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Sample records for acid phosphate content

  1. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacillus megaterium mj1212 Regulates Endogenous Plant Carbohydrates and Amino Acids Contents to Promote Mustard Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Lee, Ko-Eun; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-01

    The current study was conducted to explore the potential of a phosphate solubilizing soil bacterium, Bacillus megaterium mj1212 for enhancing the growth of mustard plants. The newly isolated bacterial strain mj1212 was identified as B. megaterium using phylogenetic analysis and, its phosphate solubilization ability was shown by the clear zone formation on National Botanical Research Institute's Phosphate medium. Moreover, the phosphate solubilization ability of B. megaterium mj1212 was enhanced by optimal culture conditions at pH 7.0 and 35 °C which might be due to the presence of malic and quinic acid in the culture medium. The beneficial effect of B. megaterium mj1212 in mustard plants was determined by an increasing shoot length, root length and fresh weight of plants. In the biochemical analysis revealed that chlorophyll, sucrose, glucose, fructose and amino acids (Asp, Thr, Ser, Glu, Gly, Ala, Cys, Val, Met, Ilu, Leu, Tyr, Phe, Lys, His, Arg and Pro) were higher in B. megaterium mj1212 treated plants, when compared to their control. The result of present study suggests that B. megaterium mj1212 treatment could be act as phosphate biofertilizer to improve the plant growth.

  2. Modulation of the Glycerol Phosphate availability led to concomitant reduction in the citric acid excretion and increase in lipid content and yield in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Sagnak, Rana; Cochot, Sandrine; Molina-Jouve, Carole; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Guillouet, Stéphane E

    2018-01-10

    In order to improve TriAcylGycerol (TAG) lipids accumulation in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica on glucose, double over-expression of the major acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase encoding gene (ylDGA2) and of the glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene (ylGPD1) was carried out. The genes were over-expressed in a strain impaired for the mobilization of the accumulated lipids, through the deletion of the genes encoding acyl-coenzyme A oxidases (POX1-6 genes) and the deletion of the very efficient lipase attached to the lipid bodies, encoded by ylTGL4. This metabolic engineering strategy had the objective of pulling the C-flow into the TAG synthesis by increasing the availability of glycerol-3-phosphate and its binding to fatty acids for the TAG synthesis. This strain showed a strong improvement in production performances on glucose in terms of lipid content (increase from 18 to 55%), lipid yield (increase from 0,035 to 0.14gg -1 ) and by-product formation (decrease in citric acid yield from 0.68 to 0.4gg -1 ). For developing bioprocess for the production of triacylglycerol from renewable carbon sources as glucose it is of first importance to control the C/N ratio in order to avoid citric acid excretion during lipid accumulation. Our engineered strain showed a delay in the onset of citric acid excretion as suggested by the 15% modulation of the critical C/N ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Toward accelerated bone regeneration by altering poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid porogen content in calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    van Houdt, C I A; Preethanath, R S; van Oirschot, B A J A; Zwarts, P H W; Ulrich, D J O; Anil, S; Jansen, J A; van den Beucken, J J J P

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to compare in vitro degradation of dense PLGA microspheres and milled PLGA particles as porogens within CPC, considering that the manufacturing of milled PLGA is more cost-effective when compared with PLGA microspheres. Additionally, we aimed to examine the effect of porogen amount within CPC/PLGA on degradation and bone formation. Our in vitro results showed no differences between both forms of PLGA particles (as porogens in CPC; spherical for microspheres, irregular for milled) regarding morphology, porosity, and degradation. Using milled PLGA as porogens within CPC/PLGA, we evaluated the effect of porogen amount on degradation and bone forming capacity in vivo. Titanium landmarks surrounded by CPC/PLGA with 30 and 50 wt % PLGA, were implanted in forty femoral bone defects of twenty male Wistar rats. Histomorphometrical results showed a significant temporal decrease in the amount of CPC, for both formulas, and confirmed that 50 wt % PLGA degrades faster than 30 wt%, and allows for a 1.5-fold higher amount of newly formed bone. Taken together, this study demonstrated that (i) milled PLGA particles perform equal to PLGA microspheres, and (ii) tuning of the PLGA content in CPC/PLGA is a feasible approach to leverage material degradation and bone formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ren-kou; Zhu, Yong-guan; Chittleborough, David

    2004-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids. Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was notcorrelated with pKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  5. Relationship between phosphate content and immunochemical properties of subfractions of bakers' yeast mannan.

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Y; Ichikawa, T; Suzuki, S

    1978-01-01

    The mannan of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was fractionated on a column of diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex into five subfractions. Phosphate content of these mannan subfractions was proportional to the concentration of NaCl solutions used in the chromatographic separation. Quantitative precipitin reactions showed that the serological reactivities of the subfractions were proportional to the content of phosphate. The result of acetolysis study showed that the amounts of mannotetraose and phosphate-containing oligosaccharide fractions increased proportionally to the acidity, whereas the amount of mannose decreased inversely. The results from quantitative precipitin reaction tests and acetolysis study demonstrated that both phosphate contents and multiplicity of branching moieties of mannan subfractions increased proportionally, i.e., micro-heterogeneity concerning the acidity comprised in the parent bulk mannan is not attributable merely to the coexistence of molecular species containing different amounts of phosphate but also to the presence of more of the branching moieties. PMID:361709

  6. FTIRI Parameters describing Acid Phosphate Substitution in Biologic Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Spevak, Lyudmila; Flach, Carol R.; Hunter, Tracey; Mendelsohn, Richard; Boskey, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Acid phosphate substitution into mineralized tissue is an important determinant of their mechanical properties and their response to treatment. This study identifies and validates Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging (FTIRI) spectral parameters that provide information on the acid phosphate (HPO4) substitution into hydroxyapatite in developing mineralized tissues. Curve fitting and Fourier self-deconvolution were used to identify subband positions in model compounds (with and without HPO4). The intensity of subbands at 1127 cm−1 and 1110 cm−1 correlated with the acid phosphate content in these models. Peak height ratios of these subbands to the ν3 vibration at 1096 cm−1 found in stoichiometric apatite, were evaluated in the model compounds and mixtures thereof. FTIRI spectra of bones and teeth at different developmental ages were analyzed using these spectral parameters. Factor analysis (a chemometric technique) was also conducted on the tissue samples and resulted in factor loadings with spectral features corresponding to the HPO4 vibrations described above. Images of both factor correlation coefficients and the peak height ratios 1127cm−1/1096cm−1 and 1112cm−1/1096cm−1 demonstrated higher acid phosphate content in younger vs. more mature regions in the same specimen. Maps of the distribution of acid phosphate content will be useful for characterizing the extent of new bone formation, areas of potential decreased strength, and the effects of therapies such as those used in metabolic bone diseases (osteoporosis, chronic kidney disease) on mineral composition. Because of the wider range of values obtained with the 1127 cm−1/1096 cm−1 parameter compared to the 1110 cm−1/1096 cm−1 parameter, and the smaller scatter in the slope, it is suggested that this ratio should be the parameter of choice. PMID:23380987

  7. Engineering Potato Starch with a Higher Phosphate Content

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xuan; Huang, Xing-Feng; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphate esters are responsible for valuable and unique functionalities of starch for industrial applications. Also in the cell phosphate esters play a role in starch metabolism, which so far has not been well characterized in storage starch. Laforin, a human enzyme composed of a carbohydrate-binding module and a dual-specificity phosphatase domain, is involved in the dephosphorylation of glycogen. To modify phosphate content and better understand starch (de)phosphorylation in storage starch, laforin was engineered and introduced into potato (cultivar Kardal). Interestingly, expression of an (engineered) laforin in potato resulted in significantly higher phosphate content of starch, and this result was confirmed in amylose-free potato genetic background (amf). Modified starches exhibited altered granule morphology and size compared to the control. About 20–30% of the transgenic lines of each series showed red-staining granules upon incubation with iodine, and contained higher phosphate content than the blue-stained starch granules. Moreover, low amylose content and altered gelatinization properties were observed in these red-stained starches. Principle component and correlation analysis disclosed a complex correlation between starch composition and starch physico-chemical properties. Ultimately, the expression level of endogenous genes involved in starch metabolism was analysed, revealing a compensatory response to the decrease of phosphate content in potato starch. This study provides a new perspective for engineering starch phosphate content in planta by making use of the compensatory mechanism in the plant itself. PMID:28056069

  8. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  16. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. Organic acid production in vitro and plant growth promotion in maize under controlled environment by phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phosphorus deficiency is a major constraint to crop production due to rapid binding of the applied phosphorus into fixed forms not available to the plants. Microbial solubilization of inorganic phosphates has been attributed mainly to the production of organic acids. Phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms enhance plant growth under conditions of poor phosphorus availability by solubilizing insoluble phosphates in the soil. This paper describes the production of organic acids during inorganic phosphate solubilization and influence on plant growth as a function of phosphate solubilization by fluorescent Pseudomonas. Results Nineteen phosphate-solubilizing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains of P. fluorescens, P. poae, P. trivialis, and Pseudomonas spp. produced gluconic acid, oxalic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, formic acid, citric acid and malic acid in the culture filtrates during the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, Mussoorie rock phosphate, Udaipur rock phosphate and North Carolina rock phosphate. The strains differed quantitatively and qualitatively in the production of organic acids during solubilization of phosphate substrates. Cluster analysis based on organic acid profiling revealed inter-species and intra-species variation in organic acids produced by Pseudomonas strains. The phosphate-solubilizing bacterial treatments P. trivialis BIHB 745, P. trivialis BIHB 747, Pseudomonas sp. BIHB 756 and P. poae BIHB 808 resulted in significantly higher or statistically at par growth and total N, P and K content over single super phosphate treatment in maize. These treatments also significantly affected pH, organic matter, and N, P, and K content of the soil. Conclusion The results implied that organic acid production by Pseudomonas strains is independent of their genetic relatedness and each strain has its own ability of producing organic acids during the solubilization of inorganic phosphates. Significant difference in plant

  18. The effect of phosphate content on the bioactivity of soda-lime-phosphosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, M D; Watts, S J; Hill, R G; Law, R V

    2009-08-01

    We report on the bioactivity of two series of glasses in the SiO(2)-Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5) system after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) after 21 days. The effect of P(2)O(5) content was examined for compositions containing 0-9.25 mol.% phosphate. Both series of glasses degraded to basic pH, but the solutions tended towards to neutrality with increasing phosphate content; a result of the acidic phosphate buffering the effect of the alkali metal and alkaline earth ions on degradation. Bioactivity was assessed by the appearance of features in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) traces and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra consistent with crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate-apatite (HCAp): such as the appearance of the (002) Bragg reflection in XRD and splitting of the P-O stretching vibration around 550 cm(-1) in the FTIR respectively. All glasses formed HCAp in SBF over the time periods studied and the time for formation of this crystalline phase occurred more rapidly in both series as the phosphate contents were increased. For P(2)O(5) content >3 mol.% both series exhibited highly crystalline apatite by 16 h immersion in SBF. This indicates that in the compositions studied, phosphate content is more important for bioactivity than network connectivity (NC) of the silicate phase and compositions showing rapid apatite formation are presented, superior to 45S5 Bioglass which was tested under identical conditions for comparison.

  19. Hydrogen bonding between phosphate and amino acid side chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, P.; Rodriguez, M. L.

    1986-03-01

    Hydrogen bonds between polar groups of amino acid side chains (histidine, lysine, glutamic acid) and phosphate ions have been studied by infrared spectroscopy. Proton transfer from amino acid groups to phosphate occur mainly in case that tribasic and dibasic phosphate ions take part in hydrogen bonds. Conformational changes and continuum are strongly related to the degree of proton transfer and hydration. It is pointed out that the aforementioned properties should be of great significance for nucleation and growth of prostatic and renal stones.

  20. Application of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria and Organic Acids on Phosphate Solubilization from Phosphate Rock in Aerobic Rice

    PubMed Central

    Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg−1), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot−1), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g−1) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  1. Study of Acid Phosphatase in Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphates by Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Seshagiri, Swetha; Tallapragada, Padmavathi

    2017-01-02

    Phosphorus is an essential plant macronutrient present in the soil. Only a small portion of phosphorus in soil is taken up by plants and the rest of it becomes unavailable to plants as it is immobilized. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms play a vital role in converting the insoluble form of phosphates to the soluble form. The present paper reports the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate, single super phosphate, zinc phosphate and aluminum phosphate by Piriformospora indica with the production of organic acids as well as acid phosphatase. The amount of phosphate released (4.73 mg ml -1 ) and titratable acidity (0.12%) was found to be the highest in the case of single super phosphate as compared to other phosphate sources. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of oxalic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and succinic acid in the media. Highest phosphatase activity was observed with the cell membrane extract of the organism in the presence of zinc phosphate.

  2. Rare-earth leaching from Florida phosphate rock in wet-process phosphoric acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Haijun; Zhang, Patrick; Jin, Zhen

    2017-08-01

    Phosphorite, or phosphate rock, is the most significant secondary rare-earth resource. It contains high amounts of phosphate-bearing minerals along with low contents of rare earth elements (REEs). In Florida, about 19 Mt of phosphate rock are mined annually and most are used to manufacture fertilizers using a wet process, in which sulfuric acid reacts with phosphates to produce phosphoric acid and phosphogypsum. In the wet process, REEs are also leached out into solution and eventually get lost in the leaching residue and phosphate fertilizer. Recovering REEs from Florida phosphate rock in the wet process will be beneficial to broadening rare-earthmore » availability, improving the quality of phosphoric acid product and protecting the environment. Here, this study focuses on the influences of wet-process operating conditions on REE leaching efficiency. The results indicate that REE leaching efficiency increases with phosphoric acid addition in the initial pulp. At a temperature of 75 °C, a stoichiometric ratio of sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ) to calcium oxide (CaO) of 1.05 and a weight ratio of liquid to solid of 3.5, REE leaching efficiency reached a relatively high value of 52.82 percent. The trends of REE leaching efficiency were similar to those for phosphoric acid (P2O5 ). Extensive tests on the leaching residue showed that during leaching, about 90 percent of the REEs were released from the phosphate rock but only 52.82 percent ended up in the leaching solution. This phenomenon can be attributed to two factors: (1) the effect of phosphate ions (PO43-) in the solution, which caused REE ions to form REE phosphates and be precipitated into the leaching residue, and (2) the influence of large amounts of anions such as sulfate (SO42-), dihydrogen phosphate (H2 PO4-) and hydrogen phosphate (HPO42-) anions as well as the polar molecule H3 PO4 , which surrounded the REE cations and formed an ion atmosphere that prevented the PO43- from contacting and combining with REE

  3. 2-Aminoethylarsonic acid as an analogue of ethanolamine phosphate. Endowment of ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase with CTP pyrophosphatase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Visedo-Gonzalez, E; Dixon, H B

    1989-01-01

    2-Aminoethylarsonic acid was tested for its ability to act as a substrate for ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylytransferase as a cytidylyl acceptor in place of ethanolamine phosphate. The expected product, like all mixed anhydrides of arsonic acids, should hydrolyse spontaneously with regeneration of the substrate analogue and CMP formation; such CMP production was observed. The limiting velocity with aminoethylarsonic acid is about 90% that with ethanolamine phosphate, and the Michaelis constant is below 20 mM. PMID:2549956

  4. Reaction of Thymidine with Hypobromous Acid in Phosphate Buffer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshinori; Kitabatake, Akihiko; Koide, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    When thymidine was treated with hypobromous acid (HOBr) in 100 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.2, two major product peaks appeared in the HPLC chromatogram. The products in each peak were identified by NMR and MS as two isomers of 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine-6-phosphate (a novel compound) and two isomers of 5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine (thymidine glycol) with comparable yields. 5-Hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine-6-phosphate was relatively stable, and decomposed with a half-life of 32 h at pH 7.2 and 37°C generating thymidine glycol. The results suggest that 5-hydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymidine-6-phosphate in addition to thymidine glycol may have importance for mutagenesis by the reaction of HOBr with thymine residues in nucleotides and DNA.

  5. Uranium Adsorption on Ferrihydrite - Effects of Phosphate and Humic Acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, T.E.; Davis, J.A.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium adsorption on ferrihydrite was studied as a function of pH in systems equilibrated with air, in the presence and absence of added phosphate and humic acid (HA). The objective was to determine the influence of PO43- and HA on uranium uptake. Below pH 7, the sorption of UO22+ typically increases with increasing pH (the 'low pH sorption edge'), with a sharp decrease in sorption above this pH value (the 'high pH edge'). The presence of ??PO43- of 10-4 mol/L moved the low pH edge to the left by approximately 0.8 pH units. The PO43- was strongly bound by the ferrihydrite surface, and the increased uptake of U was attributed to the formation of ternary surface complexes involving both UO22+ and PO43-. The addition of HA (9 mg/L) increased U uptake at pH values below 7, with little effect at higher pH values. The positions of the pH edges were also affected by the ionic strength and total U content. These experiments show that sorption interactions involving PO43 and HA must be considered in order to model the behavior of U in natural systems, in which these components are often present.

  6. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- andmore » compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.« less

  7. Premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement: characterization of strength and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Aberg, J; Brisby, H; Henriksson, H B; Lindahl, A; Thomsen, P; Engqvist, H

    2010-05-01

    By using a premixed calcium phosphate cement (CPC), the handling properties of the cement are drastically improved, which is a challenge for traditional injectable CPCs. Previously premixed cements have been based on apatitic cements. In this article, acidic cement has been developed and evaluated. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and beta-tricalcium phosphate were mixed with glycerol to form a paste. As the paste does not contain water, no setting reaction starts and thus the working time is indefinite. Powder/liquid ratios (P/L) of 2.25, 3.5 and 4.75 were evaluated. Setting time (ST) and compressive strength (CS) were measured after 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, and the corresponding microstructure was evaluated using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ST started when the cements were placed in PBS and ranged from 28 to 75 min, higher P/L gave a lower ST. Higher P/L also gave a higher CS, which ranged from 2 to 16 MPa. The microstructure mainly consisted of monetite, 1-5 microm in grain size. After 4 weeks in PBS, the strength increased. As acidic cements are resorbed faster in vivo, this cement should allow faster bone regeneration than apatitic cements. Premixed cements show a great handling benefit when compared with normal CPCs and can be formulated with similar ST and mechanical properties. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA.

  9. Beta-glucose 1-phosphate-interconverting enzymes in maltose- and trehalose-fermenting lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Ulrika; Rådström, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Maltose and trehalose catabolic pathways are linked through their common enzyme, beta-phosphoglucomutase, and metabolite, beta-glucose 1-phosphate, in Lactococcus lactis. Maltose is degraded by the concerted action of maltose phosphorylase and beta-phosphoglucomutase, whereas trehalose is assimilated by a novel pathway, including the recently discovered enzyme, trehalose 6-phosphate phosphorylase, and beta-phosphoglucomutase. In the present study, 40 strains of lactic acid bacteria were investigated for utilization of metabolic reactions involving beta-glucose 1-phosphate. All genera of the low G+C content lactic acid bacteria belonging to the clostridial subbranch of Gram-positive bacteria were represented in the study. The strains, which fermented maltose or trehalose, were investigated for beta-phosphoglucomutase, maltose phosphorylase and trehalose 6-phosphate phosphorylase activity, as indications of maltose and trehalose catabolic pathways involving beta-glucose 1-phosphate interconversions. Eighty per cent of all strains fermented maltose and, of these strains, 63% were shown to use a maltose phosphorylase/beta- phosphoglucomutase pathway. One-third of the strains fermenting trehalose were found to harbour trehalose 6-phosphate phosphorylase activity, and these were also shown to possess beta-phosphoglucomutase activity. Mainly L. lactis and Enterococcus faecalis strains were found to harbour the novel trehalose 6-phosphate phosphorylase/beta-phosphoglucomutase pathway. As lower beta-glucose 1-phosphate interconverting enzyme activities were observed in the majority of glucose-cultivated lactic acid bacteria, glucose was suggested to repress the synthesis of these enzymes in most strains. Thus, metabolic reactions involving the beta-anomer of glucose 1-phosphate are frequently found in both maltose- and trehalose-utilizing lactic acid bacteria.

  10. Permeability of lipid bilayers to amino acids and phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Permeability coefficients for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, were measured and compared with values for other ionic solutes such as phosphate. The rates of efflux of glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan were determined after they were passively entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The following permeability coefficients were obtained for: glycine, 5.7 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 2.0 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); serine, 5.5 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.6 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); lysine, 5.1 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.9 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); tryptophan, 4.1 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC); and phenylalanine, 2.5 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC). Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly, while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested. Phosphate permeability was in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1 depending on the pH of the medium. The values for the polar and charged amino acids were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium, which are in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1, depending on conditions and the lipid species used. This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. The results are relevant to the permeation of certain peptides into lipid bilayers during protein translocation and membrane biogenesis.

  11. Fact Sheet - Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants NESHAP

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet summarizing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants (40 CFR 63 Subparts AA and BB).

  12. Common and Species-Specific Effects of Phosphate on Marine Microalgae Fatty Acids Shape Their Function in Phytoplankton Trophic Ecology.

    PubMed

    Cañavate, José Pedro; Armada, Isabel; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael

    2017-10-01

    The use of fatty acids (FA) to infer structure of phytoplankton assemblages and as indicators of microalgae nutritional value is acquiring relevance in modern phytoplankton ecology and new advances concerning factors influencing FA variability among microalgae are demanded. In this regard, the relationship between phosphorus and FA remains particularly little studied in marine phytoplankton. In the present study, we focus on phosphate effects on FA from a diversified set of marine microalgae and provide new insights into the applicability of FA in phytoplankton trophic ecology. Phosphate deprivation mainly induced monounsaturated FA production in eight out of nine microalgae and their changes were species-specific, with palmitoleic acid exhibiting extreme variation and discriminating between haptophyte classes. The important phosphate-induced and interspecific variability found for oleic acid was perceived as a concern for the current application of this FA as a trophic position indicator in grazers. Chloroplast C-16 and C-18 polyunsaturated FA were more affected by phosphate than C-20 and C-22 highly unsaturated FA (HUFA). The relative stability of stearidonic acid to phosphate in cryptophytes and haptophytes pinpointed this FA as a suited marker for both microalgae groups. Taken all species together, phosphate deprivation and taxonomy accounted for 20.8 and 50.7% of total FA variation, respectively. HUFA were minimally affected by phosphate indicating their suitability as indicators of phytoplankton trophic value. The asymptotic relationship between HUFA and phosphorus cell content suggested mineral composition (phosphorus) could be more important than HUFA content as attribute of marine microalgae nutritional value at the species level.

  13. Dolomite flotation of high magnesium phosphate ores using fatty acid soap collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhengxing

    The separation of dolomite from apatite has been recognized as one of the most difficult subjects in mineral processing due to the similarities in their physiochemical properties. In this study, selective surfactants were used with a fatty acid soap collector to improve the flotation performance of separating dolomite from high magnesium phosphate ores. Three surfactants, diethyl phthalate (DP), Tween-80 (TW) and derivative of sulfonate salt (DSS1) were used. Hallimond cell flotation was conducted using pure dolomite sample to determine the effects of various factors including dosages, particle size, Ca2+ ions and slimes on the dolomite flotation recovery. The results showed that the surfactants can significantly improve dolomite flotation performance by increasing collecting ability and tolerating the effect of calcium ions and slime contents. The stirrer-tank cell batch flotation tests were carried out using two natural high magnesium phosphate ore samples containing 3.3% and 1.5% MgO. The test results showed that the surfactant DP could improve dolomite flotation at low dosages, and DSS1 could enhance the separation of dolomite from phosphate by improving both collecting ability and flotation selectivity. When 10% of DSS1 was used with the fatty acid soap as collector, at least 10% more dolomite can be removed with less P2O5 loss. The effectiveness of the surfactant DSS1 in enhancing dolomite flotation was further demonstrated in modified packed column flotation with natural dolomitic phosphate ore sample. The addition of the surfactant DSS1 into fatty acid soap collector could improve its frothability and froth stability, and reduce the bubble size. It has been found that the dolomite flotation performance has a close relationship with the frothability and froth stability of the collector.

  14. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J E; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrogen-limited conditions, while oxalic acid production was promoted under carbon-limited conditions. Citric acid was produced in both growth and stationary phases, but oxalic acid production occurred only in stationary phase. When submerged cultures which normally produce acid were induced to sporulate, the culture medium shifted toward alkaline rather than acid reaction with growth. PMID:1622211

  15. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid polymer with... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject to...

  16. Phosphatidic acid inhibits ceramide 1-phosphate-stimulated macrophage migration.

    PubMed

    Ouro, Alberto; Arana, Lide; Rivera, Io-Guané; Ordoñez, Marta; Gomez-Larrauri, Ana; Presa, Natalia; Simón, Jorge; Trueba, Miguel; Gangoiti, Patricia; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio

    2014-12-15

    Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) was recently demonstrated to potently induce cell migration. This action could only be observed when C1P was applied exogenously to cells in culture, and was inhibited by pertussis toxin. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. In this work, we found that phosphatidic acid (PA), which is structurally related to C1P, displaced radiolabeled C1P from its membrane-binding site and inhibited C1P-stimulated macrophage migration. This effect was independent of the saturated fatty acid chain length or the presence of a double bond in each of the fatty acyl chains of PA. Treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with exogenous phospholipase D (PLD), an enzyme that produces PA from membrane phospholipids, also inhibited C1P-stimulated cell migration. Likewise, PA or exogenous PLD inhibited C1P-stimulated extracellularly regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation, leading to inhibition of cell migration. However, PA did not inhibit C1P-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. It is concluded that PA is a physiological regulator of C1P-stimulated macrophage migration. These actions of PA may have important implications in the control of pathophysiological functions that are regulated by C1P, including inflammation and various cellular processes associated with cell migration such as organogenesis or tumor metastasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of sphingosine 1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid in fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Nigel J; Dubois, Gerald; Pyne, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights an emerging role for sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in many different types of fibrosis. Indeed, both LPA and S1P are involved in the multi-process pathogenesis of fibrosis, being implicated in promoting the well-established process of differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the more controversial epithelial-mesenchymal transition and homing of fibrocytes to fibrotic lesions. Therefore, targeting the production of these bioactive lysolipids or blocking their sites/mechanisms of action has therapeutic potential. Indeed, LPA receptor 1 (LPA(1)) selective antagonists are currently being developed for the treatment of fibrosis of the lung as well as a neutralising anti-S1P antibody that is currently in Phase 1 clinical trials for treatment of age related macular degeneration. Thus, LPA- and S1P-directed therapeutics may not be too far from the clinic. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of organic acids of different molecular size on phosphate removal by HZO-201 nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Hua, Ming; Zhang, Yanyang; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Pan, Bingcai

    2017-01-01

    Various organic acids in wastewater effluent could significantly influence the performance of phosphate adsorbent. This study focused on the effects of organic acids of different-molecular-size on phosphate adsorption by a novel nanocomposite HZO-201. Three organic acids (gallic acid (GA), tannic acid (TA) and humic acid (HA)) with distinct molecular size (HA > TA > GA) were chosen for this purpose. Both isotherm and kinetic tests of phosphate adsorption were conducted in the single-phosphate and binary system, and a series of microscopic techniques (i.e., XPS, FT-IR and SEM-EDX) and N 2 adsorption-desorption test were employed to explore the underlying mechanism. It was found that GA could greatly weaken phosphate adsorption capability of HZO-201 by directly competing for ammonium group on the nanocomposite, TA exhibited significant inhibition on phosphate adsorption rate mainly through pore constriction/blockage, while HA posed negligible impact on phosphate adsorption because of the size exclusion effect. It was also observed that although GA, TA and HA showed substantial influence on bulky HZO due to complexation, their impact on the nano-HZO loaded inside HZO-201 was little. The covalently bounded ammonium group and the networking pore structure of HZO-201 may play important roles in it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cationic and radical intermediates in the acid photorelease from aryl sulfonates and phosphates.

    PubMed

    Terpolilli, Marco; Merli, Daniele; Protti, Stefano; Dichiarante, Valentina; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Albini, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The irradiation of a series of phenyl sulfonates and phosphates leads to the quantitative release of acidity with a reasonable quantum yield (≈0.2). Products characterization, ion chromatography analysis and potentiometric titration are consistent with the intervening of two different paths in this reaction, viz. cationic with phosphates and (mainly) radical with sulfonates.

  20. Polypropylene glycol phosphate methacrylate as an alternative acid-functional monomer on self-etching adhesives.

    PubMed

    Münchow, Eliseu Aldrighi; da Silva, Adriana Fernandes; da Silveira Lima, Giana; Wulff, Tais; Barbosa, Marília; Ogliari, Fabrício Aulo; Piva, Evandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize an alternative acidic monomer (polypropylene glycol phosphate methacrylate--Poly-P) to constitute experimental two-step self-etch adhesive systems and also to evaluate its influence on the pH and microshear bond strength (μSBS) to enamel. Primers containing Poly-P (10, 15, 30 or 50wt.%), HEMA, ethanol, and water were prepared and allocated in subgroups according to a buffered or non-buffered pH. One experimental control and one commercial (Clearfill™ SE Bond) references were used. μSBS protocol was performed at human enamel, followed by mechanical testing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed after each primer application. Data was analysed by one-way Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls tests (p<0.05) and by linear regression predictive models. As greater the Poly-P content, the lower the primer's pH. Buffered groups showed lower μSBS values than non-buffered groups. Groups with Poly-P content equal or higher than 30wt.% showed similar μSBS results when compared to the controls. SEM images demonstrated that primers with high Poly-P content etched enamel with prisms exposure. The pH of the primer was directly influenced by the concentration of acidic monomer, which directly affected the adhesion to enamel. Both the acidity and the type of acid-functional monomer present in the adhesive influenced the bond strength results. Poly-P synthesis was easy and effective, and considering the good bond strength results obtained, this acid-functional monomer may be potentially used in the formulation of self-etch dental adhesive systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PHOSPHATED, ACID-ETCHED IMPLANTS DECREASE MINERAL APPOSITION RATES NEAR IMPLANTS IN CANINES

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Christine Hyon; Kerns, David G.; Hallmon, William W.; Rivera-Hidalgo, Francisco; Nelson, Carl J.; Spears, Robert; Dechow, Paul C.; Opperman, Lynne A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of phosphate-coated titanium on mineral apposition rate (MAR) and new bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in canines. Materials and Methods: 2.2 mm × 4 mm electrolytically phosphated or non-phosphated titanium implants with acid-etched surfaces were placed in 48 mandibular sites in 6 foxhounds. Tetracycline and calcein dyes were administered 1 week after implant placement and 1 week before sacrifice. At twelve weeks following implant healing, animals were sacrificed. MAR and BIC were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. Light microscopic and histological evaluation was performed on undecalcified sections. Results: Microscopic evaluation showed the presence of healthy osteoblasts lining bone surfaces near implants. Similar bone-to-implant contact was observed in phosphated and non-phosphated titanium implant sites. MAR was significantly higher near non-phosphated titanium implant surfaces than the phosphated titanium samples. No significant differences were found between dogs or implant sites. Discussion and Conclusion: Acid-etched only implants showed significantly higher mineral apposition rates compared to acid-etched, phosphate-coated implants. PMID:20369085

  2. Fluoride ion catalyzed alkylation of nucleic acid derivatives using trialkyl phosphates, dialkyl sulfates and alkyl methanesulfonates.

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, K K; Beaucage, S L; Gillen, M F; Entwistle, D W

    1979-01-01

    Trimethyl phosphate, dimethyl and diethyl sulfate and methyl and ethyl methanesulfonate all give high yields of alkylation on purines and pyrimidines in the presence of tetrabutylammonium fluoride. Trimethyl phosphate produces near quantitative yields of diesters of nucleic acids but gives virtually no triester formation. The alkyl sulfates produce very high yields of triesters of nucleic acids including cyclic phosphates while the alkyl methanesulfonates are intermediate in reactivity. It was observed that in the absence of fluoride ion the dialkylsulfates gave reasonable yields of thymidine monosulfates. PMID:223127

  3. Revegetation of Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) Producing Slope Surface Using Phosphate Microencapsulation and Artificial Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Gon

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation of sulfides produces acid rock drainage (ARD) upon their exposure to oxidation environment by construction and mining activities. The ARD causes the acidification and metal contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater, the damage of plant, the deterioration of landscape and the reduction of slope stability. The revegetation of slope surface is one of commonly adopted strategies to reduce erosion and to increase slope stability. However, the revegetation of the ARD producing slope surface is frequently failed due to its high acidity and toxic metal content. We developed a revegetation method consisting of microencapsualtion and artificial soil in the laboratory. The revegetation method was applied on the ARD producing slope on which the revegetation using soil coverage and seeding was failed and monitored the plant growth for one year. The phosphate solution was applied on sulfide containing rock to form stable Fe-phosphate mineral on the surface of sulfide, which worked as a physical barrier to prevent contacting oxidants such as oxygen and Fe3+ ion to the sulfide surface. After the microencapsulation, two artificial soil layers were constructed. The first layer containing organic matter, dolomite powder and soil was constructed at 2 cm thickness to neutralize the rising acidic capillary water from the subsurface and to remove the dissolved oxygen from the percolating rain water. Finally, the second layer containing seeds, organic matter, nutrients and soil was constructed at 3 cm thickness on the top. After application of the method, the pH of the soil below the artificial soil layer increased and the ARD production from the rock fragments reduced. The plant growth showed an ordinary state while the plant died two month after germination for the previous revegetation trial. No soil erosion occurred from the slope during the one year field test.

  4. Phosphate modified ceria as a Brønsted acidic/redox multifunctional catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Nicholas C.; Wang, Zhuoran; Naik, Pranjali

    2017-01-06

    Deposition of trimethylphosphate onto ceria followed by thermal treatment resulted in the formation of surface phosphates with retention of the ceria fluorite structure. The structural and chemical properties of the phosphate-functionalized ceria were studied using 31P solid-state NMR, XPS, zeta titration, ammonia thermal desorption, pyridine adsorption, and model reactions. The introduction of phosphates generated Brønsted acid sites and decreased the number of Lewis acid sites on the surface. The relative amount of Lewis and Brønsted acids can be controlled by the amount of trimethylphosphate used in the synthesis. Upon deposition of Pd, the multifunctional material showed enhanced activity for themore » hydrogenolysis of eugenol and guaiacol compared to Pd on the unmodified ceria support. As a result, this was attributed to the cooperativity between the Lewis acid sites, which activate the substrate for dearomatization, and the redox/Brønsted acid properties, which catalyze hydrogenolysis.« less

  5. Immobilization of lead in anthropogenic contaminated soils using phosphates with/without oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Qingling; Zuo, Jichao; Liu, Yonghong; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on the immobilization of Pb(II) in contaminated soils by phosphate materials, has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for the soil. A series of phosphate amendments with/without oxalic acid were applied to two anthropogenic contaminated soils. We investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) by KH2PO4, phosphate rock (PR), activated phosphate rock (APR) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) at different phosphate:Pb (P:Pb) molar ratios (0, 0.6, 2.0 and 4.0) in the presence/absence of 50 mmol oxalic acid/kg soil, respectively. The effects of treatments were evaluated using single extraction with deionized water or CaCl2, Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) methods. Our results showed that the concentration of water extractable, exchangeable and TCLP-Pb all decreased with incubation time. The concentration of water-extractable Pb after 120 days was reduced by 100% when soils were amended with APR, HAP and HAP+OA, and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L for the red soil at P:Pb molar ratio 4.0. Water-soluble Pb could not be detected and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L at all treatments applied to the yellow-brown soil. BCR results indicated that APR was most effective, although a slight enhancement of water-soluble phosphate was detected at the P:Pb molar ratio 4.0 at the beginning of incubation. Oxalic acid activated phosphates, and so mixing insoluble phosphates with oxalic acid may be a useful strategy to improve their effectiveness in reducing Pb bioavailability. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. Link to... level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of...

  7. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  8. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. Link to... level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of...

  9. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  10. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  11. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  12. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  13. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. (a) General requirements. A claim about the level of fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol in a product may only be...

  14. Effect of humic acid preloading on phosphate adsorption onto zirconium-modified zeolite.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jianwei; Zhang, Zhe; Zhan, Yanhui

    2017-05-01

    A zirconium-modified zeolite (ZrMZ) was prepared, and then, humic acid (HA) was immobilized on the ZrMZ surface to prepare HA-loaded ZrMZ (HA-ZrMZ). The obtained ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analyzer, N 2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, pH at the point of zero charge, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ were comparatively investigated in batch mode. The adsorption mechanism of phosphate on ZrMZ and HA-ZrMZ was investigated by ionic strength effect and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance. The mechanism for phosphate adsorption onto ZrMZ was the formation of inner-sphere phosphate complexes at the solid/solution interface. The preloading of HA on ZrMZ reduced the phosphate adsorption capacity, and the more the HA loading amount, the lower the phosphate adsorption capacity. However, the preloading of HA on ZrMZ did not change the phosphate adsorption mechanism; i.e., the formation of inner-sphere phosphate surface complexes was still responsible for the adsorption of phosphate on HA-ZrMZ. The decreased phosphate adsorption capacity for ZrMZ after HA coating could be attributed to the fact that the coating of HA on ZrMZ reduced the amount of binding active sites available for phosphate adsorption, changed the adsorbent surface charges, and reduced the specific surface areas and pore volumes of ZrMZ.

  15. Enhanced root growth in phosphate-starved Arabidopsis by stimulating de novo phospholipid biosynthesis through the overexpression of LYSOPHOSPHATIDIC ACID ACYLTRANSFERASE 2 (LPAT2).

    PubMed

    Angkawijaya, Artik Elisa; Nguyen, Van Cam; Nakamura, Yuki

    2017-09-01

    Upon phosphate starvation, plants retard shoot growth but promote root development presumably to enhance phosphate assimilation from the ground. Membrane lipid remodelling is a metabolic adaptation that replaces membrane phospholipids by non-phosphorous galactolipids, thereby allowing plants to obtain scarce phosphate yet maintain the membrane structure. However, stoichiometry of this phospholipid-to-galactolipid conversion may not account for the massive demand of membrane lipids that enables active growth of roots under phosphate starvation, thereby suggesting the involvement of de novo phospholipid biosynthesis, which is not represented in the current model. We overexpressed an endoplasmic reticulum-localized lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, LPAT2, a key enzyme that catalyses the last step of de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Two independent LPAT2 overexpression lines showed no visible phenotype under normal conditions but showed increased root length under phosphate starvation, with no effect on phosphate starvation response including marker gene expression, root hair development and anthocyanin accumulation. Accompanying membrane glycerolipid profiling of LPAT2-overexpressing plants revealed an increased content of major phospholipid classes and distinct responses to phosphate starvation between shoot and root. The findings propose a revised model of membrane lipid remodelling, in which de novo phospholipid biosynthesis mediated by LPAT2 contributes significantly to root development under phosphate starvation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. [Study on basic amino acid contents in Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ailian; Wei, Tao; Si, Jinping'; Jin, Luying; Mo, Yina

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the contents of 16 basic amino acid and find out the variation of them in Dendrobium officinale with different germplasms and physiological ages, and then provide scientific basis for the quality evaluation and the breeding of D. officinale. Thirty-three samples with 1-3 ages were collected from cultivated fields of Zhejiang. The samples were acid hydrolyzed, and then 16 basic amino acid contents of samples were determined by amino acid analyzer. The average contents of 7 necessary amino acid were in 0.28 - 2.96 mg x g(-1), the average contents of other 9 basic amino acid were in 0.53 - 4.20 mg x g(-1). The contents of many amino acids were impacted by germplasms significantly, and contents of several amino acids were impacted by physiological ages significantly. There were rich basic amino acids in D. officinale. The breeding of D. officinale can increase the contents of essential amino acids and other basic amino acids. The relations among physiological age and amino acid contents were as follows: three years > two years > one year. The contents of Asp and Tyr have significantly negative correlation with magnesium, the content of Pro has significantly positive correlation with copper.

  17. Recombinant AroL-catalyzed Phosphorylation for the efficient Synthesis of Shikimic acid 3-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, Bernhard; Wszolek, Agata; Meier, Roland; Brundiek, Henrike; Obkircher, Markus; Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2018-04-26

    Shikimic acid 3-phosphate, as a central metabolite of the shikimate pathway, is of high interest as enzyme substrate for 5-enolpyruvoyl-shikimate 3-phosphate synthase, a drug target in infectious diseases and a prime enzyme target for the herbicide glyphosate. As the important substrate shikimic acid 3-phosphate was only accessible via a chemical multi-step route, a new straightforward preparative one-step enzymatic phosphorylation of shikimate using a stable recombinant shikimate kinase has been developed for the selective phosphorylation of shikimate in the 3-position. Highly active shikimate kinase has been produced by straightforward expression of a synthetic aroL gene in E. coli. The time course of the shikimate kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation has been investigated by 1 H- and 31 P-NMR, using the phosphoenolpyruvate/pyruvate kinase system for the regeneration of the ATP cofactor. This enabled the development of a quantitative biocatalytic 3-phosphorylation of shikimic acid. After a standard workup procedure a good yield of shikimic acid 3-phosphate, with high HPLC- and NMR purity, has been obtained. This efficient biocatalytic synthesis of shikimic acid 3-phosphate is superior to any other method and has been successfully scaled up to multi-gram scale. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective removal of phosphate for analysis of organic acids in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sandeep; Frolov, Andrej; Marcillo, Andrea; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2015-04-03

    Accurate quantitation of compounds in samples of biological origin is often hampered by matrix interferences one of which occurs in GC-MS analysis from the presence of highly abundant phosphate. Consequently, high concentrations of phosphate need to be removed before sample analysis. Within this context, we screened 17 anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials for selective phosphate removal using different protocols to meet the challenge of simultaneous recovery of six common organic acids in aqueous samples prior to derivatization for GC-MS analysis. Up to 75% recovery was achieved for the most organic acids, only the low pKa tartaric and citric acids were badly recovered. Compared to the traditional approach of phosphate removal by precipitation, SPE had a broader compatibility with common detection methods and performed more selectively among the organic acids under investigation. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that phosphate removal strategies during the analysis of biologically relevant small molecular weight organic acids consider the respective pKa of the anticipated analytes and the detection method of choice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Egloff, Caroline; Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca; Porter, Emily

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highestmore » doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder

  20. Preparation and characteristics of nano-grained calcium phosphate coatings on titanium from ultrasonated bath at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2008-04-01

    Electrochemically deposited nano-grained calcium phosphate coatings were produced on titanium substrates using aqueous electrolyte at acidic pH. Different coatings were produced by using cathodic current densities ranging from 10 to 50 mA/cm(2) from an ultrasonated electrolytic bath. These coatings contained dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as the predominant phase and hydroxyapatite as the minor phase. With increasing current density, hydroxyapatite content in the coatings increased. Dicalcium phosphate grains had size in the range of 55-85 nm and hydroxyapatite had grains in the size range of 20-25 nm. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the morphology of the coatings obtained at lower current densities had acicular structure. With increasing current densities, the needles became blunt and small and finally, at 50 mA/cm(2) the coating had globular deposits. Surface roughness of the coatings also increased with increasing deposition current density. Tensile bond strengths of the coatings were in the range of 3.6-6.9 MPa and decreased with increase of deposition current density. Heat-treatment of the coatings for 2 h at 500 degrees C completely eliminated the dicalcium phosphate phase and resulted in mono hydroxyapatite phase containing grains in the size range of 20-30 nm.

  1. Control of gentamicin release from a calcium phosphate cement by admixed poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Bohner, M; Lemaître, J; Merkle, H P; Gander, B

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) providing controlled release of the antibiotic gentamicin sulfate (GS) over at least 1 week. The CPC was made of beta-tricalcium phosphate [beta-TCP; beta-Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)], monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [MCPM; Ca(H(2)PO(4))(2). H(2)O] and water. Release of GS was controlled by admixture of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The effects on the GS release kinetics of the molecular weight of PAA, of the amount of admixed PAA, and of the pH of the release medium were investigated. A typical cement sample weighed 3.6 g and contained 100 mg of GS and between 0 and 150 mg of PAA. In the following, PAA content is expressed as the weight ratio, lambda, with respect to GS. At a low PAA content in the CPC (lambda < 0.7), GS was released over 1-2 days according to a square-root-of-time kinetics, but not all GS was released. The unreleased GS fraction increased from 0 to 58% with an increase of PAA content (up to lambda = 0.7). At high PAA content (lambda > 0.7), GS was released over a period of up to 8 days according to a combination of a square-root-of-time and a zero-order kinetics. The total GS fraction released increased again from 58 to 100% with an increase of the amount of PAA (up to lambda = 1.5). These observations were explained by molecular interaction between PAA and GS resulting in gel formation. The maximum fraction of GS released from the cement was indeed a function of the solubility of the PAA-GS (coacervate) complex in the release medium. Thus, GS release was controlled by two mechanisms: (1) diffusion of free GS molecules through the porous cement (square-root-of-time kinetics); and (2) dissociation of GS from the PAA-GS complex (zero-order kinetics). The first mechanism was predominant at low lambda, whereas the second mechanism became important at high lambda and later release times. As the solubility of the PAA-GS complex decreased with an increase in PAA molecular weight, the higher

  2. Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2011-01-01

    Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

  3. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  4. Comparison of magnetic properties and high-temperature phase stability of phosphate- and oleic acid-capped iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumaran, T.; Pati, S. S.; Singh, L. H.; de Oliveira, A. C.; Garg, V. K.; Philip, John

    2018-03-01

    We study the influence of dynamic capping of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with phosphate and oleic acid, on their structure, magnetic properties and thermal stability of magnetic nanoparticles. It is observed that the phosphate coating on iron oxide lowers the dipole-dipole interaction significantly, as compared to oleic acid capping. The Mössbauer results show that the spin canting order of oxidized shell and the mean hyperfine field values follow the order Fe0 (uncoated) > FeOA (oleic acid capped) > FP1 (phosphate capped). The uncoated Fe3O4 nanoparticle is non-stoichiometric in nature due to oxidation, whereas FP1 and FeOA are of the correct stoichiometry. Mössbauer and photoacoustic spectroscopic studies on air-annealed phosphate-coated magnetite nanoparticles confirm that the magnetic iron oxide phase is preserved up to 833 K and a complete conversion of Fe3O4 into the non-magnetic hematite phase occurs at 1173 K. The iron oxide air annealed at 833 K is found to have a shell of orthorhombic α-Fe2O3 over the magnetite core. However, in oleic acid-coated nanoparticles, the magnetic to non-magnetic phase transformation commences at 623 K and the conversion was complete at 823 K. The photoacoustic spectra of the air-annealed phosphate-coated Fe3O4 particles showed a flipping of the absorption intensity between 500-700 nm and 800-1000 nm, due to the conversion of Fe3O4 to γ-Fe2O3 at 923 and γ-Fe2O3 to α-Fe2O3 at 1173 K, respectively. The γ-Fe2O3 showed an intense absorption peak above 750 nm, whereas the α-Fe2O3 showed a peak broadening in the wavelength range of 600-700 nm, in addition to the strong peaks at a wavelength above 750 nm. This study suggests that the photoacoustic spectroscopy can distinguish clearly the three polymorphs of iron oxide i.e., Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3 and α-Fe2O3. Our results confirm the ability of phosphate-capped iron oxide particles to retard the oxidation of Fe2+ contents during the crystal growth process.

  5. Nucleic acid analysis using terminal-phosphate-labeled nucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas [Ithaca, NY; Webb, Watt W [Ithaca, NY; Levene, Michael [Ithaca, NY; Turner, Stephen [Ithaca, NY; Craighead, Harold G [Ithaca, NY; Foquet, Mathieu [Ithaca, NY

    2008-04-22

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  6. Al-intercalated acid activated bentonite beads for the removal of aqueous phosphate.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Radheshyam R; Gupta, Prabuddha; Lalhmunsiama; Bajaj, Hari C; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2016-12-01

    The separation of fine spent sorbents from treated water after remediation is a major difficulty associated with phosphate wastewater treatment technology. In this study, a novel aluminium-pillared acid activated bentonite powder (Al-ABn) and alginate immobilized aluminium-pillared acid activated bentonite beads (Al-ABn-AB) were synthesized and used for the removal of aqueous phosphate. The phosphate removal behaviour of adsorbents were evaluated by batch experiments as a function of various parameters such as pH, initial concentration, contact time, temperature, adsorbent dose and presence of coexisting ions. The sorption isotherm studies by Langmuir model showed 12.87 and 11.11 mgP/g maximum phosphate uptake capacity for Al-ABn and Al-ABn-AB, respectively. The kinetic studies confirm that the adsorption of phosphate by Al-ABn and Al-ABn-AB follows a pseudo-second-order model. The feasibility of Al-ABn-AB was also assessed in continuous mode in fixed bed column and the loading capacity obtained was 4.55mg/g. The adsorption capacity of Al-ABn-AB beads remained at relatively high even after four regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the applicability of the synthesized adsorbents towards real municipal wastewater confirmed that novel synthesized Al-ABn and Al-ABn-AB are the promising adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from contaminated water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Egloff, Caroline; Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase as a target for highly efficient fatty acid biosynthesis in microalgae by enhancing NADPH supply.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiao; Balamurugan, Srinivasan; Li, Da-Wei; Liu, Yu-Hong; Zeng, Hao; Wang, Lan; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2017-05-01

    Oleaginous microalgae have great prospects in the fields of feed, nutrition, biofuel, etc. However, biomass and lipid productivity in microalgae remain a major economic and technological bottleneck. Here we present a novel regulatory target, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) from the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), in boosting microalgal lipid accumulation. G6PD, involved in the formation of NADPH demanded in fatty acid biosynthesis as reducing power, was characterized in oleaginous microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In G6PD overexpressing microalgae, transcript abundance of G6PD increased by 4.4-fold, and G6PD enzyme activity increased by more than 3.1-fold with enhanced NADPH production. Consequently, the lipid content increased by 2.7-fold and reached up to 55.7% of dry weight, while cell growth was not apparently affected. The fatty acid composition exhibited significant changes, including a remarkable increase in monounsaturated fatty acids C16:1 and C18:1 concomitant with a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids C20:5 and C22:6. G6PD was localized to the chloroplast and its overexpression stimulated an increase in the number and size of oil bodies. Proteomic and metabolomic analyzes revealed that G6PD play a key role in regulating pentose phosphate pathway and subsequently upregulating NADPH consuming pathways such as fatty acid synthesis, thus eventually leading to lipid accumulation. Our findings show the critical role of G6PD in microalgal lipid accumulation by enhancing NADPH supply and demonstrate that G6PD is a promising target for metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pneumococcal C-substance, a ribitol teichoic acid containing choline phosphate.

    PubMed

    Brundish, D E; Baddiley, J

    1968-12-01

    1. Pneumococcal C-substance was isolated from the non-capsulated Pneumococcus 1-192R, A.T.C.C. 12213, by extraction with trichloroacetic acid solution followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (HCO(3) (-) form). 2. The polymer contains 7.0% of phosphorus and 6.0% of nitrogen and is composed of phosphate, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, d-glucose, N-acetyldiaminotrideoxyhexose, ribitol and choline in the molecular proportions 2:1:1:1:1:1. 3. After acid hydrolysis, d-galactosamine hydrochloride and galactosamine 6-phosphate were isolated in crystalline form and crystalline derivatives of d-glucose and anhydroribitol were obtained. A product of partial acid hydrolysis was provisionally characterized as 6'-O-phosphoryl-[O-beta-d-galactosaminyl-(1'-->6)-d-glucose]. 4. C-substance contains free amino groups accessible to attack by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and nitrous acid. 5. Choline phosphate and ribitol phosphate are units in the polymer. 6. Treatment with hot alkali gave a fragment comprising phosphate, d-galactosamine, d-glucose, diaminotrideoxyhexose and ribitol in the molecular proportions 2:1:1:1:1. 7. After selective N-acetylation, the fragment contained one of its phosphate groups as a phosphomonoester and one as a phosphodiester, shown by potentiometric titration and by treatment with a phosphomonoesterase. 8. C-substance from seven other strains of Pneumococcus possesses a structure common to that described for the strain 1-192R. 9. Capsular materials from 26 different strains of Pneumococcus were analysed for suspected contamination by C-substance. In 19 cases the presence of C-substance with the normal structure was demonstrated, and in the remaining seven cases the contaminating C-substance was probably similarly constituted. 10. F-substance was isolated and the associated fatty acid material analysed.

  10. Pneumococcal C-substance, a ribitol teichoic acid containing choline phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Brundish, D. E.; Baddiley, J.

    1968-01-01

    1. Pneumococcal C-substance was isolated from the non-capsulated Pneumococcus 1–192R, A.T.C.C. 12213, by extraction with trichloroacetic acid solution followed by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose (HCO3− form). 2. The polymer contains 7·0% of phosphorus and 6·0% of nitrogen and is composed of phosphate, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine, d-glucose, N-acetyldiaminotrideoxyhexose, ribitol and choline in the molecular proportions 2:1:1:1:1:1. 3. After acid hydrolysis, d-galactosamine hydrochloride and galactosamine 6-phosphate were isolated in crystalline form and crystalline derivatives of d-glucose and anhydroribitol were obtained. A product of partial acid hydrolysis was provisionally characterized as 6′-O-phosphoryl-[O-β-d-galactosaminyl-(1′→6)-d-glucose]. 4. C-substance contains free amino groups accessible to attack by 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and nitrous acid. 5. Choline phosphate and ribitol phosphate are units in the polymer. 6. Treatment with hot alkali gave a fragment comprising phosphate, d-galactosamine, d-glucose, diaminotrideoxyhexose and ribitol in the molecular proportions 2:1:1:1:1. 7. After selective N-acetylation, the fragment contained one of its phosphate groups as a phosphomonoester and one as a phosphodiester, shown by potentiometric titration and by treatment with a phosphomonoesterase. 8. C-substance from seven other strains of Pneumococcus possesses a structure common to that described for the strain 1–192R. 9. Capsular materials from 26 different strains of Pneumococcus were analysed for suspected contamination by C-substance. In 19 cases the presence of C-substance with the normal structure was demonstrated, and in the remaining seven cases the contaminating C-substance was probably similarly constituted. 10. F-substance was isolated and the associated fatty acid material analysed. PMID:4387389

  11. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  12. 9 CFR 317.362 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 317.362 Section 317.362 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 317.362 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. Link to..., and cholesterol in a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of products if: (1) The...

  13. 9 CFR 381.462 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... acids, and cholesterol content. 381.462 Section 381.462 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... Nutrition Labeling § 381.462 Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol content. Link to..., and cholesterol in a product may only be made on the label or in labeling of products if: (1) The...

  14. Influence of phosphate ions on buffer capacity of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguta, P.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The object of this study was to determine change of natural buffer capacity of humic acids by strong buffering agents, which were phosphate ions. Studies were carried out on the humic acids extracted from peat soils. Additional information was obtained by determination of water holding capacity, density, ash and pH for peats and optical parameter Q4/6 for humic acids. Humic acid suspensions exhibited the highest buffer properties at low pH and reached maximum at pH ~ 4. Phosphates possessed buffer properties in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.0. The maximum of buffering was at pH~6.8 and increased proportionally with an increase in the concentration of phosphate ions. The study indicated that the presence of phosphate ions may strongly change natural buffer capacity of humic acids by shifting buffering maximum toward higher pH values. Significant correlations were found for the degree of the secondary transformation with both the buffer capacity and the titrant volume used during titration.

  15. Separative recovery with lime of phosphate and fluoride from an acidic effluent containing H3PO4, HF and/or H2SiF6.

    PubMed

    Gouider, Mbarka; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-10-30

    Fluoride content and flow-rate of fertilizer plant wastewater from phosphoric acid and/or triple superphosphate (TSP) production lead to the discharge of several thousand tons of fluoride (F(-)) per year and even more for phosphate (PO4(3-)). Since sustainability is an important environmental concern, the removal methods should allow phosphorus and fluoride to be recycled as a sustainable products for use as raw materials either in agricultural or industrial applications. In the present work, separative recovery with lime of these two target species was investigated. A preliminary speciation study, carried out on the crude effluent, showed that two forms of fluoride: HF and H2SiF6 are present in a highly acidic medium (pH approximately 2). Evidence that fluoride is present under both free (HF) and combined (H2SiF6) forms, in the phosphate-containing effluent, was provided by comparing potentiometric titration curves of a crude wastewater sample and synthetic acid mixtures containing H3PO4, HF and H2SiF6. In a second step synthetic effluent containing mixtures of the following acids: HF, H2SiF6 and H3PO4, were treated with lime. The behaviour of these compounds under lime treatment was analysed. The data showed that fluoride has a beneficial effect on phosphate removal. Moreover, by acting on the precipitation pH, a "selective" recovery of fluoride and phosphate ions was possible either from phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid or phosphoric acid/hexafluorosilicic acid mixtures. Indeed, the first stage of the separative recovery, led to a fluoride removal efficiency of 97-98% from phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid mixture. It was of 93-95% from phosphoric acid/hexafluorosilicic acid mixture. During the second stage, the phosphate precipitation reached 99.8% from both acidic mixtures whereas it did not exceed 82% from a solution containing H3PO4 alone. The XRD and IR analyses showed that during lime treatment, a H2SiF6 hydrolysis occurred, instead of CaSiF6 solid

  16. Phosphate supply explains variation in nucleic acid allocation but not C : P stoichiometry in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.; Allison, S. D.

    2014-03-01

    Marine microbial communities mediate many biogeochemical transformations in the ocean. Consequently, processes such as primary production and carbon (C) export are linked to nutrient regeneration and are influenced by the resource demand and elemental composition of marine microbial biomass. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that differential partitioning of element resources to various cellular components can directly influence overall cellular elemental ratios, especially with respect to growth machinery (i.e., ribosomal RNA) and phosphorus (P) allocation. To investigate whether allocation to RNA is related to biomass P content and overall C : P biomass composition in the open ocean, we characterized patterns of P allocation and C : P elemental ratios along an environmental gradient of phosphate supply in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (NASG) from 35.67° N, 64.17° W to 22.676° N, 65.526° W. Because the NASG is characterized as a P-stressed ecosystem, we hypothesized that biochemical allocation would reflect sensitivity to bioavailable phosphate, such that greater phosphate supply would result in increased allocation toward P-rich RNA for growth. We predicted these changes in allocation would also result in lower C : P ratios with increased phosphate supply. However, bulk C : P ratios were decoupled from allocation to nucleic acids and did not appear to vary systematically across a phosphate supply gradient of 2.2-14.7 μmol m-2 d-1. Overall, we found that C : P ratios ranged from 188 to 306 along the transect, and RNA represented only 6-12% of total particulate P, whereas DNA represented 11-19%. We did find that allocation to RNA was positively correlated with phosphate supply rate, suggesting a consistent physiological response in biochemical allocation to resource supply within the whole community. These results suggest that community composition and/or nonnucleic acid P pools may influence ecosystem-scale variation in C : P stoichiometry more than

  17. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-10-09

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids.

  18. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  19. A short and practical synthesis of oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu) from (-)-shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Nie, Liang-Deng; Shi, Xiao-Xin; Ko, Kwang Hyok; Lu, Wei-Dong

    2009-05-15

    Oseltamivir phosphate (1) was synthesized from (-)-shikimic acid through a short and practical synthetic route via eight steps in 47% overall yield. In addition, the highly regioselective and stereoselective nucleophilic replacement of OMs by the N(3) group in the third and seventh steps has been studied in detail, and the reaction conditions were optimized.

  20. Acid Ceramidase Promotes Nuclear Export of PTEN through Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Mediated Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Beckham, Thomas H.; Cheng, Joseph C.; Lu, Ping; Marrison, S. Tucker; Norris, James S.; Liu, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is now understood to regulate cellular processes at the cytoplasmic membrane, where it classically regulates PI3K signaling, as well as in the nucleus where multiple roles in controlling cell cycle and genome stability have been elucidated. Mechanisms that dictate nuclear import and, less extensively, nuclear export of PTEN have been described, however the relevance of these processes in disease states, particularly cancer, remain largely unknown. We investigated the impact of acid ceramidase on the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of PTEN. Immunohistochemical analysis of a human prostate tissue microarray revealed that nuclear PTEN was lost in patients whose tumors had elevated acid ceramidase. We found that acid ceramidase promotes a reduction in nuclear PTEN that is dependent upon sphingosine 1-phosphate-mediated activation of Akt. We were further able to show that sphingosine 1-phosphate promotes formation of a complex between Crm1 and PTEN, and that leptomycin B prevents acid ceramidase and sphingosine 1-phosphate mediated loss of nuclear PTEN, suggesting an active exportin-mediated event. To investigate whether the tumor promoting aspects of acid ceramidase in prostate cancer depend upon its ability to export PTEN from the nucleus, we used enforced nuclear expression of PTEN to study docetaxel-induced apoptosis and cell killing, proliferation, and xenoengraftment. Interestingly, while acid ceramidase was able to protect cells expressing wild type PTEN from docetaxel, promote proliferation and xenoengraftment, acid ceramidase had no impact in cells expressing PTEN-NLS. These findings suggest that acid ceramidase, through sphingosine 1-phosphate, promotes nuclear export of PTEN as a means of promoting tumor formation, cell proliferation, and resistance to therapy. PMID:24098536

  1. Regulation of cell survival by lipid phosphate phosphatases involves the modulation of intracellular phosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate pools

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jaclyn; Darroch, Peter; Wan, Kah Fei; Kong, Kok Choi; Ktistakis, Nicholas; Pyne, Nigel J.; Pyne, Susan

    2005-01-01

    We have shown previously that LPPs (lipid phosphate phosphatases) reduce the stimulation of the p42/p44 MAPK (p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway by the GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) agonists S1P (sphingosine 1-phosphate) and LPA (lysophosphatidic acid) in serum-deprived HEK-293 cells [Alderton, Darroch, Sambi, McKie, Ahmed, N. J. Pyne and S. Pyne (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 13452–13460]. In the present study, we now show that this can be blocked by pretreating HEK-293 cells with the caspase 3/7 inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-CHO [N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (aldehyde)]. Therefore LPP2 and LPP3 appear to regulate the apoptotic status of serum-deprived HEK-293 cells. This was supported further by: (i) caspase 3/7-catalysed cleavage of PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] was increased in serum-deprived LPP2-overexpressing compared with vector-transfected HEK-293 cells; and (ii) serum-deprived LPP2- and LPP3-overexpressing cells exhibited limited intranucleosomal DNA laddering, which was absent in vector-transfected cells. Moreover, LPP2 reduced basal intracellular phosphatidic acid levels, whereas LPP3 decreased intracellular S1P in serum-deprived HEK-293 cells. LPP2 and LPP3 are constitutively co-localized with SK1 (sphingosine kinase 1) in cytoplasmic vesicles in HEK-293 cells. Moreover, LPP2 but not LPP3 prevents SK1 from being recruited to a perinuclear compartment upon induction of PLD1 (phospholipase D1) in CHO (Chinese-hamster ovary) cells. Taken together, these data are consistent with an important role for LPP2 and LPP3 in regulating an intracellular pool of PA and S1P respectively, that may govern the apoptotic status of the cell upon serum deprivation. PMID:15960610

  2. Degradability and cytocompatibility of tricalcium phosphate/poly(amino acid) composite as bone tissue implants in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Tao, Songchao; Yan, Yonggang; Lv, Guoyu; Gu, Yifei; Luo, Xiaoman; Yang, Lili; Wei, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and poly (amino acid) copolymer (PAA) biocomposite were fabricated for bone repair and characterized. The results show that the compressive strength of the TCP/PAA composites increased with an increase in the TCP content at TCP contents less than 40 w%. The weight loss of the composite after soaking in phosphate buffered saline for 12 weeks significantly increased with an increase in the TCP content, revealing its good degradability. In addition, the composite maintained adequate mechanical strength during the degradation period because it underwent a surface erosion process. In vitro MG63 cell culture experiments showed that the composite is non-cytotoxic and thus allows cells to adhere, proliferate and differentiate. Osteoid formation was evidenced on the composite surfaces 12 weeks after its implantation into the femoral bone of dogs. Furthermore, the composite combined directly with the host bone tissue without fibrous capsule tissue, and no inflammatory responses were found, showing the good biocompatibility of the composite. It is expected that the composite may be used for the development of bone implants for orthopaedic surgery.

  3. Amino Acid Contents of Meteorite Mineral Separates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, E. L.; Burton, A. S; Locke, D.

    2017-01-01

    Indigenous amino acids have been found indigenous all 8 carbonaceous chondrite groups. However, the abundances, structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions of amino acids differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that parent-body conditions (thermal or aqueous alteration), mineralogy, and the preservation of amino acids are linked. Previously, elucidating specific relationships between amino acids and mineralogy was not possible because the samples analyzed for amino acids were much larger than the scale at which petrologic heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences corresponding to sub-mg samples). Recent advances in amino acid measurements and application of techniques such as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) for mineralogical characterizations allow us to perform coordinated analyses on the scale at which mineral heterogeneity is observed.

  4. [Fat and fatty acids content in chocolate products].

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Andrzej; Nowak, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of fat and fatty acids content in chocolate products. Fifteen chocolate products divided into 3 groups--truffles, chocolates candy and chocolates cream were used in the investigations. Crude fat content in the chocolates products was determined on Soxhlet automatic apparatus. The saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were determined using gas chromatographic method. The highest content of fat, average 25.1%, was found in candy and cream chocolates. Saturated fatty acids in fat of investigated groups of chocolate products comprised above 52%, except truffles and chocolates candy with nuts. PUFA content was similar in the all chocolate product groups. Palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids dominated in the examined chocolate products. Oleic and linoleic acids content was higher in chocolate products with nuts.

  5. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    PubMed

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Sphingosine 1-phosphate, lysophosphatidic acid and growth factor signaling and termination.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Nigel J; Pyne, Susan

    2008-09-01

    Sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are bioactive lipid phosphates that bind to cell surface G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and, in addition, exhibit intracellular actions. We have summarised herein, an important functional interaction between lipid phosphate GPCR and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that enables growth factors to spatially regulate effectors, thereby governing the nature of the biological response. For instance, we describe how the formation of functional complexes between the S1P(1) receptor and PDGFbeta receptor may effectively re-programme platelet-derived growth factor from a mitogenic to a migratory stimulus. This is achieved by integration of RTK- and GPCR-specific signals that results in spatial regulation of a cytoplasmic retained pool of extracellular signal regulated kinase-1/2 linked to myosin light chain kinase, myosin light chain phosphorylation and migration. We therefore suggest that the lipid phosphate receptor is a major determinant in regulating growth factor-dependent biology. Growth factors can also increase S1P inside cells, and we discuss the concept of spatial/temporal aspects of compartmentalised intracellular signaling of S1P in relation to defined interactions between, for instance, sphingosine kinase, phospholipase D1 and lipid phosphate phosphatases and regulation of cell survival.

  7. Protective Effects of Fluoride and Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Against Acid Erosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    effects  of   dietary  acids  (Lussi  2006;  Oshiro  2007;  Panich   2009).    Therefore,  the  rate  and... dietary  acids:   the   effect  of  temperature,  acid  character,  concentration  and  exposure  time.    Journal  of  Oral...PROTECTIVE   EFFECTS  OF  FLUORIDE  AND  AMORPHOUS  CALCIUM  PHOSPHATE    

  8. Content and Vacuole/Extravacuole Distribution of Neutral Sugars, Free Amino Acids, and Anthocyanin in Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. γ-Methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents. Images PMID:16660921

  9. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS) Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jia; Nan, Peng; Gu, Zongying; Ge, Xiaochun; Feng, Yu-Qi; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T 2 and T 3 Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium ( CP4 ). For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV), and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T 2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T 3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  10. Phosphate Starvation Responses and Gibberellic Acid Biosynthesis Are Regulated by the MYB62 Transcription Factor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Devaiah, Ballachanda N.; Madhuvanthi, Ramaiah; Karthikeyan, Athikkattuvalasu S.; Raghothama, Kashchandra G.

    2009-01-01

    The limited availability of phosphate (Pi) in most soils results in the manifestation of Pi starvation responses in plants. To dissect the transcriptional regulation of Pi stress-response mechanisms, we have characterized the biological role of MYB62, an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor that is induced in response to Pi deficiency. The induction of MYB62 is a specific response in the leaves during Pi deprivation. The MYB62 protein localizes to the nucleus. The overexpression of MYB62 resulted in altered root architecture, Pi uptake, and acid phosphatase activity, leading to decreased total Pi content in the shoots. The expression of several Pi starvation-induced (PSI) genes was also suppressed in the MYB62 overexpressing plants. Overexpression of MYB62 resulted in a characteristic gibberellic acid (GA)-deficient phenotype that could be partially reversed by exogenous application of GA. In addition, the expression of SOC1 and SUPERMAN, molecular regulators of flowering, was suppressed in the MYB62 overexpressing plants. Interestingly, the expression of these genes was also reduced during Pi deprivation in wild-type plants, suggesting a role for GA biosynthetic and floral regulatory genes in Pi starvation responses. Thus, this study highlights the role of MYB62 in the regulation of phosphate starvation responses via changes in GA metabolism and signaling. Such cross-talk between Pi homeostasis and GA might have broader implications on flowering, root development and adaptive mechanisms during nutrient stress. PMID:19529828

  11. Enhanced stabilization of Pb, Zn, and Cd in contaminated soils using oxalic acid-activated phosphate rocks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Guo, Guanlin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Jia; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Fasheng; Chen, Honghan

    2018-01-01

    Phosphate amendments, especially phosphate rock (PR), are one of the most commonly used materials to stabilize heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, most of PR reserve consists of low-grade ore, which limits the efficiency of PR for stabilizing heavy metals. This study was to enhance the stabilization of heavy metals through improving the available phosphorous (P) release of PR by oxalic acid activation. Raw PR and activated PR (APR) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, and laser diffraction to determine the changes of structure and composition of APR. The stabilization effectiveness of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and cadmium (Cd) in soils by APR was investigated through toxicity leaching test and speciation analysis. The results indicated that after treatment by oxalic acid, (1) the crystallinity of the fluorapatite phase of PR transformed into the weddellite phase; (2) the surface area of PR increased by 37%; (3) the particle size of PR became homogenized (20-70 μm); and (4) the available P content in PR increased by 22 times. These changes of physicochemical characteristics of PR induced that APR was more effective to transform soil heavy metals from the non-residual fraction to the residual fraction and enhance the stabilization efficiency of Pb, Zn, and Cd than PR. These results are significant for the future use of low-grade PR to stabilize heavy metals.

  12. The trans fatty acids content of selected foods in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Akmar, Z D; Norhaizan, M E; Azimah, R; Azrina, A; Chan, Y M

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information on the trans fatty acid (TFA) content in Malaysian foods. The objective of this study is to determine the TFA content of bakery products, snacks, dairy products, fast foods, cooking oils and semisolid fats, and breakfast cereals and Malaysian fast foods. This study also estimated the quantity of each isomer in the foods assayed. The trans fatty acid content of each food sample was assessed in duplicate by separating the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in a gas chromatography system equipped with HP-88 column (USA: split ratio 10: 1) for cis/trans separation. Five major TFA isomers, palmitoelaidic acid (16: 1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18: 1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9, 12), were measured using gas chromatography (GC) and the data were expressed in unit values of g/100 g lipid or g/100 g food. The total TFA contents in the studied foods were < 0.001 g-8.77 g/100 g lipid or < 0.001 g-5.79 g/100 g foods. This value falls within the standard and international recommendation level for TFA. The measured range of specific TFA isomers were as follows: palmitoelaidic acid (< 0.001 g-0.26 g/100 g lipid), petroselaidic acid (< 0.001 g - 3.09 g/100 g lipid), elaidic acid (< 0.001 g-0.87 g/100 g lipid), vaccenic acid (< 0.001 g-0.41 g/100 g lipid) and linoelaidic acid (< 0.001 g-6.60 g/100 g lipid). These data indicate that most of the tested foods have low TFA contents (< 1 g/100 g lipid).

  13. Active-site labelling of triose phosphate isomerase. The reaction of bromohydroxyacetone phosphate with a unique glutamic acid residue and the migration of the label to tyrosine

    PubMed Central

    De La Mare, Susan; Coulson, A. F. W.; Knowles, J. R.; Priddle, J. D.; Offord, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    Triose phosphate isomerase from chicken muscle reacts stoicheiometrically with the active-site-directed irreversible inhibitor bromohydroxyacetone phosphate with concomitant loss of all catalytic activity. The primary site of attachment has been shown to be a unique glutamic acid residue in the sequence Ala-Tyr-Glu-Pro-Val-Trp. Unless the inhibitor–enzyme bond is stabilized by reduction of the C-2 carbonyl group with borohydride, the phosphate group is lost and the label migrates to the adjacent tyrosine residue. It is suggested that the γ-carboxylate group of the glutamic acid residue may be the base responsible for primary proton abstraction from substrate in the catalysis. The failure of this reagent specifically to inactivate either muscle or yeast aldolase, and the use of the reagent in preparing isomerase-free glycolytic enzymes, is discussed. PMID:4643320

  14. Hexeneuronic acid content of chemical pulp

    Treesearch

    Junyong Zhu; X.S. Chai

    2007-01-01

    This method describes a procedure to determine hexeneuronic acid groups (HexA) in chemical pulps. HexA affects the kappa number determination by reaction with permanganate, and can react with certain bleaching chemicals, e.g. chlorine dioxide and ozone, but not with some others such as oxygen and peroxide. The method is based on the highly selective hydrolysis of HexA...

  15. Acid gradient across plasma membrane can drive phosphate bond synthesis in cancer cells: acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Gautam; Sen, Suvajit; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive cancers exhibit an efficient conversion of high amounts of glucose to lactate accompanied by acid secretion, a phenomenon popularly known as the Warburg effect. The acidic microenvironment and the alkaline cytosol create a proton-gradient (acid gradient) across the plasma membrane that represents proton-motive energy. Increasing experimental data from physiological relevant models suggest that acid gradient stimulates tumor proliferation, and can also support its energy needs. However, direct biochemical evidence linking extracellular acid gradient to generation of intracellular ATP are missing. In this work, we demonstrate that cancer cells can synthesize significant amounts of phosphate-bonds from phosphate in response to acid gradient across plasma membrane. The noted phenomenon exists in absence of glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and is unique to cancer. Biochemical assays using viable cancer cells, and purified plasma membrane vesicles utilizing radioactive phosphate, confirmed phosphate-bond synthesis from free phosphate (Pi), and also localization of this activity to the plasma membrane. In addition to ATP, predominant formation of pyrophosphate (PPi) from Pi was also observed when plasma membrane vesicles from cancer cells were subjected to trans-membrane acid gradient. Cancer cytosols were found capable of converting PPi to ATP, and also stimulate ATP synthesis from Pi from the vesicles. Acid gradient created through glucose metabolism by cancer cells, as observed in tumors, also proved critical for phosphate-bond synthesis. In brief, these observations reveal a role of acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source and may offer a novel therapeutic target.

  16. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 containing an artificial oxalate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin secretes oxalic acid and solubilizes rock phosphate in acidic alfisols.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil.

  17. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 Containing an Artificial Oxalate Operon and Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Secretes Oxalic Acid and Solubilizes Rock Phosphate in Acidic Alfisols

    PubMed Central

    Archana, G.; Naresh Kumar, G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  18. Evaluation of commonly used methods for the analysis of acid-soluble phosphate in internationally traded inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Hall, William L; Siegel, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several methodologies are used throughout the world to determine phosphate concentration (measured as PO4 and expressed as % P2O5) in fertilizers. Concentrated phosphate materials, including diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP), are traded in large volumes (millions of metric tons) internationally. The International Fertilizer Association (IFA) identified a need to assess the methods currently being used to measure the phosphate content for suitability (scope), accuracy, and repeatability. Even small discrepancies in the expressed P2O5 content can have a major financial impact on buyers and sellers as contracts are settled and import regulations are imposed. The IFA's Technical Committee selected a working group to address issues dealing with harmonization of fertilizer sampling and analytical methodologies. The working group identified phosphate content in DAP and MAP fertilizers as a major concern for commerce. The working group initiated a method screening and comparison project to assess method performance and to determine which methods, if any, could be considered best practice methods and, therefore, be deemed acceptable for use by the industry. In order to systematically review the acceptability of methods for consideration, the task force developed an assessment protocol outlined in a white paper involving three steps: (1) compile all known relevant methods practiced in global fertilizer trade, (2) review and evaluate methods based upon specific evaluation criteria, and (3) compare the methods that most closely fit the evaluation criteria by multilaboratory analysis of unknown materials for accuracy and repeatability. Six methods were evaluated for analysis of total phosphate in concentrated phosphate products. From these methods, four were determined to be acceptable as best practice methods. The study members proposed three of the methods, while a fourth method was commonly used among the participating laboratories. This publication

  19. Effects of environmental calcium and phosphate on wear and strength of glass ionomers exposed to acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Y; Yap, Adrian U J

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental calcium and phosphate on wear resistance, strength, and surface morphology of highly viscous glass-ionomers (HVGICs) (Fuji IX Fast [FN] and KetacMolar [KM]) when exposed to acidic conditions. Fabricated specimens were randomly divided into five groups and kept in acidic solutions (pH 3) with varied levels of calcium and phosphate ranging from 0 to 2.4 mM. After 4 weeks of conditioning, the specimens were subjected to wear testing, shear punch, and surface roughness testing as well as SEM evaluation. Multiple comparisons of wear depth (microm), shear strength (MPa), and surface roughness (Ra) between acidic conditions were performed using ANOVA/post-hoc Scheffe's test (p < 0.05). Results showed that FN and KM exposed to acidic conditions had varied wear resistance, shear strength, surface roughness, and structure depending on environmental phosphate level. Increased level of environmental phosphate led to rougher surface, greater wear resistance, and strength of FN and KM than the controls (acid of pH 3). Under SEM, the surface of both FN and KM specimens were covered by numerous small particles when environmental phosphate was high. Results suggest that environmental phosphate may improve wear resistance and shear strength of HVGICs when challenged by acids. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application.

  1. Update on phosphate and charged post-translationally modified amino acid parameters in the GROMOS force field.

    PubMed

    Margreitter, Christian; Reif, Maria M; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2017-04-15

    In this study, we propose newly derived parameters for phosphate ions in the context of the GROMOS force field parameter sets. The non-bonded parameters used up to now lead to a hydration free energy, which renders the dihydrogen phosphate ion too hydrophobic when compared to experimentally derived values, making a reparametrization of the phosphate moiety necessary. Phosphate species are of great importance in biomolecular simulations not only because of their crucial role in the backbone of nucleic acids but also as they represent one of the most important types of post-translational modifications to protein side-chains and are an integral part in many lipids. Our re-parametrization of the free dihydrogen phosphate (H 2PO 4-) and three derivatives (methyl phosphate, dimethyl phosphate, and phenyl phosphate) leads, in conjunction with the previously updated charged side-chains in the GROMOS parameter set 54A8, to new nucleic acid backbone parameters and a 54A8 version of the widely used GROMOS protein post-translational modification parameter set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Changes in the protein content and their amino acid makeup in the muscles in feeding rats corn with an increased lysine content].

    PubMed

    Novikova, A A; Pisanskiĭ, A P; Stankevich, V I; Shchesno, T Iu; Shiliakhova, E A

    1976-01-01

    The biochemical indexes of the rat muscles were studied as affected by maize with a higher content of lysin. It is shown that a month after an increase in the body weight and mass of muscles are more pronounced in the rats which were fed maize with a higher content of lysin. The latter, evidently, is due to an increase in the content of sarcoplasmatic proteins, RNA, as well as macroergic compounds, ATP and creatine phosphate, in the muscle of the animals under experiment. The qualitive composition of muscles proteins changes in these animals. A rated gain in essential amino acids is observed as compared to the control group. Hence the feeding of the maize with a higher content of lysin to animals may increase the feed value of meat products.

  3. Agronomic efficiency of phosphate fertilizers produced by the re-use of a metallurgical acid residue.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Matheus Sampaio Carneiro; Mattiello, Edson Marcio; Santos, Wedisson Oliveira; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo; Vergütz, Leonardus; Novais, Roberto Ferreira

    2018-02-15

    The production of fertilizers with industrial wastes reduces the environmental impacts of waste disposal and improves environmental sustainability by generating added-value products. Our objective with this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance and potential soil/plant contamination with heavy metals of alternative phosphate (P) fertilizers, obtained from the acidulation of phosphate rocks (PR) by a metallurgical acidic waste. Seven P fertilizers were evaluated: three PR (Araxá, Patos, and Bayóvar), their respective acidulated products (PAPR), and triple superphosphate fertilizer (TSP). A greenhouse trial was carried out to test the agronomic performances of fertilizers in a sequentially cultivated maize-soybean-white oat. The reaction of PR with acid waste was effective to increase their solubility and improve plant yield and P uptake compared to their natural PR. There was a cumulative recovery by plants of 1.4 and 8.1% of added P via PR and PAPR, respectively. No increase in heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Cr, and Ni) availability in soil or accumulation in shoots was observed, indicating that the PAPR were environmentally safe. The usage of acid waste to produce P fertilizers therefore represents a strategic way to employ marginal products for the production of fertilizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectroscopic and dielectric response of zinc bismuth phosphate glasses as a function of chromium content

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P. Srinivasa; Babu, P. Ramesh; Vijay, R.

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: 20ZnF{sub 2}–(20 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤2 mol%) glasses are prepared by melt quenching technique. The optical absorption spectra of present glasses are analyzed as a function of chromium content. The absorption bands are assigned to {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}E{sub g}(G) transitions of Cr{sup 3+} ions. - Highlights: • ZnF{sub 2}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses were prepared by melt quenching and annealing. • Spectroscopicmore » and dielectric properties of chromium ions were investigated. • ESR and optical absorption spectra indicate the co-existence of Cr{sup 6+} ions with Cr{sup 5+} ions and Cr{sup 3+} ions. • Cr{sup 3+} ions act as modifiers and influence the semiconducting nature of the glass system. - Abstract: 20ZnF{sub 2}–(20 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤2 mol%) glasses are prepared by melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of these samples is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. FTIR study reveals bands due to CrO{sub 6}(o{sub d}) and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}(T{sub d}) units along with conventional phosphate groups. The optical absorption and ESR studies of present glasses are analyzed as a function of chromium content. The absorption bands are assigned to {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}E{sub g}(G) transitions of Cr{sup 3+} ions. The highest concentration of Cr{sup 3+} ions (in octahedral sites, with network modifying positions) is found in the sample with 2.0 mol% of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The analysis of dielectric properties indicates a gradual increase in semiconducting character with increase in the

  5. Determination of phosphate in natural waters by activation analysis of tungstophosphoric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Herbert E.; Hahn, Richard B.

    1969-01-01

    Activation analysis may be used to determine quantitatively traces of phosphate in natural waters. Methods based on the reaction 31P(n,γ)32P are subject to interference by sulfur and chlorine which give rise to 32P through n,p and n,α reactions. If the ratio of phosphorus to sulfur or chlorine is small, as it is in most natural waters, accurate analyses by these methods are difficult to achieve. In the activation analysis method, molybdate and tungstate ions are added to samples containing phosphate ion to form tungstomolybdophosphoric acid. The complex is extracted with 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone. After activation of an aliquot of the organic phase for 1 hour at a flux of 1013 neutrons per cm2, per second, the gamma spectrum is essentially that of tungsten-187. The induced activity is proportional to the concentration of phosphate in the sample. A test of the method showed it to give accurate results at concentrations of 4 to at least 200 p.p.b. of phosphorus when an aliquot of 100 μl. was activated. By suitable reagent purification, counting for longer times, and activation of larger aliquots, the detection limit could be lowered several hundredfold.

  6. A novel biodegradable nicotinic acid/calcium phosphate composite coating on Mg-3Zn alloy.

    PubMed

    Song, Yingwei; Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou

    2013-01-01

    A novel biodegradable composite coating is prepared to reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg-3Zn alloy. The Mg-3Zn substrate is first immersed into 0.02 mol L(-1) nicotinic acid (NA) solution, named as vitamin B3, to obtain a pretreatment film, and then the electrodeposition of calcium phosphate coating with ultrasonic agitation is carried out on the NA pretreatment film to obtain a NA/calcium phosphate composite coating. Surface morphology is observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical composition is determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and EDX. Protection property of the coatings is evaluated by electrochemical tests. The biodegradable behavior is investigated by immersion tests. The results indicate that a thin but compact bottom layer can be obtained by NA pretreatment. The electrodeposition calcium phosphate coating consists of many flake particles and ultrasonic agitation can greatly improve the compactness of the coating. The composite coating is biodegradable and can reduce the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys in stimulated body fluid (SBF) for twenty times. The biodegradation process of the composite coating can be attributed to the gradual dissolution of the flake particles into chippings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Escherichia coli N-Acetylglucosamine-1-Phosphate-Uridyltransferase/Glucosamine-1-Phosphate-Acetyltransferase (GlmU) Inhibitory Activity of Terreic Acid Isolated from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Lambu, Mallikharjuna Rao; Jamwal, Urmila; Rani, Chitra; Chib, Reena; Wazir, Priya; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Chaubey, Asha; Khan, Inshad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Secondary metabolite of Aspergillus terreus, terreic acid, is a reported potent antibacterial that was identified more than 60 years ago, but its cellular target(s) are still unknown. Here we screen its activity against the acetyltransferase domain of a bifunctional enzyme, Escherichia coli N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (GlmU). An absorbance-based assay was used to screen terreic acid against the acetyltransferase activity of E. coli GlmU. Terreic acid was found to inhibit the acetyltransferase domain of E. coli GlmU with an IC50 of 44.24 ± 1.85 µM. Mode of inhibition studies revealed that terreic acid was competitive with AcCoA and uncompetitive with GlcN-1-P. It also exhibited concentration-dependent killing of E. coli ATCC 25922 up to 4× minimum inhibitory concentration and inhibited the growth of biofilms generated by E. coli. Characterization of resistant mutants established mutation in the acetyltransferase domain of GlmU. Terreic acid was also found to be metabolically stable in the in vitro incubations with rat liver microsome in the presence of a NADPH regenerating system. The studies reported here suggest that terreic acid is a potent antimicrobial agent and support that E. coli GlmU acetyltransferase is a molecular target of terreic acid, resulting in its antibacterial activity. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  9. Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A

    2014-06-03

    Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicated that "autunite-type" sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to "phosphuranylite-type" sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases.

  10. CITRIC ACID AS A SET RETARDER FOR CALCIUM ALUMINATE PHOSPHATE CEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.; BROTHERS, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Citric acid added as set retarder significantly contributed to enhancing the setting temperature and to extending the thickening time of a calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) geothermal cement slurry consisting of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the base reactant and sodium polyphosphate (NaP) solution as the acid reactant. The set-retarding activity of citric acid was due to the uptake of Ca{sup 2+} ions from the CAC by carboxylic acid groups within the citric acid. This uptake led to the precipitation of a Ca-complexed carboxylate compound as a set-retarding barrier layer on the CAC grains' surfaces. However, this barrier layer was vulnerablemore » to disintegration by the attack of free Ca{sup 2+} ions from CAC, and also to degradation at elevated temperature, thereby promoting the generation of exothermic energy from acid-base reactions between the CAC and NaP after the barrier was broken. The exothermic reaction energy that was promoted in this way minimized the loss in strength of the citric acid-retarded cement. The phase composition assembled in both retarded and non-retarded cements after autoclaving at 180 C encompassed three reaction products, hydroxyapatite (HOAp), hydrogrossular and boehmite, which are responsible for strengthening the autoclaved cement. The first two reaction products were susceptible to reactions with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate to form crystalline bassanite scale as the corrosion product. The boehmite phase possessed a great resistance to acid and sulfate. Although the bassanite scales clinging to the cement's surfaces were the major factor governing the loss in weight, they served in protecting the cement from further acid- and sulfate-corrosion until their spallation eventually occurred. Nevertheless, the repetitive processes of HOAp and hydrogrossular {yields} bassanite {yields} spallation played an important role in extending the useful lifetime of CaP cement in a low pH environment at 180 C.« less

  11. Repression of oxalic acid-mediated mineral phosphate solubilization in rhizospheric isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae by succinate.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Naresh Kumar, G; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2013-02-01

    Two strains of Klebsiella (SM6 and SM11) were isolated from rhizospheric soil that solubilized mineral phosphate by secretion of oxalic acid from glucose. Activities of enzymes for periplasmic glucose oxidation (glucose dehydrogenase) and glyoxylate shunt (isocitrate lyase and glyoxylate oxidase) responsible for oxalic acid production were estimated. In presence of succinate, phosphate solubilization was completely inhibited, and the enzymes glucose dehydrogenase and glyoxylate oxidase were repressed. Significant activity of isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme for carbon flux through glyoxylate shunt and oxalic acid production during growth on glucose suggested that it could be inducible in nature, and its inhibition by succinate appeared to be similar to catabolite repression.

  12. Experimental study on thermal hazard of tributyl phosphate-nitric acid mixtures using micro calorimeter technique.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Liang; Sun, Jin-Hua

    2016-08-15

    During PUREX spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, mixture of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and hydrocarbon solvent are employed as organic solvent to extract uranium in consideration of radiation contaminated safety and resource recycling, meanwhile nitric acid is utilized to dissolve the spent fuel into small pieces. However, once TBP contacts with nitric acid or nitrates above 130°C, a heavy "red oil" layer would occur accompanied by thermal runaway reactions, even caused several nuclear safety accident. Considering nitric acid volatility and weak exothermic detection, C80micro calorimeter technique was used in this study to investigate thermal decomposition of TBP mixed with nitric acid. Results show that the concentration of nitric acid greatly influences thermal hazard of the system by direct reactions. Even with a low heating rate, if the concentration of nitric acid increases due to evaporation of water or improper operations, thermal runaway in the closed system could start at a low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary calcium phosphate content and oat β-glucan influence gastrointestinal microbiota, butyrate-producing bacteria and butyrate fermentation in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Mosenthin, Rainer; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oat β-glucan in combination with low- and high-dietary calcium phosphate (CaP) content on gastrointestinal bacterial microbiota, prevalence of butyrate-production pathway genes and fermentation end-products in 32 weaned pigs allocated to four diets: a cornstarch-casein-based diet with low [65% of the calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) requirement] and high CaP content (125% and 115% of the Ca and P requirement, respectively); and low and high CaP diets supplemented with 8.95% of oat β-glucan concentrate. Pigs were slaughtered after 14 days, and digesta were collected for quantitative PCR analysis, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids and lactate. The high CaP content reduced gastric lactate and streptococci and propionate in the large intestine. Oat β-glucan distinctly raised gastric bacterial numbers, and colonic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Although not reflected by gene copies of butyrate-production pathway genes, oat β-glucan also increased gastric, caecal and colonic butyrate concentrations, which may be favourable for intestinal development in weaned pigs. Thus, a high CaP content negatively affected the intestinal abundance of certain fermentation end-products, whereas oat β-glucan generally enhanced bacterial numbers and activity. The results emphasize the importance of the stomach for bacterial metabolism of oat β-glucan in weaned pigs. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Determination of content and specific activity of radioactive elements in phosphate slag by spectral and energy spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Bao, P Y

    2001-10-01

    Phosphate slag is the slag discarded after phosphate ore is smelted. The content and specific activity of radioactive elements in slag must be determined accurately for environmental protection and comprehensive utilization. This paper discusses how IR spectrum and X-ray diffraction method are used to study its components. The main phase composition is glassy slag. The samples are decomposed with HF-HNO3-HClO4. After anion-exchange separation, arsenazo III is used to determine the content of uranium and thorium in slag. The average content of U is 32.11 micrograms.g-1 and 8.5 micrograms.g-1 for Th. gamma spectrum is used to determine the specific activity of radioactive nuclear elements in it. The specific activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 112 +/- 2.0% Bq.kg-1, 18.8 +/- 6.4% Bq.kg-1 and 77.6 +/- 3.7% Bq.kg-1, respectively. The values are calculated as follow: M(Ra) = 0.6 Bq.kg-1, M gamma = 0.5 Bq.kg-1. The results show that the values are below 1.0 Bq.kg-1, which is stipulated by national GB6566-86 standard for radioactivity of building materials. The slag is therefore can be utilized to produce slag cement. This provides theoretical basis for the treatment of it.

  15. Over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana SFD1/GLY1, the gene encoding plastid localized glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, increases plastidic lipid content in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijayata; Singh, Praveen Kumar; Siddiqui, Adnan; Singh, Subaran; Banday, Zeeshan Zahoor; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Lipids are the major constituents of all membranous structures in plants. Plants possess two pathways for lipid biosynthesis: the prokaryotic pathway (i.e., plastidic pathway) and the eukaryotic pathway (i.e., endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) pathway). Whereas some plants synthesize galactolipids from diacylglycerol assembled in the plastid, others, including rice, derive their galactolipids from diacylglycerols assembled by the eukaryotic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pDH), coded by SUPPRESSOR OF FATTY ACID DESATURASE 1 (SFD1; alias GLY1) gene, catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate (G3p), the backbone of many membrane lipids. Here SFD1 was introduced to rice as a transgene. Arabidopsis SFD1 localizes in rice plastids and its over-expression increases plastidic membrane lipid content in transgenic rice plants without any major impact on ER lipids. The results suggest that over-expression of plastidic G3pDH enhances biosynthesis of plastid-localized lipids in rice. Lipid composition in the transgenic plants is consistent with increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in the plastid and increased galactolipid synthesis from diacylglycerol produced via the ER pathway. The transgenic plants show a higher photosynthetic assimilation rate, suggesting a possible application of this finding in crop improvement.

  16. Detection of specific bacterial cells with 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid-2'-phenylanilide phosphate and fast red TR in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, N; Inaoka, S; Tani, K; Kenzaka, T; Nasu, M

    1996-01-01

    An in situ hybridization technique with HNPP (2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid-2'-phenylanilide phosphate) and Fast Red TR was used to detect specific bacterial cells at the single-cell level. By this technique, the fluorescent signals of target bacterial cells were up to eight times more intense than those of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization with mono-fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled oligonucleotide probes. This novel HNPP-Fast Red TR whole-cell hybridization technique is available for the identification of small or low-rRNA-content bacterial cells in the natural environment. PMID:8572706

  17. Detection of specific bacterial cells with 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid-2'-phenylanilide phosphate and fast red TR in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, N; Inaoka, S; Tani, K; Kenzaka, T; Nasu, M

    1996-01-01

    An in situ hybridization technique with HNPP (2-hydroxy-3-naphthoic acid-2'-phenylanilide phosphate) and Fast Red TR was used to detect specific bacterial cells at the single-cell level. By this technique, the fluorescent signals of target bacterial cells were up to eight times more intense than those of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization with mono-fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled oligonucleotide probes. This novel HNPP-Fast Red TR whole-cell hybridization technique is available for the identification of small or low-rRNA-content bacterial cells in the natural environment.

  18. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; Günther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; Möhle, Henrik; Düngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-05-30

    The so-called "hepatic lipidosis" in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from hepatic lipidosis. The conspicuous livers (n = 85) were collected from 20 flocks where the phenomenon of massive increased animal losses accompanied by marked macroscopically visible pathological liver steatosis suddenly occurred. For comparison and as a reference, livers (n = 16) of two healthy flocks were taken. Healthy and diseased flocks were fed identical diets concerning official nutrient recommendations and were operating under standardized, comparable conventional conditions. Compared to livers of healthy animals, in the livers of turkeys died from hepatic lipidosis there were found massively increased fat levels (130 ± 33.2 vs. 324 ± 101 g/kg dry matter-DM). In all fatty livers, different fatty acids concentrations were present in significantly increased concentrations compared to controls (palmitic acid: 104 g/kg DM, +345%; palmitoleic acid: 18.0 g/kg DM, + 570%; oleic acid: 115 g/kg DM, +437%). Fatty acids concentrations relevant for liver metabolism and inflammation were significantly reduced (arachidonic acid: 2.92 g/kg DM, -66.6%; eicosapentaenoic acid: 0.141 g/kg DM, -78.3%; docosahexaenoic acid: 0.227 g/kg DM, -90.4%). The ratio of certain fatty acids to one another between control and case livers changed analogously to liver diseases in humans (e.g.: C18:0/C16:0 - 0.913 against 0.311; C16:1n7/C16:0 - 0.090 against 0.165; C18:1/C18:0 - 0.938 against 4.03). The iron content in the liver tissue also increased massively (271 ± 51.5 vs 712 ± 214 mg/kg DM). The hepatic

  19. Thermodynamical characteristics of the reaction of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with L-amino acids in aqueous buffer solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barannikov, V. P.; Badelin, V. G.; Venediktov, E. A.; Mezhevoi, I. N.; Guseinov, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with L-isomers of alanine, lysine, arginine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and glycine in phosphate buffer solution was studied by absorption spectroscopy and the calorimetry of dissolution at physiological acidity of the medium (pH 7.35). The formation constants of Schiff bases during reactions and changes in Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were determined. It was shown that the formation constant of the Schiff base and its spectral properties depend on the nature of the bound amino acid. The progress of the reaction with a majority of amino acids is governed by the entropy factor due to the predominant role of the dehydration effect of the reaction center of amino acids during chemical reactions. The intramolecular electrostatic interaction of an ionized phosphate group with the positively charged amino group on the end of the chain of amino acid residue stabilizes the Schiff bases formed by lysine and arginine. The extinction coefficient of the base, equilibrium constant, and the exothermic effect of the reaction then increase. The excess negative charge on the end of the chain of amino acid residues of aspartic and glutamic acids destabilizes the molecule of the Schiff base. In this case, the equilibrium constant decreases and the endothermic effect of the reaction increases.

  20. Effect of basic amino acids on photoreaction of ketoprofen in phosphate buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tadashi; Osanai, Yohei; Isozaki, Tasuku

    2012-01-01

    Photoreaction of ketoprofen (KP), one of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), was studied with transient absorption spectroscopy in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) in the presence of basic amino acids of histidine (His), lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg). Deprotonated form of KP (KP(-)) excited with UV-light irradiation gave rise to carbanion through a decarboxylation reaction. It was found that carbanion abstracted a proton from the side chain of the protonated amino acids to yield 3-ethylbenzophenone ketyl biradical (EBPH); however, no reaction was observed with alanine. The relative yield of EBPH by the proton transfer reaction with His was ca. 40 times larger than that of the other two basic amino acids, suggesting that the proton-donating ability of His (protonated His) should be quite high. The information on the photoreaction mechanism of NSAIDs with basic amino acids was essential to understand primary reaction of excited NSAIDs in vivo causing photosensitization on human skin. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  2. The effect of illumination on the malic acid content and anion/cation balance of mustard leaves (Sinapis alba)

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, M. J.; Bacon, J. S. D.

    1967-01-01

    1. Mustard plants have been grown under conditions in which the length of artificial day could be controlled. 2. Leaf samples were analysed for malic acid and citric acid, and for a number of inorganic anions and cations. A simple method is described by which sap was obtained from 0·5g. samples of leaves. 3. In days of 16hr. or more, malic acid was accumulated; the chief cation accumulated was calcium. 4. When the day-length was reduced the malic acid content decreased considerably but the calcium content remained the same. There was little change in the pH value of the sap, the balance of anions and cations having been maintained mainly by increases in citrate and nitrate contents. Analyses of the whole leaf still showed some deficiency in anion after sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, nitrate, sulphate, inorganic phosphate, chloride, malate and citrate had been accounted for. 5. Analyses at shorter intervals revealed a large diurnal variation in malic acid content, which increased during the first 5–6hr. of the light period, and fell during darkness. 6. The significance of these findings is discussed, and it is suggested that malic acid accumulation is a by-product of photosynthesis, calcium being taken up irreversibly to maintain anion/cation balance, and hence creating a continuing need for anions to balance it. PMID:6030291

  3. Photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum. III. Metabolic Control of Reductive Pentose Phosphate and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enzymes 1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Louise; Fuller, R. C.

    1967-01-01

    Enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle including ribulose-diphosphate carboxylase, ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and alkaline fructose-1,6-diphos-phatase were shown to be present in autotrophically grown Rhodospirillum rubrum. Enzyme levels were measured in this organism grown photo- and dark heterotrophically as well. Several, but not all, of these enzymes appeared to be under metabolic control, mediated by exogenous carbon and nitrogen compounds. Light had no effect on the presence or levels of any of these enzymes in this photosynthetic bacterium. The enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and enolase were shown to be present in R. rubrum cultured aerobically, autotrophically, or photoheterotrophically, both in cultures evolving hydrogen and under conditions where hydrogen evolution is not observed. Light had no clearly demonstrable effect on the presence or levels of any of these enzymes. PMID:6042359

  4. Polyaspartic Acid Concentration Controls the Rate of Calcium Phosphate Nanorod Formation in High Concentration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krogstad, Daniel V.; Wang, Dongbo; Lin-Gibson, Sheng

    2017-08-31

    Polyelectrolytes are known to greatly affect calcium phosphate (CaP) mineralization. The reaction kinetics as well as the CaP phase, morphology and aggregation state depend on the relative concentrations of the polyelectrolyte and the inorganic ions in a complex, nonlinear manner. This study examines the structural evolution and kinetics of polyaspartic acid (pAsp) directed CaP mineralization at high concentrations of polyelectrolytes, calcium, and total phosphate (19–30 mg/mL pAsp, 50–100 mM Ca2+, Ca/P = 2). Using a novel combination of characterization techniques including cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectrophotometry, X-ray total scattering pair distribution function analysis, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformmore » infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), it was determined that the CaP mineralization occurred over four transition steps. The steps include the formation of aggregates of pAsp stabilized CaP spherical nanoparticles (sNP), crystallization of sNP, oriented attachment of the sNP into nanorods, and further crystallization of the nanorods. The intermediate aggregate sizes and the reaction kinetics were found to be highly polymer concentration dependent while the sizes of the particles were not concentration dependent. This study demonstrates the complex role of pAsp in controlling the mechanism as well as the kinetics of CaP mineralization.« less

  5. Monolithic calcium phosphate/poly(lactic acid) composite versus calcium phosphate-coated poly(lactic acid) for support of osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-03-01

    Calcium phosphates (CaPs), extensively used synthetic bone graft substitutes, are often combined with other materials with the aim to overcome issues related to poor mechanical properties of most CaP ceramics. Thin ceramic coatings on metallic implants and polymer-ceramic composites are examples of such hybrid materials. Both the properties of the CaP used and the method of incorporation into a hybrid structure are determinant for the bioactivity of the final construct. In the present study, a monolithic composite comprising nano-sized CaP and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and a CaP-coated PLA were comparatively investigated for their ability to support proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Both, the PLA/CaP composite, produced using physical mixing and extrusion and CaP-coated PLA, resulting from a biomimetic coating process at near-physiological conditions, supported proliferation of hMSCs with highest rates at PLA/CaP composite. Enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity as well as the mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteopontin and osteocalcin were higher on the composite and coated polymer as compared to the PLA control, while no significant differences were observed between the two methods of combining CaP and PLA. The results of this study confirmed the importance of CaP in osteogenic differentiation while the exact properties and the method of incorporation into the hybrid material played a less prominent role.

  6. Protonation of Excited State Pyrene-1-Carboxylate by Phosphate and Organic Acids in Aqueous Solution Studied by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zelent, Bogumil; Vanderkooi, Jane M.; Coleman, Ryan G.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2006-01-01

    Pyrene-1-carboxylic acid has a pK of 4.0 in the ground state and 8.1 in the singlet electronic excited state. In the pH range of physiological interest (pH ∼5–8), the ground state compound is largely ionized as pyrene-1-carboxylate, but protonation of the excited state molecule occurs when a proton donor reacts with the carboxylate during the excited state lifetime of the fluorophore. Both forms of the pyrene derivatives are fluorescent, and in this work the protonation reaction was measured by monitoring steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence. The rate of protonation of pyrene-COO− by acetic, chloroacetic, lactic, and cacodylic acids is a function of ΔpK, as predicted by Marcus theory. The rate of proton transfer from these acids saturates at high concentration, as expected for the existence of an encounter complex. Trihydrogen-phosphate is a much better proton donor than dihydrogen- and monohydrogen-phosphate, as can be seen by the pH dependence. The proton-donating ability of phosphate does not saturate at high concentrations, but increases with increasing phosphate concentration. We suggest that enhanced rate of proton transfer at high phosphate concentrations may be due to the dual proton donating and accepting nature of phosphate, in analogy to the Grotthuss mechanism for proton transfer in water. It is suggested that in molecular structures containing multiple phosphates, such as membrane surfaces and DNA, proton transfer rates will be enhanced by this mechanism. PMID:16920831

  7. Over-expression of the bacterial phytase US417 in Arabidopsis reduces the concentration of phytic acid and reveals its involvement in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Belgaroui, Nibras; Zaidi, Ikram; Farhat, Ameny; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bouain, Nadia; Chay, Sandrine; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane; Masmoudi, Khaled; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre; Rouached, Hatem; Hanin, Moez

    2014-11-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the main phosphorus storage form in plant seeds. It is recognized as an anti-nutrient for humans and non-ruminant animals, as well as one of the major sources of phosphorus that contributes to eutrophication. Therefore, engineering plants with low PA content without affecting plant growth capacity has become a major focus in plant breeding. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge on the role of PA seed reserves in regulating plant growth and in maintaining ion homeostasis hinders such an agronomical application. In this context, we report here that the over-expression of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 in Arabidopsis leads to a significant decrease in seed PA, without any effect on the seed germination potential. Interestingly, this over-expression also induced a higher remobilization of free iron during germination. Moreover, the PHY-over-expressor lines show an increase in inorganic phosphate and sulfate contents, and a higher biomass production after phosphate starvation. Finally, phosphate sensing was altered because of the changes in the expression of genes induced by phosphate starvation or involved in phosphate or sulfate transport. Together, these results show that the over-expression of PHY-US417 reduces PA concentration, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of PA in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Abscisic acid effects on activity and expression of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Cafasso, Donata; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2011-07-01

    Total glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity, protein abundance, and transcript levels of G6PDH isoforms were measured in response to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) supply to barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Nure) hydroponic culture. Total G6PDH activity increased by 50% in roots treated for 12 h with exogenous 0.1 mM ABA. In roots, a considerable increase (35%) in plastidial P2-G6PDH transcript levels was observed during the first 3 h of ABA treatment. Similar protein variations were observed in immunoblotting analyses. In leaves, a 2-fold increase in total G6PDH activity was observed after ABA treatment, probably related to an increase in the mRNA level (increased by 50%) and amount of protein (increased by 85%) of P2-G6PDH. Together these results suggest that the plastidial P2-isoform plays an important role in ABA-treated barley plants.

  9. Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2001-09-14

    In a review of the safety basis for solvent extraction processes at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a question was raised concerning the safety margin associated with a postulated accident involving a runaway tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a tank. The safety margin was based on studies which showed the maximum temperature would not exceed 128 degrees Celsius compared to 130 degrees Celsius, the minimum initiation temperature for runaway reaction established in the 1950's following damaging incidents at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The reviewers were concerned the minimum temperature wasmore » not conservative since data for solutions containing 20 wt percent dissolved solids showed initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees Celsius and process solutions normally contain some dissolved solids.« less

  10. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43- level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43- concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (P<0.01) positive non-linear relationship was found between groundwater PO43-concentration and pHKCl in all three studied depth layers, again increasingly with depth. Within the pH range of the 30-60 cm layer (pHKCl 4.0-5.7) PO4- solubility should increase with pH. Elevated soil OC levels surprisingly co-occurred with low groundwater PO43- concentrations (r = -0.18, P<0.01, n = 191). Groundwater PO43- was furthermore significantly and positively correlated to clay % in both the 0-15 cm (r = 0.15, τ = 0.25, P<0.01, n = 1032) and 60-90 cm (r = 0.13, τ = 0.20, P<0.01, n = 1032) depth increments. These positive correlations were unexpected and could be

  11. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanocomposite with antibacterial activity to suppress biofilm acids and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Al-Dulaijan, Yousif A; Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Melo, Mary Anne S; Liu, Huaibing; Oates, Thomas W; Wang, Lin; Xu, Hockin H K

    2018-05-01

    Rechargeable calcium phosphate (CaP) composites were developed recently. However, none of the rechargeable CaP composites was antibacterial. The objectives of this study were to develop the first rechargeable CaP composite that was antibacterial, and to investigate the effects of adding dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) into rechargeable CaP composite on ion rechargeability and re-release as well as biofilm properties. DMAHDM was synthesized via a Menschutkin reaction. Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) were synthesized using a spray-drying technique. The resin contained ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) and pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM). Two composites were fabricated: rechargeable NACP composite, and rechargeable NACP-DMAHDM composite. Mechanical properties and ion release and recharge were measured. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model using saliva was tested. Flexural strength and elastic modulus of rechargeable NACP and NACP-DMAHDM composites matched commercial control composite (p > 0.1). NACP-DMAHDM inhibited biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid, and reduced biofilm colony-forming units (CFU) by 3-4 log. NACP and NACP-DMAHDM showed similar Ca and P ion recharge and re-release (p > 0.1). Therefore, adding DMAHDM did not compromise the ion rechargeability. One recharge yielded continuous release for 42 d. The release was maintained at the same level with increasing number of recharge cycles, indicating long-term ion release and remineralization capability. The first CaP rechargeable and antibacterial composite was developed. Adding DMAHDM into the rechargeable NACP composite did not adversely affect the Ca and P ion release and recharge, and the composite had much less biofilm growth and lactic acid production, with CFU reduction by 3-4 log. This novel CaP rechargeable composite with long-term remineralization and antibacterial properties is promising for tooth restorations to inhibit

  12. Uranium speciation in acid waste-weathered sediments: The role of aging and phosphate amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Perdrial, Nicolas; Vázquez-Ortega, Angélica; Wang, Guohui

    2017-12-05

    Uranium speciation and lability are strongly coupled to mineral transformations in silicate sediments, particularly for sediments subjected to weathering in acidic, high-level radioactive waste, as occurred at the Department of Energy's Hanford (WA) site. Here, uncontaminated Hanford sediments were reacted for 365 days with acidic (pH 3), uranium-bearing waste solutions, with and without phosphate in batch experiments, prior to detailed characterizations using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. In PO 4-reactant free systems, uranium speciation was controlled initially by precipitation of compreignacite [K 2(UO 2) 6O 4(OH) 6·8H 2O]- and becquerelite [Ca(UO 2) 6O 4(OH) 6·8H 2O]-like species.more » Subsequent further removal of uranium coincided with that of Si and accumulation of boltwoodite, [(K, Na)(UO 2) 2O 4(HSiO 4) 2•0.5(H 2O)]-like species of uranium at 180 and 365 days. When present, PO 4 exerted a direct and strong control over U speciation. Furthermore, the detection of meta-ankoleite, [K 2(UO 2) 2O 4(PO 4) 2·6H 2O] at all reaction times when U was present emphasizes the importance of dissolved phosphate as a control on U speciation. Here, meta-ankoleite appears well crystallized and when it occurs as the principal product of sediment weathering, its low solubility is expected to limit dissolved U(VI) concentrations in groundwater. Although boltwoodite solubility is also low, it is formed more slowly (and only when PO 4 is absent), after initial precipitation of more soluble, less crystalline uranyl hydroxides. In the context of Hanford crib waste our results suggest that with PO 4 present, nearly all uranium would have precipitated in the upper soil.« less

  13. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D.; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M.; Volz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5-72 hours post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite - were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may interact with human RARs, we then exposed Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with chimeric human RARα-, RARβ-, or RARγ to TPP in the presence of RA, and found that TPP significantly inhibited RA-induced luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our findings suggest that zebrafish RARs may be involved in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity, a mechanism of action that may have relevance to humans. PMID:25725299

  14. Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase 10 is a component of plant adaptive mechanism to phosphate limitation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liangsheng; Liu, Dong

    2012-01-01

    When grown with inadequate quantities of inorganic phosphate (Pi), plants synthesize and secret acid phosphatases into the rhizosphere. These secreted acid phosphatases are thought to release the Pi group from organophosphates present in the surrounding environment and to thereby increase Pi availability to plants. So far, however, the genetic evidence to support this hypothesis is still lacking. Previously, we showed that overexpression of Arabidopsis purple acid phosphatase 10 (AtPAP10) improved the growth of plants on Pi-deficient medium (P- medium) supplemented with the organophosphate compound ADP; in contrast, the growth of atpap10 mutant lines was reduced on the same medium. In the current research, we determined the growth performance of these lines on P- medium supplemented with four other organophosphates. The results showed that AtPAP10 could utilize rhizosphere organophosphates other than ADP for plant growth but with different utilization efficiencies. This work provides further genetic evidence that AtPAP10 phosphatase is a component of plant adaptive mechanism to Pi limitation. PMID:22476468

  15. Refinement of a radioreceptor binding assay for nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Alexander M; Masgrau, Roser; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Yamasaki, Michiko; O'Neill, John S; Garnham, Clive; James, Kristin; Macdonald, Andrew; Ziegler, Mathias; Galione, Antony; Churchill, Grant C

    2007-12-01

    The measurement of changes in nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) levels in cells has been, and remains, key to the investigation of the functions of NAADP as a Ca2+ -releasing second messenger. Here we provide details of how to isolate NAADP from cells by extraction with perchloric acid and then measure the NAADP using a radioreceptor assay. We demonstrate that NAADP is neither generated nor broken down during sample processing conditions and that radioreceptor assay is highly selective for the detection of NAADP under cell extract conditions. Furthermore, a number of improvements, such as solid-state detection of the radioactivity, are incorporated to enhance the safety of the procedure. Finally, we have developed a new method to prevent the endogenous metabolism of NAADP by chelating Ca2+ with bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), thereby reducing the difficulty of catching a small transient rise in NAADP levels. In summary, we have refined and improved a method for measuring NAADP levels and presented it in a manner accessible to a wide range of laboratories. It is expected that this will enhance research in the NAADP field.

  16. Osteoconductivity and biodegradation of synthetic bone substitutes with different tricalcium phosphate contents in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheryl; Unursaikhan, Otgonbayar; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won; Kim, Chang-Sung; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Various synthetic bone substitutes have been developed to reconstruct the bony defects that clinicians often encounter during surgical procedures. Among various synthetic bone substitutes, calcium phosphate (Ca-P) ceramics have been investigated because their composition and structure are similar to those of human bone. We evaluated the bone healing and biodegradation patterns of three types of Ca-P ceramic particle with various hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) weight ratio: pure β-TCP, biphasic Ca-P (BCP) with a HA/β-TCP weight ratio of 60/40 (BCP 60/40), and BCP with an HA/β-TCP weight ratio of 20/80 (BCP 20/80). Four 8-mm-diameter defects were created in ten rabbits. Three of the defects in each rabbit were separately and randomly filled with one of the three experimental Ca-P ceramic particles, and the fourth was filled with blood clots (control). The specimens were harvested at 2 and 8 weeks post-surgery. The histologic and histometric findings revealed that the augmented space and new bone formation were significantly better for all three Ca-P ceramics than for the control group at both 2 and 8 weeks (p < 0.05). Compared to the pure β-TCP, the two BCP groups were found to provide a larger amount of newly formed bone and bone density at the 2- and 8-week post-operative periods (p < 0.05). Throughout the observation period, BCP 60/40 and BCP 20/80 exhibited a similar bone healing and biodegradation patterns with regard to both individual particles and the total augmented area in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The lysine decarboxylase CadA protects Escherichia coli starved of phosphate against fermentation acids.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Patrice L

    2007-03-01

    Conflicting results have been reported for the rate and extent of cell death during a prolonged stationary phase. It is shown here that the viability of wild-type cells (MG1655) could decrease >or=10(8)-fold between days 1 and 14 and between days 1 and 6 of incubation under aerobic and anaerobic phosphate (P(i)) starvation conditions, respectively, whereas the cell viability decreased moderately under ammonium and glucose starvation conditions. Several lines of evidence indicated that the loss of viability of P(i)-starved cells resulted primarily from the catabolism of glucose into organic acids through pyruvate oxidase (PoxB) and pyruvate-formate lyase (PflB) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Weak organic acids that are excreted into the medium can reenter the cell and dissociate into protons and anions, thereby triggering cell death. However, P(i)-starved cells were efficiently protected by the activity of the inducible GadABC glutamate-dependent acid resistance system. Glutamate decarboxylation consumes one proton, which contributes to the internal pH homeostasis, and removes one intracellular negative charge, which might compensate for the accumulated weak acid anions. Unexpectedly, the tolerance of P(i)-starved cells to fermentation acids was markedly increased as a result of the activity of the inducible CadBA lysine-dependent acid resistance system that consumes one proton and produces the diamine cadaverine. CadA plays a key role in the defense of Salmonella at pH 3 but was thought to be ineffective in Escherichia coli since the protection of E. coli challenged at pH 2.5 by lysine is much weaker than the protection by glutamate. CadA activity was favored in P(i)-starved cells probably because weak organic acids slowly reenter cells fermenting glucose. Since the environmental conditions that trigger the death of P(i)-starved cells are strikingly similar to the conditions that are thought to prevail in the human colon (i.e., a combination

  18. Interactions of benzoic acid and phosphates with iron oxide colloids using chemical force titration.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jana; Horton, J Hugh

    2005-11-08

    Colloidal iron oxides are an important component in soil systems and in water treatment processes. Humic-based organic compounds, containing both phenol and benzoate functional groups, are often present in these systems and compete strongly with phosphate species for binding sites on the iron oxide surfaces. Here, we examine the interaction of benzoate and phenolic groups with various iron oxide colloids using atomic force microscopy (AFM) chemical force titration measurements. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of 4-(12-mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid and 4-(12-mercaptododecyloxy)phenol were used to prepare chemically modified Au-coated AFM tips, and these were used to probe the surface chemistry of a series of iron oxide colloids. The SAMs formed were also characterized using scanning tunneling microscopy, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface pK(a) of 4-(12- mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid has been determined to be 4.0 +/- 0.5, and the interaction between the tip and the sample coated with a SAM of this species is dominated by hydrogen bonding. The chemical force titraton profile for an AFM probe coated with 4-(12- mercaptododecyloxy)benzoic acid and a bare iron oxide colloid demonstrates that the benzoic acid function group interacts with all three types of iron oxide sites present on the colloid surface over a wide pH range. Similar experiments were carried out on colloids precipitated in the presence of phosphoric, gallic, and tannic acids. The results are discussed in the context of the competitive binding interactions of solution species present in soils or in water treatment processes.

  19. Fatty acid synthesis and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in developing embryos of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Hutchings, David; Rawsthorne, Stephen; Emes, Michael J

    2005-02-01

    The potential role of the plastidial oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP) in providing the NADPH for fatty acid synthesis in plastids from developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.) has been investigated. Measurements of distributions of enzyme activities in fractions obtained from homogenates of isolated embryos have revealed that the glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases are present in both cytosol and plastid, as is ribose 5-phosphate isomerase. However, transketolase and transaldolase are most probably confined to the plastid, while ribulose 5-phosphate epimerase is essentially cytosolic, although a very small proportion of plastid-localized activity cannot be ruled out. The activity of the OPPP in intact plastids was measured by the release of (14)CO(2) from [1-(14)C]glucose 6-phosphate. Activity was detectable in the absence of electron sinks created by the addition of metabolites to the incubation media and was stimulated 1.3-, 3.2-, and 7.9-fold by the respective additions of glutamine plus 2-oxoglutarate, cofactors and substrates for fatty acid synthesis, or methyl viologen. An increase in OPPP activity in response to additions that are absolutely required for fatty acid synthesis in these isolated plastids provides direct evidence that these two processes are connected, most probably by NADP/NADPH metabolism. The OPPP activity with methyl viologen was more than twice that during fatty acid synthesis, suggesting that the latter is not limited by OPPP capacity. Light energy may also contribute to reductant provision and, consistent with the possibility of maintenance of a balance of NADPH from light and the OPPP, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in the isolated plastids was decreased by light or by DTT.

  20. Complex formation of cadmium with sugar residues, nucleobases, phosphates, nucleotides, and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Roland K O; Skilandat, Miriam; Sigel, Astrid; Operschall, Bert P; Sigel, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium(II), commonly classified as a relatively soft metal ion, prefers indeed aromatic-nitrogen sites (e.g., N7 of purines) over oxygen sites (like sugar-hydroxyl groups). However, matters are not that simple, though it is true that the affinity of Cd(2+) towards ribose-hydroxyl groups is very small; yet, a correct orientation brought about by a suitable primary binding site and a reduced solvent polarity, as it is expected to occur in a folded nucleic acid, may facilitate metal ion-hydroxyl group binding very effectively. Cd(2+) prefers the guanine(N7) over the adenine(N7), mainly because of the steric hindrance of the (C6)NH(2) group in the adenine residue. This Cd(2+)-(N7) interaction in a guanine moiety leads to a significant acidification of the (N1)H meaning that the deprotonation reaction occurs now in the physiological pH range. N3 of the cytosine residue, together with the neighboring (C2)O, is also a remarkable Cd(2+) binding site, though replacement of (C2)O by (C2)S enhances the affinity towards Cd(2+) dramatically, giving in addition rise to the deprotonation of the (C4)NH(2) group. The phosphodiester bridge is only a weak binding site but the affinity increases further from the mono- to the di- and the triphosphate. The same also holds for the corresponding nucleotides. Complex stability of the pyrimidine-nucleotides is solely determined by the coordination tendency of the phosphate group(s), whereas in the case of purine-nucleotides macrochelate formation takes place by the interaction of the phosphate-coordinated Cd(2+) with N7. The extents of the formation degrees of these chelates are summarized and the effect of a non-bridging sulfur atom in a thiophosphate group (versus a normal phosphate group) is considered. Mixed ligand complexes containing a nucleotide and a further mono- or bidentate ligand are covered and it is concluded that in these species N7 is released from the coordination sphere of Cd(2+). In the case that the other ligand

  1. Phosphate dynamics in an acidic mountain stream: Interactions involving algal uptake, sorption by iron oxide, and photoreduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tate, Cathy M.; Broshears, Robert E.; McKnight, Diane M.

    1995-01-01

    Acid mine drainage streams in the Rocky Mountains typically have few algal species and abundant iron oxide deposits which can sorb phosphate. An instream injection of radiolabeled phosphate (32P0,) into St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, was used to test the ability of a dominant algal species, Ulothrix sp., to rapidly assimilate phosphate. Approximately 90% of the injected phosphate was removed from the water column in the 175-m stream reach. When shaded stream reaches were exposed to full sunlight after the injection ended, photoreductive dissolution of iron oxide released sorbed 32P, which was then also removed downstream. The removal from the stream was modeled as a first-order process by using a reactive solute transport transient storage model. Concentrations of 32P mass-’ of algae were typically lo-fold greater than concentrations in hydrous iron oxides. During the injection, concentrations of 32P increased in the cellular P pool containing soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds and confirmed direct algal uptake of 32P0, from water. Mass balance calculations indicated that algal uptake and sorption on iron oxides were significant in removing phosphate. We conclude that in stream ecosystems, PO, sorbed by iron oxides can act as a dynamic nutrient reservoir regulated by photoreduction.

  2. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity

  3. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conformation of the Phosphate D-alanine Zwitterion in Bacterial Teichoic Acid from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Garimella, Ravindranath; Halye, Jeffrey L.; Harrison, William; Klebba, Phillip E.; Rice, Charles V.

    2009-01-01

    The conformation of D-alanine (D-Ala) groups of bacterial teichoic acid is a central, yet untested, paradigm of microbiology. The D-Ala binds via the C-terminus, thereby allowing the amine to exist as a free cationic NH3+ group with the ability to form a contact-ion-pair with the nearby anionic phosphate group. This conformation hinders metal chelation by the phosphate because the zwitterion pair is charge neutral. To the contrary, the repulsion of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) is attributed to the presence of the D-Ala cation; thus the ion-pair does not form in this model. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used to measure the distance between amine and phosphate groups within cell wall fragments of Bacillus subtilis. The bacteria were grown on media containing 15N D-Ala and β-chloroalanine racemase inhibitor. The rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) pulse sequence was used to measure the internuclear dipolar coupling and the results demonstrate: 1) the metal-free amine-to-phosphate distance is 4.4 Å and 2) the amine-to-phosphate distance increases to 5.4 Å in the presence of Mg2+ ions. As a result, the zwitterion exists in a nitrogen-oxygen ion-pair configuration providing teichoic acid with a positive charge to repel CAMPs. Additionally, the amine of D-Ala does not prevent magnesium chelation in contradiction to the prevailing view of teichoic acids in metal binding. Thus, the NMR-based description of teichoic acid structure resolves the contradictory models, advances the basic understanding of cell wall biochemistry, and provides possible insight into the creation of new antibiotic therapies. PMID:19746945

  5. Stearidonic acid increases the red blood cell and heart eicosapentaenoic acid content in dogs.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; DiRienzo, Maureen A; Sands, Scott A; George, Cherian; Jones, Philip G; Eapen, Alex K

    2007-04-01

    Plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids (FA) are needed that can materially raise tissue levels of long-chain omega-3 FA [i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 20:6n-3)]. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4n-3) is the delta-6 desaturase product of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), and when fed to humans, increases red blood cell (RBC) content of EPA to a greater extent than does ALA. This study was undertaken to determine the dose-dependence and time course of the increase in the EPA and DHA content of the heart and RBC in dogs. Adult male Beagles were fed 21, 64, or 193 mg/kg of SDA in in their food daily for up to 12 weeks. Positive and negative controls were given EPA (43 mg/kg) or high oleic acid sunflower oil, respectively. The baseline EPA content of RBC was 0.38 +/- 0.03% which increased (P<0.01) in a dose-dependent manner, with the high dose of SDA and EPA achieving levels of 1.33 +/- 0.26 and 1.55. +/- 0.28%, respectively. In the heart, the content of EPA rose from 0.06 +/- 0.01 to 1.24 +/- 0.22% in the EPA group and to 0.81 +/- 0.32% in the high SDA group (both P<0.01). In both tissues, DHA did not change. Compared to dietary EPA, SDA was 20-23% as efficient in raising tissue EPA levels. In conclusion, SDA supplementation increased the EPA content of RBC and heart and may have utility as a plant-based source of omega-3 FA.

  6. Addition of phenolic acids on the reduction of methanol content in wine.

    PubMed

    Hou, C-Y; Lin, Y-S; Wang, Y T; Jiang, C-M; Lin, K T; Wu, M-C

    2008-06-01

    Utilization of phenolic acids, including gallic acid, coumaric acid, caffic acid, cinnamic acid, and ferulic acid, for methanol reduction in wine was investigated. Enzyme activities of pectinesterase and pectin lyase decreased significantly when 0.1 mg/L of gallic acid, coumaric acid, caffic acid, cinnamic acid, or ferulic acid was added. However, no inhibition on polygalacturonase activity was observed when 0.5 mg/L of phenolic acid was added. Methanol content in commercial pectic enzyme (CPE) group increased from 11.53 +/- 1.34 to 56.67 +/- 3.75 ppm in the final products. Adding gallic acid or coumaric acid with CPE inhibited the increase of methanol production. In addition, when 0.2 mg/L of phenolic acid (gallic acid or coumaric acid) was added, the amount of total phenolic acid released from CPE + gallic acid or CPE + coumaric acid groups became higher than CPE group by approximately 466 and 539 mg/L, respectively. In conclusion, the values of lightness, red content, yellow content, total pigment, and total phenolic acid increased in the presence of gallic acid or coumaric acid with CPE, suggesting that adding gallic acid or coumaric acid into winemaking process is a potential method for reducing methanol content, improving wine quality, as well as increasing healthy compounds in wine production.

  7. Comparing the acidities of aqueous, frozen, and freeze-dried phosphate buffers: Is there a "pH memory" effect?

    PubMed

    Vetráková, Ľubica; Vykoukal, Vít; Heger, Dominik

    2017-09-15

    The concept of "pH memory" has been established in the literature for the correlation between the pH of a pre-lyophilization solution and the ionization state of freeze-dried powder (lyophile). In this paper, the concept of "pH memory" is explored for the system of an aqueous solution, a frozen solution, and a lyophile. Sodium and potassium phosphate buffers in the pH range of 5-9 were frozen and lyophilized with sulfonephthalein indicators as acidity probes, and their Hammett acidity functions were compared to the initial pH of the aqueous solution. The results show that the acidities of the lyophiles are somewhat changed compared to the initial pHs, but the acidities in the frozen state differ more substantially. The Hammett acidity functions of the frozen buffers were found to be markedly dissimilar from the initial pH, especially in the sodium phosphate frozen at 233K, where an increase in the initial pH led to a decrease in the Hammett acidity function of the frozen state at a certain pH range. The large acidification observed after freezing the sodium phosphate buffer was not detected in the lyophiles after the sample had been dried; the phenomenon is explained considering the formed crystals analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that monitoring the final acidity of a lyophile is not sufficient to predict all the acidity changes throughout the whole lyophilization process. The importance of well-controlled freezing and lyophilization conditions follows from the results of the research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New aspects of buffering with multivalent weak acids in capillary zone electrophoresis: pros and cons of the phosphate buffer.

    PubMed

    Gebauer, P; Bocek, P

    2000-08-01

    Phosphate buffer is frequently used as background electrolyte in capillary electrophoresis. It can cover a broad range of pH due to the three dissociation constants (pK1 = 2.0, pK2 = 7.2, and pK3 = 11.0) of phosphoric acid and because it is UV-light transparent. This contribution brings a theoretical study of the analytical separation performance (sample window, regions of peak symmetry, regions of fronting and tailing peaks) of phosphate buffer, serving as a model of buffering with multivalent weak acids. The study is based on the use of peak shape diagrams and covers the pH range 2.55-11.43. New important general knowledge has been revealed that single multivalent weak acids mimic the performance of background electrolytes with multiple coanionic species for anionic analyses. It is shown that simple phosphate buffers prepared by mixing phosphoric acid and potassium hydroxide may exhibit up to two regions of symmetry, of fronting as well as of tailing zones, on the mobility scale inside the sample window. Moreover they may exhibit a "schizophrenic" region of enormous electromigration dispersion.

  9. Radiological, chemical and morphological characterizations of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum from phosphoric acid factories in SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Vioque, Ignacio; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo

    2010-09-15

    In this work, radiological, chemical, and also morphological characterization was performed in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples, in order to understand the behavior of toxic elements. Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gamma spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Our results show that the phosphate rock was mainly composed of fluorapatite, calcite, perovskite, quartz, magnetite, pyrite and kaolinite, whereas phosphogypsum only exhibited dihydrated calcium sulfate. The activity concentration of U-series radioisotopes in phosphate rock was around 1640 Bq/kg. (226)Ra and (210)Pb tend to be distributed into phosphogypsum by up to 80%, whereas the fraction of U-isotopes is 10%. The most abundant trace elements in phosphate rock were Sr, Cr, V, Zn, Y, Ni and Ba. Some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Cu, La, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and Y, were enriched in the phosphogypsum. This enrichment may be attributed to an additional input associated to the sulfuric acid used for the phosphoric acid production. Furthermore, results from SEM-EDX demonstrated that toxic elements are not distributed homogeneously into phosphogypsum. Most of these elements are concentrated in particles <20 microm of high porosity, and could be easily mobilized by leaching and/or erosion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thallium extraction from hydrochloric acid media into a deep eutectic solvent using bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kate; Volia, Merinda; Tereshatov, Evgeny; Folden, Charles, III

    2016-09-01

    The chemical properties of superheavy elements are relatively unknown due to their short half-lives and difficulty of production. In preparation for a future experiment to study the chemical properties of element 113, separation techniques have been used to study the behavior of its homologs, In and Tl. Previous work studied the liquid-liquid extraction of radioactive 201Tl (t1 / 2 = 3 . 04 d) from various concentrations of HCl into a mixture of menthol and lauric acid that formed a so-called deep eutectic solvent (DES). This work focuses on the effects of adding an extraction agent, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (HDEHP), to the DES on the efficiency of thallium extraction. The extraction of Tl(I) was generally poor, both with and without HDEHP added. In contrast, 111In (t1 / 2 = 2 . 80 d) showed significant extraction using HDEHP added to the same DES. This difference in behavior could potentially be exploited in a future experiment on the chemistry of element 113. National Science Foundation.

  11. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatcontent on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reclamation of acidic, denuded copper basin land: Revegetation performance of phosphate rock vs other nutrient sources

    SciTech Connect

    Soileau, J.M.; Sikora, F.J.; Maddox, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Open pit smelting of Copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of severely eroded, very acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee. Along with other essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) amendments are critical for long-term productivity and sustainability of vegetation on this depleted soil. A field study was conducted (1992-1995) to compare revegetation from surface-applied North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha{sup -1}, and to determine benefits of starter NPK tree tablets. The experimental design consisted of 7.3 x 9.1 m replicated plots, eachmore » planted to 20 loblolly pine seedlings and aerially seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Tree survivability was high from all treatments. Through the third year, tree height and diameter increased with increasing P to 59 kg P ha without fertilizer tablets. There were no pine growth differences between PR and TSP. Weeping lovegrass has been the dominant cover crop through 1995, with increased stimulation to tree tablets and surface P. Tall fescue (KY 31), sericea lespedeza, and black locust responded more to PR than to TSP. Surface soil pH increased, and 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. For future loblolly pine plantings in the Copper Basin, this study suggests there is no benefit to applying both tree tablets and surface P at rates above 59 kg P ha{sup -1}. For reclaiming land with high acidity and low P fertility, PR has significant benefits. In reclaiming steep, gullied land, there is great potential for aerial application of PR and/or pelletized liming agents.« less

  13. Ribose metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, E F; Ruprecht, R M; Schulman, S; Vanderberg, J; Olson, J A

    1986-01-01

    The metabolism of pentose-phosphate was investigated in Plasmodium falciparum-infected normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient human red blood cells in vitro. 5'-Phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) content of infected normal red blood cells was increased 50-60-fold at the parasite trophozoite growth stage over that of uninfected cells. The PRPP increment in infected G6PD-deficient cells at comparable stage and parasitemia was only 40% of the value in normal infected cells. Red blood cell PRPP synthetase activity did not change during the growth cycle of the parasite and was similar in both normal and G6PD-deficient cells. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content of G6PD-deficient cells under conditions of culture fell to low or undetectable levels. These low levels of GSH were shown to inhibit the function of red blood cell PRPP synthetase, which requires GSH for full activity. Measurements of the incorporation of 1-14C or 6-14C selectively labeled glucose into parasite nucleic acids revealed that in normal infected red cells, approximately 20% of the pentose was produced via the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate, whereas in infected G6PD-deficient cells (Mediterranean type), none of the pentose was produced via the oxidative pathway. It is concluded that the low level of reduced GSH found in G6PD deficiency and the resultant partial inhibition of PRPP synthetase together with the missing oxidative pathway for ribose phosphate production can account fully for the reduced parasite growth rate in G6PD-deficient red blood cells described previously. Of these two mechanisms, the predominant one is the impaired PRPP synthetase activity due to low GSH levels in enzyme-deficient red blood cells. The contribution to the ribose-phosphate pool by the hexose monophosphate shunt is relatively minor. A co-existing oxidative stress (which is often hypothesized to mediate the destruction of parasitized red blood cells) is not required to explain growth inhibition

  14. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03.

  15. Deciphering the role and nature of phosphate species at the surface of stainless steel immersed in phosphoric acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liascukiene, I.; Ben Salah, M.; Sabot, R.; Refait, Ph.; Dhouibi, L.; Méthivier, C.; Landoulsi, J.; Jeannin, M.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the evolution of the surface of a highly alloyed stainless steel (Sanicro 28) upon immersion in aqueous phosphoric acid solutions. For this purpose, both short- (few hours) and long-term immersion (several days) were carried out. A detailed analysis of XPS spectra allowed a distinction to be made between oxygen originating from the organic adlayer (adventitious contamination), the passive oxide layer, and adsorbed phosphate species. By estimating the fraction of oxygen due to phosphate species (Oph), it was shown that the Oph/P molar concentration ratio was ranging from about 2 to 3. This suggests the presence of a polyphosphate layer at the stainless steel surface, as also supported by Raman analysis, which influence the electrochemical behavior of SS in the acidic media.

  16. Nitrate and Phosphate Contents on Sediments Related to The Density Levels of Mangrove Rhizophora Sp. in Mangrove Park Waters of Pekalongan, Central Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyantini, E.; Santoso, A.; Soenardjo, N.

    2018-02-01

    Mangrove Park waters area of Pekalongan City, Central Java, used to be an aquaculture field, now turning the function into a restoration-based mangrove area, and now it has undergone rehabilitation. The conditions may affect the distribution of nitrate and phosphate content. The objective of this study was to determine the content of nitrates and phosphates in sediments related to the density levels of mangrove Rhizophora sp. The method used in this research was a descriptive method, and sampling was done by purposive sampling method. Water and sediment sampling were conducted at three stations respectively, representing: no mangrove area but used as a residential and tourist area (station 1); less dense mangrove (station 2); and, the previously aquaculture field - or medium dense mangrove (station 3). The results showed that the content of nitrate and phosphate in the whole sediment showed a low fertility rate. Average nitrate content for station 1, station 2 and station 3 were 0.86 mg/100 g, 0.94 mg/100 g and 0.81 mg/100 g, respectively. The average phosphate content at each station were 1.14 mg/100 g, 0.04 mg/100 g and 0.05 mg/100 g, respectively. Except to the station 1 that was no vegetation anymore, the mangrove density levels at two other stations at study sites were relatively low to medium; at station 2 was 0.8 ind/10 m2 and at station 3 was 1.2 ind/10 m2. The role of nitrate and phosphate were for mangrove growth at the site.

  17. Degradation and osteogenic potential of a novel poly(lactic acid)/nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lu; Duan, Ping-Guo; Wang, Hui-Ren; Li, Xi-Lei; Yuan, Feng-Lai; Fan, Zhong-Yong; Li, Su-Ming; Dong, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the biological performance of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) composite scaffolds by using in vitro degradation and an in vivo model of heterotopic bone formation. Nano-sized β-TCP (nβ-TCP) was prepared with a wet grinding method from micro-sized β-TCP (mβ-TCP), and composite scaffolds containing 0, 10, 30, or 50 wt% nβ-TCP or 30 wt% mβ-TCP were generated using a freeze-drying method. Degradation was assessed by monitoring changes in microstructure, pH, weight, and compressive strength over a 26-week period of hydrolysis. Composite scaffolds were processed into blocks, and implanted into muscular pockets of rabbits after loading with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). New bone formation was evaluated based on histological and immunohistochemical analysis 2, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation. The in vitro results indicated that the buffering effect of nβ-TCP was stronger than mβ-TCP, which was positively correlated with the content of nβ-TCP. The in vivo findings demonstrated that nβ-TCP enhanced the osteoconductivity of the scaffolds. Although composite scaffolds containing 30% nβ-TCP exhibited similar osteoconductivity to 50% nβ-TCP, they had better mechanical properties than the 50% nβ-TCP scaffolds. This study supports the potential application of a composite scaffold containing 30% nβ-TCP as a promising scaffold for bone regeneration. PMID:23226019

  18. Zirconium phosphate reinforced short side chain perflurosulfonic acid membranes for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casciola, Mario; Cojocaru, Paula; Donnadio, Anna; Giancola, Stefano; Merlo, Luca; Nedellec, Yannig; Pica, Monica; Subianto, Surya

    2014-09-01

    Composite membranes, made of an 830 equivalent weight short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer and containing up to 10 wt% zirconium phosphate (ZrP), are prepared by casting dispersions of ZrP nanoparticles in the ionomer solution. 30 μm thick composite membranes are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, stress-strain tests, conductivity measurements, water uptake and ion-exchange capacity determinations, as well as fuel cell tests in H2/air. In comparison with the neat ionomer, the tensile modulus (E) and the yield stress (Y) of the composite membranes increase with the ZrP content, both at room temperature (ΔE/E up to +75%, ΔY/Y up to +47%) and at 80 °C/70% relative humidity (ΔE/E up to +64%, ΔY/Y up to +103%). Despite their lower hydration, the composite membranes are as conductive as the neat ionomer and the in-plane conductivity at 110 °C ranges from ∼0.005 S cm-1 at 25% RH to 0.14 S cm-1 at 90% RH. The fuel cell performance of a catalyst coated membrane loaded with 10 wt% ZrP is weakly affected by temperature in the range 80-110 °C. The peak power density decreases from 0.36 W cm-2, at 80 °C, to 0.28 W cm-2 at 110 °C, where the composite membrane performs better than the neat ionomer.

  19. The crystallinity of calcium phosphate powders influenced by the conditions of neutralized procedure with citric acid additions

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chengfeng

    2009-05-06

    Calcium phosphate powders with nano-sized crystallinity were synthesized by neutralization using calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid with the assistance of citric acid. The influence of processing parameters, such as free or additive citric acid, synthetic temperature and ripening time, on the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction and microstructure observations showed that the crystallinity and morphology of nano-sized hydroxyapatite particles were influenced by the presence or absence of citric acid. It was found that the crystallinities and crystallite sizes of hydroxyapatite powders prepared with the additive citric acid increased with increasing synthetic temperature and ripening time.more » Especially, the crystallinities of (h k 0) planes were raised and more homogeneously grown particles were obtained with increasing synthetic temperature.« less

  20. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of Trichloro-Acetic Acid Peel Alone Versus Combined Topical Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate for Epidermal Melasma.

    PubMed

    Murtaza, Fatima; Bangash, Abdur Rahim; Khushdil, Arshad; Noor, Sahibzada Mahmood

    2016-07-01

    To compare the efficacy in terms of reduction in melasma area and severity index (MASI) score by more than 10 of a combination of 20% trichloro-acetic acid peel plus 5% topical magnesium ascorbyl phosphate versus 20% trichloroacetic acid peel alone in the treatment of epidermal melasma. Randomized controlled trial. Department of Dermatology, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from May 2012 to May 2013. Patients aged 18 - 65 years, with Fitzpatrick skin type III-V were divided into two equal groups having 74 patients each. Detailed history was taken and Wood's lamp examination done to rule out mixed and dermal melasma. Melasma area and severity index (MASI) score was calculated for every patient. Priming was done for all patients with tretinoin cream applied once daily at night for 2 weeks, and to use a broad spectrum sun block cream before sun exposure. Patients in group Awere subjected to combined treatment, i.e. trichloro-acetic acid peel 20% (weekly) plus magnesium ascorbyl phosphate cream (applied once daily), while patients in group B were subjected to trichloro-acetic acid peel 20% (weekly) alone. Treatment was continued for 6 weeks. After completion of treatment, MASI score was recalculated. Proportion of patients with significant MASI score reduction was compared using chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Male and female patients were 11 (14.9%) and 63 (85.1%), respectively in group A, whereas 13 (17.6%) and 61 (82.4%) in group B. The mean age in group Awas 30.28 ±8.08 years, and 29.36 ±6.84 years in group B. Significant MASI score reduction in group Awas seen in 60 (81.1%) patients and in group B 49 (66.2%, p= 0.040). Combination of trichloro-acetic acid peel and topical magnesium ascorbyl phosphate cream was significantly more effective than trichloro-acetic acid peel alone in treatment of melasma.

  2. Adjusting the chlorhexidine content of calcium phosphate coatings by electrochemically assisted co-deposition from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Scharnweber, D; Flössel, M; Born, R; Worch, H

    2007-02-01

    Currently, a number of strategies to create either biologically active or antimicrobial surfaces of biomaterials are being developed and commercially applied. However, for metallic implants in contact with bone, both osteomyelitis and a fast and stable long-term fixation of implants are challenges to be overcome, especially in the case of bad bone quality. Therefore, the present work aims to develop compound coatings of calcium phosphate phases (CPP) and chlorhexidine (CHD) that combine bioactive properties with a strategy to prevent initial bacterial adhesion and thus offer a possible solution to the two major problems of implant surgery mentioned above. Using electrochemically assisted deposition of CPP on samples of Ti6Al4V together with the pH-dependent solubility of CHD, the preparation of coatings with a wide range of CHD concentrations (150 ng/cm(2) to 65 microg/cm(2)) from electrolytes with CHD concentrations between 50 and 200 microM was possible, thus allowing the adaptation of implant surface properties to different surgical and patient situations. Detailed SEM and FTIR analysis showed that coatings are formed by a co-deposition process of both phases and that CHD interacts with the deposition and transformation of CPP in the coating. For high CHD contents, coatings consist of CHD crystals coated by nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite.

  3. Determinants of Blood Cell Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Block, Robert C.; Harris, William S.; Pottala, James V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although red blood cell eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content (the Omega-3 Index) predicts cardiovascular death, the factors determining the Index are unknown. Methods In 704 outpatients, we undertook an investigation of the clinical determinants of the Index. Results Factors associated with the Index in decreasing order were: EPA+DHA supplement use, fish consumption frequency, triglyceride level, age, high cholesterol history, and smoking. These factors explained 59% of Index variability, with capsules/fish intake together accounting for 47%. The Index increased by 13% (p< 0.0001) for each serving level increase in fish intake and EPA+DHA supplementation correlated with a 58% increase (p< 0.0001) regardless of background fish intake (p=0.25; test for interaction). A 100 mg/dL decrease in serum triglycerides was associated with a 15% higher (p<0.0001) Index. Conclusions The intake of EPA+DHA-rich foods and supplements principally determined the Omega-3 Index, but explained only about half of the variability. PMID:19953197

  4. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  5. The roles of phosphate and tungstate species in surface acidities of TiO2-ZrO2 binary oxides - A comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, Manchal; Shen, Po-fan; Chang, Sue-min

    2018-05-01

    Porous tungstated and phosphated TiO2-ZrO2 (TZ) binary oxides with high and strong acidity were successfully prepared by means of sol-gel or impregnation approaches. In addition, the influences of the two types of modifiers on the microstructures and acidity were systematically examined, compared, and clarified. The TZ oxide derived from a surfactant-templating method exhibited a high surface area of 195 m2/g with a pore size of 6.3 nm. Moreover, it had a high acidity of 859 μmol/g with a density of 4.4 μmol/nm2 because of defective surface. Phosphation significantly increased the acidity to 1547 μmol/g and showed the highest acid density of 6.7 μmol/nm2 at a surface P density of 22.7P/nm2. On the other hand, tungstated compounds just showed the highest acidity of 972 μmol/g and the highest acid density of 4.8 μmol/nm2 at 4.7 W/nm2. Compared to tungstate species, phosphate anions are more capable of promoting the acidity because they are able to distort the host network and inhibit elemental rearrangement. While Lewis acidity prevailed in the tungstated compounds, Brønsted acidity was dominant in the phosphated oxides. The Wdbnd O and Psbnd OH groups were responsible for strong acidity in the modified compounds. Phosphated compounds formed strong Brønsted acid sites on the Psbnd OH groups with a particular strength, and tungstation produced Lewis acid sites with a continuous strength on the metal ions adjacent to the tungstate moieties. Cyclic NH3 adsorption-desorption processes revealed that the active sites for NH3 adsorption were stable in both the tungstate and phosphate modified compounds, revealing that these solid acids are promising as the adsorbents for removal of base gases.

  6. Activation of human monocytic cells by lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Fueller, Markus; Wang, De An; Tigyi, Gabor; Siess, Wolfgang

    2003-04-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are serum-borne lipid mediators with potential proinflammatory and atherogenic properties. We studied the effects of LPA and S1P on [Ca(2+)](i), a second messenger of cellular activation, in human monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells. LPA and S1P induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients with EC(50) values of 47 and 340 nM, respectively. Ca(2+) signals evoked by LPA and S1P originated mainly from the stimulation of Ca(2+) entry, were blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122, and were inhibited by pertussis toxin. The LPA(1) and LPA(3) receptor antagonist dioctylglycerol pyrophosphate inhibited the LPA-induced Ca(2+) signal. Notably, serum and minimally modified LDL (mm-LDL) evoked [Ca(2+)](i) increases that were mediated entirely through activation of LPA receptors. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed the presence of the LPA and S1P receptor subtypes LPA(1), LPA(2,) S1P(1), S1P(2), S1P(4) in MM6 cells, human monocytes and macrophages. Together these results indicate that LPA, mm-LDL and serum induce via activation of the LPA(1) receptor a G(i)/phospholipase C/Ca(2+) signalling pathway in monocytes. Our study is the first report showing the receptor-mediated activation of human monocytic cells by low nanomolar concentrations of LPA and S1P, and suggests a role of these lipid mediators in inflammation and atherogenesis.

  7. Valproic acid enforces the priming effect of sphingosine-1 phosphate on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jisun; Lee, Seungun; Ju, Hyein; Kim, Yonghwan; Heo, Jinbeom; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Son, Jaekyoung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Kim, In-Gyu; Shin, Dong-Myung

    2017-09-01

    Engraftment and homing of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are modulated by priming factors including the bioactive lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), by stimulating CXCR4 receptor signaling cascades. However, limited in vivo efficacy and the remaining priming molecules prior to administration of MSCs can provoke concerns regarding the efficiency and safety of MSC priming. Here, we showed that valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enforced the priming effect of S1P at a low dosage for human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs). A DNA-methylation inhibitor, 5-azacytidine (5-Aza), and VPA increased the expression of CXCR4 in UC-MSCs. In particular, UC-MSCs primed with a suboptimal dose (50 nM) of S1P in combination with 0.5 mM VPA (VPA+S1P priming), but not 1 µM 5-Aza, significantly improved the migration activity in response to stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) concomitant with the activation of both MAPKp42/44 and AKT signaling cascades. Both epigenetic regulatory compounds had little influence on cell surface marker phenotypes and the multi-potency of UC-MSCs. In contrast, VPA+S1P priming of UC-MSCs potentiated the proliferation, colony forming unit-fibroblast, and anti-inflammatory activities, which were severely inhibited in the case of 5-Aza treatment. Accordingly, the VPA+S1P-primed UC-MSCs exhibited upregulation of a subset of genes related to stem cell migration and anti-inflammation response. Thus, the present study demonstrated that VPA enables MSC priming with S1P at a low dosage by enhancing their migration and other therapeutic beneficial activities. This priming strategy for MSCs may provide a more efficient and safe application of MSCs for treating a variety of intractable disorders.

  8. Dietary acid increases blood and renal cortical acid content in rats.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D E

    1998-01-01

    We examined whether dietary acid that increases net acid excretion (NAE) without measurably decreasing plasma pH or total CO2 (tCO2) causes net acid retention. Control rats drinking distilled H2O were compared with those drinking 40 mM (NH4)2SO4, 40 mM Na2SO4, or drinking Na2SO4 and given aldosterone (Na2SO4 + Aldo) to increase NAE without dietary acid. Systemic plasma tCO2 increased in Na2SO4 + Aldo animals, but systemic and stellate vessel plasma tCO2 and pH were not different from control among remaining groups. NAE increased in (NH4)2SO4 and Na2SO4 + Aldo but not in Na2SO4 animals. Blood base excess (BBE) decreased compared with its respective baseline in (NH4)2SO4 (-0.44 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.66 +/- 0.04 mumol/ml; P < 0.01, paired t-test), increased in Na2SO4 + Aldo (0.79 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.03 mumol/ml; P < 0.04, paired t-test), but was unchanged in Na2SO4 animals. Renal cortical H+ content assessed by microdialysis of the renal cortex in situ increased in (NH4)2SO4, decreased in Na2SO4 + Aldo, but was unchanged in Na2SO4 animals. The data show that dietary acid sufficient to increase NAE without decreasing plasma tCO2 or pH nevertheless decreases BBE and increases renal cortical acid content, consistent with net acid retention.

  9. Phosphate Stability in Diagenetic Fluids Constrains the Acidic Alteration Model for Lower Mt. Sharp Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Gellert, R.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; VanBommel, S. J.; McAdam, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Curiosity has encountered silica-enriched bedrock (as strata and as veins and associated halos of alteration) in the largely basaltic Murray Fm. of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) investigations of the Murray Fm. revealed decreasing Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al, and higher S, as silica increased (Fig. 1). A positive correlation between SiO2 and TiO2 (up to 74.4 and 1.7 wt %, respectively) suggests that these two insoluble elements were retained while acidic fluids leached more soluble elements. Other evidence also supports a silica-retaining, acidic alteration model for the Murray Fm., including low trace element abundances consistent with leaching, and the presence of opaline silica and jarosite determined by CheMin. Phosphate stability is a key component of this model because PO4 3- is typically soluble in acidic water and is likely a mobile ion in diagenetic fluids (pH less than 5). However, the Murray rocks are not leached of P; they have variable P2O5 (Fig. 1) ranging from average Mars (0.9 wt%) up to the highest values in Gale Crater (2.5 wt%). Here we evaluate APXS measurements of Murray Fm. bedrock and veins with respect to phosphate stability in acidic fluids as a test of the acidic alteration model for the Lower Mt. Sharp rocks.

  10. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, M. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  11. Influence of triethyl phosphate on phosphatase activity in shooting range soil: Isolation of a zinc-resistant bacterium with an acid phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Story, Sandra; Brigmon, Robin L.

    2016-12-19

    Phosphatase-mediated hydrolysis of organic phosphate may be a viable means of stabilizing heavy metals via precipitation as a metal phosphate in bioremediation applications. We investigated the effect of triethyl phosphate (TEP) on soil microbial-phosphatase activity in a heavy-metal contaminated soil. Gaseous TEP has been used at subsurface sites for bioremediation of organic contaminants but not applied in heavy-metal contaminated areas. Little is known about how TEP affects microbial activity in soils and it is postulated that TEP can serve as a phosphate source in nutrient-poor groundwater and soil/sediments. Over a 3-week period, TEP amendment to microcosms containing heavy-metal contaminated soilmore » resulted in increased activity of soil acid-phosphatase and repression of alkaline phosphatase, indicating a stimulatory effect on the microbial population. A soil-free enrichment of microorganisms adapted to heavy-metal and acidic conditions was derived from the TEP-amended soil microcosms using TEP as the sole phosphate source and the selected microbial consortium maintained a high acid-phosphatase activity with repression of alkaline phosphatase. Addition of 5 mM zinc to soil-free microcosms had little effect on acid phosphatase but inhibited alkaline phosphatase. One bacterial member from the consortium, identified as Burkholderia cepacia sp., expressed an acid-phosphatase activity uninhibited by high concentrations of zinc and produced a soluble, indigo pigment under phosphate limitation. The pigment was produced in a phosphate-free medium and was not produced in the presence of TEP or phosphate ion, indicative of purple acid-phosphatase types that are pressed by bioavailable phosphate. Finally, these results demonstrate that TEP amendment was bioavailable and increased overall phosphatase activity in both soil and soil-free microcosms supporting the possibility of positive outcomes in bioremediation applications.« less

  12. Crystal growth, structural and thermal studies of amino acids admixtured L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, P.; Saravanan, T.; Parthipan, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2011-05-01

    To study the improved characteristics of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals, amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been grown by slow cooling method. Amino acids like glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine have been selected for doping. Optical quality bulk crystals have been harvested after a typical growth period of about twenty days. The effect of amino acids in the crystal lattice and molecular vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) analyses respectively. Thermal behavior of the amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been studied from the TG and DTG analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to find the crystalline nature. Optical transmission studies have been carried out by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The cut off wavelength is below 240 nm for the grown crystals.

  13. Crystallization of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate with presence of glutamic acid and arginine at 37 °C.

    PubMed

    Li, Chengfeng; Ge, Xiaolu; Li, Guochang; Bai, Jiahai; Ding, Rui

    2014-08-01

    The formations of non-metabolic stones, bones and teeth were seriously related to the morphology, size and surface reactivity of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD). Herein, a facile biomimetic mineralization method with presence of glutamic acid and arginine was employed to fabricate DCPD with well-defined morphology and adjustable crystallite size. In reaction solution containing more arginine, crystallization of DCPD occurred with faster rate of nucleation and higher density of stacked layers due to the generation of more OH(-) ions after hydrolysis of arginine at 37 °C. With addition of fluorescein or acetone, the consumption of OH(-) ions or desolvation reaction of Ca(2+) ions was modulated, which resulted in the fabrication of DCPD with adjustable crystallite sizes and densities of stacked layers. In comparison with fluorescein-loading DCPD, dicalcium phosphate anhydrate was prepared with enhanced photoluminescence properties due to the reduction of self-quenching effect and regular arrangement of encapsulated fluorescein molecules. With addition of more acetone, DCPD was prepared with smaller crystallite size via antisolvent crystallization. The simulated process with addition of amino acids under 37 °C would shed light on the dynamic process of biomineralization for calcium phosphate compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aluminum bioavailability from the approved food additive leavening agent acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, incorporated into a baked good, is lower than from water.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2006-10-03

    There are estimates of oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water, but little information on Al bioavailability from foods. Foods contribute approximately 95% and drinking water 1-2% of the typical human's daily Al intake. The objectives were to estimate oral Al bioavailability from a representative food containing the food additive acidic sodium aluminum phosphate (acidic SALP), a leavening agent in baked goods. Rats were acclimated to a special diet that resulted in no stomach contents 14 h after its withdrawal. They were trained to rapidly consume a biscuit containing 1.5% acidic SALP. Oral Al bioavailability was then determined from a biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic SALP, synthesized to contain (26)Al. The rats received concurrent (27)Al infusion. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn and serum analyzed for (26)Al by accelerator mass spectrometry. Total Al was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oral (26)Al bioavailability was determined from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentrationxtime curves. Oral Al bioavailability (F) from biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic (26)Al-SALP averaged approximately 0.11% and 0.13%; significantly less than from water, which was previously shown to be approximately 0.3%. The time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 4.2 and 6h after consumption of biscuit containing 1% or 2% (26)Al-acidic SALP, respectively, compared to 1-2h following (26)Al in water. These results of oral Al bioavailability from acidic (26)Al-SALP in a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%) and results from (26)Al in water (F approximately 0.3%) x the contributions of food and drinking water to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 5-10mg from food and 0.1mg from water, respectively) suggest food provides approximately 25-fold more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water.

  15. A database of thermodynamic properties of the reactions of glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Wu, Fan; Qi, Feng; Beard, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    A database of thermodynamic properties is developed, which extends a previous database of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle by adding the reactions of the pentose phosphate pathway. The raw data and documented estimations of solution properties are made electronically available. The database is determined by estimation of a set of parameters representing species-level free energies of formation. The resulting calculations provide thermodynamic and network-based estimates of thermodynamic properties for six reactions of the pentose phosphate pathway for which estimates are not available in the preexisting literature. Optimized results are made available in ThermoML format. Because calculations depend on estimated hydrogen and metal cation dissociation constants, an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis is performed, revealing 23 critical dissociation constants to which the computed thermodynamic properties are particularly sensitive. Database URL: http://www.biocoda.org/thermo PMID:21482578

  16. Sustained delivery of calcium and orthophosphate ions from amorphous calcium phosphate and poly(L-lactic acid)-based electrospinning nanofibrous scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xufeng; Liu, Zhongning; Tian, Feng; Chen, Siqian; Lei, Lei; Jiang, Ting; Feng, Qingling; Fan, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate electrospinning poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibrous scaffold with different contents of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), which is suitable for using in bone regeneration through sustained release of calcium and orthophosphate ions. Three groups of nanofibrous scaffolds, ACP-free PLLA, ACP-5 wt%/PLLA and ACP-10 wt%/PLLA, are developed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and gel permeation chromatography. Calcium and phosphate colorimetric assay kits are used to test ions released from scaffold during hydrolytic degradation. The results show ACP-5 wt%/PLLA and ACP-10 wt%/PLLA scaffolds have relatively high degradation rates than ACP-free PLLA group. The bioactivity evaluation further reveals that ACP-5 wt%/PLLA scaffold presents more biocompatible feature with pre-osteoblast cells and significant osteogenesis ability of calvarial bone defect. Due to the facile preparation method, sustained calcium and orthophosphate release behavior, and excellent osteogenesis capacity, the presented ACP/PLLA nanofibrous scaffold has potential applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:28361908

  17. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  19. Free fatty acids increase hepatic glycogen content in obese males.

    PubMed

    Allick, G; Sprangers, F; Weverling, G J; Ackermans, M T; Meijer, A J; Romijn, J A; Endert, E; Bisschop, P H; Sauerwein, H P

    2004-07-01

    Obesity is associated with increased hepatic glycogen content. In vivo and in vitro data suggest that plasma free fatty acids (FFA) may cause this increase. In this study we investigated the effect of physiological plasma FFA levels on hepatic glycogen metabolism by studying intrahepatic glucose pathways in lean and obese subjects. Six lean and 6 obese males were studied twice during a 16- to 22-hour fast, once with and once without acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis. Intrahepatic glucose fluxes were measured by infusion of [2-(13C1)]glycerol, [1-(2H1)]galactose, and [U-(13C6)]glucose. Acetaminophen was administered as a glucuronate probe. In both lean and obese control studies, plasma FFA levels increased progressively, whereas acipimox completely suppressed plasma FFA levels for the whole study period. In lean males glycogenolysis did not change in the acipimox study, but decreased in the control study (P < .01). In lean males, neither glycogen synthesis, glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen, nor glycogen balance differed between control and acipimox studies. In obese males glycogenolysis did not change in the acipimox study, but decreased in the control study (P < .01). Glycogen synthesis did not change in either study. Glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen did not change in acipimox study, but increased in the control study (P = .03). Glycogen balance did not change in the acipimox study, but increased in the control study (P < .01). This study demonstrates that in obese males physiological levels of FFA contribute to the retention of hepatic glycogen during short-term fasting by inhibiting breakdown of glycogen and increasing glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen, whereas in lean males this effect was absent due to unaltered glycogen synthesis retained as glycogen.

  20. Efficient therapy for refractory Pompe disease by mannose 6-phosphate analogue grafting on acid α-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Basile, Ilaria; Da Silva, Afitz; El Cheikh, Khaled; Godefroy, Anastasia; Daurat, Morgane; Harmois, Alice; Perez, Marc; Caillaud, Catherine; Charbonné, Henry-Vincent; Pau, Bernard; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Morère, Alain; Garcia, Marcel; Maynadier, Marie

    2018-01-10

    Pompe disease is a rare disorder due to deficiency of the acid α-glucosidase (GAA) treated by enzyme replacement therapy. The present authorized treatment with rhGAA, the recombinant human enzyme, provides an important benefit in the infantile onset; however, the juvenile and adult forms of the disease corresponding to >80% of the patients are less responsive to this treatment. This resistance has been mainly attributed to an insufficiency of mannose 6-phosphate residues in rhGAA to address lysosomes through the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR). As yet, several attempts to improve the enzyme delivery by increasing the number of mannose 6-phosphate on the enzyme were poorly effective on the late onset form of the disease. Here, we show that chemical conjugation of a synthetic analogue of the mannose 6-phosphate, named AMFA, onto rhGAA improves the affinity for CI-M6PR and the uptake of the enzyme in fibroblasts and myoblasts of adult Pompe patients. More importantly, only the conjugated rhGAA-AMFA was effective in aged Pompe mice when compared to rhGAA. Weekly treatment with 5-20mg·kg -1 rhGAA-AMFA provided major improvements of the motor function and of the myofiber structure, whereas rhGAA was inactive. Finally, AMFA addition did not induce supplementary immune response to the enzyme. This modified enzyme, displaying a muscle recovery in aged Pompe mice that was never attained before, could be considered as a potential therapy for the late onset Pompe disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New composite materials prepared by calcium phosphate precipitation in chitosan/collagen/hyaluronic acid sponge cross-linked by EDC/NHS.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, B; Sionkowska, A; Kozlowska, J; Osyczka, A M

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, fabrication of composite materials based on biopolymers is a rising field due to potential for bone repair and tissue engineering application. Blending of different biopolymers and incorporation of inorganic particles in the blend can lead to new materials with improved physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. In this work 3D porous structures called scaffolds based on chitosan, collagen and hyaluronic acid were obtained through the lyophilization process. Scaffolds were cross-linked by EDC/NHS. Infrared spectra for the materials were made, the percentage of swelling, scaffolds porosity and density, mechanical parameters, thermal stability were studied. Moreover, the scaffolds were used as matrixes for the calcium phosphate in situ precipitation. SEM images were taken and EDX analysis was carried out for calcium and phosphorous content determination in the scaffold. In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells was examined on obtained scaffolds. The results showed that the properties of 3D composites cross-linked by EDC/NHS were altered after the addition of 1, 2 and 5% hyaluronic acid. Mechanical parameters, thermal stability and porosity of scaffolds were improved. Moreover, calcium and phosphorous were found in each kind of scaffold. SEM images showed that the precipitation was homogeneously carried in the whole volume of samples. Attachment of SaOS-2 cells to all modified materials was better compared to unmodified control and proliferation of these cells was markedly increased on scaffolds with precipitated calcium phosphate. Obtained materials can provide the support useful in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, C. v.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields plant available inorganic phosphate (Pi) and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P-compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four Pi are released, and one oxygen atom from water is incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi is subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ 6 to 10‰), which is similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ∼ 7‰) where less than three Pi are released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ -12‰), again similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ɛ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate-dependency of

  3. Photoaffinity labeling of high affinity nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-binding proteins in sea urchin egg.

    PubMed

    Walseth, Timothy F; Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Jain, Pooja; Ruas, Margarida; Parrington, John; Galione, Antony; Marchant, Jonathan S; Slama, James T

    2012-01-20

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a messenger that regulates calcium release from intracellular acidic stores. Recent studies have identified two-pore channels (TPCs) as endolysosomal channels that are regulated by NAADP; however, the nature of the NAADP receptor binding site is unknown. To further study NAADP binding sites, we have synthesized and characterized [(32)P-5-azido]nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate ([(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP) as a photoaffinity probe. Photolysis of sea urchin egg homogenates preincubated with [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP resulted in specific labeling of 45-, 40-, and 30-kDa proteins, which was prevented by inclusion of nanomolar concentrations of unlabeled NAADP or 5N(3)-NAADP, but not by micromolar concentrations of structurally related nucleotides such as NAD, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide mononucleotide, nicotinic acid, or nicotinamide. [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP binding was saturable and displayed high affinity (K(d) ∼10 nM) in both binding and photolabeling experiments. [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP photolabeling was irreversible in a high K(+) buffer, a hallmark feature of NAADP binding in the egg system. The proteins photolabeled by [(32)P-5N(3)]NAADP have molecular masses smaller than the sea urchin TPCs, and antibodies to TPCs do not detect any immunoreactivity that comigrates with either the 45-kDa or the 40-kDa photolabeled proteins. Interestingly, antibodies to TPC1 and TPC3 were able to immunoprecipitate a small fraction of the 45- and 40-kDa photolabeled proteins, suggesting that these proteins associate with TPCs. These data suggest that high affinity NAADP binding sites are distinct from TPCs.

  4. Effects of drugs and fatty acids related to Reye syndrome on brain water content in rats.

    PubMed

    Katafuchi, Y; Yoshida, I; Yamashita, F; Sinniah, D

    1989-04-01

    Brain water content was measured by gas-chromatography in rats following intraperitoneal injection of drugs and fatty acids related to the etiology of Reye syndrome. A statistically significant increase in brain water content was observed following injection of 5% glucose solution, valproic acid, acetyl salicylic acid, calcium hopantenate, margosa oil, 4-pentenoic acid, linolenate and arachidonate. Seizures occurred in all animals given valproic acid, margosa oil and 4-pentenoic acid, and in 25% of those given 5% glucose solution + anti-diuretic hormone. The results of these studies may help in the selection of appropriate agents for experimental induction of acute encephalopathy and brain edema in animal models of Reye syndrome.

  5. Phosphate recovery through struvite-family crystals precipitated in the presence of citric acid: mineralogical phase and morphology evaluation.

    PubMed

    Perwitasari, D S; Edahwati, L; Sutiyono, S; Muryanto, S; Jamari, J; Bayuseno, A P

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation strategy of struvite-family crystals is presented in this paper to recover phosphate and potassium from a synthetic wastewater in the presence of citric acid at elevated temperature. The crystal-forming solutions were prepared from crystals of MgCl 2 and NH 4 H 2 PO 4 with a molar ratio of 1:1:1 for Mg +2 , [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], and the citric acid (C 6 H 8 O 7 ) was prepared (1.00 and 20.00 ppm) from citric acid crystals. The Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction pattern confirmed a mixed product of struvite, struvite-(K), and newberyite crystallized at 30°C in the absence of citric acid. In the presence of citric acid at 30° and 40°C, an abundance of struvite and struvite-(K) were observed. A minute impurity of sylvite and potassium peroxide was unexpectedly found in certain precipitates. The crystal solids have irregular flake-shaped morphology, as shown by scanning electron microscopy micrograph. All parameters (citric acid, temperature, pH, Mg/P, and N/P) were deliberately arranged to control struvite-family crystals precipitation.

  6. Phosphate accumulation of Acetobacter xylinum.

    PubMed

    Ryazanova, Lubov P; Suzina, Natalia E; Kulakovskaya, Tatiana V; Kulaev, Igor S

    2009-05-01

    The cells of Acetobacter xylinum decreased phosphate concentration in the medium from 5 to 2.5 or 0.3 mM during incubation in the presence of Mg(2+) and glucose, or Mg(2+) and casamino acids, respectively. The prevalence of orthophosphate or polyphosphate in the biomass of A. xylinum depends on the medium composition. Under phosphate uptake in the presence of glucose, the content of orthophosphate in the biomass changed little, while that of polyphosphate increased fourfold. At incubation with casamino acids, the content of orthophosphate increased 15 times, while that of polyphosphate increased only 2.5 times. Some part of orthophosphate in this case seems to be bound with the cell surface. The polyphosphate chain length in the cells of A. xylinim increases under phosphate uptake. This increase is more noticeable in the presence of glucose. Casamino acids can be replaced by alpha-ketoglutaric acid in combination with (NH(4))(2)SO(4), or arginine, or glutamine, the catabolism of which results in formation of NH(4) (+) and alpha-ketoglutarate.

  7. Effect of medium acidity on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reaction of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with isoniazid in an aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamov, G. A.; Zavalishin, M. N.; Usacheva, T. R.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    Thermodynamic characteristics of the formation of the Schiff base between isoniazid and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in an aqueous solution at different pH values of a medium are determined by means of spectrophotometry and calorimetric titration. The process kinetics is studied spectrophotometrically, and the reaction rate constants for the formation of the imine at different acidities of a medium are determined. Biochemical aspects of the binding of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate into stable compounds are discussed.

  8. Effect of sucrose, erythrose-4-phosphate and phenylalanine on biomassa and flavonoid content of callus culture from leaves of Gynura procumbens Merr.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurisa, Aryana; Kristanti, Alfinda Novi; Manuhara, Yosephine Sri Wulan

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to know the effect of concentration of sucrose, erythrose-4-phosphate and phenylalanine on biomass and flavonoid content of callus cultures from leaves of sambung nyawa (Gynura procumbens Merr.). This study was experimental research with complete randomized design. Callus induction was treated in MS medium supplemented with NAA 2 mg/L, BAP 1 mg/L and sucrose concentration (10 g/L, 30 g/L and 50 g/L) respectively were combined with erythrose-4-phosphate (0 µM, 2,5 µM and 5 µM) and phenylalanine (0 mg/L, 2 mg/L and 3 mg/L), each treatment were repeated four times. After six weeks of culture, fresh and dry weight of calli were measured and extracted with ethanol absolut. Crude extract ethanolic of callus was analyzed used by a modified colorimetric with spectrophotometer method. The best yield of calli biomass (0,672 ± 0,112 gram of fresh weight and 0,033 ± 0,009 gram of dry weight) was obtained in treatment of 30 g/L sucrose of and 5 µM erythrose-4-phosphate. The highest total flavonoid content was obtained of calli treated with 30 g/L of sucrose and 3 mg/L of phenylalanine (3633,4 ppm quercetin/gram dry weight and 15777,8 ppm kaempferol/gram dry weight).

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of polylactic acid-based composite with tricalcium phosphate microsphere for enhanced biodegradability and osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Shin, Da Yong; Kang, Min-Ho; Kang, In-Gu; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Jeong, Seol-Ha

    2018-01-01

    A biodegradable polylactic acid composite containing tricalcium phosphate microsphere was fabricated. The composite exhibited enhanced biocompatibility and a well-interconnected porous structure that enabled tissue ingrowth after degradation. The tricalcium phosphate microspheres had an average size of 106 ± 43 μm and were incorporated into the polylactic acid matrix using a high-shear mixer. The resulting bioactivity and hydrophilicity were enhanced to levels comparable to those of a polylactic acid composite containing tricalcium phosphate powder, which is a well-known material used in the medical field. An accelerated 30-day degradation test in HCl revealed successful generation of an open porous structure with ∼98% interconnectivity in the polylactic acid-tricalcium phosphate microsphere composite, demonstrating the potential of this material to induce enhanced osseointegration in the later stage of bone regeneration. The early stage osseointegration was also evaluated by implanting the composite in vivo using a rabbit femoral defect model. After 16 weeks of implantation, the bone-to-implant contact ratio of the polylactic acid-tricalcium phosphate microsphere composite was enhanced owing to tissue ingrowth through the generated pores near the surface.

  10. Investigating the use of coupling agents to improve the interfacial properties between a resorbable phosphate glass and polylactic acid matrix.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Walker, Gavin S; Scotchford, Colin A

    2013-09-01

    Eight different chemicals were investigated as potential candidate coupling agents for phosphate glass fibre reinforced polylactic acid composites. Evidence of reaction of the coupling agents with phosphate glass and their effect on surface wettability and glass degradation were studied along with their principle role of improving the interface between glass reinforcement and polymer matrix. It was found that, with an optimal amount of coupling agent on the surface of the glass/polymer, interfacial shear strength improved by a factor of 5. Evidence of covalent bonding between agent and glass was found for three of the coupling agents investigated, namely: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; etidronic acid and hexamethylene diisocyanate. These three coupling agents also improved the interfacial shear strength and increased the hydrophobicity of the glass surface. It is expected that this would provide an improvement in the macroscopic properties of full-scale composites fabricated from the same materials which may also help to retain these properties for the desired length of time by retarding the breakdown of the fibre/matrix interface within these composites.

  11. Dissolution of the carbonate minerals of phosphate ores: catalysis by carbonic anhydrase II, from bovine erythrocytes, in acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Papamichael, Emmanuel M; Economou, Evangelos D; Vaimakis, Tiberius C

    2002-07-01

    In this manuscript we report detailed experimental and theoretical evidence of the effect of carbonic anhydrase II, from bovine erythrocytes, on the dissolution process of carbonate minerals of phosphate ores (Epirus area, Greece) in dilute acetic acid, by recording the pH value of the acid solution as a function of time in the pH range from 2.37 to 6.40. We found that mass transfer makes a significant contribution to the determining step of the overall enzymatic reaction, while we distinguished five separate pH regions within the pH range from 2.37 to 6.40. Two different reaction systems and two model equations fitted perfectly the corresponding experimental data, and were used to evaluate all rate constants and parameters. Subsequently, we proposed the possible mechanisms of action for this enzyme from pH 2.37 to 6.40, within which carbonic anhydrase II was found active.

  12. Effect of boron and phosphate compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of wood-polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Umit Buyuksari; Zeki Candan; Erkan Avci

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites incorporated with different contents of boron compounds; borax/boric acid and zinc borate, and phosphate compounds; mono and diammonium phosphates were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent content, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, on the properties of...

  13. Study of the aluminum-chromium phosphate binder based on the slurry (slime) orthophosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kliment'eva, V.S.; Filimonova, N.I.; Bushmina, V.A.

    1987-03-01

    This article looks at the possibility of using phosphorus slurry wastes which are ordinarily incinerated as a raw material for a refractory binder based on aluminium and chromium phosphates. Thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis as well as x-ray diffraction are carried out on various combinations of binder and refractory in order to assess the crystal behavior, adhesive properties, and temperature resistance of the binder-filler composite.

  14. Mineralisation of reconstituted collagen using polyvinylphosphonic acid/polyacrylic acid templating matrix protein analogues in the presence of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl ions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Kyung; Gu, Li-sha; Bryan, Thomas E.; Kim, Jong Ryul; Chen, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yoon, James C.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2010-01-01

    The complex morphologies of mineralised collagen fibrils are regulated through interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. In the present study, polyvinylphosphonic acid, a biomimetic analogue of matrix phosphoproteins, was synthesised and confirmed with FTIR and NMR. Biomimetic mineralisation of reconstituted collagen fibrils devoid of natural non-collagenous proteins was demonstrated with TEM using a Portland cement-containing resin composite and a phosphate-containing fluid in the presence of polyacrylic acid as sequestration, and polyvinylphosphonic acid as templating matrix protein analogues. In the presence of these dual biomimetic analogues in the mineralisation medium, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralisation via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the nonclassical crystallisation pathway could be identified. Conversely, only large mineral spheres with no preferred association with collagen fibrils were observed in the absence of biomimetic analogues in the medium. Mineral phases were evident within the collagen fibrils as early as 4 hours after the initially-formed amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors were transformed into apatite nanocrystals. Selected area electron diffraction patterns of highly mineralised collagen fibrils were nearly identical to those of natural bone, with apatite crystallites preferentially aligned along the collagen fibril axes. PMID:20621767

  15. Intramolecular general acid catalysis of the hydrolysis of 2-(2'-imidazolium)phenyl phosphate, and bond length-reactivity correlations for reactions of phosphate monoester monoanions.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Tiago A S; Orth, Elisa S; Rocha, Willian R; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Bunton, Clifford A; Nome, Faruk

    2007-05-11

    Rate constants for the hydrolysis of 2-(2'-imidazolium)phenyl hydrogen phosphate (IMPP) in water at pH<6 indicate that activation by the imidazolium moiety disappears with the deprotonation of the phosphate group, and the reaction involves the hydrogen-bonding of the imidazolium NH with the aryl oxygen leaving group. The reaction should involve a near-planar conformation of the imidazolium and the phenyl groups in the activated complex, which favors proton-transfer. The crystal structure of IMPP was solved, and a bond length-reactivity correlation for reactions of phosphate monoester monoanions is described.

  16. Oil and Fatty Acid Content Among Diverse Sesame Genetic Resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sesame, Sesamum indicum contains oil used for salads, cooking while the seeds are used on hamburger buns, candies, and are used to make tahini. Sesame oil is known to reduce cholesterol due to the high polyunsaturated fat content in the oil. Oil content ranges from about 40 to 63% among sesame acces...

  17. [Effect of cultivation conditions on fatty acid content of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lipids].

    PubMed

    Moroz, S M; Hvozdiak, R I; Chernenko, Ie P; Ostapchuk, A M

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid content of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis cellular lipids in different culture conditions was investigated. It was established, that it lies in a narrow range C14-C18 and belongs to isoanteiso type. The species character is constant, independent of temperature, duration of cultivation and medium content dominance of saturated branched-chain fatty acids, among which the anteiso-acids dominate, generally a-C15. A response to the temperature modification of bacteria cultivation, medium and age of culture is expressed by relations between separate fatty acids. Thus the modifications of fatty acid content, connected with age of culture and temperature of cultivation, depend on a strain. The cultivation of bacteria on a rich medium in comparison with poor one enlarges the content of nonbranched-chain and anteiso-acids in lipids.

  18. The impacts of temperature, alcoholic degree and amino acids content on biogenic amines and their precursor amino acids content in red wine.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, C; Bordiga, M; Pérez-Álvarez, E P; Travaglia, F; Arlorio, M; Salinas, M R; Coïsson, J D; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to study how factors such as temperature, alcoholic degree, and amino acids supplementation are able to influence the content of tyramine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and their precursor amino acids in winemaking process. Biogenic amines and amino acids were quantified at the beginning, middle and end of alcoholic fermentation, and at the end of malolactic fermentation. In general, samples produced with amino acid supplementation did not show the highest concentrations of biogenic amines, except for histamine, which content increased with the addition of the four amino acids. The synthesis of tyramine was mainly affected by the temperature and alcoholic degree, the formation of phenylethylamine was largely influenced by alcoholic degree, and tryptamine synthesis principally depended on temperature. Interestingly, there was interaction between these three factors for the biogenic amines studied. In conclusion, winemaking conditions should be established depending on the biogenic amine which synthesis is required to be controlled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. GC-Content of Synonymous Codons Profoundly Influences Amino Acid Usage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Ying; Yang, Sihai; Tian, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids typically are encoded by multiple synonymous codons that are not used with the same frequency. Codon usage bias has drawn considerable attention, and several explanations have been offered, including variation in GC-content between species. Focusing on a simple parameter—combined GC proportion of all the synonymous codons for a particular amino acid, termed GCsyn—we try to deepen our understanding of the relationship between GC-content and amino acid/codon usage in more details. We analyzed 65 widely distributed representative species and found a close association between GCsyn, GC-content, and amino acids usage. The overall usages of the four amino acids with the greatest GCsyn and the five amino acids with the lowest GCsyn both vary with the regional GC-content, whereas the usage of the remaining 11 amino acids with intermediate GCsyn is less variable. More interesting, we discovered that codon usage frequencies are nearly constant in regions with similar GC-content. We further quantified the effects of regional GC-content variation (low to high) on amino acid usage and found that GC-content determines the usage variation of amino acids, especially those with extremely high GCsyn, which accounts for 76.7% of the changed GC-content for those regions. Our results suggest that GCsyn correlates with GC-content and has impact on codon/amino acid usage. These findings suggest a novel approach to understanding the role of codon and amino acid usage in shaping genomic architecture and evolutionary patterns of organisms. PMID:26248983

  20. Effect of surface modification of nanofibres with glutamic acid peptide on calcium phosphate nucleation and osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ozan; Kumar, Ankur; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; He, Xuezhong; Cui, Tong; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2016-02-01

    Biomineralization is mediated by extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with amino acid sequences rich in glutamic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium phosphate deposition on aligned nanofibres surface-modified with a glutamic acid peptide on osteogenic differentiation of rat marrow stromal cells. Blend of EEGGC peptide (GLU) conjugated low molecular weight polylactide (PLA) and high molecular weight poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was electrospun to form aligned nanofibres (GLU-NF). The GLU-NF microsheets were incubated in a modified simulated body fluid for nucleation of calcium phosphate crystals on the fibre surface. To achieve a high calcium phosphate to fibre ratio, a layer-by-layer approach was used to improve diffusion of calcium and phosphate ions inside the microsheets. Based on dissipative particle dynamics simulation of PLGA/PLA-GLU fibres, > 80% of GLU peptide was localized to the fibre surface. Calcium phosphate to fibre ratios as high as 200%, between those of cancellous (160%) and cortical (310%) bone, was obtained with the layer-by-layer approach. The extent of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of marrow stromal cells seeded on GLU-NF microsheets was directly related to the amount of calcium phosphate deposition on the fibres prior to cell seeding. Expression of osteogenic markers osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and type 1 collagen increased gradually with calcium phosphate deposition on GLU-NF microsheets. Results demonstrate that surface modification of aligned synthetic nanofibres with EEGGC peptide dramatically affects nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate crystals on the fibres leading to increased osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells and mineralization. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment on fatty acid composition and phenolic acid content in olive fruits during storage.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Del Castillo, María Luisa Ruiz

    2017-07-01

    The nutritional effects of both table olives and olive oil are attributed not only to their fatty acids but also to antioxidant phenolics such as phenolic acids. Delays in oil processing usually result in undesirable oxidation and hydrolysis processes leading to formation of free fatty acids. These alterations create the need to process oil immediately after olive harvest. However, phenolic content decreases drastically during olive storage resulting in lower quality oil. In the present study we propose postharvest methyl jasmonate treatment as a mean to avoid changes in fatty acid composition and losses of phenolic acids during olive storage. Contents of fatty acids and phenolic acids were estimated in methyl jasmonate treated olives throughout 30-day storage, as compared with those of untreated olives. Significant decreases of saturated fatty acids were observed in treated samples whereas increases of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were respectively measured (i.e. from 50.8% to 64.5%, from 7.2% to 9.1% and from 1.5% to 9.3%). Also, phenolic acid contents increased significantly in treated olives. Particularly, increases of gallic acid from 1.35 to 6.29 mg kg -1 , chlorogenic acid from 9.18 to 16.21 mg kg -1 , vanillic acid from 9.61 to 16.99 mg kg -1 , caffeic acid from 5.12 to 12.55 mg kg -1 , p-coumaric acid from 0.96 to 5.31 mg kg -1 and ferulic acid from 4.05 to 10.43 mg kg -1 were obtained. Methyl jasmonate treatment is proposed as an alternative postharvest technique to traditional methods to guarantee olive oil quality when oil processing is delayed and olive fruits have to necessarily to be stored. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  3. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  4. Bile acids content in brain of common duct ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, Valeria; Contin, Mario; Fernández, María Alejandra; Lemberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cholestasis leads to liver cell death, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. Bile duct ligated rats constitute an interesting model to study the mechanism of cholestasis, and its action on several organs and tissues, including the brain. To analyze brain bile acids individually in ligated rats to evaluate if its profile is altered towards a more toxic condition in cholestasis. Male Wistar rats were used and separated in two groups: bile duct ligated rats and sham operated rats (n = 5 in each group). Bile acid profile was assessed in brain homogenates. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase determinations, bilirubin and ammonia plasma concentration were also measured in both groups. Although the total amount of bile acids in control animal brains showed a higher concentration than in bile duct ligated rats, the bile acid profile in this group was found more toxic composition than in controls. Lithocholic acid was present in brain in higher concentration (87.4 % of total brain bile acids) in ligated rats and absent in controls. Alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and ammonia were significantly higher in bile duct ligated rats than in control group. It was found a toxic brain bile acid profile during hepatic cholestasis which could be one of the explanations of hepatic encephalopathy observed in cholestatic diseases.

  5. Phosphate Uptake by Phosphate-Starved Euglena

    PubMed Central

    BLUM, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Phosphate-deprived Euglena acquire the ability to rapidly in-corporate added phosphate and, also, synthesize an induced acid phosphatase localized in the pellicle. The phosphate uptake system is saturated at low concentrations of phosphate and is inhibited by dinitrophenol, by low temperature, by K+, Li+, and Na+ ions, and competitively by arsenate. The orthophosphate incorporated into the cell is rapidly converted into organic forms but enough remains unesterified to suggest that the uptake is an active transport process. The data do not rule out the possibility that the induced phosphatase is involved in the transport process. PMID:5924104

  6. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  7. A role for AMPK in the inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by polyunsaturated fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kohan, Alison B.; Talukdar, Indrani; Walsh, Callee M.

    2009-10-09

    Both polyunsaturated fatty acids and AMPK promote energy partitioning away from energy consuming processes, such as fatty acid synthesis, towards energy generating processes, such as {beta}-oxidation. In this report, we demonstrate that arachidonic acid activates AMPK in primary rat hepatocytes, and that this effect is p38 MAPK-dependent. Activation of AMPK mimics the inhibition by arachidonic acid of the insulin-mediated induction of G6PD. Similar to intracellular signaling by arachidonic acid, AMPK decreases insulin signal transduction, increasing Ser{sup 307} phosphorylation of IRS-1 and a subsequent decrease in AKT phosphorylation. Overexpression of dominant-negative AMPK abolishes the effect of arachidonic acid on G6PD expression.more » These data suggest a role for AMPK in the inhibition of G6PD by polyunsaturated fatty acids.« less

  8. Direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content of terrestrial plants in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Enzai; Dong, Dan; Zeng, Xuetong; Sun, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Xiaofei; de Vries, Wim

    2017-12-15

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors in China have resulted in widespread acid rain since the 1980s. Although efforts have been made to assess the indirect, soil mediated ecological effects of acid rain, a systematic assessment of the direct foliage injury by acid rain across terrestrial plants is lacking. Leaf chlorophyll content is an important indicator of direct foliage damage and strongly related to plant productivity. We synthesized data from published literature on experiments of simulated acid rain, by directly exposing plants to acid solutions with varying pH levels, to assess the direct effect of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll content across 67 terrestrial plants in China. Our results indicate that acid rain substantially reduces leaf chlorophyll content by 6.71% per pH unit across the recorded plant species. The direct reduction of leaf chlorophyll content due to acid rain exposure showed no significant difference across calcicole, ubiquist or calcifuge species, implying that soil acidity preference does not influence the sensitivity to leaf injury by acid rain. On average, the direct effects of acid rain on leaf chlorophyll on trees, shrubs and herbs were comparable. The effects, however varied across functional groups and economic use types. Specifically, leaf chlorophyll content of deciduous species was more sensitive to acid rain in comparison to evergreen species. Moreover, vegetables and fruit trees were more sensitive to acid rain than other economically used plants. Our findings imply a potential production reduction and economic loss due to the direct foliage damage by acid rain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative study on fatty acid composition of olive (Olea europaea L.), with emphasis on phytosterol contents.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Ali; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Kulak, Muhittin; Bindak, Recep

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the fatty acid composition and phytosterol contents of Turkish native olive cultivars, namely Kilis Yağlık and Nizip Yağlık cv. In this context, olive fruits from 34 locations were sampled and then screened for their components in comparison. Fifteen different fatty acids were found in both olive oils. In the order of abundance, the most important ones were oleic acid (18:1) > palmitic acid (16:0) > linoleic acid (18:2) > stearic acid (18:0). Significant differences were observed in the contents of oleic acid (18:1), palmitic acid (16:0), linoleic acid (18:2) but not for stearic acid content in comparison both oils (p < 0.01). There were significant differences in terms of unsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01). The seven phytosterols - cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ-5-avenasterol, Δ-7-stigmastenol and Δ-7-avenasterol - were studied in both oil sources. The predominant sterols were β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol and campesterol in the samples analysed. However, no significant differences were found in the levels of the phytosterols between the two olive cultivars. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid as an index for the baking intensity of oolong teas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miki Mei-Chi; Yeh, Yun; Shih, Yu-En; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Phenolic compounds in a series of old oolong teas prepared by baking annually were monitored and compared. The results showed that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was subsequently elevated during this preparatory process. To reveal the effect was mainly resulted from baking or aging, two sets of oolong teas were collected and examined; one set was generated from fresh oolong tea via continually daily baking and the other set was composed of aged oolong teas with no or light baking in the storage period. The relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid was observed to be subsequently elevated when oolong tea was continually baked at 90, 100, 110, and 120 °C for 8 h day after day. In contrast, the relative contents of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid in aged oolong teas with no or light baking were found to be similar to or slightly higher than that in fresh oolong tea. The results suggest that the relative content of gallic acid over 5-galloylquinic acid seems to be a suitable index for the baking intensity of oolong tea in different preparations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  12. Shikimic acid production by a modified strain of E. coli (W3110.shik1) under phosphate-limited and carbon-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Louise; Lindskog, Anna; Silfversparre, Gustav; Cimander, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Lidén, Gunnar

    2005-12-05

    Shikimic acid is one of several industrially interesting chiral starting materials formed in the aromatic amino acid pathway of plants and microorganisms. In this study, the physiology of a shikimic acid producing strain of Escherichia coli (derived from W3110) deleted in aroL (shikimic acid kinase II gene), was compared to that of a corresponding control strain (W3110) under carbon- and phosphate-limited conditions. For the shikimic acid producing strain (referred to as W3110.shik1), phosphate limitation resulted in a higher yield of shikimic acid (0.059 +/- 0.012 vs. 0.024 +/- 0.005 c-mol/c-mol) and a lower yield of by-products from the shikimate pathway, when compared to carbon-limited condition. The yield of the by-product 3-dehydroshikimic acid (DHS) decreased from 0.076 +/- 0.028 to 0.022 +/- 0.001 c-mol/c-mol. Several other by-products were only detected under carbon-limited conditions. The latter group included 3-dehydroquinic acid (0.021 +/- 0.021 c-mol/c-mol), quinic acid (0.012 +/- 0.005 c-mol/c-mol), and gallic acid (0.002 +/- 0.001 c-mol/c-mol). For both strains, more acetate was produced under phosphate than the carbon-limited case. Considerable cell lysis was found for both strains but was higher for W3110.shik1, and increased for both strains under phosphate limitation. The advantages of the latter condition in terms of an increased shikimic acid yield was thus counteracted by an increased cell lysis, which may make downstream processing more difficult. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of temperature, water content and free fatty acid on reverse micelle formation of phospholipids in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, Olli-Pekka; Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N; Lehtimaa, Tuula; Vierros, Sampsa; Hiekkataipale, Panu; Ruokolainen, Janne; Sammalkorpi, Maria; Österberg, Monika

    2017-12-01

    The self-assembly of phospholipids in oil, specifically lecithin in rapeseed oil, was investigated by combining experimental and computational methods The influence of temperature, water, and free fatty acids on the onset of lecithin aggregation in the rapeseed oil was determined using the 7,7,8,8 -tetracyanoquinodimethane dye (TCNQ) solubilization method and the size and shape of the self-assembled lecithin structures were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. In the absence of excess water in the system (0.03wt-% water in oil), stable cylindrical lecithin reverse micelles were observed above the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Comparing the aggregation response in room temperature and at 70°C revealed that CMC decreased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, already a modest amount of added water (0.3wt-% water in oil) was sufficient to induce the formation of lamellar lecithin structures, that phase separated from the oil. In low water content, oleic acid suppressed the formation of lecithin reverse micelles whereas in the presence of more water, the oleic acid stabilized the reverse micelles. Consequently, more water was needed to induce phase separation in the presence of oleic acid. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the stabilizing effect of oleic acid resulted from oleic acid enhancing phospholipid solubilization in the oil by forming a solvating shell around the phosphate head group. The findings showed that the response of the mixed surfactant system is a delicate interplay of the different components and variables. The significance of the observations is that multiple parameters need to be controlled for desired system response, for example towards vegetable oil purification or phospholipid based microemulsions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of lactic acid and glycolic acid on human osteoblasts: a way to understand PLGA involvement in PLGA/calcium phosphate composite failure.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Florent; Wardale, John; Best, Serena; Cameron, Ruth; Rushton, Neil; Brooks, Roger

    2012-06-01

    The use of degradable composite materials in orthopedics remains a field of intense research due to their ability to support new bone formation and degrade in a controlled manner, broadening their use for orthopedic applications. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA), a degradable biopolymer, is now a popular material for different orthopedic applications and is proposed for use in tissue engineering scaffolds either alone or combined with bioactive ceramics. Interference screws composed of calcium phosphates and PLGA are readily available in the market. However, some reports highlight problems of screw migration or aseptic cyst formation following screw degradation. In order to understand these phenomena and to help to improve implant formulation, we have evaluated the effects of PLGA degradation products: lactic acid and glycolic acid on human osteoblasts in vitro. Cell proliferation, differentiation, and matrix mineralization, important for bone healing were studied. It was found that the toxicity of polymer degradation products under buffering conditions was limited to high concentrations. However, non-toxic concentrations led to a decrease in cell proliferation, rapid cell differentiation, and mineralization failure. Calcium, whilst stimulating cell proliferation was not able to overcome the negative effects of high concentrations of lactic and glycolic acids on osteoblasts. These effects help to explain recently reported clinical failures of calcium phosphate/PLGA composites, but further in vitro analyses are needed to mimic the dynamic situation which occurs in the body by, for example, culture of osteoblasts with materials that have been pre-degraded to different extents and thus be able to relate these findings to the degradation studies that have been performed previously. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Modification of calcium phosphate cement with poly (γ-glutamic acid) and its strontium salt for kyphoplasty application.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunxia; Liu, Huiling; Luo, Zong-Ping; Sajilafu; Yang, Huilin; Yang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    To meet the requirements of minimally invasive surgical treatments for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, various strategies have been proposed to enhance the properties of calcium phosphate cement (CPC). Here, a new strategy was developed by incorporating poly (γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) and its strontium salt into the formulation of alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)-based CPC. Effects of γ-PGA on the injectability, cohesion, setting times, mechanical compressive strengths and cytocompatibility were systematically studied. Results showed that the injectability, cohesion and setting times were considerably improved by introducing γ-PGA into the CPC. Moreover, after setting for 7days, the compressive strengths increased from 14.6±1.4MPa for pure CPC to 35.3±1.7MPa for CPC with 8.9wt% γ-PGA and further to 61.2±5.4MPa for CPC with 8.9wt% γ-PGA combined with its strontium salt. In vitro osteoblast proliferation tests showed that the group of CPC modified by γ-PGA and its strontium salt had better cytocompatibility than the pure CPC group. All results suggest that optimal properties were obtained for the cement with 8.9wt% γ-PGA added to its solid phases and using strontium salt as the reactive liquid phase, making it as a promising candidate for application in kyphoplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolutionary importance of the intramolecular pathways of hydrolysis of phosphate ester mixed anhydrides with amino acids and peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-11

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  17. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  18. An ability of endophytic bacteria from nutgrass (cyperus rotundus) from lafau beach of north nias in producing indole acetic acid and in solubilizing phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zega, Atriani; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Endophytic bacteria have taken much attention for their potency to promote plant growth. This study was aimed to isolate endophytic bacteria from nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus) and to examine their potency in producing indole acetic acid (IAA) and in solubilizing phosphate. Isolation of endophytic bacteria was done by slicing and sterilizing root, stem, and leaf sample surface with alcohol 70% and sodium hypochlorite 2%, followed by incubation of the sliced samples in nutrient agar medium. Morphological characterization and simple biochemical tests were performed on bacterial isolates. All bacterial isolates were examined for their ability to produce indole acetic acid and to solubilize phosphate. Three isolates (AZ5, AZ12 and AZ6) out of fifteen indicated the ability to produce indole acetic acid and to solubilize phosphate. IAA producing test using spectrophotometry method showed that AZ5, AZ12,and AZ6 produce more IAA with concentration of 49,91, 48,18, and 44,45 ppm, respectively. Phosphate solubilizing test using Pikovskaya agar medium showed that the three isolates were able to solubilize phosphate with index of 6.27, 3,31, and 3.41 respectively.

  19. Identification of Two Phosphate Starvation-induced Wall Teichoic Acid Hydrolases Provides First Insights into the Degradative Pathway of a Key Bacterial Cell Wall Component.

    PubMed

    Myers, Cullen L; Li, Franco K K; Koo, Byoung-Mo; El-Halfawy, Omar M; French, Shawn; Gross, Carol A; Strynadka, Natalie C J; Brown, Eric D

    2016-12-09

    The cell wall of most Gram-positive bacteria contains equal amounts of peptidoglycan and the phosphate-rich glycopolymer wall teichoic acid (WTA). During phosphate-limited growth of the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis 168, WTA is lost from the cell wall in a response mediated by the PhoPR two-component system, which regulates genes involved in phosphate conservation and acquisition. It has been thought that WTA provides a phosphate source to sustain growth during starvation conditions; however, WTA degradative pathways have not been described for this or any condition of bacterial growth. Here, we uncover roles for the Bacillus subtilis PhoP regulon genes glpQ and phoD as encoding secreted phosphodiesterases that function in WTA metabolism during phosphate starvation. Unlike the parent 168 strain, ΔglpQ or ΔphoD mutants retained WTA and ceased growth upon phosphate limitation. Characterization of GlpQ and PhoD enzymatic activities, in addition to X-ray crystal structures of GlpQ, revealed distinct mechanisms of WTA depolymerization for the two enzymes; GlpQ catalyzes exolytic cleavage of individual monomer units, and PhoD catalyzes endo-hydrolysis at nonspecific sites throughout the polymer. The combination of these activities appears requisite for the utilization of WTA as a phosphate reserve. Phenotypic characterization of the ΔglpQ and ΔphoD mutants revealed altered cell morphologies and effects on autolytic activity and antibiotic susceptibilities that, unexpectedly, also occurred in phosphate-replete conditions. Our findings offer novel insight into the B. subtilis phosphate starvation response and implicate WTA hydrolase activity as a determinant of functional properties of the Gram-positive cell envelope. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Perflourocarboxylic Acid Content in 116 Articles of Commerce

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in house dust, suggesting strongly the presence of indoor sources of these compounds. The main goal of this study was to identify and rank potentially important indoor sources by determining th...

  1. Synthesization and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) / calcium phosphate bone cement from crab shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, M. R. Abdul; Daud, N. M.; Ismail, L. H.; Saidin, S.

    2017-05-01

    An injectable calcium phosphate (CaP) bone cement has been widely used for musculoskeletal and bone disorder due to its biocompatible and osteoconductive properties. In this study, CaP was successfully synthesized from crab shells by a wet chemical route. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres which have been produced through a double emulsion technique were incorporated into the CaP mixture for the purpose of bone cement solidification. The ratio of both compounds, CaP and PLGA, were set at 8:2. The CaP and PLGA/CaP bone cement were analyzed by ATR-FTIR, FESEM-EDX and contact angle analyses. The bone cement was composed of CaP and PLGA where the micro-powders of CaP were agglomerated on the PLGA microspheres. Addition of the PLGA has increased the hydrophilicity of the bone cement which will be beneficial for materials degradation and bone integration.

  2. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; ...

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to localmore » structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.« less

  3. The effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid content of fermented cow milk.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Nadia; Pizzolongo, Fabiana; Montefusco, Immacolata; Aponte, Maria; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Romano, Raffaele

    2015-05-01

    The ability of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12), to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus during milk fermentation has been evaluated in this study. Pasteurized cow milk and infant formula were used. Infant formula was selected for its high linoleic acid content, for being a source of CLA and for its prebiotic compounds, e.g. galacto-oligosaccharides. The microorganisms were not able to increase the CLA content of the fermented products under the given experimental conditions. No statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) occurred between the CLA content in milk and the fermented samples. The CLA contents of 10 commercial fermented milk products were determined. The highest CLA content was observed in fermented milk containing only Str. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus.

  4. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate cross-linking anion exchange resin as phosphate binder: effects on rat gut and digestion by small intestine contents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, H

    2001-06-01

    In the present study, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate cross-linking 4-vinylpyridinium anion exchange resin (EGDMA-4VP) effectively bound dietary phosphate in normal rats. However, EGDMA-4VP induced more adverse effects in rat gut than cellulose or Dowex 1X2 (both of which have higher water content), and caused damage to the intestine. In order to resolve this seeming paradox, digestion of EGDMA-4VP with rat small intestine content (S-9 fraction) and carboxyl esterase was investigated in vitro to examine the stability of the resin under conditions it would be subjected to as an orally administered medicine. EGDMA-4VP was digested by small intestinal enzymes, with the exception of carboxyl esterase, and the degradation product ethylene glycol (EG) caused reversible relaxation of longitudinal muscle (but not circular muscle) in rat small intestine. Degradation products increased uptake of 3H2O into primary cultured rat small intestinal muscle cells, but the increase was not significant.

  5. Structural and kinetic properties of a novel purple acid phosphatase from phosphate-starved tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Gale G; Raghothama, Kashchandra G; Plaxton, William C

    2004-01-01

    An intracellular acid phosphatase (IAP) from P(i)-starved (-P(i)) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) suspension cells has been purified to homogeneity. IAP is a purple acid phosphatase (PAP), as the purified protein was violet in colour (lambda(max)=546 nm) and was insensitive to L-tartrate. PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining and peptide mapping demonstrated that the enzyme exists as a 142 kDa heterodimer composed of an equivalent ratio of glycosylated and structurally dissimilar 63 (alpha-subunit) and 57 kDa (beta-subunit) polypeptides. However, the nine N-terminal amino acids of the alpha- and beta-subunits were identical, exhibiting similarity to the deduced N-terminal portions of several putative plant PAPs. Quantification of immunoblots probed with rabbit anti-(tomato acid phosphatase) immune serum revealed that the 4-fold increase in IAP activity due to P(i)-deprivation was correlated with similar increases in the amount of antigenic IAP alpha- and beta-subunits. IAP displayed optimal activity at pH 5.1, was activated 150% by 10 mM Mg(2+), but was potently inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), molybdate, vanadate, fluoride and P(i). Although IAP demonstrated broad substrate selectivity, its specificity constant ( V (max)/ K (m)) with phosphoenolpyruvate was >250% greater than that obtained with any other substrate. IAP exhibited significant peroxidase activity, which was optimal at pH 9.0 and insensitive to Mg(2+) or molybdate. This IAP is proposed to scavenge P(i) from intracellular phosphate esters in -P(i) tomato. A possible secondary IAP role in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species is discussed. IAP properties are compared with those of two extracellular PAP isoenzymes that are secreted into the medium of -P(i) tomato cells [Bozzo, Raghothama and Plaxton (2002) Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 6278-6286]. PMID:14521509

  6. Ophthalmic acid accumulation in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking the conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding protein YggS.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomokazu; Yamauchi, Ayako; Hemmi, Hisashi; Yoshimura, Tohru

    2016-12-01

    Escherichia coli YggS is a highly conserved pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-binding protein whose biochemical function is currently unknown. A previous study with a yggS-deficient E. coli strain (ΔyggS) demonstrated that YggS controls l-Ile- and l-Val-metabolism by modulating 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB), l-2-aminobutyrate (l-2-AB), and/or coenzyme A (CoA) availability in a PLP-dependent fashion. In this study, we found that ΔyggS accumulates an unknown metabolite as judged by amino acid analyses. LC/MS and MS/MS analyses of the compound with propyl chloroformate derivatization, and co-chromatography analysis identified this compound as γ-l-glutamyl-l-2-aminobutyryl-glycine (ophthalmic acid), a glutathione (GSH) analogue in which the l-Cys moiety is replaced by l-2-AB. We also determine the metabolic consequence of the yggS mutation. Absence of YggS initially increases l-2-AB availability, and then causes ophthalmic acid accumulation and CoA limitation in the cell. The expression of a γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and a glutathione synthetase in a ΔyggS background causes high-level accumulation of ophthalmic acid in the cells (∼1.2 nmol/mg cells) in a minimal synthetic medium. This opens the possibility of a first fermentative production of ophthalmic acid. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of a shikimic acid producing strain of Escherichia coli W3110 grown under carbon- and phosphate-limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Louise; Lidén, Gunnar

    2006-12-01

    Shikimic acid, which is produced in the aromatic amino acid pathway in plants and microorganisms, is an industrially interesting chiral starting material for the synthesis of many chemical substances, e.g. the influenza medicine Tamiflu. When produced by genetically modified Escherichia coli it has previously been found that carbon-rich conditions (e.g. phosphate-limitation) favors production of shikimic acid over shikimate pathway by-products, whereas the situation is the opposite at carbon-(glucose-) limited conditions. In the present study, gene expression patterns of the shikimate producing strain W3110.shik1 (W3110 with aroL deletion and plasmid-overexpressed aroF) and the wild type strain W3110 grown under carbon- and phosphate-limited (carbon-rich) chemostat conditions (D=0.23h(-1)) were analyzed. The study suggests that the by-product formation under carbon-limitation is explained by a set of upregulated genes coupled to the shikimate pathway. The genes, ydiB, aroD and ydiN, were strongly induced only in carbon-limited W3110.shik1. Compared to W3110 the lg(2)-fold changes were: 6.25 (ydiB); 3.93 (aroD) and 8.18 (ydiN). In addition, the transcriptome analysis revealed a large change in the gene expression when comparing phosphate- to carbon-limitation, which to a large part could be explained by anabolic-catabolic uncoupling, which is present under phosphate-limitation but not under carbon-limitation. Interestingly, there was also a larger difference between the two strains under carbon-limitation than under phosphate-limitation. The reason for this difference is interpreted in terms of starvation for aromatic amino acids under carbon-limitation which is relieved under phosphate-limitation due to an upregulation of aroK and aroA.

  9. Changes in phenolic acid content during dry-grind processing of corn into ethanol and DDGS.

    PubMed

    Luthria, Devanand L; Memon, Ayaz A; Liu, Keshun

    2014-07-01

    Nine fractions (1, ground corn; 2, cooked slurry; 3, liquefied slurry; 4, fermented mash; 5, whole stillage; 6, thin stillage; 7, condensed distillers soluble (CDS); 8, distillers wet grains (DWG); and 9, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)) were collected at different steps from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol processing plants. Samples were analyzed for individual and total phenolic acid content by HPLC and the antioxidant capacity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. There were significant differences in phenolic acid (individual and total) content and the antioxidant capacity in the nine fractions collected from the three processing plants, but the changing trends in all three plants were very similar. The four phenolic acids identified in all fractions were caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids. Vanillic acid was present in all fractions except fractions 2 and 3. All fractions collected following fermentation, except fractions 6 and 7, had higher concentrations of phenolic acids than fractions before fermentation, with DWG having the highest phenolic acids content. The increased concentration of phenolic acid content after fermentation in four fractions (4, 5, 8 and 9) was primarily due to depletion of starch during dry-grind processing. Further research is needed to investigate the influence of enriched phenolic acid concentration in DDGS on diet palatability (sensory property) and animal health. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Second trimester amniotic fluid glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium concentrations in relation to maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and birth weight centiles.

    PubMed

    Fotiou, Maria; Michaelidou, Alexandra Maria; Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Menexes, Georgios; Symeonidou, Maria; Koulourida, Vasiliki; Ganidou, Maria; Theodoridis, Theodoros D; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-05-01

    To study the evolution profile of amniotic fluid (AF) glucose, uric acid, phosphate, potassium, and sodium, in the second trimester of pregnancy, and explore the possible relations between the concentration of these components and maternal, as well as neonatal characteristics. AF of 52 pregnant women was analyzed using an automatic multichannel analyzer. Maternal age, pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), inter-pregnancy intervals, and smoking status were derived from questionnaires. Information on pregnancy and delivery was collected from medical records. Uric acid increased (r = 0.423, p < 0.01), while phosphate and glucose concentrations decreased during the period of 16-26th week of pregnancy (r = -0.590, p < 0.001 and r = -0.314, p < 0.05, respectively). Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly correlated with AF uric acid concentration (r = 0.460, p < 0.01) and marginally with AF glucose (r = 0.274, p = 0.052) and sodium (r = 0.254, p = 0.070) levels. Multiple linear regression indicated that mid-trimester AF uric acid and phosphate levels were significantly related to birth weight centiles (R(2)( )= 0.345, p < 0.05). Our results suggest that: (a) AF phosphate levels reflect gestational age to a satisfactory extent, (b) maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is significantly correlated with AF uric acid concentration, and (c) in appropriate for gestational age infants, AF phosphate and uric acid levels may serve as potential biomarkers of birth weight centiles. Further studies on AF composition may help to unravel the biochemical pathways underlying fetal development and could offer insight on the potential impact of maternal nutritional management on fetal growth regulation.

  11. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  12. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  13. Paraquat Induced Changes in Reserve Carbohydrates, Fatty Acids and Oleoresin Content of Young Slash Pines

    Treesearch

    Claud L. Brown; Terry R. Clason; Jerry L. Michael

    1976-01-01

    Paraquat was fed into the terminal leaders of five-year-old slash pine trees and collected at weekly intervals for 4 weeks.Cytological observations showed a decrease in starch levels and a corresponding increase in content of oleoresin. Quantitative analysis indicated a decrease in starch accompanying increases in fatty acids, monoterpenes, and resin acids.

  14. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  15. Effects of cooking techniques on fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. We determined the fatty acid and oxylipin content of 2-year old rainbow trout fillets that were raw, baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO...

  16. A boron phosphate-phosphoric acid composite membrane for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2015-07-01

    A composite membrane based on a non-stoichiometric composition of BPO4 with excess of PO4 (BPOx) was synthesised and characterised for medium temperature fuel cell use (120-180 °C). The electrolyte was characterised by FTIR, SS-NMR, TGA and XRD and showed that the B-O is tetrahedral, in agreement with reports in the literature that boron phosphorus oxide compounds at B:P < 1 are exclusively built of borate and phosphate tetrahedra. Platinum micro electrodes were used to study the electrolyte compatibility and stability towards oxygen reduction at 150 °C and to obtain kinetic and mass transport parameters. The conductivities of the pure BPOx membrane electrolyte and a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-4BPOx composite membrane were 7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 4.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 respectively at 150 °C, 5%RH. Fuel cell tests showed a significant enhancement in performance of BPOx over that of typical 5.6H3PO4-PBI membrane electrolyte. The enhancement is due to the improved ionic conductivity (3×), a higher exchange current density of the oxygen reduction (30×) and a lower membrane gas permeability (10×). Fuel cell current densities at 0.6 V were 706 and 425 mA cm-2 for BPOx and 5.6H3PO4-PBI, respectively, at 150 °C with O2 (atm).

  17. Phosphorus leaching in an acid tropical soil "recapitalized" with phosphate rock and triple superphosphate.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Esther W; Zaharah, Abdul R; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Anuar, Rahim A

    2010-08-03

    With high rates of phosphorus applied to increase "capital P" as a stock for plant uptake over several years, the question of P leaching is inevitable. We conducted an intact soil column experiment in the field to evaluate P leached from soils treated with triple superphosphate (TSP) and Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR) at 300, 600, and 900 kg P ha-1 with and without integration of cattle manure. The lysimeters, made from PVC tubes of 30-cm length, were inserted into the soil up to the 25-cm depth. The tubes were fitted with a resin bag containing a mixture of cation and anion exchange resin (50:50) at the lower end of the tube inserted into the soil. The tubes, arranged in a completely randomized design, were sampled randomly at 10-week intervals for 12 months. Phosphorus extractable from the top- and subsoil at the end of experiment and leached P were determined. More P was leached out from TSP (threefold) compared to GPR, and the amount of P leached increased with increasing rates of P fertilizer applied. Application of manure intensified the amounts of P leached from TSP, particularly at the 6-month sampling time. There was hardly any substantial P leached from the soil treated with GPR. Thus, for effective and efficient long-term P fertilizer management strategies, choosing the right P fertilizer source and monitoring P losses through leaching has to be done for enhanced fertilizer use efficiency and thus reducing P pollution of ground waters.

  18. Phosphate functionalized and lactic acid containing graft copolymer: synthesis and evaluation as biomaterial for bone tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Datta, Pallab; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy; Dhara, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polylactic acids (PLA) are biocompatible materials possessing some inherent contrasting limitations which have reduced the scope of their individual applicability. Specifically, overcoming strong hydrophobicity and introducing chemical groups for biofunctionalization are unmet challenges for PLA whilst chemical endeavors to render adequate aqueous stability and cell adhesion properties to PVA have not produced completely intended results. Objective of the present work is to explore synthesis of a graft polymer as an approach towards coupling biofunctional groups with PLA materials. In a two-step reaction, PPVA (phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol or PVA pre-functionalized with phosphate) is esterified with lactic acid followed by polymerization into PLA in presence of stannous chloride as catalyst to obtain phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol-graft-polylactic acid (PPVA-g-LA) copolymer. Product is characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. PPVA-g-LA shows an increase in uniaxial elongation compared to parent PPVA under condition of tensile loading. The graft copolymer also exhibits higher water contact angles compared to PPVA, but a more hydrophilic surface compared to PLA. Culture of MG-63 cells on solvent cast films of polymers demonstrates that PPVA-g-LA as a cell substrate can significantly (p < 0.05) improve proliferation and differentiation of cells compared to PPVA substrate whereas in comparison to PLA can significantly ameliorate osteoblast function of cultured cells. Overall, results illustrate the feasibility of PVA to act as a carrier for biofunctional agents to be coupled to lactic acid-based biomaterials with subsequent improvement in cell response on the polymers. In this attempt, it also affords materials with tunable surface or bulk properties of relevance for tissue engineering applications.

  19. Improvement of Glyphosate Resistance through Concurrent Mutations in Three Amino Acids of the Ochrobactrum 5-Enopyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Zhao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Peng, Ri-He; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2011-01-01

    A mutant of 5-enopyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Ochrobactrum anthropi was identified after four rounds of DNA shuffling and screening. Its ability to restore the growth of the mutant ER2799 cell on an M9 minimal medium containing 300 mM glyphosate led to its identification. The mutant had mutations in seven amino acids: E145G, N163H, N267S, P318R, M377V, M425T, and P438L. Among these mutations, N267S, P318R, and M425T have never been previously reported as important residues for glyphosate resistance. However, in the present study they were found by site-directed mutagenesis to collectively contribute to the improvement of glyphosate tolerance. Kinetic analyses of these three mutants demonstrated that the effectiveness of these three individual amino acid alterations on glyphosate tolerance was in the order P318R > M425T > N267S. The results of the kinetic analyses combined with a three-dimensional structure modeling of the location of P318R and M425T demonstrate that the lower hemisphere's upper surface is possibly another important region for glyphosate resistance. Furthermore, the transgenic Arabidopsis was obtained to confirm the potential of the mutant in developing glyphosate-resistant crops. PMID:21948846

  20. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae

    2010-03-12

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P{sub 1}) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment.more » Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.« less

  1. Short-Term Tolvaptan Increases Water Intake and Effectively Decreases Urinary Calcium Oxalate, Calcium Phosphate and Uric Acid Supersaturations.

    PubMed

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B; Rule, Andrew D; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C

    2016-05-01

    Some patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should decrease urinary supersaturation of stone forming solutes, although this action has never been proved. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study of 21 calcium urinary stone formers stratified into majority calcium oxalate (10 patients) and calcium phosphate (11) groups. Patients received 45 mg tolvaptan per day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24-hour urine sample was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Tolvaptan vs placebo decreased urinary osmolality (mean ± SD 204 ± 96 vs 529 ± 213 mOsm/kg, p <0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8 ± 2.9 vs 1.8 ± 0.9 L, p <0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates, including sodium and calcium, did not change significantly, although oxalate secretion increased slightly (from mean ± SD 15 ± 8 to 23 ± 8 mg per 24 hours, p = 0.009). Mean ± SD urinary calcium oxalate supersaturation (-0.01 ± 1.14 vs 0.95 ± 0.87 dG, p <0.001), calcium phosphate supersaturation (-1.66 ± 1.17 vs -0.13 ± 1.02 dG, p <0.001) and uric acid supersaturation (-2.05 ± 4.05 vs -5.24 ± 3.12 dG, p = 0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between the calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate groups (p >0.05 for all interactions). Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary supersaturation in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long-term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [In vivo degradable properties of a novel injectable calcium phosphate cement containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid].

    PubMed

    Liao, Hongxing; Duan, Xin; Zhang, Ziji; Zou, Huazhang; Ye, Jiandong; Liao, Weiming

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the in vivo degradable properties of new calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) so as to lay a foundation for the future clinical application. A novel CPC containing PLGA (CPC/PLGA) was prepared according to a ratio of 45% dicalcium phosphate anhydrous: 45% partially crystallized calcium phosphates: 10% PLGA. Thirty-two adult New Zealand rabbits (weighing 2.2-3.0 kg, male or female in half) were divided into the experimental group (n = 17) and the control group (n = 15). The bone defect models of the bilateral femoral condyles (4.5 mm in diameter and 1.5 cm in depth) were made by drilling hole. Defect at the right side was repaired with CPC/PLGA in the experimental group and with CPC in the control group, while defect at the left side was not treated as blank control. The general condition of rabbits was observed after operation; the histological observation and bone histomorphometric analysis were performed at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks; and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) observation was performed at 8 and 16 weeks after operation. All rabbits survived to the end of experiment. The histological observation showed: CPC/PLGA degraded gradually, and the new-born bone trabecula ingrew; bone trabeculae became rough and strong; and CPC/ PLGA almost biodegraded at 24 weeks in the experimental group. The CPC degradation was much slower in the control group than in the experimental group. The total bone tissue percentage was 44.9% +/- 23.7% in the experimental group, and 25.7% +/- 10.9% in the control group, showing significant difference between 2 groups (t = 3.302, P = 0.001); and the bone tissue percentage showed significant difference between 2 groups at 8, 16, and 24 weeks (P < 0.05). The results of SEM observation showed that the pore size was 100-300 microm at 8 weeks after operation, new-born bone trabecula grew into the pores and combined strongly with residual cement in the experimental group. Novel CPC

  3. Nitrogen fertilization and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria treatments affected amino acid content of cabbage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dursun, Atilla; Yildirim, Ertan; Ekinci, Melek; Turan, Metin; Kul, Raziye; Karagöz, Fazilet P.

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the influence of a nitrogen fixing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation (seed coating and seedling dipping) and 6 doses of nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 kg ha-1) application on amino acid contents of cabbage. Coating and seedling dipping applications caused a significant increase in values histidine, glycine, thionin, arginine and alanine of cabbage. Highest glutamate, serine, asparagines and glutamine contents were obtained from 160-200 kg ha-1 nitrogen dose applied plants. As a result, the use of bacteria treatments provides means of improving amino acid contents in cabbage.

  4. Target-specific delivery of siRNA by stabilized calcium phosphate nanoparticles using dopa-hyaluronic acid conjugate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Sang; Lee, Jung Eun; Byun, Eunkyoung; Kim, Nak Won; Lee, Kyuri; Lee, Haeshin; Sim, Sang Jun; Lee, Doo Sung; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2014-10-28

    Low cytotoxicity and high cellular gene delivery capability are among the most important prerequisites for the selection of a non-viral carrier. Although calcium phosphate (CAP) nanoparticles have been long used for animal cell transfection, its rapid and uncontrollable crystal growth and lack of tissue specificity are among the most challenging problems that limit its use in the clinic. In this study, we report the development of CAP nanoparticles stabilized by a conjugate of the mussel-inspired adhesive molecule, 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (dopa), and a nontoxic hydrophilic natural polymer, hyaluronic acid (HA), for targeted siRNA delivery to tumors. CAP/siRNA/dopa-HA can form compact nanoparticles that effectively protect siRNA from enzymatic degradation despite the structural drawbacks of siRNA, such as low charge density and short and rigid structure. In addition, stabilized CAP nanoparticles were able to maintain their colloidal stability in a physiological salt condition for over a week. The superior ability of CAP/siRNA/dopa-HA to maintain the integrity of encapsulated siRNA and the stability in solution of the nanoparticles allow this formulation to achieve improved intratumoral accumulation of siRNA and a high level of target gene silencing in solid tumors after systemic administration. Considering its biocompatibility, transfection efficacy, and tumor targeting capability, this stabilized calcium phosphate nanoparticle-based gene delivery platform should be considered a promising candidate carrier for systemic siRNA delivery and targeted cancer therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Phytic acid and inorganic phosphate composition in soybean lines with independent IPK1 mutations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] seeds contain a large amount of phosphorus (P), which is stored as phytic acid (PA). PA is indigestible by nonruminent livestock and considered an anti-nutritional factor because PA chelates divalent cations and prevents the uptake of essential nutrients. Interest in...

  6. [The fat content and fatty acids composition in selected products of the convenience food].

    PubMed

    Drzewicka, Maria; Grajeta, Halina; Kleczkowski, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    An increasing pace of life and a lack of time for meals preparation at home, observed in many countries worldwide, have led to an increased consumption of convenient food products. This term refers to highly processed food products that are either ready-to-eat or may be consumed after short culinary processing. Convenience foods include: dinner courses, salads, cereals, creams, broths, pizzas, roasts, as well as frozen products ready-to-eat after short heat treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the fat content and fatty acids composition of frozen products belonging to convenience food. Material for analysis comprised of 30 following food products: fish and seafood products, pizza, casseroles and meat products. The fat content was determined using Folch method and the fatty acids composition using gas chromatography technique. The analyzed products contained from 1.2% to 26.9% of fat. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) content ranged from 8.7% to 53.2%, while the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA)--from 24.0% to 68.7% of total fatty acids. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage accounted for 8,1% to 48,8% and trans isomers--for 0.2% to 6.1% of total fatty acids. The fat and fatty acid contents showed large differences in products depending on their composition and preparation techniques declared by the producer. Most of the analyzed fish and seafood products were characterized by the fat content ranged from 11% to 14% with the high percentage of fatty acids favorable from nutritional point of view, MUFA and PUFA. The composition of fatty acids from pizza and casseroles was less favorable, due to high proportion of SFA and also trans isomers.

  7. Palmitoleic acid (16:1n7) increases oxygen consumption, fatty acid oxidation and ATP content in white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Maysa M; Lopes, Andressa B; Crisma, Amanda R; de Sá, Roberta C C; Kuwabara, Wilson M T; Curi, Rui; de Andrade, Paula B M; Alonso-Vale, Maria I C

    2018-03-20

    We have recently demonstrated that palmitoleic acid (16:1n7) increases lipolysis, glucose uptake and glucose utilization for energy production in white adipose cells. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that palmitoleic acid modulates bioenergetic activity in white adipocytes. For this, 3 T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into mature adipocytes in the presence (or absence) of palmitic (16:0) or palmitoleic (16:1n7) acid at 100 or 200 μM. The following parameters were evaluated: lipolysis, lipogenesis, fatty acid (FA) oxidation, ATP content, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial mass, citrate synthase activity and protein content of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes. Treatment with 16:1n7 during 9 days raised basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, FA incorporation into triacylglycerol (TAG), FA oxidation, oxygen consumption, protein expression of subunits representing OXPHOS complex II, III, and V and intracellular ATP content. These effects were not observed in adipocytes treated with 16:0. Palmitoleic acid, by concerted action on lipolysis, FA esterification, mitochondrial FA oxidation, oxygen consumption and ATP content, does enhance white adipocyte energy expenditure and may act as local hormone.

  8. Activity of nicotinic acid substituted nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) analogs in a human cell line: difference in specificity between human and sea urchin NAADP receptors.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ramadan A; Zhelay, Tetyana; Trabbic, Christopher J; Walseth, Timothy F; Slama, James T; Giovannucci, David R; Wall, Katherine A

    2014-02-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is the most potent Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger that has been identified. We have previously shown that NAADP analogs substituted at the 5-position of nicotinic acid were recognized by the sea urchin receptor at low concentration, whereas the 4- substituted analogs were not as potent. However, to date the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these analogs has not been addressed in mammalian systems. Thus, we asked whether these structurally modified analogs behave similarly in an NAADP-responsive mammalian cell line (SKBR3) using microinjection and single cell fluorescent imaging methods. Novel "caged" 4- and 5-substituted NAADP analogs that were activated inside the cell by flash photolysis resulted in Ca2+ mobilizing activity in SKBR3 cells in a concentration dependent manner, but with reduced effectiveness compared to unmodified NAADP. The SAR in mammalian SKBR3 cells was quite different from that of sea urchin and may suggest that there are differences between NAADP receptors in different species or tissues. Importantly, these data indicate that modifications at the 4- and 5-position of the nicotinic acid ring may lead to the development of functional photoaffinity labels that could be used for receptor localization and isolation in mammalian systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin.

  10. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm.

  11. [Oil contents and fatty acid composition in Jatropha curcas seeds collected from different regions].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Yu; Lin, Jing-Ming; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2008-06-01

    To compare the oil contents and fatty acid composition among the samples of Jatropha curcas L. seeds collected from China (Guangdong, Hainan, and Guizhou Provinces) and India. Soxhlet extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to determine the oil contents of Jatropha seeds and the fatty acid composition of Jatropha oil. The seed oil contents (dry basis) were 32.43% (Guangdong), 31.41% (Hainan), 37.56% (Guizhou) and 41.04% (India), respectively. Twelve different fatty acids were detected by GC-MS, and the content of total unsaturated fatty acids accounted for 80.93%, 79.53%, 77.24% and 78.22% of the total fatty acids in the samples collected from Guangdong, Hainan, Guizhou and India, respectively. There are differences in the oil contents and fatty acid composition among the J. curcas seeds collected from different regions, and attention should be given to these differences in the introduction and breeding of J. curcas.

  12. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in two economically important Hibiscus species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, Brad; Tonnis, Brandon; Davis, Jerry; Pederson, Gary A

    2012-07-04

    The Hibiscus genus encompasses more than 300 species, but kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) are the two most economically important species within the genus. Seeds from these two Hibiscus species contain a relatively high amount of oil with two unusual fatty acids: dihydrosterculic and vernolic acids. The fatty acid composition in the oil can directly affect oil quality and its utilization. However, the variability in oil content and fatty acid composition for these two species is unclear. For these two species, 329 available accessions were acquired from the USDA germplasm collection. Their oil content and fatty acid composition were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Using NMR and GC analyses, we found that Hibiscus seeds on average contained 18% oil and seed oil was composed of six major fatty acids (each >1%) and seven minor fatty acids (each <1%). Hibiscus cannabinus seeds contained significantly higher amounts of oil (18.14%), palmitic (20.75%), oleic (28.91%), vernolic acids (VA, 4.16%), and significantly lower amounts of stearic (3.96%), linoleic (39.49%), and dihydrosterculic acids (DHSA, 1.08%) than H. sabdariffa seeds (17.35%, 18.52%, 25.16%, 3.52%, 4.31%, 44.72%, and 1.57%, respectively). For edible oils, a higher oleic/linoleic (O/L) ratio and lower level of DHSA are preferred, and for industrial oils a high level of VA is preferred. Our results indicate that seeds from H. cannabinus may be of higher quality than H. sabdariffa seeds for these reasons. Significant variability in oil content and major fatty acids was also detected within both species. The variability in oil content and fatty acid composition revealed from this study will be useful for exploring seed utilization and developing new cultivars in these Hibiscus species.

  14. Effects of cooking techniques on fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, Katrina; Bukowski, Michael; Golovko, Mikhail; Johnson, LuAnn; Brose, Stephen; Ali, Ashrifa; Cleveland, Beth; Picklo, Matthew; Raatz, Susan

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of various cooking techniques on the fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout. Rainbow trout is an excellent source of long-chain omega-3 ( n -3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which have beneficial health effects. Fillets of 2-year-old farmed rainbow trout were baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in corn (CO), canola (CaO), peanut (PO), or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Fatty acids and oxidized lipids were extracted from these samples and their respective raw fillet samples. Fatty acid content was determined using gas chromatography and oxylipin content by mass spectroscopy. The values obtained from each cooking method were compared to those obtained from the respective raw fillets using paired t tests. PUFA content was not altered when samples were baked, broiled, microwaved, or pan-fried in CO or CaO. Pan-frying in PO reduced α-linolenic acid (18:3 n -3), eicosadienoic acid (20:2 n -6), and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (20:3 n -6), while pan-frying in HOSO reduced 18:3 n -3, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n -3), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5 n -3), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n -3), linoleic acid (18:2 n -6), 18:3 n -6, 20:2 n -6, 20:3 n -6, docosatrienoic acid (22:2 n -6), and adrenic acid (22:4 n -6) compared to raw fish. Cooking decreased the omega-6 ( n -6) PUFA-derived oxylipins, but caused no change in 20:5 n -3 or 22:6 n -3-derived oxylipins of the fillets. In conclusion, pan-frying was the only cooking method to alter the fatty acid content of the fillets, while observed changes in oxylipin content varied by cooking method. As the physiological impact of oxylipins is currently unknown, these results suggest that the cooking methods which optimize the consumption of n -3 PUFA from rainbow trout are baking, broiling, microwaving, or pan-frying in CO, CaO, or PO.

  15. Application of encapsulation (pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer macrocapsules): a novel approach to remediation of acidic ground water.

    PubMed

    Aelion, C Marjorie; Davis, Harley T; Flora, Joseph R V; Kirtland, Brian C; Amidon, Mark B

    2009-01-01

    Macrocapsules, composed of a pH-sensitive polymer and phosphate buffer, offer a novel remediation alternative for acidic ground waters. To test their potential effectiveness, laboratory experiments were carried out followed by a field trial within a coal pile runoff (CPR) acidic contaminant plume. Results of traditional limestone and macrocapsule treatments were compared in both laboratory and field experiments. Macrocapsules were more effective than limestone as a passive treatment for raising pH in well water from 2.5 to 6 in both laboratory and field experiments. The limestone treatments had limited impact on pH, only increasing pH as high as 3.3, and armoring by iron was evident in the field trial. Aluminum, iron and sulfate concentrations remained relatively constant throughout the experiments, but phosphate increased (0.15-32 mg/L), indicating macrocapsule release. This research confirmed that macrocapsules may be an effective alternative to limestone to treat highly acidic ground water.

  16. Trans-fatty acid content of food products in Spain in 2015.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Dal Re Saavedra, María Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Robledo de Dios, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    To ascertain the content of trans-fatty acids (TFA) in food products in Spain in 2015 and assess trends in TFA content since 2010. We analysed the fat content of 277 food products purchased in Spanish supermarkets in 2015 and calculated both the total fat and TFA content and the proportion of TFA to total fats. The results obtained in 2015 were compared to those yielded by a similar study in 2010. In 2015, the majority of food products studied had a TFA content of less than 0.2g/100g product, and a TFA/total fat ratio of less than 2%. No significant increases were found compared to 2010. Food groups with a higher TFA content were dairy products of possible natural origin. TFA content in Spain is low and has significantly fallen since 2010. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in the phenolic acid content during wort boiling and whirlpool.

    PubMed

    Szwajgier, Dominik; Bańcarzewska, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids were repeatedly pointed out as powerful antioxidants. The studies in the past prove the differences in the phenolic acids content in malts and worts. In this work, the influence of wort boiling and whirlpool separation on the phenolic acid content was studied. Worts were produced in the local brewery by the infusion method using pale pilsner-type barley malt. Samples were analysed at the beginning of the boil, after the boil and after whirlpool separation (5 and 30 min). Free and total alkali extractable phenolic acids contents were analysed using HPLC-DAD. The main phenolic acid in all worts was ferulic acid in the free (35.47 ±3.28-117.51 ±4.40 mg·dm(-3)) as well as total alkali extractable form (193.49 ±4.84-294.72 ±2.65 mg·dm(-3)). With both forms no decrease was seen after boiling of wort (80 min at 100-100.5°C) followed by wort separation in the whirlpool. Similarly, no significant changes in the free and total form of p-coumaric acid content were seen. It can be concluded that an elevated temperature during wort boiling and separation in whirlpool had no significant influence on the content of phenolic acids (at least in the case of the specific mashing program applied in this brewery: equipment, enzyme preparations, mashing, time-temperature parameters etc.). The differences in the phenolic acids levels could be rather attributed to different supplies of malt used for the production.

  18. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palma, M. N. N.; Rocha, G. C.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Detmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p<0.01) interaction between sample type and nitric to perchloric acid ratio. Digestion solution of 2:1 v/v provided greater (p<0.01) recovery of calcium and phosphorus from bone samples than 3:1 and 4:1 v/v ratio. Different acid ratios did not affect (p>0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. PMID:26333671

  19. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  20. Gross and true ileal digestible amino acid contents of several animal body proteins and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Chong, B; Rutherfurd, S M; Wilkinson, B; Singh, H; Moughan, P J

    2013-07-01

    Amino acid compositions of ovine muscle, ovine myofibrillar protein, ovine spleen, ovine liver, bovine blood plasma, bovine blood globulins and bovine serum albumin and the amino acid compositions and in vivo (laboratory rat) true ileal amino acid digestibilities of hydrolysates (sequential hydrolysis with Neutrase, Alcalase and Flavourzyme) of these protein sources were determined. True ileal amino acid digestibility differed (P<0.05) among the seven protein hydrolysates. The ovine myofibrillar protein and liver hydrolysates were the most digestible, with a mean true ileal digestibility across all amino acids of 99%. The least digestible protein hydrolysate was bovine serum albumin with a comparable mean true ileal digestibility of 93%. When the digestible amino acid contents were expressed as proportions relative to lysine, considerable differences, across the diverse protein sources, were found in the pattern of predicted absorbed amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate as an oxygenase cofactor: Discovery of a carboxamide-forming, α-amino acid monooxygenase-decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Liu, Xiaodong; Cui, Zheng; Wiegmann, Daniel; Niro, Giuliana; Ducho, Christian; Song, Yuan; Yang, Zhaoyong; Van Lanen, Steven G

    2018-01-30

    Capuramycins are antimycobacterial antibiotics that consist of a modified nucleoside named uridine-5'-carboxamide (CarU). Previous biochemical studies have revealed that CarU is derived from UMP, which is first converted to uridine-5'-aldehyde in a reaction catalyzed by the dioxygenase CapA and subsequently to 5'-C-glycyluridine (GlyU), an unusual β-hydroxy-α-amino acid, in a reaction catalyzed by the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent transaldolase CapH. The remaining steps that are necessary to furnish CarU include decarboxylation, O atom insertion, and oxidation. We demonstrate that Cap15, which has sequence similarity to proteins annotated as bacterial, PLP-dependent l-seryl-tRNA(Sec) selenium transferases, is the sole catalyst responsible for complete conversion of GlyU to CarU. Using a complementary panel of in vitro assays, Cap15 is shown to be dependent upon substrates O 2 and (5' S ,6' R )-GlyU, the latter of which was unexpected given that (5' S ,6' S )-GlyU is the isomeric product of the transaldolase CapH. The two products of Cap15 are identified as the carboxamide-containing CarU and CO 2 While known enzymes that catalyze this type of chemistry, namely α-amino acid 2-monooxygenase, utilize flavin adenine dinucleotide as the redox cofactor, Cap15 remarkably requires only PLP. Furthermore, Cap15 does not produce hydrogen peroxide and is shown to directly incorporate a single O atom from O 2 into the product CarU and thus is an authentic PLP-dependent monooxygenase. In addition to these unusual discoveries, Cap15 activity is revealed to be dependent upon the inclusion of phosphate. The biochemical characteristics along with initiatory mechanistic studies of Cap15 are reported, which has allowed us to assign Cap15 as a PLP-dependent (5' S ,6' R )-GlyU:O 2 monooxygenase-decarboxylase.

  2. [Correlation of Allelopathy of Rehmannia glutinosa Root Exudates and Their Phenolic Acids Contents].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Li, Xuan-zhen; Feng, Fa-jie; Gu, Li; Zhang, Jun-yi; Zhang, Liu-ji; Zhang, Zhong-yi

    2015-04-01

    To study the allelopathic potential of Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates in different growth stages and dynamic change of phenolic acids contents, in order to reveal the correlation between phenolic acids and allelbpathy effect of Rehmannia glutinosa. Root exudates of Rehmannia glutinosa in different growth stages were obtained by a new instrument which was used to collect the root exudates of xerophytes. After that, bioassay was applied to estimate allelopathy effect of the root exudates. HPLC was used to determine the contents of five phenolic acids (coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid and ferulic acid) which were reported to relate to allelopathy effect. Correlation of bioassay data and HPLC data were also analyzed. The germination rate of radish after soaking by root exudates of different growth stages of Rehmannia glutinosa was 97. 89%, 92. 38%, 89. 52%, 85. 71%, 85. 71%, 84. 76% and 83. 81%, respectively, which indicated a decline trend. And significant differences were shown from previous enlargement stage compared with the contrast. The bud length after soaking by root exudates was 5. 68, 5. 76, 5. 91, 5. 65, 5. 41, 5. 28 and 5. 11 cm, separately, which increased slightly before decreasing gradually. Previous enlargement stage was also the initial period when significant differences were shown. Five phenolic acids were detected in root exudates by HPLC, while the change of their contents and the allelopathy effect of root exudates did not perform a similar trend. Correlation analysis indicated the five phenolic acids did not have significant relevance (r = - 0. 666 - 0. 590) with germination rate and bud length of radish except the negative correlation (r = -0. 833, P <0. 05) of syringic acid and bud length. Significant allelopathy effect of Rehmannia glutinosa is performed from previous enlargement stage and enhanced with its growth. Syringic acid is a probable dominant allelochemical of Rehmannia glutinosa.

  3. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique.

  4. Acid-base properties and surface complexation modeling of phosphate anion adsorption by wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Bai, Chenguang; Xia, Wentang; An, Juan

    2014-08-15

    The adsorption phenomena and specific reaction processes of phosphate onto wasted low grade iron ore with high phosphorus (WLGIOWHP) were studied in this work. Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses were used to elucidate the interaction mechanism between WLGIOWHP and aqueous solution. The results implied that the main adsorption mechanism was the replacement of surface hydroxyl groups by phosphate via the formation of inner-sphere complex. The adsorption process was characterized by chemical adsorption onto WLGIOWHP. The non-electrostatic model (NEM) was used to simulate the surface adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The total surface site density and protonation constants for NEM (N(T)=1.6×10(-4) mol/g, K(a1)=2.2×10(-4), K(a2)=6.82×10(-9)) were obtained by non-linear data fitting of acid-base titrations. In addition, the NEM was used to establish the surface adsorption complexation modeling of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP. The model successfully predicted the adsorption of phosphate onto WLGIOWHP from municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Theoretical investigation of the reaction mechanism for the phosphate diester hydrolysis using an asymmetric dinuclear metal complex as a biomimetic model of the purple acid phosphatase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dalva E C; De Almeida, Wagner B; Neves, Ademir; Rocha, Willian R

    2008-12-14

    In this work we have applied quantum mechanical calculations, at the density functional theory level, to investigate the phosphate diester hydrolysis promoted by a cationic heterodinuclear Fe(III)...Zn(II) complex that mimics the structural and functional properties of the purple acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes. The hydrolysis of the dimethyl phosphate diester was investigated in the gas phase and in solution by means of the continuum PCM model, using the B3LYP hybrid exchange-correlation functional. Our computed results showed that the hydrolysis of the dimethyl phosphate ester takes place in two steps. The first step corresponds to a slow P-O bond formation through nucleophilic attack of the coordinated (Fe(III))-OH group. The second step consists of a proton transfer process followed by the release of a methanol molecule. The first step is rate determining with activation free energy of 12.3 kcal mol(-1), which is about 3 times lower than the activation free energy for the uncatalyzed reaction. We also show that the heterodinuclear site plays an important role favoring an associative mechanism for the phosphate diester hydrolysis, favoring the formation of a high energy intermediate phosphorane, and orienting the phosphate group to the nucleophilic attack.

  6. Phytic Acid Synthesis and Vacuolar Accumulation in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Catharanthus roseus Induced by High Concentration of Inorganic Phosphate and Cations1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Naoto; Ohnishi, Miwa; Sekiguchi, Yoko; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Chang, Young-Tae; Chung, Sung-Kee; Inoue, Yoshinori; Reid, Robert J.; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    We have established a new system for studying phytic acid, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) synthesis in suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus. InsP6 and other intermediates of myo-inositol (Ins) phosphate metabolism were measured using an ion chromatography method. The detection limit for InsP6 was less than 50 nm, which was sufficient to analyze Ins phosphates in living cells. Synthesis of Ins phosphates was induced by incubation in high inorganic phosphate medium. InsP6 was mainly accumulated in vacuoles and was enhanced when cells were grown in high concentration of inorganic phosphates with the cations K+, Ca2+, or Zn2+. However, there was a strong tendency for InsP6 to accumulate in the vacuole in the presence of Ca2+ and in nonvacuolar compartments when supplied with Zn2+, possibly due to precipitation of InsP6 with Zn2+ in the cytosol. A vesicle transport inhibitor, brefeldin A, stimulated InsP6 accumulation. The amounts of both Ins(3)P1 myo-inositol monophosphate synthase, a key enzyme for InsP6 synthesis, and Ins(1,4,5)P3 kinase were unrelated to the level of accumulation of InsP6. The mechanisms for InsP6 synthesis and localization into vacuoles in plant cells are discussed. PMID:15965017

  7. Case study: heavy metals and fluoride contents in the materials of Syrian phosphate industry and in the vicinity of phosphogypsum piles.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, L; Al-Oudat, M; Shamali, K; Abdul Ghany, B; Kanakri, S

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the determination of heavy metals and fluoride concentrations in the Syrian phosphate industry and in the vicinity of the phosphogypsum (PG) piles. Four sampling campaigns were carried out, in which 86 soil, 139 plant, 30 air particulate, 16 water, 12 PG, 6 phosphate ore (raw and treated) and 3 fertilizer samples were collected. Differential pulse anode stripping voltammetry was used for Pb and Cd determination, atomic absorption spectrometry was used for Zn, Cr and Cu determination, and instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for Se, Ni, As and Hg determination. Fluoride concentration was determined via fluoride ion selective electrode. The data revealed that most of the heavy metals were retained in the fertilizer. Fluoride content in PG was 0.47%. The presence of PG piles showed no impact on the run-off and ground and lake waters in the area. However, fluoride concentration was double the permissible airborne threshold in the sites to the east of the PG piles because of the prevailing wind in the region. Similarly, enhanced concentrations of fluoride were recorded for the eastern soil samples. The content of heavy metals in plants was element- and plant-specific and influenced by the element concentration in soil, the soil texture and the pH. The maximal mean of fluoride was found in the plants species of the eastern sites (699 mg kg(-1)), which mainly related to PG erosion and airborne deposition. Thus, the main impact of the PG piles was to increase the concentration of fluoride in the surrounding area. A national action should be taken to regulate PG piles.

  8. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  9. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population.

  10. Characterization of Retail Conventional, Organic, and Grass Full-Fat Butters by Their Fat Contents, Free Fatty Acid Contents, and Triglyceride and Fatty Acid Profiling.

    PubMed

    Pustjens, Annemieke M; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Koot, Alex H; Rozijn, Maikel; van Ruth, Saskia M

    2017-03-31

    In the Netherlands, butter is produced from milk originating from three different production systems: conventional, organic, and grass-fed cows. The aim of the current study was to characterize these types of butters, and pinpoint distinct compositional differences. Retail conventional ( n = 28), organic ( n = 14), and grass ( n = 12) full-fat butters were collected during the winter and summer seasons. Samples were analyzed for their fat content, free fatty acid (FFA) content, and triglyceride (TG) and fatty acid (FA) profiles. The fat content was significantly lower in conventional butters than in organic butters and the FFA content was significantly lower in conventional butters compared with grass butters. Also, organic butters differed significantly from their conventional counterparts with regard to their TG and FA profiles. The TG profiles of the organic and grass butters did not differ significantly. The FA profiles of grass butters were less distinct, since only a few FAs differed significantly from conventional (six FAs) and organic (eight FAs) butters.

  11. Renal Bicarbonate Wasting during Phosphate Depletion A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF ALTERED ACID-BASE HOMEOSTASIS IN HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Lawrence W.; Massry, Shaul G.; Arieff, Allen I.; Coburn, Jack W.

    1973-01-01

    With hyperparathyroidism, serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) is low, urinary excretion of HCO3- is increased and the apparent Tm for HCO3- is reduced. These findings have been ascribed to a direct renal action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Since hypophosphatemia and phosphate depletion may occur in hyperparathyroidism, it is possible that phosphate depletion could account for the abnormal renal HCO3- handling. To test this possibility, renal reabsorption of HCO3- was evaluated in dogs before and after phosphate depletion. Serum HCO3- was significantly lower in phosphate depleted dogs than in normal animals, and serum HCO3- was directly related to serum phosphorus. Both the threshold at which HCO3- appeared in the urine and the Tm for HCO3- were reduced during phosphate depletion. Intracellular pH of muscle was significantly higher in phosphate depleted dogs than in normals and the pH returned to normal after phosphate repletion. These data show that phosphate depleted dogs, which probably have physiological hypoparathyroidism, display abnormalities in both serum HCO3- and its renal handling which are similar to those seen in hyperparathyroidism, supporting the concept that the PTH-induced alterations in HCO3- homeostasis may be due to phosphate depletion. The latter could alter cell metabolism, resulting in reduced intracellular H+ concentration, which may then impair H+ secretion by the renal tubules and decrease their ability to reabsorb HCO3-. Consequently, Tm HCO3- and serum HCO3- fall. PMID:4729049

  12. Coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone improves postprandial endothelial dysfunction in patients with borderline and stage 1 hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Masato; Maruhashi, Tatsuya; Hidaka, Takayuki; Nakano, Yukiko; Kurisu, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takeshi; Iwamoto, Yumiko; Kishimoto, Shinji; Matsui, Shogo; Aibara, Yoshiki; Yusoff, Farina Mohamad; Kihara, Yasuki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Goto, Chikara; Noma, Kensuke; Nakashima, Ayumu; Watanabe, Takuya; Tone, Hiroshi; Hibi, Masanobu; Osaki, Noriko; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Higashi, Yukihito

    2018-01-12

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute effects of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and different hydroxyhydroquinone contents on postprandial endothelial dysfunction. This was a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover-within-subject clinical trial. A total of 37 patients with borderline or stage 1 hypertension were randomized to two study groups. The participants consumed a test meal with a single intake of the test coffee. Subjects in the Study 1 group were randomized to single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone or coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and a high content of hydroxyhydroquinone with crossover. Subjects in the Study 2 group were randomized to single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone or placebo coffee with crossover. Endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation and plasma concentration of 8-isoprostanes were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 h after coffee intake. Compared with baseline values, single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone, but not coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and high content of hydroxyhydroquinone or placebo coffee, significantly improved postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation and decreased circulating 8-isoprostane levels. These findings suggest that a single intake of coffee with a high content of chlorogenic acids and low content of hydroxyhydroquinone is effective for improving postprandial endothelial dysfunction. URL for Clinical Trial: https://upload.umin.ac.jp ; Registration Number for Clinical Trial: UMIN000013283.

  13. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. Acid sulfate alteration of fluorapatite, basaltic glass and olivine by hydrothermal vapors and fluids: Implications for fumarolic activity and secondary phosphate phases in sulfate-rich Paso Robles soil at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate-rich rocks and a nearby phosphate-rich soil, Paso Robles, were analyzed in Gusev Crater, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and interpreted to be highly altered, possibly by hydrothermal or fumarolic alteration of primary, phosphate-rich material. To test mineral phases resulting from such alteration, we performed hydrothermal acid-vapor and acid-fluid experiments on olivine (Ol), fluorapatite (Ap), and basaltic glass (Gl) as single phases and a mixture of phases. Minerals formed include Ca-, Al-, Fe- and Mg-sulfates with different hydration states (anhydrite, bassanite, gypsum; alunogen; hexahydrite, and pentahydrite). Phosphate-bearing minerals formed included monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCP) (acid-vapor and acid-fluid alteration of fluorapatite only) and ferrian giniite (acid-fluid alteration of the Ol + Gl + Ap mixture). MCP is likely present in Paso Robles if primary Ca-phosphate minerals reacted with sulfuric acid with little transport of phosphate. Under fluid:rock ratios allowing transport of phosphate, a ferric phosphate phase such as ferrian giniite might form instead. Mössbauer measurements of ferrian giniite-bearing alteration products and synthetic ferrian giniite are consistent with Spirit's Mössbauer measurements of the ferric-bearing phase in Paso Robes soil, but are also consistent with ferric sulfate phases in the low-P soil Arad_Samra. Therefore, Mössbauer data alone do not constrain the fluid:rock ratio. However, the excess iron (hematite) in Paso Robles soil, which implies aqueous transport, combined with our laboratory experiments, suggest acid-sulfate alteration in a hydrothermal (fumarolic) environment at fluid:rock ratios sufficient to allow dissolution, transport, and precipitation of secondary chemical components including a ferric phosphate such as ferrian giniite.

  15. Comparison of 2-Octanol and Tributyl Phosphate in Recovery of Tungsten from Sulfuric-Phosphoric Acid Leach Solution of Scheelite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yulong; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2018-04-01

    Tungsten was recovered from sulfuric-phosphoric acid leach solution of scheelite using 2-octanol and tributyl phosphate (TBP). Approximately 76% of the tungsten and less than 6.2% of the iron were extracted when using 70% 2-octanol, showing good selectivity for tungsten over iron; the tungsten extraction could not be significantly enhanced using a three-stage countercurrent simulation test. Moreover, more than 99.2% of the W and 91.0% of the Fe were extracted when using 70% TBP, showing poor selectivity, but after pretreating the leach solution with iron powder, less than 5.5% of the Fe was extracted. The loaded phases were stripped using deionized water and ammonia solution. The maximum stripping rate of tungsten from loaded 2-octanol was 45.6% when using water, compared with only 13.1% from loaded TBP. Tungsten was efficiently stripped from loaded phases using ammonia solution without formation of Fe(OH)3 precipitate. Finally, a flow sheet for recovery of tungsten with TBP is proposed.

  16. Enhanced removal of humic acid from aqueous solution by novel stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate: Behaviors and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ling; Li, Yiming; Shao, Yi; Zhang, Yong; Han, Ruiming; Li, Shiyin; Wei, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Stabilized nano-amorphous calcium phosphate (nACP) was prepared using polyethylene glycol as stabilizer to obtain a nanosized amorphous adsorbent. The produced nACP was evaluated by using XRD, FTIR, SEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The sedimentation test demonstrated that nACP exhibited better stability than crystallized hydroxyapatite. The adsorption efficiency of the nACP material for aqueous humic acid (HA) was evaluated from the point of view of medium pH, adsorption time, temperature, and ionic strength, as well as the presences of metal ions. The results of the study showed very good adsorption performance towards aqueous HA. The Sips modeling results revealed that the stabilized nACP adsorbent had a considerably high adsorption capacity (248.3 mg/g) for HA at 298 K. The adsorption data fitted well into pseudo-second order and Elovich kinetic models. XPS analyses indicated that HA retention on nACP material might be due to the surface complexation reaction between oxygen-containing group and calcium of HA and nACP, respectively. Moreover, the HA adsorption capacity of nACP could still keep more than 86% after four adsorption-desorption cycles. By taking into account all results it was concluded that the nACP adsorbent leveraged its stability in combination with its high uptake capacity to offer a great promise for HA adsorption from water.

  17. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  18. Urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, citrate, oxalate, and uric acid by healthy schoolchildren using a 12-h collection protocol.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Torres, Concepción; Rodrigo, Dolores; Grases, Félix; García-Raja, Ana M; Gómez, Cristina; Lumbreras, Javier; Frontera, Guiem

    2014-07-01

    Improving knowledge about normal urine composition in children is important for early prevention of lithiasis. We describe urinary excretion values of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphate (P), citrate (Cit), uric acid (Ur), and oxalate (Ox) in healthy children with and without a family history of lithiasis, using a 12-h urine collection protocol. Urine samples were obtained from 184 children (5-12 years): a spot sample collected in the afternoon, and a 12-h overnight sample. Solute/creatinine (Cr) and 12-h solute excretion was calculated. Urinary excretion values of the studied solutes are presented as percentile values, separately for each type of sample. Due to age-related differences in the solute/creatinine ratios, except for Ca and Cit, results are described according to the child's age. The presence of excretion values related to an increased risk of lithiasis was more common in children with a family history. We report data from urine samples collected by using a simplified collection protocol. The observed differences between children with and without a family history of lithiasis could justify that in population studies aimed at setting reference values, the former are excluded.

  19. Comparison of 2-Octanol and Tributyl Phosphate in Recovery of Tungsten from Sulfuric-Phosphoric Acid Leach Solution of Scheelite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yulong; Zhao, Zhongwei

    2018-02-01

    Tungsten was recovered from sulfuric-phosphoric acid leach solution of scheelite using 2-octanol and tributyl phosphate (TBP). Approximately 76% of the tungsten and less than 6.2% of the iron were extracted when using 70% 2-octanol, showing good selectivity for tungsten over iron; the tungsten extraction could not be significantly enhanced using a three-stage countercurrent simulation test. Moreover, more than 99.2% of the W and 91.0% of the Fe were extracted when using 70% TBP, showing poor selectivity, but after pretreating the leach solution with iron powder, less than 5.5% of the Fe was extracted. The loaded phases were stripped using deionized water and ammonia solution. The maximum stripping rate of tungsten from loaded 2-octanol was 45.6% when using water, compared with only 13.1% from loaded TBP. Tungsten was efficiently stripped from loaded phases using ammonia solution without formation of Fe(OH)3 precipitate. Finally, a flow sheet for recovery of tungsten with TBP is proposed.

  20. Coating of ß-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds-a comparison between graphene oxide and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid.

    PubMed

    Ardjomandi, N; Henrich, A; Huth, J; Klein, C; Schweizer, E; Scheideler, L; Rupp, F; Reinert, S; Alexander, D

    2015-08-04

    Bone regeneration in critical size defects is a major challenge in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and the gold standard for bone reconstruction still requires the use of autologous tissue. To overcome the need for a second intervention and to minimize morbidity, the development of new biomaterials with osteoinductive features is the focus of current research. As a scaffolding material, ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) is suitable for bone regeneration purposes, although it does not carry any functional groups for the covalent immobilization of molecules. The aim of the present study was to establish effective coating variants for ß-TCP constructs to enable the biofunctionalization of anorganic blocks with different osteogenic molecules in future studies. We established working protocols for thin surface coatings consisting of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and graphene oxide (GO) by varying parameters. Surface properties such as the angularity and topography of the developed scaffolds were analyzed. To examine biological functionality, the adhesion and proliferation behavior of jaw periosteal cells (JPCs) were tested on the coated constructs. Our results suggest that PLGA is the superior material for surface coating of ß-TCP matrices, leading to higher JPC proliferation rates and providing a more suitable basis for further biofunctionalization in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  1. A functional role for nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate in oxytocin-mediated contraction of uterine smooth muscle from rat.

    PubMed

    Aley, Parvinder K; Noh, Hyun J; Gao, Xin; Tica, Andrei A; Brailoiu, Eugen; Churchill, Grant C

    2010-06-01

    Conventionally, G protein-coupled receptors are thought to increase calcium via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)). More recent evidence shows that an alternative second messenger, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP), also has a role to play, causing researchers to question established calcium releasing pathways. With the recent development, by our group, of cell-permeant NAADP (NAADP-aceteoxymethyl ester) and a selective NAADP receptor antagonist (Ned-19; 1-(3-((4-(2-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid),the ability to investigate this signaling pathway has improved. Therefore, we investigated a role for NAADP in oxytocin-mediated responses in the rat uterus. Oxytocin- and NAADP-mediated effects were investigated by using contractile measurements of whole uterine strips from rat in organ baths. Responses were correlated to calcium release in cultured rat uterine smooth muscle cells measured by fluorescence microscopy. Inhibition of both oxytocin-induced contraction and calcium release by the traditional NAADP-signaling disrupter bafilomycin and the NAADP receptor antagonist Ned-19 clearly demonstrated a role for NAADP in oxytocin-induced signaling. A cell-permeant form of NAADP was able to produce both uterine contractions and calcium release. This response was unaffected by depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum stores with thapsigargin, but was abolished by both bafilomycin and Ned-19. Crucially, oxytocin stimulated an increase in NAADP in rat uterine tissue. The present study demonstrates directly that NAADP signaling plays a role in rat uterine contractions. Moreover, investigation of this signaling pathway highlights yet another component of oxytocin-mediated signaling, stressing the need to consider the action of new components as they are discovered, even in signaling pathways that are thought to be well established.

  2. Enhanced immobilization of acidic proteins in the apatite layer via electrostatic interactions in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution.

    PubMed

    Oyane, Ayako; Ootsuka, Teruhisa; Hayama, Kazumi; Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo

    2011-07-01

    Artificial materials coated with a protein-apatite composite layer have great potential in clinical applications as a third generation biomaterial. Such composite materials can be prepared by immersing a surface modified substrate into a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution (CP solution: 142 mM NaCl, 3.75 mM CaCl(2), 1.5mM K(2)HPO(4)·3H(2)O, buffered at pH 7.4 at 25 °C with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HCl) supplemented with a protein. In the present study proteins of various molecular weights (MW) and isoelectric points (pI) were used to form a protein-apatite composite layer on a polymeric material to determine how the molecular properties of the protein affect the efficiency of protein immobilization (i.e. the amount of immobilized protein in the apatite layer as a percentage of the total amount of protein in solution). The results indicated that the efficiency of protein immobilization did not correlate with the MW of the protein. In contrast, the efficiency of protein immobilization was strongly related to the pI of the protein. As the pI decreased the efficiency of protein immobilization increased due to the high adsorption affinity of negatively charged acidic proteins for positively charged apatite crystals and/or apatite precursors in the CP solution. Thus, the use of acidic rather than basic proteins improves the immobilization efficiency in the present coating process. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Polymer-Synthesized Ceramic Composite Based System for Bone Repair: Osteoblast Growth on Scaffolds with Varied Calcium Phosphate Content

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    demongtrated the synthesis of degradable scaffolds from PLAGA /calcium phosphate composite microspheres in which an amorphous calcium phosphate is...EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS Scaffold Preparation Scaffolds were prepared as described in detail previously [3]. Briefly, PLAGA /calcium phosphate composite...culture polystyrene (TCPS) 2- pure PLAGA microspheres 64 3- composite microsphere matrices with a low polymer/ceramic ratio 4- composite microsphere

  4. Quantification of three chlorinated dialkyl phosphates, diphenyl phosphate, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid, and four other organophosphates in human urine by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Paula; Williams, LaTasha; Ospina, Maria; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced as flame retardants worldwide, have been phased-out in many countries, and chlorinated and non-chlorinated organophosphates and non-PBDE brominated formulations (e.g., Firemaster 550 (FM550)) have entered the consumers’ market. Recent studies show that components of organophosphate esters and FM550 are frequently detected in many products common to human environments. Therefore, urinary metabolites of these compounds can be used as human exposure biomarkers. We developed a method to quantify nine compounds in 0.4 mL urine: diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), bis-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate, di-p-cresylphosphate, di-o-cresylphosphate (DoCP), di-n-butyl phosphate, dibenzyl phosphate (DBzP), and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid. The method relies on an enzymatic hydrolysis of urinary conjugates of the target analytes, automated off-line solid phase extraction, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography separation, and isotope dilution-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection. The method is high-throughput (96 samples/day) with detection limits ranging from 0.05 to 0.16 ng mL−1. Spiked recoveries were 90–113 %, and interday imprecision was 2–8 %. We assessed the suitability of the method by analyzing urine samples collected from a convenience sample of adults (n = 76) and from a group of firefighters (n = 146). DPhP (median, 0.89; range, 0.26–5.6 ng mL−1) and BDCPP (median, 0.69; range, 0.31–6.8 ng mL−1) were detected in all of the non-occupationally exposed adult samples and all of the firefighter samples (DPhP [median, 2.9; range, 0.24–28 ng mL−1], BDCPP [median, 3.4; range, 0.30–44 ng mL−1]); DBzP and DoCP were not detected in any samples. PMID:27838756

  5. Quantification of three chlorinated dialkyl phosphates, diphenyl phosphate, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid, and four other organophosphates in human urine by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jayatilaka, Nayana K; Restrepo, Paula; Williams, LaTasha; Ospina, Maria; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Calafat, Antonia M

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), produced as flame retardants worldwide, have been phased-out in many countries, and chlorinated and non-chlorinated organophosphates and non-PBDE brominated formulations (e.g., Firemaster 550 (FM550)) have entered the consumers' market. Recent studies show that components of organophosphate esters and FM550 are frequently detected in many products common to human environments. Therefore, urinary metabolites of these compounds can be used as human exposure biomarkers. We developed a method to quantify nine compounds in 0.4 mL urine: diphenyl phosphate (DPhP), bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), bis-(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, bis-2-chloroethyl phosphate, di-p-cresylphosphate, di-o-cresylphosphate (DoCP), di-n-butyl phosphate, dibenzyl phosphate (DBzP), and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoic acid. The method relies on an enzymatic hydrolysis of urinary conjugates of the target analytes, automated off-line solid phase extraction, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography separation, and isotope dilution-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry detection. The method is high-throughput (96 samples/day) with detection limits ranging from 0.05 to 0.16 ng mL -1 . Spiked recoveries were 90-113 %, and interday imprecision was 2-8 %. We assessed the suitability of the method by analyzing urine samples collected from a convenience sample of adults (n = 76) and from a group of firefighters (n = 146). DPhP (median, 0.89; range, 0.26-5.6 ng mL -1 ) and BDCPP (median, 0.69; range, 0.31-6.8 ng mL -1 ) were detected in all of the non-occupationally exposed adult samples and all of the firefighter samples (DPhP [median, 2.9; range, 0.24-28 ng mL -1 ], BDCPP [median, 3.4; range, 0.30-44 ng mL -1 ]); DBzP and DoCP were not detected in any samples.

  6. Sialic Acid and Iron Content in Breastmilk of Chinese Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Jiao; Hua, Chun-Zhen; Ruan, Li-Li; Hong, Li-Quan; Sheng, Shao-Qin; Shang, Shi-Qiang

    2017-12-15

    To study sialic acid and iron content in breastmilk in Chinese women during different lactation stages. Sialic acid and iron content of colostrum, transitional milk, mature milk, and involutional milk were determined using a neuraminidase assay kit and the ferrozine method, respectively in 88 lactating women (58 Term, 30 Preterm). The mean (SD) sialic acid levels of colostrum, transitional milk, mature milk, and involutional milk were 2201.4 (676.6) mg/L, 1445.9 (423.4) mg/L, 395.3 (96.0) mg/L and 273.0 (76.9) mg/L, respectively. The median iron content were 0.05 mg/L, 0.06 mg/L, 0.25 mg/L and 0.35 mg/L, respectively, in successive stages of lactation. Sialic acid and iron were significantly higher in breast milk of preterm mothers compared to term mothers. Sialic acid and iron content in breast milk vary greatly throughout the lactation stages, which probably reflects the infants' needs for growth and development at different stages.

  7. Study of biodiesel production from animal fats with high free fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Encinar, J M; Sánchez, N; Martínez, G; García, L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain biodiesel from animal fats, an inedible feedstock. Three different types of fats were used to produce biodiesel; their main characteristic was high free fatty acid content. Animal fats were transesterified with acid catalyst and basic catalyst with and without pre-esterification. Biodiesel of 89.0 wt.% ester content was obtained by acid-transesterification (9 wt.%H2SO4, 6:1 methanol:fats molar ratio, 60 °C, 48 h). Pre-esterification conditions were studied for different fats and acid catalysts: 0.5 wt.%H2SO4 or 1.0 wt.%p-TsOH, 6:1 methanol:fats molar ratio, 65 °C and 4 h made it possible to obtain fats with acid value less than 0.5% FFA. Pre-treatment was effective for fats with different FFA content. Alkali transesterification of esterified fats resulted in a product with 97.3 wt.% ester content. Biodiesel quality was evaluated and most of properties were well within EN 14214. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution,more » with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.« less

  9. A Modified Hydroxyproline Assay Based on Hydrochloric Acid in Ehrlich's Solution Accurately Measures Tissue Collagen Content.

    PubMed

    Cissell, Derek D; Link, Jarrett M; Hu, Jerry C; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2017-04-01

    Collagen quantification has long been relevant to biomedical research and clinical practice to characterize tissues and determine disease states. The hydroxyproline assay, while a broadly employed method of quantifying collagen, uses perchloric acid to dissolve Ehrlich's reagent. Since perchloric acid poses occupational safety hazards and high costs, in this study, a new hydroxyproline assay was developed that replaces perchloric acid with a relatively safer and cheaper alternative, hydrochloric acid (HCl). To validate this biochemical technique, first, using either acid to dissolve Ehrlich's reagent, the assays were completed for native and engineered collagenous tissues. No statistical differences were identified between the assays (p = 0.32). Subsequently, both biochemical techniques were compared to amino acid analysis, considered a proteomics gold standard. Interestingly, utilizing HCl in lieu of perchloric acid yielded greater concordance with amino acid analysis (ρ c  = 0.980) than did the traditional assay (ρ c  = 0.947); that is, the HCl-based assay more closely estimates hydroxyproline content, and, consequently, true collagen content. Thus, using Ehrlich's reagent containing HCl in the hydroxyproline assay represents an advance in both mitigating laboratory safety hazards and improving biochemical collagen quantification.

  10. A Modified Hydroxyproline Assay Based on Hydrochloric Acid in Ehrlich's Solution Accurately Measures Tissue Collagen Content

    PubMed Central

    Cissell, Derek D.; Link, Jarrett M.; Hu, Jerry C.

    2017-01-01

    Collagen quantification has long been relevant to biomedical research and clinical practice to characterize tissues and determine disease states. The hydroxyproline assay, while a broadly employed method of quantifying collagen, uses perchloric acid to dissolve Ehrlich's reagent. Since perchloric acid poses occupational safety hazards and high costs, in this study, a new hydroxyproline assay was developed that replaces perchloric acid with a relatively safer and cheaper alternative, hydrochloric acid (HCl). To validate this biochemical technique, first, using either acid to dissolve Ehrlich's reagent, the assays were completed for native and engineered collagenous tissues. No statistical differences were identified between the assays (p = 0.32). Subsequently, both biochemical techniques were compared to amino acid analysis, considered a proteomics gold standard. Interestingly, utilizing HCl in lieu of perchloric acid yielded greater concordance with amino acid analysis (ρc = 0.980) than did the traditional assay (ρc = 0.947); that is, the HCl-based assay more closely estimates hydroxyproline content, and, consequently, true collagen content. Thus, using Ehrlich's reagent containing HCl in the hydroxyproline assay represents an advance in both mitigating laboratory safety hazards and improving biochemical collagen quantification. PMID:28406755

  11. Effect of phosphate-based glass fibre surface properties on thermally produced poly(lactic acid) matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Maziar Shah; Ahmed, Ifty; Muja, Naser; Rudd, Christopher D; Bureau, Martin N; Nazhat, Showan N

    2011-12-01

    Incorporation of soluble bioactive glass fibres into biodegradable polymers is an interesting approach for bone repair and regeneration. However, the glass composition and its surface properties significantly affect the nature of the fibre-matrix interface and composite properties. Herein, the effect of Si and Fe on the surface properties of calcium containing phosphate based glasses (PGs) in the system (50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-(10-x)SiO(2)-xFe(2)O(3), where x = 0, 5 and 10 mol.%) were investigated. Contact angle measurements revealed a higher surface energy, and surface polarity as well as increased hydrophilicity for Si doped PG which may account for the presence of surface hydroxyl groups. Two PG formulations, 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-10Fe(2)O(3) (Fe10) and 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Fe(2)O(3)-5SiO(2) (Fe5Si5), were melt drawn into fibres and randomly incorporated into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) produced by melt processing. The ageing in deionised water (DW), mechanical property changes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and cytocompatibility properties of these composites were investigated. In contrast to Fe10 and as a consequence of the higher surface energy and polarity of Fe5Si5, its incorporation into PLA led to increased inorganic/organic interaction indicated by a reduction in the carbonyl group of the matrix. PLA chain scission was confirmed by a greater reduction in its molecular weight in PLA-Fe5Si5 composites. In DW, the dissolution rate of PLA-Fe5Si5 was significantly higher than that of PLA-Fe10. Dissolution of the glass fibres resulted in the formation of channels within the matrix. Initial flexural strength was significantly increased through PGF incorporation. After PBS ageing, the reduction in mechanical properties was greater for PLA-Fe5Si5 compared to PLA-Fe10. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts seeded onto PG discs, PLA and PLA-PGF composites were evaluated for up to 7 days indicating that the materials were generally cytocompatible. In addition, cell alignment along the PGF

  12. Relationship between fatty acid profile and vitamin E content in maize hybrids (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Goffman, F D; Böhme, T

    2001-10-01

    The balance between the vitamin E (tocochromanols) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents mainly determines the susceptibility to lipid peroxidation and the storage stability of corn oil. In 1997, field experiments were conducted at two different locations to evaluate a collection of 30 corn hybrids for fatty acid profiles and tocochromanol contents. Hybrids differed significantly (p < 0.01) for major fatty acids, as well as for tocochromanol contents and composition. The major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, whose contents were in the ranges 9.2-12.1%, 19.5-30.5%, and 53.0-65.3%, respectively. The tocopherol contents ranged as follows: alpha-tocopherol, 67-276 mg (kg of oil)(-1); beta-tocopherol, 0-20 mg (kg of oil)(-1); gamma-tocopherol, 583-1048 mg (kg of oil)(-1); delta-tocopherol, 12-71 mg (kg of oil)(-1); total tocopherol, 767-1344 mg (kg of oil)(-1). gamma-Tocopherol was the predominant derivative among all tocopherols. The tocotrienol contents were in the ranges 46-89, 53-164, and 99-230 mg (kg of oil)(-1) for alpha-, gamma-, and total tocotrienol contents, respectively. The tocotrienol profile was not characterized by the predominance of any tocotrienol homologue. alpha-Tocopherol was positively correlated with PUFA (r = 0.41) and with the vitamin E equivalent (vit E equiv) (r = 0.84), and it was not correlated with gamma-tocopherol. gamma-Tocopherol was highly correlated with total tocopherol and tocochromanol contents (r = 0.93 and r = 0.90, respectively), indicating that the contribution of this vitamer to the total tocochromanol content is the most important among all tocochromanols. The high positive correlation found between the vit E/PUFA ratio and the vit E equiv, as well as the absence of correlation between this ratio and PUFA indicates that a higher vit E/PUFA ratio can be easier achieved be increasing the vitamin E content than by modifying fatty acid profile in corn oil.

  13. Varying cost and free nicotinic acid content in over-the-counter niacin preparations for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Meyers, C Daniel; Carr, Molly C; Park, Sang; Brunzell, John D

    2003-12-16

    Nicotinic acid is an effective treatment for dyslipidemia, but the content of over-the-counter niacin is not federally regulated. As a result, patients may use preparations of over-the-counter niacin that do not contain free nicotinic acid. To characterize the types, costs, and free nicotinic acid content of over-the-counter niacin preparations and to review literature on the use of over-the-counter niacin for dyslipidemia. Commonly used over-the-counter niacin preparations (500-mg tablets or capsules) from the 3 categories of immediate-release, sustained-release, and no-flush were purchased at health food stores and pharmacies and from Internet-based vitamin companies. Pertinent literature on the use of over-the-counter niacin was obtained by searching PubMed. For each preparation studied, the monthly cost of therapy (at 2000 mg/d) and the free nicotinic acid content (quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography) were reported. On average, immediate-release niacin preparations cost 7.10 dollars per month, sustained-release preparations cost 9.75 dollars per month, and no-flush preparations cost 21.70 dollars per month. The average content of free nicotinic acid was 520.4 mg for immediate-release niacin, 502.6 mg for sustained-release niacin, and 0 for no-flush niacin. No-flush preparations of over-the-counter niacin contain no free nicotinic acid and should not be used to treat dyslipidemia. Over-the-counter sustained-release niacin contains free nicotinic acid, but some brands are hepatotoxic. Immediate-release niacin contains free nicotinic acid and is the least expensive form of over-the-counter niacin.

  14. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and

  15. Rhythmic change of myocardial phosphate metabolite content in cardiac cycle observed by depth-selected and EKG-gated in vivo 31P-NMR spectroscopy in a whole animal.

    PubMed

    Toyo-oka, T; Nagayama, K; Umeda, M; Eguchi, K; Hosoda, S

    1986-03-28

    The newly developed pulse width modulation method for the depth-selected in vivo NMR under high magnetic field (6.4 Tesla), sectional magnetic resonance (SMR), enabled us to selectively obtain and follow time sequence of P metabolism of rat heart in a whole body. An EKG-gated 31P-SMR spectroscopy at every 30 m sec, after the R wave, with calibrating the resonance intensity by an external standard, demonstrated a synchronous oscillation of both contents of creatine phosphate (CP) and beta-ATP: minimal at the early 2/3 of the systole as was identified by the aortic pressure measurement and maximal at the last 1/3 of the diastole, while inorganic phosphate content varied antiphasically to CP or ATP without obvious change of intracellular pH in cardiac cycle. This is the first report that described an in vivo detection of cyclic change of phosphate metabolites in the heart.

  16. Phosphate Changes Effect of Humic Acids on TiO2 Photocatalysis: From Inhibition to Mitigation of Electron-Hole Recombination.

    PubMed

    Long, Mingce; Brame, Jonathon; Qin, Fan; Bao, Jiming; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2017-01-03

    A major challenge for photocatalytic water purification with TiO 2 is the strong inhibitory effect of natural organic matter (NOM), which can scavenge photogenerated holes and radicals and occlude ROS generation sites upon adsorption. This study shows that phosphate counteracts the inhibitory effect of humic acids (HA) by decreasing HA adsorption and mitigating electron-hole recombination. As a measure of the inhibitory effect of HA, the ratios of first-order reaction rate constants between photocatalytic phenol degradation in the absence versus presence of HA were calculated. This ratio was very high, up to 5.72 at 30 mg/L HA and pH 4.8 without phosphate, but was decreased to 0.76 (5 mg/L HA, pH 8.4) with 2 mM phosphate. The latter ratio indicates a surprising favorable effect of HA on TiO 2 photocatalysis. FTIR analyses suggest that this favorable effect is likely due to a change in the conformation of adsorbed HA, from a multiligand exchange arrangement to a complexation predominantly between COOH groups in HA and the TiO 2 surface in the presence of phosphate. This configuration can reduce hole consumption and facilitate electron transfer to O 2 by the adsorbed HA (indicated by linear sweep voltammetry), which mitigates electron-hole recombination and enhances contaminant degradation. A decrease in HA surface adsorption and hole scavenging (the predominant inhibitory mechanisms of HA) by phosphate (2 mM) was indicated by a 50% decrease in the photocatalytic degradation rate of HA and 80% decrease in the decay rate coefficient of interfacial-related photooxidation in photocurrent transients. These results, which were validated with other compounds (FFA and cimetidine), indicate that anchoring phosphate - or anions that exert similar effects on the TiO 2 surface - might be a feasible strategy to counteract the inhibitory effect of NOM during photocatalytic water treatment.

  17. Overall Content of Salicylic Acid and Salicylates in Food Available on the European Market.

    PubMed

    Kęszycka, Paulina K; Szkop, Michał; Gajewska, Danuta

    2017-12-20

    The study aimed to determine the salicylates content in 112 products available on the European market. Quantitative determination of free and conjugated forms of salicylic acid in food was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The salicylates contents ranged from 0 to 1675.79 (μg/100 g). The results of this study confirm the presence of salicylates in food products, as well as a broad content diversity of these compounds depending on the species, variety, and method of processing the food items. The results can be very helpful for nutritionists and dieticians in planning low-salicylates or high-salicylates diets.

  18. 2-ketogluconic acid secretion by incorporation of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 improves mineral phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chanchal; Yadav, Kavita; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 is known to efficiently solubilize rock phosphate by secretion of approximately 50 mM gluconic acid in Tris-buffered medium in the presence of 75 mM glucose and in a mixture of seven aldosugars each at 15 mM concentration, mimicking alkaline vertisol soils. Efficacy of this bacterium in the rhizosphere requires P release in the presence of low amount of sugars. To achieve this, E. asburiae PSI3 has been manipulated to express gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 to produce 2-ketogluconic acid. E. asburiae PSI3 harboring gad operon had 438 U of GAD activity, secreted 11.63 mM 2-ketogluconic and 21.65 mM gluconic acids in Tris-rock phosphate-buffered medium containing 45 mM glucose. E. asburiae PSI3 gad transformant solubilized 0.84 mM P from rock phosphate in TRP-buffered liquid medium. In the presence of a mixture of seven sugars each at 12 mM, the transformant brought about a drop in pH to 4.1 and released 0.53 mM P.

  19. Food acid content and erosive potential of sugar-free confections.

    PubMed

    Shen, P; Walker, G D; Yuan, Y; Reynolds, C; Stacey, M A; Reynolds, E C

    2017-06-01

    Dental erosion is an increasingly prevalent problem associated with frequent consumption of acidic foods and beverages. The aim of this study was to measure the food acid content and the erosive potential of a variety of sugar-free confections. Thirty sugar-free confections were selected and extracts analysed to determine pH, titratable acidity, chemical composition and apparent degree of saturation with respect to apatite. The effect of the sugar-free confections in artificial saliva on human enamel was determined in an in vitro dental erosion assay using change in surface microhardness. The change in surface microhardness was used to categorize the confections as high, moderate or low erosive potential. Seventeen of the 30 sugar-free confections were found to contain high concentrations of food acids, exhibit low pH and high titratable acidity and have high erosive potential. Significant correlations were found between the dental erosive potential (change in enamel surface microhardness) and pH and titratable acidity of the confections. Ten of these high erosive potential confections displayed dental messages on the packaging suggesting they were safe for teeth. Many sugar-free confections, even some with 'Toothfriendly' messages on the product label, contain high contents of food acids and have erosive potential. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Purine derivate content and amino acid profile in larval stages of three edible insects.

    PubMed

    Bednářová, Martina; Borkovcová, Marie; Komprda, Tomáš

    2014-01-15

    Considering their high content of protein, insects are a valuable alternative protein source. However, no evaluation of their purine content has so far been done. High content of purine derivates may lead to the exclusion of such food from the diet of people with specific diseases. The aim of this study was to analyse the content of selected purine derivates and amino acid profile in the three insect species most often used for entomophagy in Europe and compare them with the purine content in egg white and chicken breast. The content of individual purine derivates and their total content were significantly dependent on insect species. The purine content in all three species was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in egg white, but some values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in chicken breast. The total protein content was 548.9 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) in mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), 551.6 g kg(-1) DM in superworm (Zophobas atratus) and 564.9 g kg(-1) DM in cricket (Gryllus assimilis). Larvae of mealworm and superworm are protein-rich and purine-low meat alternatives. In contrast, cricket nymphs are protein-rich and purine-rich and cannot be recommended for people with hyperuricemia or gout. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Use of Raman spectroscopy for determining erucic acid content in canola oil.

    PubMed

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Temiz, Havva Tumay; Ercioglu, Elif; Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Topcu, Ali; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-04-15

    This study presents a novel method to determine erucic acid in canola oil samples by using Raman spectroscopy and chemometric analysis. The oil mixtures were prepared at various concentrations of erucic acid ranging from 0% to 33.56% (w/w) through binary combinations of different oils. In order to predict erucic acid content, Raman spectroscopy and GC results were correlated by means of partial least squares analysis. High coefficient of determination values was obtained for both calibration and validation data sets, which are 0.990 and 0.982, respectively. The results of the present study reveal the potential of Raman spectroscopy for rapid determination (45s) of erucic acid in canola oil. Further research would be useful to improve the method to put it forward as an alternative to GC in the erucic acid analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in the Ascorbic Acid Content of Seeds of Vicia Faba Induced by Beta Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, M Z; Abdel-Wahab, M F; El-Kinawi, S A

    1962-01-01

    The ascorbic acid content of 3 strains of seeds (Rebaya 34, Giza I, Giza II) was determined during germination after exposure to BETA radiation. The dried seeds (100 g) were added to 500 ml water containing 100 mu c P 32(as H 3PO 4, with a specific activity of 1 mc/mg P), incubated for 48 hr, and allowed to germinate for 30 days. The P 32 uptake of the seeds varied from 0.26 to 0.49 mu g/100 g. The ascorbic acid content of the dry seeds was very low (< 1 mg/100 g), but increased markedly during germination, up tomore » a maximum of approximates 25 mg/100 g on the 20th day of germination. P 32 treatment significantly diminished the ascorbic acid content of the germinating seeds, particularly those of the Giza I strain, in which the content was 70% below normal on the 12th day of germination. In contrast to the depressed formation or accelerated catabolism of ascorbic acid in seeds exposed to low doses of P 32-emitted BETA radiation, irradiation did not appreciably affect germination of the seeds. (H.H.D.)« less

  3. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students' difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1)…

  4. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts.

  5. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  6. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids.

  7. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Foliar nitrogen application in Cabernet Sauvignon vines: Effects on wine flavonoid and amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gamboa, Gastón; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; Moreno-Simunovic, Yerko; Martínez-Gil, Ana M

    2017-06-01

    Wine quality greatly depends on its chemical composition. Among the most important wine chemical compounds, flavonoids are the major contributors to wine organoleptic properties while amino acids have a huge impact on fermentation development and wine volatile profile. Likewise, nitrogen applications are known to have an impact on wine composition. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effects of foliar nitrogen applications on wine flavonoid and amino acid composition. The experiment involved five foliar nitrogen applications at veraison time: urea (Ur), urea plus sulphur (Ur+S), arginine (Arg), and two commercial fertilizers Nutrimyr Thiols (NT) and Basfoliar Algae (BA). The results showed that nitrogen foliar treatments decreased wine flavonoid content although the effect varied according to each treatment. This could be related to a low vine nitrogen requirement, since must yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) was above acceptable threshold values for all samples. With regard to wine amino acid content, all treatments except for Ur increased its values after the applications. Finally, foliar nitrogen treatments greatly influenced wine composition. Among them, urea seemed to exert the most negative effect on both phenolics and amino acids. In addition, an inverse relationship between wine amino acid content and flavonol concentration was exhibited. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Gastric histamine metabolism and acid secretion in rats as influenced by diet and nutrient content.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Fisher, H

    1983-02-01

    Diets containing egg white, casein, menhaden fish meal, soy protein or wheat gluten were fed to rats to assess the impact of dietary protein (and other nutrients) on gastric functions. The menhaden fish meal group exhibited increases in stomach histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity, histamine concentration, as well as acid secretion when compared with the control, casein group. When rats were fed amino acid-supplemented casein or fish meal diets to simulate each other's amino acid profile, a small increase in gastric HDC activity, histamine content and acid secretion was observed in comparison with the unsupplemented casein or fish meal groups. The high mineral content of menhaden fish meal (15%) was thought to be a potential inducing factor for gastric histamine metabolism and acid secretion. Adding fish meal ash to the casein diet or to a cod fillet diet elevated stomach HDC activity and histamine concentration significantly. Furthermore, when calcium (Ca) was added to the casein diet to simulate its high content in menhaden fish meal (7.8%), similar elevated levels of gastric histamine were obtained for the Ca-supplemented casein group as for the fish meal group. The role of Ca could be due to release of gastrin, which results in release of stomach histamine, or by facilitating mast cell histidine incorporation with subsequent histamine synthesis.

  10. Proximate composition, amino Acid, mineral, and heavy metal content of dried laver.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Ki, Kyung-Nam; Chung, Ha-Yull

    2013-06-01

    Laver, a red algae belonging to the genus Porphyra, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweeds. The most popular commercial dried laver species, P. tenera and P. haitanensis, were collected from Korea and China, respectively, and evaluated for proximate composition, amino acids, minerals, trace heavy metals, and color. The moisture and ash contents of P. tenera and P. haitanensis ranged from 3.66~6.74% and 8.78~9.07%, respectively; crude lipid and protein contents were 1.96~2.25% and 32.16~36.88%, respectively. Dried lavers were found to be a good source of amino acids, such as asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, and taurine, and γ-aminobutyric acid. K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, I, Fe, and Se minerals were selected for analysis. A clear regional variation existed in the amino acid, mineral, and trace metal contents of lavers. Regular consumption of lavers may have heath benefits because they are relatively low in fat and high in protein, and contain functional amino acids and minerals.

  11. Sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in passion fruit (Passiflora) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Devi Ramaiya, Shiamala; Bujang, Japar Sidik; Zakaria, Muta Harah; King, Wong Sing; Shaffiq Sahrir, Muhd Arif

    2013-03-30

    The levels of sugars, ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were determined in fruit juices from seven passion fruit (Passiflora spp.) cultivars: P. edulis cultivars Purple, Frederick, Yellow, Pink, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. maliformis and P. quadrangularis (we also tested this cultivar's mesocarp). Purple and Yellow P. edulis had significantly higher total sugar, 142.85 ± 0.17 g kg⁻¹ and 139.69 ± 0.12 g kg⁻¹, respectively, than other cultivars. Glucose and fructose content were higher in juice from vine-ripened fruits of Purple, Frederick and Yellow P. edulis, P. quadrangularis and P. maliformis. Sucrose content was significantly higher in juice of non-vine-ripened fruits of P. edulis (Pink) and P. edulis f. flavicarpa. Ascorbic acid, TPC and TAA were significantly higher in vine-ripened Purple and Yellow P. edulis; ranges were 0.22-0.33 g kg⁻¹, 342.80-382.00 mg gallic acid equivalent L⁻¹ and 409.13-586.70 µmol Trolox L⁻¹, respectively. Based on principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, the main variables - °Brix, total sugar, glucose, fructose, ascorbic acid, TPC and TAA - formed the characteristics for the group comprising Purple and Yellow P. edulis. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, TAA and TPC were quantified in passion fruit juices. Variation of the above variables in juices of Passiflora depends on the cultivar and ripeness. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Proximate Composition, Amino Acid, Mineral, and Heavy Metal Content of Dried Laver

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Ki, Kyung-Nam; Chung, Ha-Yull

    2013-01-01

    Laver, a red algae belonging to the genus Porphyra, is one of the most widely consumed edible seaweeds. The most popular commercial dried laver species, P. tenera and P. haitanensis, were collected from Korea and China, respectively, and evaluated for proximate composition, amino acids, minerals, trace heavy metals, and color. The moisture and ash contents of P. tenera and P. haitanensis ranged from 3.66~6.74% and 8.78~9.07%, respectively; crude lipid and protein contents were 1.96~2.25% and 32.16~36.88%, respectively. Dried lavers were found to be a good source of amino acids, such as asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, and taurine, and γ-aminobutyric acid. K, Ca, Mg, Na, P, I, Fe, and Se minerals were selected for analysis. A clear regional variation existed in the amino acid, mineral, and trace metal contents of lavers. Regular consumption of lavers may have heath benefits because they are relatively low in fat and high in protein, and contain functional amino acids and minerals. PMID:24471123

  13. Association of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity with oocyte cytoplasmic lipid content, developmental competence, and expression of candidate genes in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Veshkini, Arash; Hajarizadeh, Athena; Jamshidi-Adegani, Fatemeh; Zhandi, Mahdi; Abazari-Kia, Amir Hossein; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Soleimani, Masoud; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate associations of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in sheep oocytes with cytoplasmic lipid content, maturational competence, developmental competence to the blastocyst stage, and gene expression of certain molecular markers. Before brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining test, oocytes were classified as high, middle, and low cytoplasmic lipid content (HCLC, MCLC, and LCLC) and after the test as having low or high G6PDH-activity (BCB(+) and BCB(-), respectively). After maturation in vitro, a group of oocytes were subjected to IVF followed by in vitro embryo culture and another group was used for evaluation of expression of candidate genes. The cleavage and blastosyst rates were lowest (P < 0.05) in LCLC group, intermediate (P < 0.05) in MCLC group and highest (P < 0.05) in HCLC group. More (P < 0.05) oocytes in HCLC group were BCB(+), and higher (P < 0.05) maturation, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were seen for BCB(+) oocytes than the BCB(-) oocytes. Our gene expression data indicated that mRNA transcript abundance of ITGB2, pZP3, BMP15, and GDF9 genes was similar between BCB oocytes groups. However, the expression of ATP1A1 was higher (P < 0.05) for BCB(+) oocytes compared to BCB(-) oocytes. In addition, BAX transcript abundance was similar (P > 0.05) among BCB(+), BCB(-), and control groups, before and after maturation in vitro. Activity of G6PDH in sheep oocytes is highly associated with lipid content, and compared with the morphological parameters might be a more precise and objective predictor for subsequent developmental competence in vitro.

  14. Pharmacognostic Specification, Chlorogenic Acid Content, and In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Lonicera japonica Flowering Bud.

    PubMed

    Chaowuttikul, Chayanon; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Japanese Honeysuckle has been widely used in traditional medicine for antipyretic. To establish the pharmacognostic specification of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand and to determine its chlorogenic acid content and in vitro antioxidant activities. Dried L. japonica flowering bud from 15 various herbal drugstores throughout Thailand were investigated for pharmacognostic specification. Their chlorogenic acid contents were quantitatively analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry with winCATS software. The mobile phase for TLC development consisted of ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6). Antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Qualified L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand was presented that the contents of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water should not be >10.11%, 6.59%, 1.14%, and 10.82% by weight, respectively. The ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be < 16.46% and 28.88% by weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid content in L. japonica flowering bud was found to be 2.24 ± 0.50 g/100 g of crude drug. L. japonica flowering bud showed DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activities as well as reducing power property. This pharmacognostic specification with special reference to the chlorogenic acid content can be used for quality control of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand. The potential antioxidant of this crude drug was demonstrated in vitro . Pharmacognostic specification of Lonicera japonica flowering bud in Thailand has been establishedThe chlorogenic acid content has been quantified by thin layer chromatography-densitometryThe ethanolic extract of L. japonica flowering bud showed antioxidation potential, especially on reducing power property. Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin layer

  15. Pharmacognostic Specification, Chlorogenic Acid Content, and In vitro Antioxidant Activities of Lonicera japonica Flowering Bud

    PubMed Central

    Chaowuttikul, Chayanon; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lonicera japonica Thunb. or Japanese Honeysuckle has been widely used in traditional medicine for antipyretic. Objective: To establish the pharmacognostic specification of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand and to determine its chlorogenic acid content and in vitro antioxidant activities. Materials and Methods: Dried L. japonica flowering bud from 15 various herbal drugstores throughout Thailand were investigated for pharmacognostic specification. Their chlorogenic acid contents were quantitatively analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) densitometry with winCATS software. The mobile phase for TLC development consisted of ethyl acetate: formic acid: acetic acid: water (10:1.1:1.1:2.6). Antioxidant activities were investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, and β-carotene bleaching assays. Results: Qualified L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand was presented that the contents of loss on drying, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, and water should not be >10.11%, 6.59%, 1.14%, and 10.82% by weight, respectively. The ethanol and water soluble extractive values should not be < 16.46% and 28.88% by weight, respectively. Chlorogenic acid content in L. japonica flowering bud was found to be 2.24 ± 0.50 g/100 g of crude drug. L. japonica flowering bud showed DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging activities as well as reducing power property. Conclusion: This pharmacognostic specification with special reference to the chlorogenic acid content can be used for quality control of L. japonica flowering bud in Thailand. The potential antioxidant of this crude drug was demonstrated in vitro. SUMMARY Pharmacognostic specification of Lonicera japonica flowering bud in Thailand has been establishedThe chlorogenic acid content has been quantified by thin layer chromatography-densitometryThe ethanolic extract of L. japonica flowering bud showed antioxidation potential

  16. Self-assembled structures and excellent surface properties of a novel anionic phosphate diester surfactant derived from natural rosin acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Lin, Hai-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Jun-Rong; Yang, Ming-Sheng; Yang, Jun; Han, Chun-Rui

    2017-01-15

    A novel anionic rosin-based phosphate diester sodium (DDPDS) was successfully synthesized from raw dehydroabietic acid, a natural raw material, via four-step reactions: acylation, esterification, phosphorylation and neutralization. Nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to characterize the structure of target products. The aggregation behaviors in aqueous-ethanol solution and surface properties of DDPDS and its mixed systems were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), automatic tensiometer and contact angle measuring instrument. The results showed that DDPDS had high surface activity, unexpected emulsification and excellent wettability. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 1.35g∗L -1 , the minimum surface tension (γ cmc ) of 31.75mN∗m -1 , emulsifying power of 153s and the minimum contact angle of 13.4° were determined for DDPDS. Spherical vesicles with diameter about 50nm and 5μm were self-assembled respectively in aqueous-ethanol solution when DDPDS concentration is about 1 CMC and 5 CMC. Two surfactant ionic self-assembly systems were constructed by mixing DDPDS with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which forms 40nm and 20nm spherical micelles in 1 CMC aqueous-ethanol solution. Possible formation mechanisms of surfactant ionic self-assembly systems on a combination of ionic interactions between DDPDS and SDBS or CTAB are discussed. It was found that there were an obvious synergistic effect of foam stability in DDPDS/SDBS mixed system and an obvious synergistic effect of foam capability in DDPDS/CTAB mixed system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex and depot differences in ex vivo adipose tissue fatty acid storage and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot, and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We examined whether differences in adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) might play a role in these variations. We optimized an enzyme activity assay for total GPAT and GPAT1 activity in human adipose tissue and measured GPAT activity. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from obese and nonobese adults for measures of GPAT and GPAT1 activities, ex vivo palmitate storage, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT) activities, and CD36 protein. Total GPAT and GPAT1 activities decreased as a function of adipocyte size in both omental (r = −0.71, P = 0.003) and subcutaneous (r = −0.58, P = 0.04) fat. The relative contribution of GPAT1 to total GPAT activity increased as a function of adipocyte size, accounting for up to 60% of GPAT activity in those with the largest adipocytes. We found strong, positive correlations between ACS, GPAT, and DGAT activities for both sexes and depots (r values 0.58–0.91) and between these storage factors and palmitate storage rates into TAG (r values 0.55–0.90). We conclude that: 1) total GPAT activity decreases as a function of adipocyte size; 2) GPAT1 can account for over half of adipose GPAT activity in hypertrophic obesity; and 3) ACS, GPAT, and DGAT are coordinately regulated. PMID:25738782

  18. Mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Miao, Xigeng; Tan, Dawn Meifang; Li, Jian; Xiao, Yin; Crawford, Ross

    2008-05-01

    Regeneration of bone, cartilage and osteochondral tissues by tissue engineering has attracted intense attention due to its potential advantages over the traditional replacement of tissues with synthetic implants. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of ideal or suitable scaffolds based on porous biomaterials, and the present study was undertaken to develop and evaluate a useful porous composite scaffold system. Here, hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds (average pore size: 500 microm; porosity: 87%) were prepared by a polyurethane foam replica method, followed by modification with infiltration and coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The thermal shock resistance of the composite scaffolds was evaluated by measuring the compressive strength before and after quenching or freezing treatment. The porous structure (in terms of pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity) of the composite scaffolds was examined. The penetration of the bone marrow stromal stem cells into the scaffolds and the attachment of the cells onto the scaffolds were also investigated. It was shown that the PLGA incorporation in the HA/TCP scaffolds significantly increased the compressive strength up to 660 kPa and the residual compressive strength after the freezing treatment decreased to 160 kPa, which was, however, sufficient for the scaffolds to withstand subsequent cell culture procedures and a freeze-drying process. On the other hand, the PLGA coating on the strut surfaces of the scaffolds was rather thin (<5 microm) and apparently porous, maintaining the high open porosity of the HA/TCP scaffolds, resulting in desirable migration and attachment of the bone marrow stromal stem cells, although a thicker PLGA coating would have imparted a higher compressive strength of the PLGA-coated porous HA/TCP composite scaffolds.

  19. Effect of the Acidic Dental Resin Monomer 10-methacryloyloxydecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate on Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Haejin; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-11-01

    Although 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) is frequently used as an acidic resin monomer in dental adhesives, its effect on dental pulp cells (DPCs) has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10-MDP on the inflammatory response and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs at minimally toxic concentrations. We found that 10-MDP caused the release of inflammatory cytokines including NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 10-MDP reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization nodule formation and mRNA expression of odontoblastic differentiation markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, osterix and Runx2 in a concentration-dependent manner with low toxicity. In addition, 10-MDP induced activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We evaluated whether the effect of 10-MDP was related to the induction of HO-1 and found that treatment with a selective inhibitor of HO-1 reversed the production of 10-MDP-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inhibition of differentiation markers. Pre-treatment with either a GSH synthesis inhibitor or antioxidants blocked 10-MDP-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Taken together, the results of this study showed that minimally toxic concentrations of 10-MDP promoted an inflammatory response and suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction through MAPK and NF-κB signalling. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Fortification of Ogi with Whey Increases Essential Amino Acids Content of Fortified Product

    PubMed Central

    Omole, J. O.; Durosinolorun, O.

    2017-01-01

    The inability of humans to synthesize essential amino acids (EAA) necessitates the need to increase the levels of these nutrient molecules in certain foods in which they are deficient. Maize ogi is a typical food product for both infants and adults in Africa, but with poor EAA content. This study therefore sought to assess the possibility of increasing the EAA content in maize ogi by processing it with cheese whey instead of water. Maize ogi and whey-fortified ogi were prepared by the usual procedure of grain soaking, milling, and drying. Samples from both treatments were subjected to proximate composition and amino acid profile analyses using Waters 616/626 LC (HPLC) instrument. L-lysine, L-trytophan, and L-methionine contents in maize ogi remarkably increased from 0.52, 0.15, and 0.90 mg/100 gm sample, respectively, to 0.90, 240, and 1.320 mg/100 gm sample in whey-fortified ogi. There were also significant increases in other EAA contents of whey-fortified ogi relative to its counterpart (normal maize ogi). The sum increase in EAA contents (9,405 mg) correlates with the increase in protein (1 gm) per gram sample. This study demonstrates that cheese whey increases EAA content in maize ogi and suggests that whey-fortified maize ogi may be a preferred alternative to water processed maize ogi. PMID:28848803

  1. Thiamine and fatty acid content of walleye tissue from three southern U.S. reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Vandergoot, C.S.; Bettoli, P.W.; Hinterkopf, J.P.; Zajicek, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We determined the thiamine concentration in egg, muscle, and liver tissues of walleyes Sander vitreus and the fatty acid content of walleye eggs from three southern U.S. reservoirs. In two Tennessee reservoirs (Dale Hollow and Center Hill), in which there were alewives Alosa pseudoharengus in the forage base, natural recruitment of walleyes was not occurring; by contrast in Lake James Reservoir, North Carolina, where there were no alewives, the walleye population was sustained via natural recruitment. Female walleye tissues were collected and assayed for thiamine (vitamin B1) and fatty acid content. Thiamine pyrophosphate was found to be the predominant form of thiamine in walleye eggs. In 2000, mean total egg thiamine concentrations were similar among Center Hill, Dale Hollow, and Lake James reservoirs (2.13, 3.14, and 2.77 nmol thiamine/g, respectively). Egg thiamine concentration increased as maternal muscle (r 2 = 0.73) and liver (r2 = 0.68) thiamine concentration increased. Walleye egg thiamine does not appear to be connected to poor natural reproduction in Tennessee walleyes. Threadfin shad Dorosoma petenense, which are found in all three reservoirs, had higher thiaminase activity than alewives. Six fatty acids differed among the walleye eggs for the three reservoirs. Two were physiologically important fatty acids, arachidonic acid (20:4[n-6]) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6[n-3]), which are important eicosanoid precursors involved in the regulation of biological functions, such as immune response and reproduction. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  2. Phosphate Salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preparing the bowel for a medical procedure. Taking sodium phosphate products by mouth before a colonoscopy procedure is effective for bowel cleansing. Some sodium phosphate products (OsmoPrep, Salix Pharmaceuticals; Visicol, Salix Pharmaceuticals) ...

  3. Formulation and pilot scale production of low-trans vanaspati with modified polyunsaturated fatty acids content.

    PubMed

    Nejatian, Mohammad; Nikoopour, Houshang; Mohammadi, Teimour

    2015-08-01

    Pilot scale production of low-trans vanaspati through a combination of techniques including non-selective hydrogenation of palmolein and physical blending of 3 vegetable oils, namely Canola, soybean and sunflower oils was investigated. Six formulations (A-F) of trans-free vanaspati were prepared. The fatty acid composition, peroxide value, acid value, iodine value, slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) at 10-40 °C and oil/oxidative stability of the formulations were evaluated. The percentage of trans-fatty acids obtained for vanaspati formulations were within the value recommended by WHO (<4), except for B and D formulations (5.81 and 5.28, respectively). A and E formulations had the lowest trans-fatty acids content. The total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the vanaspati formulations ranged from 22.96 to 30.11 %. Among the six formulations, A showed the significant percentage of SFA. The highest and the Lowest of linolenic acid contents were obtained for samples E (4.36 %) and F (0.28 %). Percentage of the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) of the vanaspati formulations suggested an order from the highest to lowest as: A > C > E > F > D > B formulations. B formulation had the highest significant percentage of PUFA, followed by D, E, F, C, and A formulations. Only A vanaspati had the induction periods (IP) of higher than commercial low-trans vanaspati, while the lowest stability time belonged to sample B (10.20 h). SMP of all the vanaspati formulations was higher than the commercial low-trans vanaspati, but less than 40 °C. Although A and E formulations contained lower SFA than the commercial low-trans vanaspati, they indicated higher SFC at 20-40 °C. According to the above information, E and A formulations could be recommended as suitable formulations for further research in a larger scale.

  4. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils.

  5. Microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of konjac products for determining the konjac powder content.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuuki; Okamoto, Ken; Matsushima, Ayako; Ota, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Akasaki, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    The complete hydrolysis of konjac glucomannan (KGM) with an acid or enzyme generally takes a long time. To accelerate KGM hydrolysis without diminishing the conventional quality, a diluted acid hydrolysis of KGM with sulfuric acid was conducted using a microwave digestion system. The optimum conditions of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis for KGM were: 10 mL of 0.25 M sulfuric acid, hydrolysis temperature of 135°C (microwave power of 600 W), and total microwave-irradiation time of 45 min. The yields of the component sugars, mannose and glucose, from two konjac powders were similar to those by conventional acid hydrolysis with 1 M sulfuric acid in a boiling water bath for 5 h. Furthermore, a pretest for microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis using mixtures of konjac powder and starch at different ratios proved that their konjac content can be calculated by determining the mannose generated by the new rapid hydrolysis method, if the raw materials are provided.

  6. Effects of selenite on chlorophyll fluorescence, starch content and fatty acid in the duckweed Landoltia punctata.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Yang; Cheng, Jay J

    2016-09-01

    Developing a Se-enriched feed for animal has become a considerable effort. In this study, Landoltia punctata 7449 was grown over a 12 day period under concentrations of selenite (Na2SeO3) from 0 to 80 μmol L(-1). The growth rate, the chlorophyll fluorescence, the starch content and fatty acid were measured. Se at low concentrations of ≤20 μmol L(-1) had positive effects also on growth rate, fatty acid content and yield of the L. punctata. The appropriate Se treatment enhanced the activity of the photosynthetic system by increasing Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo and decreasing Fo. However, negative impact to the L. punctata was observed when the duckweed was exposed to high Se concentrations (≥40 μmol L(-1)). Significant increases in starch content in the duckweed were observed after Se application. The present study suggests that the changes in growth rate, the photosynthetic system, the starch content and the fatty acid were closely associated with the application of Se. An increased Se concentration (0-20 μmol L(-1)) in duckweed could positively induce photosynthesis, thereby increasing the yield of L. punctata and could be a resource for high nutritive quality Se-enrich feed.

  7. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  8. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Amy V; Ehrlich, James L; Grove-White, Dai H

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences.

  9. Lipid content and fatty acid profile during lake whitefish embryonic development at different incubation temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Casey A; Doyle, Liam; Eme, John; Manzon, Richard G; Somers, Christopher M; Boreham, Douglas R; Wilson, Joanna Y

    2017-01-01

    Lipids serve as energy sources, structural components, and signaling molecules during fish embryonic development, and utilization of lipids may vary with temperature. Embryonic energy utilization under different temperatures is an important area of research in light of the changing global climate. Therefore, we examined percent lipid content and fatty acid profiles of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) throughout embryonic development at three incubation temperatures. We sampled fertilized eggs and embryos at gastrulation, eyed and fin flutter stages following chronic incubation at temperatures of 1.8, 4.9 and 8.0°C. Hatchlings were also sampled following incubation at temperatures of 3.3, 4.9 and 8.0°C. Fertilized eggs had an initial high percentage of dry mass composed of lipid (percent lipid content; ~29%) consisting of ~20% saturated fatty acids (SFA), ~32% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), ~44% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and 4% unidentified. The most abundant fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1, 18:1(n-9c), 20:4(n-6), 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3). This lipid profile matches that of other cold-water fish species. Percent lipid content increased during embryonic development, suggesting protein or other yolk components were preferentially used for energy. Total percentage of MUFA decreased during development, which indicated MUFA were the primary lipid catabolized for energy during embryonic development. Total percentage of PUFA increased during development, driven largely by an increase in 22:6(n-3). Temperature did not influence percent lipid content or percent MUFA at any development stage, and had inconsistent effects on percent SFA and percent PUFA during development. Thus, lake whitefish embryos appear to be highly adapted to low temperatures, and do not alter lipids in response to temperature within their natural incubation conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous determination of magnesium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate and kojic acid in cosmetic bleaching products by using a microbore column and ion-pair liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y

    2001-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and reliable method was developed for the simultaneous determination of magnesium L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (AS-PM) and kojic acid (KA), commonly using bleaching agents in cosmetic products. The method uses a prepacked C18 microbore column for ion-pair liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. The eluant is 0.5mM tetrabutylammonium bromide and 0.05M phosphate buffer, pH 5, containing 5% methanol, at a flow rate of 70 microL/min. The determinations of AS-PM and KA were linear in the range of 0.5-1,000 and 0.25-500 ng, respectively. The precision of the assay ranged from 0.31 to 2.19%, and the detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) were 0.04 and 0.02 ng for AS-PM and KA, respectively.

  11. A clean-up technology for the simultaneous determination of lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine-1-phosphate by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a phosphate-capture molecule, Phos-tag.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Jun-ichi; Urikura, Mai; Takagi, Haruko; Hirano, Kaoru; Koike, Tohru; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Satouchi, Kiyoshi

    2010-04-15

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are growth factor-like lipids having a phosphate group. The concentrations of these mediator lipids in blood are considered to be potential biomarkers for early detection of cancer or vascular diseases. Here, we report a method for simultaneous determination of LPA and S1P using Phos-tag, a zinc complex that specifically binds to a phosphate-monoester group. Although both LPA and S1P are hydrophilic compounds, we found that they acquire hydrophobic properties when they form complexes with Phos-tag. Based on this finding, we developed a method for the enrichment of LPA and S1P from biological samples. The first partition in a two-phase solvent system consisting of chloroform/methanol/water (1:1:0.9, v/v/v) is conducted for the removal of lipids. LPA and S1P are specifically extracted as Phos-tag complexes at the second partition by adding Phos-tag. The Phos-tag complexes of LPA and S1P are detectable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and quantifiable based on the relative intensities of ions using 17:0 LPA and C17 S1P as internal standards. The protocol was validated by analyses of these mediator lipids in calf serum, a rat brain and a lung. The clean-up protocol is rapid, requires neither thin-layer chromatography (TLC) nor liquid chromatography (LC), and is applicable to both blood and solid tissue samples. We believe that our protocol will be useful for a routine analysis of LPA and S1P in many clinical samples. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Inframolecular acid base studies of the tris and tetrakis myo-inositol phosphates including the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozol, Hélène; Blum-Held, Corinne; Guédat, Philippe; Maechling, Clarisse; Lanners, Steve; Schlewer, Gilbert; Spiess, Bernard

    2002-12-01

    The intrinsic acid-base properties of the phosphate groups of three myo-inositol derivatives which display the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif, i.e. (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3)P 3), (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3,6-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3,6)P 4), and (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3,5)P 4) are reported. The studies were performed in 0.2 M KCl solution at 37 °C, near physiological ionic strength and temperature. In addition, in order to shed light on the transition metal complexation properties of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, the influence of the Zn 2+ cations on its 31P NMR titration curves was investigated. From the titration curves as well as from the determined protonation microconstants, it appears that for Ins(1,2,3)P 3, the two lateral P1 and P3 phosphates strongly contribute to stabilise a proton on the central P2 phosphate. However, in the fully deprotonated form of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, P1 and P3 repulse each other so that they establish hydrogen bonds with, respectively, their neighbouring OH6 and OH4 hydroxyls. The 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif of Ins(1,2,3,5)P 4 behaves very similarly to that of Ins(1,2,3)P 3 indicating a poor interaction with the distant P5 phosphate. By contrast, moving a phosphate group from position 5 to position 6 on the myo-inositol ring as in Ins(1,2,3,6)P 4, leads to major changes in the basicity and cooperativity of the phosphate groups. Finally, the presence of Zn 2+ cations has a marked influence on the 31P NMR titration curves of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, leading to the conclusion that two equatorial phosphates, assisted by a middle axial one, afford an optimal chelating moiety that is able to occupy all sites of the metal coordination polyhedron which could be the reason for its antioxidant properties.

  13. Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: Their isolation and content

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA). Materials and Methods: Compound were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. CQA content of leaf extracts was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. Results: From the MeOH leaf extract of V. glabra, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA or CGA were isolated. Content of 5-CQA of V. glabra was two times higher than flowers of L. japonica, while 3-CQA and 4-CQA content was 16 times higher. Conclusion: With much higher CQA content than the commercial source, leaves of V. glabra can serve as a promising alternative source. PMID:24497746

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid content in plasma phospholipids and desaturase indices in obese children.

    PubMed

    Saito, Emiko; Okada, Tomoo; Abe, Yuriko; Kuromori, Yuki; Miyashita, Michio; Iwata, Fujihiko; Hara, Mitsuhiko; Ayusawa, Mamoru; Mugishima, Hideo; Kitamura, Yohei

    2011-01-01

    In obesity, fatty acid composition is altered with reduced docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. Desaturating enzymes, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) modulate fatty acid composition and are thus associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to identify the relationships among DHA content, desaturase indices and the components of metabolic syndrome in childhood obesity. Thirty-two obese children (27 male, 5 female) aged 12.0±2.6 years (mean±SD), with a relative body weight greater than 120% of the standard weight for sex, age and height, were recruited. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids was analyzed by gas chromatography, and the desaturase indices were assessed: SCD (16:1n-7/16:0 and 18:1n-9/18:0), D6D (20:3n-6/18:2n-6) and D5D (20:4n-6/20:3n-6). No sex difference was observed in fatty acid composition. DHA content tended to have an inverse association with body mass index (BMI) (r=-0.337, p=0.0592), and correlated significantly with very low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (r=-0.558, p=0.0057). In addition, DHA content had significant negative relationships with SCD indices (SCD16; r=-0.373, p=0.0357 and SCD18; r=-0.580, p=0.0005), which correlated positively with BMI(r=0.439, p=0.0120, r=0.353, p=0.0473, respectively), but had no association with D5D or D6D. DHA content in obese children was independent of the desaturation of alpha-linolenic acid. Reduced DHA content was associated with increased SCD index, and might contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome. Dietary management including fatty acids is suggested to be important to prevent and better manage obesity.

  15. Differences in the skeletal muscle transcriptome profile associated with extreme values of fatty acids content.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Aline S M; Regitano, Luciana C A; Poleti, Mirele D; Andrade, Sónia C S; Tizioto, Polyana C; Oliveira, Priscila S N; Felício, Andrezza M; do Nascimento, Michele L; Chaves, Amália S; Lanna, Dante P D; Tullio, Rymer R; Nassu, Renata T; Koltes, James E; Fritz-Waters, Eric; Mourão, Gerson B; Zerlotini-Neto, Adhemar; Reecy, James M; Coutinho, Luiz L

    2016-11-22

    Lipids are a class of molecules that play an important role in cellular structure and metabolism in all cell types. In the last few decades, it has been reported that long-chain fatty acids (FAs) are involved in several biological functions from transcriptional regulation to physiological processes. Several fatty acids have been both positively and negatively implicated in different biological processes in skeletal muscle and other tissues. To gain insight into biological processes associated with fatty acid content in skeletal muscle, the aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and functional pathways related to gene expression regulation associated with FA content in cattle. Skeletal muscle transcriptome analysis of 164 Nellore steers revealed no differentially expressed genes (DEGs, FDR 10%) for samples with extreme values for linoleic acid (LA) or stearic acid (SA), and only a few DEGs for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 5 DEGs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 4 DEGs) and palmitic acid (PA, 123 DEGs), while large numbers of DEGs were associated with oleic acid (OA, 1134 DEGs) and conjugated linoleic acid cis9 trans11 (CLA-c9t11, 872 DEGs). Functional annotation and functional enrichment from OA DEGs identified important genes, canonical pathways and upstream regulators such as SCD, PLIN5, UCP3, CPT1, CPT1B, oxidative phosphorylation mitochondrial dysfunction, PPARGC1A, and FOXO1. Two important genes associated with lipid metabolism, gene expression and cancer were identified as DEGs between animals with high and low CLA-c9t11, specifically, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and RNPS. Only two out of seven classes of molecules of FA studied were associated with large changes in the expression profile of skeletal muscle. OA and CLA-c9t11 content had significant effects on the expression level of genes related to important biological processes associated with oxidative phosphorylation, and cell growth, survival, and migration

  16. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Batch and Column Experiments: A Perspective from Phosphate Oxygen Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jaisi, D. P.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) are increasingly being advocated as an efficient and environment-friendly "green" phosphorus nanofertilizer attributed to their nanoscale dimension, large reactive surface area, and low leaching potential. However, knowledge of how naturally occurring low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) that are secreted by plant roots mediate the dissolution of HANPs (releasing PO43- ion for plant growth) is nonexistent. Here three most commonly encountered LMWOAs (acetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid) at environmentally relevant concentration (1 mM) were evaluated for their effects on HANPs' dissolution in static batch and dynamic column systems. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during dissolution was examined to disentangle mechanisms controlling the evolution of O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion. Our results reveal that in batch experiments the dissolution of HANPs was fast but the overall dissolution efficiency of HANPs was limited (≤30%). In contrast, ~100% HANPs were dissolved in columns where LMWOAs were continuously injected. The limited dissolution of HANPs in static batch systems was due primarily to pH buffer effect (pH increased sharply when LMWOA was added in HANPs suspension), whereas in dynamic column systems the HANPs were continuously dissolved by low pH LMWOAs and leached away. Regardless of LMWOA type and experimental system, the isotopically light phosphate (P16O4) was preferentially released during dissolution and the O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion increased gradually with increasing dissolution due to equilibrium isotope effect between dissolved PO43- ion and HANPs. However, the overall magnitude of O-isotopic fractionation of dissolved PO43- ion was less in batch than in column systems, due to less mass transfer between dissolved PO43- ions and HANPs in batch relative to column experiments. Our findings provide new insights into bioavailability

  17. An Oral Load of [13C3]Glycerol and Blood NMR Analysis Detect Fatty Acid Esterification, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, and Glycerol Metabolism through the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Human Liver*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Eunsook S.; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Drugs and other interventions for high impact hepatic diseases often target biochemical pathways such as gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, or the metabolic response to oxidative stress. However, traditional liver function tests do not provide quantitative data about these pathways. In this study, we developed a simple method to evaluate these processes by NMR analysis of plasma metabolites. Healthy subjects ingested [U-13C3]glycerol, and blood was drawn at multiple times. Each subject completed three visits under differing nutritional states. High resolution 13C NMR spectra of plasma triacylglycerols and glucose provided new insights into a number of hepatic processes including fatty acid esterification, the pentose phosphate pathway, and gluconeogenesis through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fasting stimulated pentose phosphate pathway activity and metabolism of [U-13C3]glycerol in the tricarboxylic acid cycle prior to gluconeogenesis or glyceroneogenesis. Fatty acid esterification was transient in the fasted state but continuous under fed conditions. We conclude that a simple NMR analysis of blood metabolites provides an important biomarker of pentose phosphate pathway activity, triacylglycerol synthesis, and flux through anaplerotic pathways in mitochondria of human liver. PMID:27432878

  18. An Oral Load of [13C3]Glycerol and Blood NMR Analysis Detect Fatty Acid Esterification, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, and Glycerol Metabolism through the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2016-09-02

    Drugs and other interventions for high impact hepatic diseases often target biochemical pathways such as gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, or the metabolic response to oxidative stress. However, traditional liver function tests do not provide quantitative data about these pathways. In this study, we developed a simple method to evaluate these processes by NMR analysis of plasma metabolites. Healthy subjects ingested [U-(13)C3]glycerol, and blood was drawn at multiple times. Each subject completed three visits under differing nutritional states. High resolution (13)C NMR spectra of plasma triacylglycerols and glucose provided new insights into a number of hepatic processes including fatty acid esterification, the pentose phosphate pathway, and gluconeogenesis through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fasting stimulated pentose phosphate pathway activity and metabolism of [U-(13)C3]glycerol in the tricarboxylic acid cycle prior to gluconeogenesis or glyceroneogenesis. Fatty acid esterification was transient in the fasted state but continuous under fed conditions. We conclude that a simple NMR analysis of blood metabolites provides an important biomarker of pentose phosphate pathway activity, triacylglycerol synthesis, and flux through anaplerotic pathways in mitochondria of human liver. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

    2013-04-12

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava.

  20. Effects of glucose and gibberellic acid on glucosinolate content and antioxidant properties of Chinese kale sprouts*

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Hui-ying; Wang, Meng-yu; Chang, Jia-qi; Tao, Han; Sun, Bo; Wang, Qiao-mei

    2017-01-01

    Glucosinolates, anthocyanins, total phenols, and vitamin C, as well as antioxidant capacity, were investigated in Chinese kale sprouts treated with both glucose and gibberellic acid (GA3). The combination of 3% (0.03 g/ml) glucose and 5 μmol/L GA3 treatment was effective in increasing glucosinolate content while glucose or GA3 treatment alone did not influence significantly almost all individual glucosinolates or total glucosinolates. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts were enhanced by combined treatment with glucose and GA3, which could be useful in improving the main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity in Chinese kale sprouts. PMID:29204989

  1. Effects of glucose and gibberellic acid on glucosinolate content and antioxidant properties of Chinese kale sprouts.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hui-Ying; Wang, Meng-Yu; Chang, Jia-Qi; Tao, Han; Sun, Bo; Wang, Qiao-Mei

    Glucosinolates, anthocyanins, total phenols, and vitamin C, as well as antioxidant capacity, were investigated in Chinese kale sprouts treated with both glucose and gibberellic acid (GA 3 ). The combination of 3% (0.03 g/ml) glucose and 5 μmol/L GA 3 treatment was effective in increasing glucosinolate content while glucose or GA 3 treatment alone did not influence significantly almost all individual glucosinolates or total glucosinolates. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Chinese kale sprouts were enhanced by combined treatment with glucose and GA 3 , which could be useful in improving the main health-promoting compounds and antioxidant activity in Chinese kale sprouts.

  2. An Extremely Halophilic Proteobacterium Combines a Highly Acidic Proteome with a Low Cytoplasmic Potassium Content*

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Ratnakar; Challacombe, Jean; Raiford, Douglas W.; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that function only at high salinity. We examined osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris. Genome sequencing and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed that the proteome of H. halophila is acidic. In line with this finding, H. halophila accumulated molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt medium as detected by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. This result extends the taxonomic range of organisms using KCl as a main osmoprotectant to the Proteobacteria. The closely related organism H. halochloris does not exhibit an acidic proteome, matching its inability to accumulate K+. This observation indicates recent evolutionary changes in the osmoprotection strategy of these organisms. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt medium, its cytoplasmic K+ content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. First, we conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K+ ions and acidic side chains but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. Second, we propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K+-binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface. PMID:23144460

  3. An extremely halophilic proteobacterium combines a highly acidic proteome with a low cytoplasmic potassium content.

    PubMed

    Deole, Ratnakar; Challacombe, Jean; Raiford, Douglas W; Hoff, Wouter D

    2013-01-04

    Halophilic archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that function only at high salinity. We examined osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris. Genome sequencing and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed that the proteome of H. halophila is acidic. In line with this finding, H. halophila accumulated molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt medium as detected by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. This result extends the taxonomic range of organisms using KCl as a main osmoprotectant to the Proteobacteria. The closely related organism H. halochloris does not exhibit an acidic proteome, matching its inability to accumulate K(+). This observation indicates recent evolutionary changes in the osmoprotection strategy of these organisms. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt medium, its cytoplasmic K(+) content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. First, we conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K(+) ions and acidic side chains but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. Second, we propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K(+)-binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface.

  4. Virulent Hessian fly larvae manipulate the free amino acid content of host wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, Kurt D; Giovanini, Marcelo P; Zheng, Cheng; Williams, Christie E

    2008-11-01

    Gall-forming insects induce host plants to form specialized structures (galls) that provide immature life stages of the insect access to host plant nutrients and protection from natural enemies. Feeding by larvae of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) causes susceptible host wheat plants to produce a gall-like nutritive tissue that supports larval growth and development. To determine if changes in host plant free amino acid levels are associated with virulent Biotype L Hessian fly larval feeding, we quantified free amino acid levels in crown tissues of susceptible Newton wheat plants 1, 4, and 7 days after Hessian fly egg hatch. Hessian fly-infested susceptible plants were more responsive than resistant plants or uninfested controls, showing higher concentrations of alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and serine 4 days after egg hatch. This 4-day post-hatch time point corresponds to the maturation of nutritive tissue cells in susceptible plants and the onset of rapid larval growth. By 7 days after egg hatch, when virulent second instars are actively feeding on the contents of nutritive tissue cells, the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine were more abundant compared to uninfested controls, but the levels of other free amino acids were no longer elevated. Changes in free amino acid abundance described in this report were associated with increased levels of mRNA encoded by wheat genes involved in amino acid synthesis and transport.

  5. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  6. Phosphate fertilizer from sewage sludge ash (SSA).

    PubMed

    Franz, M

    2008-01-01

    Ashes from sewage sludge incineration are rich in phosphorus content, ranging between 4% and 9%. Due to the current methods of disposal used for these ashes, phosphorus, which is a valuable plant nutrient, is removed from biological cycling. This article proposes the possible three-stage processing of SSA, whereby more than 90% of phosphorus can be extracted to make an adequate phosphate fertilizer. SSA from two Swiss sewage sludge incinerators was used for laboratory investigations. In an initial step, SSA was leached with sulfuric acid using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2. The leaching time and pH required for high phosphorus dissolution were determined. Inevitably, dissolution of heavy metals takes place that would contaminate the fertilizer. Thus in a second step, leach solution has to be purified by having the heavy metals removed. Both ion exchange using chelating resins and sulfide precipitation turned out to be suitable for removing critical Cu, Ni and Cd. Thirdly, phosphates were precipitated as calcium phosphates with lime water. The resulting phosphate sludge was dewatered, dried and ground to get a powdery fertilizer whose efficacy was demonstrated by plant tests in a greenhouse. By measuring the weight of plants after 6 weeks of growth, fertilized in part with conventional phosphate fertilizer, fertilizer made from SSA was proven to be equal in its plant uptake efficiency.

  7. A new approach in biomimetic synthesis of calcium phosphate coatings using lactic acid-Na lactate buffered body fluid solution.

    PubMed

    Pasinli, Ahmet; Yuksel, Mithat; Celik, Erdal; Sener, Sevil; Tas, A Cuneyt

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates by using the biomimetic technique. To this purpose, a new solution was developed to coat CaP on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates. The newly formulated body fluid (Lac-SBF) contained appropriate amounts of sodium lactate (NaL) and lactic acid (HL), as well as all the other ionic constituents of the human blood plasma. The inorganic ion concentrations of the Lac-SBF solutions were identical with those of human blood plasma. The new Lac-SBF solution of this study eliminated the need for using Tris/HCl or Hepes/NaOH buffers. Prior to coating, Ti6Al4V substrates were chemically treated in NaOH and/or NaOH+H(2)O(2) solutions as an alternative route and then heated at 600 degrees C for 1h in air. In the previous applications, the Cl(-) ion concentration was found to be higher than blood plasma 103mM, which exists in human blood plasma as a result of Tris/HCl which are used to prevent precipitation and to keep the pH level at certain values. In this study, instead of using Tris/HCl, HL/NaL which are generated by human body and do not show any toxic behavior, are used and Cl(-) concentration was kept at 103mM value for the first time. The prepared Lac-SBF was shown to have similar concentration to human blood plasma in terms of all inorganic ions for the first time. Solution properties were evaluated by using turbidimeter, pH meter and rheometer. The coatings were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a scratch tester. The obtained results are presented and discussed. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citric acid, and peroxyacids against pathogenic bacteria on poultry during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    del Río, Elena; Muriente, Rebeca; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2007-09-01

    The effects of dipping treatments (15 min) in potable water or in solutions (wt/vol) of 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP), 1,200 ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 2% citric acid (CA), and 220 ppm peroxyacids (PA) on inoculated pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Yersinia enterocolitica) and skin pH were investigated throughout storage of chicken legs (days 0, 1, 3, and 5) at 3 +/- 1 degrees C. All chemical solutions reduced microbial populations (P < 0.001) as compared with the control (untreated) samples. Similar bacterial loads (P > 0.05) were observed on water-dipped and control legs. Type of treatment, microbial group, and sampling day influenced microbial counts (P < 0.001). Average reductions with regard to control samples were 0.28 to 2.41 log CFU/g with TSP, 0.33 to 3.15 log CFU/g with ASC, 0.82 to 1.97 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.07 to 0.96 log CFU/g with PA. Average reductions were lower (P < 0.001) for gram-positive (0.96 log CFU/g) than for gram-negative (1.33 log CFU/g) bacteria. CA and ASC were the most effective antimicrobial compounds against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively. TSP was the second most effective compound for both bacterial groups. Average microbial reductions per gram of skin were 0.87 log CFU/g with TSP, 0.86 log CFU/g with ASC, 1.39 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.74 log CFU/g with PA for gram-positive bacteria, and 1.28 log CFU/g with TSP, 2.03 log CFU/g with ASC, 1.23 log CFU/g with CA, and 0.78 log CFU/g with PA for gram-negative bacteria. With only a few exceptions, microbial reductions in TSP- and ASC-treated samples decreased and those in samples treated with CA increased throughout storage. Samples treated with TSP and samples dipped in CA and ASC had the highest and lowest pH values, respectively, after treatment. The pH of the treated legs tended to return to normal (6.3 to 6.6) during storage. However, at the end of

  9. Alkali Metal Ion Complexes with Phosphates, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Related Ligands of Biological Relevance. Their Properties in Solution.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Foti, Claudia; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Alkali metal ions play very important roles in all biological systems, some of them are essential for life. Their concentration depends on several physiological factors and is very variable. For example, sodium concentrations in human fluids vary from quite low (e.g., 8.2 mmol dm(-3) in mature maternal milk) to high values (0.14 mol dm(-3) in blood plasma). While many data on the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in various fluids are available, the information on other alkali metal cations is scarce. Since many vital functions depend on the network of interactions occurring in various biofluids, this chapter reviews their complex formation with phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, and related ligands of biological relevance. Literature data on this topic are quite rare if compared to other cations. Generally, the stability of alkali metal ion complexes of organic and inorganic ligands is rather low (usually log K < 2) and depends on the charge of the ligand, owing to the ionic nature of the interactions. At the same time, the size of the cation is an important factor that influences the stability: very often, but not always (e.g., for sulfate), it follows the trend Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) > Cs(+). For example, for citrate it is: log K ML = 0.88, 0.80, 0.48, 0.38, and 0.13 at 25 °C and infinite dilution. Some considerations are made on the main aspects related to the difficulties in the determination of weak complexes. The importance of the alkali metal ion complexes was also studied in the light of modelling natural fluids and in the use of these cations as probes for different processes. Some empirical relationships are proposed for the dependence of the stability constants of Na(+) complexes on the ligand charge, as well as for correlations among log K values of NaL, KL or LiL species (L = generic ligand).

  10. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in target food samples and packaging--method development and screening.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Ullah, Shahid; Sandblom, Oskar; Berger, Urs

    2013-11-01

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and grease-proof food packaging materials, and these chemicals are known precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Existing analytical methods for PAPs lack sample clean-up steps in the sample preparation. In the present study, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including a clean-up step for the raw extracts. The method was applied to food samples and their PAP-containing packaging materials. The optimized UPLC/MS/MS method enabled the separation and identification of a total of 4 monoPAPs, 16 diPAPs, and 7 triPAPs in the technical mixture Zonyl®-RP. For sample clean-up, weak anion exchange solid phase extraction columns were tested. PAPs standard solutions spiked onto the columns were separated into a fraction containing neutral compounds (triPAPs) and a fraction with ionic compounds (mono- and diPAPs) with recoveries between 72-110%. Method limits of quantification for food samples were in the sub to low picogram per gram range. For quantitative analysis of PAPs, compound-specific labeled internal standards showed to be essential as sorption and matrix effects were observed. Mono-, di-, and/or triPAPs were detected in all food packaging materials obtained from the Swedish market. Up to nine diPAPs were detected in the food samples, with the 6:2/6:2 and 6:2/8:2 diPAPs as the dominant compounds. DiPAP concentrations in the food samples ranged from 0.9 to 36 pg/g, which was comparable to individual PFCA concentrations in the same samples. Consumption of food packed in PAP-containing materials could be an indirect source of human exposure to PFCAs.

  11. Metabolic engineering of tomato fruit organic acid content guided by biochemical analysis of an introgression line.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Megan J; Osorio, Sonia; Gehl, Bernadette; Baxter, Charles J; Kruger, Nicholas J; Ratcliffe, R George; Fernie, Alisdair R; Sweetlove, Lee J

    2013-01-01

    Organic acid content is regarded as one of the most important quality traits of fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the complexity of carboxylic acid metabolism and storage means that it is difficult to predict the best way to engineer altered carboxylic acid levels. Here, we used a biochemical analysis of a tomato introgression line with increased levels of fruit citrate and malate at breaker stage to identify a metabolic engineering target that was subsequently tested in transgenic plants. Increased carboxylic acid levels in introgression line 2-5 were not accompanied by changes in the pattern of carbohydrate oxidation by pericarp discs or the catalytic capacity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes measured in isolated mitochondria. However, there was a significant decrease in the maximum catalytic activity of aconitase in total tissue extracts, suggesting that a cytosolic isoform of aconitase was affected. To test the role of cytosolic aconitase in controlling fruit citrate levels, we analyzed fruit of transgenic lines expressing an antisense construct against SlAco3b, one of the two tomato genes encoding aconitase. A green fluorescent protein fusion of SlAco3b was dual targeted to cytosol and mitochondria, while the other aconitase, SlAco3a, was exclusively mitochondrial when transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Both aconitase transcripts were decreased in fruit from transgenic lines, and aconitase activity was reduced by about 30% in the transgenic lines. Other measured enzymes of carboxylic acid metabolism were not significantly altered. Both citrate and malate levels were increased in ripe fruit of the transgenic plants, and as a consequence, total carboxylic acid content was increased by 50% at maturity.

  12. [Trans fatty acid content in foods marketed in the community of Madrid(Spain)].

    PubMed

    Moreno Alcalde, Santiago; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes; Belmonte Cortés, Susana

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the scientific evidence which show that the high consumption of trans fatty acids is a risk factor of certain illnesses, sanitary authorities recommend less than 1% intake of trans fatty acids of the total energy intake. Moreover, the European Commission must present, by December 2014, a report about the presence of trans fatty acids in the aliments as well as in the diet of the European Union population. Thus, this study can provide useful information to reach this objective. To determine trans fatty acid presence in some types of foods in the Community of Madrid. 170 samples of different foods commonly consumed by children and adolescents were selected and analized. All foods had been purchased in big shopping centers in the Community of Madrid during february of 2010. Results are shown as the percentage of each fatty acid compared to the total amount of fat in the aliment. Only 33 products (19.4%) showed the presence of trans fatty acids over the method detection limit (≥ 0.1g per 100g). The highest levels were found in dairy products, with an average content of 0,4%. DISCUSIÓN/CONCLUSIONES: The trans fatty acid content of the analyzed foods can be considered low, compared with the amount reported by other authors in food products marketed in Spain and other countries in the past few years. Further studies should be undertaken to control nutrition security and diet quality of fat intake in the Spanish population, particularly among children and adolescents.

  13. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family.

    PubMed

    Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g(-1) of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid .

  14. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (p<0.05) to that of the PC class. The phytosterol content of the NMC class, determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was distinct from the IMCs, but similar (p<0.05) to a portion of the PCs. Principal component analysis (eigenvalue⩾1) indicated that the NMCs can be differentiated from the IMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) orv and poly-L-lactic acid blended with nanoparticulate amorphous calcium phosphate in vascular stent applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yujue; Lan, Zhiyuan; Lyu, Yongnan; Feng, Gaoke; Zhang, Yipei; Tagusari, Shizu; Kislauskis, Edward; Robich, Michael P; McCarthy, Stephen; Sellke, Frank W; Laham, Roger; Jiang, Xuejun; Gu, Wei Wang; Wu, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers used as vascular stent coatings and stent platforms encounter a major challenge: biocompatibility in vivo, which plays an important role in in-stent restenosis (ISR). Co-formulating amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was investigated to address the issue. For stent coating applications, metal stents were coated with polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate/poly-n-butyl methacrylate (PEVA/PBMA), PLGA or PLGA/ACP composites, and implanted into rat aortas for one and three months. Comparing with both PEVA/PBMA and PLGA groups after one month, the results showed that stents coated with PLGA/ACP had significantly reduced restenosis (PLGA/ACP vs. PEVA/PBMA vs. PLGA: 21.24 +/- 2.59% vs. 27.54 +/- 1.19% vs. 32.12 +/- 3.93%, P < 0.05), reduced inflammation (1.25 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.77 +/- 0.38 vs. 2.30 +/- 0.21, P < 0.05) and increased speed of re-endothelialization (1.78 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.17 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.18, P < 0.05). After three months, the PLGA/ACP group still displayed lower inflammation score (1.33 +/- 0.33 vs. 2.27 +/- 0.55, P < 0.05) and higher endothelial scores (2.33 +/- 0.33 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.18, P < 0.05) as compared with the PEVA/PBMA group. Moreover, for stent platform applications, PLLA/ACP stent tube significantly reduced the inflammatory cells infiltration in the vessel walls of rabbit iliac arteries relative to their PLLA cohort (NF-kappaB-positive cells: 23.31 +/- 2.33/mm2 vs. 9.34 +/- 1.35/mm2, P < 0.05). No systemic biochemical or pathological evidence of toxicity was found in either PLGA/ACP or PLLA/ACP. The co-formulation of ACP into PLGA and PLLA resulted in improved biocompatibility without systemic toxicity.

  16. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  17. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2010.

  18. Effects of citric acid treatment on the Ca, P and Mg contents of human dental roots.

    PubMed

    Hennequin, M; Douillard, Y

    1995-07-01

    An electron microprobe analyser associated with a scanning electronic microscope was used to measure Ca, P and Mg contents of the human dental root hard tissues, before and after a citric acid treatment (pH = 1). The measurements were made on transverse sections through the cervical 1/3 of the molar roots. The measurements were performed at the following 8 levels: the internal cementum, the cementum-dentine junction, cementum-related dentine, 4 external dentine levels located at 220 microns, 420 microns, 620 microns and 820 microns from the cementum-dentine junction, and finally the juxta-pulpal dentine. After the citric acid treatment, the losses in Ca and P, but not in Mg, varied significantly with the level; an acid-resistant dentine layer of approximately 600 microns was found under the cementum-dentine junction. An increase in the Ca/P ratio was also observed in this layer. Since this external dentine zone is less demineralized by the citric acid than the underlying dentine, the collagen matrix in this region may also be less exposed. These differences in the response to citric acid that depend on the distance from the root surface may explain the unpredictability of periodontal healing after citric acid treatment of diseased root surfaces, because the amount of tissue removed during root planing is not constant.

  19. Effect of domestic processing and cooking methods on phytic acid and polyphenol contents of pea cultivars (Pisum sativum).

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, S; Khetarpaul, N; Yadav, R K

    1994-06-01

    All the pea varieties differed significantly (p < 0.05) in their phytic acid content. The field pea cultivars had significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of phytic acid and polyphenols than those of vegetable pea varieties. All the domestic processing and cooking methods could reduce the contents of phytic acid and polyphenols but germination for 48 hours seemed to have a marked lowering effect on the levels of these antinutrients in peas.

  20. Changes in free amino acid content during naupliar development of the Calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Thomas Allan; Jørgensen, Niels Ole Gerslev; Drillet, Guillaume; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2017-08-01

    Changes in free amino acids (FAA) were investigated in the potentially important live feed and neritic copepod species Acartia tonsa during naupliar development. Total content of FAA in A. tonsa nauplii was around 17% of dry weight at first development stage, and declined to 6% for later stages. Relative to body-volume and biomass, the FAA content indicated possible volume-dependent changes. However, changes in FAA with osmolytic activity could not account for this decline in FAA content, but suggests that the decline reflected degradation of residual FAAs from the embryonic stage. Glutamic acid revealed the largest change in relative abundance during naupliar development and declined from 29.0% at first nauplius stage to 7.1% at later stages. The high FAA pool in early naupliar stages may be necessary for naupliar development due to an absence of feeding at first development stages. The high FAA content in early nauplii indicates that A. tonsa is a valuable source for nutritional energy for first-feeding fish larvae and should be further exploited for aquaculture purposes. Enhancements to FAA abundances in nauplii through manipulation of maternal diets could be of future interest, as copepod nauplii can contain a substantial pool of FAAs at first development stage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit the expression of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in primary rat hepatocytes by a nuclear posttranscriptional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Stabile, L P; Klautky, S A; Minor, S M; Salati, L M

    1998-10-01

    Expression of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene is inhibited by the addition of polyunsaturated fatty acids to the medium of primary hepatocytes in culture. To define the regulated step, we measured the abundance of G6PD mRNA both in the nucleus and in total RNA and measured the transcriptional activity of the G6PD gene. Insulin and glucose stimulated a 5- to 7-fold increase in G6PD mRNA in rat hepatocytes. This increase was attenuated by 60% due to the addition of arachidonic acid. These changes in mRNA accumulation occurred in the absence of changes in the rate of transcription. Amounts of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) for G6PD in the nucleus changed in parallel with the amount of mature mRNA. The decrease in G6PD pre-mRNA accumulation caused by arachidonic acid was also observed with other long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids but not with monounsaturated fatty acids. In addition, this decrease was not due to a generalized toxicity of the cells due to fatty acid oxidation. These changes in G6PD expression in the primary hepatocytes are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the changes observed in the intact animal due to dietary carbohydrate and polyunsaturated fat. Regulation of G6PD expression by a nuclear posttranscriptional mechanism represents a novel form of regulation by fatty acids.

  2. The bone-regenerative properties of Emdogain adsorbed onto poly(D,L-lactic-coglycolic acid)/calcium phosphate composites in an ectopic and an orthotopic rat model.

    PubMed

    Plachokova, A S; van den Dolder, J; Jansen, J A

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone-regenerative properties of Emdogain in osseous and nonosseous sites. For the orthotopic study, unloaded poly(D,L-lactic-coglycolic acid)/calcium phosphate implants, and poly(D,L-lactic-coglycolic acid)/calcium phosphate implants loaded with different concentrations (0.25, 0.50 or 0.80 mg per implant) of enamel matrix derivative (EMD), were inserted into cranial defects of 24 rats. The implantation time was 4 wk. For the ectopic study, 32 implants were placed subcutaneously. The same study period and groups as in the orthotopic study were used. Methods of evaluation consisted of descriptive histology, histomorphometry and an in vitro EMD-release study. In the orthotopic study, new bone formation was most abundant in unloaded implants followed by 0.50-mg EMD composites. Histomorphometric measurements showed 54 +/- 15.0% bone ingrowth for unloaded implants, 19 +/- 22.5% bone ingrowth for 0.25-mg EMD composites, 40 +/- 23.6% bone ingrowth for 0.50-mg EMD composites and 26 +/- 17.6% bone ingrowth for 0.80-mg EMD composites. Light microscopic analysis of the subcutaneous sections from the ectopic study revealed no bone formation in any group after 4 wk. The in vitro release study showed 60% cumulative EMD release after 4 wk. Emdogain is not osteoinductive and is not able to enhance bone healing in combination with an osteoconductive material, such as poly(D,L-lactic-coglycolic acid)/calcium phosphate cement.

  3. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  4. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  5. Micropropagation and subsequent enrichment of carotenoids, fatty acids and tocopherol contents in Sedum dasyphyllum L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Han Yong; Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Gopal, Judy; Keum, Young-Soo; Kim, Doo Hwan; Lee, Onew; Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu

    2017-10-01

    A promising micropropagation protocol has been systematically established and demonstrated for the enhanced production of carotenoids, tocopherol and fatty acids in shoot tissues of Sedum dasyphyllum. Shoot tip explants were grown on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. Different concentrations of N6-benzyladenine (BA) or thidiazuron (TDZ) alone or in combination with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) were tested in order to stimulate multiple shoot production. Ideal shoot induction (100%) and maximized shoot numbers (36.4) were obtained on explants cultured on media incorporated with 2 µM BA and 1 µM NAA combinations. The in vitro-developed shoots rooted best on half-strength MS media incorporated with 2 µM indole 3-butyric acid. Plantlets were effectively acclimatized in the greenhouse with 100% survival rate. The composition and contents of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherol and fatty acids in shoot tissues of S. dasyphyllum were investigated using HPLC and GC-MS. The most abundant carotenoid in the shoot tissue was all-E-lutein (40.3-70.5 µg g-1 FW) followed by 9'-Z-neoxanthin (5.3-9.9 µg g-1 FW), all-E-violaxanthin (4.4-8.2 µg g-1 FW), and all-E-β-carotene (1.6-3.6 µg g-1 FW). The α-tocopherol contents of in vitro-raised shoots was 6.5-fold higher than shoots of greenhouse-grown plants. The primary fatty acids found in shoot tissues were α-linolenic acid (32.0-39.3%), linoleic acid (27.4-38.2%), palmitic acid (13.3-15.5%) and stearic acid (5.2-12.2%). In all, summarizing the findings, the micropropagated S. dasyphyllum showed significant enrichment of valuable bioactive carotenoids (92.3 µg g-1 FW), tocopherols (14.6 µg g-1 FW) and α-linolenic acid (39.3%) compared to their greenhouse counterparts. The protocol demonstrated here could be applied for the mass propagation and production of enhanced bioactive compounds from S. dasyphyllum with credibility.

  6. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromatographic method for determination of the free amino acid content of chamomile flowers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoli; Zhao, Dongsheng; Li, Xinxia; Meng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the free amino acid contents of chamomile flowers using reverse-phase high-performance column chromatography preceded by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC), and to determine the reliability of this method. Materials and Methods: Derivatization with reconstituted AQC was used to prepare the samples and standards for injection into the chromatography column. The peaks were analyzed by fluorescence detection (λ excitation, 250 nm; λ emission, 395 nm. Results: Alanine, proline, and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tyrosine and methionine were the least abundant. The linearity of the method was found to be good with amino acid concentrations of 0.012-0.36 μM. The precision was 0.05-1.36%; average recovery, 91.12-129.41%; and limit of detection, 0.006-0.058 μM. Conclusion: The method is reliable for determining the free amino acid content of different types of chamomile flowers. PMID:25709230

  8. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  9. Free amino acid content of goat's milk cheese made with animal rennet and plant coagulant.

    PubMed

    Abellán, Adela; Cayuela, José María; Pino, Antonio; Martínez-Cachá, Adela; Salazar, Eva; Tejada, Luis

    2012-06-01

    Enzymes present in the flowers of Cynara cardunculus (cyprosins) are used in the production of some traditional Spanish and Portuguese cheeses, replacing animal rennet. The aim of this work was to study the changes that take place in free amino acids during the ripening of a goat's milk cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured with plant coagulant (PC) or animal rennet (AR). The total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration increased during ripening, with Ile, Val, Ala, Phe, Gaba, Arg and Lys representing more than 50% of the TFAA content at 60 days in both types of cheese. The TFAA concentration was significantly higher in cheeses made with PC (854 mg 100 g(-1) total solids (TS)) than those made with AR (735 mg 100 g(-1) TS). The concentration of most free amino acids, especially His, Ser, Gln, Thr, Ala, Met and Ile, was higher in the PC cheese. Cheese made using PC as coagulant presented higher contents of free amino acid throughout the ripening period than cheese made using AR. Therefore we can conclude that the use of PC to produce Murcia al Vino goat's cheese would accelerate the ripening process as a result of increased cyprosin proteolytic activity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid content and organoleptic attributes of fermented milk products produced with probiotic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sa; Boylston, Terri D; Glatz, Bonita A

    2005-11-16

    The effect of probiotic bacteria on the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), microbial growth, and organoleptic attributes (acidity, texture, and flavor) of fermented milk products was determined. Four probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii 56, P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii 51, and P. freudenreichii subsp. freudenreichii 23, were evaluated individually or in coculture with traditional yogurt cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus). The lipid source was hydrolyzed soy oil. L. rhamnosus, in coculture with yogurt culture, resulted in the highest content of CLA. Growth and CLA formation of propionibacteria were enhanced in the presence of yogurt cultures. Texture and flavor attributes of fermented milks produced with propionibacteria were significantly different than the fermented milks processed with yogurt cultures. The fermented milks processed with probiotic bacteria in coculture with yogurt cultures demonstrated similar acidity, texture, and flavor as the fermented milk produced with yogurt cultures.

  11. Matching phosphate and maleate buffer systems for dissolution of weak acids: Equivalence in terms of buffer capacity of bulk solution or surface pH?

    PubMed

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    The development of in vitro dissolution tests able to anticipate the in vivo fate of drug products has challenged pharmaceutical scientists over time, especially in the case of ionizable compounds. In the seminal model proposed by Mooney et al. thirty-five years ago, the pH at the solid-liquid interface (pH0) was identified as a key parameter in predicting dissolution rate. In the current work it is demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution of the weak acid ibuprofen in maleate and phosphate buffer systems is a function of the pH0, which in turn is affected by properties of the drug and the medium. The reported pH0 for ibuprofen dissolution in bicarbonate buffer, the predominant buffer species in the human small intestine under fasting conditions, can be achieved by reducing the phosphate buffer concentration to 5.0mM or the maleate buffer concentration to 2.2mM. Using this approach to identify the appropriate buffer/buffer capacity combination for in vitro experiments in FaSSIF-type media, it would be possible to increase the physiological relevance of this important biopharmaceutics tool. However, the necessity of monitoring and adjusting the bulk pH during the experiments carried out in 5.0mM phosphate or 2.2mM maleate buffers must also be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

  13. One-pot twelve tungsten phosphate acid assisted electrochemical synthesis of WO3-decorated graphene sheets for high-efficiency UV-light-driven photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yuanmeng; Wei, Xiangyan; Wang, Yinyin; Luo, Fang

    2014-06-01

    In this work, WO3/graphene nanocomposite (WO3/GN) was prepared via an easy and scalable approach to decorate WO3 particles on the graphene sheets from a graphite electrode by twelve tungsten phosphate acid assisted electrochemical exfoliation. The samples were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The photocatalytic performance of the samples was investigated by the decomposition of the methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation, which is low power compared with previous published articles. The samples exhibited high degradation rate (up to 80%).

  14. An electrochemical and spectroscopic investigation of the corrosion inhibitor nonylphenylethoxy phosphate ester and of the films formed on 316L stainless steel in acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Peter Hsu-Jen

    In-situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and electrochemical polarization were applied to study nonylphenylethoxy phosphate ester, an effective corrosion inhibitor for pipeline steels in carbon-dioxide-saturated formation brine. Comparison of results among the phosphate ester, a nonylphenyl ethoxylated alcohol (Nonoxynol-9), and the sulfate ester---molecules that are essentially identical except for the headgroup---indicates that the effectiveness of the first as a corrosion inhibitor is crucially dependent upon the phosphate headgroup. Its effectiveness is attributed predominantly to the ability to complex with the surface, and not to its electrostatic interaction with the surface. Polarization curves obtained in brine containing the phosphate monoester or diester, separated from the as-received mixture, indicate that the monoester is superior. While SERS indicates that the ethoxylates of the phosphate ester interact with the steel surface, they, by themselves, are not sufficient to anchor the molecule. Spectral features assigned to the phenyl ring suggest that it does not interact significantly with the steel surface. SERS demonstrates that Cl- adsorption correlates with a decrease in phosphate ester adsorption and this occurs in the range of potentials where pitting would be expected according to the polarization curve. SERS has also been used to investigate the films that form on the surface of 316L stainless steel in a number of acidic solutions at room temperature---0.75 M HCl, 0.75 M HBr, 0.867 M HClO4, 0.75 M H2SO4 , and 0.75 M NaCl + 10-3 M HCl (pH 3). Two surface species characterized by SER peaks at 395 and 460 cm-1 form in all solutions; the relative intensity of the peaks depends on pH. The SER spectra of the films do not correlate with any cited reference spectrum of the oxide, hydroxide, or oxyhydroxide of iron, chromium, nickel, or molybdenum. The presence of a component giving rise to a peak at ≈214 cm-1 correlates with the absence of

  15. The content of total fatty acids in the serum of healthy children from the Zagreb area.

    PubMed

    Ivanić, D; Maradin, M; Granić, P; Popović, M

    1993-01-01

    A study of the fatty acid content was performed by gas chromatography in the sera of 26 healthy children aged 3-13 years and in the sera of 7 children aged up to three years, both from the Zagreb area. The following parameters were calculated for each subject and each fatty acid individually: mmol/l, mol%, g/l, mass% and mean molecular mass. On the basis of the results, the values of the parameters for the whole group of subjects were calculated. The values of these parameters for some characteristic groups of fatty acids (saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) were also calculated and their interrelationship is presented. The ratio of fatty acids according to age groups (0-1, 1-3 and 3-13 years) is also shown. Fatty acids C 18:2, C 16:0 and C 18:1 with 32.87 mol%, 22.56 mol% and 20.79 mol%, respectively, were most frequently observed in the children's sera, which correlated well with the generally known data. Essential fatty acids were present in the following amounts: C 20:4, 5.49 mol%; C 22:5, 0.26 mol%; and C 22:6, 0.82 mol%. The sera of the children aged up to one year were found to contain significantly higher amounts of short-chain fatty acids and lower amounts of C 18:2 and C 20:4 than the sera from children older than one year.

  16. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Reducing capacity, chlorogenic acid content and biological activity in a collection of scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants.

    PubMed

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-09-26

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties.

  18. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  19. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures.

  20. Skeletal muscle overexpression of short isoform Sirt3 altered mitochondrial cardiolipin content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Chabi, Béatrice; Fouret, Gilles; Lecomte, Jérome; Cortade, Fabienne; Pessemesse, Laurence; Baati, Narjès; Coudray, Charles; Lin, Ligen; Tong, Qiang; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Casas, François; Feillet-Coudray, Christine

    2018-03-27

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid at the heart of mitochondrial metabolism, which plays a key role in mitochondrial function and bioenergetics. Among mitochondrial activity regulators, SIRT3 plays a crucial role in controlling the acetylation status of many enzymes participating in the energy metabolism in particular concerning lipid metabolism and fatty acid oxidation. Data suggest that possible connection may exist between SIRT3 and CL status that has not been evaluated in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we have characterized skeletal muscle lipids as well as mitochondrial lipids composition in mice overexpressing long (SIRT3-M1) and short (SIRT3-M3) isoforms of SIRT3. Particular attention has been paid for CL. We reported no alteration in muscle lipids content and fatty acids composition between the two mice SIRT3 strains and the control mice. However, mitochondrial CL content was significantly decreased in SIRT3-M3 mice and associated to an upregulation of tafazzin gene expression. In addition, mitochondrial phospholipids and fatty acids composition was altered with an increase in the PC/PE ratio and arachidonic acid content and a reduction in the MUFA/SFA ratio. These modifications in mitochondrial membrane composition are associated with a reduction in the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I and IV. In spite of these mitochondrial enzymatic alterations, skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration remained similar in SIRT3-M3 and control mice. Surprisingly, none of those metabolic alterations were detected in mitochondria from SIRT3-M1 mice. In conclusion, our data indicate a specific action of the shorter SIRT3 isoform on lipid mitochondrial membrane biosynthesis and functioning.

  1. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer.

  2. Phosphate supply explains variation in nucleic acid allocation but not C : P stoichiometry in the Western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.; Allison, S. D.

    2013-10-01

    Marine microbial communities mediate many biogeochemical transformations in the ocean. Consequently, processes such as primary production and carbon (C) export are linked to nutrient regeneration and are influenced by the resource demand and elemental composition of marine microbial biomass. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that differential partitioning of element resources to various cellular components can directly influence overall cellular elemental ratios, especially with respect to growth machinery (i.e., ribosomal RNA) and phosphorus (P) allocation. To investigate whether allocation to RNA is related to biomass P content and overall C : P biomass composition in the open ocean, we characterized patterns of P allocation and C : P elemental ratios along an environmental gradient of P-supply in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (NASG) from 35.67° N 64.17° W to 22.67° N 65.52° W. Because the NASG is characterized as a P-stressed ecosystem, we hypothesized that biochemical allocation would reflect sensitivity to bioavailable P, such that greater P supply would result in increased allocation toward P-rich RNA for growth. We expected these changes in allocation to also result in lower C : P ratios with increased P supply. In contrast to our predictions however, bulk C : P ratios were decoupled from allocation to nucleic acids and did not vary systematically across a P supply gradient of 2.2-14.7 μmol m-2 d-1. Overall, we found that C : P ratios ranged from 188-306 along the transect, and RNA represented only 6-12% of total particulate P, whereas DNA represented 11-19%. However, we did find that allocation to RNA was positively correlated with SRP supply rate, suggesting a consistent physiological response in biochemical allocation to resource supply within the whole community. These results suggest that community composition or non-nucleic acid P pools may influence ecosystem scale variation in C : P stoichiometry more than nucleic acid allocation or

  3. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  4. Effect of gamma 60Co irradiation on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermavitalini, Dini; Sari, Ika Puspita; Prasetyo, Endry Nugroho; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Saputro, Triono Bagus

    2017-06-01

    Nannochloropsissp. has been identified as a promising feed stock for biodiesel production in recent years. Nannochloropsis sp. have high lipid content between 31-68 % of dry biomass weight. Mutagenesis induced by Gamma 60Co irradiation can be utilized to alter Nannochloropsis sp. characteristic to get microalgae mutant strain that can produce a higher lipid content than the wild strain. The aim of this research was to know the effect of gamma 60Co irradiation to the biomass, lipid content and fatty acid compotition of Nannochloropsis sp. microalgae. In this research, irradiation was done in different doses there were 0, 2, 4, 6 and 10 Gray (Gy). Measuring microalgae biomass and lipid content were done in late exponential phase at the end of each treatment. Research design used is random complete with 95 % confident level for quantitative analysis based on biomass and lipid content. Fatty acid compotition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that gamma irradiated gave an effect on lipid content and fatty acid profile of Nannochloropsis sp. Tukey test showed total lipid content of control micoalgae (0 Gy) was significat different with 10 Gy irradiated microalgae, but no significant different with 2,4 and 6 Gy irradiated microalgae. The highest lipid content were found in 10 Gy irradiated microalgae equal to 62.65 %. Fatty acid profile of 10 Gy irradiated Nannochloropsis sp. had 9 fatty acids while control Nannochloropsis sp. had 6 fatty acids.

  5. Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  6. Comparative genome analysis to identify SNPs associated with high oleic acid and elevated protein content in soybean.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Krishnanand P; Patil, Gunvant; Valliyodan, Babu; Vuong, Tri D; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T; Lee, Jeong-Dong

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship between the oleic acid and protein content. The genotypes having high oleic acid and elevated protein (HOEP) content were crossed with five elite lines having normal oleic acid and average protein (NOAP) content. The selected accessions were grown at six environments in three different locations and phenotyped for protein, oil, and fatty acid components. The mean protein content of parents, HOEP, and NOAP lines was 34.6%, 38%, and 34.9%, respectively. The oleic acid concentration of parents, HOEP, and NOAP lines was 21.7%, 80.5%, and 20.8%, respectively. The HOEP plants carried both FAD2-1A (S117N) and FAD2-1B (P137R) mutant alleles contributing to the high oleic acid phenotype. Comparative genome analysis using whole-genome resequencing data identified six genes having single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with the traits analyzed. A single SNP in the putative gene Glyma.10G275800 was associated with the elevated protein content, and palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The genes from the marker intervals of previously identified QTL did not carry SNPs associated with protein content and fatty acid composition in the lines used in this study, indicating that all the genes except Glyma.10G278000 may be the new genes associated with the respective traits.

  7. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components.

    PubMed

    Gehron, M J; Davis, J D; Smith, G A; White, D C

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  8. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  9. Variation of Select Flavonols and Chlorogenic Acid Content of Elderberry Collected Throughout the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Mudge, Elizabeth; Applequist, Wendy L.; Finley, Jamie; Lister, Patience; Townesmith, Andrew K.; Walker, Karen M.; Brown, Paula N.

    2016-01-01

    American elderberries are commonly collected from wild plants for use as food and medicinal products. The degree of phytochemical variation amongst wild populations has not been established and might affect the overall quality of elderberry dietary supplements. The three major flavonols identified in elderberries are rutin, quercetin and isoquercetin. Variation in the flavonols and chlorogenic acid was determined for 107 collections of elderberries from throughout the eastern United States using an optimized high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection method. The mean content was 71.9 mg per 100g fresh weight with variation ranging from 7.0 to 209.7 mg per 100 g fresh weight within the collected population. Elderberries collected from southeastern regions had significantly higher contents in comparison with those in more northern regions. The variability of the individual flavonol and chlorogenic acid profiles of the berries was complex and likely influenced by multiple factors. Several outliers were identified based on unique phytochemical profiles in comparison with average populations. This is the first study to determine the inherent variability of American elderberries from wild collections and can be used to identify potential new cultivars that may produce fruits of unique or high-quality phytochemical content for the food and dietary supplement industries. PMID:26877585

  10. Lake acidity and mercury content of fish in Darwin National Reserve, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Terry A.; Komov, V.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    Darwin National Reserve is a protected natural area on the north-west shore of the Rybinsk Reservoir, 350 km north of Moscow. In June 1989, six lakes in the Reserve and the reservoir were surveyed to assess lake acidity and the mercury content of perch, Perca fluviatilis. Five were seepage lakes with no permanent inlets or outlets and one was a drainage lake with both an inlet and an outlet. The seepage lakes were acidic (mean pH 4·6–4·8) and varied in colour from 20 to 200 Hazen units. The drainage lake and reservoir were alkaline (mean pH 8·0–8·1) and colour spanned a similar range. The mean mercury content of perch dorsal epaxial muscle ranged from 0·5 to 1·1 μg g−1 wet weight in the five acidic lakes and from 0·1 to 0·2 μg g−1 in the alkaline lakes. Fish mercury contentwas negatively correlated with lake pH (r = −0·93, P = 0·002)if all waters were considered together, and positively correlated with apparent colour (r = 0·91, P = 0·03) in the seepage lakes.

  11. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  12. Inhibition by apomorphine of the metoclopramide-induced catalepsy and increase in striatal homovanillic acid content.

    PubMed Central

    Ahtee, L

    1975-01-01

    1 The mechanism of the cataleptic effect of metoclopramide was analyzed by using drugs which alter the activity of dopaminergic or cholinergic neurones or the content of psi-aminobutyric acid in the central nervous system of rats. 2 The cataleptic effect of metoclopramide (20 mg/kg) was antagonized by apomorphine (10 mg/kg) and by atropine (50 mg/kg). Aminoxyacete acid (AOAA, 25-50 mg/kg) potentiated the catalepsy induced by metoclopramide (5 mg/kg). 3 Metoclopramide alone did not alter the rectal temperature of rats. It did not alter the AOAA-induced hypothermia, but it partially antagonized apomorphine-induced hypothermia. 4 Metoclopramide induced a six-fold increase in striatal homovanillic acid (HVA) concentration, but it did not change the dopamine or noradrenaline content in the brain of rats. Apomorphine decreased the striatal HVA concentration in control and in metoclopramide-treated rats. Atropine and AOAA did not alter the metoclopramide-induced increase in striatal HVA concentration. 5 The results suggest that metoclopramide produces catalepsy by blocking striatal dopamine receptors. PMID:1239323

  13. Biomineralization of lepidocrocite and goethite by nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria: Effect of pH, bicarbonate, phosphate, and humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larese-Casanova, Philip; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Kappler, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Fe(III) solid phases are the products of Fe(II) oxidation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, but the Fe(III) phases reported to form within growth experiments are, at times, poorly crystalline and therefore difficult to identify, possibly due to the presence of ligands (e.g., phosphate, carbonate) that complex iron and disrupt iron (hydr)oxide precipitation. The scope of this study was to investigate the influences of geochemical solution conditions (pH, carbonate, phosphate, humic acids) on the Fe(II) oxidation rate and Fe(III) mineralogy. Fe(III) mineral characterization was performed using 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and μ-X-ray diffraction after oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) within Mops-buffered cell suspensions of Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1, a nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium. Lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) (90%), which also forms after chemical oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved O 2, and goethite (α-FeOOH) (10%) were produced at pH 7.0 in the absence of any strongly complexing ligands. Higher solution pH, increasing concentrations of carbonate species, and increasing concentrations of humic acids promoted goethite formation and caused little or no changes in Fe(II) oxidation rates. Phosphate species resulted in Fe(III) solids unidentifiable to our methods and significantly slowed Fe(II) oxidation rates. Our results suggest that Fe(III) mineralogy formed by bacterial Fe(II) oxidation is strongly influenced by solution chemistry, and the geochemical conditions studied here suggest lepidocrocite and goethite may coexist in aquatic environments where nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are active.

  14. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells on β-tricalcium phosphate/poly (l-lactic acid/caprolactone) three-dimensional scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Mannerström, Bettina; Vuorinen, Annukka; Sándor, George KB; Suuronen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Functional tissue engineering for bone augmentation requires the appropriate combination of biomaterials, mesenchymal stem cells, and specific differentiation factors. Therefore, we investigated the morphology, attachment, viability, and proliferation of human dental pulp stem cells cultured in xeno-free conditions in human serum medium seeded on β-tricalcium phosphate/poly(l-lactic acid/caprolactone) three-dimensional biomaterial scaffold. Additionally, osteogenic inducers dexamethasone and vitamin D3 were compared to achieve osteogenic differentiation. Dental pulp stem cells cultured in human serum medium maintained their morphology; furthermore, cells attached, remained viable, and increased in cell number within the scaffold. Alkaline phosphatase staining showed the osteogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells under the influence of osteogenic medium containing vitamin D3 or dexamethasone within the scaffolds. Maintenance of dental pulp stem cells for 14 days in osteogenic medium containing vitamin D3 resulted in significant increase in osteogenic markers as shown at mRNA level in comparison to osteogenic medium containing dexamethasone. The results of this study show that osteogenic medium containing vitamin D3 osteo-induced dental pulp stem cells cultured in human serum medium within β-tricalcium phosphate/poly(l-lactic acid/caprolactone) three-dimensional biomaterial, which could be directly translated clinically. PMID:23316276

  16. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Alpay; Ar, İrfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  17. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  18. Geographic variation in the relationships of temperature, salinity or sigma sub t versus plant nutrient concentrations in the world ocean. [silicic acid, nitrate, and phosphate concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamykowski, D.; Zentara, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A NODC data set representing all regions of the world ocean was analyzed for temperature and sigma-t relationships with nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid. Six cubic regressions were for each ten degree square of latitude and longitude containing adequate data. World maps display the locations that allow the prediction of plant nutrient concentrations from temperature or sigma-t. Geographic coverage improves along the sequence: nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid and is better for sigma-t than for temperature. Contour maps of the approximate temperature of sigma-t at which these nitrients are no longer measurable in a parcel of water are generated, based on a percentile analysis of the temperature or sigma-t at which less than a selected amount of plant nutrient occurs. Results are stored on magnetic tape in tabular form. The global potential to predict plant nutrient concentrations from remotely sensed temperature of sigma-t and to emphasize the latitudinally and longitudinally changing phytoplankton growth environment in present and past oceans is demonstrated.

  19. [Biological evaluation of three-dimensional printed co-poly lactic acid/glycolic acid/tri-calcium phosphate scaffold for bone reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Li, S Y; Zhou, M; Lai, Y X; Geng, Y M; Cao, S S; Chen, X M

    2016-11-09

    Objective: To biologically evaluate the three-dimensional(3D) printed co-poly lactic acid/glycolic acid/tri-calcium phosphate(PLGA/TCP) scaffold which could be used for repairing oral and maxillofacial bone defects, and to provide experimental evidence for its further research and clinical application. Methods: PLGA/TCP scaffolds were fabricated using low temperature rapid prototyping technique. Micro-CT and scanning electron microscope(SEM) were used to characterize the surface morphology. MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded onto the scaffold and stained with the rhodamine phalloidin and calcein acetomethoxy. After that, confocal laser scanning microscope was exploited to observe the features and viability of the cells. Moreover, the cells were co-cultured with the extract of PLGA/TCP and complete medium, respectively. The proliferation capability of the cells was assessed by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) on the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd day. The PLGA/TCP scaffolds incorporated with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2(rhBMP-2) of 0, 30, 60 μg(i.e. blank control group, low-dose group and high-dose group) were implanted into the latissimus dorsi muscle of the rats, and 6 weeks later, the samples were harvested to estimate the volume and pattern of new bone. Results: The 3D printed PLGA/TCP scaffold possessed a regular and well-defined porous stereo-structure with porosity of (73±3)%. Micro-CT and SEM showed that pore size were (379±32) and (453±29) μm respectively, and distance between layers were (452± 24) and (415±25) μm, and cylinder diameter were (342±24) and (350±28) μm. It also exhibited excellent cell adhesion and growth ability on the exterior and inner surface through rhodamine phalloidin and calcein acetomethoxy staining. The CCK-8 test demonstrated that the absorbance value of extract group on the 1st and 2nd day(0.51±0.08 and 0.63±0.09) were significantly higher than those in the blank control group(0.39± 0.05 and 0.53±0.05)( P< 0.05), while

  20. Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum and P. berghei glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase involved in FASII fatty acid utilization in the malaria parasite apicoplast.

    PubMed

    Shears, Melanie J; MacRae, James I; Mollard, Vanessa; Goodman, Christopher D; Sturm, Angelika; Orchard, Lindsey M; Llinás, Manuel; McConville, Malcolm J; Botté, Cyrille Y; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2017-01-01

    Malaria parasites can synthesize fatty acids via a type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway located in their apicoplast. The FASII pathway has been pursued as an anti-malarial drug target, but surprisingly little is known about its role in lipid metabolism. Here we characterize the apicoplast glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase that acts immediately downstream of FASII in human (Plasmodium falciparum) and rodent (Plasmodium berghei) malaria parasites and investigate how this enzyme contributes to incorporating FASII fatty acids into precursors for membrane lipid synthesis. Apicoplast targeting of the P. falciparum and P. berghei enzymes are confirmed by fusion of the N-terminal targeting sequence to GFP and 3' tagging of the full length protein. Activity of the P. falciparum enzyme is demonstrated by complementation in mutant bacteria, and critical residues in the putative active site identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Genetic disruption of the P. falciparum enzyme demonstrates it is dispensable in blood stage parasites, even in conditions known to induce FASII activity. Disruption of the P. berghei enzyme demonstrates it is dispensable in blood and mosquito stage parasites, and only essential for development in the late liver stage, consistent with the requirement for FASII in rodent malaria models. However, the P. berghei mutant liver stage phenotype is found to only partially phenocopy loss of FASII, suggesting newly made fatty acids can take multiple pathways out of the apicoplast and so giving new insight into the role of FASII and apicoplast glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase in malaria parasites. © 2016 The Authors Cellular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tuning the degradation rate of calcium phosphate cements by incorporating mixtures of polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres and glucono-delta-lactone microparticles.

    PubMed

    Sariibrahimoglu, Kemal; An, Jie; van Oirschot, Bart A J A; Nijhuis, Arnold W G; Eman, Rhandy M; Alblas, Jacqueline; Wolke, Joop G C; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Jansen, John A

    2014-11-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are frequently used as synthetic bone graft materials in view of their excellent osteocompatibility and clinical handling behavior. Hydroxyapatite-forming CPCs, however, degrade at very low rates, thereby limiting complete bone regeneration. The current study has investigated whether degradation of apatite-forming cements can be tuned by incorporating acid-producing slow-resorbing poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) porogens, fast-resorbing glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) porogens, or mixtures thereof. The physicochemical, mechanical, and degradation characteristics of these CPC formulations were systematically analyzed upon soaking in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In parallel, various CPC formulations were implanted intramuscularly and orthotopically on top of the transverse process of goats followed by analysis of the soft tissue response and bone ingrowth after 12 weeks. In vitro degradation of GDL was almost completed after 2 weeks, as evidenced by characterization of the release of gluconic acid, while PLGA-containing CPCs released glycolic acid throughout the entire study (12 weeks), resulting in a decrease in compression strength of CPC. Extensive in vitro degradation of the CPC matrix was observed upon simultaneous incorporation of 30% PLGA-10% GDL. Histomorphometrical evaluation of the intramuscularly implanted samples revealed that all CPCs exhibited degradation, accompanied by an increase in capsule thickness. In the in vivo goat transverse process model, incorporation of 43% PLGA, 30% PLGA-5% GDL, and 30% PLGA-10% GDL in CPC significantly increased bone formation and resulted in higher bone height compared with both 10% GDL and 20% GDL-containing CPC samples.

  2. Erythrocyte Membrane Fatty Acid Content in Infants Consuming Formulas Supplemented with Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and Arachidonic Acid (ARA): an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa; Seifert, Jennifer; Szabo, Nancy J.; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    In this observational study, we compared erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in infants consuming formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) with those consuming other types of milks. In 110 infants who were participants in a cohort study of otherwise healthy children at risk for developing type 1 diabetes, erythrocytes were collected at approximately 9 months of age, and fatty acid content was measured as a percent of total lipids. Parents reported the type of milk the infants consumed in the month of and prior to erythrocyte collection – infant formula supplemented with ARA and DHA (supplemented formula), formula with no ARA and DHA supplements (non-supplemented formula), breast-milk, or non-supplemented formula plus breast-milk. Membrane DHA (4.42 versus 1.79, p < 0.001) and omega-3 fatty acid (5.81 versus 3.43, p < 0.001) levels were higher in infants consuming supplemented versus non-supplemented formula. Omega-6 fatty acids were lower in infants consuming supplemented versus non-supplemented formula (26.32 versus 29.68, p = 0.023); ARA did not differ between groups. Infants given supplemented formula had higher DHA (4.42 versus 2.81, p < 0.001) and omega-3 fatty acids (5.81 versus 4.45, p = 0.008) than infants drinking breast-milk. In infants whose mothers did not receive any dietary advice, use of supplemented formula is associated with higher omega-3 and lower omega-6 fatty acid status. PMID:21050388

  3. Method for Determining the Polymer Content in Nonsoluble Polydiacetylene Films: Application to Pentacosadiynoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Sylvie; Briand, Emrick; Vickridge, Ian; Fave, Jean-Louis; Schott, Michel

    2017-02-14

    The absorptivities of polydiacetylenes (PDAs) used in Langmuir films or vesicles for the development of PDA sensor films or other applications such as nonlinear optics and field-effect transistors are not known, so the polymer contents cannot be deduced from experimental spectra. Here we introduce a novel method, using nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), that allows a quantitative determination of the polymer content X proportion of monomers that have been incorporated into PDA chains. We apply it to pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) evaporated microcrystalline films. A calibration curve giving X as a function of the area under an absorption spectrum normalized to the monomer areal density is obtained for blue and red PCDA. The method is applicable to all kinds of films and to other PDAs, provided films with known molecular areal density are available. An example of the application to a PCDA Langmuir film is given.

  4. QTL for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in Brassica napus L. collocate with the two erucic acid genes

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Samija; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C.

    2008-01-01

    Improving oil and protein quality for food and feed purposes is an important goal in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) breeding programs. Rapeseed contains phytosterols, used to enrich food products, and sinapate esters, which are limiting the utilization of rapeseed proteins in the feed industry. Increasing the phytosterol content of oil and lowering sinapate ester content of meal could increase the value of the oilseed rape crop. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in a winter rapeseed population of 148 doubled haploid lines, previously found to have a large variation for these two traits. This population also segregated for the two erucic acid genes. A close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and phytosterol content (Spearman’s rank correlation, rs = −0.80**). For total phytosterol content, three QTL were detected, explaining 60% of the genetic variance. The two QTL with the strongest additive effects were mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. For sinapate ester content four QTL were detected, explaining 53% of the genetic variance. Again, a close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and sinapate ester content (rs = −0.66**) and the QTL with the strongest additive effects mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. The results suggests, that there is a pleiotropic effect of the two erucic acid genes on phytosterol and sinapate ester content; the effect of the alleles for low erucic acid content is to increase phytosterol and sinapate ester content. Possible reasons for this are discussed based on known biosynthetic pathways. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0734-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18335203

  5. The effect of the regulation on trans fatty acid content in Danish food.

    PubMed

    Leth, Torben; Jensen, Henrik G; Mikkelsen, Aase Aerendahl; Bysted, Anette

    2006-05-01

    The content of trans fatty acids (TFA) in Danish food has been monitored for the last 30 years. In margarines and shortenings the content of TFA has steadily declined from about 10 g/100 g margarine in the seventies to practically no TFA in margarines in 1999. In order to efficiently reduce the health risk related to TFA, Denmark decided to impose a maximum level of 2 g/100 g fat on industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA) with the Danish Order no. 160 of March 2003, as labelling was deemed insufficient to protect the consumers, especially risk groups like children or people with high intake of fast foods. A broader range of food was monitored with 253 samples in 2003 and 148 samples in 2005 after the Danish regulation was in effect. The investigations show that the TFA content has been reduced or removed from the products with high TFA content originally, like French fries, microwave oven popcorn and various bakery products, so IP-TFA are now without any significance for the intake of TFA in Denmark.

  6. [The effect of gamma rays on glutathion and ascorbic acid content in rabbit lenses (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Zygulska-Mach, H; Mach, Z

    1975-01-01

    It is pointed out that the partner non radiated eye is also influenced after employment of high radiation on an eye. The authors radiated rabbit eyes with gamma rays employing Stallard-applicators and determined the glutathion and ascorbic acid content in the lenses. The lenses of the partner eye were also examined for comparison. In those eyes which were directly radiated there was a fall of concentration of the two substances indirectly proportional to the dose of rays employed. In the partner eyes which were not directly subjected to direct radiation there were changes of similar character which were however not so much pronounced. The role of glutathion and ascorbic acid in lens metabolism is pointed out.

  7. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans.

  8. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  9. The influence of environmental features in the content of mycosporine-like amino acids in red marine algae along the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Briani, Bruno; Sissini, Marina N; Lucena, Leidson A; Batista, Manuela B; Costa, Iara O; Nunes, José M C; Schmitz, Caroline; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Korbee, Nathalie; Rörig, Leonardo; Horta, Paulo A; Figueroa, Félix L; Barufi, José B

    2018-03-05

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) are ultraviolet screen substances synthesized by marine algae. The physiological function of these substances is related to cellular protection against UV radiation and as a protective mechanism against oxidative stress. These substances can be found mainly in the ocean, among red seaweeds. Its concentration in organisms has been related to ultraviolet radiation and availability of inorganic nitrogen in the environment. We start our study of MAA content in different species to understand if environmental conditions influence the concentration of MAAs in red seaweeds. The Brazilian coast presents abiotic factors that interact to create different physical-chemical features in the environment. We collected 441 samples from 39 species of red seaweed easily found in the intertidal zone, in low tide, during the summer of 2015. The sampling encompassed a latitudinal gradient (3° S to 28°5' S) at 23 points along the coast. We quantified and identified the content of MAAs in species through the method of high performance liquid chromatography. We detected for the first time the occurrence of MAAs in certain species of red algae that have not been reported to contain MAAs before. We confirmed that some environmental factors influenced the content of MAAs. Enhanced MAA contents, for example, were found in environments with a basic pH, a high ultraviolet index, and high concentrations of phosphate and nitrate. Salinity, dissolved oxygen and variations of sea surface temperature also influenced, in a secondary way, MAA content in algae in their natural environments. © 2018 Phycological Society of America.

  10. Effects of vine water status on dimethyl sulfur potential, ammonium, and amino acid contents in Grenache Noir grapes (Vitis vinifera).

    PubMed

    De Royer Dupré, N; Schneider, R; Payan, J C; Salançon, E; Razungles, A

    2014-04-02

    We studied the effect of vine water status on the dimethyl sulfur potential (DMSP), ammonium, and amino acid contents of the berry during the maturation of Grenache Noir grapes. Water deficit increased the accumulation of amino acids in berries and favored yeast assimilable amino nitrogen. Similarly, ammonium content was higher in berries from vines subjected to moderate water deficit. DMSP content followed the same trend as yeast assimilable amino acid content, with higher concentrations observed in the berries of vines subjected to water deficit. The high DMSP and yeast assimilable nitrogen contents of musts from vines subjected to water deficit resulted in a better preservation of DMSP during winemaking. The wines produced from these musts had a higher DMSP level and would therefore probably have a higher aroma shelf life, because the DMSP determines the rate of release of dimethyl sulfur during wine storage, and this compound enhances fruity notes.

  11. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  12. A method of measuring airborne acidity: its application for the determination of acid content on long-distance transported particles and in drainage water from spruces

    Treesearch

    Cyrill Brosset

    1976-01-01

    The acid properties of particles have been investigated by means of measuring the content of mainly strong acid in leaching solutions of particle samples and in drain water from trees. The measurements are based on Gran's plot and on a study of its curvature.

  13. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Toong Long; Lai, Chia Chi; Liao, Ting Chen; Lin, Su Yue; Sung, Jih Min

    2015-12-01

    Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C) on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight), with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves) containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g) and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g), compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. PuPO4(cr, hyd.) Solubility Product and Pu3+ Complexes With Phosphate and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2010-06-15

    To determine the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) and the complexation constants of Pu(III) with phosphate and EDTA, the solubility of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) was investigated as a function of: 1) time and pH varying from 1.0 to 12.0 and at a fixed 0.00032 M phosphate concentration; 2) NaH2PO4 concentrations varying from 0.0001 M to 1.0 M and at a fixed pH value of 2.5; 3) time and pH varying from 1.3 to 13.0 at fixed concentrations of 0.00032 M phosphate and 0.0004 M or 0.002 M Na2H2EDTA; and 4) Na2H2EDTA concentrations varying from 0.00005 M to 0.0256 M at amore » fixed 0.00032 M phosphate concentration and at pH values of approximately 3.5, 10.6, and 12.6. A combination of solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques confirmed that the use of hydroquinone and Na2S2O4 helped maintain Pu as Pu(III). The solubility data were interpreted using Pitzer and SIT models, and both provided similar values for the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) and for the formation constant of PuEDTA-. The log10 of the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) (PuPO4(cr, hyd.) = Pu3+ + PO4 ) was determined to be –(24.42 ± 0.38). Pitzer modeling showed that phosphate interactions with Pu3+ were extremely weak and did not require any phosphate complexes (e.g., PuPO4(aq), PuH2PO42+, Pu(H2PO4)2+, Pu(H2PO4)3(aq), and Pu(H2PO4)4-), as proposed in existing literature, to explain the experimental data. SIT modeling, however, required the inclusion of PuH2PO42+ to explain the data in high NaH2PO4 concentrations; this illustrates the differences one can expect when using these two chemical models to interpret the data. As the Pu(III)-EDTA species, only PuEDTA- was needed to interpret the experimental data in a large range in pH values (1.3–12.9) and EDTA concentrations (0.00005–0.256 M). Calculations based on density functional theory support the existence of PuEDTA- (with prospective stoichiometry as Pu(OH2)3EDTA-) as the chemically and structurally stable species. The log10 of the

  15. Efficient increase of ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in tomato fruits by targeted mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Satoko; Arai, Chikako; Takayama, Mariko; Matsukura, Chiaki; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that has hypotensive effects. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is among the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetables in the world and contains higher levels of GABA than other major crops. Increasing these levels can further enhance the blood pressure-lowering function of tomato fruit. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA biosynthesis; it has a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain that regulates enzymatic function, and deleting this domain increases GAD activity. The tomato genome has five GAD genes (SlGAD1-5), of which two (SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) are expressed during tomato fruit development. To increase GABA content in tomato, we deleted the autoinhibitory domain of SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9 technology. Introducing a stop codon immediately before the autoinhibitory domain increased GABA accumulation by 7 to 15 fold while having variable effects on plant and fruit size and yield. This is the first study describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to increase GABA content in tomato fruits. Our findings provide a basis for the improvement of other types of crop by CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic modification.

  16. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family

    PubMed Central

    Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g-1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid . PMID:22438661

  17. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil.

    PubMed

    Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V

    2008-09-16

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.

  18. Trophic Interactions in Louisiana Salt Marshes: Combining Stomach Content, Stable Isotope, and Fatty Acid Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Duarte, P. C.; Able, K.; Fodrie, J.; McCann, M. J.; Melara, S.; Noji, C.; Olin, J.; Pincin, J.; Plank, K.; Polito, M. J.; Jensen, O.

    2016-02-01

    Multiple studies conducted over five years since the 2010 Macondo oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico indicate that oil impacts vary widely among taxonomic groups. For instance, fishes inhabiting the marsh surface show no clear differences in either community composition or population characteristics between oiled and unoiled sites, despite clear evidence of physiological impacts on individual fish. In contrast, marsh insects and spiders are sensitive to the effects of hydrocarbons. Both insects and spiders are components of the marsh food web and represent an important trophic link between marsh plants and higher trophic levels. Because differences in oil impacts throughout the marsh food web have the potential to significantly alter food webs and energy flow pathways and reduce food web resilience, our goal is to quantify differences in marsh food webs between oiled and unoiled sites to test the hypothesis that oiling has resulted in simpler and less resilient food webs. Diets and food web connections were quantified through a combination of stomach content, stable isotope, and fatty acid analysis. The combination of these three techniques provides a more robust approach to quantifying trophic relationships than any of these methods alone. Stomach content analysis provides a detailed snapshot of diets, while fatty acid and stable isotopes reflect diets averaged over weeks to months. Initial results focus on samples collected in May 2015 from a range of terrestrial and aquatic consumer species, including insects, mollusks, crustaceans, and piscivorous fishes.

  19. Branched-chain fatty acid content of foods and estimated intake in the USA.

    PubMed

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat Rivka; Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao; Brenna, J Thomas

    2014-08-28

    Branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2 % of fatty acids in cows' milk fat. There are few systematic data available on the BCFA content of other foods to estimate dietary intakes. In the present study, we report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods in the American diet and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant food products, and are absent from chicken, pork and salmon. The mean BCFA intake of 500 mg/d was delivered primarily from dairy and beef food products; by comparison, average intake of the widely studied long-chain PUFA EPA and DHA has been estimated to be 100 mg/d. Common adjustments in the diet could double the daily intake of BCFA. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA, but, overall, they are low-fat foods providing very small amounts of BCFA in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from the influence of microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef food products and highlight the need for research into their effects on health.

  20. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil

    PubMed Central

    Terés, S.; Barceló-Coblijn, G.; Benet, M.; Álvarez, R.; Bressani, R.; Halver, J. E.; Escribá, P. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as α-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (≈70–80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (HII phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA. PMID:18772370

  1. Effect of a seaweed extract on fatty acid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    He, M L; Wang, Y; You, J S; Mir, P S; McAllister, T A

    2009-02-01

    This study was to determine the effect of a seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum extract (SE) containing 220 mg g(-1) phlorotannins on differentiation and fatty acid accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells (2 x 10(4) mL(-1)) were seeded to 24-well plates and proliferated to reach confluence and then were treated with media containing 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mug mL(-1) SE for 8 days. Dexamethasone, methyl-isobutylxanthine and insulin (DMI) were added to the media in the first 2 days to induce cell differentiation. On day 8 the adipocytes were harvested for measuring cellular fatty acid concentration and the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). It was found that treatment with SE increased (P < 0.01, n = 6) cellular myristoleic acid (C14:1), palmitoleic acid (C16:1) and oleic acid (C18:1) and total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) without significantly affecting the cell number and saturated fatty acid (SFA). Ratios of MUFA/SFA, C14:1/C14:0, C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0 in cellular lipids increased (P < 0.05, n = 6) with the SE treatment in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.001). Treatment with 75 microg mL(-1) SE depressed (P < 0.05) cellular GPDH activity. The results indicate that the biological factors in the SE may be involved in differentiation and MUFA accumulation in adipocytes.

  2. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  3. Purification, properties, and N-terminal amino acid sequence of homogeneous Escherichia coli 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, J J; Dekker, E E

    1987-10-25

    Starting with 100 g (wet weight) of a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 forced to grow on L-threonine as sole carbon source, we developed a 6-step procedure that provides 30-40 mg of homogeneous 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase (also called aminoacetone synthetase or synthase). This ligase, which catalyzes the cleavage/condensation reaction between 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate (the presumed product of the L-threonine dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction) and glycine + acetyl-CoA, has an apparent molecular weight approximately equal to 85,000 and consists of two identical (or nearly identical) subunits with Mr = 42,000. Computer analysis of amino acid composition data, which gives the best fit nearest integer ratio for each residue, indicates a total of 387 amino acids/subunit with a calculated Mr = 42,093. Stepwise Edman degradation provided the N-terminal sequence of the first 21 amino acids. It is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme since (a) several carbonyl reagents caused greater than 90% loss of activity, (b) dialysis against buffer containing hydroxylamine resulted in 89% loss of activity coincident with an 86% decrease in absorptivity at 428 nm, (c) incubation of the apoenzyme with 20 microM pyridoxal phosphate showed a parallel recovery (greater than 90%) of activity and 428-nm absorptivity, and (d) reduction of the holoenzyme with NaBH4 resulted in complete inactivation, disappearance of a new absorption maximum at 333 nm. Strict specificity for glycine is shown but acetyl-CoA (100%), n-propionyl-CoA (127%), or n-butyryl-CoA (16%) is utilized in the condensation reaction. Apparent Km values for acetyl-CoA, n-propionyl-CoA, and glycine are 59 microM, 80 microM, and 12 mM, respectively; the pH optimum = 7.5. Added divalent metal ions or sulfhydryl compounds inhibited catalysis of the condensation reaction.

  4. The solid fat content of stearic acid-rich fats determines their postprandial effects.

    PubMed

    Berry, Sarah E E; Miller, George J; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2007-06-01

    The process of randomization is used commercially to harden fats as an alternative to partial hydrogenation, but its effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors are uncertain. The objective was to compare the chronic and acute effects of randomization of a fat rich in 1,3-distearyl, 2-oleyl glycerol on fasting and postprandial lipids, glucose, insulin, and activated clotting factor VII (FVIIa) concentrations. A crossover design study in 16 men compared fasting and postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, and FVIIa concentrations at baseline and after a 3-wk diet providing 30 g unrandomized or randomized shea butter and sunflower oil blends (SSOBs), both of which contained approximately 50% stearic acid. Fecal fat excretion was measured during each dietary period. Postprandial changes were assessed after the consumption of meals providing 50 g test fat. A subsequent study compared postprandial changes after the consumption of an oleic acid-rich sunflower oil meal and an unrandomized SSOB meal. Both SSOBs were well digested and absorbed. Randomization did not affect fasting or postprandial lipid, glucose, insulin, or FVIIa concentrations. Compared with the oleic acid-rich meal, the unrandomized SSOB resulted in 53% lower postprandial lipemia, 23% higher hepatic lipase activity, and a 25% lower postprandial increase in FVIIa concentration. The solid fat contents at 37 degrees C were 22%, 41%, and 0% with the unrandomized SSOB, randomized SSOB, and oleic acid-rich meals, respectively. Stearic acid-rich triacylglycerol in both unrandomized and randomized forms does not adversely affect lipid risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The high proportion of solid fat at 37 degrees C may explain the decreased postprandial lipemic response.

  5. [Acid-base, tautomeric and isomeric equilibrium of pyridoxal oximes, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and some of their analogs].

    PubMed

    Bokovoĭ, V A; Bazhulina, N P; Morozov, Iu V; Chekhov, V O

    1989-01-01

    Success has been achieved in detailed understanding of tautomeric and isomeric equilibria and search for the new tautomeric and isomeric forms of oximes of pyridoxal, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate and some of their analogs, their presence is explained. This is due to a careful deconvolution of absorption spectra of different ionic forms of oximes into bands corresponding to separate electronic transitions. The spectroscopical data and the results of quantum-chemical calculations are compared for all the forms of compounds under investigation. As it has been found to be valid for other vitamin B6 derivatives as well, quantum-chemical calculations can be used for analytical purposes.

  6. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  7. Sevoflurane formulation water content influences degradation by Lewis acids in vaporizers.

    PubMed

    Kharasch, Evan D; Subbarao, Gowdahalli N; Cromack, Keith R; Stephens, Dennis A; Saltarelli, Mario D

    2009-06-01

    Sevoflurane is produced by several manufacturers. Currently marketed sevoflurane formulations differ in their method of synthesis, impurities, containers in which they are sold, and water content. Of the various types of chemical degradation to which sevoflurane is susceptible, the most pertinent is degradation by Lewis acids (such as metal oxides and metal halides) to hydrofluoric acid and other toxic compounds. Water inhibits such degradation. This observational study determined the degradation profile of three formulations of sevoflurane (two lower-water and one higher-water formulation) when stored in three types of vaporizers. Lower-water sevoflurane (Eraldin, Laboratorios Richmond/Minrad, Argentina [19 ppm water] and generic sevoflurane, Baxter, US [57 ppm water]) and higher-water sevoflurane formulations (Ultane, Abbott, US [352 ppm water]) were stored in three different vaporizers (Draeger Vapor 2000, GE/Datex-Ohmeda Tec 7, Penlon Sigma Delta) under accelerated storage conditions (40 degrees C). Sevoflurane was sampled from each vaporizer immediately following filling and after 1, 2, and 3 wk, and analyzed for water content, pH, fluoride, and total degradants. Lower-water sevoflurane formulations stored in the Penlon Sigma Delta vaporizers contained time dependent increases in hydrofluoric acid (pH decreased as low as 3, fluoride concentration as high as 600 ppm), and total degradants (>68,000 ppm). Penlon Sigma Delta vaporizers filled with lower-water sevoflurane formulations showed substantial etching of the sight glass and metal filler shoe after 3 wk of storage. The higher-water sevoflurane formulation (Ultane, Abbott, US [352 ppm water]) contained negligible amounts of fluoride or degradants, and small decreases in pH. Sevoflurane stored in Draeger Vapor 2000 and GE/Datex-Ohmeda Tec 7 showed negligible changes in pH, fluoride concentration, and degradants. Lower-water sevoflurane underwent substantial degradation to hydrofluoric acid and other

  8. The N-Acetylmuramic Acid 6-Phosphate Phosphatase MupP Completes the Pseudomonas Peptidoglycan Recycling Pathway Leading to Intrinsic Fosfomycin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Borisova, Marina; Gisin, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial cells are encased in and stabilized by a netlike peptidoglycan (PGN) cell wall that undergoes turnover during bacterial growth. PGN turnover fragments are frequently salvaged by the cells via a pathway referred to as PGN recycling. Two different routes for the recycling of the cell wall sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) have been recognized in bacteria. In Escherichia coli and related enterobacteria, as well as in most Gram-positive bacteria, MurNAc is recovered via a catabolic route requiring a MurNAc 6-phosphate etherase (MurQ in E. coli) enzyme. However, many Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas species, lack a MurQ ortholog and use an alternative, anabolic recycling route that bypasses the de novo biosynthesis of uridyldiphosphate (UDP)-MurNAc, the first committed precursor of PGN. Bacteria featuring the latter pathway become intrinsically resistant to the antibiotic fosfomycin, which targets the de novo biosynthesis of UDP-MurNAc. We report here the identification and characterization of a phosphatase enzyme, named MupP, that had been predicted to complete the anabolic recycling pathway of Pseudomonas species but has remained unknown so far. It belongs to the large haloacid dehalogenase family of phosphatases and specifically converts MurNAc 6-phosphate to MurNAc. A ΔmupP mutant of Pseudomonas putida was highly susceptible to fosfomycin, accumulated large amounts of MurNAc 6-phosphate, and showed lower levels of UDP-MurNAc than wild-type cells, altogether consistent with a role for MupP in the anabolic PGN recycling route and as a determinant of intrinsic resistance to fosfomycin. PMID:28351914

  9. Complexes of Silver(I) Ions and Silver Phosphate Nanoparticles with Hyaluronic Acid and/or Chitosan as Promising Antimicrobial Agents for Vascular Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Chudobova, Dagmar; Nejdl, Lukas; Gumulec, Jaromir; Krystofova, Olga; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Kynicky, Jindrich; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Kopel, Pavel; Babula, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are currently widely used to replace a variety of natural materials with respect to their favourable physical and chemical properties, and due to their economic advantage. One of the most important branches of application of polymers is the production of different products for medical use. In this case, it is necessary to face a significant disadvantage of polymer products due to possible and very common colonization of the surface by various microorganisms that can pose a potential danger to the patient. One of the possible solutions is to prepare polymer with antibacterial/antimicrobial properties that is resistant to bacterial colonization. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of antimicrobial polymeric material ideal for covering vascular implants with subsequent use in transplant surgery. Therefore, the complexes of polymeric substances (hyaluronic acid and chitosan) with silver nitrate or silver phosphate nanoparticles were created, and their effects on gram-positive bacterial culture of Staphylococcus aureus were monitored. Stages of formation of complexes of silver nitrate and silver phosphate nanoparticles with polymeric compounds were characterized using electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of complexes was determined using the methods of determination of growth curves and zones of inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the complex of chitosan, with silver phosphate nanoparticles, was the most suitable in order to have an antibacterial effect on bacterial culture of Staphylococcus aureus. Formation of this complex was under way at low concentrations of chitosan. The results of electrochemical determination corresponded with the results of spectrophotometric methods and verified good interaction and formation of the complex. The complex has an outstanding antibacterial effect and this effect was of several orders higher compared to other investigated complexes

  10. Calcium phosphate deposition rate, structure and osteoconductivity on electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) matrix using electrodeposition or simulated body fluid incubation.

    PubMed

    He, Chuanglong; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X

    2014-01-01

    Mineralized nanofibrous scaffolds have been proposed as promising scaffolds for bone regeneration due to their ability to mimic both nanoscale architecture and chemical composition of natural bone extracellular matrix. In this study, a novel electrodeposition method was compared with an extensively explored simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation method in terms of the deposition rate, chemical composition and morphology of calcium phosphate formed on electrospun fibrous thin matrices with a fiber diameter in the range ~200-1400 nm prepared using 6, 8, 10 and 12 wt.% poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions in a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (2:1 in volume). The effects of the surface modification using the two mineralization techniques on osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation and differentiation were also examined. It was found that electrodeposition was two to three orders of magnitude faster than the SBF method in mineralizing the fibrous matrices, reducing the mineralization time from ~2 weeks to 1h to achieve the same amounts of mineralization. The mineralization rate also varied with the fiber diameter but in opposite directions between the two mineralization methods. As a general trend, the increase of fiber diameter resulted in a faster mineralization rate for the electrodeposition method but a slower mineralization rate for the SBF incubation method. Using the electrodeposition method, one can control the chemical composition and morphology of the calcium phosphate by varying the electric deposition potential and electrolyte temperature to tune the mixture of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and hydroxyapatite (HAp). Using the SBF method, one can only obtain a low crystallinity HAp. The mineralized electrospun PLLA fibrous matrices from either method similarly facilitate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as compared to neat PLLA matrices. Therefore, the electrodeposition method can be utilized as a fast

  11. Calcium phosphate deposition rate, structure and osteoconductivity on electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) matrix using electrodeposition or simulated body fluid incubation

    PubMed Central

    He, Chuanglong; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    Mineralized nanofibrous scaffolds have been proposed as promising scaffolds for bone regeneration due to their ability to mimic both nanoscale architecture and chemical composition of natural bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, a novel electrodeposition method was compared with an extensively explored simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation method in terms of the deposition rate, chemical composition, and morphology of calcium phosphate formed on electrospun fibrous thin matrices with a fiber diameter in the range from about 200 nm to about 1400 nm prepared using 6, 8, 10 and 12 wt% poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions in a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (2:1 in volume). The effects of the surface modification using the two mineralization techniques on osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation and differentiation were also examined. It was found that electrodeposition was two to three orders of magnitude faster than the SBF method in mineralizing the fibrous matrices, reducing the mineralization time from about two weeks to an hour to achieve the same amounts of mineralization. The mineralization rate also varied with the fiber diameter but in opposite directions between the two mineralization methods. As a general trend, the increase of fiber diameter resulted in a faster mineralization rate for the electrodeposition method but a slower mineralization rate for the SBF incubation method. Using the electrodeposition method, one can control the chemical composition and morphology of the calcium phosphate by varying the electric deposition potential and electrolyte temperature to tune the mixture of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and hydroxy apatite (HAp). Using the SBF method, one can only obtain a low crystallinity HAp. The mineralized electrospun PLLA fibrous matrices from either method similarly facilitate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as compared to neat PLLA matrices. Therefore, the

  12. Lack of transgene and glyphosate effects on yield, and mineral and amino acid content of glyphosate-resistant soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been controversy as to whether the glyphosate resistance gene and/or glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean affect mineral content (especially Mg, Mn, and Fe), yield and amino acid content of GR soybean. A two-year field study (2013 and 2014) examined these questions at si...

  13. [Biodiversity of phosphate-dissolving and plant growth--promoting endophytic bacteria of two crops].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Sheng, Xiafang; He, Linyan

    2010-06-01

    We isolated and characterized phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria from two commonly cultivated crops. Phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria were isolated by plating and screening from interior tissues of rape and maize plants on NBRIP medium with tricalcium phosphate as sole phosphate source. Bacteria were characterized regarding characteristics that may be relevant for a beneficial plant-microbe interaction-indoleacetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase production,and further classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA. Eleven typical strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Thirty-two phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria were isolated from maize and rape plants and classified by restriction analysis of 16S rDNA in 8 different taxonomic groups at the similarity level of 76%. All the isolates could release phosphate from tricalcium phosphate and decrease the pH of the medium. The maximum phosphate content (537.6 mg/L) in the solution was obtained with strain M1L5. Thirteen isolates isolated from rape produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore, 68.4% and 63.2% of the strains isolated from maize produced indoleacetic acid and siderophore,respectively. 63.2% of the strains isolated from maize were able to grow on 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as the sole nitrogen source. The eleven strains belonged to five different genera including Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Acinetobacter and Ralstonia. Phosphate-dissolving endophytic bacteria isolated from rape and maize plants have abundant characteristics relative to promoting plant growth and genetic diversity.

  14. The effects of enhanced methionine synthesis on amino acid and anthocyanin content of potato tubers

    PubMed Central

    Dancs, Gábor; Kondrák, Mihály; Bánfalvi, Zsófia

    2008-01-01

    Background Potato is a staple food in the diet of the world's population and also being used as animal feed. Compared to other crops, however, potato tubers are relatively poor in the essential amino acid, methionine. Our aim was to increase the methionine content of tubers by co-expressing a gene involved in methionine synthesis with a gene encoding a methionine-rich storage protein in potato plants. Results In higher plants, cystathionine γ-synthase (CgS) is the first enzyme specific to methionine biosynthesis. We attempted to increase the methionine content of tubers by expressing the deleted form of the Arabidopsis CgS (CgSΔ90), which is not regulated by methionine, in potato plants. To increase the incorporation of free methionine into a storage protein the CgSΔ90 was co-transformed with the methionine-rich 15-kD β-zein. Results demonstrated a 2- to 6-fold increase in the free methionine content and in the methionine content of the zein-containing protein fraction of the transgenic tubers. In addition, in line with higher methionine content, the amounts of soluble isoleucine and serine were also increased. However, all of the lines with high level of CgSΔ90 expression were phenotypically abnormal showing severe growth retardation, changes in leaf architecture and 40- to 60% reduction in tuber yield. Furthermore, the colour of the transgenic tubers was altered due to the reduced amounts of anthocyanin pigments. The mRNA levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the enzyme catalysing the first step of anthocyanin synthesis, were decreased. Conclusion Ectopic expression of CgSΔ90 increases the methionine content of tubers, however, results in phenotypic aberrations in potato. Co-expression of the 15-kD β-zein with CgSΔ90 results in elevation of protein-bound methionine content of tubers, but can not overcome the phenotypical changes caused by CgSΔ90 and can not significantly improve the nutritional value of tubers. The level of PAL mRNA and

  15. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  16. Effect of water content on the acid-base equilibrium of cyanidin-3-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Isabel B; Freitas, Adilson; Maçanita, António L; Lima, J C

    2015-04-01

    Laser Flash Photolysis was employed to measure the deprotonation and reprotonation rate constants of cyanidin 3-monoglucoside (kuromanin) in water/methanol mixtures. It was found that the deprotonation rate constant kd decreases with decreasing water content, reflecting the lack of free water molecules around kuromanin, which may accommodate and stabilize the outgoing protons. On the other hand, the reprotonation rate constant, kp, increases with the decrease in water concentration from a value of kp = 2 × 10(10) l mol(-1) s(-1) in water up to kp = 6 × 10(10) l mol(-1) s(-1) at 5.6M water concentration in the mixture. The higher value of kp at lower water concentrations reflects the fact that the proton is not freely escaping the solvation shell of the molecule. The deprotonation rate constant decreases with decreasing water content, reflecting the lack of free water molecules around kuromanin that can accommodate the outgoing protons. Overall, the acidity constant of the flavylium cation decreases with the decrease in water concentration from pKa values of 3.8 in water to approximately 4.8 in water-depleted media, thus shifting the equilibrium towards the red-coloured form, AH(+), at low water contents. The presence, or lack, of water, will affect the colour shade (red to blue) of kuromanin. This is relevant for its role as an intrinsic food component and as a food pigment additive (E163). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of defatting on acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents.

    PubMed

    Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Zhang, Bao; Li, Hongyan; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-11-01

    The effect of defatting on the physiochemical properties and the acid hydrolysis rate of maize starch with different amylose contents was evaluated in this study. The increase in the number of pores and the stripping of starch surface layers were observed after defatting by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction spectrum showed that the peaks attributing to the amylose-lipid complex disappeared. The relative crystallinity increased by 19% for high-amylose maize starch (HMS) on defatting, while the other tested starches virtually unchanged. Differential scanning calorimetry study indicated an increase in the thermal stability for the defatted starches. Compared with native waxy maize starch, the acid hydrolysis rate of the defatted one increased by 6% after 10 days. For normal maize starch (NMS) and HMS, the higher rate of hydrolysis was observed during the first 5 days. Thereafter, the hydrolysis rate was lower than that of their native counterpart. The increase in susceptibility to acid hydrolysis (in the first 5 days) was mainly attributed to the defective and porous structures formed during defatting process, while the decrease of hydrolysis rate for NMS and HMS samples (after the first 5 days) probably resulted from the increase in the relative crystallinity. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  19. Branched chain fatty acid content of United States retail cow's milk and implications for dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Ran-Ressler, R R; Sim, D; O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Bauman, D E; Barbano, D M; Brenna, J T

    2011-07-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) have recently been shown to be a major component of the normal human newborn gastrointestinal tract and have long been known to be a component of human milk. Ruminant food products are major sources of fat in the American diet, but there are no studies of milkfat BCFA content in retail milk. We report here the profile and concentrations of BCFA in a representative sampling of retail milk in the 48 contiguous United States (US), and their estimated intake in the American diet. Conventionally produced whole fluid milk samples were obtained from 56 processing plants across the contiguous 48 states. Retail milk samples contain exclusively iso- and anteiso-BCFA with 14-18 carbons. BCFA were 2.05 ± 0.14%, w/w of milkfat fatty acids (mean ± SD), and anteiso-BCFA comprised more than half this total. Based on these data and USDA food availability data, the average per capita BCFA intake of Americans is estimated to be about 220 mg/d from dairy; if current dietary recommendations were followed, BCFA intake would be about 400 mg/d. Adding intake from beef consumption, these estimates rise to approximately 400 and 575 mg/d, respectively. These results indicate that BCFA intake is a substantial fraction of daily fat intake, in amounts exceeding those of many bioactive fatty acids.

  20. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica)—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity. PMID:29507816

  2. Deposition of loosely bound and firmly bound fluorides on tooth enamel by an acidic gel containing fluorosilicate and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Takagi, S; Chow, L C; Sieck, B A

    1992-01-01

    The amounts of loosely bound fluoride (F) deposited on human enamel by 4-min and 2-hour treatments with either acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) or a monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and sodium hexafluorosilicate (MCPM-SHFS)-containing gel were measured with the use of a constant-composition F washing method. Enamel biopsies conducted before treatment and after washing were used to determine the firmly bound F uptake. The results showed that the MCPM-SHFS treatments produced significantly more loosely bound F than did the APF treatments. The 4-min treatment with either APF or MCPM-SHFS did not produce significant firmly bound F deposition, but the 2-hour treatments did, with that produced by MCPM-SHFS being significantly greater. The MCPM-SHFS gel, which had the same F content as APF and which may be applied to the proximal tooth surfaces in vivo without the use of a tray, has the potential to be more efficacious than APF because it deposits greater amounts of both loosely bound and firmly bound F.

  3. Amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and poly(d,l-lactic acid) composite nanofibers: Electrospinning preparation, mineralization and in vivo bone defect repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Fu, Qi-Wei; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Chen, Feng; Qi, Chao; Wu, Jin; Cai, Zhu-Yun; Qian, Qi-Rong; Zhu, Ying-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Due to the outstanding bioactivity and biocompatibility, calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials have been widely investigated for applications in the biomedical fields. In this study, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanospheres and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods have been prepared and hybridized with poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PLA) to fabricate the composite nanofibers through electrospinning. The as-prepared ACP-PLA and HA-PLA composite nanofibers exhibit favorable mineralization behaviors in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the mineralization process, the ACP nanospheres and HA nanorods play an important role in the formation of HA nanosheets on the surface of composite nanofibers. The ACP-PLA and HA-PLA composite nanofibers show a high biocompatibility. The in vivo bone defect repair properties of the ACP-PLA and HA-PLA composite nanofibers are preliminarily investigated. The as-prepared ACP-PLA and HA-PLA composite nanofibers have promising applications in the biomedical fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bio-inspired dicalcium phosphate anhydrate/poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite fibrous scaffolds for hard tissue regeneration: in situ synthesis and electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Chae, Taesik; Yang, Heejae; Ko, Frank; Troczynski, Tom

    2014-02-01

    The fundamental building blocks of hierarchically structured bone tissue are mineralized collagen fibrils with calcium phosphate nanocrystals that are biologically "engineered" through biomineralization. In this study, we demonstrate an original invention of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate (DCPA)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite nanofibers, which mimics the mineralized collagen fibrils via biomimetic in situ synthesis and electrospinning for hard tissue regenerative medicines. The interaction of the Ca(2+) ions and the carbonyl groups in the PLA provides nucleation sites for DCPA during the in situ synthesis process. This resulted in the improved dispersion of DCPA nanocrystallites in the intrananoporous PLA nanofibers through electrospinning, compared to the severely agglomerated clusters of DCPA nanoparticles fabricated by conventional mechanical blending/electrospinning methods. The addition of poly(ethylene glycol), as a copolymer source, generated more stable and efficient electrospun jets and aided in the electrospinability of the PLA nanofibers incorporating the nanocrystallites. It is expected that the uniformly distributed DCPA nanocrystallites and its unique nanocomposite fibrous topography will enhance the biological performance and the structural stability of the scaffolds used for hard tissue reconstruction and regeneration. © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

  5. Tantalum oxide and barium sulfate as radiopacifiers in injectable calcium phosphate-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) cements for monitoring in vivo degradation.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Jan Willem M; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Meijer, Gert J; Jansen, John A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the degradation of calcium phosphate-based bone substitute materials in vivo by means of noninvasive techniques (e.g., radiography) is often a problem due to the chemical resemblance of those substitutes with the mineral phase of bone. In the view of that, the present study aimed at enhancing the radiopacity of calcium phosphate cement enriched with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (CPC-PLGA) microspheres, by adding tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) or the more traditional radiopacifier barium sulfate (BaSO4). The radiopacifying capacity of these radiopacifiers was first evaluated in vitro by microcomputed tomography (μCT). Thereafter, both radiopacifiers were tested in vivo using a distal femoral condyle model in rabbits, with subsequent ex vivo μCT analysis in parallel with histomorphometry. Addition of either one of the radiopacifiers proved to enhance radiopacity of CPC-PLGA in vitro. The in vivo experiment showed that both radiopacifiers did not induce alterations in biological performance compared to plain CPC-PLGA, hence both radiopacifiers can be considered safe and biocompatible. The histomorphometrical assessment of cement degradation and bone formation showed similar values for the three experimental groups. Interestingly, μCT analysis showed that monitoring cement degradation becomes feasible upon incorporation of either type of radiopacifier, albeit that BaSO4 showed more accuracy compared to Ta2O5. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  6. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils.

  7. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria in Acid Sulfate Soils and Their Beneficial Effects on Rice Growth

    PubMed Central

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmolc kg−1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745