, Ryo; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate groups on materials surfaces are known to contribute to apatite formation upon exposure of the materials in simulated body fluid and improved affinity of the materials for osteoblast-like cells. Typically, polymers containing phosphate groups are organic matrices consisting of apatite-polymer composites prepared by biomimetic process using simulated body fluid. Ca(2+) incorporation into the polymer accelerates apatite formation in simulated body fluid owing because of increase in the supersaturation degree, with respect to apatite in simulated body fluid, owing to Ca(2+) release from the polymer. However, the effects of phosphate content on the Ca(2+) release and apatite-forming abilities of copolymers in simulated body fluid are rather elusive. In this study, a phosphate-containing copolymer prepared from vinylphosphonic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate was examined. The release of Ca(2+) in Tris-NaCl buffer and simulated body fluid increased as the additive amount of vinylphosphonic acid increased. However, apatite formation was suppressed as the phosphate groups content increased despite the enhanced release of Ca(2+) from the polymer. This phenomenon was reflected by changes in the surface zeta potential. Thus, it was concluded that the apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-triethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer treated with CaCl2 solution was governed by surface state rather than Ca(2+) release in simulated body fluid. PMID:27585911

  3. Toward accelerated bone regeneration by altering poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid porogen content in calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    van Houdt, C I A; Preethanath, R S; van Oirschot, B A J A; Zwarts, P H W; Ulrich, D J O; Anil, S; Jansen, J A; van den Beucken, J J J P

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to compare in vitro degradation of dense PLGA microspheres and milled PLGA particles as porogens within CPC, considering that the manufacturing of milled PLGA is more cost-effective when compared with PLGA microspheres. Additionally, we aimed to examine the effect of porogen amount within CPC/PLGA on degradation and bone formation. Our in vitro results showed no differences between both forms of PLGA particles (as porogens in CPC; spherical for microspheres, irregular for milled) regarding morphology, porosity, and degradation. Using milled PLGA as porogens within CPC/PLGA, we evaluated the effect of porogen amount on degradation and bone forming capacity in vivo. Titanium landmarks surrounded by CPC/PLGA with 30 and 50 wt % PLGA, were implanted in forty femoral bone defects of twenty male Wistar rats. Histomorphometrical results showed a significant temporal decrease in the amount of CPC, for both formulas, and confirmed that 50 wt % PLGA degrades faster than 30 wt%, and allows for a 1.5-fold higher amount of newly formed bone. Taken together, this study demonstrated that (i) milled PLGA particles perform equal to PLGA microspheres, and (ii) tuning of the PLGA content in CPC/PLGA is a feasible approach to leverage material degradation and bone formation.

  4. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation in vitro by preventing the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to calcium hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, S M; Wen, G; Hirakawa, N; Soloway, R D; Hong, N K; Crowther, R S

    1991-01-01

    Calcium hydroxyapatite can be a significant component of black pigment gallstones. Diverse molecules that bind calcium phosphate inhibit hydroxyapatite precipitation. Because glycine-conjugated bile acids, but not their taurine counterparts, bind calcium phosphate, we studied whether glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite formation. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (2 mM) totally inhibited transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate microprecipitates to macroscopic crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite. This inhibition was not mediated by decreased Ca2+ activity. Taurocholic acid (2-12 mM) did not affect hydroxyapatite formation, but antagonized glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Both amorphous and crystalline precipitates contained a surface fraction relatively rich in phosphate. The surface phosphate content was diminish by increasing glycochenodeoxycholic acid concentrations, and this relationship was interpreted as competition between bile acid and HPO4(-4) for binding sites on the calcium phosphate surface. A phosphate-rich crystal surface was associated with rapid transition from amorphous to crystalline states. These results indicate that glycochenodeoxycholic acid prevents transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to crystalline hydroxyapatite by competitively inhibiting the accumulation of phosphate on the crystal embryo surface. PMID:1655828

  5. The Effects of Locations of Wetlands on Phosphate-Level Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, C. N.

    2002-05-01

    : The purpose of this experiment is to test different locations of a wetland for phosphate content to see whether the wetland is effective in lowering nutrient levels in Reedy Creek. After researching information on phosphates and its effect on wetlands, the researcher hypothesized that if the water from downstream of the Jefferson Village Wetland Mitigation Site is tested, then the phosphate content level will be lower then the upstream location. With the use of the LaMotte Phosphate Kit, the Jefferson Village Mitigation Site was tested upstream and downstream to determine its phosphate-level content. With the Phosphate Acid Reagent and Phosphate Reducing Agent, the test tubes filled with the water sample were shaken to determine whether the solution was contaminated by the solution turning blue. As the shade of blue becomes darker, the contamination level of that site increases. The axial reader was used to determine the actual level of phosphate-content. After the water samples were tested, the results show that the downstream mitigation site of the Jefferson Village Wetland had the highest phosphate content level. With an average content level of 0.133 ppm, the Jefferson Village Mitigation site has remained within the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency standards of 0.1 to 0.3 ppm to be considered uncontaminated by algal blooms. A t-test was performed on the data to determine whether the data was statistically significant. In conclusion, the downstream mitigation site of the Jefferson Village Wetland, having the highest phosphate content level, proved the researcher's hypothesis incorrect.

  6. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. The effect of phosphate content on the bioactivity of soda-lime-phosphosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, M D; Watts, S J; Hill, R G; Law, R V

    2009-08-01

    We report on the bioactivity of two series of glasses in the SiO(2)-Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5) system after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) after 21 days. The effect of P(2)O(5) content was examined for compositions containing 0-9.25 mol.% phosphate. Both series of glasses degraded to basic pH, but the solutions tended towards to neutrality with increasing phosphate content; a result of the acidic phosphate buffering the effect of the alkali metal and alkaline earth ions on degradation. Bioactivity was assessed by the appearance of features in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) traces and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra consistent with crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate-apatite (HCAp): such as the appearance of the (002) Bragg reflection in XRD and splitting of the P-O stretching vibration around 550 cm(-1) in the FTIR respectively. All glasses formed HCAp in SBF over the time periods studied and the time for formation of this crystalline phase occurred more rapidly in both series as the phosphate contents were increased. For P(2)O(5) content >3 mol.% both series exhibited highly crystalline apatite by 16 h immersion in SBF. This indicates that in the compositions studied, phosphate content is more important for bioactivity than network connectivity (NC) of the silicate phase and compositions showing rapid apatite formation are presented, superior to 45S5 Bioglass which was tested under identical conditions for comparison. PMID:19330429

  16. Radioactivity contents in dicalcium phosphate and the potential radiological risk to human populations.

    PubMed

    Casacuberta, N; Masqué, P; Garcia-Orellana, J; Bruach, J M; Anguita, M; Gasa, J; Villa, M; Hurtado, S; Garcia-Tenorio, R

    2009-10-30

    Potentially harmful phosphate-based products derived from the wet acid digestion of phosphate rock represent one of the most serious problems facing the phosphate industry. This is particularly true for dicalcium phosphate (DCP), a food additive produced from either sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid digestion of raw rock material. This study determined the natural occurring radionuclide concentrations of 12 DCP samples and 4 tricalcium phosphate (TCP) samples used for animal and human consumption, respectively. Metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Zn, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Pb and Mg) were also determined. Samples were grouped into three different clusters (A, B, C) based on their radionuclide content. Whereas group A is characterized by high activities of 238U, 234U (approximately 10(3) Bq kg(-1)), 210Pb (2 x 10(3) Bq kg(-1)) and (210)Po ( approximately 800 Bq kg(-1)); group B presents high activities of (238)U, (234)U and (230)Th (approximately 10(3) Bq kg(-1)). Group C was characterized by very low activities of all radionuclides (< 50 Bq kg(-1)). Differences between the two groups of DCP samples for animal consumption (groups A and B) were related to the wet acid digestion method used, with group A samples produced from hydrochloric acid digestion, and group B samples produced using sulphuric acid. Group C includes more purified samples required for human consumption. High radionuclide concentrations in some DCP samples (reaching 2 x 10(3) and 10(3) Bq kg(-1) of 210Pb and 210Po, respectively) may be of concern due to direct or indirect radiological exposure via ingestion. Our experimental results based on 210Pb and 210Po within poultry consumed by humans, suggest that the maximum radiological doses are 11 +/- 2 microSv y(-1). While these results suggest that human health risks are small, additional testing should be conducted.

  17. Developmental adaptations in cytosolic phosphate content and pH regulation in the sheep heart in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Portman, M A; Ning, X H

    1990-01-01

    This study examines adaptations in myocardial cytosolic phosphate content and buffering capacity that occur in vivo as a function of development. Phosphate metabolites were monitored in an open chest sheep preparation using a 31P magnetic resonance surface coil over the left ventricle. Newborn lambs (aged 4-9 d, n = 5) underwent exchange transfusion with adult blood to reduce blood-borne 2,3-diphosphoglycerate contamination of the heart monophosphate and phosphomonoester resonances, thus allowing determination of these phosphate concentrations. The blood-exchanged newborns and mature controls (aged 30-60 d, n = 5) were infused with 0.4 N hydrochloric acid to decrease pH from greater than 7.35 to less than 7.00. Simultaneously, intracellular and extracellular pH were determined from the chemical shifts of the respective phosphate peaks and compared to arterial blood pH. Findings were as follows: (a) diphosphoglycerate contribution to the cardiac spectrum was found to be negligible, (b) significant decreases in cytosolic phosphate (P less than 0.03) and phosphomonoester (P less than 0.01) content occurred with maturation, and (c) large decreases in extracellular pH (greater than 0.5 U) in both groups were similarly associated with only small changes in intracellular pH (less than 0.1 U). Change in cytosolic phosphate content implies that alterations occur in the phosphorylation potential with resulting effects on regulation of myocardial respiration, and cardiac energetics. PMID:2254447

  18. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse. PMID:26496844

  19. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  20. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging parameters describing acid phosphate substitution in biologic hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Spevak, Lyudmila; Flach, Carol R; Hunter, Tracey; Mendelsohn, Richard; Boskey, Adele

    2013-05-01

    Acid phosphate substitution into mineralized tissues is an important determinant of their mechanical properties and their response to treatment. This study identifies and validates Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI) spectral parameters that provide information on the acid phosphate (HPO4) substitution into hydroxyapatite in developing mineralized tissues. Curve fitting and Fourier self-deconvolution were used to identify subband positions in model compounds (with and without HPO4). The intensity of subbands at 1127 and 1110 cm(-1) correlated with the acid phosphate content in these models. Peak height ratios of these subbands to the ν3 vibration at 1096 cm(-1) found in stoichiometric apatite were evaluated in the model compounds and mixtures thereof. FTIRI spectra of bones and teeth at different developmental ages were analyzed using these spectral parameters. Factor analysis (a chemometric technique) was also conducted on the tissue samples and resulted in factor loadings with spectral features corresponding to the HPO4 vibrations described above. Images of both factor correlation coefficients and the peak height ratios 1127/1096 and 1112/1096 cm(-1) demonstrated higher acid phosphate content in younger vs. more mature regions in the same specimen. Maps of the distribution of acid phosphate content will be useful for characterizing the extent of new bone formation, the areas of potential decreased strength, and the effects of therapies such as those used in metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, chronic kidney disease) on mineral composition. Because of the wider range of values obtained with the 1127/1096 cm(-1) parameter compared to the 1110/1096 cm(-1) parameter and the smaller scatter in the slope, it is suggested that this ratio should be the parameter of choice.

  1. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  2. Comparative study on mannose 6-phosphate residue contents of recombinant lysosomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Togawa, Tadayasu; Takada, Masaru; Aizawa, Yoshiaki; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Chiba, Yasunori; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    As most recombinant lysosomal enzymes are incorporated into cells via mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptors, the M6P content is important for effective enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for lysosomal diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive reports of the M6P contents of lysosomal enzymes. We developed an M6P assay method comprising three steps, i.e., acid hydrolysis of glycoproteins, derivatization of M6P, and high-performance liquid chromatography, and determined the M6P contents of six recombinant lysosomal enzymes now available for ERT and one in the process of development. The assay is easy, specific, and reproducible. The results of the comparative study revealed that the M6P contents of agalsidase alfa, agalsidase beta, modified α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, alglucosidase alfa, laronidase, idursulfase, and imiglucerase are 2.1, 2.9, 5.9, 0.7, 2.5, 3.2, and <0.3 mol/mol enzyme, respectively. The results were correlated with those of the biochemical analyses previously performed and that of the binding assay of exposed M6P of the enzymes with the domain 9 of the cation-independent M6P receptor. This assay method is useful for comparison of the M6P contents of recombinant lysosomal enzymes for ERT. PMID:24439675

  3. Phosphate acceptor amino acid residues in structural proteins of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, F; Tan, K B; McFalls, M L; Madore, P

    1974-07-01

    Partial acid hydrolysates of the [(32)P]phosphate- or [(3)H]serine-labeled proteins of purified vesicular stomatitis, rabies, Lagos bat, Mokola, or spring viremia of carp virions and of purified intracellular nucleocapsids of these viruses have been analyzed by paper electrophoresis for the presence of phosphorylated amino acids. Both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, with the former predominant, were present in virion and nucleocapsid preparations that contained phosphoproteins. An exception was the fish rhabdovirus, which contained only phosphoserine. When vesicular stomatitis or rabies virus proteins were phosphorylated in a cell-free system by the virion-associated protein kinase and analyzed for the presence of phosphorylated amino acid residues, phosphoserine was again found to be more abundant than phosphothreonine. After in vitro protein phosphorylation, another phospho-compound, possibly a third phosphoamino acid, was detected in the partial acid hydrolysates of these viruses. PMID:4365328

  4. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA. PMID:27004948

  5. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA.

  6. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  7. Effect of intracellular P content on phosphate removal in Scenedesmus sp. Experimental study and kinetic expression.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Martínez, A; Serralta, J; Romero, I; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-01-01

    The present work determines the effect of phosphorus content on phosphate uptake rate in a mixed culture of Chlorophyceae in which the genus Scenedesmus dominates. Phosphate uptake rate was determined in eighteen laboratory batch experiments, with samples taken from a progressively more P-starved culture in which a minimum P content of 0.11% (w/w) was achieved. The results obtained showed that the higher the internal biomass P content, the lower the phosphate removal rate. The highest specific phosphate removal rate was 6.5mgPO4-PgTSS(-1)h(-1). Microalgae with a P content around 1% (w/w) attained 10% of this highest removal rate, whereas those with a P content of 0.6% (w/w) presented 50% of the maximum removal rate. Different kinetic expressions were used to reproduce the experimental data. Best simulation results for the phosphate uptake process were obtained combining Steele equation and Hill function to represent the effect of light and intracellular phosphorus content, respectively.

  8. Involvement of lysophosphatidic acid, sphingosine 1-phosphate and ceramide 1-phosphate in the metabolization of phosphatidic acid by lipid phosphate phosphatases in bovine rod outer segments.

    PubMed

    Pasquaré, Susana J; Salvador, Gabriela A; Giusto, Norma Maria

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the generation of [2-3H]diacylglycerol ([2-3H]DAG) from [2-3H]-Phosphatidic acid ([2-3H]PA) by lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) at different concentrations of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), and ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) in purified ROS obtained from dark-adapted retinas (DROS) or light-adapted retinas (BLROS) as well as in ROS membrane preparations depleted of soluble and peripheral proteins. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of LPP3 exclusively in all membrane preparations. Immunoblots of entire ROS and depleted ROS did not show dark-light differences in LPP3 levels. LPPs activities were diminished by 53% in BLROS with respect to DROS. The major competitive effect on PA hydrolysis was exerted by LPA and S1P in DROS and by C1P in BLROS. LPPs activities in depleted ROS were similar to the activity observed in entire DROS and BLROS, respectively. LPA, S1P and C1P competed at different extent in depleted DROS and BLROS. Sphingosine and ceramide inhibited LPPs activities in entire and depleted DROS. Ceramide also inhibited LPPs activities in entire and in depleted BLROS. Our findings are indicative of a different degree of competition between PA and LPA, S1P and C1P by LPPs depending on the illumination state of the retina. PMID:18288612

  9. Permeability of lipid bilayers to amino acids and phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Permeability coefficients for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, were measured and compared with values for other ionic solutes such as phosphate. The rates of efflux of glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan were determined after they were passively entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The following permeability coefficients were obtained for: glycine, 5.7 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 2.0 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); serine, 5.5 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.6 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); lysine, 5.1 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.9 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); tryptophan, 4.1 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC); and phenylalanine, 2.5 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC). Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly, while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested. Phosphate permeability was in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1 depending on the pH of the medium. The values for the polar and charged amino acids were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium, which are in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1, depending on conditions and the lipid species used. This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. The results are relevant to the permeation of certain peptides into lipid bilayers during protein translocation and membrane biogenesis.

  10. Dolomite flotation of high magnesium phosphate ores using fatty acid soap collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhengxing

    The separation of dolomite from apatite has been recognized as one of the most difficult subjects in mineral processing due to the similarities in their physiochemical properties. In this study, selective surfactants were used with a fatty acid soap collector to improve the flotation performance of separating dolomite from high magnesium phosphate ores. Three surfactants, diethyl phthalate (DP), Tween-80 (TW) and derivative of sulfonate salt (DSS1) were used. Hallimond cell flotation was conducted using pure dolomite sample to determine the effects of various factors including dosages, particle size, Ca2+ ions and slimes on the dolomite flotation recovery. The results showed that the surfactants can significantly improve dolomite flotation performance by increasing collecting ability and tolerating the effect of calcium ions and slime contents. The stirrer-tank cell batch flotation tests were carried out using two natural high magnesium phosphate ore samples containing 3.3% and 1.5% MgO. The test results showed that the surfactant DP could improve dolomite flotation at low dosages, and DSS1 could enhance the separation of dolomite from phosphate by improving both collecting ability and flotation selectivity. When 10% of DSS1 was used with the fatty acid soap as collector, at least 10% more dolomite can be removed with less P2O5 loss. The effectiveness of the surfactant DSS1 in enhancing dolomite flotation was further demonstrated in modified packed column flotation with natural dolomitic phosphate ore sample. The addition of the surfactant DSS1 into fatty acid soap collector could improve its frothability and froth stability, and reduce the bubble size. It has been found that the dolomite flotation performance has a close relationship with the frothability and froth stability of the collector.

  11. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J E; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrogen-limited conditions, while oxalic acid production was promoted under carbon-limited conditions. Citric acid was produced in both growth and stationary phases, but oxalic acid production occurred only in stationary phase. When submerged cultures which normally produce acid were induced to sporulate, the culture medium shifted toward alkaline rather than acid reaction with growth. PMID:1622211

  12. Orotic acid content of infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Durschlag, R P; Robinson, J L

    1980-10-01

    The orotic acid content of four commercially available infant formulas has been examined. Enfamil contains 118 microgram orotic acid per milliliter as fed, Similac 98, SMA 27, and Isomil less than 1 microgram/ml. As expressed relative to total solids, these formulas contain less than 0.1% orotic acid. Since consumption of 1% orotic acid does not lead to a fatty liver in any species examined other than the rat and 0.1% orotic acid fails to induce statistically significant hepatic changes in the rat, it is suggested that orotic acid at the level found in these formulas is not likely to pose a health hazard to the infants consuming them.

  13. Content of Adenosine Phosphates and Adenylate Energy Charge in Germinating Ponderosa Pine Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Te May; Ching, Kim K.

    1972-01-01

    An average of 540 picomoles of total adenosine phosphates was found in the embryo of mature seeds of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) and 1140 picomoles in the gametophyte. Adenylate energy charges were 0.44 and 0.26, respectively. After stratification, total adenosine phosphates increased 7-fold and 6-fold in embryo and gametophyte, respectively, and energy charges rose to 0.85 and 0.75. During germination, total adenosine phosphates increased to a 20-fold peak on the 9th day in gametophytic tissue, parallel with the peak of reserve regradation and organellar synthesis, and then decreased. In embryo and seedling, total adenosine phosphates elevated 80-fold with two distinct oscillating increases of AMP and ADP. The oscillating increases occurred before the emergence of radicle and cotyledons during which the highest mitotic index prevailed in all tissues. Energy charges fluctuated between 0.65 at the rapid cell dividing stage to 0.85 at the fully differentiated stage of the seedling, while energy charges remained around 0.75 in the gametophyte. These data indicated that the content of adenosine phosphates of germinating seeds reflects growth, organogenesis, and morphogenesis, and that a compartmentalized energy metabolism must exist in dividing and growing plant cells. PMID:16658212

  14. Lowering effect of firefly squid powder on triacylglycerol content and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Morita, Ritsuko; Shirai, Yoko; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Terashima, Teruya; Ushikubo, Shun; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Effects of dietary firefly squid on serum and liver lipid levels were investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 5% freeze-dried firefly squid or Japanese flying squid for 2 weeks. There was no significant difference in the liver triacylglycerol level between the control and Japanese flying squid groups, but the rats fed the firefly squid diet had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol content than those fed the control diet. No significant difference was observed in serum triacylglycerol levels between the control and firefly squid groups. The rats fed the firefly squid had a significantly lower activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compared to the rats fed the control diet. There was no significant difference in liver fatty acid synthetase activity among the three groups. Hepatic gene expression and lipogenic enzyme activity were investigated; a DNA microarray showed that the significantly enriched gene ontology category of down-regulated genes in the firefly squid group was "lipid metabolic process". The firefly squid group had lower mRNA level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compared to the controls. These results suggest that an intake of firefly squid decreases hepatic triacylglycerol in rats, and the reduction of mRNA level and enzyme activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase might be related to the mechanisms.

  15. Amino acid dependent formation of phosphate anhydrides in water mediated by carbonyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Leman, Luke J; Orgel, Leslie E; Ghadiri, M Reza

    2006-01-11

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a component of volcanic gas emissions and interstellar gas clouds, is shown to be an efficient condensing agent in the context of phosphate chemistry in aqueous solutions. We report that high-energy aminoacyl-phosphate anhydrides and aminoacyl adenylates are generated in solutions containing amino acids, COS, and the corresponding phosphate molecule. We further show that the mixed anhydrides of amino acids and inorganic phosphate are phosphorylating agents, producing pyrophosphate in better than 30% yield in the presence of Ca2+ precipitates. The amino acid dependent activations of phosphate reported here, which occur in parallel with the production of peptides, suggest that these two reactions may have shared a common intermediate on the prebiotic Earth.

  16. Phosphate content influence on structural, spectroscopic, and lasing properties of Er,Yb-doped potassium-lanthanum phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Švejkar, Richard; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Nitsch, Karel; Cihlář, Antonín; Král, Robert; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonn; Rodová, Miroslava; Zemenová, Petra; Nikl, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) content on the material properties of Er,Yb-doped potassium-lanthanum phosphate glass was studied. Glass samples of the following nominal composition 35.0K2O-6.8Yb2O3-8.0La2O3-0.2Er2O3-50.0P2O5 (in mol%) were prepared from starting materials mixed with five additional amounts of P2O5 (0, 7.5, 15.0, 30.0, and 45.0 mol% related to the nominal glass composition). The P2O5 addition influence on properties of prepared glasses was studied using Raman, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The glass residual IR absorption and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters together with absorption and emission cross sections were estimated. The results showed the increasing polymerization of glass and the P-O bond shortening with P2O5 content increase. The spectroscopy of Er and Yb ions was affected only marginally by the glass composition. It was found that fluorescence decay time corresponding to upper-laser-level I increased with the decrease of P2O5 content in the glasses, which was related to increasing OH- contamination of the glass. The laser action at 1.53 μm under 975-nm pulsed laser diode pumping was successfully demonstrated. Low threshold and laser slope efficiency up to 21% in respect to absorbed pumping power were obtained.

  17. The phosphate of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate is an acid/base catalyst in the mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Scott, Israel; Paulose, Riya; Patel, Akshay; Barron, Taylor Colt

    2014-02-01

    Kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase, EC 3.7.1.3) catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of L-kynurenine to L-alanine and anthranilic acid. The proposed mechanism of the retro-Claisen reaction requires extensive acid/base catalysis. Previous crystal structures showed that Tyr226 in the Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme (Tyr275 in the human enzyme) hydrogen bonds to the phosphate of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor. This Tyr residue is strictly conserved in all sequences of kynureninase. The human enzyme complexed with a competitive inhibitor, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, showed that the ligand carbonyl O is located 3.7 Å from the phenol of Tyr275 (Lima, S., Kumar, S., Gawandi, V., Momany, C. & Phillips, R. S. (2009) J. Med. Chem. 52, 389-396). We prepared a Y226F mutant of P. fluorescens kynureninase to probe the role of this residue in catalysis. The Y226F mutant has approximately 3000-fold lower activity than wild-type, and does not show the pKa values of 6.8 on kcat and 6.5 and 8.8 on k(cat)/K(m) seen for the wild-type enzyme (Koushik, S. V., Moore, J. A. III, Sundararaju, B. & Phillips, R. S. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 1376-1382). Wild-type kynureninase shows a resonance at 4.5 ppm in (31)P-NMR, which is shifted to 5.0, 3.3 and 2.0 ppm when the potent inhibitor 5-bromodihydrokynurenine is added. However, Y226F kynureninase shows resonances at 3.6 and 2.5 ppm, and no change in the peak position is seen when 5-bromodihydrokynurenine is added. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyr226 mediates proton transfer between the substrate and the phosphate, which accelerates formation of external aldimine and gem-diol intermediates. Thus, the phosphate of PLP acts as an acid/base catalyst in the mechanism of kynureninase.

  18. Polylactic acid-phosphate glass composite foams as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, G; Mathieu, L; Pioletti, D P; Bourban, P-E; Månson, J-A E; Knowles, J C; Nazhat, S N

    2007-02-01

    Phosphate glass (PG) of the composition 0.46(CaO)-0.04(Na(2)O)-0.5(P(2)O(5)) was used as filler in poly-L-lactic acid (PLA) foams developed as degradable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The effect of PG on PLA was assessed both in bulk and porous composite foams. Composites with various PG content (0, 5, 10, and 20 wt %) were melt-extruded, and either compression-molded or foamed through supercritical CO(2). Dynamic mechanical analysis on the bulk composites showed that incorporating 20 wt % PG resulted in a significant increase in storage modulus. Aging studies in deionized water in terms of weight loss, pH change, and ion release inferred that the degradation was due to PG dissolution, and dependent on the amount of glass in the composites. Foaming was only possible for composites containing 5 and 10 wt % PG, as an increase in PG increased the foam densities; however, the level of porosity was maintained above 75%. PLA-T(g) in the foams was higher than those obtained for the bulk. Compressive moduli showed no significant reinforcement with glass incorporation in either expansion direction, indicating no anisotropy. Biocompatibility showed that proliferation of human fetal bone cells was more rapid for PLA compared to PLA-PG foams. However, the proliferation rate of PLA-PG foams were similar to those obtained for foams of PLA with either hydroxyapatite or beta-tricalcium phosphate.

  19. Cortisol modification of HeLa 65 alkaline phosphatase. Decreased phosphate content of the induced enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bazzell, K L; Price, G; Tu, S; Griffin, M

    1976-01-15

    Alkaline phosphatase activity of HeLa cells is increased 5-20-fold during growth in medium with cortisol. The increase in enzyme activity is due to an enhanced catalytic efficiency rather than an increase in alkaline phosphatase protein in induced cells. In the present study the chemical composition of control and induced forms of alkaline phosphatase were investigated to determine the enzyme modification that may be responsible for the increased catalytic activity. HeLa alkaline phosphatase is a phosphoprotein and the induced form of the enzyme has approximately one-half of the phosphate residues associated with control enzyme. The decrease in phosphate residues of the enzyme apparently alters its catalytic activity. Other chemical components of purified alkaline phosphatase from control and induced cells are similar; these include sialic acid, hexosamine and sulfhydryl residues. PMID:1248469

  20. Mineral phosphate solubilization by Streptomyces sp. CTM396 involves the excretion of gluconic acid and is stimulated by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mounira Ben; Boukhris, Ines; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-03-01

    The actinomycetes isolates (128) which were taken from agricultural soil samples and collected near a rock phosphate processing unit were screened for mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability. A significant MPS activity was observed for 30 isolates on various phosphate sources when grown in the National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate broth. CTM396 and CTM397 strains which showed the highest MPS abilities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as members of the genus Streptomyces. Their MPS activity was proved to be concomitant with a drop in pH due to the secretion of gluconic acid (GA). This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR of genes gdh [encoding the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) responsible for GA production from glucose] and pqq (involved in biosynthesis of the pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor of GDH), as well as the highlighting of GHD enzyme activity, for the first time in a Streptomyces sp. strain producing GA. Furthermore, the 0.05% of humic acids proved to have a stimulatory effect on the growth and the ability of CTM396 to solubilize Gafsa rock phosphate. According to this study, it is possible to use humic acids and Gafsa rock phosphate in association with spores of ad hoc Streptomyces strains as natural and efficient amendments to improve plant growth with no need of costly and pollutant transformation of Gafsa rock phosphate.

  1. Mineral phosphate solubilization by Streptomyces sp. CTM396 involves the excretion of gluconic acid and is stimulated by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mounira Ben; Boukhris, Ines; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-03-01

    The actinomycetes isolates (128) which were taken from agricultural soil samples and collected near a rock phosphate processing unit were screened for mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability. A significant MPS activity was observed for 30 isolates on various phosphate sources when grown in the National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate broth. CTM396 and CTM397 strains which showed the highest MPS abilities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as members of the genus Streptomyces. Their MPS activity was proved to be concomitant with a drop in pH due to the secretion of gluconic acid (GA). This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR of genes gdh [encoding the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) responsible for GA production from glucose] and pqq (involved in biosynthesis of the pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor of GDH), as well as the highlighting of GHD enzyme activity, for the first time in a Streptomyces sp. strain producing GA. Furthermore, the 0.05% of humic acids proved to have a stimulatory effect on the growth and the ability of CTM396 to solubilize Gafsa rock phosphate. According to this study, it is possible to use humic acids and Gafsa rock phosphate in association with spores of ad hoc Streptomyces strains as natural and efficient amendments to improve plant growth with no need of costly and pollutant transformation of Gafsa rock phosphate. PMID:25743071

  2. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio. PMID:27514871

  3. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio.

  4. Osteoconductive properties of β-tricalcium phosphate matrix, polylactic and polyglycolic acid gel, and calcium phosphate cement in bone defects.

    PubMed

    Luvizuto, Eloá R; Queiroz, Thallita P; Margonar, Rogério; Panzarini, Sônia R; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo; Okamoto, Tetuo; Okamoto, Roberta

    2012-09-01

    Extensive bone defects in maxillofacial region can be corrected with autogenous grafts; otherwise, the disadvantages of the therapeutics modality take the research for new bone substitutes. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the osteoconductive properties of 3 commercial available biomaterials. A total of 30 calvarial defects (5-mm diameter) were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups, with a total of 6 defects per treatment group (n = 6). The treatment groups were as follows: 500 to 1000 μm β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), polylactic and polyglycolic acid (PL/PG) gel, calcium phosphate cement, untreated control, and autograft control. The evaluations were based on histomorphometric analysis at 60 postoperative days. The results have shown that β-TCP and autograft control supported bone formation at 60 postoperative days. β-Tricalcium phosphate showed the highest amount of mineralized area per total area and statistically significant compared with PL/PG, calcium phosphate cement, and untreated control groups. The PL/PG gel does not have osteoconductive properties and performed similar to empty control. Calcium phosphate cement showed higher number of multinucleated giant cells around the sites of the biomaterial and showed newly formed bone only at the edges of the biomaterial, without bone formation within the biomaterial. The findings presented herein indicate that bone formation reached a maximum level when rat calvarial defects were filled with β-TCP at 60 postoperative days. Further studies should be conducted with β-TCP to understand the potential of this biomaterial in bone regeneration.

  5. Immobilization of lead in anthropogenic contaminated soils using phosphates with/without oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Qingling; Zuo, Jichao; Liu, Yonghong; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on the immobilization of Pb(II) in contaminated soils by phosphate materials, has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for the soil. A series of phosphate amendments with/without oxalic acid were applied to two anthropogenic contaminated soils. We investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) by KH2PO4, phosphate rock (PR), activated phosphate rock (APR) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) at different phosphate:Pb (P:Pb) molar ratios (0, 0.6, 2.0 and 4.0) in the presence/absence of 50 mmol oxalic acid/kg soil, respectively. The effects of treatments were evaluated using single extraction with deionized water or CaCl2, Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) methods. Our results showed that the concentration of water extractable, exchangeable and TCLP-Pb all decreased with incubation time. The concentration of water-extractable Pb after 120 days was reduced by 100% when soils were amended with APR, HAP and HAP+OA, and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L for the red soil at P:Pb molar ratio 4.0. Water-soluble Pb could not be detected and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L at all treatments applied to the yellow-brown soil. BCR results indicated that APR was most effective, although a slight enhancement of water-soluble phosphate was detected at the P:Pb molar ratio 4.0 at the beginning of incubation. Oxalic acid activated phosphates, and so mixing insoluble phosphates with oxalic acid may be a useful strategy to improve their effectiveness in reducing Pb bioavailability.

  6. High affinity of acid phosphatase encoded by PHO3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for thiamin phosphates.

    PubMed

    Nosaka, K

    1990-02-01

    The enzymatic properties of acid phosphatase (orthophosphoric-monoester phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.2) encoded by PHO3 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is repressed by thiamin and has thiamin-binding activity at pH 5.0, were investigated to study physiological functions. The following results led to the conclusion that thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase physiologically catalyzes the hydrolysis of thiamin phosphates in the periplasmic space of S. cerevisiae, thus participating in utilization of the thiamin moiety of the phosphates by yeast cells: (a) thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase showed Km values of 1.6 and 1.7 microM at pH 5.0 for thiamin monophosphate and thiamin pyrophosphate, respectively. These Km values were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than those (0.61 and 1.7 mM) for p-nitrophenyl phosphate; (b) thiamin exerted remarkable competitive inhibition in the hydrolysis of thiamin monophosphate (Ki 2.2 microM at pH 5.0), whereas the activity for p-nitrophenyl phosphate was slightly affected by thiamin; (c) the inhibitory effect of inorganic phosphate, which does not repress the thiamin-repressible enzyme, on the hydrolysis of thiamin monophosphate was much smaller than that of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Moreover, the modification of thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase of S. cerevisiae with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide resulted in the complete loss of thiamin-binding activity and the Km value of the modified enzyme for thiamin monophosphate increased nearly to the value of the native enzyme for p-nitrophenyl phosphate. These results also indicate that the high affinity of the thiamin-repressible acid phosphatase for thiamin phosphates is due to the thiamin-binding properties of this enzyme.

  7. Altering trehalose-6-phosphate content in transgenic potato tubers affects tuber growth and alters responsiveness to hormones during sprouting.

    PubMed

    Debast, Stefan; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Hajirezaei, Mohammad R; Hofmann, Jörg; Sonnewald, Uwe; Fernie, Alisdair R; Börnke, Frederik

    2011-08-01

    Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is a signaling metabolite that regulates carbon metabolism, developmental processes, and growth in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), T6P signaling is, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of the SNF1-related protein kinase SnRK1. To investigate the role of T6P signaling in a heterotrophic, starch-accumulating storage organ, transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants with altered T6P levels specifically in their tubers were generated. Transgenic lines with elevated T6P levels (B33-TPS, expressing Escherichia coli osmoregulatory trehalose synthesis A [OtsA], which encodes a T6P synthase) displayed reduced starch content, decreased ATP contents, and increased respiration rate diagnostic for high metabolic activity. On the other hand, lines with significantly reduced T6P (B33-TPP, expressing E. coli OtsB, which encodes a T6P phosphatase) showed accumulation of soluble carbohydrates, hexose phosphates, and ATP, no change in starch when calculated on a fresh weight basis, and a strongly reduced tuber yield. [¹⁴C]glucose feeding to transgenic tubers indicated that carbon partitioning between starch and soluble carbohydrates was not altered. Transcriptional profiling of B33-TPP tubers revealed that target genes of SnRK1 were strongly up-regulated and that T6P inhibited potato tuber SnRK1 activity in vitro. Among the SnRK1 target genes in B33-TPP tubers, those involved in the promotion of cell proliferation and growth were down-regulated, while an inhibitor of cell cycle progression was up-regulated. T6P-accumulating tubers were strongly delayed in sprouting, while those with reduced T6P sprouted earlier than the wild type. Early sprouting of B33-TPP tubers correlated with a reduced abscisic acid content. Collectively, our data indicate that T6P plays an important role for potato tuber growth.

  8. Effect of impurities in wet-process phosphoric acids on DAP grades. [Diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Achorn, F.P.; Dillard, E.F.; Frazier, A.W.; Salladay, D.G.

    1980-11-01

    Results of this study identify the main problems in meeting diammonium phosphate (DAP) grade specifications and suggest some possible solutions to these problems as follows: 1. The major source of grade deficiency in the commercial samples which were investigated was calcium. Some solutions to this problem are to maintain filter cloths in the phosphoric acid unit in good condition, operate the phosphoric acid unit at as low an acid temperature as consistent with good operation of this unit, and partially clarify the acid before it is used. 2. In the DAP unit the amount of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and F in the acid affects the content of C.I. P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ in the product. If the F:Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ wt ratio in the product can be kept above 2.3:1, probably the C.I.-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ content of the product will be less than 0.1 percent. At lower F:Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ wt ratios, it is advantageous to have low retention times in the preneutralizer and ammoniator-granulator when the N:P mole ratio is 1.4:1 or higher. 3. Other data show that the N:P mole ratio in the slurry from the preneutralizer to the granulator must be above 1.4:1 to avoid nitrogen deficiencies. At lower ratios the product will contain some MAP; this causes nitrogen deficiency in the products. 4. The Mg and Al contents of the acids have less effect on grade deficiency than Ca and Fe. 5. To avoid highly viscous preneutralizer slurries when low preneutralizer retention times are used, ensure that there is sufficient F available (F:Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ wt ratio > 2.0:1) to combine with the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to form coarse crystals. An alternative to this latter suggestion is to replace the preneutralizer with a TVA pipe reactor which is partially installed in the granulator and discharges viscous slurry directly onto the bed of material in the granulator.

  9. Comparison of acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and hydrofluoric acid etchants for porcelain-composite repair.

    PubMed

    Tylka, D F; Stewart, G P

    1994-08-01

    Hydrofluoric acid etches porcelain to produce a porous surface visible under scanning electron microscopy when compared to an acidulated phosphate fluoride gel. Some investigators have suggested the greater porosity of the hydrofluoric acid etch produces a greater composite-to-porcelain bond. This investigation tested that assumption with two common fluoride etchants. The etched surfaces were first viewed under scanning electron microscopy to ensure that a characteristic etch was achieved. Both etchants yielded bond strengths that produced cohesive failure of all samples. This suggested that the intraoral use of hydrofluoric acid is no more effective than the less dangerous acidulated phosphate fluoride gel.

  10. Acid-base properties of sorbents based on modified zirconium(IV) phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Bekrenev, A.V.; Pyartman, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    Modifying and doping syntheses are widely used to improve the reproducibility of ion-exchange properties and to increase the capacity of inorganic ion exchangers. Numerous examples of doping zirconium phosphate ion exchangers with cationic or anionic additives are known. The aim of this work was to investigate the acid-base properties of zirconium phosphates modified with anionic additives (phthalate and sulfosalicylate ions) in comparison with unmodified samples.

  11. Selective removal of phosphate for analysis of organic acids in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sandeep; Frolov, Andrej; Marcillo, Andrea; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Accurate quantitation of compounds in samples of biological origin is often hampered by matrix interferences one of which occurs in GC-MS analysis from the presence of highly abundant phosphate. Consequently, high concentrations of phosphate need to be removed before sample analysis. Within this context, we screened 17 anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials for selective phosphate removal using different protocols to meet the challenge of simultaneous recovery of six common organic acids in aqueous samples prior to derivatization for GC-MS analysis. Up to 75% recovery was achieved for the most organic acids, only the low pKa tartaric and citric acids were badly recovered. Compared to the traditional approach of phosphate removal by precipitation, SPE had a broader compatibility with common detection methods and performed more selectively among the organic acids under investigation. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that phosphate removal strategies during the analysis of biologically relevant small molecular weight organic acids consider the respective pKa of the anticipated analytes and the detection method of choice.

  12. [Effect of phosphate and organic acid addition on passivation of simulated Pb contaminated soil and the stability of the product].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ji-Chao; Gao, Ting-Ting; Su, Xiao-Juan; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Organic acids can improve the phosphorus availability, influence the immobilization of heavy metals in soil, and has very complicated function in phosphorus activation and heavy metal passivation. This research took simulated Pb contaminated soil as material, phosphate and citric acid as remediation matter, adopted BCR continuous extraction, 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) to evaluate the remediation effect. Besides, malic acid and NaNO3 were taken as desorption reagents to discuss the stability of the phosphorus-citric acid-Pb system. The results showed that: in the absence of citric acid, the amount of acid extracted Pb decreased along with the increase of P concentration; when the P concentration was 100 and 400 mg · kg(-1), acid extractable Pb increased with the increasing of citric acid concentration. However, residual Pb changed in the opposite direction from acid extractable Pb. The phenomenon showed that P improved the bioavailability of Pb, while citric acid had the opposite effect. With a certain organic acid concentration, extractable Pb contents extracted by 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and TCLP both decreased with the increasing P concentration, therefore, P had immobilization effect on Pb in contaminated soil. But at a fixed P concentration, extractable Pb contents by 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and TCLP changed in the opposite trend with the increasing citric acid concentration. The desorption rate of Pb in soil increased with the increasing malic acid concentration, the decreasing pH and the increasing ionic strength. The desorption extent of Pb in soil with P only was lower than that with both P and citric acid. But the stability of Pb passivated by the former was higher. PMID:25693396

  13. [Effect of phosphate and organic acid addition on passivation of simulated Pb contaminated soil and the stability of the product].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ji-Chao; Gao, Ting-Ting; Su, Xiao-Juan; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Organic acids can improve the phosphorus availability, influence the immobilization of heavy metals in soil, and has very complicated function in phosphorus activation and heavy metal passivation. This research took simulated Pb contaminated soil as material, phosphate and citric acid as remediation matter, adopted BCR continuous extraction, 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) to evaluate the remediation effect. Besides, malic acid and NaNO3 were taken as desorption reagents to discuss the stability of the phosphorus-citric acid-Pb system. The results showed that: in the absence of citric acid, the amount of acid extracted Pb decreased along with the increase of P concentration; when the P concentration was 100 and 400 mg · kg(-1), acid extractable Pb increased with the increasing of citric acid concentration. However, residual Pb changed in the opposite direction from acid extractable Pb. The phenomenon showed that P improved the bioavailability of Pb, while citric acid had the opposite effect. With a certain organic acid concentration, extractable Pb contents extracted by 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and TCLP both decreased with the increasing P concentration, therefore, P had immobilization effect on Pb in contaminated soil. But at a fixed P concentration, extractable Pb contents by 0.01 mol · L(-1) CaCl2 and TCLP changed in the opposite trend with the increasing citric acid concentration. The desorption rate of Pb in soil increased with the increasing malic acid concentration, the decreasing pH and the increasing ionic strength. The desorption extent of Pb in soil with P only was lower than that with both P and citric acid. But the stability of Pb passivated by the former was higher.

  14. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Egloff, Caroline; Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T.; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  15. Organic acid production and plant growth promotion as a function of phosphate solubilization by Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 isolated from the cold deserts of the trans-Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Arvind; Sharma, Natasha; Vyas, Pratibha; Sood, Swati; Rahi, Praveen; Pathania, Vijaylata; Prasad, Ramdeen

    2010-11-01

    An efficient phosphate-solubilizing plant growth-promoting Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 exhibited significantly higher solubilization of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) than Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP). Qualitative and quantitative differences were discerned in the gluconic, oxalic, 2-keto gluconic, lactic, malic and formic acids during the solubilization of various inorganic phosphates by the strain. Gluconic acid was the main organic acid produced during phosphate solubilization. Formic acid production was restricted to TCP solubilization and oxalic acid production to the solubilization of MRP, URP and NCRP. A significant increase in plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, root dry weight, and root, shoot and soil phosphorus (P) contents was recorded with the inoculated treatments over the uninoculated NP(0)K or NP(TCP)K treatments. Plant growth promotion as a function of phosphate solubilization suggested that the use of bacterial strain would be a beneficial addition to the agriculture practices in TCP-rich soils in reducing the application of phosphatic fertilizers.

  16. Effect of organic acids on calcium phosphate nucleation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on peptide functionalized nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Barati, Danial; Walters, Joshua D; Shariati, Seyed Ramin Pajoum; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2015-05-12

    Carboxylate-rich organic acids play an important role in controlling the growth of apatite crystals and the extent of mineralization in the natural bone. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of organic acids on calcium phosphate (CaP) nucleation on nanofiber microsheets functionalized with a glutamic acid peptide and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on the CaP-nucleated microsheets. High molecular weight poly(dl-lactide) (DL-PLA) was mixed with low molecular weight L-PLA conjugated with Glu-Glu-Gly-Gly-Cys peptide, and the mixture was electrospun to generate aligned nanofiber microsheets. The nanofiber microsheets were incubated in a modified simulated body fluid (mSBF) supplemented with different organic acids for nucleation and growth of CaP crystals on the nanofibers. Organic acids included citric acid (CA), hydroxycitric acid (HCA), tartaric acid (TART), malic acid (MA), ascorbic acid (AsA), and salicylic acid (SalA). HCA microsheets had the highest CaP content at 240 ± 10% followed by TART and CA with 225 ± 8% and 225 ± 10%, respectively. The Ca/P ratio and percent crystallinity of the nucleated CaP in TART microsheets was closest to that of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The extent of CaP nucleation and growth on the nanofiber microsheets depended on the acidic strength and number of hydrogen-bonding hydroxyl groups of the organic acids. Compressive modulus and degradation of the CaP nucleated microsheets were related to percent crystallinity and CaP content. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on the microsheets and cultured in osteogenic medium increased only for those microsheets nucleated with CaP by incubation in CA or AsA-supplemented mSBF. Further, only CA microsheets stimulated bone nodule formation by the seeded hMSCs. PMID:25879768

  17. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

  18. Fascinating and challenging role of tungstate promoted vanadium phosphate towards solvent free esterification of oleic acid.

    PubMed

    Behera, Gobinda Chandra; Parida, K M

    2012-01-28

    A novel solid acid catalyst has been extensively used for the esterification reaction. Herein, tungstate promoted vanadium phosphate material is fabricated from its precursor, VOHPO(4)·0.5H(2)O and its catalytic activities and structure are investigated in detail. This kind of catalyst is, for the first time, applied for the effective production of biodiesel from fatty acids. Although vanadium phosphate has been extensively used in gas phase oxidation reactions, it has not drawn much attention for its application in liquid phase reactions. Our recent results indicate that vanadium phosphate is an effective, minimally polluting and re-usable catalyst that is highly suited to the production of biodiesel from fatty acids. This work extends the possibility of using VPO in other liquid phase reactions.

  19. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  20. Nucleic acid analysis using terminal-phosphate-labeled nucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-04-22

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  1. Ammonolysis of esters of hydroxybenzoic acids on a boron phosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Bukeikhanov, N.R.; Li, L.V.; Zulkasheva, A.Z.

    1987-09-10

    In this investigation boron phosphate catalyst was used for ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. It was shown that ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids in presence of boron phosphate catalyst at a ratio of 3-7 moles of ammonia per mole of ester in a contact time of 1-5 sec at 380-400/sub 0/ can be used for obtaining o- and p- hydroxybenzonitriles in yields of over 90% of the theoretical.

  2. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Caroline; Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism.

  3. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  4. Influence of phosphate ions on buffer capacity of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguta, P.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The object of this study was to determine change of natural buffer capacity of humic acids by strong buffering agents, which were phosphate ions. Studies were carried out on the humic acids extracted from peat soils. Additional information was obtained by determination of water holding capacity, density, ash and pH for peats and optical parameter Q4/6 for humic acids. Humic acid suspensions exhibited the highest buffer properties at low pH and reached maximum at pH ~ 4. Phosphates possessed buffer properties in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.0. The maximum of buffering was at pH~6.8 and increased proportionally with an increase in the concentration of phosphate ions. The study indicated that the presence of phosphate ions may strongly change natural buffer capacity of humic acids by shifting buffering maximum toward higher pH values. Significant correlations were found for the degree of the secondary transformation with both the buffer capacity and the titrant volume used during titration.

  5. Phosphate supply explains variation in nucleic acid allocation but not C : P stoichiometry in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.; Allison, S. D.

    2014-03-01

    Marine microbial communities mediate many biogeochemical transformations in the ocean. Consequently, processes such as primary production and carbon (C) export are linked to nutrient regeneration and are influenced by the resource demand and elemental composition of marine microbial biomass. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that differential partitioning of element resources to various cellular components can directly influence overall cellular elemental ratios, especially with respect to growth machinery (i.e., ribosomal RNA) and phosphorus (P) allocation. To investigate whether allocation to RNA is related to biomass P content and overall C : P biomass composition in the open ocean, we characterized patterns of P allocation and C : P elemental ratios along an environmental gradient of phosphate supply in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (NASG) from 35.67° N, 64.17° W to 22.676° N, 65.526° W. Because the NASG is characterized as a P-stressed ecosystem, we hypothesized that biochemical allocation would reflect sensitivity to bioavailable phosphate, such that greater phosphate supply would result in increased allocation toward P-rich RNA for growth. We predicted these changes in allocation would also result in lower C : P ratios with increased phosphate supply. However, bulk C : P ratios were decoupled from allocation to nucleic acids and did not appear to vary systematically across a phosphate supply gradient of 2.2-14.7 μmol m-2 d-1. Overall, we found that C : P ratios ranged from 188 to 306 along the transect, and RNA represented only 6-12% of total particulate P, whereas DNA represented 11-19%. We did find that allocation to RNA was positively correlated with phosphate supply rate, suggesting a consistent physiological response in biochemical allocation to resource supply within the whole community. These results suggest that community composition and/or nonnucleic acid P pools may influence ecosystem-scale variation in C : P stoichiometry more than

  6. Separative recovery with lime of phosphate and fluoride from an acidic effluent containing H3PO4, HF and/or H2SiF6.

    PubMed

    Gouider, Mbarka; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-10-30

    Fluoride content and flow-rate of fertilizer plant wastewater from phosphoric acid and/or triple superphosphate (TSP) production lead to the discharge of several thousand tons of fluoride (F(-)) per year and even more for phosphate (PO4(3-)). Since sustainability is an important environmental concern, the removal methods should allow phosphorus and fluoride to be recycled as a sustainable products for use as raw materials either in agricultural or industrial applications. In the present work, separative recovery with lime of these two target species was investigated. A preliminary speciation study, carried out on the crude effluent, showed that two forms of fluoride: HF and H2SiF6 are present in a highly acidic medium (pH approximately 2). Evidence that fluoride is present under both free (HF) and combined (H2SiF6) forms, in the phosphate-containing effluent, was provided by comparing potentiometric titration curves of a crude wastewater sample and synthetic acid mixtures containing H3PO4, HF and H2SiF6. In a second step synthetic effluent containing mixtures of the following acids: HF, H2SiF6 and H3PO4, were treated with lime. The behaviour of these compounds under lime treatment was analysed. The data showed that fluoride has a beneficial effect on phosphate removal. Moreover, by acting on the precipitation pH, a "selective" recovery of fluoride and phosphate ions was possible either from phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid or phosphoric acid/hexafluorosilicic acid mixtures. Indeed, the first stage of the separative recovery, led to a fluoride removal efficiency of 97-98% from phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid mixture. It was of 93-95% from phosphoric acid/hexafluorosilicic acid mixture. During the second stage, the phosphate precipitation reached 99.8% from both acidic mixtures whereas it did not exceed 82% from a solution containing H3PO4 alone. The XRD and IR analyses showed that during lime treatment, a H2SiF6 hydrolysis occurred, instead of CaSiF6 solid

  7. Effects of arsenate on microcystin content and leakage of Microcystis strain PCC7806 under various phosphate regimes.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan; Song, Lirong; Wu, Xingqiang; Xiao, Bangding; Fang, Tao; Liu, Jiantong

    2009-02-01

    Both arsenic pollution and eutrophication are prominent environmental issues when considering the problem of global water pollution. It is important to reveal the effects of arsenic species on cyanobacterial growth and toxin yields to assess ecological risk of arsenic pollution or at least understand naturally occurring blooms. The sensitivity of cyanobacteria to arsenate has often been linked to the structural similarities of arsenate and phosphate. Thus, we approached the effect of arsenate with concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-4) M on Microcystis strain PCC7806 under various phosphate regimes. The present study showed that Microcystis strain PCC7806 was arsenate tolerant up to 10(-4) M. And such tolerance was without reference to both content of intra- and extra-cellular phosphate. It seems that arsenate involved the regulation of microcystin synthesis and cellular polyphosphate contributed to microcystin production of Microcystis responding to arsenate, since there was a positive linear correlation of the cellular microcystin quota with the exposure concentration of arsenate when the cells were not preconditioned to phosphate starvation. It is presumed that arsenate could help to actively export microcystins from living Microcystis cells when preconditioned to phosphate starvation and incubated with the medium containing 1 microM phosphate. This study firstly provided evidence that microcystin content and/or release of Microcystis might be impacted by arsenate if it exists in harmful algal blooms. PMID:18442067

  8. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New...

  11. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  12. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids.

  13. Genotypic variation in fatty acid content of blackcurrant seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz del Castillo, M L; Dobson, G; Brennan, R; Gordon, S

    2002-01-16

    The fatty acid composition and total fatty acid content of seeds from 36 blackcurrant genotypes developed at the Scottish Crop Research Institute were examined. A rapid small-scale procedure, involving homogenization of seeds in toluene followed by sodium methoxide transesterification and gas chromatography, was used. There was considerable variation between genotypes. The gamma-linolenic acid content generally varied from 11 to 19% of the total fatty acids, but three genotypes had higher values of 22-24%, levels previously not reported for blackcurrant seed and similar to those for borage seed. Other nutritionally important fatty acids, stearidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, varied from 2 to 4% and 10-19%, respectively. The mean total fatty acid contents ranged from 14 to 23% of the seed, but repeatability was poor. The results are discussed. Blackcurrant seeds are mainly byproducts from juice production, and the study shows the potential for developing blackcurrant genotypes with optimal added value. PMID:11782203

  14. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...): Do not release into the environment in quantities that allow surface water concentrations to exceed 6...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance...

  15. FTIR and {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopic analyses of surface species in phosphate-catalyzed lactic acid conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, G.C.; Tam, M.S.; Miller, D.J.

    1996-11-01

    The surface species present on silica/alumina-supported sodium phosphates, active catalysts for the conversion of lactic acid to acrylic acid and 2,3-pentanedione, are examined by pre- and postreaction MAS {sup 31}P-NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. Species present following lactic acid conversion are identified by transmission FTIR of phosphates supported on silicon disks (as a model catalyst system) and verified by {sup 31}P-NMR and diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy of actual catalysts used in reaction. Monosodium phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) condenses to a mixture of sodium polyphosphate (NaPO{sub 3}){sub n} and sodium trimetaphosphate (Na{sub 3}P{sub 3}O{sub 9}), which exhibit little catalytic activity for converting lactic acid to desired products. Disodium phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) condenses to tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and proton transfer from lactic acid to pyrophosphate results in the formation of sodium lactate. Trisodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) accepts a proton from lactic acid to form sodium lactate and disodium phosphate, which condenses to pyrophosphate. The presence of pyrophosphate and sodium lactate on supported disodium and trisodium phosphates explains their similar catalytic properties; the larger quantity of sodium lactate present on trisodium phosphate leads to higher conversions at lower temperatures. 40 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the

  17. Strigolactone Regulates Anthocyanin Accumulation, Acid Phosphatases Production and Plant Growth under Low Phosphate Condition in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Shinsaku; Nozoye, Tomoko; Sasaki, Eriko; Imai, Misaki; Shiwa, Yuh; Shibata-Hatta, Mari; Ishige, Taichiro; Fukui, Kosuke; Ito, Ken; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K.; Yajima, Shunsuke; Asami, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate is an essential macronutrient in plant growth and development; however, the concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in soil is often suboptimal for crop performance. Accordingly, plants have developed physiological strategies to adapt to low Pi availability. Here, we report that typical Pi starvation responses in Arabidopsis are partially dependent on the strigolactone (SL) signaling pathway. SL treatment induced root hair elongation, anthocyanin accumulation, activation of acid phosphatase, and reduced plant weight, which are characteristic responses to phosphate starvation. Furthermore, the expression profile of SL-response genes correlated with the expression of genes induced by Pi starvation. These results suggest a potential overlap between SL signaling and Pi starvation signaling pathways in plants. PMID:25793732

  18. Lipid phosphate phosphatases regulate lysophosphatidic acid production and signaling in platelets: studies using chemical inhibitors of lipid phosphate phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Susan S; Sciorra, Vicki A; Sigal, Yury J; Pamuklar, Zehra; Wang, Zuncai; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D; Morris, Andrew J

    2003-10-31

    Blood platelets play an essential role in ischemic heart disease and stroke contributing to acute thrombotic events by release of potent inflammatory agents within the vasculature. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator produced by platelets and found in the blood and atherosclerotic plaques. LPA receptors on platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells regulate growth, differentiation, survival, motility, and contractile activity. Definition of the opposing pathways of synthesis and degradation that control extracellular LPA levels is critical to understanding how LPA bioactivity is regulated. We show that intact platelets and platelet membranes actively dephosphorylate LPA and identify the major enzyme responsible as lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1). Localization of LPP1 to the platelet surface is increased by exposure to LPA. A novel receptor-inactive sn-3-substituted difluoromethylenephosphonate analog of phosphatidic acid that is a potent competitive inhibitor of LPP1 activity potentiates platelet aggregation and shape change responses to LPA and amplifies LPA production by agonist-stimulated platelets. Our results identify LPP1 as a pivotal regulator of LPA signaling in the cardiovascular system. These findings are consistent with genetic and cell biological evidence implicating LPPs as negative regulators of lysophospholipid signaling and suggest that the mechanisms involve both attenuation of lysophospholipid actions at cell surface receptors and opposition of lysophospholipid production. PMID:12909631

  19. Content and Vacuole/Extravacuole Distribution of Neutral Sugars, Free Amino Acids, and Anthocyanin in Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. γ-Methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents. Images PMID:16660921

  20. Experimental study on thermal hazard of tributyl phosphate-nitric acid mixtures using micro calorimeter technique.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Liang; Sun, Jin-Hua

    2016-08-15

    During PUREX spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, mixture of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and hydrocarbon solvent are employed as organic solvent to extract uranium in consideration of radiation contaminated safety and resource recycling, meanwhile nitric acid is utilized to dissolve the spent fuel into small pieces. However, once TBP contacts with nitric acid or nitrates above 130°C, a heavy "red oil" layer would occur accompanied by thermal runaway reactions, even caused several nuclear safety accident. Considering nitric acid volatility and weak exothermic detection, C80micro calorimeter technique was used in this study to investigate thermal decomposition of TBP mixed with nitric acid. Results show that the concentration of nitric acid greatly influences thermal hazard of the system by direct reactions. Even with a low heating rate, if the concentration of nitric acid increases due to evaporation of water or improper operations, thermal runaway in the closed system could start at a low temperature. PMID:27136728

  1. The roles of bile acids and sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in the hepatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yuza, Kizuki; Hirose, Yuki; Nakajima, Masato; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Hait, Nitai C; Hylemon, Phillip B; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-09-01

    Based on research carried out over the last decade, it has become increasingly evident that bile acids act not only as detergents, but also as important signaling molecules that exert various biological effects via activation of specific nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways. Bile acids also regulate the expression of numerous genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in the synthesis and metabolism of bile acids, glucose, fatty acids, and lipoproteins, as well as energy metabolism. Receptors activated by bile acids include, farnesoid X receptor α, pregnane X receptor, vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled receptors, TGR5, muscarinic receptor 2, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)2. The ligand of S1PR2, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates various physiological and pathophysiological cellular processes. We have recently reported that conjugated bile acids, via S1PR2, activate and upregulate nuclear sphingosine kinase 2, increase nuclear S1P, and induce genes encoding enzymes and transporters involved in lipid and sterol metabolism in the liver. Here, we discuss the role of bile acids and S1P signaling in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatobiliary diseases. PMID:27459945

  2. Accurate determination of the amino acid content of selected feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2009-01-01

    The accurate determination of the amino acid content is important. In the present study, a least-squares non-linear regression model of the amino acid content determined over multiple hydrolysis times was used to accurately determine the content of amino acids in five different feedstuffs. These values were compared with 24-h hydrolysis values determined for the same feedstuffs. Overall, approximately two-thirds of the amino acids determined in this study (aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and arginine) using 24-h hydrolysis were in good agreement (<3% difference). When examined across feedstuffs, the concentration of serine was underestimated by the 24-h hydrolysis method by 4.8%, while the concentrations of histidine and lysine were overestimated by 3.9% and 3.1%, respectively.

  3. Effects of norepinephrine infusion on myocardial high-energy phosphate content and turnover in the living rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bittl, J A; Balschi, J A; Ingwall, J S

    1987-01-01

    Using 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance, we studied the relationship between myocardial high-energy phosphate content and flux values for the creatine kinase reaction in the living rat under inotropic states achieved during norepinephrine infusion and halothane anesthesia. Under 2% halothane anesthesia (n = 4), 1% halothane anesthesia (n = 5) and norepinephrine infusion (n = 4), rats developed rate-pressure products of 19.5 +/- 1.6, 32.0 +/- 3.5, and 48.5 +/- 2.0 X 1,000 mmHg/min, respectively. Adenosine triphosphate content was not affected by inotropic state, ranging from 24.3 +/- 1.1 to 25.6 +/- 1.1 mumol/g dry weight, but creatine phosphate content varied inversely and reversibly with cardiac performance from 45.6 +/- 6.0 under 2% halothane to 26.0 +/- 6.5 mumol/g dry weight during norepinephrine infusion. The flux values for the creatine kinase reaction were 15.4 +/- 4.6, 20.5 +/- 2.0, and 30.1 +/- 7.9 mumol/g dry weight per s under 2% halothane, 1% halothane, and 1% halothane with norepinephrine, respectively. These results suggest that the turnover of myocardial high-energy phosphate compounds, not their tissue contents, matches cardiac performance during inotropic stimulation. Images PMID:3584473

  4. Acid gradient across plasma membrane can drive phosphate bond synthesis in cancer cells: acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Gautam; Sen, Suvajit; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive cancers exhibit an efficient conversion of high amounts of glucose to lactate accompanied by acid secretion, a phenomenon popularly known as the Warburg effect. The acidic microenvironment and the alkaline cytosol create a proton-gradient (acid gradient) across the plasma membrane that represents proton-motive energy. Increasing experimental data from physiological relevant models suggest that acid gradient stimulates tumor proliferation, and can also support its energy needs. However, direct biochemical evidence linking extracellular acid gradient to generation of intracellular ATP are missing. In this work, we demonstrate that cancer cells can synthesize significant amounts of phosphate-bonds from phosphate in response to acid gradient across plasma membrane. The noted phenomenon exists in absence of glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and is unique to cancer. Biochemical assays using viable cancer cells, and purified plasma membrane vesicles utilizing radioactive phosphate, confirmed phosphate-bond synthesis from free phosphate (Pi), and also localization of this activity to the plasma membrane. In addition to ATP, predominant formation of pyrophosphate (PPi) from Pi was also observed when plasma membrane vesicles from cancer cells were subjected to trans-membrane acid gradient. Cancer cytosols were found capable of converting PPi to ATP, and also stimulate ATP synthesis from Pi from the vesicles. Acid gradient created through glucose metabolism by cancer cells, as observed in tumors, also proved critical for phosphate-bond synthesis. In brief, these observations reveal a role of acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source and may offer a novel therapeutic target.

  5. Phosphate addition and plant species alters microbial community structure in acidic upland grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Deirdre C; Clipson, Nicholas J W

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural improvement (addition of fertilizers, liming) of seminatural acidic grasslands across Ireland and the UK has resulted in significant shifts in floristic composition, soil chemistry, and microbial community structure. Although several factors have been proposed as responsible for driving shifts in microbial communities, the exact causes of such changes are not well defined. Phosphate was added to grassland microcosms to investigate the effect on fungal and bacterial communities. Plant species typical of unimproved grasslands (Agrostis capillaris, Festuca ovina) and agriculturally improved grasslands (Lolium perenne) were grown, and phosphate was added 25 days after seed germination, with harvesting after a further 50 days. Phosphate addition significantly increased root biomass (p < 0.001) and shoot biomass (p < 0.05), soil pH (by 0.1 U), and microbial activity (by 5.33 mg triphenylformazan [TPF] g(-1) soil; p < 0.001). A slight decrease (by 0.257 mg biomass-C g(-1) soil; p < 0.05) in microbial biomass after phosphate addition was found. The presence of plant species significantly decreased soil pH (p < 0.05; by up to 0.2 U) and increased microbial activity (by up to 6.02 mg TPF g(-1) soil) but had no significant effect on microbial biomass. Microbial communities were profiled using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Multidimensional scaling plots and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that phosphate addition and its interactions with upland grassland plant species resulted in considerable changes in the fungal and bacterial communities of upland soil. The fungal community structure was significantly affected by both phosphate (R = 0.948) and plant species (R = 0.857), and the bacterial community structure was also significantly affected by phosphate (R = 0.758) and plant species (R = 0.753). Differences in microbial community structure following P addition were also revealed by similarity percentage analysis. These data suggest

  6. Immobilization and phytotoxicity of Pb in contaminated soil amended with γ-polyglutamic acid, phosphate rock, and γ-polyglutamic acid-activated phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Cai, Zhijian; Su, Xiaojuan; Fu, Qingling; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Qiaoyun; Violante, Antonio; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), phosphate rock (PR), and γ-PGA-activated PR (γ-PGA-PR) on the immobilization and phytotoxicity of Pb in a contaminated soil. The proportion of residual Pb (Re-Pb) in soil was reduced by the addition of γ-PGA but was increased by the application of PR and γ-PGA-PR. The addition of γ-PGA in soil improved the accumulation of Pb in pak choi and decreased the growth of pak choi, suggesting the intensification of Pb phytotoxicity to pak choi. However, opposite effects of PR and γ-PGA-PR on the phytotoxicity of Pb to pak choi in soil were observed. Moreover, in the examined range, γ-PGA-PR activated by a higher amount of γ-PGA resulted in a greater proportion of Re-Pb in soil and weaker phytotoxicity of Pb to pak choi. The predominance of γ-PGA-PR in relieving the phytotoxicity of Pb was ascribed mainly to the increase of soil pH and available phosphate after the amendment, which could facilitate the precipitation of Pb in soil and provide pak choi with more phosphorus nutrient.

  7. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    PubMed Central

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  8. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied.

  9. Evaluation of commonly used methods for the analysis of acid-soluble phosphate in internationally traded inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Hall, William L; Siegel, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several methodologies are used throughout the world to determine phosphate concentration (measured as PO4 and expressed as % P2O5) in fertilizers. Concentrated phosphate materials, including diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP), are traded in large volumes (millions of metric tons) internationally. The International Fertilizer Association (IFA) identified a need to assess the methods currently being used to measure the phosphate content for suitability (scope), accuracy, and repeatability. Even small discrepancies in the expressed P2O5 content can have a major financial impact on buyers and sellers as contracts are settled and import regulations are imposed. The IFA's Technical Committee selected a working group to address issues dealing with harmonization of fertilizer sampling and analytical methodologies. The working group identified phosphate content in DAP and MAP fertilizers as a major concern for commerce. The working group initiated a method screening and comparison project to assess method performance and to determine which methods, if any, could be considered best practice methods and, therefore, be deemed acceptable for use by the industry. In order to systematically review the acceptability of methods for consideration, the task force developed an assessment protocol outlined in a white paper involving three steps: (1) compile all known relevant methods practiced in global fertilizer trade, (2) review and evaluate methods based upon specific evaluation criteria, and (3) compare the methods that most closely fit the evaluation criteria by multilaboratory analysis of unknown materials for accuracy and repeatability. Six methods were evaluated for analysis of total phosphate in concentrated phosphate products. From these methods, four were determined to be acceptable as best practice methods. The study members proposed three of the methods, while a fourth method was commonly used among the participating laboratories. This publication

  10. Evaluation of commonly used methods for the analysis of acid-soluble phosphate in internationally traded inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Hall, William L; Siegel, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several methodologies are used throughout the world to determine phosphate concentration (measured as PO4 and expressed as % P2O5) in fertilizers. Concentrated phosphate materials, including diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP), are traded in large volumes (millions of metric tons) internationally. The International Fertilizer Association (IFA) identified a need to assess the methods currently being used to measure the phosphate content for suitability (scope), accuracy, and repeatability. Even small discrepancies in the expressed P2O5 content can have a major financial impact on buyers and sellers as contracts are settled and import regulations are imposed. The IFA's Technical Committee selected a working group to address issues dealing with harmonization of fertilizer sampling and analytical methodologies. The working group identified phosphate content in DAP and MAP fertilizers as a major concern for commerce. The working group initiated a method screening and comparison project to assess method performance and to determine which methods, if any, could be considered best practice methods and, therefore, be deemed acceptable for use by the industry. In order to systematically review the acceptability of methods for consideration, the task force developed an assessment protocol outlined in a white paper involving three steps: (1) compile all known relevant methods practiced in global fertilizer trade, (2) review and evaluate methods based upon specific evaluation criteria, and (3) compare the methods that most closely fit the evaluation criteria by multilaboratory analysis of unknown materials for accuracy and repeatability. Six methods were evaluated for analysis of total phosphate in concentrated phosphate products. From these methods, four were determined to be acceptable as best practice methods. The study members proposed three of the methods, while a fourth method was commonly used among the participating laboratories. This publication

  11. Radionuclide content of and /sup 222/Rn emanation from building materials made from phosphate industry waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Paredes, C.H.; Kessler, W.V.; Landolt, R.R.; Ziemer, P.L.; Paustenbach, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    The radionuclide content and /sup 222/Rn emanation coefficients of selected construction materials were determined. The materials were analyzed for /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra and 40K by gamma-ray spectrometry. Mineral wool insulation, which is made from Tennessee phosphate slag, and commonly used insulation, which is made from blast furnace slag, had similar concentrations of these radionuclides. Concrete blocks made with phosphate slag had enhanced /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra contents when compared to ordinary concrete block. The mineral wool insulation materials which were examined had emanation coefficients that were a few (2-6) times 10(-3). All other materials had emanation coefficients that ranged from 6 X 10(-4) to 4 X 10(-2).

  12. Solvent extraction study of the thorium nitrate, nitric acid, and tributyl phosphate-dodecane system: density and acidity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, A.J.; Marley, J.L.; Costanzo, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A solvent extraction study to determine equilibrium conditions of thorium nitrate-nitric acid with 30% tributyl phosphate in normal dodecane has been completed. Experimental conditions studied were 30 to 60{sup 0}C, 0.05 to 1.5 M Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and 0.0 to 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. The extractant concentration was constant at 30% tributyl phosphate. The equilibrium experiments have produced data which demonstrate that thorium nitrate concentration, free acid, and density are related in equilibrium behavior between the aqueous and organic phases from 30 to 60{sup 0}C in the 30% tributyl phosphate-dodecane solvent extraction system. The concentration interactions apply to both the two- and three-phase regions. A linear correlation was observed for the density (D) of the aqueous or organic phase and the concentration of thorium and free acid. The general form of the equation is D = a(C/sub Th/ + bC/sub H/) + c, where a is the slope, b is the constant, c is the intercept, and C/sub Th/ and C/sub H/ are the molar concentrations of thorium and free acid respectively. The relationship of temperature, thorium nitrate, and free acid makes possible the definitions of the boundaries between the two- and three-phase regions. This dependence, in turn, permits operational control or simulation studies of the system within the two-phase region. The data demonstrate the interactions of the components of the Thorex system and can be used to improve the mathematical description of equilibrium in the SEPHIS-Thorex computer program.

  13. [Hydrocyanic acid content in cerals and cereal products].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Zinsmeister, H D; Erb, N; Neunhoeffer, O

    1979-03-01

    In the above paper for the first time a systematic study of the amount of hydrocyanic acid in grains and cereal products is reported. Among 24 analysed wheat, rye, maize and oats types, the presence of hydrocyanic acid could be identified in 19 cases in their Karyopses. Similar is the result with 28 among 31 analysed cereal products. The content of hydrocyanic acid lies between 0.1 and 45 microgram/100 gr dried mass.

  14. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application. PMID:24617077

  15. Strong and Biostable Hyaluronic Acid-Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite Hydrogel via in Situ Precipitation Process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seol-Ha; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Suk-Wha; Park, Ji-Ung; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Song, Juha

    2016-03-14

    Hyaluronic acid (HAc) hydrogel exhibits excellent biocompatibility, but it has limited biomedical application due to its poor biomechanical properties as well as too-fast enzymatic degradation. In this study, we have developed an in situ precipitation process for the fabrication of a HAc-calcium phosphate nanocomposite hydrogel, after the formation of the glycidyl methacrylate-conjugated HAc (GMHA) hydrogels via photo-cross-linking, to improve the mechanical and biological properties under physiological conditions. In particular, our process facilitates the rapid incorporation of calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles of uniform size and with minimal agglomeration into a polymer matrix, homogeneously. Compared with pure HAc, the nanocomposite hydrogels exhibit improved mechanical behavior. Specifically, the shear modulus is improved by a factor of 4. The biostability of the nanocomposite hydrogel was also significantly improved compared with that of pure HAc hydrogels under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:26878437

  16. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  17. Formation of titanium phosphate composites during phosphoric acid decomposition of natural sphene

    SciTech Connect

    Maslova, Marina V.; Rusanova, Daniela Naydenov, Valeri; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Gerasimova, Lidia G.

    2008-12-15

    Decomposition of mineral sphene, CaTiOSiO{sub 4}, by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is investigated in detail. During the dissolution process, simultaneous calcium leaching and formation of titanium phosphate (TiP) take place. The main product of decomposition is a solid titanium phosphate-silica composite. The XRD, solid-sate NMR, IR, TGA, SEM and BET data were used to identify and characterize the composite as a mixture of crystalline Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and silica. When 80% phosphoric acid is used the decomposition degree is higher than 98% and calcium is completely transferred into the liquid phase. Formation of Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O proceeds via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases, Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}).2H{sub 2}O and Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}). The sorption affinities of TiP composites were examined in relation to caesium and strontium ions. A decrease of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration leads to formation of composites with greater sorption properties. The maximum sorption capacity of TiP is observed when 60% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is used in sphene decomposition. The work demonstrates a valuable option within the Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} composite synthesis scheme, to use phosphoric acid flows for isolation of CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O fertilizer. - Graphical abstract: A new synthesis scheme for preparation of composite titanium phosphate (TiP) ion-exchangers upon one-stage decomposition process of natural sphene with phosphoric acid is presented. Syntheses of {alpha}-TiP-silica composites proceed via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases. The concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} determines the porosity of final products and their sorption affinities.

  18. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid,...

  19. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP.

  20. Effects of aerosol formulation to amino acids and fatty acids contents in Haruan extract.

    PubMed

    Febriyenti; Bai-Baie, Saringat Bin; Laila, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Haruan (Channa striatus) extract was formulated to aerosol for wound and burn treatment. Haruan extract is containing amino acids and fatty acids that important for wound healing process. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of formulation and other excipients in the formula to amino acids and fatty acids content in Haruan extract before and after formulated into aerosol. Precolumn derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) method is used for amino acids analysis. Fatty acids in Haruan extract were esterified using transesterification method to form FAMEs before analyzed using GC. Boron trifluoride-methanol reagent is used for transesterification. Tyrosine and methionine concentrations were different after formulated. The concentrations were decrease. There are six fatty acids have amount that significantly different after formulated into concentrate and aerosol. Contents of these fatty acids were increase. Generally, fatty acids which had content increased after formulated were the long-chain fatty acids. This might be happen because of chain extension process. Saponification and decarboxylation would give the chain extended product. Therefore contents of long-chain fatty acids were increase. Generally, the aerosol formulation did not affect the amino acids concentrations in Haruan extract while some long-chain fatty acids concentrations were increase after formulated into concentrate and aerosol.

  1. The Role of Poly(Aspartic Acid) in the Precipitation of Calcium Phosphate in Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Cantaert, Bram; Beniash, Elia

    2013-01-01

    Many questions remain regarding the formation of ultrathin hydroxapatite (HAP) crystals within the confines of collagen fibrils of bones. These structures form through the interplay of the collagen matrix and non-collagenous proteins, and in vitro mineralization studies employing poly(aspartic acid) (PAsp) as a mimic of the non-collagenous proteins have generated mineralized fibrils with structures comparable to their biogenic counterparts. In this article, we employ the nanoscale cylindrical pores perforating track-etch filtration membranes to investigate the role of PAsp in controlling the infiltration and crystallization of calcium phosphate (CaP) within confined volumes. Oriented polycrystalline HAP and non-oriented octacalcium phosphate (OCP) rods precipitated within the membrane pores via an amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursor, where PAsp increased the proportion of OCP rods. Further, ACP crystallized faster within the membranes than in bulk solution when PAsp was present, suggesting that PAsp inhibits crystallization in solution, but promotes it when bound to a substrate. Finally, in contrast to the collagen system, PAsp reduced the yield of intra-membrane mineral and failed to enhance infiltration. This suggests that a specific interaction between the collagen matrix and ACP/PAsp precursor particles drives effective infiltration. Thus, while orientation of HAP crystals can be achieved by confinement alone, the chemistry of the collagen matrix is necessary for efficient mineralisation with CaP. PMID:24409343

  2. In vitro biocompatibility of chitosan/hyaluronic acid-containing calcium phosphate bone cements.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, Saeed; Nezafati, Nader

    2014-08-01

    The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. In this research, calcium phosphate cements, with and without chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. The composition and morphological properties of cements were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The acellular in vitro bioactivity revealed that different apatite morphologies were formed on the surfaces of cements after soaking in simulated body fluid. The in vitro osteoblastic cell biocompatibility of in situ forming cements was evaluated and compared with those of conventional calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). The viability and growth rate of the cells were similar for all CPCs, but better alkaline phosphatase activity was observed for CPC with CS and HA. Calcium phosphate cements supported attachment of osteoblastic cells on their surfaces. Spindle-shaped osteoblasts with developed cytoplasmic membrane were found on the surfaces of cement samples after 7 days of culture. These results reveal the potential of the CPC-CS/HA composites to be used in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24399509

  3. Determination of phosphate in natural waters by activation analysis of tungstophosphoric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Herbert E.; Hahn, Richard B.

    1969-01-01

    Activation analysis may be used to determine quantitatively traces of phosphate in natural waters. Methods based on the reaction 31P(n,γ)32P are subject to interference by sulfur and chlorine which give rise to 32P through n,p and n,α reactions. If the ratio of phosphorus to sulfur or chlorine is small, as it is in most natural waters, accurate analyses by these methods are difficult to achieve. In the activation analysis method, molybdate and tungstate ions are added to samples containing phosphate ion to form tungstomolybdophosphoric acid. The complex is extracted with 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone. After activation of an aliquot of the organic phase for 1 hour at a flux of 1013 neutrons per cm2, per second, the gamma spectrum is essentially that of tungsten-187. The induced activity is proportional to the concentration of phosphate in the sample. A test of the method showed it to give accurate results at concentrations of 4 to at least 200 p.p.b. of phosphorus when an aliquot of 100 μl. was activated. By suitable reagent purification, counting for longer times, and activation of larger aliquots, the detection limit could be lowered several hundredfold.

  4. Application of acid-activated Bauxsol for wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration: Characterization, adsorption optimization, and desorption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jie; Cong, Xiangna; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming; Hoffmann, Erhard; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Wei; Hahn, Hermann H

    2016-02-01

    Acid-activated Bauxsol was applied to treat wastewater with high phosphate concentration in a batch adsorption system in this paper. The effect of acid activation on the change of Bauxsol structure was systematically investigated. The mineralogical inhomogeneity and intensity of Bauxsol decreased after acid activation, and FeCl3·2H2O and Al(OH)3 became the dominant phases of acid-activated Bauxsol adsorption. Moreover, the BET surface area and total pore volume of Bauxsol increased after acid activation. Interaction of initial solution pH and adsorption temperature on phosphate adsorption onto acid-activated Bauxsol was investigated by using response surface methodology with central composite design. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of 192.94 mg g(-1) was achieved with an initial solution pH of 4.19 and an adsorption temperature of 52.18 °C, which increased by 7.61 times compared with that of Bauxsol (22.40 mg g(-1)), and was higher than other adsorbents. Furthermore, the desorption studies demonstrated that the acid-activated Bauxsol was successfully regenerated with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl solution. The adsorption capacity and desorption efficiency of acid-activated Bauxsol maintained at 80.48% and 93.02% in the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle, respectively, suggesting that the acid-activated Bauxsol could be repeatedly used in wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration. PMID:26606195

  5. Application of acid-activated Bauxsol for wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration: Characterization, adsorption optimization, and desorption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jie; Cong, Xiangna; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming; Hoffmann, Erhard; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Wei; Hahn, Hermann H

    2016-02-01

    Acid-activated Bauxsol was applied to treat wastewater with high phosphate concentration in a batch adsorption system in this paper. The effect of acid activation on the change of Bauxsol structure was systematically investigated. The mineralogical inhomogeneity and intensity of Bauxsol decreased after acid activation, and FeCl3·2H2O and Al(OH)3 became the dominant phases of acid-activated Bauxsol adsorption. Moreover, the BET surface area and total pore volume of Bauxsol increased after acid activation. Interaction of initial solution pH and adsorption temperature on phosphate adsorption onto acid-activated Bauxsol was investigated by using response surface methodology with central composite design. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of 192.94 mg g(-1) was achieved with an initial solution pH of 4.19 and an adsorption temperature of 52.18 °C, which increased by 7.61 times compared with that of Bauxsol (22.40 mg g(-1)), and was higher than other adsorbents. Furthermore, the desorption studies demonstrated that the acid-activated Bauxsol was successfully regenerated with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl solution. The adsorption capacity and desorption efficiency of acid-activated Bauxsol maintained at 80.48% and 93.02% in the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle, respectively, suggesting that the acid-activated Bauxsol could be repeatedly used in wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration.

  6. Simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewater by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The zero-valent iron (ZVI) wastewater treatment has been applied to simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewaters. The simultaneous removal occurs by the reactions performed due to the sequential transformation of ZVI under the acidic condition. Fortunately the solution pH of semiconductor acidic wastewaters is low which is effective for the sequential transformation of ZVI. Firstly the reduction of nitrate is taken place by electrons generated by the corrosion of ZVI under acidic conditions. Secondly the ferrous ion generated by the corrosion of ZVI reacts with hydrogen peroxide and generates ·OH radical (Fenton reaction). The Fenton reaction consists of the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of ferric ion. Finally phosphate precipitates out with iron ions. In the simultaneous removal process, 1.6 mM nitrate, 9.0 mM hydrogen peroxide and 1.0 mM phosphate were completely removed by ZVI within 100, 15 and 15 min, respectively. The synergy among the reactions for the removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate was found. In the individual pollutant removal experiment, the removal of phosphate by ZVI was limited to 80% after 300 min. Its removal rate was considerably improved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and the complete removal of phosphate was achieved after 15 min.

  7. Spectroscopic and dielectric response of zinc bismuth phosphate glasses as a function of chromium content

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P. Srinivasa; Babu, P. Ramesh; Vijay, R.; Narendrudu, T.; Veeraiah, N.; Rao, D. Krishna

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: 20ZnF{sub 2}–(20 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤2 mol%) glasses are prepared by melt quenching technique. The optical absorption spectra of present glasses are analyzed as a function of chromium content. The absorption bands are assigned to {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}E{sub g}(G) transitions of Cr{sup 3+} ions. - Highlights: • ZnF{sub 2}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses were prepared by melt quenching and annealing. • Spectroscopic and dielectric properties of chromium ions were investigated. • ESR and optical absorption spectra indicate the co-existence of Cr{sup 6+} ions with Cr{sup 5+} ions and Cr{sup 3+} ions. • Cr{sup 3+} ions act as modifiers and influence the semiconducting nature of the glass system. - Abstract: 20ZnF{sub 2}–(20 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤2 mol%) glasses are prepared by melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of these samples is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. FTIR study reveals bands due to CrO{sub 6}(o{sub d}) and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}(T{sub d}) units along with conventional phosphate groups. The optical absorption and ESR studies of present glasses are analyzed as a function of chromium content. The absorption bands are assigned to {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}E{sub g}(G) transitions of Cr{sup 3+} ions. The highest concentration of Cr{sup 3+} ions (in octahedral sites, with network modifying positions) is found in the sample with 2.0 mol% of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The analysis of dielectric properties indicates a gradual increase in semiconducting character with increase in the concentration of

  8. Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2014-06-03

    Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly-crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge EXAFS indicated that “autunite-type” sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to “phosphuranylite-type” sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases.

  9. Chemisorption of phosphate ions and destruction of organomineral sorbents in acid soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudeyarova, A. Yu.

    2010-06-01

    The chemisorption mechanisms of phosphate anions by iron (aluminum) containing sorbents in a soil under high phosphate loads were studied. The role of the metal-phosphate anions in the destruction of the sorbents was discussed. It was shown that the chemisorption of phosphate anions and the destruction of phosphated organomineral sorbents are interrelated processes. A significant part of the chemisorbed phosphates in association with sorbent metals and carbon passes into the liquid phase of soil systems.

  10. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  11. CITRIC ACID AS A SET RETARDER FOR CALCIUM ALUMINATE PHOSPHATE CEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.; BROTHERS, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Citric acid added as set retarder significantly contributed to enhancing the setting temperature and to extending the thickening time of a calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) geothermal cement slurry consisting of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the base reactant and sodium polyphosphate (NaP) solution as the acid reactant. The set-retarding activity of citric acid was due to the uptake of Ca{sup 2+} ions from the CAC by carboxylic acid groups within the citric acid. This uptake led to the precipitation of a Ca-complexed carboxylate compound as a set-retarding barrier layer on the CAC grains' surfaces. However, this barrier layer was vulnerable to disintegration by the attack of free Ca{sup 2+} ions from CAC, and also to degradation at elevated temperature, thereby promoting the generation of exothermic energy from acid-base reactions between the CAC and NaP after the barrier was broken. The exothermic reaction energy that was promoted in this way minimized the loss in strength of the citric acid-retarded cement. The phase composition assembled in both retarded and non-retarded cements after autoclaving at 180 C encompassed three reaction products, hydroxyapatite (HOAp), hydrogrossular and boehmite, which are responsible for strengthening the autoclaved cement. The first two reaction products were susceptible to reactions with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate to form crystalline bassanite scale as the corrosion product. The boehmite phase possessed a great resistance to acid and sulfate. Although the bassanite scales clinging to the cement's surfaces were the major factor governing the loss in weight, they served in protecting the cement from further acid- and sulfate-corrosion until their spallation eventually occurred. Nevertheless, the repetitive processes of HOAp and hydrogrossular {yields} bassanite {yields} spallation played an important role in extending the useful lifetime of CaP cement in a low pH environment at 180 C.

  12. Microbicidal activity of tripotassium phosphate and fatty acids toward spoilage and pathogenic bacteria associated with poultry.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Arthur; Ingram, Kimberly D

    2005-07-01

    The ability of solutions of tripotassium phosphate (TPP) and fatty acids (lauric and myristic acids) to reduce populations of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms associated with processed poultry was examined. In vitro studies were conducted with cultures of bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) and yeasts (Candida ernobii and Yarrowia lipolytica). Cultures of the bacteria and yeasts were suspended in solutions of TPP or mixtures of TPP with lauric or myristic acid and mixed for 5 min. Viable numbers (log CFU per milliliter) in the suspensions were enumerated on microbiological agar. Results indicated that TPP solutions are highly bactericidal toward gram-negative bacteria and that mixtures of TPP and fatty acids are highly microbicidal toward gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and yeasts. The microbicidal activity of mixtures of TPP and fatty acids toward the native bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler carcasses was also examined. Skin samples were washed in mixtures of TPP and fatty acid, and the populations of total aerobic bacteria, campylobacters, enterococci, E. coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, staphylococci, and yeasts in the skin rinsates were enumerated on the appropriate microbiological media. Results indicated that washing the skin in mixtures of TPP and fatty acids produced significant reductions in the number of aerobic bacteria, campylobacters, E. coli, pseudomonads, and yeasts recovered from skin rinsates, but there was no significant reduction in the populations of enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, or staphylococci. These findings indicate that mixtures of TPP and fatty acids possess microbicidal activity against several microorganisms associated with processed poultry and that these solutions could be useful as microbicides to reduce the populations of some bacteria and yeasts associated with some poultry

  13. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization.

  14. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  15. Replacement of liquid H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HF with solid acid catalysts: A study of mixed metal phosphates as solid acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.B.; Nenoff, T.M.; Thoma, S.G.; Kohler, S.D.

    1997-10-01

    The primary purpose of this LDRD was to identify and optimize materials as solid acid catalysts for the replacement of environmentally hazardous liquid acids such as H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HF which are used as catalysts in both the petroleum and chemical industries. Liquid acids have significant safety, environmental and engineering difficulties associated with their use in process chemistry. Special equipment/materials need to be used with liquid acids. Hydrofluoric acid poses unique safety problems due to it insipid attack on skin and tissue as well as its tendency to plume and travel long distances as a plume when it is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, any time a solid acid catalyst can be used to replace a liquid acid in a processes step, significant environmental, safety, and financial gains can be realized. The majority of work in this LDRD was performed on novel mixed metal phosphates which are a new solid acid catalyst material. Primarily the model reaction, 2-methyl-2-pentene isomerization, was used to determine acidity. These materials were tested for their activity, their deactivation and their stability. In addition, some of the phosphate materials were synthesized using templates in order to try to form a three dimensional network material from these phosphates. The amorphous sulfated zirconium-titanium phosphates were more acidic, as measured by olefin isomerization, than sulfated zirconia. However, they showed some of the same failings as sulfated zirconia in that they deactivated quickly and lost sulfur in a reducing atmosphere. Certain of the mixed metal phosphates, particularly tantalum-containing phosphates, showed strong acidity compared to sulfated zirconia as measured by olefin isomerization reaction.

  16. Mechanistic studies of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, G.D.; Woodard, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    The enzyme 3-deOXY-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase (KDO 8-P synthase) catalyses the condensation of arabinose 5-phosphate (A 5-P) with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to give the unique eight-carbon acidic sugar 3-deoxy-D-nianno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate (KDO 8-P) found only in gram-negative bacteria and required for lipid A maturation and cellular growth. The E. coli gene kdsA that encodes KDO 8-P synthase has been amplified by standard PCR methodologies. The synthetic gene, subcloned into the expression vector pT7-7 was used to infect E. coli BL 21 (DE 3). Purification of crude supernatant from this transformant on Q Sepharose yields >200 mg of near-homogeneous KDO 8-P synthase per liter of cell culture. To explore the mechanism of KDO 8-P synthase, we prepared (E)- and (Z)-(3{sup 2}H)PEP, (2-{sup 13}C)PEP, and (2-{sup 13}C,{sup 18}O)PEP chemically from the appropriately labeled 3-bromopyruvates by reaction with trimethylphosphite under Perkow reaction conditions. Our {sup 1}H-NMR analysis of the stereochemistry at C3 of the KDO 8-Ps, obtained by separate incubation of (E)- and (Z)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP with A 5-P in the presence of KDO 8-P synthase, demonstrated that the reaction is stereospecific with respect to both the C3 of PEP and the C1 carbonyl of A 5-P. (Z)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP gave predominantly (3S)-(3{sup 2}H)KDO 8-P and (E)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP gave predominantly (3R)-(3{sup 2}H)KDO-8P, which indicates condensation of the si face of PEP upon the re face of A 5-P-an orientation analogous to that seen with the similar aldehyde Iyase DAH 7-P synthase. The fate of the enolic oxygen of (2-{sup 13}C, {sup 18}O)PEP, during the course of the KDO 8-P synthase-catalyzed reaction as monitored by both {sup 13}C- and {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (Pi) and not the KDO 8-P contained the {sup 18}O.

  17. Lipids in salicylic acid-mediated defense in plants: focusing on the roles of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective defense strategies to protect themselves from various pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates pathogen-triggered signals perceived by different immune receptors to induce downstream defense responses. While many proteins play essential roles in regulating SA signaling, increasing evidence also supports important roles for signaling phospholipids in this process. In this review, we collate the experimental evidence in support of the regulatory roles of two phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA), and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), and their metabolizing enzymes in plant defense, and examine the possible mechanistic interaction between phospholipid signaling and SA-dependent immunity with a particular focus on the immunity-stimulated biphasic PA production that is reminiscent of and perhaps mechanistically connected to the biphasic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and SA accumulation during defense activation. PMID:26074946

  18. Lipoteichoic Acids, Phosphate-Containing Polymers in the Envelope of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schneewind, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are polymers of alternating units of a polyhydroxy alkane, including glycerol and ribitol, and phosphoric acid, joined to form phosphodiester units that are found in the envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. Here we review four different types of LTA that can be distinguished on the basis of their chemical structure and describe recent advances in the biosynthesis pathway for type I LTA, d-alanylated polyglycerol-phosphate linked to di-glucosyl-diacylglycerol. The physiological functions of type I LTA are discussed in the context of inhibitors that block their synthesis and of mutants with discrete synthesis defects. Research on LTA structure and function represents a large frontier that has been investigated in only few Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24415723

  19. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  20. Investigation of the effects of phosphate fertilizer application on the heavy metal content in agricultural soils with different cultivation patterns.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Mehrdad; Lorestani, Bahareh; Merrikhpour, Hajar

    2012-01-01

    The use of phosphate fertilizers is essential in agriculture, because they supply farmland with nutrients for growing plants. However, heavy metals might be included as impurities in natural materials and minerals, so heavy metals can also be present in phosphate fertilizers or other chemical fertilizers. The aim of this work was to assess the heavy metal content and contamination status of agricultural soils in the Hamadan province of Iran used for the cultivation of different crops, including cucumber, potatoes, and sugar beet. Surface soil samples were collected and analyzed to determine the total concentration of specific elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), before the pollution index was calculated for each element. Soils used for the cultivation of the three types of crop were not contaminated with As, Cr, Cu, Pb, or Zn. However, the pollution indices for Cd were 1.1, 4.4, and 3.8 in cucumber, potato, and sugar beet fields, respectively, which indicated moderate, high, and high levels of contamination, respectively. Soils from potato and sugar beet fields were heavily contaminated with Cd, which may have resulted from long-term overuse of phosphate fertilizers.

  1. Salicylic acid content of spices and its implications.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Srivastava, Rajeev; Baxter, Gwen J; Graham, Alan B; Lawrence, James R

    2006-04-19

    This work was done to determine the salicylate content of a variety of commonly used spices and to assess whether this potential dietary source of salicylate was bioavailable. Spices, Indian cooked dishes, and blood and urine samples taken after ingestion of a test meal were investigated for their salicylate content using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The serum salicylic acid concentrations in samples from villagers in southern India were also measured and have been compared with typical European values. Salicylic acid was determined in all spices (up to 1.5 wt %) and cooked dishes. The salicylate content of blood and urine was shown to increase following consumption of the meal, indicating that this dietary source of salicylic acid was bioavailable. Salicylic acid levels in the serum from rural Indians were significantly (median almost 3-fold) higher than values previously measured in Western vegetarians. Chemoprotective aspirin is rapidly hydrolyzed to salicylic acid, and this phytochemical may contribute to the low cancer incidence in rural India.

  2. Temperature dependence of the 31P chemical shifts of nucleic acids. A prode of phosphate ester torsional conformations.

    PubMed

    Gorenstein, D G; Findlay, J B; Momii, R K; Luxon, B A; Kar, D

    1976-08-24

    The temperature dependence of the 31P chemical shifts of the ribodinucleoside monophosphates, ApA, GpC, CpC, UpU, and ApU, of the deoxyribonucleic acids, d-ApT, TpT, d-ApA, and d-pApT, and of the homopolyribonucleic acids poly(G), poly(U), poly(A) is shown to provide information on the helix-coli transition in nucleic acids. The base stacked, helical structure with a gauche,gauche phosphate ester torsional conformation is 0.2-0.6 ppm upfield from the random coil conformation. In contrast, the 31P chemical shifts of dimethyl and diethyl phosphate do not change significantly with temperature. These results support our earlier hypothesis that 31P shifts are sensitive probes of torsional conformations with phosphate esters in gauche,gauche conformations having 31P shifts upfield from nongauche conformations.

  3. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate-mediated calcium signalling in effector T cells regulates autoimmunity of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Cordiglieri, Chiara; Odoardi, Francesca; Zhang, Bo; Nebel, Merle; Kawakami, Naoto; Klinkert, Wolfgang E. F.; Lodygin, Dimtri; Lühder, Fred; Breunig, Esther; Schild, Detlev; Ulaganathan, Vijay Kumar; Dornmair, Klaus; Dammermann, Werner; Potter, Barry V. L.; Guse, Andreas H.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate represents a newly identified second messenger in T cells involved in antigen receptor-mediated calcium signalling. Its function in vivo is, however, unknown due to the lack of biocompatible inhibitors. Using a recently developed inhibitor, we explored the role of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate in autoreactive effector T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model for multiple sclerosis. We provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that calcium signalling controlled by nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate is relevant for the pathogenic potential of autoimmune effector T cells. Live two photon imaging and molecular analyses revealed that nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate signalling regulates T cell motility and re-activation upon arrival in the nervous tissues. Treatment with the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate inhibitor significantly reduced both the number of stable arrests of effector T cells and their invasive capacity. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and interleukin-17 were strongly diminished. Consecutively, the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis were ameliorated. In vitro, antigen-triggered T cell proliferation and cytokine production were evenly suppressed. These inhibitory effects were reversible: after wash-out of the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate antagonist, the effector T cells fully regained their functions. The nicotinic acid derivative BZ194 induced this transient state of non-responsiveness specifically in post-activated effector T cells. Naïve and long-lived memory T cells, which express lower levels of the putative nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate receptor, type 1 ryanodine receptor, were not targeted. T cell priming and recall responses in vivo were not reduced. These data indicate that the nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate

  4. Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate minerals as markers of sustained acidic conditions during the Permian-Triassic transition in E Iberia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borruel-Abadía, Violeta; Belén Galán-Abellán, Ana; Barrenechea, José F.; De la Horra, Raúl; Luque, Francisco Javier; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; López-Gómez, José

    2016-04-01

    Strontium-rich hydrated Aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals are markers of an acidic formation environment due to their precipitation at low pH conditions. However, their small size (0.5-6 μm), low concentrations, and optical properties represent the main problems to quantify these minerals. This study provides quantitative data on APS mineral concentrations for the Late Permian and Early-Middle Triassic in different continental sections of East Iberia. By quantifying APS minerals useful insight can be obtained into the environmental conditions that prevailed during the biotic crisis of the PTB and during the later recovery of life at the end of the Early Triassic. For that, a quantification method based on element mapping of randomly selected areas of thin sections on the electron microprobe is proposed, with relative errors ranging from 5.6% to 11.7%. The results are considered on a detailed petrographic, sedimentological, and palaeontological framework, and compared with other geochemical. Thus, in the first sedimentary record after the Permian-Triassic boundary (Olenekian), it has been possible to correlate relatively high concentration levels of APS minerals with the lack of signs of living organisms. Our findings suggest a long period of sustained acidic conditions followed by an environmental change that permitted the recovery of life, as reflected by lower APS mineral contents detected at the end of the Spathian and the first presence of bioturbation, paleosols, footprints, and plant remains. Early Anisian acidic episodes were much more sporadic than those during the Olenekian deposition, in which APS mineral concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. This fact would indicate punctual acidic conditions still during the beginning of the Anisian. Based on these results, this method is proposed as a tool for addressing environmental changes that took place during the Permian-Triassic transition in continental environments.

  5. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability.

  6. Thermodynamical characteristics of the reaction of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with L-amino acids in aqueous buffer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barannikov, V. P.; Badelin, V. G.; Venediktov, E. A.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Guseinov, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with L-isomers of alanine, lysine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and glycine in phosphate buffer solution was studied by absorption spectroscopy and the calorimetry of dissolution at physiological acidity of the medium (pH 7.35). The formation constants of Schiff bases during reactions and changes in Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were determined. It was shown that the formation constant of the Schiff base and its spectral properties depend on the nature of the bound amino acid. The progress of the reaction with a majority of amino acids is governed by the entropy factor due to the predominant role of the dehydration effect of the reaction center of amino acids during chemical reactions. The intramolecular electrostatic interaction of an ionized phosphate group with the positively charged amino group on the end of the chain of amino acid residue stabilizes the Schiff bases formed by lysine and arginine. The extinction coefficient of the base, equilibrium constant, and the exothermic effect of the reaction then increase. The excess negative charge on the end of the chain of amino acid residues of aspartic and glutamic acids destabilizes the molecule of the Schiff base. In this case, the equilibrium constant decreases and the endothermic effect of the reaction increases.

  7. Intracellular pH and inorganic phosphate content of heart in vivo: A sup 31 P-NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, L.A.; Swain, J.A.; Portman, M.A.; Balaban, R.S. )

    1988-07-01

    Studies were performed to determine the contribution of red blood cells to the {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the canine heart in vivo and the feasibility of measuring myocardial intracellular phosphate and pH. This was accomplished by replacing whole blood with a perfluorochemical perfusion emulsion blood substitute, Oxypherol, and noting the difference in the {sup 31}P-NMR spectrum of the heart. NMR data were collected with a NMR transmitter-receiver coil on the surface of the distal portion of the left ventricle. These studies demonstrated that a small contribution from 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and phosphodiesters in the blood could be detected. The magnitude and shift of these blood-borne signals permitted the relative quantification of intracellular inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) content as well as intracellular pH. Under resting conditions, the intracellular ATP/P{sub i} was 7.0 {plus minus} 0.08. This corresponds to a free intracellular P{sub 1} content of {approx} 0.8 {mu}mol./g wet wt. The intracellular pH was 7.10 {plus minus} 0.01. Acute respiratory alkalosis and acidosis, with the arterial pH ranging from {approximately}7.0 to 7.7, resulted in only small changes in the intracellular pH. These latter results demonstrate an effective myocardial intracellular proton-buffering mechanism in vivo.

  8. Photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum. III. Metabolic Control of Reductive Pentose Phosphate and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enzymes 1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Louise; Fuller, R. C.

    1967-01-01

    Enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle including ribulose-diphosphate carboxylase, ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and alkaline fructose-1,6-diphos-phatase were shown to be present in autotrophically grown Rhodospirillum rubrum. Enzyme levels were measured in this organism grown photo- and dark heterotrophically as well. Several, but not all, of these enzymes appeared to be under metabolic control, mediated by exogenous carbon and nitrogen compounds. Light had no effect on the presence or levels of any of these enzymes in this photosynthetic bacterium. The enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and enolase were shown to be present in R. rubrum cultured aerobically, autotrophically, or photoheterotrophically, both in cultures evolving hydrogen and under conditions where hydrogen evolution is not observed. Light had no clearly demonstrable effect on the presence or levels of any of these enzymes. PMID:6042359

  9. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  10. Mechanism of lead immobilization by oxalic acid-activated phosphate rocks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guanjie; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Li; Fu, Qingling; Deng, Youjun; Hu, Hongqing

    2012-01-01

    Lead (Pb) chemical fixation is an important environmental aspect for human health. Phosphate rocks (PRs) were utilized as an adsorbent to remove Pb from aqueous solution. Raw PRs and oxalic acid-activated PRs (APRs) were used to investigate the effect of chemical modification on the Pb-binding capacity in the pH range 2.0-5.0. The Pb adsorption rate of all treatments above pH 3.0 reached 90%. The Pb binding on PRs and APRs was pH-independent, except at pH 2.0 in activated treatments. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the raw PRs formed cerussite after reacting with the Pb solution, whereas the APRs formed pyromorphite. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that carbonate (CO3(2-)) in raw PRs and phosphate (PO4(3)) groups in APRs played an important role in the Pb-binding process. After adsorption, anomalous block-shaped particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data further indicated that both chemical and physical reactions occurred during the adsorption process according to the binding energy. Because of lower solubility of pyromorphite compared to cerussite, the APRs are more effective in immobilizing Pb than that of PRs.

  11. Bioactivity and cytocompatibility of dicalcium phosphate/poly (amino acid) biocomposite with degradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunfei; Shan, Wenpeng; Li, Xiangde; Wei, Jie; Li, Hong; Ma, Jian; Yan, Yonggang

    2012-01-01

    A bioactive composite of dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and poly (amino acid) (PAA) was fabricated, and the in vitro bioactivity, degradability, and cellular responses to the DCP/PAA composite (DPC) were investigated as compared to PAA. Apatite formation on DPC surfaces occurred after immersion into simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days, but not on the surface of PAA. The weight loss ratio of DPC could reach 18.6 ± 0.3 wt% after soaking into phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 2 months, which was higher than PAA (11.0 ± 0.2 wt%). Cell attachment and proliferation of MG-63 cells on DPC was obviously higher than on PAA. Moreover, the cells spread and formed confluent layer on the DPC surfaces. The alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) of the cells on DPC was significantly greater than PAA at day 5 and day 7. The results suggested that introducing DCP into PAA makes the composite bioactive and more degradable, and meanwhile enhances osteoblast-like cells attach, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.

  12. Monolithic calcium phosphate/poly(lactic acid) composite versus calcium phosphate-coated poly(lactic acid) for support of osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-03-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs), extensively used synthetic bone graft substitutes, are often combined with other materials with the aim to overcome issues related to poor mechanical properties of most CaP ceramics. Thin ceramic coatings on metallic implants and polymer-ceramic composites are examples of such hybrid materials. Both the properties of the CaP used and the method of incorporation into a hybrid structure are determinant for the bioactivity of the final construct. In the present study, a monolithic composite comprising nano-sized CaP and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and a CaP-coated PLA were comparatively investigated for their ability to support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Both, the PLA/CaP composite, produced using physical mixing and extrusion and CaP-coated PLA, resulting from a biomimetic coating process at near-physiological conditions, supported proliferation of hMSCs with highest rates at PLA/CaP composite. Enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity as well as the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteopontin and osteocalcin were higher on the composite and coated polymer as compared to the PLA control, while no significant differences were observed between the two methods of combining CaP and PLA. The results of this study confirmed the importance of CaP in osteogenic differentiation while the exact properties and the method of incorporation into the hybrid material played a less prominent role. PMID:26787486

  13. Over-expression of the bacterial phytase US417 in Arabidopsis reduces the concentration of phytic acid and reveals its involvement in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Belgaroui, Nibras; Zaidi, Ikram; Farhat, Ameny; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bouain, Nadia; Chay, Sandrine; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane; Masmoudi, Khaled; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre; Rouached, Hatem; Hanin, Moez

    2014-11-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the main phosphorus storage form in plant seeds. It is recognized as an anti-nutrient for humans and non-ruminant animals, as well as one of the major sources of phosphorus that contributes to eutrophication. Therefore, engineering plants with low PA content without affecting plant growth capacity has become a major focus in plant breeding. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge on the role of PA seed reserves in regulating plant growth and in maintaining ion homeostasis hinders such an agronomical application. In this context, we report here that the over-expression of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 in Arabidopsis leads to a significant decrease in seed PA, without any effect on the seed germination potential. Interestingly, this over-expression also induced a higher remobilization of free iron during germination. Moreover, the PHY-over-expressor lines show an increase in inorganic phosphate and sulfate contents, and a higher biomass production after phosphate starvation. Finally, phosphate sensing was altered because of the changes in the expression of genes induced by phosphate starvation or involved in phosphate or sulfate transport. Together, these results show that the over-expression of PHY-US417 reduces PA concentration, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of PA in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling.

  14. Over-expression of the bacterial phytase US417 in Arabidopsis reduces the concentration of phytic acid and reveals its involvement in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Belgaroui, Nibras; Zaidi, Ikram; Farhat, Ameny; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bouain, Nadia; Chay, Sandrine; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane; Masmoudi, Khaled; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre; Rouached, Hatem; Hanin, Moez

    2014-11-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the main phosphorus storage form in plant seeds. It is recognized as an anti-nutrient for humans and non-ruminant animals, as well as one of the major sources of phosphorus that contributes to eutrophication. Therefore, engineering plants with low PA content without affecting plant growth capacity has become a major focus in plant breeding. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge on the role of PA seed reserves in regulating plant growth and in maintaining ion homeostasis hinders such an agronomical application. In this context, we report here that the over-expression of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 in Arabidopsis leads to a significant decrease in seed PA, without any effect on the seed germination potential. Interestingly, this over-expression also induced a higher remobilization of free iron during germination. Moreover, the PHY-over-expressor lines show an increase in inorganic phosphate and sulfate contents, and a higher biomass production after phosphate starvation. Finally, phosphate sensing was altered because of the changes in the expression of genes induced by phosphate starvation or involved in phosphate or sulfate transport. Together, these results show that the over-expression of PHY-US417 reduces PA concentration, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of PA in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling. PMID:25231959

  15. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43‑ level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43‑ concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (P<0.01) positive non-linear relationship was found between groundwater PO43‑concentration and pHKCl in all three studied depth layers, again increasingly with depth. Within the pH range of the 30-60 cm layer (pHKCl 4.0-5.7) PO4‑ solubility should increase with pH. Elevated soil OC levels surprisingly co-occurred with low groundwater PO43‑ concentrations (r = -0.18, P<0.01, n = 191). Groundwater PO43‑ was furthermore significantly and positively correlated to clay % in both the 0-15 cm (r = 0.15, τ = 0.25, P<0.01, n = 1032) and 60-90 cm (r = 0.13, τ = 0.20, P<0.01, n = 1032) depth increments. These positive correlations were unexpected and

  16. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43- level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43- concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (P<0.01) positive non-linear relationship was found between groundwater PO43-concentration and pHKCl in all three studied depth layers, again increasingly with depth. Within the pH range of the 30-60 cm layer (pHKCl 4.0-5.7) PO4- solubility should increase with pH. Elevated soil OC levels surprisingly co-occurred with low groundwater PO43- concentrations (r = -0.18, P<0.01, n = 191). Groundwater PO43- was furthermore significantly and positively correlated to clay % in both the 0-15 cm (r = 0.15, τ = 0.25, P<0.01, n = 1032) and 60-90 cm (r = 0.13, τ = 0.20, P<0.01, n = 1032) depth increments. These positive correlations were unexpected and could be

  17. Production and characterization of reduced NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate).

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Richard A; Thuring, Jan W; Conway, Stuart J; Packman, Len; Holmes, Andrew B; Genazzani, Armando A

    2004-01-01

    The pyridine nucleotide NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) has been shown to act as a Ca2+-releasing intracellular messenger in a wide variety of systems from invertebrates to mammals and has been implicated in a number of cellular processes. NAADP is structurally very similar to its precursor, the endogenous coenzyme NADP and while much is known about the reduced form of NADP, NADPH, it is not known whether NAADP can also exist in a reduced state. Here we report that NAADP can be reduced to NAADPH by endogenous cellular enzymes and that NAADPH is functionally inert at the NAADP receptor. These data suggest that NAADPH could represent a mechanism for rapidly inactivating NAADP in cells. PMID:14606955

  18. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D.; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M.; Volz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5-72 hours post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite - were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may interact with human RARs, we then exposed Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with chimeric human RARα-, RARβ-, or RARγ to TPP in the presence of RA, and found that TPP significantly inhibited RA-induced luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our findings suggest that zebrafish RARs may be involved in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity, a mechanism of action that may have relevance to humans. PMID:25725299

  19. Natural and pyrogenic humic acids at goethite and natural oxide surfaces interacting with phosphate.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Mia, Shamim; Duhaut, Pierre-Benoît; Molleman, Bastiaan

    2013-08-20

    Fulvic and humic acids have a large variability in binding to metal (hydr) oxide surfaces and interact differently with oxyanions, as examined here experimentally. Pyrogenic humic acid has been included in our study since it will be released to the environment in the case of large-scale application of biochar, potentially creating Darks Earths or Terra Preta soils. A surface complexation approach has been developed that aims to describe the competitive behavior of natural organic matter (NOM) in soil as well as model systems. Modeling points unexpectedly to a strong change of the molecular conformation of humic acid (HA) with a predominant adsorption in the Stern layer domain at low NOM loading. In soil, mineral oxide surfaces remain efficiently loaded by mineral-protected organic carbon (OC), equivalent with a layer thickness of ≥ ~0.5 nm that represents at least 0.1-1.0% OC, while surface-associated OC may be even three times higher. In natural systems, surface complexation modeling should account for this pervasive NOM coverage. With our charge distribution model for NOM (NOM-CD), the pH-dependent oxyanion competition of the organo-mineral oxide fraction can be described. For pyrogenic HA, a more than 10-fold increase in dissolved phosphate is predicted at long-term applications of biochar or black carbon. PMID:23875678

  20. West Nile virus replication requires fatty acid synthesis but is independent on phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate lipids.

    PubMed

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus, which main natural hosts are birds but it also infects equines and humans, among other mammals. As in the case of other plus-stranded RNA viruses, WNV replication is associated to intracellular membrane rearrangements. Based on results obtained with a variety of viruses, different cellular processes have been shown to play important roles on these membrane rearrangements for efficient viral replication. As these processes are related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, as well as generation of a specific lipid microenvironment enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), has been associated to it in other viral models. In this study, intracellular membrane rearrangements following infection with a highly neurovirulent strain of WNV were addressed by means of electron and confocal microscopy. Infection of WNV, and specifically viral RNA replication, were dependent on fatty acid synthesis, as revealed by the inhibitory effect of cerulenin and C75, two pharmacological inhibitors of fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme of this process. However, WNV infection did not induce redistribution of PI4P lipids, and PI4P did not localize at viral replication complex. Even more, WNV multiplication was not inhibited by the use of the phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase inhibitor PIK93, while infection by the enterovirus Coxsackievirus B5 was reduced. Similar features were found when infection by other flavivirus, the Usutu virus (USUV), was analyzed. These features of WNV replication could help to design specific antiviral approaches against WNV and other related flaviviruses.

  1. Amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit).

    PubMed

    Golden, K D; Williams, O J

    2001-06-01

    A study is conducted to determine the amino acid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate content of breadfruit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). An HPLC method is used for the determination of amino acids and fatty acids in breadfruit. Representative amino acid samples are derivatized with phenylisothiocianate and the resulting phenylthiocarbamyl derivatives are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with a 0.05M ammonium acetate buffer and 0.01M ammonium acetate in acetonitrile-methanol-water (44:10:46, v/v). Representative fatty acid samples are derivatized with phenacyl bromide and the resulting fatty acid phenacyl esters are separated on a reversed-phase column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and water. Amino acid and fatty acid derivatives are detected by ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. The analysis of the carbohydrates in breadfruit employs a GC method. Carbohydrates are derivatized using trimethylchlorosilane and hexamethyldisilazane to form trimethylsilyl ethers. Compounds in the samples are separated by the temperature programming of a GC using nitrogen as the carrier gas. Percent recoveries of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates are 72.5%, 68.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. The starch content of the breadfruit is 15.52 g/100 g fresh weight.

  2. LPIAT1 regulates arachidonic acid content in phosphatidylinositol and is required for cortical lamination in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Inoue, Takao; Sasaki, Junko; Kubo, Takuya; Matsuda, Shinji; Nakasaki, Yasuko; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Tanaka, Fumiharu; Udagawa, Osamu; Kono, Nozomu; Itoh, Toshiki; Ogiso, Hideo; Taguchi, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Sasaki, Takehiko; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Dietary arachidonic acid (AA) has roles in growth, neuronal development, and cognitive function in infants. AA is remarkably enriched in phosphatidylinositol (PI), an important constituent of biological membranes in mammals; however, the physiological significance of AA-containing PI remains unknown. In an RNA interference–based genetic screen using Caenorhabditis elegans, we recently cloned mboa-7 as an acyltransferase that selectively incorporates AA into PI. Here we show that lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1, also known as MBOAT7), the closest mammalian homologue, plays a crucial role in brain development in mice. Lpiat1−/− mice show almost no LPIAT activity with arachidonoyl-CoA as an acyl donor and show reduced AA contents in PI and PI phosphates. Lpiat1−/− mice die within a month and show atrophy of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals disordered cortical lamination and delayed neuronal migration in the cortex of E18.5 Lpiat1−/− mice. LPIAT1 deficiency also causes disordered neuronal processes in the cortex and reduced neurite outgrowth in vitro. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AA-containing PI/PI phosphates play an important role in normal cortical lamination during brain development in mice. PMID:23097495

  3. Osteoconductivity and biodegradation of synthetic bone substitutes with different tricalcium phosphate contents in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheryl; Unursaikhan, Otgonbayar; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Various synthetic bone substitutes have been developed to reconstruct the bony defects that clinicians often encounter during surgical procedures. Among various synthetic bone substitutes, calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been investigated because their composition and structure are similar to those of human bone. We evaluated the bone healing and biodegradation patterns of three types of Ca-P ceramic particle with various hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) weight ratio: pure β-TCP, biphasic Ca-P (BCP) with a HA/β-TCP weight ratio of 60/40 (BCP 60/40), and BCP with an HA/β-TCP weight ratio of 20/80 (BCP 20/80). Four 8-mm-diameter defects were created in ten rabbits. Three of the defects in each rabbit were separately and randomly filled with one of the three experimental Ca-P ceramic particles, and the fourth was filled with blood clots (control). The specimens were harvested at 2 and 8 weeks post-surgery. The histologic and histometric findings revealed that the augmented space and new bone formation were significantly better for all three Ca-P ceramics than for the control group at both 2 and 8 weeks (p < 0.05). Compared to the pure β-TCP, the two BCP groups were found to provide a larger amount of newly formed bone and bone density at the 2- and 8-week post-operative periods (p < 0.05). Throughout the observation period, BCP 60/40 and BCP 20/80 exhibited a similar bone healing and biodegradation patterns with regard to both individual particles and the total augmented area in vivo.

  4. Effect of poly(aspartic acid) on calcium phosphate removal from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohn, Felicia

    Calcium phosphate deposition causes cleaning problems in a number of situations including water treatment, dairy processing, and dental applications. This problem is exacerbated by the limited choices of cleaning chemicals that meet environmental regulations. To promote the development of biodegradable, non-toxic alternatives, this research examines the removal of calcium phosphate deposits consisting of brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate; DCPD) and a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and DCPD from stainless steel in the presence of poly(aspartic acid) and its sodium salt (PASP). The effects of solvent pH, PASP concentration, and flow rate on the calcium phosphate removal rates are measured from stainless steel tubing under turbulent flow conditions using a solid scintillation detection technique. A mechanistic evaluation of the cleaning data in the absence of PASP indicates that DCPD removal is dominated by shear while HAP/DCPD deposit removal is limited by a combination of mass transfer and interfacial processes. Although the removal mechanisms differ, the results conclusively show that PASP promotes calcium phosphate removal under conditions that favor calcium sequestration in both cases. An in-depth study of DCPD removal in the presence of PASP reveals that this additive is most effective under conditions where calcium sequestration and phosphate protonation occur simultaneously.

  5. FT-IR study of the brønsted acidity of phosphated and sulphated silica catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lion, M.; Maache, M.; Lavalley, J. C.; Ramis, G.; Busca, G.; Rossi, P. F.; Lorenzelli, V.

    1990-03-01

    The FT-IR spectroscopy of adsorbed basic molecules (piperidine, pyridine, dimethylether and acetonitrile) has been used to characterize the surface acidity of catalysts constituted by silica impregnated by sulphate and phosphate ions. Both samples, like pure silica, do not show surface Lewis acidity, under the given conditions. The presence of the oxo-anions instead cause the formation of Brønsted acid centers. The Brønsted acid strength of sulphated silica is stronger than that of phosphated silica. While POH groups are at least predominantly free from H-bonding on the activated surface, the SOH groups seem to be H-bonded leading to a broad, poorly characterized OH stretching absorption.

  6. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity

  7. Membrane potential and proton cotransport of alanine and phosphate as affected by permeant weak acids in Lemna gibba

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, B.; Ullrich-Eberius, C.I.

    1987-11-01

    The treatment of Lemna gibba plants with the weak acids (trimethylacetic acid and butyric acid), used as tools to decrease intracellular pH, induced a hyperpolarization of membrane potential, dependent on the concentration of the undissociated permeant form of the weak acid and on the value of the resting potential. Measurements were carried out both with high potential and low potential plants and the maximum values of acid induced hyperpolarization were about 35 and 71 millivolts, respectively. Weak acids influenced also the transient light-dark membrane potential changes, typical for photosynthesizing material, suggesting a dependence of these changes on an acidification of cytoplasm. In the presence of the weak acids, the membrane depolarization induced by the cotransport of alanine and phosphate with protons was reduced; the maximum reduction (about 90%) was obtained with alanine during 2 millimolar trimethylacetic acid perfusion at pH 5. A strong inhibition of the uptake rates (up to 48% for (/sup 14/C)alanine and 68% for /sup 32/P-phosphate) was obtained in the presence of the weak acids, both by decreasing the pH of the medium and by increasing the concentration of the acid. In these experimental conditions, the ATP level and O/sub 2/ uptake rates did not change significantly. These results constitute good evidence that H/sup +//solute cotransport in Lemna, already known to be dependent on the electrochemical potential difference for protons, is also strongly regulated by the cytoplasmic pH value.

  8. Performance improvement of lithium manganese phosphate by controllable morphology tailoring with acid-engaged nano engineering.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Wu, Chunyang; Liao, Longhuan; Xie, Jian; Zhang, Shichao; Zhu, Peiyi; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2015-01-20

    Olivine-type lithium manganese phosphate (LiMnPO4) has been considered as a promising cathode for next-generation Li-ion batteries. Preparation of high-performance LiMnPO4 still remains a great challenge because of its intrinsically low Li-ion/electronic conductivity. In this work, significant performance enhancement of LiMnPO4 has been realized by a controllable acid-engaged morphology tailoring from large spindles into small plates. We find that acidity plays a critical role in altering the morphology of the LiMnPO4 crystals. We also find that size decrease and plate-like morphology are beneficial for the performance improvement of LiMnPO4. Among the plate-like samples, the one with the smallest size shows the best electrochemical performance. After carbon coating, it can deliver high discharge capacities of 104.0 mAh g(-1) at 10 C and 85.0 mAh g(-1) at 20 C. After 200 cycles at 1 C, it can still maintain a high discharge capacity of 106.4 mAh g(-1), showing attractive applications in high-power and high-energy Li-ion batteries.

  9. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity

  10. Phosphate Sorption and Desorption on Pyrite in Primitive Aqueous Scenarios: Relevance of acidic → Alkaline Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza-Barros, Fernando; Braz-Levigard, Raphael; Ching-San, Yonder; Monte, Marisa M. B.; Bonapace, José A. P.; Montezano, Viviane; Vieyra, Adalberto

    2007-02-01

    Phosphate (P i) sorption assays onto pyrite in media simulating primeval aquatic scenarios affected by hydrothermal emissions, reveal that acidic conditions favour P i sorption whereas mild alkaline media as well as those simulating sulfur oxidation to SO2- 4 revert this capture process. Several mechanisms relevant to P i availability in prebiotic eras are implicated in the modulation of these processes. Those favouring sorption are: (a) hydrophobic coating of molecules, such as acetate that could be formed in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents; (b) water and Mg2+ bridging in the interface mineral-aqueous media; (c) surface charge neutralization by monovalent cations (Na+ and K+). The increase of both the medium pH and the SO2- 4 trapping by the mineral interface would provoke the release of sorbed P i due to charge polarization. Moreover it is shown that P i self-modulates its sorption, a mechanism that depends on the abundance of SO2- 4 in the interface. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms of P i capture, release and trapping arises from the need of abundant presence of this molecule for primitive phosphorylations, since similarly to contemporary aqueous media inorganic phosphate concentrations in primitive seas should have been low. It is proposed that the presence of sulphide minerals with high affinity to P i could have trapped this molecule in an efficient manner, allowing its concentration in specific niches. In these niches, the conditions studied in the present work would have been relevant for its availability in soluble form, specially in primitive insulated systems with pH gradients across the wall.

  11. Phosphate sorption and desorption on pyrite in primitive aqueous scenarios: relevance of acidic --> alkaline transitions.

    PubMed

    de Souza-Barros, Fernando; Braz-Levigard, Raphael; Ching-San, Yonder; Monte, Marisa M B; Bonapace, José A P; Montezano, Viviane; Vieyra, Adalberto

    2007-02-01

    Phosphate (P(i)) sorption assays onto pyrite in media simulating primeval aquatic scenarios affected by hydrothermal emissions, reveal that acidic conditions favour P(i) sorption whereas mild alkaline media--as well as those simulating sulfur oxidation to SO(2-) (4)--revert this capture process. Several mechanisms relevant to P(i) availability in prebiotic eras are implicated in the modulation of these processes. Those favouring sorption are: (a) hydrophobic coating of molecules, such as acetate that could be formed in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents; (b) water and Mg(2+) bridging in the interface mineral-aqueous media; (c) surface charge neutralization by monovalent cations (Na+ and K+). The increase of both the medium pH and the SO(2-) (4) trapping by the mineral interface would provoke the release of sorbed P(i) due to charge polarization. Moreover it is shown that P(i) self-modulates its sorption, a mechanism that depends on the abundance of SO(2-) (4) in the interface. The relevance of the proposed mechanisms of P(i) capture, release and trapping arises from the need of abundant presence of this molecule for primitive phosphorylations, since--similarly to contemporary aqueous media--inorganic phosphate concentrations in primitive seas should have been low. It is proposed that the presence of sulphide minerals with high affinity to P(i) could have trapped this molecule in an efficient manner, allowing its concentration in specific niches. In these niches, the conditions studied in the present work would have been relevant for its availability in soluble form, specially in primitive insulated systems with pH gradients across the wall.

  12. Synthesis of lithium iron phosphate/carbon microspheres by using polyacrylic acid coated iron phosphate nanoparticles derived from iron(III) acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongwei; He, Yan-Bing; Chu, Xiaodong; Ding, Zhaojun; Li, Baohua; He, Jianfu; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-03-01

    Lithium iron phosphate/carbon (LiFePO4 /C) microspheres with high rate and cycling performance are synthesized from iron phosphate/polyacrylic acid (FePO4 /PAA) nanoparticles. Iron(III) acrylate is used as a precursor for both the iron and carbon sources. FePO4 nanoparticles are first produced by a coprecipitation reaction. The byproduct, acrylic acid ions, is polymerized in situ to form a uniform PAA layer on the surface of the FePO4 nanoparticles. The as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with sizes of 40-50 nm. The nanoparticles are fully coated with a thin, uniform carbon layer derived from the decomposition of the PAA layer. The uniform carbon-coating layer cooperates with interstitial and boundary carbon derived from sucrose successfully to construct an excellent interconnecting conductive network in the microspheres. As a result of the unique structure, the as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres display both high electronic and ionic conductivities, which contribute to their high rate performance (162.9 mAh g(-1) at 0.1C and 126.1 mAh g(-1) at 5C) and excellent cycling stability (97.1% of capacity retention after 500 cycles at 5C/5C). PMID:25469674

  13. Synthesis of lithium iron phosphate/carbon microspheres by using polyacrylic acid coated iron phosphate nanoparticles derived from iron(III) acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongwei; He, Yan-Bing; Chu, Xiaodong; Ding, Zhaojun; Li, Baohua; He, Jianfu; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-03-01

    Lithium iron phosphate/carbon (LiFePO4 /C) microspheres with high rate and cycling performance are synthesized from iron phosphate/polyacrylic acid (FePO4 /PAA) nanoparticles. Iron(III) acrylate is used as a precursor for both the iron and carbon sources. FePO4 nanoparticles are first produced by a coprecipitation reaction. The byproduct, acrylic acid ions, is polymerized in situ to form a uniform PAA layer on the surface of the FePO4 nanoparticles. The as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with sizes of 40-50 nm. The nanoparticles are fully coated with a thin, uniform carbon layer derived from the decomposition of the PAA layer. The uniform carbon-coating layer cooperates with interstitial and boundary carbon derived from sucrose successfully to construct an excellent interconnecting conductive network in the microspheres. As a result of the unique structure, the as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres display both high electronic and ionic conductivities, which contribute to their high rate performance (162.9 mAh g(-1) at 0.1C and 126.1 mAh g(-1) at 5C) and excellent cycling stability (97.1% of capacity retention after 500 cycles at 5C/5C).

  14. Effect of blending tricalcium phosphate on hydrolytic degradation of a block polyester containing poly(L-lactic acid) segment.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Fukuzawa, A; Watanabe, M

    1999-01-01

    The effect of blending tricalcium phosphate (TCP) on hydrolytic degradation of a new type of poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ethylene:hexamethylene/sebacate) block polyester (60: 40 wt%) was studied. 100- and 250-microm film specimens blended with 0, 10, and 30 wt% TCP were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C for up to 80-104 weeks. At appropriate intervals, water absorption, dry and wet tensile strength, molecular weight, and thermal properties of the specimens were measured by weighing, tensile strength testing, size exclusion chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Some samples were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Blending of TCP with the block polyester was effective in retarding degradation. The blended TCP was thought to retard degradation for the most part by neutralizing the lactic acid oligomers produced by hydrolysis of the poly(lactic acid) part during the initial stage of degradation. PMID:10426231

  15. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability. PMID:26948608

  16. Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L

    1994-01-01

    In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

  17. West Nile Virus Replication Requires Fatty Acid Synthesis but Is Independent on Phosphatidylinositol-4-Phosphate Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.; Blázquez, Ana-Belén; Jiménez de Oya, Nereida; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Saiz, Juan-Carlos

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne flavivirus, which main natural hosts are birds but it also infects equines and humans, among other mammals. As in the case of other plus-stranded RNA viruses, WNV replication is associated to intracellular membrane rearrangements. Based on results obtained with a variety of viruses, different cellular processes have been shown to play important roles on these membrane rearrangements for efficient viral replication. As these processes are related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, as well as generation of a specific lipid microenvironment enriched in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), has been associated to it in other viral models. In this study, intracellular membrane rearrangements following infection with a highly neurovirulent strain of WNV were addressed by means of electron and confocal microscopy. Infection of WNV, and specifically viral RNA replication, were dependent on fatty acid synthesis, as revealed by the inhibitory effect of cerulenin and C75, two pharmacological inhibitors of fatty acid synthase, a key enzyme of this process. However, WNV infection did not induce redistribution of PI4P lipids, and PI4P did not localize at viral replication complex. Even more, WNV multiplication was not inhibited by the use of the phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase inhibitor PIK93, while infection by the enterovirus Coxsackievirus B5 was reduced. Similar features were found when infection by other flavivirus, the Usutu virus (USUV), was analyzed. These features of WNV replication could help to design specific antiviral approaches against WNV and other related flaviviruses. PMID:21949814

  18. Cytometry of deoxyribonuclei acid content and morphology of mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Because spermatogenesis is exquisitely sensitive to external influences, sperm can serve as a biological dosimeter. Advances in interpreting induced sperm abnormalities require a better understanding of sperm characteristics. This report reviews the application of several methods for automated, quantitative detection of shape changes, methods that are faster and more sensitive than conventional subjective technqiues. Variability of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid content as a bioassay of genetic damage is explored, and limitations of the bioassay are discussed. New flow cytometric techniques that could lead to sexing mammalian sperm are examined.

  19. Effect of Fluoride on the Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Crystals Grown on Acid-Etched Human Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Y.; Sun, Z.; Moradian-Oldak, J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride ion concentration on the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on acid-etched enamel as a model for tooth enamel erosion. Samples were immersed in calcification solution for 16 h and changes in crystal morphology were monitored by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Without fluoride, plate-like octacalcium phosphate crystals (20 nm thick, 2–10 μm wide) were formed. With 1–10 mg/l fluoride, arrays of denser needle-like nanocrystals (20–30 nm wide, >500 nm in length) were formed. We conclude that there is a minimal fluoride concentration (1 mg/l) that dramatically affects the morphology of calcium phosphate crystals grown on etched enamel in vitro. PMID:19321991

  20. Agronomic effectiveness of biofertilizers with phosphate rock, sulphur and Acidithiobacillus for yam bean grown on a Brazilian tableland acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Stamford, N P; Santos, P R; Santos, C E S; Freitas, A D S; Dias, S H L; Lira, M A

    2007-04-01

    Phosphate rocks have low available P and soluble P fertilizers have been preferably used in plant crop production, although economic and effective P sources are needed. Experiments were carried out on a Brazilian Typic Fragiudult soil with low available P to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock (PR) compared with soluble phosphate fertilizer. Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) inoculated with rhizobia (strains NFB 747 and NFB 748) or not inoculated was the test crop. Biofertilizers were produced in field furrows by mixing phosphate rock (PR) and sulphur inoculated with Acidithiobacillus (S+Ac) in different rates (50, 100, 150 and 200 g S kg(-1) PR), with 60 days of incubation. Treatments were carried out with PR; biofertilizers B(50), B(100), B(150), B(200); triple super phosphate (TSP); B(200) without Acidithiobacillus and a control treatment without P application (P(0)). TSP and biofertilizers plus S inoculated with Acidithiobacillus increased plant growth. Soil acidity and available P increased when biofertilizers B(150) and B(200) were applied. We conclude that biofertilizers may be used as P source; however, long term use will reduce soil pH and potentially reduce crop growth. PMID:16815009

  1. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungi from phosphate mines and their effect on wheat seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chunqiao; Chi, Ruan; He, Huan; Qiu, Guanzhou; Wang, Dianzuo; Zhang, Wenxue

    2009-11-01

    Three phosphate-solubilizing fungi, identified as Penicillium expansum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Candida krissii, were isolated from phosphate mines (Hubei, People's Republic of China) and characterized. All the isolates demonstrated diverse levels of phosphate-solubilizing capability in National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium containing rock phosphate as sole phosphate source. Acidification of culture medium seemed to be the main mechanism for rock phosphate solubilization. Indeed, citric acid, oxalic acid, and gluconic acid were shown to be present in the culture medium inoculated with these isolates. Moreover, the isolates produced acid and alkaline phosphatases in culture medium, which may also be helpful for RP solubilization. A strong negative correlation between content of soluble phosphorus and pH (r = - 0.89; p < 0.01) in culture medium was observed in this study. All the isolates promoted growth, soil available phosphorus, phosphorus, and nitrogen uptake of wheat seedling in field soil containing rock phosphate under pot culture conditions, thus demonstrating the capability of these isolates to convert insoluble form of phosphorus into plant available form from rock phosphate, and therefore hold great potential for development as biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  2. Effect of filler content on mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of particulate biphasic calcium phosphate--polylactide composites.

    PubMed

    Bleach, N C; Nazhat, S N; Tanner, K E; Kellomäki, M; Törmälä, P

    2002-04-01

    A bioabsorbable self-reinforced polylactide/biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) composite is being developed for fracture fixation plates. One manufacturing route is to produce preimpregnated sheets by pulling polylactide (PLA) fibres through a suspension of BCP filler in a PLA solution and compression moulding the prepreg to the desired shape. To aid understanding of the process, interactions between the matrix and filler were investigated. Composite films containing 0-0.25 volume fraction filler, produced by solvent casting, were analysed using SEM, tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Homogeneous films could be made, although some particle agglomeration was seen at higher filler volume fractions. As the filler content increased, the failure strain decreased due to a reduction in the amount of ductile polymer present and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) decreased because of agglomeration and void formation at higher filler content. The matrix glass transition temperature increased due to polymer chain adsorption and immobilization onto the BCP particles. Complex damping mechanisms, such as particle-particle agglomeration, may exist at the higher BCP volume fractions. PMID:11922463

  3. Radiological, chemical and morphological characterizations of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum from phosphoric acid factories in SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Vioque, Ignacio; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo

    2010-09-15

    In this work, radiological, chemical, and also morphological characterization was performed in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples, in order to understand the behavior of toxic elements. Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gamma spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Our results show that the phosphate rock was mainly composed of fluorapatite, calcite, perovskite, quartz, magnetite, pyrite and kaolinite, whereas phosphogypsum only exhibited dihydrated calcium sulfate. The activity concentration of U-series radioisotopes in phosphate rock was around 1640 Bq/kg. (226)Ra and (210)Pb tend to be distributed into phosphogypsum by up to 80%, whereas the fraction of U-isotopes is 10%. The most abundant trace elements in phosphate rock were Sr, Cr, V, Zn, Y, Ni and Ba. Some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Cu, La, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and Y, were enriched in the phosphogypsum. This enrichment may be attributed to an additional input associated to the sulfuric acid used for the phosphoric acid production. Furthermore, results from SEM-EDX demonstrated that toxic elements are not distributed homogeneously into phosphogypsum. Most of these elements are concentrated in particles <20 microm of high porosity, and could be easily mobilized by leaching and/or erosion.

  4. Fabrication of novel poly(lactic acid)/amorphous magnesium phosphate bionanocomposite fibers for tissue engineering applications via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Lin, Boren; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-05-01

    Fibrous bionanocomposites consisting of amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) nanospheres and polylactic acid (PLA) were fabricated by electrospinning. There are two important signatures of this paper. First, AMP, as an alternative to well-known calcium phosphate (CaP) materials, is added to PLA as the second phase. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first attempt to fabricate magnesium phosphate (MgP)/biopolymer composite. This is made possible by our previously reported research on the successful synthesis of AMP nanospheres via microwave processing. Second, the sustained release of magnesium and phosphate ions from PLA matrix can stimulate a series of cell responses. The structure of the composites and their bone-like apatite-forming abilities in simulated body fluid (SBF) were examined. Additionally, the effects on the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblast cells were evaluated by performing in vitro cell culture and monitoring markers such as Osteocalcin (OCN), Osteopontin (OPN), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Collagen type-I (Col I) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For better dispersion of AMP in the fibers, a surfactant, 12-hydroxysteric acid (HSA), as previously reported in the literature, was used. However, HSA significantly inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblast cells, indicating the potential risk in using HSA in the combination of AMP or MgP in tissue engineering applications. PMID:23498262

  5. Radiological, chemical and morphological characterizations of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum from phosphoric acid factories in SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Vioque, Ignacio; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo

    2010-09-15

    In this work, radiological, chemical, and also morphological characterization was performed in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples, in order to understand the behavior of toxic elements. Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gamma spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Our results show that the phosphate rock was mainly composed of fluorapatite, calcite, perovskite, quartz, magnetite, pyrite and kaolinite, whereas phosphogypsum only exhibited dihydrated calcium sulfate. The activity concentration of U-series radioisotopes in phosphate rock was around 1640 Bq/kg. (226)Ra and (210)Pb tend to be distributed into phosphogypsum by up to 80%, whereas the fraction of U-isotopes is 10%. The most abundant trace elements in phosphate rock were Sr, Cr, V, Zn, Y, Ni and Ba. Some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Cu, La, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and Y, were enriched in the phosphogypsum. This enrichment may be attributed to an additional input associated to the sulfuric acid used for the phosphoric acid production. Furthermore, results from SEM-EDX demonstrated that toxic elements are not distributed homogeneously into phosphogypsum. Most of these elements are concentrated in particles <20 microm of high porosity, and could be easily mobilized by leaching and/or erosion. PMID:20537794

  6. Abscisic acid effects on activity and expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Cafasso, Donata; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Total glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, protein abundance, and transcript levels of G6PDH isoforms were measured in response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) supply to barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Nure) hydroponic culture. Total G6PDH activity increased by 50% in roots treated for 12 h with exogenous 0.1 mM ABA. In roots, a considerable increase (35%) in plastidial P2-G6PDH transcript levels was observed during the first 3 h of ABA treatment. Similar protein variations were observed in immunoblotting analyses. In leaves, a 2-fold increase in total G6PDH activity was observed after ABA treatment, probably related to an increase in the mRNA level (increased by 50%) and amount of protein (increased by 85%) of P2-G6PDH. Together these results suggest that the plastidial P2-isoform plays an important role in ABA-treated barley plants. PMID:21464159

  7. Kinetic properties of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate-induced Ca2+ release.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, A A; Mezna, M; Summerhill, R J; Galione, A; Michelangeli, F

    1997-03-21

    Three endogenous molecules have now been shown to release Ca2+ in the sea urchin egg: inositol trisphosphate (InsP3), cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphate ribose (cADPR), and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), a derivative of NADP. While the mechanism through which the first two molecules are able to release Ca2+ is established and well characterized with InsP3 and cADPR-activating InsP3 and ryanodine receptors, respectively, the newly described NAADP has been shown to release Ca2+ via an entirely different mechanism. The most striking feature of this novel Ca2+ release mechanism is its inactivation, since subthreshold concentrations of NAADP are able to fully and irreversibly desensitize the channel. In the present study we have investigated the fast kinetics of activation and inactivation of NAADP-induced Ca2+ release. NAADP was found to release Ca2+ in a biphasic manner, and such release was preceded by a pronounced latent period, which was inversely dependent on concentration. Moreover, the kinetic features of NAADP-induced Ca2+ release were not altered by pretreatment with low concentrations of NAADP, although the extent of Ca2+ release was greatly affected. Our data suggest that the inactivation of NAADP-induced Ca2+ release is an all-or-none phenomenon, and while some receptors have been fully inactivated, those that remain sensitive to NAADP do so without any change in kinetic features. PMID:9065423

  8. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatcontent on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  9. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatcontent on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  10. Reclamation of acidic, denuded copper basin land: Revegetation performance of phosphate rock vs other nutrient sources

    SciTech Connect

    Soileau, J.M.; Sikora, F.J.; Maddox, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Open pit smelting of Copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of severely eroded, very acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee. Along with other essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) amendments are critical for long-term productivity and sustainability of vegetation on this depleted soil. A field study was conducted (1992-1995) to compare revegetation from surface-applied North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha{sup -1}, and to determine benefits of starter NPK tree tablets. The experimental design consisted of 7.3 x 9.1 m replicated plots, each planted to 20 loblolly pine seedlings and aerially seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Tree survivability was high from all treatments. Through the third year, tree height and diameter increased with increasing P to 59 kg P ha without fertilizer tablets. There were no pine growth differences between PR and TSP. Weeping lovegrass has been the dominant cover crop through 1995, with increased stimulation to tree tablets and surface P. Tall fescue (KY 31), sericea lespedeza, and black locust responded more to PR than to TSP. Surface soil pH increased, and 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. For future loblolly pine plantings in the Copper Basin, this study suggests there is no benefit to applying both tree tablets and surface P at rates above 59 kg P ha{sup -1}. For reclaiming land with high acidity and low P fertility, PR has significant benefits. In reclaiming steep, gullied land, there is great potential for aerial application of PR and/or pelletized liming agents.

  11. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03. PMID:27126606

  12. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03. PMID:27126606

  13. Designable architectures on nanoparticle surfaces: zirconium phosphate nanoplatelets as a platform for tetravalent metal and phosphonic acid assemblies.

    PubMed

    Mosby, Brian M; Goloby, Mark; Díaz, Agustín; Bakhmutov, Vladimir; Clearfield, Abraham

    2014-03-11

    Surface-functionalized zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanoparticles were synthesized using a combination of ion exchange and self-assembly techniques. The surface of ZrP was used as a platform to deposit tetravalent metal ions by direct ion exchange with the protons of the surface phosphate groups. Subsequently, phosphonic acids were attached to the metal ion layer, effectively functionalizing the ZrP nanoparticles. Use of axially oriented bisphosphonic acids led to the ability to build layer-by-layer assemblies from the nanoparticle surface. Varying the metal ion and ligand used allowed designable architectures to be synthesized on the nanoparticle surface. X-ray powder diffraction, XPS, electron microprobe, solid-state NMR, FTIR, and TGA were used to characterize the synthesized materials.

  14. Stability and disperse composition of water-in-oil microemulsions in a tributyl phosphate-nitric acid system

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, I.V.; Zakharkin, V.S.; Shepel'kov, S.V.

    1988-05-01

    An investigation has been made of the influence of the concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid on the surface and bulk distribution, the stability, and the disperse composition of water-in-oil microemulsions. A correlation has been established between the interphase tension and the time for complete stratification of the microemulsions. The process of forming stable microemulsions is interpreted on the basis of views on the surfactant properties of TBP hydratosolvates.

  15. Degradation and osteogenic potential of a novel poly(lactic acid)/nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lu; Duan, Ping-Guo; Wang, Hui-Ren; Li, Xi-Lei; Yuan, Feng-Lai; Fan, Zhong-Yong; Li, Su-Ming; Dong, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the biological performance of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) composite scaffolds by using in vitro degradation and an in vivo model of heterotopic bone formation. Nano-sized β-TCP (nβ-TCP) was prepared with a wet grinding method from micro-sized β-TCP (mβ-TCP), and composite scaffolds containing 0, 10, 30, or 50 wt% nβ-TCP or 30 wt% mβ-TCP were generated using a freeze-drying method. Degradation was assessed by monitoring changes in microstructure, pH, weight, and compressive strength over a 26-week period of hydrolysis. Composite scaffolds were processed into blocks, and implanted into muscular pockets of rabbits after loading with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). New bone formation was evaluated based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation. The in vitro results indicated that the buffering effect of nβ-TCP was stronger than mβ-TCP, which was positively correlated with the content of nβ-TCP. The in vivo findings demonstrated that nβ-TCP enhanced the osteoconductivity of the scaffolds. Although composite scaffolds containing 30% nβ-TCP exhibited similar osteoconductivity to 50% nβ-TCP, they had better mechanical properties than the 50% nβ-TCP scaffolds. This study supports the potential application of a composite scaffold containing 30% nβ-TCP as a promising scaffold for bone regeneration. PMID:23226019

  16. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate /n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Campbell, Emily L.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterman, Dean; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-11-05

    In liquid-liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to the high dose external gamma irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  17. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate/n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Tatiana G. Levitskaia; James M. Peterson; Emily L. Campbell; Amanda J. Casella; Dean R. Peterman; Samuel A. Bryan

    2013-12-01

    In liquid–liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness, and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores the feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to high-dose external ?-irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus, demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  18. The crystallinity of calcium phosphate powders influenced by the conditions of neutralized procedure with citric acid additions

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chengfeng

    2009-05-06

    Calcium phosphate powders with nano-sized crystallinity were synthesized by neutralization using calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid with the assistance of citric acid. The influence of processing parameters, such as free or additive citric acid, synthetic temperature and ripening time, on the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction and microstructure observations showed that the crystallinity and morphology of nano-sized hydroxyapatite particles were influenced by the presence or absence of citric acid. It was found that the crystallinities and crystallite sizes of hydroxyapatite powders prepared with the additive citric acid increased with increasing synthetic temperature and ripening time. Especially, the crystallinities of (h k 0) planes were raised and more homogeneously grown particles were obtained with increasing synthetic temperature.

  19. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers.

  20. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding.

  1. Adjusting the chlorhexidine content of calcium phosphate coatings by electrochemically assisted co-deposition from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, D; Flössel, M; Born, R; Worch, H

    2007-02-01

    Currently, a number of strategies to create either biologically active or antimicrobial surfaces of biomaterials are being developed and commercially applied. However, for metallic implants in contact with bone, both osteomyelitis and a fast and stable long-term fixation of implants are challenges to be overcome, especially in the case of bad bone quality. Therefore, the present work aims to develop compound coatings of calcium phosphate phases (CPP) and chlorhexidine (CHD) that combine bioactive properties with a strategy to prevent initial bacterial adhesion and thus offer a possible solution to the two major problems of implant surgery mentioned above. Using electrochemically assisted deposition of CPP on samples of Ti6Al4V together with the pH-dependent solubility of CHD, the preparation of coatings with a wide range of CHD concentrations (150 ng/cm(2) to 65 microg/cm(2)) from electrolytes with CHD concentrations between 50 and 200 microM was possible, thus allowing the adaptation of implant surface properties to different surgical and patient situations. Detailed SEM and FTIR analysis showed that coatings are formed by a co-deposition process of both phases and that CHD interacts with the deposition and transformation of CPP in the coating. For high CHD contents, coatings consist of CHD crystals coated by nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite.

  2. Progesterone and a phospholipase inhibitor increase the endosomal bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content and block HIV viral particle intercellular transmission.

    PubMed

    Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Subra, Caroline; Requena, Mary; de Medina, Philippe; Amara, Sawsan; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle; Payre, Bruno; Cazabat, Michelle; Carriere, Frédéric; Izopet, Jacques; Poirot, Marc; Record, Michel

    2013-09-01

    Progesterone, the cationic amphiphile U18666A and a phospholipase inhibitor (Methyl Arachidonyl Fluoro Phosphonate, MAFP) inhibited by 70%-90% HIV production in viral reservoir cells, i.e. human THP-1 monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). These compounds triggered an inhibition of fluid phase endocytosis (macropinocytosis) and modified cellular lipid homeostasis since endosomes accumulated filipin-stained sterols and Bis(Monoacylglycero)Phosphate (BMP). BMP was quantified using a new cytometry procedure and was increased by 1.25 times with MAFP, 1.7 times with U18666A and 2.5 times with progesterone. MAFP but not progesterone or U18666A inhibited the hydrolysis of BMP by the Pancreatic Lipase Related Protein 2 (PLRP2) as shown by in-vitro experiments. The possible role of sterol transporters in steroid-mediated BMP increase is discussed. Electron microscopy showed the accumulation of viral particles either into large intracellular viral-containing compartments or outside the cells, indicating that endosomal accumulation of BMP could block intracellular biogenesis of viral particles while inhibition of macropinocytosis would prevent viral particle uptake. This is the first report linking BMP metabolism with a natural steroid such as progesterone or with involvement of a phospholipase A1 activity. BMP cellular content could be used as a biomarker for efficient anti-viral drugs. PMID:23774297

  3. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  4. Matrix Domain Modulates HIV-1 Gag's Nucleic Acid Chaperone Activity via Inositol Phosphate Binding ▿

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher P.; Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Rein, Alan; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Retroviruses replicate by reverse transcribing their single-stranded RNA genomes into double-stranded DNA using specific cellular tRNAs to prime cDNA synthesis. In HIV-1, human tRNA3Lys serves as the primer and is packaged into virions during assembly. The viral Gag protein is believed to chaperone tRNA3Lys placement onto the genomic RNA primer binding site; however, the timing and possible regulation of this event are currently unknown. Composed of the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC), and p6 domains, the multifunctional HIV-1 Gag polyprotein orchestrates the highly coordinated process of virion assembly, but the contribution of these domains to tRNA3Lys annealing is unclear. Here, we show that NC is absolutely essential for annealing and that the MA domain inhibits Gag's tRNA annealing capability. During assembly, MA specifically interacts with inositol phosphate (IP)-containing lipids in the plasma membrane (PM). Surprisingly, we find that IPs stimulate Gag-facilitated tRNA annealing but do not stimulate annealing in Gag variants lacking the MA domain or containing point mutations involved in PM binding. Moreover, we find that IPs prevent MA from binding to nucleic acids but have little effect on NC or Gag. We propose that Gag binds to RNA either with both NC and MA domains or with NC alone and that MA-IP interactions alter Gag's binding mode. We propose that MA's interactions with the PM trigger the switch between these two binding modes and stimulate Gag's chaperone function, which may be important for the regulation of events such as tRNA primer annealing. PMID:21123373

  5. Continuous monitoring of the zinc-phosphate acid-base cement setting reaction by proton nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apih, T.; Lebar, A.; Pawlig, O.; Trettin, R.

    2001-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic relaxation is a well-established technique for continuous and non destructive monitoring of hydration of conventional Portland building cements. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of the setting reaction of zinc-phosphate acid-base dental cements, which harden in minutes as compared to days, as in the case of Portland cements. We compare the setting of cement powder (mainly, zinc oxide) prepared with clinically used aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid solution with the setting of a model system where cement powder is mixed with pure orthophosphoric acid solution. In contrast to previously published NMR studies of setting Portland cements, where a decrease of spin-lattice relaxation time is attributed to enhanced relaxation at the growing internal surface, spin-lattice relaxation time T1 increases during the set of clinically used zinc-phosphate cement. Comparison of these results with a detailed study of diffusion, viscosity, and magnetic-field dispersion of T1 in pure and aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid demonstrates that the increase of T1 in the setting cement is connected with the increase of molecular mobility in the residual phosphoric acid solution. Although not taken into account so far, such effects may also significantly influence the relaxation times in setting Portland cements, particularly when admixtures with an effect on water viscosity are used.

  6. Phosphate Stability in Diagenetic Fluids Constrains the Acidic Alteration Model for Lower Mt. Sharp Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Gellert, R.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; VanBommel, S. J.; McAdam, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Curiosity has encountered silica-enriched bedrock (as strata and as veins and associated halos of alteration) in the largely basaltic Murray Fm. of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) investigations of the Murray Fm. revealed decreasing Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al, and higher S, as silica increased (Fig. 1). A positive correlation between SiO2 and TiO2 (up to 74.4 and 1.7 wt %, respectively) suggests that these two insoluble elements were retained while acidic fluids leached more soluble elements. Other evidence also supports a silica-retaining, acidic alteration model for the Murray Fm., including low trace element abundances consistent with leaching, and the presence of opaline silica and jarosite determined by CheMin. Phosphate stability is a key component of this model because PO4 3- is typically soluble in acidic water and is likely a mobile ion in diagenetic fluids (pH less than 5). However, the Murray rocks are not leached of P; they have variable P2O5 (Fig. 1) ranging from average Mars (0.9 wt%) up to the highest values in Gale Crater (2.5 wt%). Here we evaluate APXS measurements of Murray Fm. bedrock and veins with respect to phosphate stability in acidic fluids as a test of the acidic alteration model for the Lower Mt. Sharp rocks.

  7. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, M. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  8. Crystallization of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate with presence of glutamic acid and arginine at 37 °C.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengfeng; Ge, Xiaolu; Li, Guochang; Bai, Jiahai; Ding, Rui

    2014-08-01

    The formations of non-metabolic stones, bones and teeth were seriously related to the morphology, size and surface reactivity of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). Herein, a facile biomimetic mineralization method with presence of glutamic acid and arginine was employed to fabricate DCPD with well-defined morphology and adjustable crystallite size. In reaction solution containing more arginine, crystallization of DCPD occurred with faster rate of nucleation and higher density of stacked layers due to the generation of more OH(-) ions after hydrolysis of arginine at 37 °C. With addition of fluorescein or acetone, the consumption of OH(-) ions or desolvation reaction of Ca(2+) ions was modulated, which resulted in the fabrication of DCPD with adjustable crystallite sizes and densities of stacked layers. In comparison with fluorescein-loading DCPD, dicalcium phosphate anhydrate was prepared with enhanced photoluminescence properties due to the reduction of self-quenching effect and regular arrangement of encapsulated fluorescein molecules. With addition of more acetone, DCPD was prepared with smaller crystallite size via antisolvent crystallization. The simulated process with addition of amino acids under 37 °C would shed light on the dynamic process of biomineralization for calcium phosphate compounds.

  9. Degradation of composite materials composed of tricalcium phosphate and a new type of block polyester containing a poly(L-lactic acid) segment.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Nagai, M; Watanabe, M

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of a new type of poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(ethylene; hexamethylene/ sebacate) block polyester and its composite containing 10 and 30 wt% tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were studied in vitro. Film specimens of thickness 100 and 250 microm for each of the three materials were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C for up to 24 weeks. At appropriate intervals, water absorption, dry and wet tensile strength, molecular weight, and thermal properties of the specimens were measured by weighing, tensile strength testing, size exclusion chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The decrease in tensile strength was greater in the unblended and thicker polymer film than in the other five films. The retention of tensile strength after 24 weeks increased with increasing TCP content. This trend was also noticed in the retention of molecular weight. The tensile strength of the materials having molecular weights below 5 x 10(4)-6 x 10(4) Mw or 2 x 10(4)-3 x 10(4) Mn dropped substantially and the materials became fragile. Blending of TCP to the PLLA block polyester retarded degradation, suggesting that TCP neutralized the carboxyl end groups formed by hydrolysis of ester bonds. PMID:10227465

  10. Aluminum bioavailability from the approved food additive leavening agent acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, incorporated into a baked good, is lower than from water.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2006-10-01

    There are estimates of oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water, but little information on Al bioavailability from foods. Foods contribute approximately 95% and drinking water 1-2% of the typical human's daily Al intake. The objectives were to estimate oral Al bioavailability from a representative food containing the food additive acidic sodium aluminum phosphate (acidic SALP), a leavening agent in baked goods. Rats were acclimated to a special diet that resulted in no stomach contents 14 h after its withdrawal. They were trained to rapidly consume a biscuit containing 1.5% acidic SALP. Oral Al bioavailability was then determined from a biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic SALP, synthesized to contain (26)Al. The rats received concurrent (27)Al infusion. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn and serum analyzed for (26)Al by accelerator mass spectrometry. Total Al was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oral (26)Al bioavailability was determined from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentrationxtime curves. Oral Al bioavailability (F) from biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic (26)Al-SALP averaged approximately 0.11% and 0.13%; significantly less than from water, which was previously shown to be approximately 0.3%. The time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 4.2 and 6h after consumption of biscuit containing 1% or 2% (26)Al-acidic SALP, respectively, compared to 1-2h following (26)Al in water. These results of oral Al bioavailability from acidic (26)Al-SALP in a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%) and results from (26)Al in water (F approximately 0.3%) x the contributions of food and drinking water to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 5-10mg from food and 0.1mg from water, respectively) suggest food provides approximately 25-fold more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water.

  11. Amino acid sequence of an intracellular, phosphate-starvation-induced ribonuclease from cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells.

    PubMed

    Löffler, A; Glund, K; Irie, M

    1993-06-15

    The primary structure of an intracellular ribonuclease (RNase LX) from cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cells has been determined. Previous studies have shown that the protein is located inside the tomato cells but outside the vacuoles and that its synthesis is induced after depleting the cells for phosphate [Löffler, A., Abel, S., Jost, W., Beintema, J. J., Glund, K. (1992) Plant Physiol. 98, 1472-1478]. Sequence analysis was carried out by analysis of peptides isolated after enzymatic and chemical cleavage of the protein. RNase LX consists of 213 amino acids and has a molecular mass of 24300 Da and an isoelectric point of 5.33. The enzyme contains 10 half-cystines and there are no potential N-glycosylation sites detectable in the sequence. RNase LX, as compared to an extracellular tomato RNase (RNase LE), which is also phosphate regulated and the amino acid sequence of which was recently established [Jost, W., Bak, H., Glund, K., Terpstra, P. & Beintema, J. J. (1991) Eur. J. Biochem. 198, 1-6] has 60% of all amino acids identical and in identical positions, revealing a high degree of similarity between both proteins. In contrast to RNase LE, RNase LX has a C-terminal extension of nine amino acids. The C-terminal tetrapeptide HDEF may be a retention signal of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:8319673

  12. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and... foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a food... product or main dish product, less than 0.5 g of fat per labeled serving; and (ii) The food contains...

  13. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  14. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  15. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  16. Sulfonic acid-functionalized α-zirconium phosphate single-layer nanosheets as a strong solid acid for heterogeneous catalysis applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingjie; Huang, Rongcai; Ding, Fuchuan; Brittain, Alex D; Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Meng; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong; Sun, Luyi

    2014-05-28

    Solid acids have received considerable attention as alternatives to traditional corrosive and hazardous homogeneous acids because of their advantages in practical applications, including their low corrosion of equipment and high catalytic activity and recyclability. In this work, a strong solid acid was prepared by anchoring thiol group terminated chains on layered α-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) single-layer nanosheets, followed by oxidation of thiol groups to form sulfonic acid groups. The obtained solid acids were thoroughly characterized and the results proved that sulfonic acid group terminated chains were successfully grafted onto the ZrP nanosheets with a high loading density. Such a strong solid acid based on inorganic nanosheets can be well-dispersed in polar solvents, leading to high accessibility to the acid functional groups. Meanwhile, it can be easily separated from the dispersion system by centrifugation or filtration. The strong solid acid can serve as an effective heterogeneous catalyst for various reactions, including the Bayer-Villiger oxidation of cyclohexanone to ε-caprolactone in the absence of organic solvents.

  17. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics.

  18. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics. PMID:26948648

  19. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, C. v.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields plant available inorganic phosphate (Pi) and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P-compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four Pi are released, and one oxygen atom from water is incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi is subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ 6 to 10‰), which is similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ∼ 7‰) where less than three Pi are released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ -12‰), again similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ɛ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate-dependency of

  20. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  1. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering.

  2. Photoaffinity Labeling of High Affinity Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP)-Binding Proteins in Sea Urchin Egg*♦

    PubMed Central

    Walseth, Timothy F.; Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Jain, Pooja; Ruas, Margarida; Parrington, John; Galione, Antony; Marchant, Jonathan S.; Slama, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a messenger that regulates calcium release from intracellular acidic stores. Recent studies have identified two-pore channels (TPCs) as endolysosomal channels that are regulated by NAADP; however, the nature of the NAADP receptor binding site is unknown. To further study NAADP binding sites, we have synthesized and characterized [32P-5-azido]nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate ([32P-5N3]NAADP) as a photoaffinity probe. Photolysis of sea urchin egg homogenates preincubated with [32P-5N3]NAADP resulted in specific labeling of 45-, 40-, and 30-kDa proteins, which was prevented by inclusion of nanomolar concentrations of unlabeled NAADP or 5N3-NAADP, but not by micromolar concentrations of structurally related nucleotides such as NAD, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinic acid, or nicotinamide. [32P-5N3]NAADP binding was saturable and displayed high affinity (Kd ∼10 nm) in both binding and photolabeling experiments. [32P-5N3]NAADP photolabeling was irreversible in a high K+ buffer, a hallmark feature of NAADP binding in the egg system. The proteins photolabeled by [32P-5N3]NAADP have molecular masses smaller than the sea urchin TPCs, and antibodies to TPCs do not detect any immunoreactivity that comigrates with either the 45-kDa or the 40-kDa photolabeled proteins. Interestingly, antibodies to TPC1 and TPC3 were able to immunoprecipitate a small fraction of the 45- and 40-kDa photolabeled proteins, suggesting that these proteins associate with TPCs. These data suggest that high affinity NAADP binding sites are distinct from TPCs. PMID:22117077

  3. Regulation of Phosphate Accumulation in the Unicellular Cyanobacterium Synechococcus

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, John F.; Gibson, Jane

    1979-01-01

    The phosphorus contents of acid-soluble pools, lipid, ribonucleic acid, and acid-insoluble polyphosphate were lowered in Synechococcus in proportion to the reduction in growth rate in phosphate-limited but not in nitrate-limited continuous culture. Phosphorus in these cell fractions was lost proportionately during progressive phosphate starvation of batch cultures. Acid-insoluble polyphosphate was always present in all cultural conditions to about 10% of total cell phosphorus and did not turn over during balanced exponential growth. Extensive polyphosphate formation occurred transiently when phosphate was given to cells which had been phosphate limited. This material was broken down after 8 h even in the presence of excess external orthophosphate, and its phosphorus was transferred into other cell fractions, notably ribonucleic acid. Phosphate uptake kinetics indicated an invariant apparent Km of about 0.5 μM, but Vmax was 40 to 50 times greater in cells from phosphate-limited cultures than in cells from nitrate-limited or balanced batch cultures. Over 90% of the phosphate taken up within the first 30 s at 15°C was recovered as orthophosphate. The uptake process is highly specific, since neither phosphate entry nor growth was affected by a 100-fold excess of arsenate. The activity of polyphosphate synthetase in cell extracts increased at least 20-fold during phosphate starvation or in phosphate-restricted growth, but polyphosphatase activity was little changed by different growth conditions. The findings suggest that derepression of the phosphate transport and polyphosphate-synthesizing systems as well as alkaline phosphatase occurs in phosphate shortage, but that the breakdown of polyphosphate in this organism is regulated by modulation of existing enzyme activity. PMID:227842

  4. Calcium Phosphate Mineralization in Cellulose Derivative/Poly(acrylic acid) Composites Having a Chiral Nematic Mesomorphic Structure.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Takuya; Katsumura, Ayaka; Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

    2015-12-14

    Calcium phosphate mineralization was conducted by using polymer composites of liquid-crystalline (ethyl)cellulose (EC) or (hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a scaffolding medium for the inorganic deposition. The EC/PAA and HPC/PAA samples were prepared in colored film form from EC and HPC lyotropic liquid crystals of left-handed and right-handed chiral nematics, respectively, by polymerization and cross-linking of acrylic acid as the main solvent component. The mineralization was allowed to proceed in a batchwise operation by soaking the liquid-crystalline films in an aqueous salt solution containing the relevant ions, Ca(2+) and HPO4(2-). The calcium phosphate-deposited EC/PAA and HPC/PAA composites (weight gain, typically 15-25% and 6-11%, respectively) retained the chiral nematic organization of the respective original handedness but exhibited selective light-reflection of longer wavelengths relative to that of the corresponding nonmineralized samples. From X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, it was deduced that the calcium and phosphorus were incorporated inside the polymer matrices in three forms: amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and a certain complex of PAA-Ca(2+). Dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetry revealed that the inorganic hybridization remarkably enhanced the thermal and mechanical performance of the optically functionalized cellulosic/synthetic polymer composites; however, the effect was more drastic in the EC/PAA series rather than the HPC/PAA series, reflecting the difference in the deposited mineral amount between the two. PMID:26536381

  5. Organic acids inhibit the formation of pyromorphite and Zn-phosphate in phosphorous amended Pb- and Zn-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Debela, F; Arocena, J M; Thring, R W; Whitcombe, T

    2013-02-15

    Pyromorphite (PY) and some zinc phosphates (Zn-P) are very sparingly soluble minerals and hence can immobilize Pb and Zn in contaminated soils. However, mechanisms leading to the poor efficiency of PY and Zn-P formation in contaminated soils amended with P still remain unclear. We studied the influence of two low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) - oxalic acid and citric acid and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) - in PY and Zn-P formation in a P-amended contaminated soil. Despite the high levels of metals (∼4% Pb and 21% Zn) in the study soil, the addition of up to 1% inorganic P transformed only up to 37% and 17% of the total Pb and Zn to PY and Zn-P, respectively. Semi-quantitative estimates from a linear combination fitting of X-ray absorption near edge spectra (LC-XANES fitting) showed that the formation of PY decreased from 37% to 3% of the total Pb in the presence of oxalic acid and the addition of 1% P. The reduced PY formation may be associated with the increase in organic-bound Pb from 9% to 54% and decrease in carbonate associated Pb from 42% to 12% with oxalic acid addition as indicated by a chemical sequential extraction (SE) technique. Citric acid seemed to have a less adverse effect in PY formation than oxalic acid. Our data also suggests both oxalic and citric acids have less adverse effects on the efficiency of Zn-P formation. From this study we conclude that the abundance of LMWOA in soil environments can be one factor contributing to the poor efficiency of P amendments practices to effectively immobilize Pb and Zn in metal contaminated soils.

  6. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO4). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses.

  7. Investigating the use of coupling agents to improve the interfacial properties between a resorbable phosphate glass and polylactic acid matrix.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Walker, Gavin S; Scotchford, Colin A

    2013-09-01

    Eight different chemicals were investigated as potential candidate coupling agents for phosphate glass fibre reinforced polylactic acid composites. Evidence of reaction of the coupling agents with phosphate glass and their effect on surface wettability and glass degradation were studied along with their principle role of improving the interface between glass reinforcement and polymer matrix. It was found that, with an optimal amount of coupling agent on the surface of the glass/polymer, interfacial shear strength improved by a factor of 5. Evidence of covalent bonding between agent and glass was found for three of the coupling agents investigated, namely: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; etidronic acid and hexamethylene diisocyanate. These three coupling agents also improved the interfacial shear strength and increased the hydrophobicity of the glass surface. It is expected that this would provide an improvement in the macroscopic properties of full-scale composites fabricated from the same materials which may also help to retain these properties for the desired length of time by retarding the breakdown of the fibre/matrix interface within these composites.

  8. Investigating the use of coupling agents to improve the interfacial properties between a resorbable phosphate glass and polylactic acid matrix.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Walker, Gavin S; Scotchford, Colin A

    2013-09-01

    Eight different chemicals were investigated as potential candidate coupling agents for phosphate glass fibre reinforced polylactic acid composites. Evidence of reaction of the coupling agents with phosphate glass and their effect on surface wettability and glass degradation were studied along with their principle role of improving the interface between glass reinforcement and polymer matrix. It was found that, with an optimal amount of coupling agent on the surface of the glass/polymer, interfacial shear strength improved by a factor of 5. Evidence of covalent bonding between agent and glass was found for three of the coupling agents investigated, namely: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; etidronic acid and hexamethylene diisocyanate. These three coupling agents also improved the interfacial shear strength and increased the hydrophobicity of the glass surface. It is expected that this would provide an improvement in the macroscopic properties of full-scale composites fabricated from the same materials which may also help to retain these properties for the desired length of time by retarding the breakdown of the fibre/matrix interface within these composites. PMID:22781920

  9. Study of the aluminum-chromium phosphate binder based on the slurry (slime) orthophosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kliment'eva, V.S.; Filimonova, N.I.; Bushmina, V.A.; Vasil'eva, N.F.; Kudinova, A.A.

    1987-03-01

    This article looks at the possibility of using phosphorus slurry wastes which are ordinarily incinerated as a raw material for a refractory binder based on aluminium and chromium phosphates. Thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis as well as x-ray diffraction are carried out on various combinations of binder and refractory in order to assess the crystal behavior, adhesive properties, and temperature resistance of the binder-filler composite.

  10. Mineralisation of reconstituted collagen using polyvinylphosphonic acid/polyacrylic acid templating matrix protein analogues in the presence of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl ions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Kyung; Gu, Li-sha; Bryan, Thomas E.; Kim, Jong Ryul; Chen, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yoon, James C.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2010-01-01

    The complex morphologies of mineralised collagen fibrils are regulated through interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. In the present study, polyvinylphosphonic acid, a biomimetic analogue of matrix phosphoproteins, was synthesised and confirmed with FTIR and NMR. Biomimetic mineralisation of reconstituted collagen fibrils devoid of natural non-collagenous proteins was demonstrated with TEM using a Portland cement-containing resin composite and a phosphate-containing fluid in the presence of polyacrylic acid as sequestration, and polyvinylphosphonic acid as templating matrix protein analogues. In the presence of these dual biomimetic analogues in the mineralisation medium, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralisation via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the nonclassical crystallisation pathway could be identified. Conversely, only large mineral spheres with no preferred association with collagen fibrils were observed in the absence of biomimetic analogues in the medium. Mineral phases were evident within the collagen fibrils as early as 4 hours after the initially-formed amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors were transformed into apatite nanocrystals. Selected area electron diffraction patterns of highly mineralised collagen fibrils were nearly identical to those of natural bone, with apatite crystallites preferentially aligned along the collagen fibril axes. PMID:20621767

  11. Intramolecular general acid catalysis of the hydrolysis of 2-(2'-imidazolium)phenyl phosphate, and bond length-reactivity correlations for reactions of phosphate monoester monoanions.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Tiago A S; Orth, Elisa S; Rocha, Willian R; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Bunton, Clifford A; Nome, Faruk

    2007-05-11

    Rate constants for the hydrolysis of 2-(2'-imidazolium)phenyl hydrogen phosphate (IMPP) in water at pH<6 indicate that activation by the imidazolium moiety disappears with the deprotonation of the phosphate group, and the reaction involves the hydrogen-bonding of the imidazolium NH with the aryl oxygen leaving group. The reaction should involve a near-planar conformation of the imidazolium and the phenyl groups in the activated complex, which favors proton-transfer. The crystal structure of IMPP was solved, and a bond length-reactivity correlation for reactions of phosphate monoester monoanions is described.

  12. Mechanical Behavior and Thermal Stability of Acid-Base Phosphate Cements and Composites Fabricated at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colorado Lopera, Henry Alonso

    This dissertation presents the study of the mechanical behavior and thermal stability of acid-base phosphate cements (PCs) and composites fabricated at ambient temperature. These materials are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). Among other advantages of using PCs when compared with traditional cements are the better mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength), lower density, ultra-fast (controllable) setting time, controllable pH, and an environmentally benign process. Several PCs based on wollastonite and calcium and alumino phosphates after thermal exposure up to 1000°C have been investigated. First, the thermo-mechanical and chemical stability of wollastonite-based PC (Wo-PC) exposed to temperatures up to 1000°C in air environment were studied. The effects of processing conditions on the curing and shrinkage of the wollastonite-based PC were studied. The chemical reactions and phase transformations during the fabrication and during the thermal exposure are analyzed in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA Then, the thermo-mechanical and chemical stability of glass, carbon and basalt fiber reinforced Wo-PC composites, were studied using SEM, XRD, TGA. The flexural strength and Weibull statistics were analyzed. A significant strength degradation in the composites were found after the thermal exposure at elevated temperatures due to the interdifusion and chemical reactions across the fibers and the matrix at temperatures over 600°C. To overcome this barrier, we have developed a new PC based on calcium and alumino-phosphates (Ca-Al PCs). The Ca-Al PCs were studied in detail using SEM, XRD, TGA, curing, shrinkage, Weibull statistics, and compression tests. Our study has confirmed that this new composite material is chemically and mechanically stable at temperatures up to 1000°C. Moreover, the compression strength increases after exposure to 1000

  13. Modeling metal cation-phosphate interactions in nucleic acids: activated dissociation of Mg+, Al+, Cu+, and Zn+ complexes of triethyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chunhai; Rodgers, M T

    2009-08-12

    Threshold collision-induced dissociation techniques are employed to determine the activation energies (AEs) and bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of metal cation-triethyl phosphate complexes, M(+)(TEP), where M(+) = Mg(+), Al(+), Cu(+), and Zn(+). Activated dissociation resulting in loss of ethene, C(2)H(4), corresponds to the primary and lowest energy pathway for all four systems examined. Sequential loss of additional C(2)H(4) molecules and loss of the intact TEP ligand is also observed at elevated energies. Theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory are used to determine the structures, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants of neutral TEP and the M(+)(TEP) complexes, transition states, intermediates, and products of the activated dissociation of these complexes. Theoretical AEs and BDEs are determined from single point energy calculations at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p) level using the B3LYP/6-31G* optimized geometries. The agreement between the calculated and measured AEs for elimination of C(2)H(4) is excellent for all four systems. In contrast, less satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment is found for the M(+)-TEP BDEs and may indicate limitations in the competitive model used to analyze these high energy dissociation pathways. The influence of the valence orbital occupation of the metal cation on the binding and activation propensities for elimination of ethene from TEP is examined. The binding of metal cations to TEP is compared to that of the nucleobases to assess the binding preferences of metal cations to nucleic acids.

  14. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  15. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  16. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  17. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  18. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients.

  19. [Intake of folic acid in the total daily diet--effect of food preparation on its folic acid content].

    PubMed

    Müller, H

    1995-03-01

    The folic acid content of total daily diet was determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF), 5-methyl-THF and 5-formyl-THF were differentiated. The mean of the folic acid content of the total daily diet samples determined analytically was 205 +/- 60 micrograms and the mean of the individual ingredients of the samples was 401 +/- 78 micrograms, which implies that about 50% of folic acid is destroyed by common household food preparation methods. If the contents of pteroylglutamic acid (PteGlu) and 10-formyl-PteGlu (which cannot be determined analytically) are added, it can be assumed that the folic acid content with only be reduced by about 40%. THF and 5-methyl-THF proved to be less stable than 5-formyl-THF. The monoglutamate portion of the total folat content was higher in the total diet samples than in the individual foodstuffs as a consequence of the action of the enzyme "deconjugase" which is released when the matrix of food-stuffs is destroyed.

  20. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.; Salati, Lisa M.

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression. These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  1. Linoleic acid content in adipose tissue and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Riemersma, R A; Wood, D A; Butler, S; Elton, R A; Oliver, M; Salo, M; Nikkari, T; Vartiainen, E; Puska, P; Gey, F

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of an inverse relation between essential fatty acids in adipose tissue, in particular linoleic acid, and mortality from coronary heart disease was studied by a cross sectional survey of random population samples of apparently healthy men aged 40-49 from four European regions with differing mortality from coronary heart disease. The proportion of linoleic acid in adipose tissue was lowest in men from north Karelia, Finland, where mortality from coronary heart disease is highest, and highest in men from Italy, where mortality is lowest, with intermediate proportions in men from Scotland and south west Finland. Similar gradients were observed for the desaturation and elongation products dihomo-gamma-linolenic and arachidonic acid. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in adipose tissue was highest in Finland, intermediate in Scotland, and lowest in Italy. Italian men also had the highest proportion of oleate in their adipose tissue and the lowest proportion of myristoleate and palmitoleate. Finnish men were more obese and had a higher blood pressure. Serum cholesterol concentration was higher in north Karelia and south west Finland than in Scotland or Italy. High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations reflected the regional differences in serum cholesterol, being higher in Finland and lower in Italy. The ratios of HDL cholesterol to total cholesterol, however, did not differ. The regional differences in linoleic acid in adipose tissue remained highly significant when the observed differences in other known risk factors for coronary heart disease among the four areas were taken into account by multivariate analysis. The gradients in proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids probably reflect differences in dietary intake of linoleic acid. PMID:3087455

  2. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  3. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    PubMed

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  4. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals.

    PubMed

    Mota, Carla; Santos, Mariana; Mauro, Raul; Samman, Norma; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile information. The aim of this work is to characterise the AA profile of these pseudocereals and compare them with rice. Total protein content revealed to vary from 16.3g/100g (quinoa Salta) to 13.1g/100g (buckwheat) and lower values were found in rice samples (6.7g/100g). For pseudocereals the most abundant essential AA was leucine. Quinoa-Salta evidences the highest leucine content (1013mg/100g) and the minor methionine content (199mg/100g). Buckwheat was the cereal with the highest phenylalanine content (862mg/100g). Rice (Oryza sativa) presents the lowest content for all AA. Results showed pseudocereals as the best source of AA. EuroFIR guidelines where strictly followed and proved to be a crucial tool to guarantee data interchangeability and comparability. PMID:26433287

  5. Effects of lactic acid and glycolic acid on human osteoblasts: a way to understand PLGA involvement in PLGA/calcium phosphate composite failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Florent; Wardale, John; Best, Serena; Cameron, Ruth; Rushton, Neil; Brooks, Roger

    2012-06-01

    The use of degradable composite materials in orthopedics remains a field of intense research due to their ability to support new bone formation and degrade in a controlled manner, broadening their use for orthopedic applications. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA), a degradable biopolymer, is now a popular material for different orthopedic applications and is proposed for use in tissue engineering scaffolds either alone or combined with bioactive ceramics. Interference screws composed of calcium phosphates and PLGA are readily available in the market. However, some reports highlight problems of screw migration or aseptic cyst formation following screw degradation. In order to understand these phenomena and to help to improve implant formulation, we have evaluated the effects of PLGA degradation products: lactic acid and glycolic acid on human osteoblasts in vitro. Cell proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization, important for bone healing were studied. It was found that the toxicity of polymer degradation products under buffering conditions was limited to high concentrations. However, non-toxic concentrations led to a decrease in cell proliferation, rapid cell differentiation, and mineralization failure. Calcium, whilst stimulating cell proliferation was not able to overcome the negative effects of high concentrations of lactic and glycolic acids on osteoblasts. These effects help to explain recently reported clinical failures of calcium phosphate/PLGA composites, but further in vitro analyses are needed to mimic the dynamic situation which occurs in the body by, for example, culture of osteoblasts with materials that have been pre-degraded to different extents and thus be able to relate these findings to the degradation studies that have been performed previously.

  6. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. PMID:18608541

  7. Evolutionary importance of the intramolecular pathways of hydrolysis of phosphate ester mixed anhydrides with amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-11

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  8. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide–phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation. PMID:25501391

  9. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  10. Porous calcium phosphate-poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite bone cement: A viable tunable drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Roy, Abhijit; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Bayer, Emily; Fedorchak, Morgan; Little, Steve R; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-02-01

    Calcium phosphate based cements (CPCs) are frequently used as bone void fillers for non-load bearing segmental bone defects due to their clinically relevant handling characteristics and ability to promote natural bone growth. Macroporous CPC scaffolds with interconnected pores are preferred for their ability to degrade faster and enable accelerated bone regeneration. Herein, a composite CPC scaffold is developed using newly developed resorbable calcium phosphate cement (ReCaPP) formulation containing degradable microspheres of bio-compatible poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) serving as porogen. The present study is aimed at characterizing the effect of in-vitro degradation of PLGA microspheres on the physical, chemical and structural characteristics of the composite cements. The porosity measurements results reveal the formation of highly interconnected macroporous scaffolds after degradation of PLGA microspheres. The in-vitro characterizations also suggest that the degradation by products of PLGA reduces the pH of the local environment thereby increasing the dissolution rate of the cement. In addition, the in-vitro vancomycin release from the composite CPC scaffold suggests that the drug association with the composite scaffolds can be tuned to achieve control release kinetics. Further, the study demonstrates control release lasting for longer than 10weeks from the composite cements in which vancomycin is encapsulated in PLGA microspheres.

  11. Influence of ethanol content in the precipitation medium on the composition, structure and reactivity of magnesium-calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Babaie, Elham; Zhou, Huan; Lin, Boren; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-08-01

    Biocompatible amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate (AMCP) particles were synthesized using ethanol in precipitation medium from moderately supersaturated solution at pH10. Some synthesis parameters such as, (Mg+Ca):P, Mg:Ca ratio and different drying methods on the structure and stability of as-produced powder was studied and characterized using SEM, XRD and cell cytocompatibility. The results showed that depending on the Mg(2+) concentration, nano crystalline Struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) can also be alternatively formed. However, the as-formed AMCP preserved its amorphous structure after 7 days of incubation in SBF for tested phosphate concentration, and equally ionic concentration of magnesium and calcium. PMID:26042708

  12. Correlation of biological value of feed phosphates with their solubility in water, dilute hydrogen chloride, dilute citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Gonzalez, N J; Bond, P L

    1992-12-01

    Relative biological values (BV) of 36 feed phosphates were determined with female turkeys in bioassays of 21-day duration using three response criteria: weight gain, tibia ash percentage, and gain:feed ratio. Calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate (United States Pharmacopeia) was the reference standard. Nine mono-dicalcium phosphates (M-DCP, 21.0% phosphorus), 13 di-monocalcium phosphates (D-MCP, 18.5% phosphorus), and 14 defluorinated phosphates (DFP, 18.0% phosphorus) were evaluated. The average relative BV for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP samples were 97.6, 94.6, and 90.8%, respectively. Solubility of phosphates was determined by four recognized methods. The solvents were water, .4% HCl, 2.0% citric acid (CA), and neutral ammonium citrate (NAC). Water solubility of M-DCP samples was greater (67.5%) than that of D-MCP (38.8%) and DFP (8.9%) samples. Correlation of water solubility of phosphates to their relative BV was quite low, and water solubility was a poor indicator of BV. When .4% HCl was the solvent, correlation coefficients (r) were .55, .33, and .72 for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP, respectively. Based on these results and prediction equations, .4% HCl solubility would be inappropriate for estimating BV of M-DCP and D-MCP samples. Solubility of feed phosphates (mainly D-MCP and DFP) in 2.0% CA or NAC was positively correlated with BV; the r values were .87 to .95. Both of these solubility tests provided a good index of BV. However, it would seem inappropriate and risky to replace bioassays totally with these tests. Feed phosphate users could perform either the 2.0% CA or NAC solubility test easily as a screen for BV along with other quality control procedures (i.e., phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and fluoride determinations).

  13. [Bioconversion of conjugated linoleic acid by resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 in potassium phosphate buffer system].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-yan; Chen, Wei; Tian, Feng-wei; Zhao, Jian-xin; Zhang, Hao

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, which was screened from the Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, has the capacity to convert the linoleic acid (LA) into conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Some specific isomers of CLA with potentially beneficial physiological and anticarcinogenic effects, were efficiently produced from free linoleic acid by washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 under aerobic conditions. The produced CLA isomers are identified as the mixture of cis-9, trans-ll-octadecadienoic acid (CLA1) trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid (CLA2), 96.4% of which is CLA1. The washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 producing high levels of c9, t11-CLA were obtained by cultivated in MRS media containing 0.5 mg/mL linoleic acid, indicating that the enzyme system for CLA production is induced by linoleic acid. After a 24-hour bioconversion at 37 degrees C with shaking (120 r/min), 312.4 microg/mL c9, t11-CLA is produced. And after a 36-hour bioconversion, the content of c9, t11-CLA decreases while hydroxy-octadecaenoic acid increases. In addition, the c9, t11-CLA isomer can be transformed to hydroxy- octadecaenoic acid when the mixed CLA (c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA) were used as the substrate, which suggests that c9, t11-CLA is one of the intermediates of the bioconversion products from free LA by washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058.

  14. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP) -to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Methods Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. Results We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significance For the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified. PMID:25082155

  15. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to localmore » structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.« less

  16. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.

  17. Perflourocarboxylic Acid Content in 116 Articles of Commerce

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in house dust, suggesting strongly the presence of indoor sources of these compounds. The main goal of this study was to identify and rank potentially important indoor sources by determining th...

  18. Triose phosphate isomerase from the coelacanth. An approach to the rapid determination of an amino acid sequence with small amounts of material.

    PubMed

    Kolb, E; Harris, J I; Bridgen, J

    1974-02-01

    The preparation and purification of cyanogen bromide fragments from [(14)C]carboxymethylated coelacanth triose phosphate isomerase is presented. The automated sequencing of these fragments, the lysine-blocked tryptic peptides derived from them, and also of the intact protein, is described. Combination with results from manual sequence analysis has given the 247-residue amino acid sequence of coelacanth triose phosphate isomerase in 4 months, by using 100mg of enzyme. (Two small adjacent peptides were placed by homology with the rabbit enzyme.) Comparison of this sequence with that of the rabbit muscle enzyme shows that 207 (84%) of the residues are identical. This slow rate of evolutionary change (corresponding to two amino acid substitutions per 100 residues per 100 million years) is similar to that found for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The reliability of sequence information obtained by automated methods is discussed.

  19. Evolution in Caffeoylquinic Acid Content and Histolocalization During Coffea canephora Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    MONDOLOT, LAURENCE; LA FISCA, PHILIPPE; BUATOIS, BRUNO; TALANSIER, EMELINE; DE KOCHKO, ALEXANDRE; CAMPA, CLAUDINE

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Caffeoylquinic acids are cinnamate conjugates derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. They are generally involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress and one of them, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-CQA), is an intermediate in the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Caffeoylquinic acids, and particularly 5-CQA, are accumulated in coffee beans, where they can form vacuolar complexes with caffeine. Coffea canephora beans are known to have high caffeoylquinic acid content, but little is known about the content and diversity of these compounds in other plant parts. To gain new insights into the caffeoylquinic acid metabolism of C. canephora, caffeoylquinic acid content and in situ localization were assessed in leaves at different growth stages. • Methods HPLC analyses of caffeoylquinic acid content of leaves was conducted in conjunction with detailed histochemical and microspectrofluorometrical analysis. • Key Results and Conclusions HPLC analyses revealed that caffeoylquinic acid content was 10-fold lower in adult than in juvenile leaves. The most abundant cinnamate conjugate was 5-CQA, but dicaffeoylquinic acids (particularly in juvenile leaves) and feruloylquinic acids were also present. Using specific reagents, histochemical and microspectrofluorometrical analysis showed that caffeoylquinic acids (mono- and di-esters) were closely associated with chloroplasts in very young leaves. During leaf ageing, they were found to first accumulate intensively in specific chlorenchymatous bundle sheath cells and then in phloem sclerenchyma cells. The association with chloroplasts suggests that caffeoylquinic acids have a protective role against light damage. In older tissues, their presence in the leaf vascular system indicates that they are transported via phloem and confirms their involvement in lignification processes. In accordance with the hypothesis of a complex formation with caffeine, similar tissue distribution was

  20. Functional identification of the general acid and base in the dehydration step of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zaccardi, Margot J; Yezdimer, Eric M; Boehr, David D

    2013-09-13

    The tryptophan biosynthetic enzyme indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase is a proposed target for new antimicrobials and is a favored starting framework in enzyme engineering studies. Forty years ago, Parry proposed that the enzyme mechanism proceeds through two intermediates in a series of condensation, decarboxylation, and dehydration steps. X-ray crystal structures have suggested that Lys-110 (numbering according to the Sulfolobus solfataricus enzyme) behaves as a general acid both in the condensation and dehydration steps, but did not reveal an efficient pathway for the reprotonation of this critical residue. Our mutagenesis and kinetic experiments suggest an alternative mechanism whereby Lys-110 acts as a general acid in the condensation step, but another invariant residue, Lys-53, acts as the general acid in the dehydration step. These studies also indicate that the conserved residue Glu-51 acts as the general base in the dehydration step. The revised mechanism effectively divides the active site into discrete regions where the catalytic surfaces containing Lys-110 and Lys-53/Glu-51 catalyze the ring closure (i.e. condensation and decarboxylation) and dehydration steps, respectively. These results can be leveraged toward the development of novel inhibitors against this validated antimicrobial target and toward the rational engineering of the enzyme to produce indole derivatives that are highly prized by the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries.

  1. Acid base reactions, phosphate and arsenate complexation, and their competitive adsorption at the surface of goethite in 0.7 M NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Mucci, Alfonso

    2001-07-01

    Potentiometric titrations of the goethite-water interface were carried out at 25°C in 0.1, 0.3 and 0.7 M NaCl solutions. The acid/base properties of goethite at pH > 4 in a 0.7 M NaCl solution can be reproduced successfully using either the Constant Capacitance (CCM), the Basic Stern (BSM) or the Triple Layer models (TLM) when two surface acidity constants are considered. Phosphate and arsenate complexation at the surface of goethite was studied in batch adsorption experiments. The experiments were conducted in 0.7 mol/L NaCl solutions at 25°C in the pH range of 3.0 to 10.0. Phosphate shows a strong affinity for the goethite surface and the amount of phosphate adsorbed decreases with increasing pH. Phosphate complexation is described using a model consisting of three monodentate surface complexes. Arsenate shows a similar adsorption pattern on goethite but a higher affinity than phosphate. A model including three surface complexation constants describes the arsenate adsorption at [AsO 4] init = 23 and 34 μmol/L. The model prediction, however, overestimates arsenate adsorption at [AsO 4] init = 8.8 μmol/L. The goethite surface acidity constants as well as the preceding phosphate and arsenate surface complexation constants were evaluated by the CCM and BSM with the aid of the computer program FITEQL, version 2.0. The experimental investigation of phosphate and arsenate competitive adsorption in 0.7 mol/L NaCl was performed at [PO 4]/[AsO 4] ratios of 1:1, 2.5:1 and 5:1 with [AsO 4] init = 9.0 μmol/L and at a [PO 4]/[AsO 4] ratio of 1:1 with [AsO 4] init = 22 μmol/L. The surface complexation of arsenate decreases significantly in competitive adsorption experiments and the decrease is proportional to the amount of phosphate present. Phosphate adsorption is also reduced but less drastically in competitive adsorption and is not affected significantly by incremental additions of arsenate at pH > 7. The equilibrium model derived by combining the single oxyanion

  2. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid content of fermented cow milk.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Nadia; Pizzolongo, Fabiana; Montefusco, Immacolata; Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Romano, Raffaele

    2015-05-01

    The ability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12), to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus during milk fermentation has been evaluated in this study. Pasteurized cow milk and infant formula were used. Infant formula was selected for its high linoleic acid content, for being a source of CLA and for its prebiotic compounds, e.g. galacto-oligosaccharides. The microorganisms were not able to increase the CLA content of the fermented products under the given experimental conditions. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) occurred between the CLA content in milk and the fermented samples. The CLA contents of 10 commercial fermented milk products were determined. The highest CLA content was observed in fermented milk containing only Str. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus. PMID:25657101

  3. Improvement of phosphate solubilization and Medicago plant yield by an indole-3-acetic acid-overproducing strain of Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2010-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are the most limiting factors for plant growth. Some microorganisms improve the uptake and availability of N and P, minimizing chemical fertilizer dependence. It has been published that the RD64 strain, a Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 strain engineered to overproduce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), showed improved nitrogen fixation ability compared to the wild-type 1021 strain. Here, we present data showing that RD64 is also highly effective in mobilizing P from insoluble sources, such as phosphate rock (PR). Under P-limiting conditions, the higher level of P-mobilizing activity of RD64 than of the 1021 wild-type strain is connected with the upregulation of genes coding for the high-affinity P transport system, the induction of acid phosphatase activity, and the increased secretion into the growth medium of malic, succinic, and fumaric acids. Medicago truncatula plants nodulated by RD64 (Mt-RD64), when grown under P-deficient conditions, released larger amounts of another P-solubilizing organic acid, 2-hydroxyglutaric acid, than plants nodulated by the wild-type strain (Mt-1021). It has already been shown that Mt-RD64 plants exhibited higher levels of dry-weight production than Mt-1021 plants. Here, we also report that P-starved Mt-RD64 plants show significant increases in both shoot and root fresh weights when compared to P-starved Mt-1021 plants. We discuss how, in a Rhizobium-legume model system, a balanced interplay of different factors linked to bacterial IAA overproduction rather than IAA production per se stimulates plant growth under stressful environmental conditions and, in particular, under P starvation. PMID:20511434

  4. Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Acid Invertase as Determinants of Sucrose Concentration in Developing Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Natalie L.; Huber, Steven C.; Pharr, D. Mason

    1989-01-01

    Fruits of orange-fleshed and green-fleshed muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were harvested at different times throughout development to evaluate changes in metabolism which lead to sucrose accumulation, and to determine the basis of differences in fruit sucrose accumulation among genotypes. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose saccharides, hexoses and starch, as well as activities of the sucrose metabolizing enzymes sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.4.1.14), sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13), and acid and neutral invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) were measured. Sucrose synthase and neutral invertase activities were relatively low (1.7 ± 0.3 micromole per hour per gram fresh weight and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively) and changed little throughout fruit development. Acid invertase activity decreased during fruit development, (from as high as 40 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) in unripe fruit, to undetectable activity in mature, ripened fruits, while SPS activity in the fruit increased (from 7 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) to as high as 32 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight. Genotypes which accumulated different amounts of sucrose had similar acid invertase activity but differed in SPS activity. Our results indicate that both acid invertase and SPS are determinants of sucrose accumulation in melon fruit. However, the decline in acid invertase appears to be a normal function of fruit maturation, and is not the primary factor which determines sucrose accumulation. Rather, the capacity for sucrose synthesis, reflected in the activity of SPS, appears to determine sucrose accumulation, which is an important component of fruit quality. PMID:16667212

  5. Structural and kinetic properties of a novel purple acid phosphatase from phosphate-starved tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Gale G; Raghothama, Kashchandra G; Plaxton, William C

    2004-01-01

    An intracellular acid phosphatase (IAP) from P(i)-starved (-P(i)) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) suspension cells has been purified to homogeneity. IAP is a purple acid phosphatase (PAP), as the purified protein was violet in colour (lambda(max)=546 nm) and was insensitive to L-tartrate. PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining and peptide mapping demonstrated that the enzyme exists as a 142 kDa heterodimer composed of an equivalent ratio of glycosylated and structurally dissimilar 63 (alpha-subunit) and 57 kDa (beta-subunit) polypeptides. However, the nine N-terminal amino acids of the alpha- and beta-subunits were identical, exhibiting similarity to the deduced N-terminal portions of several putative plant PAPs. Quantification of immunoblots probed with rabbit anti-(tomato acid phosphatase) immune serum revealed that the 4-fold increase in IAP activity due to P(i)-deprivation was correlated with similar increases in the amount of antigenic IAP alpha- and beta-subunits. IAP displayed optimal activity at pH 5.1, was activated 150% by 10 mM Mg(2+), but was potently inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), molybdate, vanadate, fluoride and P(i). Although IAP demonstrated broad substrate selectivity, its specificity constant ( V (max)/ K (m)) with phosphoenolpyruvate was >250% greater than that obtained with any other substrate. IAP exhibited significant peroxidase activity, which was optimal at pH 9.0 and insensitive to Mg(2+) or molybdate. This IAP is proposed to scavenge P(i) from intracellular phosphate esters in -P(i) tomato. A possible secondary IAP role in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species is discussed. IAP properties are compared with those of two extracellular PAP isoenzymes that are secreted into the medium of -P(i) tomato cells [Bozzo, Raghothama and Plaxton (2002) Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 6278-6286]. PMID:14521509

  6. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  7. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  8. Fatty acid content of New Zealand-grown walnuts (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Zwarts, L; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    1999-05-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) samples were collected during the 1994 and 1995 harvest from ten different cultivars of trees grown in a replicated trial in an experimental orchard at Lincoln University, New Zealand. Two US commercial cultivars (Tehama and Vina), three European commercial cultivars (Esterhazy, 139, G120) and five New Zealand selections (Rex, Dublin's Glory, Meyric, McKinster, Stanley) were evaluated. Total oil was extracted using a cold press and individual fatty acids were analysed by GLC. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 62.4 to 68.7%. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 14.3 to 26.1% of the total fatty acids, while the linoleic acid content ranged from 49.3 to 62.3% and the linolenic contents from 8.0 to 13.8%. PMID:10627834

  9. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation.

  10. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Analogs Substituted on the Nicotinic Acid and Adenine Ribosides. Effects on Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Trabbic, Christopher J.; Zhang, Fan; Walseth, Timothy F.; Slama, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a Ca2+ releasing intracellular second messenger in both mammals and echinoderms. We report that large functionalized substituents introduced at the nicotinic acid 5-position are recognized by the sea urchin receptor, albeit with a 20–500 fold loss in agonist potency. 5-(3-Azidopropyl)-NAADP was shown to release Ca2+ with an EC50 of 31 µM and to compete with NAADP for receptor binding with an IC50 of 56 nM. Attachment of charged groups to the nicotinic acid of NAADP is associated with loss of activity, suggesting that the nicotinate riboside moiety is recognized as a neutral zwitterion. Substituents (Br- and N3-) can be introduced at the 8-adenosyl position of NAADP while preserving high potency and agonist efficacy and an NAADP derivative substituted at both the 5-position of the nicotinic acid and at the 8-adenosyl position was also recognized although the agonist potency was significantly reduced. PMID:25826221

  11. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  12. Study on synthetic methods of trialkyl phosphate oxide and its extraction behavior of some acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.J.; Su, Y.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) is useful for the extraction of many inorganic and organic compounds. A mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) is similar in property to TOPO. The total number of carbon atoms per molecule of TRPO ranges from 15 to 27. Three methods for synthesizing TRPO are described in this paper. When TRPO is synthesized from an alcohol mixture it is significantly cheaper than a single pure alcohol as required for the production of TOPO; tedious purification steps are eliminated. TRPO is a brown liquid which is very slightly soluble in water. Toxicological measurements of LD50, AMES test, hereditary and accumulative toxicity show that TRPO is safe for use in the extraction of some pharmaceutical and biochemical compounds. Examinations of IR and NMR show that the complex interaction of P=O bond of TRPO with extracted substances is the same as that of TOPO. The distribution coefficients of phosphoric acid, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid with TRPO are reported. The extraction of these acids is believed to proceed by neutral-complex mechanism.

  13. Determination of the Fatty Acid content of pumpkin seed, pygeum, and saw palmetto.

    PubMed

    Ganzera, M; Croom, E M; Khan, I A

    1999-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of many plants, foods and medicines, including pumpkin seeds (Cucubita pepo), pygeum bark (Prunus africana) and saw palmetto (Serenoa repens). With the gas chromatography methods reported here, free fatty acids of these species can be quantified as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. Because of their different fatty acid contents and composition, the gas chromatography method can distinguish which of three plant species was extracted, and, in the case of S. repens, the method of extraction. Although phytosterols can be separated by this method, their content is too low to be assigned directly. The total fatty acid content can be determined through formation of the methyl esters. This is helpful for estimation of the kind and percentage of fatty acids that are present as triglyceride esters in the plant material and for standardization of the products.

  14. Effects of high fat diet on fecal contents of bile acids in rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Furihata, C; Matsushima, T

    1987-11-01

    The effects of dietary oils and fats used in Japan on the fecal contents of bile acids in rats were studied. F344/Du Crj female rats (8 weeks old) were fed on diet containing 20% corn oil, rape seed oil, sesame oil, soybean oil, lard, or tallow as high oil or fat diets or on 0.2% linoleic acid diet as a low fatty acid diet for 4 weeks, and then their feces were collected. Bile acids in the feces were partially purified and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Analyses showed that lard or tallow in the diet resulted in significant increases in the contents of bile acids in the feces, whereas sesame oil in the diet resulted in significant decreases in their contents. PMID:3121554

  15. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  16. Phosphorus leaching in an acid tropical soil "recapitalized" with phosphate rock and triple superphosphate.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Esther W; Zaharah, Abdul R; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Anuar, Rahim A

    2010-01-01

    With high rates of phosphorus applied to increase "capital P" as a stock for plant uptake over several years, the question of P leaching is inevitable. We conducted an intact soil column experiment in the field to evaluate P leached from soils treated with triple superphosphate (TSP) and Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR) at 300, 600, and 900 kg P ha-1 with and without integration of cattle manure. The lysimeters, made from PVC tubes of 30-cm length, were inserted into the soil up to the 25-cm depth. The tubes were fitted with a resin bag containing a mixture of cation and anion exchange resin (50:50) at the lower end of the tube inserted into the soil. The tubes, arranged in a completely randomized design, were sampled randomly at 10-week intervals for 12 months. Phosphorus extractable from the top- and subsoil at the end of experiment and leached P were determined. More P was leached out from TSP (threefold) compared to GPR, and the amount of P leached increased with increasing rates of P fertilizer applied. Application of manure intensified the amounts of P leached from TSP, particularly at the 6-month sampling time. There was hardly any substantial P leached from the soil treated with GPR. Thus, for effective and efficient long-term P fertilizer management strategies, choosing the right P fertilizer source and monitoring P losses through leaching has to be done for enhanced fertilizer use efficiency and thus reducing P pollution of ground waters. PMID:20694445

  17. A boron phosphate-phosphoric acid composite membrane for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2015-07-01

    A composite membrane based on a non-stoichiometric composition of BPO4 with excess of PO4 (BPOx) was synthesised and characterised for medium temperature fuel cell use (120-180 °C). The electrolyte was characterised by FTIR, SS-NMR, TGA and XRD and showed that the B-O is tetrahedral, in agreement with reports in the literature that boron phosphorus oxide compounds at B:P < 1 are exclusively built of borate and phosphate tetrahedra. Platinum micro electrodes were used to study the electrolyte compatibility and stability towards oxygen reduction at 150 °C and to obtain kinetic and mass transport parameters. The conductivities of the pure BPOx membrane electrolyte and a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-4BPOx composite membrane were 7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 4.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 respectively at 150 °C, 5%RH. Fuel cell tests showed a significant enhancement in performance of BPOx over that of typical 5.6H3PO4-PBI membrane electrolyte. The enhancement is due to the improved ionic conductivity (3×), a higher exchange current density of the oxygen reduction (30×) and a lower membrane gas permeability (10×). Fuel cell current densities at 0.6 V were 706 and 425 mA cm-2 for BPOx and 5.6H3PO4-PBI, respectively, at 150 °C with O2 (atm).

  18. Esters of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, highly effective inhibitors of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase of Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Grady, R W; Bienen, E J; Clarkson, A B

    1986-10-01

    Alkyl esters of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid are inhibitors of the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase system of Trypanosoma brucei brucei in vitro and have significant trypanocidal activity in vivo when combined with glycerol. While the parent acid has little inhibitory activity in vitro, the esters are highly active with activity increasing as the chain length of the esterifying alcohol increases. The n-dodecyl ester was more than 400 times as active as salicylhydroxamic acid and 15 times more active than the corresponding p-n-alkyloxybenzhydroxamic acid, one of the most active sn-glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase inhibitors previously reported. When combined with glycerol (to block an alternative pathway of glycolysis) and tested in vitro against intact parasites, this ester was 100 times more effective than salicylhydroxamic acid and 10 times more effective than p-n-dodecyloxybenzhydroxamic acid. It was also active against T. b. brucei in mice when combined with glycerol whereas the latter compound was not. Esters of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid) were also highly active while those of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid were much less inhibitory and those of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid were inactive. A related compound, 2',4',5'-trihydroxybutyrophenone, was also active as predicted by its structure but was too toxic to be of interest as a drug candidate.

  19. Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Isoform-4 (GPAT4) Limits Oxidation of Exogenous Fatty Acids in Brown Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Daniel E.; Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Klett, Eric L.; Coleman, Rosalind A.

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-4 (GPAT4) null pups grew poorly during the suckling period and, as adults, were protected from high fat diet-induced obesity. To determine why Gpat4−/− mice failed to gain weight during these two periods of high fat feeding, we examined energy metabolism. Compared with controls, the metabolic rate of Gpat4−/− mice fed a 45% fat diet was 12% higher. Core body temperature was 1 ºC higher after high fat feeding. Food intake, fat absorption, and activity were similar in both genotypes. Impaired weight gain in Gpat4−/− mice did not result from increased heat loss, because both cold tolerance and response to a β3-adrenergic agonist were similar in both genotypes. Because GPAT4 comprises 65% of the total GPAT activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we characterized BAT function. A 45% fat diet increased the Gpat4−/− BAT expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR) target genes, Cpt1α, Pgc1α, and Ucp1, and BAT mitochondria oxidized oleate and pyruvate at higher rates than controls, suggesting that fatty acid signaling and flux through the TCA cycle were enhanced. To assess the role of GPAT4 directly, neonatal BAT preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes. Compared with controls, Gpat4−/− brown adipocytes incorporated 33% less fatty acid into triacylglycerol and 46% more into the pathway of β-oxidation. The increased oxidation rate was due solely to an increase in the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids. These data suggest that in the absence of cold exposure, GPAT4 limits excessive fatty acid oxidation and the detrimental induction of a hypermetabolic state. PMID:25918168

  20. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  1. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  2. The pathophysiology of acid-base changes in chronically phosphate-depleted rats: bone-kidney interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, M; Goldfarb, S; Agus, Z S; Narins, R G

    1977-01-01

    Acid-base disturbances may develop secondary to the changes in renal tubular function and bone dynamics which attend phosphate depletion (PD). This work characterizes the acid-base status of rats fed a low phosphate diet. After 18 days, PD rats had marked calciuria (pair-fed controls: 0.3 +/- 0.2; PD 32.2 +/- 2.5 mueq/h; P less than 0.001), severe bicarbonaturia (controls: 0; PD 17.6 +/- 0.2 meq/h; P less than 0.001), and negative net acid excretion (controls: 44.5 +/- 2.9; PD: --6.6 +/- 2.5 meq/h; P less than 0.001), but plasma pH, HCO3, and PCO2 were equal in both groups. After 45 days, plasma HCO3 fell to 21.1 +/- 0.9 meq/liter in PD (controls: 23.6 +/- 0.5 meq/liter; P less than 0.05), while bicarbonaturia (controls: 0.4 +/- 0.2; PD: 3.8 +/- 1 mueq/h; P less than 0.02) and calciuria were present but diminished. These data suggested the coexistence of bone HCO3 mobilization and renal HCO3 wasting in PD. To test this thesis, bicarbonaturia was eliminated by nephrectomy. 24 h later plasma HCO3 was higher in PD rats (controls: 19.3 +/- 0.02; PD: 22.6 +/- 0.8 meq/liter; P less than 0.05), consistend with the presence of extrarenal HCO3 production. After inhibition of bone resorption with colchicine (1 mg/kg), plasma HCO3 decreased to 16.8 +/- 0.6 meq/liter in PD rats (controls): 26.4 +/- 1 meq/liter; P less than 0.001) while bicarbonaturia persisted. These data indicate that the plasma HCO3 in PD is the net result of renal HCO3 wasting and bone HCO3 mobilization. These combined effects maintain normal blood HCO3 initially (18 days) but with time (45 days), bone resorption diminishes and the acidifying renal tubular defect predominates. PMID:833276

  3. Effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids in sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Oki, Tomoyuki; Kai, Yumi; Nishiba, Yoichi; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid (CA) and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in sweet potato leaves using a newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography method. Six cultivars and two breeding lines were used in this study. Leaves were collected at monthly intervals from 1st harvest (May) to 4th harvest (August) in 2011 and 2012. ANOVA analysis revealed that the contents of CQAs were significantly different among all cultivars and breeding lines, but no significant differences were found for CA. No annual variation was confirmed in CA and CQAs. Repeated harvest of sweet potato leaves affected the content of only 4-CQA and 5-CQA. Post-hoc comparisons using Tukey's method indicated that the contents of 4-CQA and 5-CQA in sweet potato leaves harvested at first time were significantly higher compared to those at the other harvest times.

  4. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae; Kim, Joon Soo; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Roh, Gu Seob

    2010-03-12

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P{sub 1}) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  5. Improvement of glyphosate resistance through concurrent mutations in three amino acids of the Ochrobactrum 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Zhao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2011-12-01

    A mutant of 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Ochrobactrum anthropi was identified after four rounds of DNA shuffling and screening. Its ability to restore the growth of the mutant ER2799 cell on an M9 minimal medium containing 300 mM glyphosate led to its identification. The mutant had mutations in seven amino acids: E145G, N163H, N267S, P318R, M377V, M425T, and P438L. Among these mutations, N267S, P318R, and M425T have never been previously reported as important residues for glyphosate resistance. However, in the present study they were found by site-directed mutagenesis to collectively contribute to the improvement of glyphosate tolerance. Kinetic analyses of these three mutants demonstrated that the effectiveness of these three individual amino acid alterations on glyphosate tolerance was in the order P318R > M425T > N267S. The results of the kinetic analyses combined with a three-dimensional structure modeling of the location of P318R and M425T demonstrate that the lower hemisphere's upper surface is possibly another important region for glyphosate resistance. Furthermore, the transgenic Arabidopsis was obtained to confirm the potential of the mutant in developing glyphosate-resistant crops.

  6. Fatty Acid Composition and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content in Different Carcass parts of Dağlıç Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Karabacak, Ali; Boztepe, Saim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare fatty acid composition and content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in different regions of sheep carcasses. Lambs of the Dağlıç breed were used for this purpose. Subsequent to a 68-day period of intensive fattening, fatty acids were examined in samples taken from the legs, shoulders, breasts, and ribs of lamb carcasses. According to the analysis, in leg, shoulder, breast, and rib, respectively, total saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found to be 40.38, 42.69, 42.56, and 40.27%, unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were found to be 40.38, 44.17, 46.17, and 49.50%, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were found to be 4.79, 4.29, 3.80, and 3.72%, and CLAs were found to be 1.49, 1.69, 1.53, and 1.59%. PMID:24523647

  7. Effect of modifications of dual acid-etched implant surfaces on periimplant bone formation. Part II: calcium phosphate coatings.

    PubMed

    Schliephake, H; Aref, A; Scharnweber, D; Rösler, S; Sewing, A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that calcium phosphate coatings of dual acid-etched surfaces (DAEs) can improve periimplant bone regeneration. Ten adult female foxhounds received experimental titanium screw implants in the mandible 3 months after removal of all premolar teeth. Five types of surface states were evaluated in each animal: (i) implants with a machined surface (MS) (Control 1); (ii) implants with a DAE (Control 2); (iii) implants with a DAE coated with collagen I (Control 3); (iv) implants with a DAE with mineralized collagen I; and (v) implants with a DAE with a hydroxylapatite (HA) coating. Periimplant bone regeneration was assessed by histomorphometry after 1 and 3 months in five dogs each by measuring bone implant contact (BIC) and the volume density of the newly formed periimplant bone (BVD). After 1 month, mean BIC of experimental implants did not differ significantly from implants with DAE and collagen-coated surfaces, but was significantly higher than the MS implants. BVD was enhanced significantly only in implants with mineralized collagen coating compared with DAE and collagen-coated controls. After 3 months, the mean values of BIC had increased significantly in the group of implants with HA and mineralized collagen coating but were not significantly different from implants with DAE and collagen-coated surfaces. The same held true for the mean BVD values. In conclusion, the present study could not verify the hypothesis that calcium phosphate coatings of DAEs in the present form enhanced periimplant bone formation compared with the DAE surface alone. PMID:19126106

  8. Screening and optimization of indole-3-acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization from rhizobacteria aimed at improving plant growth.

    PubMed

    Chaiharn, Mathurot; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2011-01-01

    A total of 216 bacterial strains were isolated from rice rhizospheric soils in Northern Thailand. The bacterial strains were initially tested for solubilization of inorganic phosphate, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, selected strains were then tested for optimized conditions for IAA production and whether these caused stimulatory effects on bean and maize seedling growth. It was found that all strains had solubilized inorganic phosphate (P), but only 18.05% produced IAA. The best IAA producer was identified by biochemical testing and 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Klebsiella SN 1.1. In addition to being the best IAA producer, this strain was a high P-solubilizer and produced the highest amount of IAA (291.97 ± 0.19 ppm) in culture media supplemented with L-tryptophan. The maximum production of IAA was achieved after 9 days of incubation. The culture requirements were optimized for maximum IAA production. The tested of IAA production by selected isolates was studied in a medium with 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9% (v/v) L-tryptophan. Low levels (12.6 ppm) of IAA production was recorded without tryptophan addition. Production of IAA in Klebsiella SN 1.1 increased with an increase to 0.2% (v/v) tryptophan concentration. The production of IAA was further confirmed by extraction of crude IAA from this isolate and subsequent Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) analysis. A specific spot from the extracted IAA production was found to correspond with a standard spot of IAA with the same R (f) value. The Klebsiella strain SN 1.1 also demonstrated stimulatory effects on bean seedlings in vivo. PMID:20552360

  9. Phytic acid and inorganic phosphate composition in soybean lines with independent IPK1 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] seeds contain a large amount of phosphorus (P), which is stored as phytic acid (PA). PA is indigestible by nonruminent livestock and considered an anti-nutritional factor because PA chelates divalent cations and prevents the uptake of essential nutrients. Interest in...

  10. Evaluating the effect of increasing ceramic content on the mechanical properties, material microstructure and degradation of selective laser sintered polycaprolactone/β-tricalcium phosphate materials.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Heather; Lohfeld, Stefan; McHugh, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Orthopaedic scaffold materials were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and composite PCL-β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/β-TCP) powders using selective laser sintering (SLS). Incorporating β-TCP particles is desirable to promote osteogenesis. The effects of increasing β-TCP content on the material's mechanical properties and microstructure were evaluated. The wt% of β-TCP and PCL particle sizes were found to influence material microstructure and mechanical properties, with increasing ceramic content causing a small but significant increase in stiffness but significant reductions in strength. Degradation of materials was achieved using accelerated ageing methods. The influence of β-TCP content on degradation at 7 weeks was evaluated through changes in mechanical properties and microstructure, and the ceramic particles were found to reduce elastic modulus and increase strength. The results of this study highlight the influence of ceramic content on mechanical properties and degradation behaviour of PCL/β-TCP SLS materials, and indicate that these changes must be considered in the design of scaffolds for critical-sized defects.

  11. Role of phosphate and Fe-oxides on the acid-aided extraction efficiency and readsorption of As in field-aged soil.

    PubMed

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Moon, Seheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-12-30

    This study was conducted to investigate arsenic (As) readsorption phenomenon in acid-treated soil using phosphate as a competing ion. Three field-aged soils (i.e., S1, paddy soil; S2, field soil; S3, forest soil) originally contaminated with As ranging from 30 to 59 mg/kg-soil were collected from a former smelter site. When 0.2M hydrochloric acid (HCl) alone was used as an extraction solution, As bound to iron (Fe) oxides was removed but significant amount of the released As was readsorbed onto residual Fe-oxides, yielding low As extraction efficiency of 11-27%. Readsorption of the released As seemed to occur preferentially on amorphous Fe-oxides. In contrast, As extraction efficiency was greatly increased by 0.2M HCl solution supplemented with monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4), which was greatly influenced by the molar ratio of acid to phosphate. In addition, by the extraction solution with an optimal ratio of 0.2M HCl/0.1M KH2PO4, As extraction efficiency differed with soil types, showing 79.6, 44.1, and 61.0% in S1, S2, and S3, respectively. The reason can be ascribed to the blocking of the available As readsorption sites by phosphate ions, the sites seemed to mainly reside on the residual amorphous Fe-oxides in soil. PMID:26177492

  12. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin. PMID:26323130

  13. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin.

  14. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  15. Mesoporous siliconiobium phosphate as a pure Brønsted acid catalyst with excellent performance for the dehydration of glycerol to acrolein.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngbo; Park, Dae Sung; Yun, Hyeong Jin; Baek, Jayeon; Yun, Danim; Yi, Jongheop

    2012-12-01

    The development of solid acid catalysts that contain a high density of Brønsted acid sites with suitable acidity, as well as a long lifetime, is one of great challenges for the efficient dehydration of glycerol to acrolein. Herein, we report on a mesoporous siliconiobium phosphate (NbPSi-0.5) composite, which is a promising solid Brønsted acid that is a potential candidate for such a high-performance catalyst. A variety of characterization results confirm that NbPSi-0.5 contains nearly pure Brønsted acid sites and has well-defined large mesopores. In addition, NbPSi-0.5 contains a similar amount of acid sites and exhibits weaker acidity than that of the highly acidic niobium phosphate and HZSM-5 zeolite. NbPSi-0.5 is quite stable and has a high activity for the dehydration of glycerol. The stability of NbPSi-0.5 is about three times higher than that of the reported catalyst. The significantly enhanced catalytic performance of NbPSi-0.5 can be attributed to 1) nearly pure Brønsted acidity, which suppresses side reactions that lead to coke formation; 2) a significant reduction of pore blocking due to the mesopores; and 3) a decrease in the amount and oxidation temperature of coke.

  16. Calcium-phosphate and parathyroid intradialytic profiles: A potential aid for tailoring the dialysate calcium content of patients on different hemodialysis schedules.

    PubMed

    Ferraresi, Martina; Pia, Anna; Guzzo, Gabriella; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Mongilardi, Elena; Nazha, Marta; Aroasio, Emiliano; Gonella, Cinzia; Avagnina, Paolo; Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Severe hyperparathyroidism is a challenge on hemodialysis. The definition of dialysate calcium (Ca) is a pending issue with renewed importance in cases of individualized dialysis schedules and of portable home dialysis machines with low-flow dialysate. Direct measurement of calcium mass transfer is complex and is imprecisely reflected by differences in start-to-end of dialysis Ca levels. The study was performed in a dialysis unit dedicated to home hemodialysis and to critical patients with wide use of daily and tailored schedules. The Ca-phosphate (P)-parathyroid hormone (PTH) profile includes creatinine, urea, total and ionized Ca, albumin, sodium, potassium, P, PTH levels at start, mid, and end of dialysis. "Severe" secondary hyperparathyroidism was defined as PTH > 300 pg/mL for ≥3 months. Four schedules were tested: conventional dialysis (polysulfone dialyzer 1.8-2.1 m(2) ), with dialysate Ca 1.5 or 1.75 mmol/L, NxStage (Ca 1.5 mmol/L), and NxStage plus intradialytic Ca infusion. Dosages of vitamin D, calcium, phosphate binders, and Ca mimetic agents were adjusted monthly. Eighty Ca-P-PTH profiles were collected in 12 patients. Serum phosphate was efficiently reduced by all techniques. No differences in start-to-end PTH and Ca levels on dialysis were observed in patients with PTH levels < 300 pg/mL. Conversely, Ca levels in "severe" secondary hyperparathyroid patients significantly increased and PTH decreased during dialysis on all schedules except on Nxstage (P < 0.05). Our data support the need for tailored dialysate Ca content, even on "low-flow" daily home dialysis, in "severe" secondary hyperparathyroid patients in order to increase the therapeutic potentials of the new dialysis techniques.

  17. Enamel erosion by some soft drinks and orange juices relative to their pH, buffering effect and contents of calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M J; Nyvad, B

    1999-01-01

    The capability of a soft drink or a juice to erode dental enamel depends not only on the pH of the drink, but also on its buffering effect. As the latter is the ability of the drink to resist a change of pH it may add to the effects of the actual pH. The aim of the present study was to compare the pH and the buffering effect of various soft drinks with their erosive effects and the solubility of apatite. In 18 soft drinks, mineral waters and juices available on the Danish market, pH and the concentrations of calcium, phosphate and fluoride were determined. The buffering effect was determined by titration with NaOH. Human teeth (n = 54) covered with nail varnish except for 3x4-mm windows were exposed to 1.5 liters of the drink for either 7 days or 24 h under constant agitation. The depth of the erosions was assessed in longitudinal sections. The depth was found to vary greatly from 3 mm eroded by the most acidic drinks and fresh orange juice to only slightly affected surfaces by most of the mineral waters. The dissolution of enamel increased logarithmically inversely with the pH of the drink and parallel with the solubility of enamel apatite. Orange juice, pH 4.0, supplemented with 40 mmol/l calcium and 30 mmol/l phosphate did not erode the enamel as the calcium and phosphate saturated the drink with respect to apatite. Generally, the lower the pH the more NaOH was necessary to bring the pH to neutrality. In particular the buffering effect of the juice was high. For all drinks, no effect of their low fluoride concentrations was observed.

  18. Correlation between Chlorophyll and Chlorogenic Acid Content in Tobacco Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    A positive correlation (r = 0.75, P < 0.01) was obtained between chlorophyll and chlorogenic acid content in the seedling leaves of burley and dark tobaccos. The dark tobaccos contained significantly higher concentrations of both constituents than the burleys. Such a correlation also occurred in a cytoplasmic mutant of chlorophyll-variegated tobacco when the green and yellow laminae were compared. In addition, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and polyphenol-oxidase was higher in the green lamina than in the yellow tissue, which coincided with quantitative distribution of chlorogenic acid. Chlorophyll deficiency induced by streptomycin in tobacco seedlings resulted in a progressive decrease in chlorogenic acid content. However, an interruption of streptomycin treatment provoked accumulation of the two compounds. Dark-grown seedlings showed an increase in the content of chlorophyll and chlorogenic acid upon illumination. Incorporation of l-phenylalanine-U-14C into chlorogenic acid during leaf greening was drastically reduced owing to the presence of phenylpyruvate; the latter compound is a possible by-product of chlorophyll biosynthesis. This phenomenon was also evident with light-grown leaves. Results suggest that in addition to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase as a key enzyme regulating chlorogenic acid biosynthesis, an alternative pathway involving the conversion of phenylpyruvate to cinnamate may be functional in tobacco leaves. This pathway may bear importance as to higher chlorogenic acid content in dark tobaccos than in burleys. PMID:16658575

  19. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palma, M. N. N.; Rocha, G. C.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Detmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p<0.01) interaction between sample type and nitric to perchloric acid ratio. Digestion solution of 2:1 v/v provided greater (p<0.01) recovery of calcium and phosphorus from bone samples than 3:1 and 4:1 v/v ratio. Different acid ratios did not affect (p>0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. PMID:26333671

  20. Metal-phosphate binders

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Beth Ann; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  1. Acid-base properties and surface complexation modeling of phosphate anion adsorption by wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Bai, Chenguang; Xia, Wentang; An, Juan

    2014-08-15

    The adsorption phenomena and specific reaction processes of phosphate onto wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus (WLGIOWHP) were studied in this work. Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were used to elucidate the interaction mechanism between WLGIOWHP and aqueous solution. The results implied that the main adsorption mechanism was the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by phosphate via the formation of inner-sphere complex. The adsorption process was characterized by chemical adsorption onto WLGIOWHP. The non-electrostatic model (NEM) was used to simulate the surface adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The total surface site density and protonation constants for NEM (N(T)=1.6×10(-4) mol/g, K(a1)=2.2×10(-4), K(a2)=6.82×10(-9)) were obtained by non-linear data fitting of acid-base titrations. In addition, the NEM was used to establish the surface adsorption complexation modeling of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The model successfully predicted the adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP from municipal wastewater.

  2. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.

  3. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique. PMID:25305221

  4. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration.

  5. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  6. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese from cows fed extruded oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Helmink, E D; McMahon, D J; Fife, R L; Pariza, M W

    1999-02-01

    Extruded oilseeds were fed to 24 dairy cows to study the influence on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese. Cows were fed one of three diets that contained forage and grain in a ratio of 47:53. A control diet containing 13.5% soybean meal was compared with diets containing 12% full fat extruded soybeans or 12% full fat extruded cottonseed. The control, extruded soybean, and extruded cottonseed diets contained 2.73, 4.89, and 4.56% fatty acids, respectively. Measurements were made during the last 5 wk of the 8-wk experiment. The DM intakes and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yields were higher for cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets than for cows fed the control diet. A tendency for lower fat and protein contents in the milk of cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets was detected. Most of the C18 fatty acids were increased in the milk and cheese when extruded soybeans and cottonseeds were fed. The conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and cheese increased a mean of 109% when full fat extruded soybeans were fed and increased 77% when cottonseeds were fed compared with the conjugated linoleic acid content when the control diet was fed. Processing the milk into cheese did not alter the conjugated linoleic acid content. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese can be increased by the inclusion of full fat extruded soybeans and full fat extruded cottonseeds in the diets of dairy cows.

  8. Case study: heavy metals and fluoride contents in the materials of Syrian phosphate industry and in the vicinity of phosphogypsum piles.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, L; Al-Oudat, M; Shamali, K; Abdul Ghany, B; Kanakri, S

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of heavy metals and fluoride concentrations in the Syrian phosphate industry and in the vicinity of the phosphogypsum (PG) piles. Four sampling campaigns were carried out, in which 86 soil, 139 plant, 30 air particulate, 16 water, 12 PG, 6 phosphate ore (raw and treated) and 3 fertilizer samples were collected. Differential pulse anode stripping voltammetry was used for Pb and Cd determination, atomic absorption spectrometry was used for Zn, Cr and Cu determination, and instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for Se, Ni, As and Hg determination. Fluoride concentration was determined via fluoride ion selective electrode. The data revealed that most of the heavy metals were retained in the fertilizer. Fluoride content in PG was 0.47%. The presence of PG piles showed no impact on the run-off and ground and lake waters in the area. However, fluoride concentration was double the permissible airborne threshold in the sites to the east of the PG piles because of the prevailing wind in the region. Similarly, enhanced concentrations of fluoride were recorded for the eastern soil samples. The content of heavy metals in plants was element- and plant-specific and influenced by the element concentration in soil, the soil texture and the pH. The maximal mean of fluoride was found in the plants species of the eastern sites (699 mg kg(-1)), which mainly related to PG erosion and airborne deposition. Thus, the main impact of the PG piles was to increase the concentration of fluoride in the surrounding area. A national action should be taken to regulate PG piles.

  9. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population.

  10. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits.

  11. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . PMID:25980464

  12. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa .

  13. Effects of Polypropylene Carbonate/Poly(D,L-lactic) Acid/Tricalcium Phosphate Elastic Composites on Improving Osteoblast Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsu-Wei; Kao, Wei-Yu; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Guang-Wei; Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Bone tissue engineering utilizing biomaterials to improve osteoblast growth has provided de novo consideration for therapy of bone diseases. Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) is a polymer with a low glass transition temperature but high elasticity. In this study, we developed a new PPC-derived composite by mixing poly-lactic acid (PLA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), called PPC/PLA/TCP elastic (PPTE) scaffolds. We also evaluated the beneficial effects of PPTE composites on osteoblast growth and maturation and the possible mechanisms. Compared to PPC polymers, PPTE composites had similar pore sizes and porosities but possessed better hydrophilic surface structures. Biological evaluations further revealed that PPTE composites attracted adhesion of mouse osteoblasts, and these bone cells extended along the porous scaffolds to produce accurate fibroblast-like morphologies. In parallel, seeding mouse osteoblasts onto PPTE composites time-dependently increased cell growth. Sequentially, PPTE composites augmented DNA replication and cell proliferation. Consequently, PPTE composites significantly improved osteoblast mineralization. As to the mechanism, treatment with PPTE composites induced osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein expression and alkaline phosphatase activity. Taken together, this study showed that PPTE composites with porous and hydrophilic surfaces can stimulate osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and maturation through an OPN-dependent mechanism. Therefore, the de novo PPTE scaffolds may have biomaterial potential for bone regeneration. PMID:25549776

  14. Detection of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA using a peptide nucleic acid probe in paraffin-embedded archival specimens.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Makoto; Akatsuka, Shinya; Shirase, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yoshinobu; Hiai, Hiroshi; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2004-04-01

    Although the human genome project has been completed, the functions of many genes remain undetermined. In situ hybridization (ISH) is a key method for identifying cells in which a given messenger RNA is transcribed. Paraffin-embedded specimens remain precious materials for research, but preservation of high-quality RNA in these specimens is not expected unless ample caution was taken during fixation. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a recently developed hybrid molecule with genetic information that has high stability and high affinity to the complementary DNA or RNA. We applied a PNA probe to mRNA ISH of liver specimens obtained by autopsy and embedded in paraffin 28-48 years ago. An 18-mer PNA probe for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase was used. Staining was then analyzed in association with morphology by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and with the time between death of the patient and tissue fixation. Notably, specimens fixed with formalin and embedded in paraffin 48 years ago yielded excellent results if the time before fixation was short enough (<8 h). There was a significant inverse correlation between the intensity of ISH staining and the time before fixation. Oligonucleotide PNA probe, albeit at high cost, would increase the value of paraffin-embedded specimens in storage for use in human medical research.

  15. A Combination of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Scaffold with Hyaluronic Acid-Gelatin Hydrogel as a New Tool for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuy Ba Linh

    2014-01-01

    A novel bone substitute was fabricated to enhance bone healing by combining ceramic and polymer materials. In this study, Hyaluronic acid (HyA)–Gelatin (Gel) hydrogel was loaded into a biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramic, and the resulting scaffold, with unique micro- and macroporous orientation, was evaluated for bone regeneration applications. The fabricated scaffold showed high interconnected porosity, with an average compressive strength of 2.8±0.15 MPa, which is usually recommended for cancellous bone substitution. In vitro cytocompatibility studies were conducted using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The HyA-Gel–loaded BCP scaffold resulted in a significant increase in cell proliferation at 3 (p<0.05) and 7 days (p<0.001) and high alkaline phosphatase activities at 14 and 21 days. Furthermore, the in vivo studies showed that the implanted HyA-Gel–loaded BCP scaffold begins to degrade within 3 months after implantation. Histological sections also confirmed a rapid new bone formation and a high rate of collagen mineralization. A bone matrix formation was confirmed by positive immunohistochemistry staining of osteopontin, osteocalcin, and collagen type I. In vivo expression of extracellular matrix proteins demonstrated that this novel bone substitute holds great promise for use in stimulating new bone regeneration. PMID:24517159

  16. Effects of Polypropylene Carbonate/Poly(D,L-lactic) Acid/Tricalcium Phosphate Elastic Composites on Improving Osteoblast Maturation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hsu-Wei; Kao, Wei-Yu; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Guang-Wei; Hung, Ya-Jung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Bone tissue engineering utilizing biomaterials to improve osteoblast growth has provided de novo consideration for therapy of bone diseases. Polypropylene carbonate (PPC) is a polymer with a low glass transition temperature but high elasticity. In this study, we developed a new PPC-derived composite by mixing poly-lactic acid (PLA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), called PPC/PLA/TCP elastic (PPTE) scaffolds. We also evaluated the beneficial effects of PPTE composites on osteoblast growth and maturation and the possible mechanisms. Compared to PPC polymers, PPTE composites had similar pore sizes and porosities but possessed better hydrophilic surface structures. Biological evaluations further revealed that PPTE composites attracted adhesion of mouse osteoblasts, and these bone cells extended along the porous scaffolds to produce accurate fibroblast-like morphologies. In parallel, seeding mouse osteoblasts onto PPTE composites time-dependently increased cell growth. Sequentially, PPTE composites augmented DNA replication and cell proliferation. Consequently, PPTE composites significantly improved osteoblast mineralization. As to the mechanism, treatment with PPTE composites induced osteopontin (OPN) mRNA and protein expression and alkaline phosphatase activity. Taken together, this study showed that PPTE composites with porous and hydrophilic surfaces can stimulate osteoblast adhesion, proliferation, and maturation through an OPN-dependent mechanism. Therefore, the de novo PPTE scaffolds may have biomaterial potential for bone regeneration.

  17. Biomedical nanocomposites of poly(lactic acid) and calcium phosphate hybridized with modified carbon nanotubes for hard tissue implants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Hyoung; Sang Shin, Ueon; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hae-Won

    2011-08-01

    Degradable polymer-based materials are attractive in orthopedics and dentistry as an alternative to metallic implants for use as bone fixatives. Herein, a degradable polymer poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was combined with novel hybrid nanopowder of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-calcium phosphate (CP) for this application. In particular, CNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders (0.1 and 0.25% CNTs) were prepared from the solution of ionically modified CNTs (mCNTs), which was specifically synthesized to be well-dispersed and thus to effectively adsorb onto the CP nanoparticles. The mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders were then mixed with PLA (up to 50%) to produce mCNTs-CP-PLA nanocomposites. The mechanical tensile strength of the nanocomposites was significantly improved by the addition of mCNTs-CP hybrid nanopowders. Moreover, nanocomposites containing low concentration of mCNTs (0.1%) showed significantly stimulated biological responses including cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in terms of gene and protein expressions. Based on this study, the addition of novel mCNT-CP hybrid nanopowders to PLA biopolymer may be considered a new material choice for developing hard tissue implants.

  18. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  19. Comparison and preparation of multilayered polylactic acid fabric strengthen calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Yang, Jia-Kai; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lin, Jia-Horng

    2016-03-01

    An attempt to maintain the three-dimensional space into restorative sites through the conveniently pack porous fillers are general used strategy. Advancement in the manufacturing protective shells in the scaffolds, which would be filled with brittle ceramic grafts for the development of highly connective pores provides the approach to solve crack problem for generating the tissues. Therefore, multilayered braided and alkalized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) were synthesized and compared. The PLA/CPC composites were divided into various groups according to a series of heat-treatment temperatures (100-190 °C) and periods (1-3 h) and then characterized. The effects of 24-h immersion on the strength decay resistance of the samples were compared. Results showed that the residual oil capped on the surfaces of alkalized PLA braid was removed, and the structure was unaltered. However, the reduced tensile stress of alkalized PLA braids was due to ester-group formation by hydrolysis. Mechanical test results of PLA/CPC composites showed that the strength significantly increased after heat treatment, except when the heating temperature was higher than the PLA melting point at approximately 160-170 °C. The degree of PLA after recrystallization became higher than that of unheated composites, thereby leading to reduced strength and toughness of the specimen. Braiding fibers of biodegradable PLA reinforced and toughened the structure particularly of the extra-brittle material of thin-sheet CPC after implantation.

  20. Identification of the orphan GPCR, P2Y(10) receptor as the sphingosine-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid receptor.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masanori; Shiraishi, Akira; Tabata, Kenichi; Fujita, Norihisa

    2008-07-11

    Phylogenetic analysis of transmembrane regions of GPCRs using PHYLIP indicated that the orphan receptor P2Y(10) receptor was classified into the cluster consisting nucleotide and lipid receptors. Based on the results, we studied the abilities of nucleotides and lipids to activate the P2Y(10) receptors. As a result, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) evoked intracellular Ca(2+) increases in the CHO cells stably expressing the P2Y(10) fused with a G(16alpha) protein. These Ca(2+) responses were inhibited by S1P receptor and LPA receptor antagonists. The introduction of siRNA designed for P2Y(10) receptor into the P2Y(10)-CHO cells effectively blocked both S1P- and LPA-induced Ca(2+) increases. RT-PCR analysis showed that the mouse P2Y(10) was expressed in reproductive organs, brain, lung and skeletal muscle, suggesting the receptor plays physiological roles throughout the whole body. In conclusion, the P2Y(10) receptor is the first receptor identified as a dual lysophospholipid receptor. PMID:18466763

  1. Coating of ß-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds-a comparison between graphene oxide and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid.

    PubMed

    Ardjomandi, N; Henrich, A; Huth, J; Klein, C; Schweizer, E; Scheideler, L; Rupp, F; Reinert, S; Alexander, D

    2015-08-04

    Bone regeneration in critical size defects is a major challenge in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and the gold standard for bone reconstruction still requires the use of autologous tissue. To overcome the need for a second intervention and to minimize morbidity, the development of new biomaterials with osteoinductive features is the focus of current research. As a scaffolding material, ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) is suitable for bone regeneration purposes, although it does not carry any functional groups for the covalent immobilization of molecules. The aim of the present study was to establish effective coating variants for ß-TCP constructs to enable the biofunctionalization of anorganic blocks with different osteogenic molecules in future studies. We established working protocols for thin surface coatings consisting of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and graphene oxide (GO) by varying parameters. Surface properties such as the angularity and topography of the developed scaffolds were analyzed. To examine biological functionality, the adhesion and proliferation behavior of jaw periosteal cells (JPCs) were tested on the coated constructs. Our results suggest that PLGA is the superior material for surface coating of ß-TCP matrices, leading to higher JPC proliferation rates and providing a more suitable basis for further biofunctionalization in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  2. Unique kinetics of nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) binding enhance the sensitivity of NAADP receptors for their ligand.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, S; Churchill, G C; Galione, A

    2000-01-01

    Nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a novel and potent Ca(2+)-mobilizing agent in sea urchin eggs and other cell types. Little is known, however, concerning the properties of the putative intracellular NAADP receptor. In the present study we have characterized NAADP binding sites in sea urchin egg homogenates. [(32)P]NAADP bound to a single class of high-affinity sites that were reversibly inhibited by NaCl but insensitive to pH and Ca(2+). Binding of [(32)P]NAADP was lost in preparations that did not mobilize Ca(2+) in response to NAADP, indicating that [(32)P]NAADP probably binds to a receptor mediating Ca(2+) mobilization. Addition of excess unlabelled NAADP, at various times after initiation of [(32)P]NAADP binding, did not result in displacement of bound [(32)P]NAADP. These data show that NAADP becomes irreversibly bound to its receptor immediately upon association. Accordingly, incubation of homogenates with low concentrations of NAADP resulted in maximal labelling of NAADP binding sites. This unique property renders NAADP receptors exquisitely sensitive to their ligand, thereby allowing detection of minute changes in NAADP levels. PMID:11104679

  3. [Dynamic change of four triterpenic acids contents in different organs of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and phenology].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-yang; Xie, Xiao-mei; Li, Qian-wen; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Sheng-lin; Wang, He-qun; Yu, Wen-xia; Yang, Mo

    2015-03-01

    The loquat is widely cultivated in China, its succulent fruits, leaves and flower are used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. The study is aimed to analyse the content of the four triterpene compounds ( ursolic acid, corosolic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid) in different organs, and investigate the dynamic changes in different phenological period. The triterpenic acids content in the samples was measured by HPLC based on the plant phenological observations. The results showed that order of four triterpenic acids content in different organs from high to low was defoliation (23.2 mg x g(-1)) > mature leaves (21.7 mg x g(-1)) > young leaves (17.5 mg x g(-1)) > fruits (7.36 mg x g(-1)) > flowers (6.40 mg x g(-1)). The triterpenic acids were not detected in the seeds. The total amount of the four triterpenic acids in the loquat leaves collected in the different phenological stages of sprout, flower bud, blossom and fruit varied between 17.8 and 26.2 mg x g(-1) (defoliation), 16.5 and 23.5 mg x g(-1) (mature leaves), 14.7 and 21.5 mg x g(-1) (young leaves), respectively. The content increased progressively with the leaf development, maturation and aging. There was a higher level of the dry material and triterpenic acids accumulation in the mature leaves during fruit enlargement. This paper attempts to present the case for medicinal plants of a broad geographical distribution to study on the secondary metabolites and harvesting time.

  4. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  5. Photolabeling of the phosphate binding site of mitochondrial F1-ATPase by (/sup 32/P)azidonitrophenyl phosphate. Identification of the photolabeled amino acid residues

    SciTech Connect

    Garin, J.; Michel, L.; Dupuis, A.; Issartel, J.P.; Lunardi, J.; Hoppe, J.; Vignais, P.

    1989-02-21

    (/sup 32/P)Azidonitrophenyl phosphate ((/sup 32/P)ANPP) is a photoactivatable analogue of Pi. It competes efficiently with Pi for binding to the F1 sector of beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and photolabels the Pi binding site located in the beta subunit of F1. By cleavage of the photolabeled beta subunit of F1 with cyanogen bromide, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, bound (/sup 32/P)ANPP was localized in a fragment spanning Thr 299-Phe 326. By Edman degradation of the radiolabeled tryptic peptide spanning Ile 296-Arg 337, (/sup 32/P)ANPP was found to be attached covalently by its photoreactive group to Ile 304, Gln 308, and Tyr 311. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which the phosphate group of (/sup 32/P)ANPP interacts with a glycine-rich sequence of the beta subunit, spanning Gly 156-Lys 162, which is spatially close to the photolabeled Ile 304-Tyr 311 segment of the same subunit.

  6. A functional role for nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate in oxytocin-mediated contraction of uterine smooth muscle from rat.

    PubMed

    Aley, Parvinder K; Noh, Hyun J; Gao, Xin; Tica, Andrei A; Brailoiu, Eugen; Churchill, Grant C

    2010-06-01

    Conventionally, G protein-coupled receptors are thought to increase calcium via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)). More recent evidence shows that an alternative second messenger, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), also has a role to play, causing researchers to question established calcium releasing pathways. With the recent development, by our group, of cell-permeant NAADP (NAADP-aceteoxymethyl ester) and a selective NAADP receptor antagonist (Ned-19; 1-(3-((4-(2-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid),the ability to investigate this signaling pathway has improved. Therefore, we investigated a role for NAADP in oxytocin-mediated responses in the rat uterus. Oxytocin- and NAADP-mediated effects were investigated by using contractile measurements of whole uterine strips from rat in organ baths. Responses were correlated to calcium release in cultured rat uterine smooth muscle cells measured by fluorescence microscopy. Inhibition of both oxytocin-induced contraction and calcium release by the traditional NAADP-signaling disrupter bafilomycin and the NAADP receptor antagonist Ned-19 clearly demonstrated a role for NAADP in oxytocin-induced signaling. A cell-permeant form of NAADP was able to produce both uterine contractions and calcium release. This response was unaffected by depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum stores with thapsigargin, but was abolished by both bafilomycin and Ned-19. Crucially, oxytocin stimulated an increase in NAADP in rat uterine tissue. The present study demonstrates directly that NAADP signaling plays a role in rat uterine contractions. Moreover, investigation of this signaling pathway highlights yet another component of oxytocin-mediated signaling, stressing the need to consider the action of new components as they are discovered, even in signaling pathways that are thought to be well established.

  7. The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Eicken, C; Sift, B H; Kratel, A; Kappl, R; Hüttermann, J; Krebs, B

    1999-03-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis. PMID:10102999

  8. The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization.

    PubMed

    Durmus, A; Eicken, C; Sift, B H; Kratel, A; Kappl, R; Hüttermann, J; Krebs, B

    1999-03-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis.

  9. Content of chalconaringenin and chlorogenic acid in cherry tomatoes is strongly reduced during postharvest ripening.

    PubMed

    Slimestad, Rune; Verheul, Michèl J

    2005-09-01

    The contents of chalconaringenin, chlorogenic acid, rutin, ascorbic acid, lycopene, and beta-carotene were analyzed during postharvest and vine ripening of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentumMill.) (cv. Jennita) produced in a greenhouse. A remarkable decrease in the content of chalconaringenin took place during postharvest ripening. The tomatoes were found to contain 15.26 mg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (FW) at harvest but held only 0.41 mg after 3 weeks at 20 degrees C in darkness. Chalconaringenin did not convert into naringenin. The content of chlorogenic acid fell from 0.51 to 0.06 mg 100 g(-1) FW at the same conditions. The content of rutin and that of total phenolics remained stable during postharvest ripening. The amounts of lycopene as well as beta-carotene and ascorbic acid increased during postharvest ripening. No significant change in the amount of methanol soluble antioxidants or total soluble solids was found during postharvest ripening of the tomato fruits. During vine ripening, the total amount of phenolics and that of soluble solids (% Brix) increased. The content of phenolics correlated well with the content of methanol soluble antioxidants (p < 0.001). The amount of ascorbic acid increased from 9.7 mg in green-yellow tomatoes to 17.1 mg 100 g(-1) FW in red tomatoes. The amount of chalconaringenin decreased to 8.16 mg 100 g(-1) FW, whereas no significant change was observed for chlorogenic acid or rutin. Possible causes for the decrease in chalconaringenin are discussed.

  10. [Differences in the light-activation of NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase between plants containing the Calvin and those containing the C4-dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthetic carbon reduction].

    PubMed

    Steiger, E; Ziegler, I; Ziegler, H

    1971-06-01

    1. Preceding experiments had shown that irradiance of intact leaves or of isolated chloroplasts causes a reversible increase in the activity of NADP-GPD (Ziegler and Ziegler, 1965) as well as of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase (Latzko and Gibbs, 1969). Examination of several species which carry out the Calvin type of photosynthetic CO2 fixation (Vicia faba, Spinacia oleracea, Nicotiana tabacum, Avena sativa) now revealed that the dark level of NADP-GPD activity ranges between 300-400 μmol NADPH/mg chlorophyll·h; irradiance causes an activation to an turnover rate of 900-1600 μmol NADPH/mg chlorophyll·h. 2. The dark-level of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase in these Calvin type plants corresponds to about 400 \\gmmol PO4---/mg chlorophyll\\sdh. It rises to 900\\2-1300 \\gmmol PO4---/mg chlorophyll\\sdh after irradiance. 3. In all species examined which carry out the C4-dicarboxylic acid type of CO2 fixation (Zea mays, Cyperus rotundus, Portulacca oleracea, Saccharum officinarum) the dark-level of NADP-GPD as well as of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase is already as high as the light-level of Calvin type plants. In these species irradiance either activates both enzymes only to a small extent (Saccharum officinarum, Portulacea oleracea) or it activates only one of the two enzymes to an exceptional high activity (NADP-GPD in Zea mays, ribulose-5-phosphate kinase in Cyperus rotundus), while the activity of the other one remains nearly constant. 4. The dark-level of NADP-GPD in young Zea mays (2 leaves expanded) is as high as in adult plants; moreover its further activation by light corresponds to that in adult plants. In contrast, the dark-activity of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase in young Zea mays corresponds to the lower level found in Calvin type plants and is activated by irradiance in the same manner as it is in the latter plants. 5. The activity of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase is not influenced by light.

  11. Quantitative analysis of cyclic dimer fatty acid content in the dimerization product by proton NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyun Joo; Kim, Minyoung; Seok, Seunghwan; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Do Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, (1)H NMR is utilized for the quantitative analysis of a specific cyclic dimer fatty acid in a dimer acid mixture using the pseudo-standard material of mesitylene on the basis of its structural similarity. Mesitylene and cyclic dimer acid levels were determined using the signal of the proton on the cyclic ring (δ=6.8) referenced to the signal of maleic acid (δ=6.2). The content of the cyclic dimer fatty acid was successfully determined through the standard curve of mesitylene and the reported equation. Using the linearity of the mesitylene curve, the cyclic dimer fatty acid in the oil mixture was quantified. The results suggest that the proposed method can be used to quantify cyclic compounds in mixtures to optimize the dimerization process.

  12. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  13. Effect of phosphate-based glass fibre surface properties on thermally produced poly(lactic acid) matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Maziar Shah; Ahmed, Ifty; Muja, Naser; Rudd, Christopher D; Bureau, Martin N; Nazhat, Showan N

    2011-12-01

    Incorporation of soluble bioactive glass fibres into biodegradable polymers is an interesting approach for bone repair and regeneration. However, the glass composition and its surface properties significantly affect the nature of the fibre-matrix interface and composite properties. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the surface properties of calcium containing phosphate based glasses (PGs) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x = 0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. Contact angle measurements revealed a higher surface energy, and surface polarity as well as increased hydrophilicity for Si doped PG which may account for the presence of surface hydroxyl groups. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) produced by melt processing. The ageing in deionised water (DW), mechanical property changes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and cytocompatibility properties of these composites were investigated. In contrast to Fe10 and as a consequence of the higher surface energy and polarity of Fe5Si5, its incorporation into PLA led to increased inorganic/organic interaction indicated by a reduction in the carbonyl group of the matrix. PLA chain scission was confirmed by a greater reduction in its molecular weight in PLA-Fe5Si5 composites. In DW, the dissolution rate of PLA-Fe5Si5 was significantly higher than that of PLA-Fe10. Dissolution of the glass fibres resulted in the formation of channels within the matrix. Initial flexural strength was significantly increased through PGF incorporation. After PBS ageing, the reduction in mechanical properties was greater for PLA-Fe5Si5 compared to PLA-Fe10. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PG discs, PLA and PLA-PGF composites were evaluated for up to 7 days indicating that the materials were generally cytocompatible. In addition, cell alignment along the PGF

  14. [Determination of Acid-Insoluble Aluminum Content in Steel by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Jia, Yun-hai; Zhang, Yong

    2015-03-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become a very attractive and popular chemical analysis technique in material science for its advantage of rapid analysis, non-contact measurement, micro surface analysis and online analysis. In this paper, LIBS were used to determine insoluble aluminum content by analyzing the scanning data on massive steel samples. Abnormal data were discarded by Nalimov criterion, and the remaining data was used to calculate the average and the standard deviation. The threshold to distinguish acid-insoluble aluminum and soluble aluminum was identified as the average value plus triple standard deviation. Two different mathematical models were proposed to calculate insoluble aluminum content, respectively according to the ratio of the total acid-insoluble aluminium signal strength to total aluminum signal strength and acid-insoluble signal number to total aluminum signal number. The total aluminum content was determined by the calibration curve. Insoluble aluminum content of certified reference materials and plate blank samples obtained by mathematical model is coincident to chemical wet method results. The result according to total acid-insoluble aluminium signal strength is much better. LIBS can be used as a rapid analysis method to characterize insoluble aluminum content in steel samples.

  15. Comparison of polyunsaturated fatty acids content in filets of anadromous and landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Lepskaya, Ekaterina V; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Malyshevskaya, Kseniya K; Markevich, Grigory N

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acid composition and content of 2 forms of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from lakes in Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) were compared. One form of sockeye salmon was anadromous ("marine"), that is, adult fish migrated in ocean to feed and grow and than return in the lake to breed. Fish of another form, kokanee, never migrate in the ocean. Per cent levels of the main indicators of nutritive value, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were significantly higher in the landlocked O. nerka. However, concentrations of EPA and DHA per wet weight of filets were higher in the marine form, because of the relatively higher content of sum of fatty acids in their muscle tissue. As concluded, fish fed in marine environment had higher contents of long-chain n-3 fatty acids per wet weight than fish of the same species, fed in fresh waters. In general, both the anadromous sockeye salmon and the landlocked kokanee salmon can be recommended for human diet as a valuable product concerning contents of EPA and DHA. PMID:23240970

  16. (n-7) and (n-9) cis-Monounsaturated fatty acid contents of 12 Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2008-01-01

    cis-Vaccenic acid or cis-11-octadecenoic acid, a C18:1 (n-7) isomer of oleic acid (C18:1 (n-9)) has been found in several oilseeds. It is synthesized from palmitic acid (C16:0) via production of C16:1 (n-7) by a Delta9 desaturase and elongation by an elongase giving C18:1 (n-7). In this study, the fatty acid composition of 12 Brassica species was analyzed by GC-FID and confirmed by GC-MS. All species contained C18:1 (n-7), C20:1 (n-7) and C22:1 (n-7) fatty acid isomers, suggesting that C18:1 (n-7) was elongated. The levels of these fatty acids varied according to the species. C18:1(n-7)) represented from 0.4% to 3.3% of the total relative fatty acid contents of the seeds. The contents of C20:1(n-7) and C22:1(n-7) levels were lower than C18:1(n-7) contents; the relative fatty acid composition varied from 0.02% to 1.3% and from below the limit of detection to 1.3% for C20:1 (n-7) and C22:1 (n-7), respectively. The ratios of (n-7)/(n-9) ranged from 2.8% to 16.7%, 0.6% to 29.5% and 0% to 2.6% for C18:1, C20:1 and C22:2, respectively. Using statistical similarities or differences of the C18:1 (n-7)/(n-9) ratios for chemotaxonomy, the surveyed species could be arranged into three groups. The first group would include Brassica napus, B. rapa, and B. tournefortii with Eruca sativa branching only related to B. napus. The second group would include B. tournefortii, Raphanus sativus and Sinapis alba. The last group would include B. juncea, B. carinata and B. nigra with no similarity/relationship between them and between the other species. Results suggested that the level of C20:1 (n-7) influenced the levels of all monounsaturated fatty acids with chain length higher than 20 carbons. On the other hand, palmitoleic acid (C16:1) levels, C16:1 being the parent of all (n-7) fatty acids, had no statistically significant correlation with the content of any of the fatty acids of the (n-7) or (n-9) family.

  17. [pH, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, phosphate and chloride in the rumen and abomasal contents of cows with abomasal displacement].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Reiche, D; Seeh, C; Thünker, B; Verwohlt, S; Failing, K

    1996-01-01

    Ruminal and abomasal contents were collected from cows with left abomasal displacement (L), right abomasal displacement (R-), or abomasal volvulus (R+), before the abomasum was corrected, as well as one and three days later, pH and concentrations of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), and chloride (Cl) were determined. Results were compared with those from healthy control cattle fed a balanced diet. Ruminal concentrations of Na and Ca were reduced in cattle with abomasal displacement, whereas those of K, P and Cl were increased, and those of Mg and pH remained nearly unchanged. Concentrations of K and P before abomasal correction were lower in cattle with L than in those with R+, and declined after the correction. Concentrations of Cl decreased continuously after the abomasum was corrected in cattle with L, whereas they increased after replacement in cattle with R and declined later. These findings imply that cattle with abomasal displacement took up less feed before surgical correction and that ruminal contents backed up in the rumen, whereby the backup was less with L than with R+, and that the backed-up contents passed on after the abomasum was corrected. The results also indicate that a reflux of abomasal contents into the rumen took place in cattle with all forms of abomasal displacement, whereby with R+ increased amounts of abomasal contents passed into the rumen following correction and were then later passed out. Compared to controls, abomasal concentrations of Cl were increased in cattle with displacement and the concentrations of K, Mg, Ca, and P were reduced. Before abomasal correction, pH was decreased in cattle with L and unchanged in those with R- and R+. The concentrations of Na and K before correction in L were lower than those with R+, whereas the concentrations of K, Mg, Ca, and P were higher. After abomasal correction, the concentrations of Na declined, and those of K, Mg, Ca, and P increased. On the third day

  18. Two Uptake Systems for Fructose in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FD1 Produce Glycolytic and Gluconeogenic Fructose Phosphates and Induce Oscillations in Growth and Lactic Acid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Benthin, Stig; Nielsen, Jens; Villadsen, John

    1993-01-01

    Fructose transport in lactococci is mediated by two phosphotransferase systems (PTS). The constitutive mannose PTS has a broad specificity and may be used for uptake of fructose with a fructose saturation constant (KFru) of 0.89 mM, giving intracellular fructose 6-phosphate. The inducible fructose PTS has a very small saturation constant (KFru, <17 μM), and the fructose 1-phosphate produced enters the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway as fructose 1,6-diphosphate. Growth in batch cultures of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FD1 in a yeast extract medium with fructose as the only sugar is poor both with respect to specific growth rate and biomass yield, whereas the specific lactic acid production rate is higher than those in similar fermentations on other sugars metabolized via the EMP pathway, e.g., glucose. In fructose-limited chemostat cultures, the biomass concentration exhibits a strong correlation with the dilution rate, and starting a continuous culture at the end of a batch fermentation leads to large and persistent oscillations in the biomass concentration and specific lactic acid production rate. Two proposed mechanisms underlying this strange growth pattern follow. (i) Fructose transported via the fructose PTS cannot be converted into essential biomass precursors (glucose 6-phosphate or fructose 6-phosphate), because L. lactis subsp. cremoris FD1 is devoid of fructose 1,6-diphosphatase activity. (ii) The fructose PTS apparently produces a metabolite (presumably fructose 1-phosphate) which exerts catabolite repression of both mannose PTS and lactose PTS. Since the repressed mannose PTS and lactose PTS are shown to have identical maximum molar transport rates, the results indicate that it is the general PTS proteins which are repressed. PMID:16349061

  19. 2-ketogluconic acid secretion by incorporation of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 improves mineral phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chanchal; Yadav, Kavita; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 is known to efficiently solubilize rock phosphate by secretion of approximately 50 mM gluconic acid in Tris-buffered medium in the presence of 75 mM glucose and in a mixture of seven aldosugars each at 15 mM concentration, mimicking alkaline vertisol soils. Efficacy of this bacterium in the rhizosphere requires P release in the presence of low amount of sugars. To achieve this, E. asburiae PSI3 has been manipulated to express gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 to produce 2-ketogluconic acid. E. asburiae PSI3 harboring gad operon had 438 U of GAD activity, secreted 11.63 mM 2-ketogluconic and 21.65 mM gluconic acids in Tris-rock phosphate-buffered medium containing 45 mM glucose. E. asburiae PSI3 gad transformant solubilized 0.84 mM P from rock phosphate in TRP-buffered liquid medium. In the presence of a mixture of seven sugars each at 12 mM, the transformant brought about a drop in pH to 4.1 and released 0.53 mM P. PMID:23666029

  20. /sup 18/O isotope effect in /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Part 9. Hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate by phosphatase enzymes and in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Parente, J.E.; Risley, J.M.; Van Etten, R.L.

    1984-12-26

    The /sup 18/O isotope-induced shifts in /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to establish the position of bond cleavage in the phosphatase-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions of benzyl phosphate. The application of the /sup 18/O-isotope effect in NMR spectroscopy affords a continuous, nondestructive assay method for following the kinetics and position of bond cleavage in the hydrolytic process. The technique provides advantages over most discontinuous methods in which the reaction components must be isolated and converted to volatile derivatives prior to analysis. In the present study, (..cap alpha..-/sup 13/C,ester-/sup 18/O)benzyl phosphate and (ester-/sup 18/O)benzyl phosphate were synthesized for use in enzymatic and nonenzymatic studies. Hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by the alkaline phosphatase from E. coli and by the acid phosphatases isolated from human prostate and human liver were all accompanied by cleavage of the substrate phosphorus-oxygen bond consistent with previously postulated mechanisms involving covalent phosphoenzyme intermediates. An extensive study of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate at 75/sup 0/C revealed that the site of bond cleavage is dependent on pH. At pH less than or equal to 1.3, the hydrolysis proceeds with C-O bond cleavage; at 1.3 < pH < 2.0, there is a mixture of C-O and P-O bond scission, the latter progressively predominating as the pH is raised; at pH greater than or equal to 2.0, the hydrolysis proceeds with exclusive P-O bond scission. (S)-(+)-(..cap alpha..-/sup 2/H)Benzyl phosphate was also synthesized. Hydrolysis of this chiral benzyl derivative demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed C-O bond scission of benzyl phosphate proceeds by an A-1 (S/sub N/1) mechanism with 70% racemization and 30% inversion at carbon. 37 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. The effect of Si content on structure and mechanical features of silicon-containing calcium-phosphate-based films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering on titanium substrate treated by pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmeneva, M.; Tyurin, A.; Mukhametkaliyev, T.; Teresov, A.; Koval, A.; Pirozhkova, T.; Shuvarin, I.; Chudinova, E.; Surmenev, R.

    2015-11-01

    Silicon-containing calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) coatings were fabricated by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering using the targets prepared from hydroxyapatite (HA) powder with different silicon content. A powder of Si-HA (Ca10(PO4)6-x(SiO4)x(OH)2-x, x=0.5 and 1.72) was prepared by mechanochemical activation and then used as a precursor-powder to prepare a target for sputtering. The titanium substrate was acid etched and treated with pulsed electron beam with an energy density of 15 J/cm2. The average crystallite size as determined by XRD was 28 nm for the coatings obtained using the target prepared from the Si-HA powder (x=0.5), whereas Si-CaP (Si-HA powder x=1.72) films showed an amorphous structure. The nanohardness and the Young's modulus of the Si-CaP coating (x=0.5) deposited on titanium treated by pulsed electron beam are enhanced to 4.5 and 113 GPa compared to titanium substrate. Increase of Si content resulted in a dramatic decrease of the nanohardness and Young's modulus of Si-CaP films. However, Si-CaP coatings with the highest Si content revealed significantly lower values of elastic modulus, but slightly higher values of H/E and H3/E2 than did the non-coated specimens. Rf-magnetron sputtering allowed us to produce Si- CaP coatings with higher nanohardness and lower elastic modulus compared to titanium substrate.

  2. Seed oil and fatty acid content in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and related species.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Wang, Ming Li; Levy, Irvin J

    2011-04-27

    Approximately 1100 genebank accessions of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) and 540 additional accessions that included six of its related species-A. caillei, A. crinitis, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus-were evaluated for seed oil content using time domain NMR (TD-NMR). Oil content in seed of A. caillei, A. esculentus, A. ficulneus, A. manihot, A. moschatus and A. tuberculatus was in the ranges 2.51-13.61%, 12.36-21.56%, 6.62-16.7%, 16.1-22.0%, 10.3-19.8% and 10.8-23.2%, respectively. Accession PI639680 (A. tuberculatus) had the highest seed oil content (∼23%). Accessions of A. esculentus with high seed oil content included PI nos. PI274350 (21.5%), PI538082 (20.9%) and PI538097 (20.9%). Values for the three accessions of A. manihot with the highest seed oil content were PI nos. PI639673 (20.4%), PI639674 (20.9%) and PI639675 (21.9%), all representing var. tetraphyllus. Average percent seed oil in materials of A. esculentus from Turkey and Sudan (17.35% and 17.36%, respectively) exceeded the averages of materials from other locations. Ninety-eight accessions (total of six species) were also examined for fatty acid composition. Values of linoleic acid ranged from 23.6-50.65% in A. esculentus. However, mean linoleic acid concentrations were highest in A. tuberculatus and A. ficulneus. Concentrations of palmitic acid were significantly higher in A. esculentus (range of 10.3-36.35%) when compared to that of other species, and reached a maximum in PI489800 Concentrations of palmitic acid were also high in A. caillei (mean = ∼30%). Levels of oleic acid were highest in A. manihot, A. manihot var. tetraphyllus and A. moschatus.

  3. Content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in serum and liver of rats fed restricted diets supplemented with vitamins B2, B6 and folic acid.

    PubMed

    Bertrandt, Jerzy; Klos, Anna; Debski, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate an influence of nutritional deficiency and dietary addition of vit. B(2), B(6) and folic acid on PUFAs content in rats' serum and liver. Limitation of consumption full value diet to 50% of its previously determined daily consumption, enriched with m/a vitamins, significant decreased of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids as well as distinctly increased arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids content in serum in 30th day. In 60th day lower content of AA and DHA fatty acids was found. Nutrition with such diet, lasting 90 days caused decrease of LA content and increase of AA. Diet limitation to its 30% of daily consumption decreased of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA in the 30th day, while AA and DHA content was increased in the 60th day. Distinct decrease of AA content and increase of EPA content were found in the 90th day of experiment. Use of diets, with limited consumption to 50% caused increase of LA and ALA acids content while AA and DHA acids content were significantly decreased in the liver, in 90th day. Limited consumption supplemented diet to 30% caused in liver significant decrease of LA and increase of EPA acids content.

  4. Variation in oil content, fatty acid and phytosterols profile of Onopordum acanthium L. during seed development.

    PubMed

    Arfaoui, Moufida Oueslati; Renaud, Justin; Ghazghazi, Hanen; Boukhchina, Sadok; Mayer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study has determined oil, fatty acid (FA) and phytosterols content during the ripening of the Tunisian Onopordum acanthium L. seeds. In total, nine FAs and six phytosterols were identified. The main FAs were linoleic acid (0.18-8.06 mg/g of seed) followed by oleic acid (0.051-2.45 mg/g of seed), palmitic acid and stearic acid. Pentadecanoic acid was detected, for the first time, in unripe fruits and the two last stages of development were characterised by a relative abundance of erucic acid. Overall, β-sitosterol (34.5-77.79% of total sterols) was the major 4-desmethylsterols during maturation. The first episodes of growth were characterised by the best amounts of stigmasterol and campesterol, while stigmastanol and Δ7 sitosterol had quoted the semi-ripe and fully ripe fruits; however, cholesterol was absent. These findings are useful in understanding a potential new source of important natural compounds (Phytosterols and USFA) found in this fruit and when harvest should be undertaken to optimise desired FA and phytosterols content.

  5. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students' difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1)…

  6. Xenia effects on oil content and fatty acid and tocopherol concentrations in autogamous almond cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kodad, Ossama; Estopañán, Gloria; Juan, Teresa; Socias i Company, Rafel

    2009-11-25

    The increasing utilization of self-compatible almond cultivars in solid plantings of a single genotype has raised the question of the effect of the pollen source on the kernel quality of these new autogamous cultivars. Thus, the effect of two different pollen sources, in addition to their own pollen, on the oil content and fatty acid and tocopherol concentrations was studied in four autogamous almond genotypes. The oil content was not affected by the pollination treatment, but self-pollination resulted in significantly higher values for oleic acid. For the tocopherol homologues, the alpha-tocopherol content of the self-pollinated kernels was intermediate between those obtained after cross-pollination with the two foreign pollens, but the self-pollinated kernels had higher values of delta-tocopherol than the cross-pollinated kernels. Thus, the effect of the pollen source was shown to have a clear effect on the fatty acid composition but not on the oil or tocopherol contents of the almond kernels, with an increased quality of the kernels produced after self-pollination because of a higher oleic/linoleic acid ratio.

  7. Effect of deep-fat frying on ascorbic acid, carotenoids and potassium contents of plantain cylinders.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gonzalez, Juan A; Avallone, Sylvie; Brat, Pierre; Trystram, Gilles; Bohuon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The influence of thermal treatment (frying of plantain) on the micronutrients ascorbic acid, potassium and carotenoids is evaluated. Cylinders (diameter 30 mm, thickness 10 mm) of plantain (Musa AAB 'barraganete') were fried at four thermal treatments (120-180 degrees C and from 24 to 4 min) to obtain products with approximately the same water content (approximately 0.8+/-0.02 kg/kg1) and fat content (approximately 0.15+/-0.06 kg/kg). The thermal study used the cook value and the mean cook value as indicators of the effect of several different treatment temperatures and times on quality. Deep-fat frying had no significant effect on carotenoid contents at any frying conditions, and on potassium content, except at 120 degrees C and 24 min (loss acid. The process with the greatest effect was low temperature and long time (120 degrees C/24 min), as observed for potassium and ascorbic acid. These results are in agreement with other studies that demonstrated short thermal treatments at high temperatures protect food nutritional quality, as shown by the cook value and the mean cook value. In our work, deep-fat frying of plantain preserved most of the micronutrient contents that were evaluated.

  8. Preparation of core-shell PAN nanofibers encapsulated α-tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate for photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Branford-White, Christopher J; Yu, Deng-Guang; Chatterton, Nicholas P; Zhu, Li-Min

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (MAAP) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-TAc), as the stable vitamin C and vitamin E derivative, respectively, are often applied to skin care products for reducing UV damage. The encapsulation of MAAP (0.5%, g/mL) and α-TAc (5%, g/mL) together within the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers was demonstrated using a coaxial electrospinning technique. The structure and morphology characterizations of the core-shell fibers MAAP/α-TAc-PAN were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XRD. As a negative control, the blend nanofibers MAAP/α-TAc/PAN were prepared from a normal electrospinning method. The results from SEM indicated that the morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were influenced by concentration of spinning solution, the polymer component of the shell, the carrying agent of the core and the fabricating methods, and the core-shell nanofibers obtained at the concentration of 8% had finer and uniform structure with the average diameters of 200 ± 15nm. From in vitro release studies it could be seen that both different fiber specimens showed a gradual increase in the amount of α-TAc or MAAP released from the nanofibers. Furthermore, α-TAc and MAAP released from the blend nanofibers showed the burst release at the maximum release of ∼15% and ∼40% during the first 6h, respectively, but their release amount from the core-shell nanofibers was only 10-12% during the initial part of the process. These results showed that core-shell nanofibers alleviated the initial burst release and gave better sustainability compared to that of the blend nanofibers. The present study would provide a basis for further optimization of processing conditions to obtain desired structured core-shell nanofibers and release kinetics for practical applications in dermal tissue. PMID:20870398

  9. Lysophosphatidic Acid and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate: A Concise Review of Biological Function and Applications for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Binder, Bernard Y K; Williams, Priscilla A; Silva, Eduardo A; Leach, J Kent

    2015-12-01

    The presentation and controlled release of bioactive signals to direct cellular growth and differentiation represents a widely used strategy in tissue engineering. Historically, work in this field has primarily focused on the delivery of large cytokines and growth factors, which can be costly to manufacture and difficult to deliver in a sustained manner. There has been a marked increase over the past decade in the pursuit of lipid mediators due to their wide range of effects over multiple cell types, low cost, and ease of scale-up. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are two bioactive lysophospholipids (LPLs) that have gained attention for use as pharmacological agents in tissue engineering applications. While these lipids can have similar effects on cellular response, they possess distinct chemical backbones, mechanisms of synthesis and degradation, and signaling pathways using a discrete set of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA and S1P predominantly act extracellularly on their GPCRs and can directly regulate cell survival, differentiation, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and migration--each of the important functions that must be considered in regenerative medicine. In addition to these potent physiological functions, these LPLs play pivotal roles in a number of pathophysiological processes. To capitalize on the promise of these molecules in tissue engineering, these lipids have been incorporated into biomaterials for in vivo delivery. Here, we survey the effects of LPA and S1P on both cellular- and tissue-level phenotypes, with an eye toward regulating stem/progenitor cell growth and differentiation. In particular, we examine work that has translational applications for cell-based tissue engineering strategies in promoting cell survival, bone and cartilage engineering, and therapeutic angiogenesis.

  10. Di-Calcium Phosphate and Phytosphingosine as an Innovative Acid-Resistant Treatment to Occlude Dentine Tubules.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Lin, Ching-Yang; Bikker, Floris J; Cama, Giuseppe; Dubruel, Peter; Soria, José M; D''Onofrio, Alessia; Gillam, David

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the ability of an experimental di-calcium phosphate (DCP) desensitising agent used alone or combined with phytosphingosine (PHS) to occlude dentine tubules and resist a citric acid (CA) or artificial saliva (AS) challenge. Three groups of human dentine specimens (DS) were treated with the following: (1) PHS alone, (2) DCP or (3) a combination of PHS and DCP. Dentine hydraulic conductance of DS was evaluated using a digital flow sensor at 6.9 kPa. The average fluid volume for each of the treated DS was used to calculate the total dentine permeability reduction (%P) prior to and following CA immersion for 1 min or AS immersion for 4 weeks. The treated DS were subjected to both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Statistically significant differences (%P) were identified between the groups by ANOVA and Fisher's multiple comparison test (p < 0.05), respectively. Interestingly, both PHS and DCP appeared to work synergistically. DS treated with DCP or PHS/DCP demonstrated a significant reduction (%P) prior to and following CA or AS challenge (p < 0.05). Both the SEM and FTIR analyses showed consistent brushite crystals occluding the dentine tubules. Conversely, the application of PHS alone failed to demonstrate any significant reduction of dentine permeability (p > 0.05) or show any evidence of occlusion of the dentine tubules. DCP can be used alone or combined with PHS to decrease the dentine permeability as well as to resist a CA and AS challenge. These results would, therefore, suggest that DCP may be a suitable treatment option for dentine hypersensitivity. PMID:27179116

  11. Lysophosphatidic Acid and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate: A Concise Review of Biological Function and Applications for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Binder, Bernard Y K; Williams, Priscilla A; Silva, Eduardo A; Leach, J Kent

    2015-12-01

    The presentation and controlled release of bioactive signals to direct cellular growth and differentiation represents a widely used strategy in tissue engineering. Historically, work in this field has primarily focused on the delivery of large cytokines and growth factors, which can be costly to manufacture and difficult to deliver in a sustained manner. There has been a marked increase over the past decade in the pursuit of lipid mediators due to their wide range of effects over multiple cell types, low cost, and ease of scale-up. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are two bioactive lysophospholipids (LPLs) that have gained attention for use as pharmacological agents in tissue engineering applications. While these lipids can have similar effects on cellular response, they possess distinct chemical backbones, mechanisms of synthesis and degradation, and signaling pathways using a discrete set of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA and S1P predominantly act extracellularly on their GPCRs and can directly regulate cell survival, differentiation, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and migration--each of the important functions that must be considered in regenerative medicine. In addition to these potent physiological functions, these LPLs play pivotal roles in a number of pathophysiological processes. To capitalize on the promise of these molecules in tissue engineering, these lipids have been incorporated into biomaterials for in vivo delivery. Here, we survey the effects of LPA and S1P on both cellular- and tissue-level phenotypes, with an eye toward regulating stem/progenitor cell growth and differentiation. In particular, we examine work that has translational applications for cell-based tissue engineering strategies in promoting cell survival, bone and cartilage engineering, and therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26035484

  12. Preparation of core-shell PAN nanofibers encapsulated α-tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate for photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Branford-White, Christopher J; Yu, Deng-Guang; Chatterton, Nicholas P; Zhu, Li-Min

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (MAAP) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-TAc), as the stable vitamin C and vitamin E derivative, respectively, are often applied to skin care products for reducing UV damage. The encapsulation of MAAP (0.5%, g/mL) and α-TAc (5%, g/mL) together within the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers was demonstrated using a coaxial electrospinning technique. The structure and morphology characterizations of the core-shell fibers MAAP/α-TAc-PAN were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XRD. As a negative control, the blend nanofibers MAAP/α-TAc/PAN were prepared from a normal electrospinning method. The results from SEM indicated that the morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were influenced by concentration of spinning solution, the polymer component of the shell, the carrying agent of the core and the fabricating methods, and the core-shell nanofibers obtained at the concentration of 8% had finer and uniform structure with the average diameters of 200 ± 15nm. From in vitro release studies it could be seen that both different fiber specimens showed a gradual increase in the amount of α-TAc or MAAP released from the nanofibers. Furthermore, α-TAc and MAAP released from the blend nanofibers showed the burst release at the maximum release of ∼15% and ∼40% during the first 6h, respectively, but their release amount from the core-shell nanofibers was only 10-12% during the initial part of the process. These results showed that core-shell nanofibers alleviated the initial burst release and gave better sustainability compared to that of the blend nanofibers. The present study would provide a basis for further optimization of processing conditions to obtain desired structured core-shell nanofibers and release kinetics for practical applications in dermal tissue.

  13. Di-Calcium Phosphate and Phytosphingosine as an Innovative Acid-Resistant Treatment to Occlude Dentine Tubules.

    PubMed

    Sauro, Salvatore; Lin, Ching-Yang; Bikker, Floris J; Cama, Giuseppe; Dubruel, Peter; Soria, José M; D''Onofrio, Alessia; Gillam, David

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the ability of an experimental di-calcium phosphate (DCP) desensitising agent used alone or combined with phytosphingosine (PHS) to occlude dentine tubules and resist a citric acid (CA) or artificial saliva (AS) challenge. Three groups of human dentine specimens (DS) were treated with the following: (1) PHS alone, (2) DCP or (3) a combination of PHS and DCP. Dentine hydraulic conductance of DS was evaluated using a digital flow sensor at 6.9 kPa. The average fluid volume for each of the treated DS was used to calculate the total dentine permeability reduction (%P) prior to and following CA immersion for 1 min or AS immersion for 4 weeks. The treated DS were subjected to both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Statistically significant differences (%P) were identified between the groups by ANOVA and Fisher's multiple comparison test (p < 0.05), respectively. Interestingly, both PHS and DCP appeared to work synergistically. DS treated with DCP or PHS/DCP demonstrated a significant reduction (%P) prior to and following CA or AS challenge (p < 0.05). Both the SEM and FTIR analyses showed consistent brushite crystals occluding the dentine tubules. Conversely, the application of PHS alone failed to demonstrate any significant reduction of dentine permeability (p > 0.05) or show any evidence of occlusion of the dentine tubules. DCP can be used alone or combined with PHS to decrease the dentine permeability as well as to resist a CA and AS challenge. These results would, therefore, suggest that DCP may be a suitable treatment option for dentine hypersensitivity.

  14. Effect of the Acidic Dental Resin Monomer 10-methacryloyloxydecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate on Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Haejin; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-11-01

    Although 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) is frequently used as an acidic resin monomer in dental adhesives, its effect on dental pulp cells (DPCs) has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10-MDP on the inflammatory response and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs at minimally toxic concentrations. We found that 10-MDP caused the release of inflammatory cytokines including NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 10-MDP reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization nodule formation and mRNA expression of odontoblastic differentiation markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, osterix and Runx2 in a concentration-dependent manner with low toxicity. In addition, 10-MDP induced activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We evaluated whether the effect of 10-MDP was related to the induction of HO-1 and found that treatment with a selective inhibitor of HO-1 reversed the production of 10-MDP-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inhibition of differentiation markers. Pre-treatment with either a GSH synthesis inhibitor or antioxidants blocked 10-MDP-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Taken together, the results of this study showed that minimally toxic concentrations of 10-MDP promoted an inflammatory response and suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction through MAPK and NF-κB signalling.

  15. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  16. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  17. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  18. Amino acid contents and transport of fixed N in nodules of Leucaena leucocephala variety K-8

    SciTech Connect

    DuBois, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala var. K-8 were grown with a N-free fertilizer or fertilizer containing /sup 15/N-depleted (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.01 atom /sup 15/N; 10 ppm). The nodules of 5 month old trees grown on N-free media were used for /sup 15/N-enriched treatment and as controls. Nodules from plants grown on /sup 15/N-depleted media were also used. Nodules were extracted with 0.5% aqueous toluene and aliquots were analyzed with a Beckman 120B Amino Acid Analyzer. Samples were separated into free ammonium, Asp-N, Glu-N, Asn and Gln amide- and amino-N, and remaining amino acids. Fractions were then analyzed for /sup 15/N content. Asn (27.3 umol/gfw) represented 56% of the total free amino acid pool in the nodules. Asn (amide-N and amino-N) also represented approximately 77% of the total N fixed during the one hour /sup 15/N-enriched N/sub 2/ and the /sup 15/N-depleted treatments. Based on these findings and the fact that the ureide fraction is barely detectable in the nodules (0.25 ..mu..mol/gfw), the authors considers L. leucocephala an amide transporter of fixed N. Additional information will be presented on the amino acid contents of tissues, as well as a time course of amino acid content from seed through nodulation.

  19. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  20. Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles.

  1. The functional impact of Pgm amino acid polymorphism on glycogen content in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Verrelli, B C; Eanes, W F

    2001-01-01

    Earlier studies of the common PGM allozymes in Drosophila melanogaster reported no in vitro activity differences. However, our study of nucleotide variation observed that PGM allozymes are a heterogeneous mixture of amino acid polymorphisms. In this study, we analyze 10 PGM protein haplotypes with respect to PGM activity, thermostability, and adult glycogen content. We find a twofold difference in activity among PGM protein haplotypes that is associated with a threefold difference in glycogen content. The latitudinal clines for several Pgm amino acid polymorphisms show that high PGM activity, and apparently higher flux to glycogen synthesis, parallel the low activity clines at G6PD for reduced pentose shunt flux in northern latitudes. This suggests that amino acid polymorphism is under selection at this branch point and may be favored for increased metabolic storage associated with stress resistance and adaptation to temperate regions. PMID:11560897

  2. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  3. Metabolomic analysis reveals decreased skeletal muscle amino acid content and altered fatty acid handling in obese humans

    PubMed Central

    Koves, Timothy R.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Muoio, Deborah M.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Investigate the effects of obesity and high fat diet (HFD) exposure on fatty acid oxidation and TCA cycle intermediates and amino acids in skeletal muscle to better characterize energy metabolism. Design and Methods Plasma and skeletal muscle metabolomic profiles were measured from lean and obese males before and after a 5 day HFD in the 4h post-prandial condition. Results At both time points, plasma short-chain acylcarnitine species (SCAC) were higher in the obese subjects, while the amino acids glycine, histidine, methionine, and citrulline were lower in skeletal muscle of obese subjects. Skeletal muscle medium-chain acylcarnitines (MCAC) C6, C8, C10:2, C10:1, C10, and C12:1 increased in obese subjects, but decreased in lean subjects, from Pre- to Post-HFD. Plasma content of C10:1 was also decreased in lean, but increased in the obese subjects from Pre- to Post-HFD. CD36 increased from Pre- to Post-HFD in obese but not lean subjects. Conclusions Lower skeletal muscle amino acid content and accumulation of plasma SCAC in obese subjects could reflect increased anaplerosis for TCA cycle intermediates, while accumulation of MCAC suggests limitations in β-oxidation. These measures may be important markers of or contributors to dysregulated metabolism observed in skeletal muscle of obese humans. PMID:25864501

  4. Alteration of membrane fatty acid composition and inositol phosphate metabolism in HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Awad, A B; Fink, C S; Horvath, P J

    1993-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of membrane fatty acid (FA) composition on inositol phosphate (InsP) release by a human colon tumor cell line. Cells were supplemented for five days in culture with 0, 10, 30, or 100 microM sodium stearate (18:0), linoleate [18:2(omega-6)], or linolineate [18:3(omega-3)]. These FAs were supplied as a complex with FA-free bovine serum albumin. InsP release was examined in these cells with or without stimulation with deoxycholic acid (DCA) after they were labeled with [3H]myoinositol. FA enrichment was found to influence inositol incorporation into membrane lipids. Although 18:0 had no effect, 18:2(omega-6) decreased the incorporation. On the other hand, 18:3(omega-3) increased the incorporation of inositol compared with the cells supplemented with the other FAs, but they were not different from control. Basal release of total InsP was elevated only with supplementation of 10 and 30 microM 18:3(omega-3). FA supplementation with 18:0 at 30 microM and 18:2 at 30 and 100 microM resulted in downregulation of bsal release of InsP. Enrichment of HT-29 cell membranes with polyunsaturated FAs resulted in a significant increase in stimulated release of InsP, but this was not seen with saturated FA supplementation. At 10 microM supplementation, 18:2 had the greatest effect on stimulated InsP release. This effect of 18:2 disappeared at 30 microM. However, the increase in the stimulated InsP release caused by 18:3 occurred at 10 and 30 microM. DCA-stimulated release of InsP was not downregulated by any FA supplementation. This study showed that enrichment of the membranes with polyunsaturated FAs increases the response of the phosphatidylinositol cycle to DCA stimulation. In addition, enrichment with 18:3(omega-3) increases the basal turnover of InsP. It is concluded that alteration of membrane FAs has a profound effect on the phosphatidylinositol cycle.

  5. Judd-Ofelt analysis and energy transfer processes of Er3+ and Nd3+ doped fluoroaluminate glasses with low phosphate content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feifei; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2014-12-01

    Spectroscopic property and energy transfer processes of singly doped and codoped Er3+ and Nd3+ fluoroaluminate glasses with low phosphate content are systematically analyzed. The absorption spectra of these glasses are tested, and the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) and radiative parameters are discussed based on J-O theory and the parameters changes substantially because of the other codoping ions. As for Nd3+: the main emission bands at 0.9 and 1.05 μm decrease in the codoped sample under the excitation of an 800 nm laser diode from the emission spectra because the Er3+: 4I11/2 level reduces the Nd3+: 4F3/2 level effectively through the energy transfer process Nd3+: 4F3/2 → Er3+: 4I11/2. For Er3+, the emission at 1.5 μm is restrained by codoping with Nd3+ ions from the energy transfer process Er3+: 4I13/2 → Nd3+: 4I15/2. The emission at 2.7 μm is enhanced because the Nd3+ ions deplete the lower level and exert a positive effect on the upper laser level. The microparameters of the energy transfer between the Er3+ and Nd3+ ions are calculated and discussed using Forster-Dexter theory. The energy transfer efficiencies of the Nd3+: 4F3/2 to the Er3+: 4I11/2 and the Er3+: 4I13/2 to the Nd3+: 4I15/2 are 28.8% and 74.5%, respectively. These results indicate that Nd3+ can be an efficient sensitizer for Er3+ to obtain Mid-infrared (Mid-IR) emission and the codoped Er3+/Nd3+ fluoroaluminate glass with low phosphate content is suitable to be used as the fiber optical gain media for 2.7 μm laser generation.

  6. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population. PMID:16711652

  7. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  8. Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  9. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:17127473

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. PMID:24948858

  11. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils. PMID:26239443

  12. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils.

  13. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oraldi, Manuela; Trombetta, Antonella; Biasi, Fiorella; Canuto, Rosa A.; Maggiora, Marina; Muzio, Giuliana

    2009-01-01

    Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s). Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis. PMID:19841681

  14. Sialic acid content of infant saliva: comparison of breast fed with formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Tram, T; Miller, J; McNeil, Y; McVeagh, P

    1997-01-01

    

 Sialic acid is found in especially high concentrations in brain gangliosides, and supplementary sialic acid is associated with increased learning behaviour in animals. It was hypothesised that breast fed infants may have higher concentrations of sialic acid in body fluids and tissues because human milk is a rich source of sialylated oligosaccharides, while formulas contain very little. The aim therefore was to compare the sialic acid content of saliva collected from full term infants who were either solely breast fed or formula fed until weaning at 3-5 months of age. Thirty three infants, 18 breast fed and 15 formula fed, were studied at a mean (SD) age of 5 (2) months. The breast fed infants, when compared with formula fed infants, were found to have almost two times more free sialic acid in saliva (mean (SE) 16.0 (2.7) v 8.2 (2.1) mg/l, p < 0.036) and nearly 50% more total sialic acid (47.3 (3.9) v 32.2 (4.4) mg/l, p<0.014). The findings provide a preliminary indication that an exogenous source of sialic acids derived from human milk may contribute to higher concentrations of sialic acid in body fluids. There are important implications for the formulation of human milk substitutes.

 PMID:9389234

  15. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  16. Effects of selenite on chlorophyll fluorescence, starch content and fatty acid in the duckweed Landoltia punctata.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Yang; Cheng, Jay J

    2016-09-01

    Developing a Se-enriched feed for animal has become a considerable effort. In this study, Landoltia punctata 7449 was grown over a 12 day period under concentrations of selenite (Na2SeO3) from 0 to 80 μmol L(-1). The growth rate, the chlorophyll fluorescence, the starch content and fatty acid were measured. Se at low concentrations of ≤20 μmol L(-1) had positive effects also on growth rate, fatty acid content and yield of the L. punctata. The appropriate Se treatment enhanced the activity of the photosynthetic system by increasing Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo and decreasing Fo. However, negative impact to the L. punctata was observed when the duckweed was exposed to high Se concentrations (≥40 μmol L(-1)). Significant increases in starch content in the duckweed were observed after Se application. The present study suggests that the changes in growth rate, the photosynthetic system, the starch content and the fatty acid were closely associated with the application of Se. An increased Se concentration (0-20 μmol L(-1)) in duckweed could positively induce photosynthesis, thereby increasing the yield of L. punctata and could be a resource for high nutritive quality Se-enrich feed.

  17. Assessment of magnesium influence on fatty acid content in isolated rat hepatocytes subjected to incubation.

    PubMed

    Całyniuk, B; Grochowska-Niedworok, E; Kardas, M; Muc-Wierzgoń, M; Nowakowska-Zajdel, E

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium salts are components of many dietary supplements used in treatment or prevention of magnesium deficiency. Hypomagnesemia usually results from an improper lifestyle, including unbalanced diet. Isolated hepatocytes of animals or humans are the preferred model used to study the in vitro effects of exogenous factors on cellular metabolic changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and their esters in isolated rat hepatocytes influenced by different magnesium concentrations. The isolated rat hepatocytes were used as the test material. Hepatocytes were prepared in culture medium (Hepatocyte Medium) + MgCl(2) solution to concentrations of 2 mM/dm(3) MgCl(2), 4 mM/dm(3) MgCl(2). After incubation with different concentrations of magnesium ions, changes in the content of fatty acids and their esters were found for the whole hepatocytes and hepatocyte membranes. Despite changes in the fatty acid content in the whole hepatocytes and their membranes, there were no changes in the coefficient of degree of saturation of fatty acids when different concentrations of MgCl2 were used.

  18. Inframolecular acid base studies of the tris and tetrakis myo-inositol phosphates including the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozol, Hélène; Blum-Held, Corinne; Guédat, Philippe; Maechling, Clarisse; Lanners, Steve; Schlewer, Gilbert; Spiess, Bernard

    2002-12-01

    The intrinsic acid-base properties of the phosphate groups of three myo-inositol derivatives which display the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif, i.e. (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3)P 3), (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3,6-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3,6)P 4), and (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3,5)P 4) are reported. The studies were performed in 0.2 M KCl solution at 37 °C, near physiological ionic strength and temperature. In addition, in order to shed light on the transition metal complexation properties of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, the influence of the Zn 2+ cations on its 31P NMR titration curves was investigated. From the titration curves as well as from the determined protonation microconstants, it appears that for Ins(1,2,3)P 3, the two lateral P1 and P3 phosphates strongly contribute to stabilise a proton on the central P2 phosphate. However, in the fully deprotonated form of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, P1 and P3 repulse each other so that they establish hydrogen bonds with, respectively, their neighbouring OH6 and OH4 hydroxyls. The 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif of Ins(1,2,3,5)P 4 behaves very similarly to that of Ins(1,2,3)P 3 indicating a poor interaction with the distant P5 phosphate. By contrast, moving a phosphate group from position 5 to position 6 on the myo-inositol ring as in Ins(1,2,3,6)P 4, leads to major changes in the basicity and cooperativity of the phosphate groups. Finally, the presence of Zn 2+ cations has a marked influence on the 31P NMR titration curves of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, leading to the conclusion that two equatorial phosphates, assisted by a middle axial one, afford an optimal chelating moiety that is able to occupy all sites of the metal coordination polyhedron which could be the reason for its antioxidant properties.

  19. Fe2+ and Cu2+ increase the production of hyaluronic acid by lactobacilli via affecting different stages of the pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sy-Bing; Lew, Lee-Ching; Hor, Kok-Chiu; Liong, Min-Tze

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at optimizing the production of hyaluronic acid by Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1231 using response surface methodology and evaluating the effects of divalent metal ions along the production pathway using molecular docking. Among different divalent metal ions that were screened, only iron (II) sulphate and copper (II) sulphate significantly (P < 0.05) affected the production of hyaluronic acid. Subsequent optimization yielded hyaluronic acid at concentration of 0.6152 mg/mL in the presence of 1.24 mol L(-1) iron (II) sulphate and 0.16 mol L(-1) of copper (II) sulphate (103 % increase compared to absence of divalent metal ions). Data from molecular docking showed Fe(2+) improved the binding affinity of UDP-pyrophophorylase towards glucose-1-phosphate, while Cu(2+) contributed towards the interaction between UDP-glucose dehydrogenase and UDP-glucose. We have demonstrated that lactobacilli could produce hyaluronic acid at increased concentration upon facilitation by specific divalent metal ions, via specific targets of enzymes and substrates along pentose phosphate pathway.

  20. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Batch and Column Experiments: A Perspective from Phosphate Oxygen Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jaisi, D. P.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) are increasingly being advocated as an efficient and environment-friendly "green" phosphorus nanofertilizer attributed to their nanoscale dimension, large reactive surface area, and low leaching potential. However, knowledge of how naturally occurring low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) that are secreted by plant roots mediate the dissolution of HANPs (releasing PO43- ion for plant growth) is nonexistent. Here three most commonly encountered LMWOAs (acetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid) at environmentally relevant concentration (1 mM) were evaluated for their effects on HANPs' dissolution in static batch and dynamic column systems. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during dissolution was examined to disentangle mechanisms controlling the evolution of O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion. Our results reveal that in batch experiments the dissolution of HANPs was fast but the overall dissolution efficiency of HANPs was limited (≤30%). In contrast, ~100% HANPs were dissolved in columns where LMWOAs were continuously injected. The limited dissolution of HANPs in static batch systems was due primarily to pH buffer effect (pH increased sharply when LMWOA was added in HANPs suspension), whereas in dynamic column systems the HANPs were continuously dissolved by low pH LMWOAs and leached away. Regardless of LMWOA type and experimental system, the isotopically light phosphate (P16O4) was preferentially released during dissolution and the O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion increased gradually with increasing dissolution due to equilibrium isotope effect between dissolved PO43- ion and HANPs. However, the overall magnitude of O-isotopic fractionation of dissolved PO43- ion was less in batch than in column systems, due to less mass transfer between dissolved PO43- ions and HANPs in batch relative to column experiments. Our findings provide new insights into bioavailability

  1. An Oral Load of [13C3]Glycerol and Blood NMR Analysis Detect Fatty Acid Esterification, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, and Glycerol Metabolism through the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    Drugs and other interventions for high impact hepatic diseases often target biochemical pathways such as gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, or the metabolic response to oxidative stress. However, traditional liver function tests do not provide quantitative data about these pathways. In this study, we developed a simple method to evaluate these processes by NMR analysis of plasma metabolites. Healthy subjects ingested [U-(13)C3]glycerol, and blood was drawn at multiple times. Each subject completed three visits under differing nutritional states. High resolution (13)C NMR spectra of plasma triacylglycerols and glucose provided new insights into a number of hepatic processes including fatty acid esterification, the pentose phosphate pathway, and gluconeogenesis through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fasting stimulated pentose phosphate pathway activity and metabolism of [U-(13)C3]glycerol in the tricarboxylic acid cycle prior to gluconeogenesis or glyceroneogenesis. Fatty acid esterification was transient in the fasted state but continuous under fed conditions. We conclude that a simple NMR analysis of blood metabolites provides an important biomarker of pentose phosphate pathway activity, triacylglycerol synthesis, and flux through anaplerotic pathways in mitochondria of human liver.

  2. An Oral Load of [13C3]Glycerol and Blood NMR Analysis Detect Fatty Acid Esterification, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, and Glycerol Metabolism through the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    Drugs and other interventions for high impact hepatic diseases often target biochemical pathways such as gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, or the metabolic response to oxidative stress. However, traditional liver function tests do not provide quantitative data about these pathways. In this study, we developed a simple method to evaluate these processes by NMR analysis of plasma metabolites. Healthy subjects ingested [U-(13)C3]glycerol, and blood was drawn at multiple times. Each subject completed three visits under differing nutritional states. High resolution (13)C NMR spectra of plasma triacylglycerols and glucose provided new insights into a number of hepatic processes including fatty acid esterification, the pentose phosphate pathway, and gluconeogenesis through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fasting stimulated pentose phosphate pathway activity and metabolism of [U-(13)C3]glycerol in the tricarboxylic acid cycle prior to gluconeogenesis or glyceroneogenesis. Fatty acid esterification was transient in the fasted state but continuous under fed conditions. We conclude that a simple NMR analysis of blood metabolites provides an important biomarker of pentose phosphate pathway activity, triacylglycerol synthesis, and flux through anaplerotic pathways in mitochondria of human liver. PMID:27432878

  3. Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: Their isolation and content

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA). Materials and Methods: Compound were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. CQA content of leaf extracts was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. Results: From the MeOH leaf extract of V. glabra, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA or CGA were isolated. Content of 5-CQA of V. glabra was two times higher than flowers of L. japonica, while 3-CQA and 4-CQA content was 16 times higher. Conclusion: With much higher CQA content than the commercial source, leaves of V. glabra can serve as a promising alternative source. PMID:24497746

  4. Effect of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide and 3,4 dimethylpyrazole phosphate on gaseous emissions from grasslands under different soil water contents.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of grassland systems is leading to serious environmental risks due to the large input of nitrogen (N) in fertilizers and the subsequent gaseous losses. Addition of nitrification inhibitors (NI) or urease activity inhibitors to fertilizers could reduce these losses to the atmosphere. In the present study, the effects of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and the urease activity inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) were evaluated on NH3, N2O, NO, and CO2 emissions. Ammonium sulphate nitrate (ASN), urea and cattle slurry were applied at a rate of 70 kg N ha(-1) to a mixed clover-ryegrass sward in the Basque Country (northern Spain) under different soil water contents. NH3 and NO emissions were determined by photoacoustic and chemiluminescence respectively using an open chamber technique while N2O and CO2 emissions were measured by photoacoustic using a closed chamber technique. When the water filled pore space (WFPS) was under 60%, the application of NBPT reduced NO emissions a 34% on urea and an 18% on slurry, and the application of DMPP reduced them a 2% on ASN and a 4% on slurry. No significant effect was observed on NH3 losses. When WFPS was over 60%, no effect could be observed on NO and N2O emissions after the application of both inhibitors, but NH3 losses were reduced a 31% by NBPT when applied with the slurry. Carbon dioxide emissions were unaffected by the use of DMPP or NBPT at any soil water content. Neither grassland yield nor herbage N concentration were influenced by the application of both inhibitors.

  5. Optimizing available phosphorus in calcareous soils fertilized with diammonium phosphate and phosphoric acid using Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Asif; Akhtar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Waqar

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aC(b/a)) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L(-1)) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L(-1), compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation. PMID:24307878

  6. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  7. Changes in oleic Acid content of transgenic soybeans by antisense RNA mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-Xun; Guo, Dong-Quan; Xing, Guo-Jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-Jing; Li, Hai-Yun; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  8. Virulent Hessian fly larvae manipulate the free amino acid content of host wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, Kurt D; Giovanini, Marcelo P; Zheng, Cheng; Williams, Christie E

    2008-11-01

    Gall-forming insects induce host plants to form specialized structures (galls) that provide immature life stages of the insect access to host plant nutrients and protection from natural enemies. Feeding by larvae of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) causes susceptible host wheat plants to produce a gall-like nutritive tissue that supports larval growth and development. To determine if changes in host plant free amino acid levels are associated with virulent Biotype L Hessian fly larval feeding, we quantified free amino acid levels in crown tissues of susceptible Newton wheat plants 1, 4, and 7 days after Hessian fly egg hatch. Hessian fly-infested susceptible plants were more responsive than resistant plants or uninfested controls, showing higher concentrations of alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and serine 4 days after egg hatch. This 4-day post-hatch time point corresponds to the maturation of nutritive tissue cells in susceptible plants and the onset of rapid larval growth. By 7 days after egg hatch, when virulent second instars are actively feeding on the contents of nutritive tissue cells, the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine were more abundant compared to uninfested controls, but the levels of other free amino acids were no longer elevated. Changes in free amino acid abundance described in this report were associated with increased levels of mRNA encoded by wheat genes involved in amino acid synthesis and transport.

  9. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  10. Variability in seed oil content and fatty acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  11. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  12. Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citric acid, and peroxyacids against pathogenic bacteria on poultry during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    del Río, Elena; Muriente, Rebeca; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2007-09-01

    The effects of dipping treatments (15 min) in potable water or in solutions (wt/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP), 1,200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 2% citric acid (CA), and 220 ppm peroxyacids (PA) on inoculated pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica) and skin pH were investigated throughout storage of chicken legs (days 0, 1, 3, and 5) at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. All chemical solutions reduced microbial populations (P < 0.001) as compared with the control (untreated) samples. Similar bacterial loads (P > 0.05) were observed on water-dipped and control legs. Type of treatment, microbial group, and sampling day influenced microbial counts (P < 0.001). Average reductions with regard to control samples were 0.28 to 2.41 log CFU/g with TSP, 0.33 to 3.15 log CFU/g with ASC, 0.82 to 1.97 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.07 to 0.96 log CFU/g with PA. Average reductions were lower (P < 0.001) for gram-positive (0.96 log CFU/g) than for gram-negative (1.33 log CFU/g) bacteria. CA and ASC were the most effective antimicrobial compounds against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. TSP was the second most effective compound for both bacterial groups. Average microbial reductions per gram of skin were 0.87 log CFU/g with TSP, 0.86 log CFU/g with ASC, 1.39 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.74 log CFU/g with PA for gram-positive bacteria, and 1.28 log CFU/g with TSP, 2.03 log CFU/g with ASC, 1.23 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.78 log CFU/g with PA for gram-negative bacteria. With only a few exceptions, microbial reductions in TSP- and ASC-treated samples decreased and those in samples treated with CA increased throughout storage. Samples treated with TSP and samples dipped in CA and ASC had the highest and lowest pH values, respectively, after treatment. The pH of the treated legs tended to return to normal (6.3 to 6.6) during storage. However, at the end of

  13. Dephosphorylation reactions of mono-, di-, and triesters of 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate with deferoxamine and benzohydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Michelle; Orth, Elisa S; Manfredi, Alex M; Pavez, Paulina; Micke, Gustavo A; Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a detailed kinetic and mechanistic study of biologically interesting dephosphorylation reactions involving the exceptionally reactive nucleophilic group, hydroxamate. We compare results for hydroxamate groups anchored on the simple molecular backbone of benzohydroxamate (BHA) and on the more complex structure of the widely used drug, deferoxamine (DFO). BHA shows extraordinary reactivity toward the triester diethyl 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate (DEDNPP) and the diester ethyl 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate (EDNPP) but reacts very slowly with the monoester 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate (DNPP). Nucleophilic attack on phosphorus is confirmed by the detection of the phosphorylated intermediates formed. These undergo Lossen-type rearrangements, resulting in the decomposition of the nucleophile. DFO, which is used therapeutically for the treatment of acute iron intoxication, carries three hydroxamate groups and shows correspondingly high nucleophilic activity toward both triester DEDNPP and diester EDNPP. This result suggests a potential use for DFO in cases of acute poisoning with phosphorus pesticides. PMID:23167539

  14. Improved biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) orv and poly-L-lactic acid blended with nanoparticulate amorphous calcium phosphate in vascular stent applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yujue; Lan, Zhiyuan; Lyu, Yongnan; Feng, Gaoke; Zhang, Yipei; Tagusari, Shizu; Kislauskis, Edward; Robich, Michael P; McCarthy, Stephen; Sellke, Frank W; Laham, Roger; Jiang, Xuejun; Gu, Wei Wang; Wu, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers used as vascular stent coatings and stent platforms encounter a major challenge: biocompatibility in vivo, which plays an important role in in-stent restenosis (ISR). Co-formulating amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was investigated to address the issue. For stent coating applications, metal stents were coated with polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate/poly-n-butyl methacrylate (PEVA/PBMA), PLGA or PLGA/ACP composites, and implanted into rat aortas for one and three months. Comparing with both PEVA/PBMA and PLGA groups after one month, the results showed that stents coated with PLGA/ACP had significantly reduced restenosis (PLGA/ACP vs. PEVA/PBMA vs. PLGA: 21.24 +/- 2.59% vs. 27.54 +/- 1.19% vs. 32.12 +/- 3.93%, P < 0.05), reduced inflammation (1.25 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.77 +/- 0.38 vs. 2.30 +/- 0.21, P < 0.05) and increased speed of re-endothelialization (1.78 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.17 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.18, P < 0.05). After three months, the PLGA/ACP group still displayed lower inflammation score (1.33 +/- 0.33 vs. 2.27 +/- 0.55, P < 0.05) and higher endothelial scores (2.33 +/- 0.33 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.18, P < 0.05) as compared with the PEVA/PBMA group. Moreover, for stent platform applications, PLLA/ACP stent tube significantly reduced the inflammatory cells infiltration in the vessel walls of rabbit iliac arteries relative to their PLLA cohort (NF-kappaB-positive cells: 23.31 +/- 2.33/mm2 vs. 9.34 +/- 1.35/mm2, P < 0.05). No systemic biochemical or pathological evidence of toxicity was found in either PLGA/ACP or PLLA/ACP. The co-formulation of ACP into PLGA and PLLA resulted in improved biocompatibility without systemic toxicity.

  15. Exploring amino acids derivatives as potent, selective, and direct agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype-1.

    PubMed

    Evindar, Ghotas; Deng, Hongfeng; Bernier, Sylvie G; Doyle, Elisabeth; Lorusso, Jeanine; Morgan, Barry A; Westlin, William F

    2013-01-15

    In the quest to discover a potent and selective class of direct agonists to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, we explored the carboxylate functional group as a replacement to previously reported lead phosphates. This has led to the discovery of potent and selective direct agonists with moderate to substantial in vivo lymphopenia. The previously reported selectivity enhancing moiety (SEM) and selectivity enhancing orientation (SEO) in the phenylamide and phenylimidazole scaffolds were crucial to obtaining selectivity for S1P receptor subtype 1 over 3. PMID:23245510

  16. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  17. The effects of growing conditions on oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of some sunflower varieties produced in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alpaslan, M; Gündüz, H

    2000-12-01

    The properties of some extensively cultivated sunflower seed varieties in Turkey and their oils were investigated. 1991-1992 crop year sunflower varieties harvested from Trakya University, Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, Experiment field of Crop Science Department were used as research materials. The oil content, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of sunflower seeds in 1991 and 1992 crop years were determined as 44.2-51.2% (on dry weight basis), 43.0-51.5% (on dry weight basis); oleic acid 14.8-18.5%, 32.9-40.1%; linoleic acid 69.5-74.5%, 49.7-55.7% and tocopherol content (as alpha-tocopherol) 648-860 mg/kg, 524-880 mg/kg, respectively. It was determined that the growing conditions significantly affected the fatty acid compositions of sunflower varieties studied. While the oleic acid content of the 1992 crop increased, the linoleic acid content of the same crop decreased compared to the 1991 crop.

  18. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for the Phenolic Acid Contents and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Tibetan Wild Barley.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengguan; Han, Zhigang; Huang, Yuqing; Hu, Hongliang; Dai, Fei; Zhang, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Phenolic acids have been of considerable interest in human nutrition because of their strong antioxidative properties. However, even in a widely grown crop, such as barley, their genetic architecture is still unclear. In this study, genetic control of two main phenolic acids, ferulic acid (FA) and p-coumaric acid (p-CA), and their associations with agronomic traits were investigated among 134 Tibetan wild barley accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified three DArT markers (bpb-2723, bpb-7199, and bpb-7273) associated with p-CA content and one marker (bpb-3653) associated with FA content in 2 consecutive years. The contents of the two phenolic acids were positively correlated with some agronomic traits, such as the first internode length, plant height, and some grain color parameters, and negatively correlated with the thousand-grain weight (TGW). This study provides DNA markers for barley breeding programs to improve the contents of phenolic acids.

  19. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program.

  20. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded. PMID:23510655

  1. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded.

  2. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts.

  3. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  4. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  5. Structural organization of fatty acid desaturase loci in linseed lines with contrasting linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the richest crop source of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), is a diploid plant with an estimated genome size of ~370 Mb and is well suited for studying genomic organization of agronomically important traits. In this study, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome clones harbouring the six FA desaturase loci sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b from the conventional variety CDC Bethune and the high linolenic acid line M5791 were sequenced, analysed and compared to determine the structural organization of these loci and to gain insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying FA composition in flax. With one gene every 3.2-4.6 kb, the desaturase loci have a higher gene density than the genome's average of one gene per 7.8-8.2 kb. The gene order and orientation across the two genotypes were generally conserved with the exception of the sad1 locus that was predicted to have additional genes in CDC Bethune. High sequence conservation in both genic and intergenic regions of the sad and fad2b loci contrasted with the significant level of variation of the fad2a and fad3 loci, with SNPs being the most frequently observed mutation type. The fad2a locus had 297 SNPs and 36 indels over ~95 kb contrasting with the fad2b locus that had a mere seven SNPs and four indels in ~110 kb. Annotation of the gene-rich loci revealed other genes of known role in lipid or carbohydrate metabolic/catabolic pathways. The organization of the fad2b locus was particularly complex with seven copies of the fad2b gene in both genotypes. The presence of Gypsy, Copia, MITE, Mutator, hAT and other novel repeat elements at the desaturase loci was similar to that of the whole genome. This structural genomic analysis provided some insights into the genomic organization and composition of the main desaturase loci of linseed and of their complex evolution through both tandem and whole genome duplications. PMID:27142663

  6. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content....

  7. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content....

  8. 40 CFR 436.180 - Applicability; description of the phosphate rock subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phosphate rock subcategory. 436.180 Section 436.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORY Phosphate Rock Subcategory § 436.180 Applicability; description of the phosphate rock... bearing rock, ore or earth for the phosphate content....

  9. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  10. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation. PMID:27107771

  11. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  12. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-base Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, Michal; van Driel, Jan

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students’ difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1) students’ difficulties in understanding acid-base chemistry and (2) models of acids and bases in their teaching practice. In the interviews, the teachers were asked to comment on authentic student responses collected in a previous study that included student interviews about their understanding of acids and bases. Further, the teachers drew story-lines representing their level of satisfaction with their acid-base teaching. The results show that, although all teachers recognised some of the students’ difficulties as confusion between models, only a few chose to emphasise the different models of acids and bases. Most of the teachers thought it was sufficient to distinguish clearly between the phenomenological level and the particle level. The ways the teachers reflected on their teaching, in order to improve it, also differed. Some teachers reflected more on students’ difficulties; others were more concerned about their own performance. Implications for chemistry (teacher) education are discussed.

  13. Matching phosphate and maleate buffer systems for dissolution of weak acids: Equivalence in terms of buffer capacity of bulk solution or surface pH?

    PubMed

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    The development of in vitro dissolution tests able to anticipate the in vivo fate of drug products has challenged pharmaceutical scientists over time, especially in the case of ionizable compounds. In the seminal model proposed by Mooney et al. thirty-five years ago, the pH at the solid-liquid interface (pH0) was identified as a key parameter in predicting dissolution rate. In the current work it is demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution of the weak acid ibuprofen in maleate and phosphate buffer systems is a function of the pH0, which in turn is affected by properties of the drug and the medium. The reported pH0 for ibuprofen dissolution in bicarbonate buffer, the predominant buffer species in the human small intestine under fasting conditions, can be achieved by reducing the phosphate buffer concentration to 5.0mM or the maleate buffer concentration to 2.2mM. Using this approach to identify the appropriate buffer/buffer capacity combination for in vitro experiments in FaSSIF-type media, it would be possible to increase the physiological relevance of this important biopharmaceutics tool. However, the necessity of monitoring and adjusting the bulk pH during the experiments carried out in 5.0mM phosphate or 2.2mM maleate buffers must also be taken into consideration. PMID:27032508

  14. Matching phosphate and maleate buffer systems for dissolution of weak acids: Equivalence in terms of buffer capacity of bulk solution or surface pH?

    PubMed

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    The development of in vitro dissolution tests able to anticipate the in vivo fate of drug products has challenged pharmaceutical scientists over time, especially in the case of ionizable compounds. In the seminal model proposed by Mooney et al. thirty-five years ago, the pH at the solid-liquid interface (pH0) was identified as a key parameter in predicting dissolution rate. In the current work it is demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution of the weak acid ibuprofen in maleate and phosphate buffer systems is a function of the pH0, which in turn is affected by properties of the drug and the medium. The reported pH0 for ibuprofen dissolution in bicarbonate buffer, the predominant buffer species in the human small intestine under fasting conditions, can be achieved by reducing the phosphate buffer concentration to 5.0mM or the maleate buffer concentration to 2.2mM. Using this approach to identify the appropriate buffer/buffer capacity combination for in vitro experiments in FaSSIF-type media, it would be possible to increase the physiological relevance of this important biopharmaceutics tool. However, the necessity of monitoring and adjusting the bulk pH during the experiments carried out in 5.0mM phosphate or 2.2mM maleate buffers must also be taken into consideration.

  15. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers.

  16. Decrease in essential fatty acid content of edible fats during the frying process.

    PubMed

    Gere, A

    1982-09-01

    Degradation of sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, and lard during the frying operation was investigated by studying the loss of essential fatty acids compared to the accumulation of decomposition products. Linoleic and/or linolenic acid concentration was measured by GLC, and for detecting decomposition products determination of polymer content by GPC was chosen. Twelve laboratory experiments with different heating or frying conditions were run aimed at modelling practice and studying the effects of certain factors. The results indicated that loss of essential fatty acids being a parallel process to the accumulation of breakdown products is suitable both for detecting the decrease in nutritive value and for quality assessment of used frying fats. It was also found that the rate of deterioration is considerably affected by the nature of fat and the frying parameters. Study of the relationship between polymer content and the decrease in essential fatty acid concentration (using data from 110 samples) showed that high, linear correlation depending on the nature of fat can be found. Correlation coefficients and equations of regression lines were calculated.

  17. Chromatographic method for determination of the free amino acid content of chamomile flowers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoli; Zhao, Dongsheng; Li, Xinxia; Meng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the free amino acid contents of chamomile flowers using reverse-phase high-performance column chromatography preceded by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC), and to determine the reliability of this method. Materials and Methods: Derivatization with reconstituted AQC was used to prepare the samples and standards for injection into the chromatography column. The peaks were analyzed by fluorescence detection (λ excitation, 250 nm; λ emission, 395 nm. Results: Alanine, proline, and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tyrosine and methionine were the least abundant. The linearity of the method was found to be good with amino acid concentrations of 0.012-0.36 μM. The precision was 0.05-1.36%; average recovery, 91.12-129.41%; and limit of detection, 0.006-0.058 μM. Conclusion: The method is reliable for determining the free amino acid content of different types of chamomile flowers. PMID:25709230

  18. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers. PMID:23993490

  19. Measurement of sialic acid content is insufficient to assess bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shigehiro; Taniguchi, Yuya; Hosono, Mareto; Yoshioka, Eiji; Ishikawa, Rika; Shimada, Yoshihiro; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kutsukake, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of biological potency and its comparison with clinical effects are important in the quality control of therapeutic glycoproteins. Animal models are usually used for evaluating bioactivity of these compounds. However, alternative methods are required to simplify the bioassay and avoid ethical issues associated with animal studies. Negatively charged sialic acid residues are known to be critical for in vivo bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). In this study, we used capillary zone electrophoresis, a charge-based separation method, to estimate the sialic acid content for predicting in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. In vivo bioactivities of rhEPO subfractions were measured and compared with sialylation levels. The results obtained indicated that in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO is not simply correlated with the sialylation level, which suggests that it is difficult to predict biological potency from the sialic acid content alone. N-Glycan moieties as well as sialic acid residues may have a significant impact on in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. PMID:20823580

  20. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  1. Amino acid contents along the visual and equatorial axes of a pig lens by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C.; Frausto-Reyes, C.; Quintanar-Stephano, J. L.; Sato-Berrú, R.

    2004-08-01

    Using near infrared Raman microspectroscopy with laser light of 830 nm, the distribution of amino acids along the visual and equatorial axes of a normal pig lens was studied. The classification of pig lens Raman spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The analysis of the scattered light selectively collected from point to point, along the visual axis, indicated that the tyrosine and tryptophan increases and then, at ˜4 mm position, decreases. Moreover, in the equatorial plane, the nuclear part has the highest concentration of these amino acids. However, the phenylalanine content increases from anterior to posterior cortex of the lens as long as in the equatorial axis it slightly increases and then at ˜2-2.3 mm position, decreases. The changes in amino acid conformation along the visual axis, similarly to the changes in protein conformation, may explain the refractive gradient of the lens.

  2. Amino acid contents along the visual and equatorial axes of a pig lens by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R

    2004-08-01

    Using near infrared Raman microspectroscopy with laser light of 830 nm, the distribution of amino acids along the visual and equatorial axes of a normal pig lens was studied. The classification of pig lens Raman spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis. The analysis of the scattered light selectively collected from point to point, along the visual axis, indicated that the tyrosine and tryptophan increases and then, at approximately 4 mm position, decreases. Moreover, in the equatorial plane, the nuclear part has the highest concentration of these amino acids. However, the phenylalanine content increases from anterior to posterior cortex of the lens as long as in the equatorial axis it slightly increases and then at approximately 2-2.3 mm position, decreases. The changes in amino acid conformation along the visual axis, similarly to the changes in protein conformation, may explain the refractive gradient of the lens.

  3. Reduction of polyphenol and phytic acid content of pearl millet grains by malting and blanching.

    PubMed

    Archana; Sehgal, S; Kawatra, A

    1999-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the changes in polyphenol and phytic acid content in malted and blanched pearl millet grains. For malting, grains were steeped for 16 hours, germinated for 48 or 72 hours and then kilned at 50 degrees C for 24 hours. Blanching was done for 30 seconds in boiling water at 98 degrees C. Results indicated that blanching resulted in significant reduction in polyphenol (28%) and phytic acids (38%). Destruction of polyphenols (38 to 48%) and phytic acid (46 to 50%) was significantly higher in grains subjected to malting than blanching: The overall results suggested that malting with 72 hours of germination was most effective in reducing the antinutrient levels of pearl millet grains.

  4. [Phosphate binders].

    PubMed

    Heeb, Rita M

    2016-06-01

    Phosphate binders to treat hyperphosphataemia are part of the medication regime of every dialysis patient. Phosphate binders are taken with every meal (three times a day). Generally, the medication adherence rates of phosphate binders are very low. This is due to inconveniences like their bad taste or their size which makes them hard to swallow. Also nephrologists have differing opinions on phosphate binders as they are aware of the dialysis patients' difficulties to deal with the amount of drugs they are prescribed. Still, phosphate binders are important drugs which have shown potential in reducing mortality by regulating the level of serum phosphate. In order to improve adherence rates, pharmacists have to advise the patients on these drugs' side effects versus the risks associated with omitting their intake. PMID:27439258

  5. Ribonucleic Acid, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, and Protein Content of Cells of Different Ages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Relationship to Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Anne S.; Youmans, Guy P.

    1968-01-01

    The amount of ribonucleic acid (RNA), protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was determined in pellicle cultures of different ages of the H37Ra strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, grown on a synthetic medium. We found that the highest content of RNA and protein was present in 2-week-old cultures, indicating that these cells were in the logarithmic phase of growth. DNA content was highest at 1 and 2 weeks. The amount of all three compounds then decreased about 50% during the following 6 weeks. Two-week-old cells should therefore be used for preparation of the immunogenic ribosomal fraction. The optimal concentration of zinc chloride increased RNA and protein synthesis, and also improved the appearance of the pellicle growth. Two-week-old cells, which contained the largest amount of RNA and protein, immunized mice significantly better than older cells. Since protein and DNA are not involved in the production of immunity, a correlation could be made between amount of RNA and the capacity of viable H37Ra cells to immunize mice. The immunizing capacity of these cells was not affected by ribonuclease, probably because the ribonuclease did not penetrate into the whole cells. PMID:4966539

  6. Polycarboxylic acids as network modifiers for water durability improvement of inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate low-melting glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Menaa, Bouzid . E-mail: bouzidmenaa@noncry.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Mizuno, Megumi; Takahashi, Masahide . E-mail: masahide@noncry.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2006-02-15

    We investigated the water durability of the inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate glasses Me{sub 2}SiO-SnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (Me designs the organic methyl group) doped with organic acids (salicylic acid (SA), tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (Canada) and butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)) containing one or more of carboxylic groups per molecule. The structure, thermal properties and durability of the final glasses obtained via a non-aqueous acid-base reaction were discussed owing to the nature and the concentration of the acid added. {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 31}P MAS NMR spectra, respectively, showed clearly a modification of the network in the host glass matrix of the Me{sub 2}SiO-SnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system. The polycondensation enhancement to form -P-O-Si-O-P- linkages (PSP) and the increase of the Q {sup 2} unit (two bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) over the Q {sup 3} unit (three bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) as a function of the acid in the order SAacids containing a large number of carboxylic groups per molecule. The presence of carboxylic groups of the acid acting as network modifier may retard the movement of water molecules through the glasses due to the steric hindrance strengthening the PSP connections in a chain-like structure.

  7. Phosphate supply explains variation in nucleic acid allocation but not C : P stoichiometry in the Western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.; Allison, S. D.

    2013-10-01

    Marine microbial communities mediate many biogeochemical transformations in the ocean. Consequently, processes such as primary production and carbon (C) export are linked to nutrient regeneration and are influenced by the resource demand and elemental composition of marine microbial biomass. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that differential partitioning of element resources to various cellular components can directly influence overall cellular elemental ratios, especially with respect to growth machinery (i.e., ribosomal RNA) and phosphorus (P) allocation. To investigate whether allocation to RNA is related to biomass P content and overall C : P biomass composition in the open ocean, we characterized patterns of P allocation and C : P elemental ratios along an environmental gradient of P-supply in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (NASG) from 35.67° N 64.17° W to 22.67° N 65.52° W. Because the NASG is characterized as a P-stressed ecosystem, we hypothesized that biochemical allocation would reflect sensitivity to bioavailable P, such that greater P supply would result in increased allocation toward P-rich RNA for growth. We expected these changes in allocation to also result in lower C : P ratios with increased P supply. In contrast to our predictions however, bulk C : P ratios were decoupled from allocation to nucleic acids and did not vary systematically across a P supply gradient of 2.2-14.7 μmol m-2 d-1. Overall, we found that C : P ratios ranged from 188-306 along the transect, and RNA represented only 6-12% of total particulate P, whereas DNA represented 11-19%. However, we did find that allocation to RNA was positively correlated with SRP supply rate, suggesting a consistent physiological response in biochemical allocation to resource supply within the whole community. These results suggest that community composition or non-nucleic acid P pools may influence ecosystem scale variation in C : P stoichiometry more than nucleic acid allocation or

  8. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat.

  9. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  10. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  11. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  12. Effects of Liming on Forage Availability and Nutrient Content in a Forest Impacted by Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Pabian, Sarah E.; Ermer, Nathan M.; Tzilkowski, Walter M.; Brittingham, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  13. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  14. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  15. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  16. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  17. Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  18. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding. PMID:27001403

  19. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding.

  20. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  1. Chemical profile and seasonal variation of phenolic acid content in bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa; Pietraszek, Jacek

    2012-07-01

    Melittis melissophyllum L. is an old medicinal plant. Nowadays it is only used in the folk medicine but formerly it has been applied in the official medicine as a natural product described in French Pharmacopoeia. M. melissophyllum herbs used in our studies were collected from two localities in Poland in May and September. Methanolic plant extracts were purified by means of solid-phase extraction and then analysed by HPLC-DAD for their phenolic acid profile. Eleven compounds were identified in all plant samples and quantitatively analysed as: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acid. Plant materials contained free and bound phenolic acids. The main compounds were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (30.21-54.16 mg/100 g dw and 37.04-56.75 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively) and p-coumaric acid (40.48-80.55 mg/100 g dw and 28.09-40.85 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively). The highest amounts of the investigated compounds were found in all samples collected in September, e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic acid (September 51.72-54.16 mg/100 g dw vs. May 30.21-34.07 mg/100 g dw), p-coumaric acid (September 77.14-80.55 mg/100 g dw vs. May 40.48-43.2 5mg/100 g dw). Multivariate statistical and data mining techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to characterize the sample populations according to the geographical localities, vegetation period and compound form (free or bound). To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the results of quantitative analysis of M. melissophyllum phenolic acids and seasonal variation of their content. Plant herbs are usually collected at flowering for plant derived medical preparations. Our results show that it is not always the optimal time for the highest contents of active compounds. PMID:22513117

  2. The effects of antioxidants on the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hen's egg.

    PubMed

    Kassab, A; Abrams, J T; Sainsbury, D W

    1979-01-01

    In experiments to see whether, in the possible interests of human health, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the chicken's egg can be increased by nutritional means, three strains of hen, light, medium, and heavy, each at the peak of lay, were first fed a basal, commercial, low-fat diet. The hens were then transferred to one of the following diets: basal + safflower oil (SO); basal + SO + butylated hydroxytoluene; or basal + SO + dl-a-toco-pheryl acetate. The diets were designated "Blank", "BHT", and "Vitamin E", respectively, the second and third containing the added antioxidants. The eggs produced were weighed, and their yolks weighed and analysed for lipid components. Additional of SO (7.5%) to the basal diet led to the PUFA content of the yolk lipids rising by 15.4% (linoleic acid, 14.1%), the magnitude of the increases being unaffected by the antioxidants. Diet "BHT" produced larger eggs and yolks than the other diets, but the proportion of yolk was the same on the three types of feed. The total cholesterol content of egg yolks was significantly affected neither by diet, nor by strain or age of hen. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:468476

  3. Phenylketonuria: protein content and amino acids profile of dishes for phenylketonuric patients. The relevance of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Filipa B; Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Torres, Duarte; Almeida, Manuela F; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-04-15

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism, involving, in most cases, a deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase. Neonatal diagnosis and a prompt special diet (low phenylalanine and natural-protein restricted diets) are essential to the treatment. The lack of data concerning phenylalanine contents of processed foodstuffs is an additional limitation for an already very restrictive diet. Our goals were to quantify protein (Kjeldahl method) and amino acid (18) content (HPLC/fluorescence) in 16 dishes specifically conceived for phenylketonuric patients, and compare the most relevant results with those of several international food composition databases. As might be expected, all the meals contained low protein levels (0.67-3.15 g/100 g) with the highest ones occurring in boiled rice and potatoes. These foods also contained the highest amounts of phenylalanine (158.51 and 62.65 mg/100 g, respectively). In contrast to the other amino acids, it was possible to predict phenylalanine content based on protein alone. Slight deviations were observed when comparing results with the different food composition databases.

  4. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential.

  5. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. PMID:23548399

  6. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  7. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  8. Pore-water distribution and quantification of diffusive benthic fluxes of silicic acid, nitrate and phosphate in surface sediments of the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandel, Sibylle; Rickert, Dirk; Schlüter, Michael; Wallmann, Klaus

    Benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions of silicic acid, nitrate and phosphate were investigated for surface sediments of the abyssal Arabian Sea during four cruises (1995-1998). Five sites located in the northern (NAST), western (WAST), central (CAST), eastern (EAST), and southern (SAST) Arabian Sea were revisited during intermonsoonal periods after the NE- and SW-Monsoon. At these sites, benthic fluxes of remineralized nutrients from the sediment to the bottom water of 36-106, 102-350 and 4-16 mmol m -2 yr -1 were measured for nitrate, silicic acid and phosphate, respectively. The benthic fluxes and pore-water compositions showed a distinct regional pattern. Highest fluxes were observed in the western and northern region of the Arabian Sea, whereas decreasing fluxes were derived towards the southeast. At WAST, the general temporal pattern of primary production, related to the NE- and SW-Monsoon, is reflected by benthic fluxes. In contrast, at sites NAST, SAST, CAST, and EAST a temporal pattern of fluxes in response to the monsoon is not obvious. Our results reveal a clear coupling between the general regional pattern of production in surface waters and the response of the benthic environment, as indicated by the flux of remineralized nutrients, though a spatially differing degree of decoupling during transport and remineralization of particulate organic matter and biogenic opal was observed. This has to be taken into account regarding budget calculations and paleoceanographic topics.

  9. Zoledronic acid inhibits the pentose phosphate pathway through attenuating the Ras-TAp73-G6PD axis in bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Wu, Guang; Cao, Guangxin; Yang, Lei; Xu, Haifei; Huang, Jian; Hou, Jianquan

    2015-09-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is the current standard of care for the therapy of patients with bone metastasis or osteoporosis. ZA inhibits the prenylation of small guanosine‑5'-triphosphate (GTP)‑binding proteins, such as Ras, and thus inhibit Ras signaling. The present study demonstrated that ZA inhibited cell proliferation and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in bladder cancer cells. In addition, the expression of glucose‑6‑phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, the rate‑limiting enzyme of the PPP) was found to be inhibited by ZA. Furthermore, the stability of TAp73, which activates the expression G6PD was decreased in zoledronic acid treated cells. Decreased levels of Ras‑GTP and phosphorylated‑extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 were also observed following treatment with ZA. This may be due to the fact that activated Ras was reported to stabilize TAp73 inducing its accumulation. The inhibition of Ras activity by PT inhibitor II also significantly reduced the levels of TAp73 and G6PD and the PPP flux. Moreover, knockdown of TAp73, attenuated the PPP flux and eliminated the affection of ZA on the PPP flux. In conclusion, it was proposed that ZA can inhibit stability of TAp73 and attenuate the PPP via blocking Ras signaling in bladder cancer cells.

  10. Geographic variation in the relationships of temperature, salinity or sigma sub t versus plant nutrient concentrations in the world ocean. [silicic acid, nitrate, and phosphate concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamykowski, D.; Zentara, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A NODC data set representing all regions of the world ocean was analyzed for temperature and sigma-t relationships with nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid. Six cubic regressions were for each ten degree square of latitude and longitude containing adequate data. World maps display the locations that allow the prediction of plant nutrient concentrations from temperature or sigma-t. Geographic coverage improves along the sequence: nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid and is better for sigma-t than for temperature. Contour maps of the approximate temperature of sigma-t at which these nitrients are no longer measurable in a parcel of water are generated, based on a percentile analysis of the temperature or sigma-t at which less than a selected amount of plant nutrient occurs. Results are stored on magnetic tape in tabular form. The global potential to predict plant nutrient concentrations from remotely sensed temperature of sigma-t and to emphasize the latitudinally and longitudinally changing phytoplankton growth environment in present and past oceans is demonstrated.

  11. Effects of phosphate deficiency and sugars on expression of rab18 in Arabidopsis: hexokinase-dependent and okadaic acid-sensitive transduction of the sugar signal.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, Iwona; Kleczkowski, Leszek A

    2002-11-13

    The lack of phosphorus in the nutrient medium increased the expression of rab18, an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive gene, in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of this gene was also upregulated after feeding the excised leaves with D-mannose and sucrose for both wild-type (wt) and aba1 (ABA-deficient) mutant plants. For aba1 mutants, both the phosphate deficiency and sugar effects on rab18 were weaker than in wt plants, suggesting possible involvement of both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent components in signalling. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants with increased hexokinase (HXK) expression had a much higher sucrose-dependent level of rab18 mRNA, implying the HXK involvement in sensing/transmitting the sugar signal. Sucrose-related induction of rab18 was completely inhibited by okadaic acid (OKA), suggesting the involvement of specific protein phosphatase(s) in transduction of the sugar signal. The results suggest that rab18 is regulated via interaction of a plethora of signals, including ABA, sugar and phosphate deficiency, and that the sugar effect is transmitted via a HXK-pathway, involving OKA-sensitive component(s). The findings prompt caution in linking the expression of rab18 solely to ABA signalling.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Alpay; Ar, İrfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  13. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Bovine heart fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase: complete amino acid sequence and localization of phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, J; Uyeda, K

    1990-01-01

    We have shown previously that bovine heart fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (EC 2.7.1.105/3.1.3.46) is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C; phosphorylation results in activation of kinase. This activation of heart enzyme is in contrast to results with the liver isozyme, in which phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the kinase activity. As an initial step toward understanding this difference between the isozymes we have determined the DNA sequence of the heart enzyme and analyzed the amino acid sequence with special emphasis on the location of the phosphorylation site. We isolated and sequenced two overlapping cDNA fragments, which together could encode the complete amino acid sequence of bovine heart fructose-6-phosphate 2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, a protein of 530 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 60,679. Since the deduced protein contained amino acid sequences identical to the sequences of four known tryptic peptides from this enzyme we concluded that the deduced protein sequence did represent bovine heart enzyme. In addition, a cDNA fragment hybridized to a 4-kilobase mRNA from bovine heart. The phosphorylation sites of the heart enzyme were located near the C terminus, whereas the phosphorylation site of the liver isozyme is known to be located near the N terminus. These opposite locations of the phosphorylation sites may explain the contrasting effect of the covalent modification on the enzymes' activities. Images PMID:2164212

  15. Tuning the degradation rate of calcium phosphate cements by incorporating mixtures of polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres and glucono-delta-lactone microparticles.

    PubMed

    Sariibrahimoglu, Kemal; An, Jie; van Oirschot, Bart A J A; Nijhuis, Arnold W G; Eman, Rhandy M; Alblas, Jacqueline; Wolke, Joop G C; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Jansen, John A

    2014-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are frequently used as synthetic bone graft materials in view of their excellent osteocompatibility and clinical handling behavior. Hydroxyapatite-forming CPCs, however, degrade at very low rates, thereby limiting complete bone regeneration. The current study has investigated whether degradation of apatite-forming cements can be tuned by incorporating acid-producing slow-resorbing poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) porogens, fast-resorbing glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) porogens, or mixtures thereof. The physicochemical, mechanical, and degradation characteristics of these CPC formulations were systematically analyzed upon soaking in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In parallel, various CPC formulations were implanted intramuscularly and orthotopically on top of the transverse process of goats followed by analysis of the soft tissue response and bone ingrowth after 12 weeks. In vitro degradation of GDL was almost completed after 2 weeks, as evidenced by characterization of the release of gluconic acid, while PLGA-containing CPCs released glycolic acid throughout the entire study (12 weeks), resulting in a decrease in compression strength of CPC. Extensive in vitro degradation of the CPC matrix was observed upon simultaneous incorporation of 30% PLGA-10% GDL. Histomorphometrical evaluation of the intramuscularly implanted samples revealed that all CPCs exhibited degradation, accompanied by an increase in capsule thickness. In the in vivo goat transverse process model, incorporation of 43% PLGA, 30% PLGA-5% GDL, and 30% PLGA-10% GDL in CPC significantly increased bone formation and resulted in higher bone height compared with both 10% GDL and 20% GDL-containing CPC samples.

  16. Distribution of natural radionuclides in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saueia, C H R; Mazzilli, B P

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-products. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material presents in its composition radionuclides of the U and Th natural series. Taking this into account, the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclides and radioactive disequilibria involved in the Brazilian industrial process of phosphoric acid production; to determine the content of radioactivity in several commercial fertilizers produced by this industry; to estimate their radiological impact in crop soils and the long term exposure due to their application. Radiological characterization of phosphate rock, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The fertilizer samples, which are derived directly from phosphoric acid, MAP and DAP, presented in their composition low activity concentrations for 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb. As for U and Th, the concentrations found in MAP and DAP are more significant, up to 822 and 850Bqkg(-1), respectively. SSP and TSP, which are obtained by mixing phosphoric acid with different amounts of phosphate rock, presented higher concentrations of radionuclides, up to 1158Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, 1167Bqkg(-1) for (234)U, 1169Bqkg(-1) for 230Th, 879Bqkg(-1) for 226Ra, 1255Bqkg(-1) for 210Pb, 521Bqkg(-1) for 232Th, 246Bqkg(-1) for 228Ra and 302Bqkg(-1) for 228Th. Long term exposure due to successive fertilizer applications was evaluated. Internal doses due to the application of phosphate fertilizer for 10, 50 and 100 years were below 1mSvy(-1), showing that the radiological impact of such practice is negligible. PMID:16849030

  17. Coffee component 3-caffeoylquinic acid increases antioxidant capacity but not polyphenol content in experimental cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Crespo, Silvia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M; Cavia-Saiz, Monica; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Although coffee has antioxidant capacity, it is not known which of its bioactive compounds is responsible for it, nor has it been analyzed in experimental cerebral infarction. We studied the effect one of its compounds, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), at doses of 4, 25 and 100 μg on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma polyphenol content, measuring the differences before and after inducing a cerebral infarction in an experimental rat model. We compared them with 3-caffeoylquinic-free controls. The increase in total antioxidant capacity was only higher than in controls in 3-CQA treated animals with the highest dose. This increase in antioxidant capacity was not due to an increase in polyphenols. No differences between the experimental and control group were found regarding polyphenol content and cerebral infarction volume. In conclusion, this increase in antioxidant capacity in the group that received the highest dose of 3-CQA was not able to reduce experimental cerebral infarction.

  18. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    PubMed

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits.

  19. Cardiolipin linoleic acid content and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity are associated in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner-mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that is important for optimal mitochondrial function. Specifically, CL and CL linoleic (18:2ω6) content are known to be positively associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. However, this association has not been examined in skeletal muscle. In this study, rats were fed high-fat diets with a naturally occurring gradient in linoleic acid (coconut oil [CO], 5.8%; flaxseed oil [FO], 13.2%; safflower oil [SO], 75.1%) in an attempt to alter both mitochondrial CL fatty acyl composition and COX activity in rat mixed hind-limb muscle. In general, mitochondrial membrane lipid composition was fairly resistant to dietary treatments as only modest changes in fatty acyl composition were detected in CL and other major mitochondrial phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). As a result of this resistance, CL 18:2ω6 content was not different between the dietary groups. Consistent with the lack of changes in CL 18:2ω6 content, mitochondrial COX activity was also not different between the dietary groups. However, correlational analysis using data obtained from rats across the dietary groups showed a significant relationship (p = 0.009, R(2) = 0.21). Specifically, our results suggest that CL 18:2ω6 content may positively influence mitochondrial COX activity thereby making this lipid molecule a potential factor related to mitochondrial health and function in skeletal muscle.

  20. Hydroxamic acid content and toxicity of rye at selected growth stages.

    PubMed

    Rice, Clifford P; Park, Yong Bong; Adam, Frédérick; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Teasdale, John R

    2005-08-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important cover crop that provides many benefits to cropping systems including weed and pest suppression resulting from allelopathic substances. Hydroxamic acids have been identified as allelopathic compounds in rye. This research was conducted to improve the methodology for quantifying hydroxamic acids and to determine the relationship between hydroxamic acid content and phytotoxicity of extracts of rye root and shoot tissue harvested at selected growth stages. Detection limits for an LC/MS-MS method for analysis of hydroxamic acids from crude aqueous extracts were better than have been reported previously. (2R)-2-beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA-G), 2,4-dihydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIBOA), benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), and the methoxy-substituted form of these compounds, (2R)-2-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA glucose), 2,4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA), were all detected in rye tissue. DIBOA and BOA were prevalent in shoot tissue, whereas the methoxy-substituted compounds, DIMBOA glucose and MBOA, were prevalent in root tissue. Total hydroxamic acid concentration in rye tissue generally declined with age. Aqueous crude extracts of rye shoot tissue were more toxic than extracts of root tissue to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) root length. Extracts of rye seedlings (Feekes growth stage 2) were most phytotoxic, but there was no pattern to the phytotoxicity of extracts of rye sampled at growth stages 4 to 10.5.4, and no correlation of hydroxamic acid content and phytotoxicity (I50 values). Analysis of dose-response model slope coefficients indicated a lack of parallelism among models for rye extracts from different growth stages, suggesting that phytotoxicity may be attributed to compounds with different modes of action at

  1. [Effects of exogenous nitric oxide, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide on free amino acid and soluble protein contents in tobacco leaves].

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Li-Min; Long, Rui-Jun; Wang, Gen-Xuan

    2006-04-01

    The work focused on the effects of signal molecules of nitric oxide (NO), salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) on compounds of nitric metabolites of free amino acid, soluble protein and proline in tobacco. The results indicated that NO, SA and H(2)O(2) were able to regulate the proline, free amino acid and soluble protein content in tobacco. Lower concentration of NO and H(2)O(2) raised the level of proline; while higher concentration of NO and H(2)O(2) lowered the proline, free amino acid content in tobacco. The above three signal molecules also showed similar effects on proline, free amino acid and soluble protein content in tobacco.

  2. Establishing safe and potentially efficacious fortification contents for folic acid and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    Dary, Omar

    2008-06-01

    Determining the micronutrient contents infortified foods depends not only on the health goal (additional intake to complement the diet), but also on ensuring that fortification does not raise micronutrient intakes beyond the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL), i.e., the safe limit. Technological incompatibility and cost may also restrict the fortification contents. For folic acid, the limiting factor is safety, while for vitamin B12, it is cost. However, adequate fortification contents that are both safe and efficacious can be estimated for both nutrients. In order to obtain the maximum benefit from the fortification programs, three different formulas responding to three categories of consumption, as specified by the median and 95th percentile of consumption, are proposed. The model presented is based on the estimation of a Feasible Fortification Level (FFL), which then is used to determine the average, minimum, and maximum contents of the nutrients during production, taking into consideration the acceptable variation of the fortification process. Finally, the regulatory parameters, which support standards and enforcement, are calculated by reducing the proportion of the nutrient that is degraded during the usual marketing process of the fortified food. It is expected that this model will establish a common standard for food fortification, and improve the reliability and enforcement procedures of these programs. The model was applied to flours as vehicles for folic acid in the United States, Guatemala, and Chile. Analysis of the data revealed that, with the exception of Chile, where wheat flour consumption is very high and probably within a narrow range, supplementation with folic acid is still needed to cover individuals at the low end of consumption. This is especially true when the difference in flour consumption is too wide, as in the case of Guatemala, where the proportional difference between consumption at the 95th percentile of the nonpoor group is as high

  3. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  4. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  5. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  6. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2007-09-01

    The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable. PMID:17594521

  7. Hierarchically structured meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content in acid catalysed esterification of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Arnaud; Wang, Quan-Yi; Wei, Yingxu; Liu, Zhongmin; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-11-15

    A simple synthesis pathway has been developed for the design of hierarchically structured spongy or spherical voids assembled meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content on the basis of the aqueous polymerisation of new stabilized alkoxy-bridged single molecular precursors. The intimate mixing of an aluminosilicate ester (sec-BuO)(2)-Al-O-Si(OEt)(3) and a silica co-reactant (tetramethoxysilane, TMOS) with variable ratios and the use of alkaline solutions (pH 13.0 and 13.5) improve significantly the heterocondensation rates between the highly reactive aluminium alkoxide part of the single precursor and added silica co-reactant, leading to aluminosilicate materials with high intra-framework aluminium content and low Si/Al ratios. The spherically-shaped meso-macroporosity was spontaneously generated by the release of high amount of liquid by-products (water/alcohol molecules) produced during the rapid hydrolysis and condensation processes of this double alkoxide and the TMOS co-reactant. It has been observed that both pH value and Al-Si/TMOS molar ratio can strongly affect the macroporous structure formation. Increasing pH value, even slightly from 13 to 13.5, can significantly favour the incorporation of Al atoms in tetrahedral position of the framework. After the total ionic exchange of Na(+) compensating cations, catalytic tests of obtained materials were realised in the esterification reaction of high free fatty acid (FFA) oils, showing their higher catalytic activity compared to commercial Bentonite clay, and their potential applications as catalyst supports in acid catalysed reactions.

  8. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  9. PuPO4(cr, hyd.) Solubility Product and Pu3+ Complexes With Phosphate and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bolton, Harvey

    2010-06-15

    To determine the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) and the complexation constants of Pu(III) with phosphate and EDTA, the solubility of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) was investigated as a function of: 1) time and pH varying from 1.0 to 12.0 and at a fixed 0.00032 M phosphate concentration; 2) NaH2PO4 concentrations varying from 0.0001 M to 1.0 M and at a fixed pH value of 2.5; 3) time and pH varying from 1.3 to 13.0 at fixed concentrations of 0.00032 M phosphate and 0.0004 M or 0.002 M Na2H2EDTA; and 4) Na2H2EDTA concentrations varying from 0.00005 M to 0.0256 M at a fixed 0.00032 M phosphate concentration and at pH values of approximately 3.5, 10.6, and 12.6. A combination of solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques confirmed that the use of hydroquinone and Na2S2O4 helped maintain Pu as Pu(III). The solubility data were interpreted using Pitzer and SIT models, and both provided similar values for the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) and for the formation constant of PuEDTA-. The log10 of the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) (PuPO4(cr, hyd.) = Pu3+ + PO4 ) was determined to be –(24.42 ± 0.38). Pitzer modeling showed that phosphate interactions with Pu3+ were extremely weak and did not require any phosphate complexes (e.g., PuPO4(aq), PuH2PO42+, Pu(H2PO4)2+, Pu(H2PO4)3(aq), and Pu(H2PO4)4-), as proposed in existing literature, to explain the experimental data. SIT modeling, however, required the inclusion of PuH2PO42+ to explain the data in high NaH2PO4 concentrations; this illustrates the differences one can expect when using these two chemical models to interpret the data. As the Pu(III)-EDTA species, only PuEDTA- was needed to interpret the experimental data in a large range in pH values (1.3–12.9) and EDTA concentrations (0.00005–0.256 M). Calculations based on density functional theory support the existence of PuEDTA- (with prospective stoichiometry as Pu(OH2)3EDTA-) as the chemically and structurally stable species. The log10 of the

  10. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  11. Effects of citrate and NaCl on size, morphology, crystallinity and microstructure of calcium phosphates obtained from aqueous solutions at acidic or near-neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Mekmene, Omar; Rouillon, Thierry; Quillard, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Pezennec, Stéphane; Gaucheron, Frédéric

    2012-05-01

    Precipitation of calcium phosphates occurs in dairy products and depending on pH and ionic environment, several salts with different crystallinity can form. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of NaCl and citrate on the characteristics of precipitates obtained from model solutions of calcium phosphate at pH 6·70 maintained constant or left to drift. The ion speciation calculations showed that all the starting solutions were supersaturated with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the order HAP>OCP>DCPD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses of the precipitates showed that DCPD was formed at drifting pH (acidic final pH) whereas poor crystallised calcium deficient apatite was mainly formed at constant pH (6·70). Laser light scattering measurements and electron microscopy observations showed that citrate had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the crystallisation of calcium phosphates both at drifting and constant pH. This resulted in the decrease of the particle sizes and the modification of the morphology and the microstructure of the precipitates. The inhibitory effect of citrate mainly acted by the adsorption of the citrate molecules onto the surfaces of newly formed nuclei of calcium phosphate, thereby changing the morphology of the growing particles. These findings are relevant for the understanding of calcium phosphate precipitation from dairy byproducts that contain large amounts of NaCl and citrate. PMID:22559064

  12. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  13. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  14. Prolonged swimming exercise does not affect contents and fatty acids composition of rat muscle triacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether or not muscle triacylglycerol (MTG) contributed as a main energy source and MTG level and utilized fatty acid (FA) composition decreased during a 4-hour swimming exercise in rats fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD). Sixty male Wistar rats aged 5 weeks were fed a normal diet (CE-2, n = 25, experiment A) or HFD (n = 35, experiment B) for 22 days. On the final day, rats in both experiments were killed either without exercise or 1, 2, 3, or 4 hours after beginning the swimming exercise. MTG accumulation was higher in rats fed the HFD than those fed the CE-2 in both slow- and fast-typed muscles. Serum concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA) and glucose were increased and muscle glycogen contents were decreased with the continuance of swimming exercise, especially in rats fed the CE-2. The prolonged swimming did not influence MTG contents and FA compositions of MTG in either the experiment. These results might indicate that specific FA of MTG was not oxidized and MTG did not contribute as a main energy source during the prolonged swimming exercise in rats; instead, serum FFA, glucose, and muscle glycogen were mainly used.

  15. Biochemical composition and fatty acid content of zooplankton from tropical lagoon for larval rearing.

    PubMed

    Lokman, H S

    1993-01-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected from the indigenous tropical brackish water lagoon during the wet monsoon (January and February 1990) and the dry monsoon (April and May 1990). The dominant copepod species in the zooplankton community comprising of Oithona sp (especially O. nana and O. robusta) accounted for more than 70% of the zooplankton in January and was gradually replaced by other zooplanktonic species later in the dry season. The lipid contents in zooplankton varied from 0.18 to 1.04% wet weight or 1.14 to 5.92% dry weight respectively. The major fatty acid contents of the zooplankton showed high concentration of 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3 especially in the wet season. It also contained high omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth of commercial fish larvae. It has a better food value than the normally use food organism, brine shrimp; thus reflecting its potential use as food organism for fish larval rearing. PMID:7508281

  16. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  17. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  18. Calcium phosphate deposition rate, structure and osteoconductivity on electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) matrix using electrodeposition or simulated body fluid incubation.

    PubMed

    He, Chuanglong; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X

    2014-01-01

    Mineralized nanofibrous scaffolds have been proposed as promising scaffolds for bone regeneration due to their ability to mimic both nanoscale architecture and chemical composition of natural bone extracellular matrix. In this study, a novel electrodeposition method was compared with an extensively explored simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation method in terms of the deposition rate, chemical composition and morphology of calcium phosphate formed on electrospun fibrous thin matrices with a fiber diameter in the range ~200-1400 nm prepared using 6, 8, 10 and 12 wt.% poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions in a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (2:1 in volume). The effects of the surface modification using the two mineralization techniques on osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation and differentiation were also examined. It was found that electrodeposition was two to three orders of magnitude faster than the SBF method in mineralizing the fibrous matrices, reducing the mineralization time from ~2 weeks to 1h to achieve the same amounts of mineralization. The mineralization rate also varied with the fiber diameter but in opposite directions between the two mineralization methods. As a general trend, the increase of fiber diameter resulted in a faster mineralization rate for the electrodeposition method but a slower mineralization rate for the SBF incubation method. Using the electrodeposition method, one can control the chemical composition and morphology of the calcium phosphate by varying the electric deposition potential and electrolyte temperature to tune the mixture of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite (HAp). Using the SBF method, one can only obtain a low crystallinity HAp. The mineralized electrospun PLLA fibrous matrices from either method similarly facilitate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as compared to neat PLLA matrices. Therefore, the electrodeposition method can be utilized as a fast

  19. Calcium phosphate deposition rate, structure and osteoconductivity on electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) matrix using electrodeposition or simulated body fluid incubation

    PubMed Central

    He, Chuanglong; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    Mineralized nanofibrous scaffolds have been proposed as promising scaffolds for bone regeneration due to their ability to mimic both nanoscale architecture and chemical composition of natural bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, a novel electrodeposition method was compared with an extensively explored simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation method in terms of the deposition rate, chemical composition, and morphology of calcium phosphate formed on electrospun fibrous thin matrices with a fiber diameter in the range from about 200 nm to about 1400 nm prepared using 6, 8, 10 and 12 wt% poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions in a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (2:1 in volume). The effects of the surface modification using the two mineralization techniques on osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation and differentiation were also examined. It was found that electrodeposition was two to three orders of magnitude faster than the SBF method in mineralizing the fibrous matrices, reducing the mineralization time from about two weeks to an hour to achieve the same amounts of mineralization. The mineralization rate also varied with the fiber diameter but in opposite directions between the two mineralization methods. As a general trend, the increase of fiber diameter resulted in a faster mineralization rate for the electrodeposition method but a slower mineralization rate for the SBF incubation method. Using the electrodeposition method, one can control the chemical composition and morphology of the calcium phosphate by varying the electric deposition potential and electrolyte temperature to tune the mixture of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and hydroxy apatite (HAp). Using the SBF method, one can only obtain a low crystallinity HAp. The mineralized electrospun PLLA fibrous matrices from either method similarly facilitate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as compared to neat PLLA matrices. Therefore, the

  20. Complexes of Silver(I) Ions and Silver Phosphate Nanoparticles with Hyaluronic Acid and/or Chitosan as Promising Antimicrobial Agents for Vascular Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Chudobova, Dagmar; Nejdl, Lukas; Gumulec, Jaromir; Krystofova, Olga; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Kynicky, Jindrich; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Kopel, Pavel; Babula, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are currently widely used to replace a variety of natural materials with respect to their favourable physical and chemical properties, and due to their economic advantage. One of the most important branches of application of polymers is the production of different products for medical use. In this case, it is necessary to face a significant disadvantage of polymer products due to possible and very common colonization of the surface by various microorganisms that can pose a potential danger to the patient. One of the possible solutions is to prepare polymer with antibacterial/antimicrobial properties that is resistant to bacterial colonization. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of antimicrobial polymeric material ideal for covering vascular implants with subsequent use in transplant surgery. Therefore, the complexes of polymeric substances (hyaluronic acid and chitosan) with silver nitrate or silver phosphate nanoparticles were created, and their effects on gram-positive bacterial culture of Staphylococcus aureus were monitored. Stages of formation of complexes of silver nitrate and silver phosphate nanoparticles with polymeric compounds were characterized using electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of complexes was determined using the methods of determination of growth curves and zones of inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the complex of chitosan, with silver phosphate nanoparticles, was the most suitable in order to have an antibacterial effect on bacterial culture of Staphylococcus aureus. Formation of this complex was under way at low concentrations of chitosan. The results of electrochemical determination corresponded with the results of spectrophotometric methods and verified good interaction and formation of the complex. The complex has an outstanding antibacterial effect and this effect was of several orders higher compared to other investigated complexes

  1. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  2. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen. PMID:25345052

  3. Further increased production of free fatty acids by overexpressing a predicted transketolase gene of the pentose phosphate pathway in Aspergillus oryzae faaA disruptant.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Koichi; Miura, Ai

    2016-09-01

    Free fatty acids are useful as source materials for the production of biodiesel fuel and various chemicals such as pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements. Previously, we attained a 9.2-fold increase in free fatty acid productivity by disrupting a predicted acyl-CoA synthetase gene (faaA, AO090011000642) in Aspergillus oryzae. In this study, we achieved further increase in the productivity by overexpressing a predicted transketolase gene of the pentose phosphate pathway in the faaA disruptant. The A. oryzae genome is predicted to have three transketolase genes and overexpression of AO090023000345, one of the three genes, resulted in phenotypic change and further increase (corresponding to an increased production of 0.38 mmol/g dry cell weight) in free fatty acids at 1.4-fold compared to the faaA disruptant. Additionally, the biomass of hyphae increased at 1.2-fold by the overexpression. As a result, free fatty acid production yield per liter of liquid culture increased at 1.7-fold by the overexpression.

  4. Apicoplast-Localized Lysophosphatidic Acid Precursor Assembly Is Required for Bulk Phospholipid Synthesis in Toxoplasma gondii and Relies on an Algal/Plant-Like Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Amiar, Souad; MacRae, James I; Callahan, Damien L; Dubois, David; van Dooren, Giel G; Shears, Melanie J; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Maréchal, Eric; McConville, Malcolm J; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Yamaryo-Botté, Yoshiki; Botté, Cyrille Y

    2016-08-01

    Most apicomplexan parasites possess a non-photosynthetic plastid (the apicoplast), which harbors enzymes for a number of metabolic pathways, including a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway. In Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, the FASII pathway is essential for parasite growth and infectivity. However, little is known about the fate of fatty acids synthesized by FASII. In this study, we have investigated the function of a plant-like glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (TgATS1) that localizes to the T. gondii apicoplast. Knock-down of TgATS1 resulted in significantly reduced incorporation of FASII-synthesized fatty acids into phosphatidic acid and downstream phospholipids and a severe defect in intracellular parasite replication and survival. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that lipid precursors are made in, and exported from, the apicoplast for de novo biosynthesis of bulk phospholipids. This study reveals that the apicoplast-located FASII and ATS1, which are primarily used to generate plastid galactolipids in plants and algae, instead generate bulk phospholipids for membrane biogenesis in T. gondii. PMID:27490259

  5. Apicoplast-Localized Lysophosphatidic Acid Precursor Assembly Is Required for Bulk Phospholipid Synthesis in Toxoplasma gondii and Relies on an Algal/Plant-Like Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Damien L.; Dubois, David; van Dooren, Giel G.; Shears, Melanie J.; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Maréchal, Eric; McConville, Malcolm J.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Yamaryo-Botté, Yoshiki; Botté, Cyrille Y.

    2016-01-01

    Most apicomplexan parasites possess a non-photosynthetic plastid (the apicoplast), which harbors enzymes for a number of metabolic pathways, including a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway. In Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, the FASII pathway is essential for parasite growth and infectivity. However, little is known about the fate of fatty acids synthesized by FASII. In this study, we have investigated the function of a plant-like glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (TgATS1) that localizes to the T. gondii apicoplast. Knock-down of TgATS1 resulted in significantly reduced incorporation of FASII-synthesized fatty acids into phosphatidic acid and downstream phospholipids and a severe defect in intracellular parasite replication and survival. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that lipid precursors are made in, and exported from, the apicoplast for de novo biosynthesis of bulk phospholipids. This study reveals that the apicoplast-located FASII and ATS1, which are primarily used to generate plastid galactolipids in plants and algae, instead generate bulk phospholipids for membrane biogenesis in T. gondii. PMID:27490259

  6. Biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic combined with fibrillar collagen with and without citric acid conditioning in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects.

    PubMed

    Nery, E B; Eslami, A; Van Swol, R L

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the combination of biphasic calcium phosphate ceramic (BCP) and collagen and citric acid root conditioning would promote accelerated new attachment of periodontal tissue to the root surface in dogs. Intrabony defects were surgically produced for each animal and were made chronic for 16 weeks. These defects were assigned to two study treatment and one control group: ceramic-collagen without citric acid (CO-CE); ceramic-collagen with citric acid (CO-CE-CA); and control (surgical debridement and root planing only). Results showed that all groups gained new attachment level as demonstrated both clinically and histometrically. The treatment groups showed a significant mean gain greater than the control (P less than .005), but no significant difference was found between treatment groups. Small areas of ankylosis was also found in both treatments but there was no evidence of active root resorption. It is concluded that the use of combined BCP and fibrillar collagen is beneficial in promoting new attachment of periodontal tissues to the root surface in dogs. Although citric acid root conditioning did as well or better than ceramic and collagen alone, its benefits are still speculative and need further experimentation.

  7. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Ishima, Yuya; Takenaka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum