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Sample records for acid phosphate content

  1. Changes in acid-phosphate content in enamel mineral during porcine amelogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, S; Aoba, T; Moreno, E C

    1991-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate changes in the acid-phosphate content of porcine enamel mineral during its development and to assess separately the HPO4(2-) pools in labile and stable forms. Enamel samples at the secretory and maturing stages of amelogenesis were obtained from the permanent incisors of five- to six-month-old slaughtered piglets. Human enamel from erupted, extracted teeth, synthetic hydroxyapatite, and carbonatoapatite containing acid phosphate were included as references. The acid-phosphate content of each sample was determined chemically through its pyrolytic conversion to pyrophosphate. The assessment of HPO4(2-) in labile forms was made by analysis of samples preequilibrated with solutions containing 3 mmol/L phosphate at pH11 (to de-protonate the HPO4(2-) species on crystal surfaces). The analytical results of porcine enamel samples showed that: (a) the outermost secretory (youngest) enamel contained the highest HPO4(2-), corresponding to about 16% of the total phosphate; (b) the acid-phosphate content decreased gradually to 10% in the inner (older) secretory and to 6% in the maturing tissue; (c) a substantial part of the HPO4(2-) in developing enamel tissue (50-60% of the HPO4(2-) for the secretory enamel) was in labile forms; and (d) the pool of the labile HPO4(2-) decreased with the growth of enamel mineral. In parallel studies with mature human enamel, it was ascertained that the total acid phosphate was only about 3% of the total phosphate, much lower than in developing porcine enamel, and that the labile pool of HPO4(2-) was also small, corresponding to about 15% of the total acid phosphate determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1774383

  2. Selective decrease of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate content in macrophages by high supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Jérôme; Zemski Berry, Karin A; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Geloën, Alain; Murphy, Robert C; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Lagarde, Michel; Delton-Vandenbroucke, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) is a unique phospholipid (PL) preferentially found in late endosomal membranes, where it forms specialized lipid domains. Recently, using cultured macrophages treated with anti-BMP antibody, we showed that BMP-rich domains are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. We had previously stressed the high propensity of BMP to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), compared with other PUFAs. Because phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was reported as a precursor for BMP synthesis in RAW macrophages, we examined the effects of PG supplementation on both FA composition and amount of BMP in this cell line. Supplementation with dioleoyl-PG (18:1/18:1-PG) induced BMP accumulation, together with an increase of oleate proportion. Supplementation with high concentrations of didocosahexaenoyl-PG (22:6/22:6-PG) led to a marked enrichment of DHA in BMP, resulting in the formation of diDHA molecular species. However, the amount of BMP was selectively decreased. Similar effects were observed after supplementation with high concentrations of nonesterified DHA. Addition of vitamin E prevented the decrease of BMP and further increased its DHA content. Supplementation with 22:6/22:6-PG promoted BMP accumulation with an enhanced proportion of 22:6/22:6-BMP. DHA-rich BMP was significantly degraded after cell exposure to oxidant conditions, in contrast to oleic acid-rich BMP, which was not affected. Using a cell-free system, we showed that 22:6/22:6-BMP is highly oxidizable and partially protects cholesterol oxidation, compared with 18:1/18:1-BMP. Our data suggest that high DHA content in BMP led to specific degradation of this PL, possibly through the diDHA molecular species, which is very prone to peroxidation and, as such, a potential antioxidant in its immediate vicinity. PMID:18809971

  3. Apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-based copolymer in simulated body fluid: effects of phosphate group content.

    PubMed

    Hamai, Ryo; Shirosaki, Yuki; Miyazaki, Toshiki

    2016-10-01

    Phosphate groups on materials surfaces are known to contribute to apatite formation upon exposure of the materials in simulated body fluid and improved affinity of the materials for osteoblast-like cells. Typically, polymers containing phosphate groups are organic matrices consisting of apatite-polymer composites prepared by biomimetic process using simulated body fluid. Ca(2+) incorporation into the polymer accelerates apatite formation in simulated body fluid owing because of increase in the supersaturation degree, with respect to apatite in simulated body fluid, owing to Ca(2+) release from the polymer. However, the effects of phosphate content on the Ca(2+) release and apatite-forming abilities of copolymers in simulated body fluid are rather elusive. In this study, a phosphate-containing copolymer prepared from vinylphosphonic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate was examined. The release of Ca(2+) in Tris-NaCl buffer and simulated body fluid increased as the additive amount of vinylphosphonic acid increased. However, apatite formation was suppressed as the phosphate groups content increased despite the enhanced release of Ca(2+) from the polymer. This phenomenon was reflected by changes in the surface zeta potential. Thus, it was concluded that the apatite-forming ability of vinylphosphonic acid-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-triethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer treated with CaCl2 solution was governed by surface state rather than Ca(2+) release in simulated body fluid. PMID:27585911

  4. Toward accelerated bone regeneration by altering poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid porogen content in calcium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    van Houdt, C I A; Preethanath, R S; van Oirschot, B A J A; Zwarts, P H W; Ulrich, D J O; Anil, S; Jansen, J A; van den Beucken, J J J P

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to compare in vitro degradation of dense PLGA microspheres and milled PLGA particles as porogens within CPC, considering that the manufacturing of milled PLGA is more cost-effective when compared with PLGA microspheres. Additionally, we aimed to examine the effect of porogen amount within CPC/PLGA on degradation and bone formation. Our in vitro results showed no differences between both forms of PLGA particles (as porogens in CPC; spherical for microspheres, irregular for milled) regarding morphology, porosity, and degradation. Using milled PLGA as porogens within CPC/PLGA, we evaluated the effect of porogen amount on degradation and bone forming capacity in vivo. Titanium landmarks surrounded by CPC/PLGA with 30 and 50 wt % PLGA, were implanted in forty femoral bone defects of twenty male Wistar rats. Histomorphometrical results showed a significant temporal decrease in the amount of CPC, for both formulas, and confirmed that 50 wt % PLGA degrades faster than 30 wt%, and allows for a 1.5-fold higher amount of newly formed bone. Taken together, this study demonstrated that (i) milled PLGA particles perform equal to PLGA microspheres, and (ii) tuning of the PLGA content in CPC/PLGA is a feasible approach to leverage material degradation and bone formation. PMID:26454146

  5. Relationship between phosphate content and immunochemical properties of subfractions of bakers' yeast mannan.

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Y; Ichikawa, T; Suzuki, S

    1978-01-01

    The mannan of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was fractionated on a column of diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex into five subfractions. Phosphate content of these mannan subfractions was proportional to the concentration of NaCl solutions used in the chromatographic separation. Quantitative precipitin reactions showed that the serological reactivities of the subfractions were proportional to the content of phosphate. The result of acetolysis study showed that the amounts of mannotetraose and phosphate-containing oligosaccharide fractions increased proportionally to the acidity, whereas the amount of mannose decreased inversely. The results from quantitative precipitin reaction tests and acetolysis study demonstrated that both phosphate contents and multiplicity of branching moieties of mannan subfractions increased proportionally, i.e., micro-heterogeneity concerning the acidity comprised in the parent bulk mannan is not attributable merely to the coexistence of molecular species containing different amounts of phosphate but also to the presence of more of the branching moieties. PMID:361709

  6. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6085 Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  12. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 582.6085 Section 582.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. The effect of phosphate content on the bioactivity of soda-lime-phosphosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, M D; Watts, S J; Hill, R G; Law, R V

    2009-08-01

    We report on the bioactivity of two series of glasses in the SiO(2)-Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5) system after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) after 21 days. The effect of P(2)O(5) content was examined for compositions containing 0-9.25 mol.% phosphate. Both series of glasses degraded to basic pH, but the solutions tended towards to neutrality with increasing phosphate content; a result of the acidic phosphate buffering the effect of the alkali metal and alkaline earth ions on degradation. Bioactivity was assessed by the appearance of features in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) traces and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra consistent with crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate-apatite (HCAp): such as the appearance of the (002) Bragg reflection in XRD and splitting of the P-O stretching vibration around 550 cm(-1) in the FTIR respectively. All glasses formed HCAp in SBF over the time periods studied and the time for formation of this crystalline phase occurred more rapidly in both series as the phosphate contents were increased. For P(2)O(5) content >3 mol.% both series exhibited highly crystalline apatite by 16 h immersion in SBF. This indicates that in the compositions studied, phosphate content is more important for bioactivity than network connectivity (NC) of the silicate phase and compositions showing rapid apatite formation are presented, superior to 45S5 Bioglass which was tested under identical conditions for comparison. PMID:19330429

  17. Application of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and organic acids on phosphate solubilization from phosphate rock in aerobic rice.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Naher, Umme Aminun; Othman, Radziah; Razi, Mohd Ismail

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted at Universiti Putra Malaysia to determine the effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and organic acids (oxalic & malic) on phosphate (P) solubilization from phosphate rock (PR) and growth of aerobic rice. Four rates of each organic acid (0, 10, 20, and 30 mM), and PSB strain (Bacillus sp.) were applied to aerobic rice. Total bacterial populations, amount of P solubilization, P uptake, soil pH, and root morphology were determined. The results of the study showed significantly high P solubilization in PSB with organic acid treatments. Among the two organic acids, oxalic acid was found more effective compared to malic acid. Application of oxalic acid at 20 mM along with PSB16 significantly increased soluble soil P (28.39 mg kg(-1)), plant P uptake (0.78 P pot(-1)), and plant biomass (33.26 mg). Addition of organic acids with PSB and PR had no influence on soil pH during the planting period. A higher bacterial population was found in rhizosphere (8.78 log10 cfu g(-1)) compared to the nonrhizosphere and endosphere regions. The application of organic acids along with PSB enhanced soluble P in the soil solution, improved root growth, and increased plant biomass of aerobic rice seedlings without affecting soil pH. PMID:24288473

  18. Uranium Adsorption on Ferrihydrite - Effects of Phosphate and Humic Acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, T.E.; Davis, J.A.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium adsorption on ferrihydrite was studied as a function of pH in systems equilibrated with air, in the presence and absence of added phosphate and humic acid (HA). The objective was to determine the influence of PO43- and HA on uranium uptake. Below pH 7, the sorption of UO22+ typically increases with increasing pH (the 'low pH sorption edge'), with a sharp decrease in sorption above this pH value (the 'high pH edge'). The presence of ??PO43- of 10-4 mol/L moved the low pH edge to the left by approximately 0.8 pH units. The PO43- was strongly bound by the ferrihydrite surface, and the increased uptake of U was attributed to the formation of ternary surface complexes involving both UO22+ and PO43-. The addition of HA (9 mg/L) increased U uptake at pH values below 7, with little effect at higher pH values. The positions of the pH edges were also affected by the ionic strength and total U content. These experiments show that sorption interactions involving PO43 and HA must be considered in order to model the behavior of U in natural systems, in which these components are often present.

  19. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  20. Premixed acidic calcium phosphate cement: characterization of strength and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Aberg, J; Brisby, H; Henriksson, H B; Lindahl, A; Thomsen, P; Engqvist, H

    2010-05-01

    By using a premixed calcium phosphate cement (CPC), the handling properties of the cement are drastically improved, which is a challenge for traditional injectable CPCs. Previously premixed cements have been based on apatitic cements. In this article, acidic cement has been developed and evaluated. Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate and beta-tricalcium phosphate were mixed with glycerol to form a paste. As the paste does not contain water, no setting reaction starts and thus the working time is indefinite. Powder/liquid ratios (P/L) of 2.25, 3.5 and 4.75 were evaluated. Setting time (ST) and compressive strength (CS) were measured after 1 day, 1 week and 4 weeks in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution, and the corresponding microstructure was evaluated using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ST started when the cements were placed in PBS and ranged from 28 to 75 min, higher P/L gave a lower ST. Higher P/L also gave a higher CS, which ranged from 2 to 16 MPa. The microstructure mainly consisted of monetite, 1-5 microm in grain size. After 4 weeks in PBS, the strength increased. As acidic cements are resorbed faster in vivo, this cement should allow faster bone regeneration than apatitic cements. Premixed cements show a great handling benefit when compared with normal CPCs and can be formulated with similar ST and mechanical properties. PMID:20127991

  1. Comparative study on mannose 6-phosphate residue contents of recombinant lysosomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Togawa, Tadayasu; Takada, Masaru; Aizawa, Yoshiaki; Tsukimura, Takahiro; Chiba, Yasunori; Sakuraba, Hitoshi

    2014-03-01

    As most recombinant lysosomal enzymes are incorporated into cells via mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptors, the M6P content is important for effective enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for lysosomal diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive reports of the M6P contents of lysosomal enzymes. We developed an M6P assay method comprising three steps, i.e., acid hydrolysis of glycoproteins, derivatization of M6P, and high-performance liquid chromatography, and determined the M6P contents of six recombinant lysosomal enzymes now available for ERT and one in the process of development. The assay is easy, specific, and reproducible. The results of the comparative study revealed that the M6P contents of agalsidase alfa, agalsidase beta, modified α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, alglucosidase alfa, laronidase, idursulfase, and imiglucerase are 2.1, 2.9, 5.9, 0.7, 2.5, 3.2, and <0.3 mol/mol enzyme, respectively. The results were correlated with those of the biochemical analyses previously performed and that of the binding assay of exposed M6P of the enzymes with the domain 9 of the cation-independent M6P receptor. This assay method is useful for comparison of the M6P contents of recombinant lysosomal enzymes for ERT. PMID:24439675

  2. Phosphate acceptor amino acid residues in structural proteins of rhabdoviruses.

    PubMed

    Sokol, F; Tan, K B; McFalls, M L; Madore, P

    1974-07-01

    Partial acid hydrolysates of the [(32)P]phosphate- or [(3)H]serine-labeled proteins of purified vesicular stomatitis, rabies, Lagos bat, Mokola, or spring viremia of carp virions and of purified intracellular nucleocapsids of these viruses have been analyzed by paper electrophoresis for the presence of phosphorylated amino acids. Both phosphoserine and phosphothreonine, with the former predominant, were present in virion and nucleocapsid preparations that contained phosphoproteins. An exception was the fish rhabdovirus, which contained only phosphoserine. When vesicular stomatitis or rabies virus proteins were phosphorylated in a cell-free system by the virion-associated protein kinase and analyzed for the presence of phosphorylated amino acid residues, phosphoserine was again found to be more abundant than phosphothreonine. After in vitro protein phosphorylation, another phospho-compound, possibly a third phosphoamino acid, was detected in the partial acid hydrolysates of these viruses. PMID:4365328

  3. Phosphate limitation promotes unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis by microalgae Porphyridium purpureum.

    PubMed

    Su, Gaomin; Jiao, Kailin; Li, Zheng; Guo, Xiaoyi; Chang, Jingyu; Ndikubwimana, Theoneste; Sun, Yong; Zeng, Xianhai; Lu, Yinghua; Lin, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are highly appreciated on their nutritive value for human health and aquaculture. P. purpureum, one of the red microalgae acknowledged as a promising accumulator of ARA, was chosen as the target algae in the present research. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (0.04-1.2 g/L), temperature (25, 30 and 33 °C) and phosphate (0.00-0.14 g/L) on biomass yield, total fatty acids (TFA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) accumulation were investigated systemically. NaHCO3 dose of 0.8 g/L and moderate temperature of 30 °C were preferred. In addition, TFA and ARA production were significantly enhanced by an appropriate concentration of phosphate, and the highest TFA yield of 666.38 mg/L and ARA yield of 159.74 mg/L were obtained at a phosphate concentration of 0.035 g/L. Interestingly, with phosphate concentration continuing to fall, UFA/TFA and ARA/EPA ratios were increased accordingly, suggesting that phosphate limitation promoted unsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid biosynthesis. Low concentration of phosphate may be favored to increase the enzymatic activities of ∆6-desaturase, which played a key role in catalyzing the conversion of C16:0 to C18:2, and thus the selectivity of UFA increased. Meanwhile, the increase of ARA selectivity could be attributed to ω6 pathway promotion and ∆17-desaturase activity inhibition with phosphate limitation. Phosphate limitation strategy enhanced unsaturated fatty acids and ARA biosynthesis in P. purpureum, and can be applied in commercial scale manufacturing and commercialization of ARA. PMID:27004948

  4. Screening for phosphate solubilizing bacteria inhabiting the rhizoplane of rice grown in acidic soil in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Animesh; Islam, Tofazzal; Biswas, Gokul Chandra; Alam, Shohidul; Hossain, Mikail; Talukder, Nur Mohammad

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of the research were to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from the rhizoplane of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. BRRIdhan 29 cultivated in acidic soils of Tangail in Bangladesh and evaluate their performances in phosphate solubilization in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. A total of 10 bacterial strains were isolated and purified by repeated streak culture on nutrient agar medium. Upon screening, five isolates (OS01, OS03, OS07, OS08 and OS10) showed varying levels of phosphate solubilizing activity in agar plate and broth assays. Among them, the strain OS07 (B1) and two previously isolated PSB strains B2 and B3 were selected for evaluation for their performances in rice alone or in combination of TSP (triple super phosphate: P1) and rock phosphate (P2). Plant height and the number of tillers per plant were significantly increased by all PSB isolates when used in combination with TSP but PSB alone did not influence much on plant height and the number of tillers except B1. The levels of mineral nutrients content in rice plant tissues were generally increased by the application of the PSB in combination with TSP, while the performances of B1 isolate was superior in all aspects to B2 and B3 isolates. PMID:22750780

  5. The amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Corran, P H; Waley, S G

    1975-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase was deduced by characterizing peptides that overlap the tryptic peptides. Thiol groups were modified by oxidation, carboxymethylation or aminoen. About 50 peptides that provided information about overlaps were isolated; the peptides were mostly characterized by their compositions and N-terminal residues. The peptide chains contain 248 amino acid residues, and no evidence for dissimilarity of the two subunits that comprise the native enzyme was found. The sequence of the rabbit muscle enzyme may be compared with that of the coelacanth enzyme (Kolb et al., 1974): 84% of the residues are in identical positions. Similarly, comparison of the sequence with that inferred for the chicken enzyme (Furth et al., 1974) shows that 87% of the residues are in identical positions. Limited though these comparisons are, they suggest that triose phosphate isomerase has one of the lowest rates of evolutionary change. An extended version of the present paper has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50040 (42 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division) (formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 145, 5. PMID:1171682

  6. Permeability of lipid bilayers to amino acids and phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Permeability coefficients for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, were measured and compared with values for other ionic solutes such as phosphate. The rates of efflux of glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan were determined after they were passively entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The following permeability coefficients were obtained for: glycine, 5.7 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 2.0 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); serine, 5.5 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.6 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); lysine, 5.1 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.9 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); tryptophan, 4.1 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC); and phenylalanine, 2.5 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC). Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly, while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested. Phosphate permeability was in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1 depending on the pH of the medium. The values for the polar and charged amino acids were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium, which are in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1, depending on conditions and the lipid species used. This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. The results are relevant to the permeation of certain peptides into lipid bilayers during protein translocation and membrane biogenesis.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  10. Dolomite flotation of high magnesium phosphate ores using fatty acid soap collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhengxing

    The separation of dolomite from apatite has been recognized as one of the most difficult subjects in mineral processing due to the similarities in their physiochemical properties. In this study, selective surfactants were used with a fatty acid soap collector to improve the flotation performance of separating dolomite from high magnesium phosphate ores. Three surfactants, diethyl phthalate (DP), Tween-80 (TW) and derivative of sulfonate salt (DSS1) were used. Hallimond cell flotation was conducted using pure dolomite sample to determine the effects of various factors including dosages, particle size, Ca2+ ions and slimes on the dolomite flotation recovery. The results showed that the surfactants can significantly improve dolomite flotation performance by increasing collecting ability and tolerating the effect of calcium ions and slime contents. The stirrer-tank cell batch flotation tests were carried out using two natural high magnesium phosphate ore samples containing 3.3% and 1.5% MgO. The test results showed that the surfactant DP could improve dolomite flotation at low dosages, and DSS1 could enhance the separation of dolomite from phosphate by improving both collecting ability and flotation selectivity. When 10% of DSS1 was used with the fatty acid soap as collector, at least 10% more dolomite can be removed with less P2O5 loss. The effectiveness of the surfactant DSS1 in enhancing dolomite flotation was further demonstrated in modified packed column flotation with natural dolomitic phosphate ore sample. The addition of the surfactant DSS1 into fatty acid soap collector could improve its frothability and froth stability, and reduce the bubble size. It has been found that the dolomite flotation performance has a close relationship with the frothability and froth stability of the collector.

  11. Production of citric and oxalic acids and solubilization of calcium phosphate by Penicillium bilaii.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, J E; Kuiack, C

    1992-01-01

    An isolate of Penicillium bilaii previously reported to solubilize mineral phosphates and enhance plant uptake of phosphate was studied. Using agar media with calcium phosphate and the pH indicator alizarin red S, the influence of the medium composition on phosphate solubility and medium acidification was recorded. The major acidic metabolites produced by P. bilaii in a sucrose nitrate liquid medium were found to be oxalic acid and citric acid. Citric acid production was promoted under nitrogen-limited conditions, while oxalic acid production was promoted under carbon-limited conditions. Citric acid was produced in both growth and stationary phases, but oxalic acid production occurred only in stationary phase. When submerged cultures which normally produce acid were induced to sporulate, the culture medium shifted toward alkaline rather than acid reaction with growth. PMID:1622211

  12. Use of phosphate materials as ameliorants for acid mine drainage. Volume 2. Use of phosphate clay in revegetation of minesoils: A greenhouse study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.; Sencindiver, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Acid mine drainage from the high sulfur coal mining industry in West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, Ohio, western Kentucky and Illinois is the primary environmental problem facing this industry. Mine acid drainage has adversely affected streams and surface revegetation of abandoned mined lands. The effectiveness of application of phosphatic clay slurries in the revegetation of mine soils is examined in a greenhouse study. It is concluded that phosphatic clays have a potential for amending minesoils for revegetation purposes. Phosphatic clay treatment produced higher crop yields than treatments with rock phosphate or monocalcium phosphate. In addition, phosphatic clays improved uptake of macronutrients in plants grown on both shale and sandstone minesoils.

  13. [Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides in phosphate rocks and phosphate fertilizers].

    PubMed

    Komura, K; Yanagisawa, M; Sakurai, J; Sakanoue, M

    1985-10-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides have been studied for 2 phosphate rocks and 7 phosphate fertilizers. Uranium contents were found to be rather high (39-117 ppm) except for phosphate rock from Kola. The uranium series nuclides were found to be in various equilibration states, which can be grouped into following three categories. Almost in the equilibrium state, 238U approximately 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra and 238U greater than 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra. Thorium contents were found to be, in general, low and appreciable disequilibrium of the thorium series nuclides was not observed except one sample. Potassium contents were also very low (less than 0.3% K2O) except for complex fertilizers. Based on the present data, discussions were made for the radiation exposure due to phosphate fertilizers. PMID:3006158

  14. Phosphatidic acid inhibits ceramide 1-phosphate-stimulated macrophage migration.

    PubMed

    Ouro, Alberto; Arana, Lide; Rivera, Io-Guané; Ordoñez, Marta; Gomez-Larrauri, Ana; Presa, Natalia; Simón, Jorge; Trueba, Miguel; Gangoiti, Patricia; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio

    2014-12-15

    Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) was recently demonstrated to potently induce cell migration. This action could only be observed when C1P was applied exogenously to cells in culture, and was inhibited by pertussis toxin. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. In this work, we found that phosphatidic acid (PA), which is structurally related to C1P, displaced radiolabeled C1P from its membrane-binding site and inhibited C1P-stimulated macrophage migration. This effect was independent of the saturated fatty acid chain length or the presence of a double bond in each of the fatty acyl chains of PA. Treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with exogenous phospholipase D (PLD), an enzyme that produces PA from membrane phospholipids, also inhibited C1P-stimulated cell migration. Likewise, PA or exogenous PLD inhibited C1P-stimulated extracellularly regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation, leading to inhibition of cell migration. However, PA did not inhibit C1P-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. It is concluded that PA is a physiological regulator of C1P-stimulated macrophage migration. These actions of PA may have important implications in the control of pathophysiological functions that are regulated by C1P, including inflammation and various cellular processes associated with cell migration such as organogenesis or tumor metastasis. PMID:25450673

  15. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) and Ca2+ mobilization.

    PubMed

    Mándi, Miklós; Bak, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Many physiological processes are controlled by a great diversity of Ca2+ signals that depend on Ca2+ entry into the cell and/or Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores. Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores is gated by a family of messengers including inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3), cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR), and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). There is increasing evidence for a novel intracellular Ca2+ release channel that may be targeted by NAADP and that displays properties distinctly different from the well-characterized InsP3 and ryanodine receptors. These channels appear to localize on a wider range of intracellular organelles, including the acidic Ca2+ stores. Activation of the NAADP-sensitive Ca2+ channels evokes complex changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels by means of channel chatter with other intracellular Ca2+ channels. The recent demonstration of changes in intracellular NAADP levels in response to physiologically relevant extracellular stimuli highlights the significance of NAADP as an important regulator of intracellular Ca2+ signaling. PMID:18569524

  16. Uranium recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; McKamey, D.R.; Baes, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were continued of a process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid with octylphenyl acid phosphate (OPAP), a mixture of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids. The mixture contained at least nine impurities, the principal one being octyl phenol, and also material that readily hydrolyzed to octyl phenol and orthophosphoric acid. The combination of mono- and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids was the principal uranium extractant, but some of the impurities also extracted uranium. Hydrolysis of the extractant had little effect on uranium extraction, as did the presence of moderate concentrations of octyl phenol and trioctylphenyl phosphate. Diluent choice among refined kerosenes, naphthenic mixtures, and paraffinic hydrocarbons also had little effect on uranium extraction, but extraction was much lower when an aromatic diluent was used. Purified OPAP fractions were sparingly soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbon diluents. The solubility was increased by the presence of impurities such as octyl phenol, and by the addition of water or an acidic solution to the extractant-diluent mixture. In continuous stability tests, extractant loss by distribution to the aqueous phase was much less to wet-process phosphoric acid than to reagent grade acid. Uranium recovery from wet-process acid decreased steadily because of the combined effects of extractant poisoning and precipitation of the extractant as a complex with ferric iron. Unaccountable losses of organic phase volume occurred in the continuous tests. While attempts to recover the lost organic phase were unsuccessful, the test results indicate it was not lost by entrainment or dissolution in the phosphoric acid solutions. 21 figures, 8 tables.

  17. Radionuclide content of and 222Rn emanation from building materials made from phosphate industry waste products.

    PubMed

    Paredes, C H; Kessler, W V; Landolt, R R; Ziemer, P L; Paustenbach, D J

    1987-07-01

    The radionuclide content and 222Rn emanation coefficients of selected construction materials were determined. The materials were analyzed for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K by gamma-ray spectrometry. Mineral wool insulation, which is made from Tennessee phosphate slag, and commonly used insulation, which is made from blast furnace slag, had similar concentrations of these radionuclides. Concrete blocks made with phosphate slag had enhanced 226Ra and 228Ra contents when compared to ordinary concrete block. The mineral wool insulation materials which were examined had emanation coefficients that were a few (2-6) times 10(-3). All other materials had emanation coefficients that ranged from 6 X 10(-4) to 4 X 10(-2). PMID:3597095

  18. PHOSPHATED, ACID-ETCHED IMPLANTS DECREASE MINERAL APPOSITION RATES NEAR IMPLANTS IN CANINES

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Christine Hyon; Kerns, David G.; Hallmon, William W.; Rivera-Hidalgo, Francisco; Nelson, Carl J.; Spears, Robert; Dechow, Paul C.; Opperman, Lynne A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of phosphate-coated titanium on mineral apposition rate (MAR) and new bone-to-implant contact (BIC) in canines. Materials and Methods: 2.2 mm × 4 mm electrolytically phosphated or non-phosphated titanium implants with acid-etched surfaces were placed in 48 mandibular sites in 6 foxhounds. Tetracycline and calcein dyes were administered 1 week after implant placement and 1 week before sacrifice. At twelve weeks following implant healing, animals were sacrificed. MAR and BIC were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. Light microscopic and histological evaluation was performed on undecalcified sections. Results: Microscopic evaluation showed the presence of healthy osteoblasts lining bone surfaces near implants. Similar bone-to-implant contact was observed in phosphated and non-phosphated titanium implant sites. MAR was significantly higher near non-phosphated titanium implant surfaces than the phosphated titanium samples. No significant differences were found between dogs or implant sites. Discussion and Conclusion: Acid-etched only implants showed significantly higher mineral apposition rates compared to acid-etched, phosphate-coated implants. PMID:20369085

  19. Vanadium phosphate catalysts for biodiesel production from acid industrial by-products.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Carina; Correia, M Joana Neiva; Carvalho, Renato; Henriques, Carlos; Bordado, João; Dias, Ana Paula Soares

    2013-04-10

    Biodiesel production from high acidity industrial by-products was studied using heterogeneous acid catalysts. These by-products contain 26-39% of free fatty acids, 45-66% of fatty acids methyl esters and 0.6-1.1% of water and are consequently inadequate for direct basic catalyzed transesterification. Macroporous vanadyl phosphate catalysts with V/P=1 (atomic ratio) prepared via sol-gel like technique was used as catalyst and it was possible to produce in one reaction batch a biodiesel contain 87% and 94% of FAME, depending on the by-product used as raw material. The initial FAME content in the by-products had a beneficial effect on the reactions because they act as a co-solvent, thus improving the miscibility of the reaction mixture components. The water formed during esterification process seems to hinder the esters formation, possibly due to competitive adsorption with methanol and to the promotion of the FAME hydrolysis reaction.The observed catalyst deactivation seems to be related to the reduction of vanadium species. However, spent catalysts can be regenerated, even partially, by reoxidation of the reduced vanadium species with air. PMID:22902409

  20. Trehalose 6-phosphate coordinates organic and amino acid metabolism with carbon availability.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos M; Feil, Regina; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Kölling, Katharina; Krause, Ursula; Höhne, Melanie; Encke, Beatrice; Plaxton, William C; Zeeman, Samuel C; Li, Zhi; Schulze, Waltraud X; Hoefgen, Rainer; Stitt, Mark; Lunn, John E

    2016-02-01

    Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) is an essential signal metabolite in plants, linking growth and development to carbon metabolism. The sucrose-Tre6P nexus model postulates that Tre6P acts as both a signal and negative feedback regulator of sucrose levels. To test this model, short-term metabolic responses to induced increases in Tre6P levels were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing the Escherichia coli Tre6P synthase gene (otsA) under the control of an ethanol-inducible promoter. Increased Tre6P levels led to a transient decrease in sucrose content, post-translational activation of nitrate reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and increased levels of organic and amino acids. Radio-isotope ((14)CO2) and stable isotope ((13)CO2) labelling experiments showed no change in the rates of photoassimilate export in plants with elevated Tre6P, but increased labelling of organic acids. We conclude that high Tre6P levels decrease sucrose levels by stimulating nitrate assimilation and anaplerotic synthesis of organic acids, thereby diverting photoassimilates away from sucrose to generate carbon skeletons and fixed nitrogen for amino acid synthesis. These results are consistent with the sucrose-Tre6P nexus model, and implicate Tre6P in coordinating carbon and nitrogen metabolism in plants. PMID:26714615

  1. Phosphate content influence on structural, spectroscopic, and lasing properties of Er,Yb-doped potassium-lanthanum phosphate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, Jan; Švejkar, Richard; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Nitsch, Karel; Cihlář, Antonín; Král, Robert; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonn; Rodová, Miroslava; Zemenová, Petra; Nikl, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The influence of the phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) content on the material properties of Er,Yb-doped potassium-lanthanum phosphate glass was studied. Glass samples of the following nominal composition 35.0K2O-6.8Yb2O3-8.0La2O3-0.2Er2O3-50.0P2O5 (in mol%) were prepared from starting materials mixed with five additional amounts of P2O5 (0, 7.5, 15.0, 30.0, and 45.0 mol% related to the nominal glass composition). The P2O5 addition influence on properties of prepared glasses was studied using Raman, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The glass residual IR absorption and Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters together with absorption and emission cross sections were estimated. The results showed the increasing polymerization of glass and the P–O bond shortening with P2O5 content increase. The spectroscopy of Er and Yb ions was affected only marginally by the glass composition. It was found that fluorescence decay time corresponding to upper-laser-level I increased with the decrease of P2O5 content in the glasses, which was related to increasing OH- contamination of the glass. The laser action at 1.53 μm under 975-nm pulsed laser diode pumping was successfully demonstrated. Low threshold and laser slope efficiency up to 21% in respect to absorbed pumping power were obtained.

  2. Dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid over lanthanum phosphate catalysts: the role of Lewis acid sites.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Theng, De Sheng; Tang, Karen Yuanting; Zhang, Lili; Huang, Lin; Borgna, Armando; Wang, Chuan

    2016-09-14

    Lanthanum phosphate (LaP) nano-rods were synthesized using n-butylamine as a shape-directing agent (SDA). The resulting catalysts were applied in the dehydration of lactic acid to acrylic acid. Aiming to understand the nature of the active sites, the chemical and physical properties of LaP materials were studied using a variety of characterization techniques. This study showed that the SDA not only affected the porosity of the LaP materials but also modified the acid-base properties. Clearly, the modification of the acid-base properties played a more critical role in determining the catalytic performance than porosity. An optimized catalytic performance was obtained on the LaP catalyst with a higher concentration of Lewis acid sites. Basic sites showed negative effects on the stability of the catalysts. Good stability was achieved when the catalyst was prepared using the appropriate SDA/La ratio. PMID:27514871

  3. Citrulline synthesis in rat tissues and liver content of carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine

    PubMed Central

    Raijman, Luisa

    1974-01-01

    Rat liver ornithine carbamoyltransferase appears to be located exclusively in the mitochondria; the activity that is found in the soluble fraction is indistinguishable from mitochondrial ornithine carbamoyltransferase by simple kinetic criteria, and seems to result from breakage of mitochondria during homogenization. Of several rat tissues studied, only the liver and the mucosa of small intestine contain significant amounts of ornithine carbamoyltransferase; the activity in intestinal mucosa is less than one thousandth of that in liver. Qualitatively, this distribution coincides with that of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I and its cofactor, acetylglutamate. The rat liver contents of carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine were 0.1 and 0.15μmol/g wet wt. of tissue respectively. On the basis of these values, it is proposed that in vivo the ornithine carbamoyltransferase activity of liver may be much lower than its maximal activity in vitro might suggest. PMID:4822731

  4. Mineral phosphate solubilization by Streptomyces sp. CTM396 involves the excretion of gluconic acid and is stimulated by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Mounira Ben; Boukhris, Ines; Chouayekh, Hichem

    2015-03-01

    The actinomycetes isolates (128) which were taken from agricultural soil samples and collected near a rock phosphate processing unit were screened for mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) ability. A significant MPS activity was observed for 30 isolates on various phosphate sources when grown in the National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate broth. CTM396 and CTM397 strains which showed the highest MPS abilities were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as members of the genus Streptomyces. Their MPS activity was proved to be concomitant with a drop in pH due to the secretion of gluconic acid (GA). This was correlated with the simultaneous detection by PCR of genes gdh [encoding the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) responsible for GA production from glucose] and pqq (involved in biosynthesis of the pyrroloquinoline quinone cofactor of GDH), as well as the highlighting of GHD enzyme activity, for the first time in a Streptomyces sp. strain producing GA. Furthermore, the 0.05% of humic acids proved to have a stimulatory effect on the growth and the ability of CTM396 to solubilize Gafsa rock phosphate. According to this study, it is possible to use humic acids and Gafsa rock phosphate in association with spores of ad hoc Streptomyces strains as natural and efficient amendments to improve plant growth with no need of costly and pollutant transformation of Gafsa rock phosphate. PMID:25743071

  5. The role of polycarboxylic acids in calcium phosphate mineralization.

    PubMed

    Tsortos, Achilles; Nancollas, George H

    2002-06-01

    The role of two polyelectrolytes, poly-L-glutamate and poly-L-aspartate, in the growth of calcium phosphate crystal phases, has been investigated at constant supersaturation. Both molecules are strong inhibitors of HAP growth when present in the solution phase but also act as hydroxyapatite and (octacalcium phosphate)-like crystal nucleators when adsorbed on germanium surfaces. The structure of the polymers in solution is presented and various adsorption models are analyzed. A "train-loop" structure of these long, flexible chain polymers on the crystal surface is consistent with all the adsorption (experimental and theoretical), inhibition, and electrophoretic mobility results. PMID:16290647

  6. Immobilization of lead in anthropogenic contaminated soils using phosphates with/without oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Qingling; Zuo, Jichao; Liu, Yonghong; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on the immobilization of Pb(II) in contaminated soils by phosphate materials, has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for the soil. A series of phosphate amendments with/without oxalic acid were applied to two anthropogenic contaminated soils. We investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) by KH2PO4, phosphate rock (PR), activated phosphate rock (APR) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) at different phosphate:Pb (P:Pb) molar ratios (0, 0.6, 2.0 and 4.0) in the presence/absence of 50 mmol oxalic acid/kg soil, respectively. The effects of treatments were evaluated using single extraction with deionized water or CaCl2, Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) methods. Our results showed that the concentration of water extractable, exchangeable and TCLP-Pb all decreased with incubation time. The concentration of water-extractable Pb after 120 days was reduced by 100% when soils were amended with APR, HAP and HAP+OA, and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L for the red soil at P:Pb molar ratio 4.0. Water-soluble Pb could not be detected and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L at all treatments applied to the yellow-brown soil. BCR results indicated that APR was most effective, although a slight enhancement of water-soluble phosphate was detected at the P:Pb molar ratio 4.0 at the beginning of incubation. Oxalic acid activated phosphates, and so mixing insoluble phosphates with oxalic acid may be a useful strategy to improve their effectiveness in reducing Pb bioavailability. PMID:25662240

  7. Amino acid sequences around the cysteine residues of rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Janet C.; Waley, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    1. The nature of the subunits in rabbit muscle triose phosphate isomerase has been investigated. 2. Amino acid analyses show that there are five cysteine residues and two methionine residues/subunit. 3. The amino acid sequences around the cysteine residues have been determined; these account for about 75 residues. 4. Cleavage at the methionine residues with cyanogen bromide gave three fragments. 5. These results show that the subunits correspond to polypeptide chains, containing about 230 amino acid residues. The chains in triose phosphate isomerase seem to be shorter than those of other glycolytic enzymes. PMID:5165707

  8. Templating route for mesostructured calcium phosphates with carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Nobuaki; Hori, Hideki; Kimura, Tatsuo; Oumi, Yasunori; Sano, Tsuneji

    2008-11-18

    Mesostructured calcium phosphates constructed by ionic frameworks were synthesized using carboxylic acid- and amine-type surfactants in mixed solvent systems of ethanol and water. A lamellar mesostructured calcium phosphate was prepared using palmitic acid as an anionic surfactant, as in the case using n-alkylamines. A wormhole-like mesostructured calcium phosphate can be obtained using dicarboxyl N-lauroyl- l-glutamic acid, whose headgroup is larger than that of palmitic acid. Similar mesostructured product was obtained using 4-dodecyldiethylenetriamine with a large headgroup containing two primary amine groups. Interactions of carboxyl and primary amino groups in the surfactant molecules with inorganic species are quite important for the formation of mesostructured calcium phosphates. The Ca/P molar ratio of mesostructured calcium phosphates was strongly affected by the molecular structure of surfactants containing carboxyl and primary amino groups. Ca-rich materials can be obtained using carboxylic acid-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.7) rather than amine-type surfactants (Ca/P approximately 1.0). PMID:18947246

  9. Tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate and triethyl phosphate alter embryonic development, hepatic mRNA expression, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Egloff, Caroline; Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Williams, Kim L.; Letcher, Robert J.; Gauthier, Lewis T.; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2014-09-15

    The organophosphate flame retardants tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) are used in a wide range of applications to suppress or delay the ignition and spread of fire. Both compounds have been detected in the environment and TBOEP was recently measured in free-living avian species. In this study, TBOEP and TEP were injected into the air cell of chicken embryos at concentrations ranging from 0 to 45,400 ng/g and 0 to 241,500 ng/g egg, respectively. Pipping success, development, hepatic mRNA expression of 9 target genes, thyroid hormone levels, and circulating bile acid concentrations were determined. Exposure to the highest doses of TBOEP and TEP resulted in negligible detection of the parent compounds in embryonic contents at pipping indicating their complete metabolic degradation. TBOEP exposure had limited effects on chicken embryos, with the exception of hepatic CYP3A37 mRNA induction. TEP exposure decreased pipping success to 68%, altered growth, increased liver somatic index (LSI) and plasma bile acids, and modulated genes associated with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Plasma thyroxine levels were decreased at all TEP doses, including an environmentally-relevant concentration (8 ng/g), and gallbladder hypotrophy was evident at ≥ 43,200 ng/g. Tarsus length and circulating thyroxine concentration emerged as potential phenotypic anchors for the modulation of transthyretin mRNA. The increase in plasma bile acids and LSI, gallbladder hypotrophy, and discoloration of liver tissue represented potential phenotypic outcomes associated with modulation of hepatic genes involved with xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. - Highlights: • TBOEP is not embryolethal to chicken embryos. • TEP affected embryonic viability, morphometric endpoints, and thyroid hormone levels. • TEP altered mRNA levels of xenobiotic and lipid metabolism genes. • TEP increased plasma bile acids and caused gallbladder hypotrophy

  10. Organic acid production and plant growth promotion as a function of phosphate solubilization by Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 isolated from the cold deserts of the trans-Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Arvind; Sharma, Natasha; Vyas, Pratibha; Sood, Swati; Rahi, Praveen; Pathania, Vijaylata; Prasad, Ramdeen

    2010-11-01

    An efficient phosphate-solubilizing plant growth-promoting Acinetobacter rhizosphaerae strain BIHB 723 exhibited significantly higher solubilization of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) than Udaipur rock phosphate (URP), Mussoorie rock phosphate (MRP) and North Carolina rock phosphate (NCRP). Qualitative and quantitative differences were discerned in the gluconic, oxalic, 2-keto gluconic, lactic, malic and formic acids during the solubilization of various inorganic phosphates by the strain. Gluconic acid was the main organic acid produced during phosphate solubilization. Formic acid production was restricted to TCP solubilization and oxalic acid production to the solubilization of MRP, URP and NCRP. A significant increase in plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root length, root dry weight, and root, shoot and soil phosphorus (P) contents was recorded with the inoculated treatments over the uninoculated NP(0)K or NP(TCP)K treatments. Plant growth promotion as a function of phosphate solubilization suggested that the use of bacterial strain would be a beneficial addition to the agriculture practices in TCP-rich soils in reducing the application of phosphatic fertilizers. PMID:20821196

  11. The phosphate of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate is an acid/base catalyst in the mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Scott, Israel; Paulose, Riya; Patel, Akshay; Barron, Taylor Colt

    2014-02-01

    Kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase, EC 3.7.1.3) catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of L-kynurenine to L-alanine and anthranilic acid. The proposed mechanism of the retro-Claisen reaction requires extensive acid/base catalysis. Previous crystal structures showed that Tyr226 in the Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme (Tyr275 in the human enzyme) hydrogen bonds to the phosphate of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor. This Tyr residue is strictly conserved in all sequences of kynureninase. The human enzyme complexed with a competitive inhibitor, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, showed that the ligand carbonyl O is located 3.7 Å from the phenol of Tyr275 (Lima, S., Kumar, S., Gawandi, V., Momany, C. & Phillips, R. S. (2009) J. Med. Chem. 52, 389-396). We prepared a Y226F mutant of P. fluorescens kynureninase to probe the role of this residue in catalysis. The Y226F mutant has approximately 3000-fold lower activity than wild-type, and does not show the pKa values of 6.8 on kcat and 6.5 and 8.8 on k(cat)/K(m) seen for the wild-type enzyme (Koushik, S. V., Moore, J. A. III, Sundararaju, B. & Phillips, R. S. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 1376-1382). Wild-type kynureninase shows a resonance at 4.5 ppm in (31)P-NMR, which is shifted to 5.0, 3.3 and 2.0 ppm when the potent inhibitor 5-bromodihydrokynurenine is added. However, Y226F kynureninase shows resonances at 3.6 and 2.5 ppm, and no change in the peak position is seen when 5-bromodihydrokynurenine is added. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyr226 mediates proton transfer between the substrate and the phosphate, which accelerates formation of external aldimine and gem-diol intermediates. Thus, the phosphate of PLP acts as an acid/base catalyst in the mechanism of kynureninase. PMID:24304904

  12. Effect of organic acids on calcium phosphate nucleation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on peptide functionalized nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Barati, Danial; Walters, Joshua D; Shariati, Seyed Ramin Pajoum; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2015-05-12

    Carboxylate-rich organic acids play an important role in controlling the growth of apatite crystals and the extent of mineralization in the natural bone. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of organic acids on calcium phosphate (CaP) nucleation on nanofiber microsheets functionalized with a glutamic acid peptide and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on the CaP-nucleated microsheets. High molecular weight poly(dl-lactide) (DL-PLA) was mixed with low molecular weight L-PLA conjugated with Glu-Glu-Gly-Gly-Cys peptide, and the mixture was electrospun to generate aligned nanofiber microsheets. The nanofiber microsheets were incubated in a modified simulated body fluid (mSBF) supplemented with different organic acids for nucleation and growth of CaP crystals on the nanofibers. Organic acids included citric acid (CA), hydroxycitric acid (HCA), tartaric acid (TART), malic acid (MA), ascorbic acid (AsA), and salicylic acid (SalA). HCA microsheets had the highest CaP content at 240 ± 10% followed by TART and CA with 225 ± 8% and 225 ± 10%, respectively. The Ca/P ratio and percent crystallinity of the nucleated CaP in TART microsheets was closest to that of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. The extent of CaP nucleation and growth on the nanofiber microsheets depended on the acidic strength and number of hydrogen-bonding hydroxyl groups of the organic acids. Compressive modulus and degradation of the CaP nucleated microsheets were related to percent crystallinity and CaP content. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on the microsheets and cultured in osteogenic medium increased only for those microsheets nucleated with CaP by incubation in CA or AsA-supplemented mSBF. Further, only CA microsheets stimulated bone nodule formation by the seeded hMSCs. PMID:25879768

  13. Gluconic acid production and phosphate solubilization by the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Hilda; Gonzalez, Tania; Goire, Isabel; Bashan, Yoav

    2004-11-01

    In vitro gluconic acid formation and phosphate solubilization from sparingly soluble phosphorus sources by two strains of the plant growth-promoting bacteria A. brasilense (Cd and 8-I) and one strain of A. lipoferum JA4 were studied. Strains of A. brasilense were capable of producing gluconic acid when grown in sparingly soluble calcium phosphate medium when their usual fructose carbon source is amended with glucose. At the same time, there is a reduction in pH of the medium and release of soluble phosphate. To a greater extent, gluconic acid production and pH reduction were observed for A. lipoferum JA4. For the three strains, clearing halos were detected on solid medium plates with calcium phosphate. This is the first report of in vitro gluconic acid production and direct phosphate solubilization by A. brasilense and the first report of P solubilization by A. lipoferum. This adds to the very broad spectrum of plant growth-promoting abilities of this genus.

  14. Nucleic acid analysis using terminal-phosphate-labeled nucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2008-04-22

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  15. Characterization of the plastidic phosphate translocators in the inducible crassulacean acid metabolism plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    PubMed

    Kore-eda, Shin; Nozawa, Akira; Okada, Yusuke; Takashi, Kazuki; Azad, Muhammad Abul Kalam; Ohnishi, Jun-ichi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2013-01-01

    In plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, which has the inducible crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), isoforms of plastidic phosphate translocators (pPTs) are categorized into three subfamilies: the triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (McTPT1), the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator (McPPT1), and the glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator (McGPT1 and McGPT2). In order to elucidate the physiological roles of these pPTs in M. crystallinum, we determined the substrate specificity of each pPT isoform. The substrate specificities of McTPT1, McPPT1, and McGPT1 showed overall similarities to those of orthologs that have been characterized. In contrast, for glucose 6-phosphate, McGPT2 showed higher selectivity than McGPT1 and other GPT orthologs. Because the expression of McGTP2 is specific to CAM while that of McGTP1 is constitutively expressed in both the C3- and the CAM-state in M. crystallinum, we propose that McGPT2 functions as a CAM system-specific GPT in this plant. PMID:23832369

  16. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  18. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  19. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  20. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  1. Ammonolysis of esters of hydroxybenzoic acids on a boron phosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Bukeikhanov, N.R.; Li, L.V.; Zulkasheva, A.Z.

    1987-09-10

    In this investigation boron phosphate catalyst was used for ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. It was shown that ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids in presence of boron phosphate catalyst at a ratio of 3-7 moles of ammonia per mole of ester in a contact time of 1-5 sec at 380-400/sub 0/ can be used for obtaining o- and p- hydroxybenzonitriles in yields of over 90% of the theoretical.

  2. Adsorption and release of amino acids mixture onto apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rhilassi, A.; Mourabet, M.; El Boujaady, H.; Bennani-Ziatni, M.; Hamri, R. El; Taitai, A.

    2012-10-01

    Study focused on the interaction of adsorbate with poorly crystalline apatitic calcium phosphates analogous to bone mineral. Calcium phosphates prepared in water-ethanol medium at physiological temperature (37 °C) and neutral pH, their Ca/P ratio was between 1.33 and 1.67. Adsorbate used in this paper takes the mixture form of two essential amino acids L-lysine and DL-leucine which have respectively a character hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Adsorption and release are investigated experimentally; they are dependent on the phosphate type and on the nature of adsorbate L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture. Adsorption of mixture of amino acids on the apatitic calcium phosphates is influenced by the competition between the two amino acids: L-lysine and DL-leucine which exist in the medium reaction. The adsorption kinetics is very fast while the release kinetics is slow. The chemical composition of apatite has an influence on both adsorption and release. The interactions adsorbate-adsorbent are electrostatic type. Adsorption and release reactions of the amino acid mixture are explained by the existence of the hydrated surface layer of calcium phosphate apatite. The charged sbnd COOsbnd and sbnd NH3+ of adsorbates are the strongest groups that interact with the surface of apatites, the adsorption is mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the groups sbnd COOsbnd of amino acids and calcium Ca2+ ions of the apatite. Comparative study of interactions between adsorbates (L-lysine, DL-leucine and their mixture) and apatitic calcium phosphates is carried out in vitro by using UV-vis and infrared spectroscopy IR techniques.

  3. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Andújar, Isabel; Vilanova, Santiago; Plazas, Mariola; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Brar, Navjot Singh; Prohens, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids. PMID:26473812

  4. Separative recovery with lime of phosphate and fluoride from an acidic effluent containing H3PO4, HF and/or H2SiF6.

    PubMed

    Gouider, Mbarka; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-10-30

    Fluoride content and flow-rate of fertilizer plant wastewater from phosphoric acid and/or triple superphosphate (TSP) production lead to the discharge of several thousand tons of fluoride (F(-)) per year and even more for phosphate (PO4(3-)). Since sustainability is an important environmental concern, the removal methods should allow phosphorus and fluoride to be recycled as a sustainable products for use as raw materials either in agricultural or industrial applications. In the present work, separative recovery with lime of these two target species was investigated. A preliminary speciation study, carried out on the crude effluent, showed that two forms of fluoride: HF and H2SiF6 are present in a highly acidic medium (pH approximately 2). Evidence that fluoride is present under both free (HF) and combined (H2SiF6) forms, in the phosphate-containing effluent, was provided by comparing potentiometric titration curves of a crude wastewater sample and synthetic acid mixtures containing H3PO4, HF and H2SiF6. In a second step synthetic effluent containing mixtures of the following acids: HF, H2SiF6 and H3PO4, were treated with lime. The behaviour of these compounds under lime treatment was analysed. The data showed that fluoride has a beneficial effect on phosphate removal. Moreover, by acting on the precipitation pH, a "selective" recovery of fluoride and phosphate ions was possible either from phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid or phosphoric acid/hexafluorosilicic acid mixtures. Indeed, the first stage of the separative recovery, led to a fluoride removal efficiency of 97-98% from phosphoric acid/hydrofluoric acid mixture. It was of 93-95% from phosphoric acid/hexafluorosilicic acid mixture. During the second stage, the phosphate precipitation reached 99.8% from both acidic mixtures whereas it did not exceed 82% from a solution containing H3PO4 alone. The XRD and IR analyses showed that during lime treatment, a H2SiF6 hydrolysis occurred, instead of CaSiF6 solid

  5. Influence of phosphate ions on buffer capacity of soil humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguta, P.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The object of this study was to determine change of natural buffer capacity of humic acids by strong buffering agents, which were phosphate ions. Studies were carried out on the humic acids extracted from peat soils. Additional information was obtained by determination of water holding capacity, density, ash and pH for peats and optical parameter Q4/6 for humic acids. Humic acid suspensions exhibited the highest buffer properties at low pH and reached maximum at pH ~ 4. Phosphates possessed buffer properties in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.0. The maximum of buffering was at pH~6.8 and increased proportionally with an increase in the concentration of phosphate ions. The study indicated that the presence of phosphate ions may strongly change natural buffer capacity of humic acids by shifting buffering maximum toward higher pH values. Significant correlations were found for the degree of the secondary transformation with both the buffer capacity and the titrant volume used during titration.

  6. Optimization of ascorbic acid-2-phosphate production from ascorbic acid using resting cell of Brevundimonas diminuta.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woo-Jung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Bang, Won-Gi

    2007-05-01

    With the aim to produce ascorbic acid-2-phosphate (AsA-2-P) from L-ascorbic acid (AsA, Vitamin C), nine bacteria conferring the ability to transform AsA to AsA-2-P were isolated from soil samples alongside known strains from culture collections. Most isolates were classified to the genus Brevundimonas by 16S phylogenetic analysis. Among them, Brevundimonas diminuta KACC 10306 was selected as the experimental strain because of its the highest productivity of AsA-2-P. The optimum set of conditions for the AsA-2-P production from AsA using resting cells as the source of the enzyme was also investigated. The optimum cultivation time was 16 h and the cell concentration was 120 g/l (wet weight). The optimum concentrations of AsA and pyrophosphate were 550 mM and 450 mM, respectively. The most effective buffer was 50 mM sodium formate. The optimum pH was 4.5 and temperature was 40 degrees C. Under the above conditions, 27.5 g/l of AsA-2-P was produced from AsA after 36 h of incubation, which corresponded to a 19.7% conversion efficiency based on the initial concentration of AsA. PMID:18051298

  7. Phosphate supply explains variation in nucleic acid allocation but not C : P stoichiometry in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. E.; Martiny, A. C.; Lomas, M. W.; Allison, S. D.

    2014-03-01

    Marine microbial communities mediate many biogeochemical transformations in the ocean. Consequently, processes such as primary production and carbon (C) export are linked to nutrient regeneration and are influenced by the resource demand and elemental composition of marine microbial biomass. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that differential partitioning of element resources to various cellular components can directly influence overall cellular elemental ratios, especially with respect to growth machinery (i.e., ribosomal RNA) and phosphorus (P) allocation. To investigate whether allocation to RNA is related to biomass P content and overall C : P biomass composition in the open ocean, we characterized patterns of P allocation and C : P elemental ratios along an environmental gradient of phosphate supply in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (NASG) from 35.67° N, 64.17° W to 22.676° N, 65.526° W. Because the NASG is characterized as a P-stressed ecosystem, we hypothesized that biochemical allocation would reflect sensitivity to bioavailable phosphate, such that greater phosphate supply would result in increased allocation toward P-rich RNA for growth. We predicted these changes in allocation would also result in lower C : P ratios with increased phosphate supply. However, bulk C : P ratios were decoupled from allocation to nucleic acids and did not appear to vary systematically across a phosphate supply gradient of 2.2-14.7 μmol m-2 d-1. Overall, we found that C : P ratios ranged from 188 to 306 along the transect, and RNA represented only 6-12% of total particulate P, whereas DNA represented 11-19%. We did find that allocation to RNA was positively correlated with phosphate supply rate, suggesting a consistent physiological response in biochemical allocation to resource supply within the whole community. These results suggest that community composition and/or nonnucleic acid P pools may influence ecosystem-scale variation in C : P stoichiometry more than

  8. Genotypic variation in fatty acid content of blackcurrant seeds.

    PubMed

    Ruiz del Castillo, M L; Dobson, G; Brennan, R; Gordon, S

    2002-01-16

    The fatty acid composition and total fatty acid content of seeds from 36 blackcurrant genotypes developed at the Scottish Crop Research Institute were examined. A rapid small-scale procedure, involving homogenization of seeds in toluene followed by sodium methoxide transesterification and gas chromatography, was used. There was considerable variation between genotypes. The gamma-linolenic acid content generally varied from 11 to 19% of the total fatty acids, but three genotypes had higher values of 22-24%, levels previously not reported for blackcurrant seed and similar to those for borage seed. Other nutritionally important fatty acids, stearidonic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, varied from 2 to 4% and 10-19%, respectively. The mean total fatty acid contents ranged from 14 to 23% of the seed, but repeatability was poor. The results are discussed. Blackcurrant seeds are mainly byproducts from juice production, and the study shows the potential for developing blackcurrant genotypes with optimal added value. PMID:11782203

  9. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  10. Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Camila F.N.; Lazarin, Angélica M.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ► Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ► These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ► Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup −1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near −2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup −1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

  11. FTIR and {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopic analyses of surface species in phosphate-catalyzed lactic acid conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, G.C.; Tam, M.S.; Miller, D.J.

    1996-11-01

    The surface species present on silica/alumina-supported sodium phosphates, active catalysts for the conversion of lactic acid to acrylic acid and 2,3-pentanedione, are examined by pre- and postreaction MAS {sup 31}P-NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. Species present following lactic acid conversion are identified by transmission FTIR of phosphates supported on silicon disks (as a model catalyst system) and verified by {sup 31}P-NMR and diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy of actual catalysts used in reaction. Monosodium phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) condenses to a mixture of sodium polyphosphate (NaPO{sub 3}){sub n} and sodium trimetaphosphate (Na{sub 3}P{sub 3}O{sub 9}), which exhibit little catalytic activity for converting lactic acid to desired products. Disodium phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) condenses to tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}), and proton transfer from lactic acid to pyrophosphate results in the formation of sodium lactate. Trisodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) accepts a proton from lactic acid to form sodium lactate and disodium phosphate, which condenses to pyrophosphate. The presence of pyrophosphate and sodium lactate on supported disodium and trisodium phosphates explains their similar catalytic properties; the larger quantity of sodium lactate present on trisodium phosphate leads to higher conversions at lower temperatures. 40 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Zirconium-titanium phosphate acid catalysts synthesized by sol gel techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.B.; Thoma, S.G.; Kohler, S.; Nenoff, T.M.

    1998-03-01

    Recently a large effort has been put into identifying solid acid materials, particularly sulfated zirconia and other sulfated metal oxides, that can be used to replace environmentally hazardous liquid acids in industrial processes. The authors are studying a group of mixed metal phosphates, some of which have also been sulfated, for their catalytic and morphological characteristics. Zirconium and titanium are the metals used in this study and the catalysts are synthesized from alkoxide starting materials with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O, and sometimes H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as gelling agents. The measurement of acidity was achieved by using the isomerization of 2-methyl-2-pentene as a model reaction. The phosphate stabilized the mixed metal sulfates, preventing them from calcining to oxides boosting their initial catalytic activity. The addition of sulfate prevented the formation of the catalytically inactive mixed metal pyrophosphates when calcined at high temperatures (> 773 K).

  13. Content and Vacuole/Extravacuole Distribution of Neutral Sugars, Free Amino Acids, and Anthocyanin in Protoplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, George J.

    1979-01-01

    Neutral sugar, free amino acid, and anthocyanin levels and vacuole/extravacuole distribution were determined for Hippeastrum and Tulipa petal and Tulipa leaf protoplasts. Glucose and fructose, the predominant neutral monosaccharides observed, were primarily vacuolar in location. Glutamine, the predominant free amino acid found, was primarily extravacuolar. γ-Methyleneglutamate was identified as a major constituent of Tulipa protoplasts. Qualitative characterization of Hippeastrum petal and vacuole organic acids indicated the presence of oxalic, malic, citric, and isocitric acids. Data are presented which indicate that vacuoles obtained by gentle osmotic shock of protoplasts in dibasic phosphate have good purity and retain their contents. Images PMID:16660921

  14. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the

  15. Steel corrosion protection by means of alkyd paints pigmented with calcium acid phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Amo, B. del; Romagnoli, R.; Vetere, V.F.

    1999-06-01

    The use of classic anticorrosive pigments is becoming more and more restricted by increasing environmental concerns; they are gradually being replaced by zinc phosphate and related compounds. Other anticorrosive pigments such as surface-exchanged silicas were also proposed. The object of this research is to study the anticorrosive properties of calcium acid phosphate as an inhibitive pigment, introducing a careful selection of complementary pigments in order to achieve an efficient anticorrosive protection. Several alkyd paints were prepared and evaluated through accelerated and electrochemical tests. The nature of the passive film formed was also studied. Paint containing zinc oxide and calcium carbonate (50/50) as complementary pigments showed the best performance in the salt spray test. Zinc oxide and calcium carbonate decreased film permeability and improved steel passivation. The passive film was composed of ferric oxyhydroxide, the pores of which became plugged by ferric phosphate.

  16. Erosive effects of different acids on bovine enamel: release of calcium and phosphate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hannig, Christian; Hamkens, Arne; Becker, Klaus; Attin, Rengin; Attin, Thomas

    2005-06-01

    The present study intended to investigate minimal erosive effects of different acids on enamel during short time incubation via determination of calcium and phosphate dissolution. Bovine enamel specimens were eroded for 1-5 min with eight different acids of pH 2, 2.3 and 3 (citric (CA), maleic (MA), lactic (LA), tartaric (TA), phosphoric (PA), oxalic (OA), acetic (AA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl)). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) release were determined photometrically using arsenazo III (calcium) and malachite green (phosphate) as substrates. Each subgroup contained eight enamel specimens. Amount of titratable acid was determined for all acidic solutions. MA, LA, TA, AA and HCl caused linear release of Ca and P, PA of Ca, CA of P. For CA, MA, LA, TA, AA, PA and HCl mineral loss was shown to be pH-dependent. Ca dissolution varied between 28.6+/-4.4 (LA, pH 2) and 2.4+/-0.7 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3), P dissolution ranged between 17.2+/-2.6 (LA, pH 2) and 1.4+/-0.4 nmol mm(-2)min(-1) (HCl, pH 3). LA was one of the most erosive acids. AA was very erosive at pH 3. HCl and MA were shown to have the lowest erosive effects. There was only a weak correlation (r=0.28) between P and Ca release and the amount of titratable acid. The method of the present study allows investigation of minimal erosive effects via direct determination of P and Ca dissolution. During short time exposition at constant pH level, erosive effects mainly depend on pH and type of acid but not on amount of titratable acid. PMID:15848147

  17. Lipid phosphate phosphatases regulate lysophosphatidic acid production and signaling in platelets: studies using chemical inhibitors of lipid phosphate phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Susan S; Sciorra, Vicki A; Sigal, Yury J; Pamuklar, Zehra; Wang, Zuncai; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D; Morris, Andrew J

    2003-10-31

    Blood platelets play an essential role in ischemic heart disease and stroke contributing to acute thrombotic events by release of potent inflammatory agents within the vasculature. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator produced by platelets and found in the blood and atherosclerotic plaques. LPA receptors on platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells regulate growth, differentiation, survival, motility, and contractile activity. Definition of the opposing pathways of synthesis and degradation that control extracellular LPA levels is critical to understanding how LPA bioactivity is regulated. We show that intact platelets and platelet membranes actively dephosphorylate LPA and identify the major enzyme responsible as lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1). Localization of LPP1 to the platelet surface is increased by exposure to LPA. A novel receptor-inactive sn-3-substituted difluoromethylenephosphonate analog of phosphatidic acid that is a potent competitive inhibitor of LPP1 activity potentiates platelet aggregation and shape change responses to LPA and amplifies LPA production by agonist-stimulated platelets. Our results identify LPP1 as a pivotal regulator of LPA signaling in the cardiovascular system. These findings are consistent with genetic and cell biological evidence implicating LPPs as negative regulators of lysophospholipid signaling and suggest that the mechanisms involve both attenuation of lysophospholipid actions at cell surface receptors and opposition of lysophospholipid production. PMID:12909631

  18. The effect of increasing copper content in phosphate-based glasses on biofilms of Streptococcus sanguis.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, A M; Wilson, M; Knowles, J C

    2003-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of a series of phosphate-based glasses based on the Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5) system doped with increasing amounts of copper and the effect of this increasing copper content on the viability of an in vitro biofilm of Streptococcus sanguis over an 8 day period in a constant depth film fermenter. The addition of copper to the glass caused the solubility to change, so the glasses were adjusted in order that their solubility in artificial saliva was nominally the same (0.3062 +/- 0.07 mg cm(-2) h(-1)). Initial experiments on glasses with 1.5% and 10% copper showed that after 6 h there was no statistical difference between the copper containing glasses and the non-copper containing glass and HA in terms of the viability of the biofilms. However, at 24 h there was an approximately 0.8-0.9 log reduction in viability of the biofilms grown on the 5% copper glass and an approximately 1.0-1.3 log reduction for the 10% copper containing glass. Further experiments on the glass with 10% copper and another glass with 15% copper were carried out in a time dependent study. For both glasses a clear decrease in viable counts at 24 h was found but for both glasses these returned to levels similar to those of controls. The initial decrease in viability during the first 24 h is likely to be due to the antibacterial effect of the copper and this could be correlated with copper content. The recovery after 24 h is probably due to the dead cells forming a barrier, making diffusion of the antibacterial ions, increasingly difficult. This study has shown that phosphate-based glasses could potentially be used to deliver antibacterial ions to help combat oral infections. Copper, which has been shown to have antibacterial properties, could be incorporated but some development of the glasses used in this investigation may be required. Further work is needed to determine the effectiveness of copper containing glasses on oral bacterial communities. PMID:12593962

  19. Experimental study on thermal hazard of tributyl phosphate-nitric acid mixtures using micro calorimeter technique.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qi; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Liang; Sun, Jin-Hua

    2016-08-15

    During PUREX spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, mixture of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and hydrocarbon solvent are employed as organic solvent to extract uranium in consideration of radiation contaminated safety and resource recycling, meanwhile nitric acid is utilized to dissolve the spent fuel into small pieces. However, once TBP contacts with nitric acid or nitrates above 130°C, a heavy "red oil" layer would occur accompanied by thermal runaway reactions, even caused several nuclear safety accident. Considering nitric acid volatility and weak exothermic detection, C80micro calorimeter technique was used in this study to investigate thermal decomposition of TBP mixed with nitric acid. Results show that the concentration of nitric acid greatly influences thermal hazard of the system by direct reactions. Even with a low heating rate, if the concentration of nitric acid increases due to evaporation of water or improper operations, thermal runaway in the closed system could start at a low temperature. PMID:27136728

  20. Phosphate Starvation Responses and Gibberellic Acid Biosynthesis Are Regulated by the MYB62 Transcription Factor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Devaiah, Ballachanda N.; Madhuvanthi, Ramaiah; Karthikeyan, Athikkattuvalasu S.; Raghothama, Kashchandra G.

    2009-01-01

    The limited availability of phosphate (Pi) in most soils results in the manifestation of Pi starvation responses in plants. To dissect the transcriptional regulation of Pi stress-response mechanisms, we have characterized the biological role of MYB62, an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor that is induced in response to Pi deficiency. The induction of MYB62 is a specific response in the leaves during Pi deprivation. The MYB62 protein localizes to the nucleus. The overexpression of MYB62 resulted in altered root architecture, Pi uptake, and acid phosphatase activity, leading to decreased total Pi content in the shoots. The expression of several Pi starvation-induced (PSI) genes was also suppressed in the MYB62 overexpressing plants. Overexpression of MYB62 resulted in a characteristic gibberellic acid (GA)-deficient phenotype that could be partially reversed by exogenous application of GA. In addition, the expression of SOC1 and SUPERMAN, molecular regulators of flowering, was suppressed in the MYB62 overexpressing plants. Interestingly, the expression of these genes was also reduced during Pi deprivation in wild-type plants, suggesting a role for GA biosynthetic and floral regulatory genes in Pi starvation responses. Thus, this study highlights the role of MYB62 in the regulation of phosphate starvation responses via changes in GA metabolism and signaling. Such cross-talk between Pi homeostasis and GA might have broader implications on flowering, root development and adaptive mechanisms during nutrient stress. PMID:19529828

  1. Ascorbic acid contents of Pakistani fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M Perwaiz; Kazim, Syed Faraz; Mehboobali, Naseema

    2006-10-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are good sources of vitamin C which is known for its antioxidant and immune-enhancing effects. The objective of this study was to determine ascorbic acid (vitamin C) contents of regularly consumed fruits and vegetables available in Pakistani markets. Most commonly used fresh fruits and vegetables were homogenized in 5% trichloroacetic acid, and ascorbic acid contents in the extracts were determined using a spectrophotometric method. Banana, custard apple, orange, lemon, guava and papaya were found to be very rich in ascorbic acid. Among vegetables, capsicum (green sweet pepper), cauliflower, bittergourd, roundgourd, beetroot, spinach, cabbage and radish contained high concentrations of ascorbic acid. Chikoo, grapes, pear, apricot, peach, carrot, cucumber, lettuce and "kakri" were found to be poor sources of ascorbic acid. Several Pakistani fruits and vegetables (pear, melon, onion, sweet green pepper, spinach, cucumber) had ascorbic acid values similar to those reported by US Department of Agriculture in these fruits and vegetables in USA. However, wide differences in vitamin C contents were also observed in certain other fruits and vegetables from these two countries. This indicates that regional varieties of fruits and vegetables could vary in their ascorbic acid contents. Since subclinical deficiency of vitamin C appears to be quite common in developing countries like Pakistan, there is a need to develop awareness among masses to consume fresh fruits and vegetables with high contents of vitamin C. PMID:17105704

  2. The roles of bile acids and sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in the hepatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yuza, Kizuki; Hirose, Yuki; Nakajima, Masato; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Hait, Nitai C; Hylemon, Phillip B; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-09-01

    Based on research carried out over the last decade, it has become increasingly evident that bile acids act not only as detergents, but also as important signaling molecules that exert various biological effects via activation of specific nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways. Bile acids also regulate the expression of numerous genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in the synthesis and metabolism of bile acids, glucose, fatty acids, and lipoproteins, as well as energy metabolism. Receptors activated by bile acids include, farnesoid X receptor α, pregnane X receptor, vitamin D receptor, and G protein-coupled receptors, TGR5, muscarinic receptor 2, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)2. The ligand of S1PR2, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates various physiological and pathophysiological cellular processes. We have recently reported that conjugated bile acids, via S1PR2, activate and upregulate nuclear sphingosine kinase 2, increase nuclear S1P, and induce genes encoding enzymes and transporters involved in lipid and sterol metabolism in the liver. Here, we discuss the role of bile acids and S1P signaling in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatobiliary diseases. PMID:27459945

  3. [Fatty acid content of sausages manufactured in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Araujo de Vizcarrondo, C; Martín, E

    1997-06-01

    The moisture and lipid content as well as the fatty acid composition of sausages were determined. Lipids were extracted and purified with a mixture of cloroform/methanol 2:1. Fatty acids in the lipid extract were methylated with 4% sulfuric acid/methanol solution and later were separated as methyl esters by gas liquid cromatography (GLC). Sausages presented a lipid content between 7.10% for canned sausages and 35.23% for the cocktail type. Most of the fatty acids were monounsatured with oleic acid as the major component with values between 42.54% for ham sausage and 48.83% for francfort type. Satured fatty acids followed, with palmitic acid as the major component in a range between 21.46% and 26.59% for bologna and Polaca sausage respectively. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were present in less quantities with concentration of linoleic acid between 8.5% (cotto salami type) and 12.60% (cocktail type). Turkey and poultry sausages presented a higher content of polyunsaturated and less saturated fatty acids than the other types of sausages studied. PMID:9659435

  4. Morphological modifications of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings under amino acids effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevet, R.; Lemelle, A.; Untereiner, V.; Manfait, M.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Benhayoune, H.

    2013-03-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings are synthesized on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates by pulsed electrodeposition. This work aims to observe the morphological modifications of the coating when an amino acid is added to the electrolytic solution used in the process. The effects of two amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) are studied at a low and a high concentration. The coating morphology is observed at a nanometer scale by field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The structural characterization of the coating is performed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, corrosion measurements of the prosthetic surfaces are carried out by potentiodynamic polarization experiments in a physiological solution named Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM). The results show that the addition of an amino acid to the electrolytic solution leads to the decrease of the size of the crystallites which compose the prosthetic calcium phosphate coating that becomes denser and less porous than the coatings obtained without amino acid. Consequently, the corrosion behavior of the prosthetic material immersed in DMEM is improved.

  5. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate treatment of lamb breast to reduce bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, A J; Acuff, G R; Lucia, L M; Savell, J W

    2001-09-01

    Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate (TSP) were evaluated for the ability to reduce Escherichia coli and aerobic plate counts (APCs) on lamb breasts that were inoculated with a lamb fecal paste. A 90-s water rinse was applied followed by either a 9-s (55 degrees C) 2% lactic acid spray, a 60-s (55 degrees C) 12% TSP dip, or a combined treatment of both lactic acid and TSP treatments. Lactic acid reduced E. coli and APCs by 1.6 log10/cm2, and TSP caused a 1.8-log10/cm2 reduction in E. coli and a 0.7-log10/cm2 reduction in APCs. Combined reductions by the lactic acid spray followed by the TSP dip were 1.8 and 1.5 log10/cm2 for E. coli and APCs, respectively. Lactic acid and trisodium phosphate, used alone or in combination, were effective in reducing numbers of E. coli and could be useful as pathogen intervention steps in lamb slaughter processing. PMID:11563525

  6. Acid gradient across plasma membrane can drive phosphate bond synthesis in cancer cells: acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Gautam; Sen, Suvajit; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive cancers exhibit an efficient conversion of high amounts of glucose to lactate accompanied by acid secretion, a phenomenon popularly known as the Warburg effect. The acidic microenvironment and the alkaline cytosol create a proton-gradient (acid gradient) across the plasma membrane that represents proton-motive energy. Increasing experimental data from physiological relevant models suggest that acid gradient stimulates tumor proliferation, and can also support its energy needs. However, direct biochemical evidence linking extracellular acid gradient to generation of intracellular ATP are missing. In this work, we demonstrate that cancer cells can synthesize significant amounts of phosphate-bonds from phosphate in response to acid gradient across plasma membrane. The noted phenomenon exists in absence of glycolysis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis, and is unique to cancer. Biochemical assays using viable cancer cells, and purified plasma membrane vesicles utilizing radioactive phosphate, confirmed phosphate-bond synthesis from free phosphate (Pi), and also localization of this activity to the plasma membrane. In addition to ATP, predominant formation of pyrophosphate (PPi) from Pi was also observed when plasma membrane vesicles from cancer cells were subjected to trans-membrane acid gradient. Cancer cytosols were found capable of converting PPi to ATP, and also stimulate ATP synthesis from Pi from the vesicles. Acid gradient created through glucose metabolism by cancer cells, as observed in tumors, also proved critical for phosphate-bond synthesis. In brief, these observations reveal a role of acidic tumor milieu as a potential energy source and may offer a novel therapeutic target. PMID:25874623

  7. Effects of norepinephrine infusion on myocardial high-energy phosphate content and turnover in the living rat.

    PubMed Central

    Bittl, J A; Balschi, J A; Ingwall, J S

    1987-01-01

    Using 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance, we studied the relationship between myocardial high-energy phosphate content and flux values for the creatine kinase reaction in the living rat under inotropic states achieved during norepinephrine infusion and halothane anesthesia. Under 2% halothane anesthesia (n = 4), 1% halothane anesthesia (n = 5) and norepinephrine infusion (n = 4), rats developed rate-pressure products of 19.5 +/- 1.6, 32.0 +/- 3.5, and 48.5 +/- 2.0 X 1,000 mmHg/min, respectively. Adenosine triphosphate content was not affected by inotropic state, ranging from 24.3 +/- 1.1 to 25.6 +/- 1.1 mumol/g dry weight, but creatine phosphate content varied inversely and reversibly with cardiac performance from 45.6 +/- 6.0 under 2% halothane to 26.0 +/- 6.5 mumol/g dry weight during norepinephrine infusion. The flux values for the creatine kinase reaction were 15.4 +/- 4.6, 20.5 +/- 2.0, and 30.1 +/- 7.9 mumol/g dry weight per s under 2% halothane, 1% halothane, and 1% halothane with norepinephrine, respectively. These results suggest that the turnover of myocardial high-energy phosphate compounds, not their tissue contents, matches cardiac performance during inotropic stimulation. Images PMID:3584473

  8. The Interplay between Inorganic Phosphate and Amino Acids determines Zinc Solubility in Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Rumschik, Sean M.; Nydegger, Irma; Zhao, Jinfu; Kay, Alan R

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an important polyanion needed for ATP synthesis and bone formation. Since it is found at millimolar levels in plasma it is usually incorporated as a constituent of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) formulations for maintaining brain slices. In this paper we show that Pi limits the extracellular zinc concentration by inducing metal precipitation. We present data suggesting that amino acids like histidine may counteract the Pi-induced zinc precipitation by the formation of soluble zinc complexes. We propose that the interplay between Pi and amino acids in the extracellular space may influence the availability of metals for cellular uptake. PMID:19183267

  9. Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 containing an artificial oxalate operon and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin secretes oxalic acid and solubilizes rock phosphate in acidic alfisols.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kavita; Kumar, Chanchal; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2014-01-01

    Oxalate secretion was achieved in Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525 by incorporation of genes encoding Aspergillus niger oxaloacetate acetyl hydrolase (oah), Fomitopsis plaustris oxalate transporter (FpOAR) and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb) in various combinations. Pf (pKCN2) transformant containing oah alone accumulated 19 mM oxalic acid intracellularly but secreted 1.2 mM. However, in the presence of an artificial oxalate operon containing oah and FpOAR genes in plasmid pKCN4, Pf (pKCN4) secreted 13.6 mM oxalate in the medium while 3.6 mM remained inside. This transformant solubilized 509 μM of phosphorus from rock phosphate in alfisol which is 4.5 fold higher than the Pf (pKCN2) transformant. Genomic integrants of P. fluorescens (Pf int1 and Pf int2) containing artificial oxalate operon (plac-FpOAR-oah) and artificial oxalate gene cluster (plac-FpOAR-oah, vgb, egfp) secreted 4.8 mM and 5.4 mM oxalic acid, released 329 μM and 351 μM P, respectively, in alfisol. The integrants showed enhanced root colonization, improved growth and increased P content of Vigna radiata plants. This study demonstrates oxalic acid secretion in P. fluorescens by incorporation of an artificial operon constituted of genes for oxalate synthesis and transport, which imparts mineral phosphate solubilizing ability to the organism leading to enhanced growth and P content of V. radiata in alfisol soil. PMID:24705024

  10. Neuraminic acid content of sputum in chronic bronchitis

    PubMed Central

    Keal, E. E.; Reid, Lynne

    1972-01-01

    The neuraminic acid content of sputum from 48 men with early chronic bronchitis has been estimated in samples collected over a period of three years. The results are compared with those from 29 advanced bronchitic patients and are related to the clinical features of both groups and to the physical and biological properties of the sputum. A seasonal variation in neuraminic acid content has been noted for the first time with higher levels during the winter months. Clinical assessment of sputum pourability correlated well with measured viscosity. The viscosity of mucoid sputum was related to its neuraminic acid content but also to the yield of dry macromolecular material. In the early bronchitic group whose sputum was assessed for purulence at monthly intervals pus was more often present in those men whose mucoid sputum contained higher levels of neuraminic acid. These findings are discussed in relation to the cause of exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. PMID:4647626

  11. Immobilization and phytotoxicity of Pb in contaminated soil amended with γ-polyglutamic acid, phosphate rock, and γ-polyglutamic acid-activated phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Cai, Zhijian; Su, Xiaojuan; Fu, Qingling; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Qiaoyun; Violante, Antonio; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA), phosphate rock (PR), and γ-PGA-activated PR (γ-PGA-PR) on the immobilization and phytotoxicity of Pb in a contaminated soil. The proportion of residual Pb (Re-Pb) in soil was reduced by the addition of γ-PGA but was increased by the application of PR and γ-PGA-PR. The addition of γ-PGA in soil improved the accumulation of Pb in pak choi and decreased the growth of pak choi, suggesting the intensification of Pb phytotoxicity to pak choi. However, opposite effects of PR and γ-PGA-PR on the phytotoxicity of Pb to pak choi in soil were observed. Moreover, in the examined range, γ-PGA-PR activated by a higher amount of γ-PGA resulted in a greater proportion of Re-Pb in soil and weaker phytotoxicity of Pb to pak choi. The predominance of γ-PGA-PR in relieving the phytotoxicity of Pb was ascribed mainly to the increase of soil pH and available phosphate after the amendment, which could facilitate the precipitation of Pb in soil and provide pak choi with more phosphorus nutrient. PMID:25196962

  12. Solvent extraction study of the thorium nitrate, nitric acid, and tributyl phosphate-dodecane system: density and acidity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, A.J.; Marley, J.L.; Costanzo, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    A solvent extraction study to determine equilibrium conditions of thorium nitrate-nitric acid with 30% tributyl phosphate in normal dodecane has been completed. Experimental conditions studied were 30 to 60{sup 0}C, 0.05 to 1.5 M Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, and 0.0 to 3.0 M HNO{sub 3}. The extractant concentration was constant at 30% tributyl phosphate. The equilibrium experiments have produced data which demonstrate that thorium nitrate concentration, free acid, and density are related in equilibrium behavior between the aqueous and organic phases from 30 to 60{sup 0}C in the 30% tributyl phosphate-dodecane solvent extraction system. The concentration interactions apply to both the two- and three-phase regions. A linear correlation was observed for the density (D) of the aqueous or organic phase and the concentration of thorium and free acid. The general form of the equation is D = a(C/sub Th/ + bC/sub H/) + c, where a is the slope, b is the constant, c is the intercept, and C/sub Th/ and C/sub H/ are the molar concentrations of thorium and free acid respectively. The relationship of temperature, thorium nitrate, and free acid makes possible the definitions of the boundaries between the two- and three-phase regions. This dependence, in turn, permits operational control or simulation studies of the system within the two-phase region. The data demonstrate the interactions of the components of the Thorex system and can be used to improve the mathematical description of equilibrium in the SEPHIS-Thorex computer program.

  13. Evaluation of commonly used methods for the analysis of acid-soluble phosphate in internationally traded inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Hall, William L; Siegel, Sanford

    2014-01-01

    Several methodologies are used throughout the world to determine phosphate concentration (measured as PO4 and expressed as % P2O5) in fertilizers. Concentrated phosphate materials, including diammonium phosphate (DAP) and monoammonium phosphate (MAP), are traded in large volumes (millions of metric tons) internationally. The International Fertilizer Association (IFA) identified a need to assess the methods currently being used to measure the phosphate content for suitability (scope), accuracy, and repeatability. Even small discrepancies in the expressed P2O5 content can have a major financial impact on buyers and sellers as contracts are settled and import regulations are imposed. The IFA's Technical Committee selected a working group to address issues dealing with harmonization of fertilizer sampling and analytical methodologies. The working group identified phosphate content in DAP and MAP fertilizers as a major concern for commerce. The working group initiated a method screening and comparison project to assess method performance and to determine which methods, if any, could be considered best practice methods and, therefore, be deemed acceptable for use by the industry. In order to systematically review the acceptability of methods for consideration, the task force developed an assessment protocol outlined in a white paper involving three steps: (1) compile all known relevant methods practiced in global fertilizer trade, (2) review and evaluate methods based upon specific evaluation criteria, and (3) compare the methods that most closely fit the evaluation criteria by multilaboratory analysis of unknown materials for accuracy and repeatability. Six methods were evaluated for analysis of total phosphate in concentrated phosphate products. From these methods, four were determined to be acceptable as best practice methods. The study members proposed three of the methods, while a fourth method was commonly used among the participating laboratories. This publication

  14. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  15. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A. C.; de Vree, Jeroen H.; Kleinegris, Dorinde M. M.; Martens, Dirk E.; Wijffels, René H.; Lamers, Packo P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification. PMID:24121679

  16. Utilizing acid mine drainage sludge and coal fly ash for phosphate removal from dairy wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y R; Tsang, Daniel C W; Olds, William E; Weber, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate a new and sustainable approach for the reuse of industrial by-products from wastewater treatment. The dairy industry produces huge volumes of wastewater, characterized by high levels of phosphate that can result in eutrophication and degradation of aquatic ecosystems. This study evaluated the application of acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge, coal fly ash, and lignite as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from dairy wastewater. Material characterization using X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis revealed significant amounts of crystalline/amorphous Fe/Al/Si/Ca-based minerals and large surface areas of AMD sludge and fly ash. Batch adsorption isotherms were best described using the Freundlich model. The Freundlich distribution coefficients were 13.7 mg(0.577) L(0.423) g(-1) and 16.9 mg(0.478) L(0.522) g(-1) for AMD sludge and fly ash, respectively, and the nonlinearity constants suggested favourable adsorption for column applications. The breakthrough curves of fixed-bed columns, containing greater than 10 wt% of the waste materials (individual or composite blends) mixed with sand, indicated that phosphate breakthrough did not occur within 100 pore volumes while the cumulative removal was 522 and 490 mg kg(-1) at 10 wt% AMD sludge and 10 wt% fly ash, respectively. By contrast, lignite exhibited negligible phosphate adsorption, possibly due to small amounts of inorganic minerals suitable for phosphate complexation and limited surface area. The results suggest that both AMD sludge and fly ash were potentially effective adsorbents if employed individually at a ratio of 10 wt% or above for column application. PMID:24617077

  17. Strong and Biostable Hyaluronic Acid-Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite Hydrogel via in Situ Precipitation Process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seol-Ha; Koh, Young-Hag; Kim, Suk-Wha; Park, Ji-Ung; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Song, Juha

    2016-03-14

    Hyaluronic acid (HAc) hydrogel exhibits excellent biocompatibility, but it has limited biomedical application due to its poor biomechanical properties as well as too-fast enzymatic degradation. In this study, we have developed an in situ precipitation process for the fabrication of a HAc-calcium phosphate nanocomposite hydrogel, after the formation of the glycidyl methacrylate-conjugated HAc (GMHA) hydrogels via photo-cross-linking, to improve the mechanical and biological properties under physiological conditions. In particular, our process facilitates the rapid incorporation of calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles of uniform size and with minimal agglomeration into a polymer matrix, homogeneously. Compared with pure HAc, the nanocomposite hydrogels exhibit improved mechanical behavior. Specifically, the shear modulus is improved by a factor of 4. The biostability of the nanocomposite hydrogel was also significantly improved compared with that of pure HAc hydrogels under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:26878437

  18. Dodecaprenyl Phosphate-Galacturonic Acid as a Donor Substrate for Lipopolysaccharide Core Glycosylation in Rhizobium leguminosarum*

    PubMed Central

    Kanjilal-Kolar, Suparna; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2008-01-01

    The lipid A and inner core regions of Rhizobium leguminosarum lipopolysaccharide contain four galacturonic acid (GalA) residues. Two are attached to the outer unit of the 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) disaccharide, one to the mannose residue, and one to the 4′-position of lipid A. The enzymes RgtA and RgtB, described in the accompanying article, catalyze GalA transfer to the Kdo residue, whereas RgtC is responsible for modification of the core mannose unit. Heterologous expression of RgtA in Sinorhizhobium meliloti 1021, a strain that normally lacks GalA modifications on its Kdo disaccharide, resulted in detectable GalA transferase activity in isolated membrane preparations, suggesting that the appropriate GalA donor substrate is available in S. meliloti membranes. In contrast, heterologous expression of RgtA in Escherichia coli yielded inactive membranes. However, RgtA activity was detectable in the E. coli system when total lipids from R. leguminosarum 3841 or S. meliloti 1021 were added. We have now purified and characterized dodecaprenyl (C60) phosphate-GalA as a minor novel lipid of R. leguminosarum 3841 and S. meliloti. This substance is stable to mild base hydrolysis and was purified by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. Its structure was established by a combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and gas-liquid chromatography. Purified dodecaprenyl phosphate-GalA supports the efficient transfer of GalA to Kdo2-1-dephospho-lipid IVA by membranes of E. coli cells expressing RgtA, RgtB, and RgtC. The identification of a polyisoprene phosphate-GalA donor substrate suggests that the active site of RgtA faces the periplasmic side of the inner membrane. This work represents the first definitive characterization of a lipid-linked GalA derivative with the proposed structure dodecaprenyl phosphate-β-D-GalA. PMID:16497671

  19. Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a 'known human carcinogen' in a National Toxicology Program (NTP) report where phosphate fertilizer manufacture was listed as one of many occupational exposures to strong acids. To properly assess the occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists in modern facilities, approved National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7903 and a cascade impactor were used for measuring the total sulfuric acid mist concentration and size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentration, respectively. Sampling was conducted at eight phosphate fertilizer plants and two background sites in Florida and there were 24 sampling sites in these plants. Samples were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) to quantify the water-soluble ion species. The highest sulfuric acid concentrations by the cascade impactor were obtained at the sulfuric acid pump tank area. When high aerosol mass concentrations (100 micro g m(-3)) were observed at this area, the sulfuric acid mists were in the coarse mode. The geometric mean sulfuric acid concentrations (+/-geometric standard deviation) of PM(23) (aerodynamic cut size smaller than 23 micro m), PM(10) and PM(2.5) from the cascade impactor were 41.7 (+/-5.5), 37.9 (+/-5.8) and 22.1 (+/-4.5) micro g m(-3), respectively. The geometric mean (+/-geometric standard deviation) for total sulfuric acid concentration from the NIOSH method samples was 143 (+/-5.08) micro g m(-3). Sulfuric acid mist concentrations varied significantly among the plants and even at the same location. The measurements by the NIOSH method were 1.5-229 times higher than those by the cascade impactor. Moreover, using the NIOSH method, the sulfuric acid concentrations measured at the lower flow rate (0.30 Lpm) were higher than those at the higher flow rate (0.45 Lpm). One possible reason for the significant differences between the results from the cascade impactor and the NIOSH method is the potential

  20. Formation of titanium phosphate composites during phosphoric acid decomposition of natural sphene

    SciTech Connect

    Maslova, Marina V.; Rusanova, Daniela Naydenov, Valeri; Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Gerasimova, Lidia G.

    2008-12-15

    Decomposition of mineral sphene, CaTiOSiO{sub 4}, by H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is investigated in detail. During the dissolution process, simultaneous calcium leaching and formation of titanium phosphate (TiP) take place. The main product of decomposition is a solid titanium phosphate-silica composite. The XRD, solid-sate NMR, IR, TGA, SEM and BET data were used to identify and characterize the composite as a mixture of crystalline Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O and silica. When 80% phosphoric acid is used the decomposition degree is higher than 98% and calcium is completely transferred into the liquid phase. Formation of Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O proceeds via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases, Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}).2H{sub 2}O and Ti(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}). The sorption affinities of TiP composites were examined in relation to caesium and strontium ions. A decrease of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} concentration leads to formation of composites with greater sorption properties. The maximum sorption capacity of TiP is observed when 60% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is used in sphene decomposition. The work demonstrates a valuable option within the Ti(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} composite synthesis scheme, to use phosphoric acid flows for isolation of CaHPO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O fertilizer. - Graphical abstract: A new synthesis scheme for preparation of composite titanium phosphate (TiP) ion-exchangers upon one-stage decomposition process of natural sphene with phosphoric acid is presented. Syntheses of {alpha}-TiP-silica composites proceed via formation of meta-stable titanium phosphate phases. The concentration of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} determines the porosity of final products and their sorption affinities.

  1. Growth Conditions To Reduce Oxalic Acid Content of Spinach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Rutzke, Corinne

    2003-01-01

    A controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) technique to increase the nutritive value of spinach has been developed. This technique makes it possible to reduce the concentration of oxalic acid in spinach leaves. It is desirable to reduce the oxalic acid content because oxalic acid acts as an anti-nutritive calcium-binding component. More than 30 years ago, an enzyme (an oxidase) that breaks down oxalic acid into CO2 and H2O2 was discovered and found to be naturally present in spinach leaves. However, nitrate, which can also be present because of the use of common nitratebased fertilizers, inactivates the enzyme. In the CEA technique, one cuts off the supply of nitrate and keeps the spinach plants cool while providing sufficient oxygen. This technique provides the precise environment that enables the enzyme to naturally break down oxalate. The result of application of this technique is that the oxalate content is reduced by 2/3 in one week.

  2. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Tilak R; Nam, Seung-Hee; Ure, Amy L

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been recently studied mainly because of its potential in protecting against cancer, atherogenesis, and diabetes. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for a series of conjugated dienoic positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid, which are found in relative abundance in milk and tissue fat of ruminants compared with other foods. The cis-9, trans-11 isomer is the principle dietary form of CLA found in ruminant products and is produced by partial ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid or by endogenous synthesis in the tissues themselves. The CLA content in milk and meat is affected by several factors, such as animal's breed, age, diet, and management factors related to feed supplements affecting the diet. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk or meat has been shown to be a stable compound under normal cooking and storage conditions. Total CLA content in milk or dairy products ranges from 0.34 to 1.07% of total fat. Total CLA content in raw or processed beef ranges from 0.12 to 0.68% of total fat. It is currently estimated that the average adult consumes only one third to one half of the amount of CLA that has been shown to reduce cancer in animal studies. For this reason, increasing the CLA contents of milk and meat has the potential to raise the nutritive and therapeutic values of dairy products and meat. PMID:16183568

  3. Impact of shelterbelts of different age on the content of nitrates and phosphates in ground water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaskulska, Renata; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    The investigations were carried out in the Agroecological Landscape Park situated 40 km South-West of Poznań in the upper Obra River watershed, Poland. The arable land constitutes 70%, shelterbelts and small afforestations about 14% and meadows and pastures about 12%. Shelterbelts belong to very efficient biogeochemical barriers. They decrease the migration of chemical compounds between ecosystems. The direction of ground water flow was from the adjoining cultivated field towards shelterbelts. Two shelterbelts of different humus guantity in surface layer soils were investigated. The age and species composition of plant was taken under consideration. The first one is 160-year-old shelterbelt, where predominant species is Robinia pseudoacacia, Quercus rober and Alnus glutinosa and is characterized by a well-developed humus level. The other one is 14-year-old shelterbelt. It includes 13 species of trees (Quercus petrea, Larix deciduas, Pinus silvestri, Populus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia) and reveals a small amount of humus. The soils are minerals, grey-brown podzolic in surface layer soils compound from light loamy sands and weakly loamy sands. The contents of N-NO3-, P-PO4-3, were investigated in the ground water under shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields. In addition, cationic sorptive capacity, specific surface areas, TOC were determined in soils. The smallest concentrations of nitrates (3.35 mg×l-1) and phosphates (0.02 mg×l-1) were observed in ground water under the 160-year-old shelterbelt. The physicochemical properties of soils under 160-year-old shelterbelt: specific surface areas (20.3 m2×g-1), cationic sorptive capacity (24.8 cmol(+)×kg-1), TOC (4.3%) was higher than in 14-year-old shelterbelt and in adjoining cultivated fields. The results revealed, that the 160-year-old shelterbelt characterizing developed humus more effectively than 14-year-old shelterbelt decreases the amounts of chemical compounds in ground water and sufficiently fulfils the

  4. Application of acid-activated Bauxsol for wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration: Characterization, adsorption optimization, and desorption behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jie; Cong, Xiangna; Zhang, Panyue; Zeng, Guangming; Hoffmann, Erhard; Liu, Yang; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Wei; Hahn, Hermann H

    2016-02-01

    Acid-activated Bauxsol was applied to treat wastewater with high phosphate concentration in a batch adsorption system in this paper. The effect of acid activation on the change of Bauxsol structure was systematically investigated. The mineralogical inhomogeneity and intensity of Bauxsol decreased after acid activation, and FeCl3·2H2O and Al(OH)3 became the dominant phases of acid-activated Bauxsol adsorption. Moreover, the BET surface area and total pore volume of Bauxsol increased after acid activation. Interaction of initial solution pH and adsorption temperature on phosphate adsorption onto acid-activated Bauxsol was investigated by using response surface methodology with central composite design. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of 192.94 mg g(-1) was achieved with an initial solution pH of 4.19 and an adsorption temperature of 52.18 °C, which increased by 7.61 times compared with that of Bauxsol (22.40 mg g(-1)), and was higher than other adsorbents. Furthermore, the desorption studies demonstrated that the acid-activated Bauxsol was successfully regenerated with 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl solution. The adsorption capacity and desorption efficiency of acid-activated Bauxsol maintained at 80.48% and 93.02% in the fifth adsorption-desorption cycle, respectively, suggesting that the acid-activated Bauxsol could be repeatedly used in wastewater treatment with high phosphate concentration. PMID:26606195

  5. Simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewater by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The zero-valent iron (ZVI) wastewater treatment has been applied to simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewaters. The simultaneous removal occurs by the reactions performed due to the sequential transformation of ZVI under the acidic condition. Fortunately the solution pH of semiconductor acidic wastewaters is low which is effective for the sequential transformation of ZVI. Firstly the reduction of nitrate is taken place by electrons generated by the corrosion of ZVI under acidic conditions. Secondly the ferrous ion generated by the corrosion of ZVI reacts with hydrogen peroxide and generates ·OH radical (Fenton reaction). The Fenton reaction consists of the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of ferric ion. Finally phosphate precipitates out with iron ions. In the simultaneous removal process, 1.6 mM nitrate, 9.0 mM hydrogen peroxide and 1.0 mM phosphate were completely removed by ZVI within 100, 15 and 15 min, respectively. The synergy among the reactions for the removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate was found. In the individual pollutant removal experiment, the removal of phosphate by ZVI was limited to 80% after 300 min. Its removal rate was considerably improved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and the complete removal of phosphate was achieved after 15 min. PMID:24798898

  6. In vitro biocompatibility of chitosan/hyaluronic acid-containing calcium phosphate bone cements.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, Saeed; Nezafati, Nader

    2014-08-01

    The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. In this research, calcium phosphate cements, with and without chitosan (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA), were synthesized. The composition and morphological properties of cements were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The acellular in vitro bioactivity revealed that different apatite morphologies were formed on the surfaces of cements after soaking in simulated body fluid. The in vitro osteoblastic cell biocompatibility of in situ forming cements was evaluated and compared with those of conventional calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). The viability and growth rate of the cells were similar for all CPCs, but better alkaline phosphatase activity was observed for CPC with CS and HA. Calcium phosphate cements supported attachment of osteoblastic cells on their surfaces. Spindle-shaped osteoblasts with developed cytoplasmic membrane were found on the surfaces of cement samples after 7 days of culture. These results reveal the potential of the CPC-CS/HA composites to be used in bone tissue engineering. PMID:24399509

  7. Determination of phosphate in natural waters by activation analysis of tungstophosphoric acid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Herbert E.; Hahn, Richard B.

    1969-01-01

    Activation analysis may be used to determine quantitatively traces of phosphate in natural waters. Methods based on the reaction 31P(n,γ)32P are subject to interference by sulfur and chlorine which give rise to 32P through n,p and n,α reactions. If the ratio of phosphorus to sulfur or chlorine is small, as it is in most natural waters, accurate analyses by these methods are difficult to achieve. In the activation analysis method, molybdate and tungstate ions are added to samples containing phosphate ion to form tungstomolybdophosphoric acid. The complex is extracted with 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanone. After activation of an aliquot of the organic phase for 1 hour at a flux of 1013 neutrons per cm2, per second, the gamma spectrum is essentially that of tungsten-187. The induced activity is proportional to the concentration of phosphate in the sample. A test of the method showed it to give accurate results at concentrations of 4 to at least 200 p.p.b. of phosphorus when an aliquot of 100 μl. was activated. By suitable reagent purification, counting for longer times, and activation of larger aliquots, the detection limit could be lowered several hundredfold.

  8. Escherichia coli N-Acetylglucosamine-1-Phosphate-Uridyltransferase/Glucosamine-1-Phosphate-Acetyltransferase (GlmU) Inhibitory Activity of Terreic Acid Isolated from Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Lambu, Mallikharjuna Rao; Jamwal, Urmila; Rani, Chitra; Chib, Reena; Wazir, Priya; Mukherjee, Debaraj; Chaubey, Asha; Khan, Inshad Ali

    2016-04-01

    Secondary metabolite of Aspergillus terreus, terreic acid, is a reported potent antibacterial that was identified more than 60 years ago, but its cellular target(s) are still unknown. Here we screen its activity against the acetyltransferase domain of a bifunctional enzyme, Escherichia coli N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (GlmU). An absorbance-based assay was used to screen terreic acid against the acetyltransferase activity of E. coli GlmU. Terreic acid was found to inhibit the acetyltransferase domain of E. coli GlmU with an IC50 of 44.24 ± 1.85 µM. Mode of inhibition studies revealed that terreic acid was competitive with AcCoA and uncompetitive with GlcN-1-P. It also exhibited concentration-dependent killing of E. coli ATCC 25922 up to 4× minimum inhibitory concentration and inhibited the growth of biofilms generated by E. coli. Characterization of resistant mutants established mutation in the acetyltransferase domain of GlmU. Terreic acid was also found to be metabolically stable in the in vitro incubations with rat liver microsome in the presence of a NADPH regenerating system. The studies reported here suggest that terreic acid is a potent antimicrobial agent and support that E. coli GlmU acetyltransferase is a molecular target of terreic acid, resulting in its antibacterial activity. PMID:26762501

  9. Direct acid methylation for extraction of fatty acid content from microalgae cells.

    PubMed

    Frigo-Vaz, Benjamin D; Wang, Ping

    2014-08-01

    Direct acid methylation was examined as a means for both analysis of fatty acid content in microalgal cells and biodiesel production without pretreatment. Microalgal cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta were prepared and examined. It appeared that direct acid methylation extracted higher fatty acid content than the solvent-based Soxhlet extraction process. It also revealed that the latter was prone to extract a significant amount of nonlipid hydrophobic impurities, including hydrophobic proteins and phytol-type compounds, while direct methylation produces essentially pure ester product. This work demonstrates that direct acid methylation provides superior fatty acid extraction, promising an efficient process for either quantification of lipid content or production of biodiesel. PMID:24838798

  10. Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2014-06-03

    Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly-crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge EXAFS indicated that “autunite-type” sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to “phosphuranylite-type” sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases.

  11. Influence of phosphate and silica on U(VI) precipitation from acidic and neutralized wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Perdrial, Nicolas; Um, Wooyong; Chorover, Jon; O'Day, Peggy A

    2014-06-01

    Uranium speciation and physical-chemical characteristics were studied in solids precipitated from synthetic acidic to circumneutral wastewaters in the presence and absence of dissolved silica and phosphate to examine thermodynamic and kinetic controls on phase formation. Composition of synthetic wastewater was based on disposal sites 216-U-8 and 216-U-12 Cribs at the Hanford site (WA, USA). In the absence of dissolved silica or phosphate, crystalline or amorphous uranyl oxide hydrates, either compreignacite or meta-schoepite, precipitated at pH 5 or 7 after 30 d of reaction, in agreement with thermodynamic calculations. In the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica representative of groundwater concentrations, amorphous phases dominated by compreignacite precipitated rapidly at pH 5 or 7 as a metastable phase and formation of poorly crystalline boltwoodite, the thermodynamically stable uranyl silicate phase, was slow. In the presence of phosphate (3 mM), meta-ankoleite initially precipitated as the primary phase at pH 3, 5, or 7 regardless of the presence of 1 mM dissolved silica. Analysis of precipitates by U LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) indicated that "autunite-type" sheets of meta-ankoleite transformed to "phosphuranylite-type" sheets after 30 d of reaction, probably due to Ca substitution in the structure. Low solubility of uranyl phosphate phases limits dissolved U(VI) concentrations but differences in particle size, crystallinity, and precipitate composition vary with pH and base cation concentration, which will influence the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of these phases. PMID:24754743

  12. Spectroscopic and dielectric response of zinc bismuth phosphate glasses as a function of chromium content

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P. Srinivasa; Babu, P. Ramesh; Vijay, R.; Narendrudu, T.; Veeraiah, N.; Rao, D. Krishna

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: 20ZnF{sub 2}–(20 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤2 mol%) glasses are prepared by melt quenching technique. The optical absorption spectra of present glasses are analyzed as a function of chromium content. The absorption bands are assigned to {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}E{sub g}(G) transitions of Cr{sup 3+} ions. - Highlights: • ZnF{sub 2}–Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses were prepared by melt quenching and annealing. • Spectroscopic and dielectric properties of chromium ions were investigated. • ESR and optical absorption spectra indicate the co-existence of Cr{sup 6+} ions with Cr{sup 5+} ions and Cr{sup 3+} ions. • Cr{sup 3+} ions act as modifiers and influence the semiconducting nature of the glass system. - Abstract: 20ZnF{sub 2}–(20 − x)Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}–60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:xCr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 ≤ x ≤2 mol%) glasses are prepared by melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of these samples is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. FTIR study reveals bands due to CrO{sub 6}(o{sub d}) and CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}(T{sub d}) units along with conventional phosphate groups. The optical absorption and ESR studies of present glasses are analyzed as a function of chromium content. The absorption bands are assigned to {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F) ⟶ {sup 2}E{sub g}(G) transitions of Cr{sup 3+} ions. The highest concentration of Cr{sup 3+} ions (in octahedral sites, with network modifying positions) is found in the sample with 2.0 mol% of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The analysis of dielectric properties indicates a gradual increase in semiconducting character with increase in the concentration of

  13. CITRIC ACID AS A SET RETARDER FOR CALCIUM ALUMINATE PHOSPHATE CEMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA,T.; BROTHERS, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    Citric acid added as set retarder significantly contributed to enhancing the setting temperature and to extending the thickening time of a calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) geothermal cement slurry consisting of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the base reactant and sodium polyphosphate (NaP) solution as the acid reactant. The set-retarding activity of citric acid was due to the uptake of Ca{sup 2+} ions from the CAC by carboxylic acid groups within the citric acid. This uptake led to the precipitation of a Ca-complexed carboxylate compound as a set-retarding barrier layer on the CAC grains' surfaces. However, this barrier layer was vulnerable to disintegration by the attack of free Ca{sup 2+} ions from CAC, and also to degradation at elevated temperature, thereby promoting the generation of exothermic energy from acid-base reactions between the CAC and NaP after the barrier was broken. The exothermic reaction energy that was promoted in this way minimized the loss in strength of the citric acid-retarded cement. The phase composition assembled in both retarded and non-retarded cements after autoclaving at 180 C encompassed three reaction products, hydroxyapatite (HOAp), hydrogrossular and boehmite, which are responsible for strengthening the autoclaved cement. The first two reaction products were susceptible to reactions with sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate to form crystalline bassanite scale as the corrosion product. The boehmite phase possessed a great resistance to acid and sulfate. Although the bassanite scales clinging to the cement's surfaces were the major factor governing the loss in weight, they served in protecting the cement from further acid- and sulfate-corrosion until their spallation eventually occurred. Nevertheless, the repetitive processes of HOAp and hydrogrossular {yields} bassanite {yields} spallation played an important role in extending the useful lifetime of CaP cement in a low pH environment at 180 C.

  14. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND TOCOPHEROL CONTENT OF PUMPKIN SEED OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil (PSO) has high tocopherol content (TC) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) making it well-suited for improving human nutrition. PSO has been implicated in preventing prostate growth, retarding hypertension, mitigating hypercholesterolemia and arthritis, improved bladder compliance, a...

  15. Isoprenoid biosynthesis as a target for antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs: phosphonohydroxamic acids as inhibitors of deoxyxylulose phosphate reducto-isomerase

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis via the methylerythritol phosphate pathway is a target against pathogenic bacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. 4-(Hydroxyamino)-4-oxobutylphosphonic acid and 4-[hydroxy(methyl)amino]-4-oxobutyl phosphonic acid, two novel inhibitors of DXR (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reducto-isomerase), the second enzyme of the pathway, have been synthesized and compared with fosmidomycin, the best known inhibitor of this enzyme. The latter phosphonohydroxamic acid showed a high inhibitory activity towards DXR, much like fosmidomycin, as well as significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli in tests on Petri dishes. PMID:15473867

  16. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Leandro M.; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M.; Soares, Cláudio R.F.S.; de Lima, José M.; Olivares, Fabio L.; Moreira, Fatima M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  17. Initial pH of medium affects organic acids production but do not affect phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Marra, Leandro M; de Oliveira-Longatti, Silvia M; Soares, Cláudio R F S; de Lima, José M; Olivares, Fabio L; Moreira, Fatima M S

    2015-06-01

    The pH of the culture medium directly influences the growth of microorganisms and the chemical processes that they perform. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the initial pH of the culture medium on the production of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids and on the solubilization of calcium phosphate by bacteria in growth medium (NBRIP). The following strains isolated from cowpea nodules were studied: UFLA03-08 (Rhizobium tropici), UFLA03-09 (Acinetobacter sp.), UFLA03-10 (Paenibacillus kribbensis), UFLA03-106 (Paenibacillus kribbensis) and UFLA03-116 (Paenibacillus sp.). The strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 solubilized Ca3(PO4)2 in liquid medium regardless of the initial pH, although without a significant difference between the treatments. The production of organic acids by these strains was assessed for all of the initial pH values investigated, and differences between the treatments were observed. Strains UFLA03-09 and UFLA03-10 produced the same acids at different initial pH values in the culture medium. There was no correlation between phosphorus solubilized from Ca3(PO4)2 in NBRIP liquid medium and the concentration of total organic acids at the different initial pH values. Therefore, the initial pH of the culture medium influences the production of organic acids by the strains UFLA03-08, UFLA03-09, UFLA03-10 and UFLA03-106 but it does not affect calcium phosphate solubilization. PMID:26273251

  18. Evaluation of fatty acid content of some Iranian fast foods with emphasis on trans fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Seddigheh; Nazari, Bahar; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Parkhideh, Sahar; Saberi, Salbali; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Although the disadvantages of trans fatty acids (TFAs) are widely mentioned, limited data are available on the TFAs contents of Iranian foods, including fast foods. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of common fatty acids in several fast foods in Iran, with specific focus on TFAs. The most commonly consumed fast foods in Iran: sausage, calbas, hamburgers and pizzas, were randomly selected seven times from products available in supermarkets and restaurants. Each time a 10 g sample was drawn and prepared for fatty acid analysis. Total and individual fatty acids were quantified according to standard methods by gas chromatography with 60 meter capillary column and flame ionization detector. The most common saturated fatty acids in Iranian fast foods is stearic acid (C18:0) which ranged from 14.0% to 20.9%. Saturated fatty acid content in calbas was significantly higher than that found in other groups. Trans fatty acids constitute almost 23.6% to 30.6% of total fatty acids of these products. The most common TFA in these fast foods was elaidic acid (C18:1 9t). Total cis unsaturated fatty acid content of tested fast foods varied from 25.3%(in sausage) to 46.8(in calbas) with oleic acid (C18:1 9c) followed by linoleic acid (C18:2) being the most common fatty acids in these products. This study showed higher TFAs contents in commercially available fast foods compared to the amounts recommended by dietary guidelines in Iran. Further studies must assess the effects of these fatty acids on human health. PMID:19713177

  19. Mechanistic studies of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, G.D.; Woodard, R.W.

    1994-12-01

    The enzyme 3-deOXY-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase (KDO 8-P synthase) catalyses the condensation of arabinose 5-phosphate (A 5-P) with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to give the unique eight-carbon acidic sugar 3-deoxy-D-nianno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate (KDO 8-P) found only in gram-negative bacteria and required for lipid A maturation and cellular growth. The E. coli gene kdsA that encodes KDO 8-P synthase has been amplified by standard PCR methodologies. The synthetic gene, subcloned into the expression vector pT7-7 was used to infect E. coli BL 21 (DE 3). Purification of crude supernatant from this transformant on Q Sepharose yields >200 mg of near-homogeneous KDO 8-P synthase per liter of cell culture. To explore the mechanism of KDO 8-P synthase, we prepared (E)- and (Z)-(3{sup 2}H)PEP, (2-{sup 13}C)PEP, and (2-{sup 13}C,{sup 18}O)PEP chemically from the appropriately labeled 3-bromopyruvates by reaction with trimethylphosphite under Perkow reaction conditions. Our {sup 1}H-NMR analysis of the stereochemistry at C3 of the KDO 8-Ps, obtained by separate incubation of (E)- and (Z)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP with A 5-P in the presence of KDO 8-P synthase, demonstrated that the reaction is stereospecific with respect to both the C3 of PEP and the C1 carbonyl of A 5-P. (Z)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP gave predominantly (3S)-(3{sup 2}H)KDO 8-P and (E)-(3-{sup 2}H)PEP gave predominantly (3R)-(3{sup 2}H)KDO-8P, which indicates condensation of the si face of PEP upon the re face of A 5-P-an orientation analogous to that seen with the similar aldehyde Iyase DAH 7-P synthase. The fate of the enolic oxygen of (2-{sup 13}C, {sup 18}O)PEP, during the course of the KDO 8-P synthase-catalyzed reaction as monitored by both {sup 13}C- and {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the inorganic phosphate (Pi) and not the KDO 8-P contained the {sup 18}O.

  20. Lipids in salicylic acid-mediated defense in plants: focusing on the roles of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective defense strategies to protect themselves from various pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates pathogen-triggered signals perceived by different immune receptors to induce downstream defense responses. While many proteins play essential roles in regulating SA signaling, increasing evidence also supports important roles for signaling phospholipids in this process. In this review, we collate the experimental evidence in support of the regulatory roles of two phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA), and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), and their metabolizing enzymes in plant defense, and examine the possible mechanistic interaction between phospholipid signaling and SA-dependent immunity with a particular focus on the immunity-stimulated biphasic PA production that is reminiscent of and perhaps mechanistically connected to the biphasic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and SA accumulation during defense activation. PMID:26074946

  1. Over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana SFD1/GLY1, the gene encoding plastid localized glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, increases plastidic lipid content in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijayata; Singh, Praveen Kumar; Siddiqui, Adnan; Singh, Subaran; Banday, Zeeshan Zahoor; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Lipids are the major constituents of all membranous structures in plants. Plants possess two pathways for lipid biosynthesis: the prokaryotic pathway (i.e., plastidic pathway) and the eukaryotic pathway (i.e., endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) pathway). Whereas some plants synthesize galactolipids from diacylglycerol assembled in the plastid, others, including rice, derive their galactolipids from diacylglycerols assembled by the eukaryotic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pDH), coded by SUPPRESSOR OF FATTY ACID DESATURASE 1 (SFD1; alias GLY1) gene, catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate (G3p), the backbone of many membrane lipids. Here SFD1 was introduced to rice as a transgene. Arabidopsis SFD1 localizes in rice plastids and its over-expression increases plastidic membrane lipid content in transgenic rice plants without any major impact on ER lipids. The results suggest that over-expression of plastidic G3pDH enhances biosynthesis of plastid-localized lipids in rice. Lipid composition in the transgenic plants is consistent with increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in the plastid and increased galactolipid synthesis from diacylglycerol produced via the ER pathway. The transgenic plants show a higher photosynthetic assimilation rate, suggesting a possible application of this finding in crop improvement. PMID:26747130

  2. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P < 0.0001, n = 119). In medium and large salmon, liver lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  3. Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate minerals as markers of sustained acidic conditions during the Permian-Triassic transition in E Iberia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borruel-Abadía, Violeta; Belén Galán-Abellán, Ana; Barrenechea, José F.; De la Horra, Raúl; Luque, Francisco Javier; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; López-Gómez, José

    2016-04-01

    Strontium-rich hydrated Aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals are markers of an acidic formation environment due to their precipitation at low pH conditions. However, their small size (0.5-6 μm), low concentrations, and optical properties represent the main problems to quantify these minerals. This study provides quantitative data on APS mineral concentrations for the Late Permian and Early-Middle Triassic in different continental sections of East Iberia. By quantifying APS minerals useful insight can be obtained into the environmental conditions that prevailed during the biotic crisis of the PTB and during the later recovery of life at the end of the Early Triassic. For that, a quantification method based on element mapping of randomly selected areas of thin sections on the electron microprobe is proposed, with relative errors ranging from 5.6% to 11.7%. The results are considered on a detailed petrographic, sedimentological, and palaeontological framework, and compared with other geochemical. Thus, in the first sedimentary record after the Permian-Triassic boundary (Olenekian), it has been possible to correlate relatively high concentration levels of APS minerals with the lack of signs of living organisms. Our findings suggest a long period of sustained acidic conditions followed by an environmental change that permitted the recovery of life, as reflected by lower APS mineral contents detected at the end of the Spathian and the first presence of bioturbation, paleosols, footprints, and plant remains. Early Anisian acidic episodes were much more sporadic than those during the Olenekian deposition, in which APS mineral concentrations were an order of magnitude higher. This fact would indicate punctual acidic conditions still during the beginning of the Anisian. Based on these results, this method is proposed as a tool for addressing environmental changes that took place during the Permian-Triassic transition in continental environments.

  4. Mechanical and acid neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition of amorphous calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Jennifer L.; Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Dental composites do not hinder bacteria colonization and plaque formation. Caries at the restoration margins is a frequent reason for replacement of existing restorations, which accounts for 50 to 70% of all restorations. The objectives of this study were to examine the filler level effect on nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and investigate the load-bearing and acid-neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition. NACP with 116-nm particle size were synthesized via a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a resin. Flexural strength of nanocomposite with 10 to 30% NACP fillers matched the strength of a commercial hybrid composite (p > 0.1). Nanocomposite with 40% NACP matched the strength of a microfill composite, which was 2-fold that of a resin-modified glass ionomer. Nanocomposite with 40% NACP neutralized a lactic acid solution of pH 4 by rapidly increasing the pH to 5.69 in 10 min. In contrast, the commercial controls had pH staying at near 4. Using Streptoccocus mutans, an agar disk-diffusion test showed no inhibition zone for commercial controls. In contrast, the inhibition zone was (2.5 ± 0.7) mm for nanocomposite with 40% NACP. Crystal violet staining showed that S. mutans coverage on nanocomposite was 1/4 that on commercial composite. In conclusion, novel calcium–phosphate nanocomposite matched the mechanical properties of commercial composite and rapidly neutralized lactic acid of pH 4. The nanocomposite appeared to moderately reduce the S. mutans growth, and further study is needed to obtain strong antimicrobial properties. The new nanocomposite may have potential to reduce secondary caries and restoration fracture, two main challenges facing tooth cavity restorations. PMID:21504057

  5. Mechanical and acid neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition of amorphous calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Jennifer L; Sun, Limin; Chow, Laurence C; Xu, Hockin H K

    2011-07-01

    Dental composites do not hinder bacteria colonization and plaque formation. Caries at the restoration margins is a frequent reason for replacement of existing restorations, which accounts for 50 to 70% of all restorations. The objectives of this study were to examine the filler level effect on nanocomposite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and investigate the load-bearing and acid-neutralizing properties and bacteria inhibition. NACP with 116-nm particle size were synthesized via a spray-drying technique and incorporated into a resin. Flexural strength of nanocomposite with 10 to 30% NACP fillers matched the strength of a commercial hybrid composite (p > 0.1). Nanocomposite with 40% NACP matched the strength of a microfill composite, which was 2-fold that of a resin-modified glass ionomer. Nanocomposite with 40% NACP neutralized a lactic acid solution of pH 4 by rapidly increasing the pH to 5.69 in 10 min. In contrast, the commercial controls had pH staying at near 4. Using Streptoccocus mutans, an agar disk-diffusion test showed no inhibition zone for commercial controls. In contrast, the inhibition zone was (2.5 ± 0.7) mm for nanocomposite with 40% NACP. Crystal violet staining showed that S. mutans coverage on nanocomposite was 1/4 that on commercial composite. In conclusion, novel calcium-phosphate nanocomposite matched the mechanical properties of commercial composite and rapidly neutralized lactic acid of pH 4. The nanocomposite appeared to moderately reduce the S. mutans growth, and further study is needed to obtain strong antimicrobial properties. The new nanocomposite may have potential to reduce secondary caries and restoration fracture, two main challenges facing tooth cavity restorations. PMID:21504057

  6. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  7. Biochar Enhances Aspergillus niger Rock Phosphate Solubilization by Increasing Organic Acid Production and Alleviating Fluoride Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo

    2014-01-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F−) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F− adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F− released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F− while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F− measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F− per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter−1 to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F− sink during RP solubilization and led to an F− concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F− and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F−, the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP. PMID:24610849

  8. Peroxide-dependent amino acid oxidation and chemiluminescence catalysed by magnesium-pyridoxal phosphate-glutamate complex.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B U; Schneider, W; Elstner, E F

    1992-08-01

    Magnesium-pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-glutamate (MPPG) has been shown to ameliorate atherosclerotic symptoms in rabbits. In vitro, MPPG in the presence of peroxides such as cholesterolhydroperoxide or cumene hydroperoxide and Mn2+ ions produces "excited states" measurable as chemiluminescence or ethylene release from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The reactions are stimulated synergistically by unsaturated fatty acids. Pyridoxal phosphate exhibits similar properties, but can be differentiated from the activities of MPPG or the sum of the components present in MPPG. PMID:1510700

  9. Stearic acid content of abdominal adipose tissues in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Caron-Jobin, M; Mauvoisin, D; Michaud, A; Veilleux, A; Noël, S; Fortier, M P; Julien, P; Tchernof, A; Mounier, C

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue stearic acid (18:0) content and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1)-mediated production of oleic acid (18:1) have been suggested to be altered in obesity. The objective of our study was to examine abdominal adipose tissue fatty acid content and SCD1 mRNA/protein level in women. Subjects and methods: Fatty acid content was determined by capillary gas chromatography in SC and omental (OM) fat tissues from two subgroups of 10 women with either small or large OM adipocytes. Samples from 10 additional women were used to measure SCD1 mRNA and protein expression, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 protein as well as insulin receptor (IR) expression levels. Results: OM fat 18:0 content was significantly lower in women with large OM adipocytes compared with women who had similar adiposity, but small OM adipocytes (2.37±0.45 vs 2.75±0.30 mg per 100 g adipose tissue, respectively, P⩽0.05). OM fat 18:0 content was negatively related to the visceral adipose tissue area (r=−0.44, P=0.05) and serum triglyceride levels (r=−0.56, P<0.05), while SC fat 18:0 content was negatively correlated with total body fat mass (BFM) (r=−0.48, P<0.05) and fasting insulin concentration (r=−0.73, P<0.005). SC adipose tissue desaturation index (18:1/18:0), SCD1 expression and protein levels were positively correlated with BFM. Moreover, obese women were characterized by a reduced OM/SC ratio of SCD1 mRNA and protein levels. A similar pattern was observed for ERK1/2 and IR expression. Conclusion: The presence of large adipocytes and increased adipose mass in a given fat compartment is related to reduced 18:0 content and increased desaturation index in women, independently of dietary fat intake. The depot-specific difference in ERK1/2 expression and activation, as well as in SCD1 and IR expression in obese women is consistent with the hypothesis that they may predominantly develop SC fat, which

  10. Effects of Monocarboxylic Acid Addition on Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate in a Hydrogel Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, T.; Kawashita, M.; Ohtsuki, C.

    2011-10-01

    In biomineralization, it is thought that water-soluble organic substances control crystal growth of minerals in hard tissues. The roles of organic substances are not well understood, because the biomineralization process is established by complicated parameters. Crystal growth in hydrogel matrixes can be regarded as simplified model system of biomineralization. In the present study, we investigated the effects of propionic acid (Pro) on crystalline phases and crystal morphologies of calcium phosphate formed in polymeric hydrogel matrixes as the model system of biomineralization. Crystalline phase of the precipitates was octacalcium phosphate (OCP) with spherical shape regardless of Pro concentrations. The fibrous crystals formed under the condition without addition of Pro. The crystal morphologies composing spherical crystals were changed from fibrous to plate-like shape with increasing Pro concentrations. Generally, OCP crystal has plate-like shape exposing (100) face, which calcium ions exist on. Therefore, crystal growth rate of [100] direction of OCP was decreased by Pro adsorbed on (100) face. As a result, crystal morphology composing spherulite became plate-like shape with increasing Pro concentrations.

  11. Regulation of CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase by polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mallampalli, R K; Salome, R G; Spector, A A

    1994-12-01

    Disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) is the most distinctive surface-active lipid in pulmonary surfactant. The feeding of docosahexanoic acid (DHA) 22:6 n-3 has recently been described to elevate the levels of DSPC in rodent lung. The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which this n-3 fatty acid might regulate CTP:choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, a key enzyme required for phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. Cytidylyltransferase exists in lung cytosol as a large lipid-associated aggregate (H form) which is active, and as an inactive, low-molecular-weight species (L form). Fatty acids in vitro stimulate and aggregate the inactive L form to the active H form. Short-term (2-h) and long-term (24-h) exposure of fetal lung explants to DHA (150 microM) stimulated choline incorporation into PC by 54 and 64%, respectively. The fatty acid also enhanced DSPC synthesis by 88%. These changes were associated with an increase in the activity of cytidylyltransferase by 63% after addition of DHA to the explant medium. In vitro, DHA (50 microM) stimulated L form nearly 15-fold and appeared to be a more potent activator and aggregator of the enzyme than either linoleic 18:2 n-6 or arachidonic 20:4 n-6 acids. The effect of DHA on L-form activation was comparable, however, with other members of the n-3 family. Kinetic studies revealed that DHA increased the maximum velocity of enzyme reaction for cytidylyltransferase, although it did not alter the Michaelis constant of the enzyme for CTP. These observations provide in vitro evidence that n-3 fatty acids may play an important role in the regulation of surfactant PC biosynthesis. PMID:7810669

  12. Light/Dark Profiles of Sucrose Phosphate Synthase, Sucrose Synthase, and Acid Invertase in Leaves of Sugar Beets

    PubMed Central

    Vassey, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    The activity of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and acid invertase was monitored in 1- to 2-month-old sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves. Sugar beet leaves achieve full laminar length in 13 days. Therefore, leaves were harvested at 2-day intervals for 15 days. Sucrose phosphate synthase activity was not detectable for 6 days in the dark-grown leaves. Once activity was measurable, sucrose phosphate synthase activity never exceeded half that observed in the light-grown leaves. After 8 days in the dark, leaves which were illuminated for 30 minutes showed no significant change in sucrose phosphate synthase activity. Leaves illuminated for 24 hours after 8 days in darkness, however, recovered sucrose phosphate synthase activity to 80% of that of normally grown leaves. Sucrose synthase and acid invertase activity in the light-grown leaves both increased for the first 7 days and then decreased as the leaves matured. In contrast, the activity of sucrose synthase oscillated throughout the growth period in the dark-grown leaves. Acid invertase activity in the dark-grown leaves seemed to be the same as the activity found in the light-grown leaves. PMID:16666537

  13. Over-expression of the bacterial phytase US417 in Arabidopsis reduces the concentration of phytic acid and reveals its involvement in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Belgaroui, Nibras; Zaidi, Ikram; Farhat, Ameny; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bouain, Nadia; Chay, Sandrine; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane; Masmoudi, Khaled; Davidian, Jean-Claude; Berthomieu, Pierre; Rouached, Hatem; Hanin, Moez

    2014-11-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the main phosphorus storage form in plant seeds. It is recognized as an anti-nutrient for humans and non-ruminant animals, as well as one of the major sources of phosphorus that contributes to eutrophication. Therefore, engineering plants with low PA content without affecting plant growth capacity has become a major focus in plant breeding. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge on the role of PA seed reserves in regulating plant growth and in maintaining ion homeostasis hinders such an agronomical application. In this context, we report here that the over-expression of the bacterial phytase PHY-US417 in Arabidopsis leads to a significant decrease in seed PA, without any effect on the seed germination potential. Interestingly, this over-expression also induced a higher remobilization of free iron during germination. Moreover, the PHY-over-expressor lines show an increase in inorganic phosphate and sulfate contents, and a higher biomass production after phosphate starvation. Finally, phosphate sensing was altered because of the changes in the expression of genes induced by phosphate starvation or involved in phosphate or sulfate transport. Together, these results show that the over-expression of PHY-US417 reduces PA concentration, and provide the first evidence for the involvement of PA in the regulation of sulfate and phosphate homeostasis and signaling. PMID:25231959

  14. Production and characterization of reduced NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate).

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Richard A; Thuring, Jan W; Conway, Stuart J; Packman, Len; Holmes, Andrew B; Genazzani, Armando A

    2004-01-01

    The pyridine nucleotide NAADP (nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate) has been shown to act as a Ca2+-releasing intracellular messenger in a wide variety of systems from invertebrates to mammals and has been implicated in a number of cellular processes. NAADP is structurally very similar to its precursor, the endogenous coenzyme NADP and while much is known about the reduced form of NADP, NADPH, it is not known whether NAADP can also exist in a reduced state. Here we report that NAADP can be reduced to NAADPH by endogenous cellular enzymes and that NAADPH is functionally inert at the NAADP receptor. These data suggest that NAADPH could represent a mechanism for rapidly inactivating NAADP in cells. PMID:14606955

  15. Regional scale assessment of soil predictors of groundwater phosphate (P) levels in acidic sandy agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabilde, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Possible factors affecting the leaching of P to the groundwater in the Belgian sandy area are examined via regression analysis. The main objective is to investigate the dependency of phreatic groundwater phosphate concentrations (Flemish VMM monitoring net, monitoring period 2010-2013) on soil phosphate saturation degree (PSD) (1994-1997 mapping for Flemish Land Agency) (n = 1032). Additionally explored parameters include: depth distributions of Fe- and Al-oxides, sorbed P and phosphate sorption capacity (PSC) and soil pH. Interpolated data of these soil parameters in 3 depth layers (0-30, 30-60, 60-90 cm) were generated by ordinary kriging. Secondly, we assessed the significance of other edaphic factors potentially controlling the groundwater P: topsoil organic carbon content (OC %), soil clay content and fluctuation of the groundwater table. Overall, the mean PSD halved with each 30 cm depth layer (56 > 24 > 13 %) and was correlated to groundwater PO43‑ level. The statistical significance of the correlation with groundwater PO43‑ concentrations increased with depth layer. The poor correlation (R2 = 0.01) between PSD and groundwater phosphate concentration indicates that many factors, other than soil P status, control the transport of P from soil solution to the groundwater in Belgian sandy soils. A significant (P<0.01) positive non-linear relationship was found between groundwater PO43‑concentration and pHKCl in all three studied depth layers, again increasingly with depth. Within the pH range of the 30-60 cm layer (pHKCl 4.0-5.7) PO4‑ solubility should increase with pH. Elevated soil OC levels surprisingly co-occurred with low groundwater PO43‑ concentrations (r = -0.18, P<0.01, n = 191). Groundwater PO43‑ was furthermore significantly and positively correlated to clay % in both the 0-15 cm (r = 0.15, τ = 0.25, P<0.01, n = 1032) and 60-90 cm (r = 0.13, τ = 0.20, P<0.01, n = 1032) depth increments. These positive correlations were unexpected and

  16. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: Potential role of the retinoic acid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Isales, Gregory M.; Hipszer, Rachel A.; Raftery, Tara D.; Chen, Albert; Stapleton, Heather M.; Volz, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Using zebrafish as a model, we previously reported that developmental exposure to triphenyl phosphate (TPP) – a high-production volume organophosphate-based flame retardant – results in dioxin-like cardiac looping impairments that are independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Using a pharmacologic approach, the objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) – a nuclear receptor that regulates vertebrate heart morphogenesis – in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. We first revealed that static exposure of zebrafish from 5-72 hours post-fertilization (hpf) to TPP in the presence of non-toxic concentrations of an RAR antagonist (BMS493) significantly enhanced TPP-induced toxicity (relative to TPP alone), even though identical non-toxic BMS493 concentrations mitigated retinoic acid (RA)-induced toxicity. BMS493-mediated enhancement of TPP toxicity was not a result of differential TPP uptake or metabolism, as internal embryonic doses of TPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) – a primary TPP metabolite - were not different in the presence or absence of BMS493. Using real-time PCR, we then quantified the relative change in expression of cytochrome P450 26a1 (cyp26a1) – a major target gene for RA-induced RAR activation in zebrafish – and found that RA and TPP exposure resulted in a ∼5-fold increase and decrease in cyp26a1 expression, respectively, relative to vehicle-exposed embryos. To address whether TPP may interact with human RARs, we then exposed Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with chimeric human RARα-, RARβ-, or RARγ to TPP in the presence of RA, and found that TPP significantly inhibited RA-induced luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Overall, our findings suggest that zebrafish RARs may be involved in mediating TPP-induced developmental toxicity, a mechanism of action that may have relevance to humans. PMID:25725299

  17. A novel system combining biocatalytic dephosphorylation of L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate and electrochemical oxidation of resulting ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Homma, Toshimasa; Kondo, Mizuki; Shimomura, Masato

    2011-03-15

    An enzyme electrode was prepared with acid phosphatase (ACP) for development of a new electric power generation system using ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P) as a fuel. The properties of the electrode were investigated with respect to biocatalytic dephosphorylation of AA2P and electrochemical oxidation of resulting ascorbic acid (AA). The enzyme electrode was fabricated by immobilization of ACP through amide linkage onto a self-assembled monolayer of 3-mercaptopropionic acid on a gold electrode. AA2P was not oxidized on a bare gold electrode in the potential sweep range from -0.1 to +0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. However, the enzyme electrode gave an oxidation current in citric buffer solution of pH 5 containing 10 mM of AA2P. The oxidation current began to increase at +0.2V, and reached to 5.0 μA cm(-2) at +0.5 V. The potential +0.2 V corresponded to the onset of oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA). These results suggest that the oxidation current observed with the enzyme electrode is due to AA resulting from dephosphorylation of AA2P. The oxidation current increased with increasing concentration of AA2P and almost leveled off at around the concentration of 5mM. Thus the enzyme electrode brought about biocatalytic conversion of AA2P to AA, followed by electrochemical oxidation of the AA. The oxidation current is likely to be controlled by the biocatalytic reaction. PMID:21247749

  18. Initiation Temperature for Runaway Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate/Nitric Acid Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.S.

    2000-11-28

    During a review of the H-Canyon authorization basis, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) staff members questioned the margin of safety associated with a postulated tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/nitric acid runaway reaction due to the inadvertent heating of a canyon tank containing greater than 3000 lbs (1362 kg) of TBP. The margin of safety was partially based on experiments and calculations performed by the Actinide Technology Section (ATS) to support deletion of indication of tank agitation as a Safety Class System. In the technical basis for deletion of this system, ATS personnel conservatively calculated the equilibrium temperature distribution of a canyon tank containing TBP and nitric acid layers which were inadvertently heated by a steam jet left on following a transfer. The maximum calculated temperature (128 degrees C) was compared to the minimum initiation temperature for a runaway reaction (greater than 130 degrees C) documented by experimental work in the mid 195 0s. In this work, the initiation temperature as a function of nitric acid concentration was measured for 0 and 20 wt percent dissolved solids. The DNFSB staff members were concerned that data for 0 wt percent dissolved solids were not conservative given the facts that data for 20 wt percent dissolved solids show initiation temperatures at or below 130 degrees C and H-Canyon solutions normally contained a small amount of dissolved solids.

  19. Natural and pyrogenic humic acids at goethite and natural oxide surfaces interacting with phosphate.

    PubMed

    Hiemstra, Tjisse; Mia, Shamim; Duhaut, Pierre-Benoît; Molleman, Bastiaan

    2013-08-20

    Fulvic and humic acids have a large variability in binding to metal (hydr) oxide surfaces and interact differently with oxyanions, as examined here experimentally. Pyrogenic humic acid has been included in our study since it will be released to the environment in the case of large-scale application of biochar, potentially creating Darks Earths or Terra Preta soils. A surface complexation approach has been developed that aims to describe the competitive behavior of natural organic matter (NOM) in soil as well as model systems. Modeling points unexpectedly to a strong change of the molecular conformation of humic acid (HA) with a predominant adsorption in the Stern layer domain at low NOM loading. In soil, mineral oxide surfaces remain efficiently loaded by mineral-protected organic carbon (OC), equivalent with a layer thickness of ≥ ~0.5 nm that represents at least 0.1-1.0% OC, while surface-associated OC may be even three times higher. In natural systems, surface complexation modeling should account for this pervasive NOM coverage. With our charge distribution model for NOM (NOM-CD), the pH-dependent oxyanion competition of the organo-mineral oxide fraction can be described. For pyrogenic HA, a more than 10-fold increase in dissolved phosphate is predicted at long-term applications of biochar or black carbon. PMID:23875678

  20. Bile acids and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 in hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Eric; Li, Yunzhou; Hylemon, Phillip B; Zhou, Huiping

    2015-03-01

    The liver is the central organ involved in lipid metabolism. Dyslipidemia and its related disorders, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity and other metabolic diseases, are of increasing public health concern due to their increasing prevalence in the population. Besides their well-characterized functions in cholesterol homoeostasis and nutrient absorption, bile acids are also important metabolic regulators and function as signaling hormones by activating specific nuclear receptors, G-protein coupled receptors, and multiple signaling pathways. Recent studies identified a new signaling pathway by which conjugated bile acids (CBA) activate the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway via sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2). CBA-induced activation of S1PR2 is a key regulator of sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) and hepatic gene expression. This review focuses on recent findings related to the role of bile acids/S1PR2-mediated signaling pathways in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:26579441

  1. Complex formation of cadmium with sugar residues, nucleobases, phosphates, nucleotides, and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Sigel, Roland K O; Skilandat, Miriam; Sigel, Astrid; Operschall, Bert P; Sigel, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium(II), commonly classified as a relatively soft metal ion, prefers indeed aromatic-nitrogen sites (e.g., N7 of purines) over oxygen sites (like sugar-hydroxyl groups). However, matters are not that simple, though it is true that the affinity of Cd(2+) towards ribose-hydroxyl groups is very small; yet, a correct orientation brought about by a suitable primary binding site and a reduced solvent polarity, as it is expected to occur in a folded nucleic acid, may facilitate metal ion-hydroxyl group binding very effectively. Cd(2+) prefers the guanine(N7) over the adenine(N7), mainly because of the steric hindrance of the (C6)NH(2) group in the adenine residue. This Cd(2+)-(N7) interaction in a guanine moiety leads to a significant acidification of the (N1)H meaning that the deprotonation reaction occurs now in the physiological pH range. N3 of the cytosine residue, together with the neighboring (C2)O, is also a remarkable Cd(2+) binding site, though replacement of (C2)O by (C2)S enhances the affinity towards Cd(2+) dramatically, giving in addition rise to the deprotonation of the (C4)NH(2) group. The phosphodiester bridge is only a weak binding site but the affinity increases further from the mono- to the di- and the triphosphate. The same also holds for the corresponding nucleotides. Complex stability of the pyrimidine-nucleotides is solely determined by the coordination tendency of the phosphate group(s), whereas in the case of purine-nucleotides macrochelate formation takes place by the interaction of the phosphate-coordinated Cd(2+) with N7. The extents of the formation degrees of these chelates are summarized and the effect of a non-bridging sulfur atom in a thiophosphate group (versus a normal phosphate group) is considered. Mixed ligand complexes containing a nucleotide and a further mono- or bidentate ligand are covered and it is concluded that in these species N7 is released from the coordination sphere of Cd(2+). In the case that the other ligand

  2. Conjugated bile acids activate the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 in primary rodent hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Studer, Elaine; Zhou, Xiqiao; Zhao, Renping; Wang, Yun; Takabe, Kazuaki; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Pandak, William M; Dent, Paul; Spiegel, Sarah; Shi, Ruihua; Xu, Weiren; Liu, Xuyuan; Bohdan, Pat; Zhang, Luyong; Zhou, Huiping; Hylemon, Phillip B

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids have been shown to be important regulatory molecules for cells in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. They can activate various cell signaling pathways including extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) membrane-type bile acid receptor (TGR5/M-BAR). Activation of the ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways by conjugated bile acids has been reported to be sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX) and dominant-negative Gα(i) in primary rodent hepatocytes. However, the GPCRs responsible for activation of these pathways have not been identified. Screening GPCRs in the lipid-activated phylogenetic family (expressed in HEK293 cells) identified sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P(2) ) as being activated by taurocholate (TCA). TCA, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA), and S1P-induced activation of ERK1/2 and AKT were significantly inhibited by JTE-013, a S1P(2) antagonist, in primary rat hepatocytes. JTE-013 significantly inhibited hepatic ERK1/2 and AKT activation as well as short heterodimeric partner (SHP) mRNA induction by TCA in the chronic bile fistula rat. Knockdown of the expression of S1P(2) by a recombinant lentivirus encoding S1P(2) shRNA markedly inhibited the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT by TCA and S1P in rat primary hepatocytes. Primary hepatocytes prepared from S1P(2) knock out (S1P(2) (-/-) ) mice were significantly blunted in the activation of the ERK1/2 and AKT pathways by TCA. Structural modeling of the S1P receptors indicated that only S1P(2) can accommodate TCA binding. In summary, all these data support the hypothesis that conjugated bile acids activate the ERK1/2 and AKT signaling pathways primarily through S1P(2) in primary rodent hepatocytes. PMID:21932398

  3. Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

    2014-10-15

    The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

  4. Membrane Potential and Proton Cotransport of Alanine and Phosphate as Affected by Permeant Weak Acids in Lemna gibba1

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Barbara; Ullrich-Eberius, Cornelia I.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of Lemna gibba plants with the weak acids (trimethylacetic acid and butyric acid), used as tools to decrease intracellular pH, induced a hyperpolarization of membrane potential, dependent on the concentration of the undissociated permeant form of the weak acid and on the value of the resting potential. Measurements were carried out both with `high potential' and `low potential' plants and the maximum values af acid induced hyperpolarizations were about 35 and 71 millivolts, respectively. Weak acids influenced also the transient light-dark membrane potential changes, typical for photosynthesizing material, suggesting a dependence of these changes on an acidification of cytoplasm. In the presence of the weak acids, the membrane depolarization induced by the cotransport of alanine and phosphate with protons was reduced; the maximum reduction (about 90%) was obtained with alanine during 2 millimolar trimethylacetic acid perfusion at pH 5. A strong inhibition of the uptake rates (up to 48% for [14C]alanine and 68% for 32P-phosphate) was obtained in the presence of the weak acids, both by decreasing the pH of the medium and by increasing the concentration of the acid. In these experimental conditions, the ATP level and O2 uptake rates did not change significantly. These results constitute good evidence that H+/solute cotransport in Lemna, already known to be dependent on the electrochemical potential difference for protons, is also strongly regulated by the cytoplasmic pH value. PMID:16665758

  5. Abscisic acid and pyrabactin improve vitamin C contents in raspberries.

    PubMed

    Miret, Javier A; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-07-15

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant growth regulator with roles in senescence, fruit ripening and environmental stress responses. ABA and pyrabactin (a non-photosensitive ABA agonist) effects on red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit development (including ripening) were studied, with a focus on vitamin and antioxidant composition. Application of ABA and/or pyrabactin just after fruit set did not affect the temporal pattern of fruit development and ripening; neither provitamin A (carotenoids) nor vitamin E contents were modified. In contrast, ABA and pyrabactin altered the vitamin C redox state at early stages of fruit development and more than doubled vitamin C contents at the end of fruit ripening. These were partially explained by changes in ascorbate oxidation and recycling. Therefore, ABA and pyrabactin applications may be used to increase vitamin C content of ripe fruits, increasing fruit quality and value. However, treatments containing pyrabactin-combined with ABA or alone-diminished protein content, thus partially limiting its potential applicability. PMID:26948608

  6. Conjugated bile acids promote cholangiocarcinoma cell invasive growth through activation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Runping; Zhao, Renping; Zhou, Xiqiao; Liang, Xiuyin; Campbell, Deanna JW; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Luyong; Shi, Ruihua; Wang, Guangji; Pandak, William M; Sirica, Alphonse E; Hylemon, Phillip B; Zhou, Huiping

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an often fatal primary malignancy of the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tract that is commonly associated with chronic cholestasis and significantly elevated levels of primary and conjugated bile acids (CBAs), which are correlated with bile duct obstruction (BDO). BDO has also recently been shown to promote CCA progression. However, whereas there is increasing evidence linking chronic cholestasis and abnormal bile acid profiles to CCA development and progression, the specific mechanisms by which bile acids may be acting to promote cholangiocarcinogenesis and invasive biliary tumor growth have not been fully established. Recent studies have shown that CBAs, but not free bile acids, stimulate CCA cell growth, and that an imbalance in the ratio of free to CBAs may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of CCA. Also, CBAs are able to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2- and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT)-signaling pathways through sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) in rodent hepatocytes. In the current study, we demonstrate S1PR2 to be highly expressed in rat and human CCA cells, as well as in human CCA tissues. We further show that CBAs activate the ERK1/2- and AKT-signaling pathways and significantly stimulate CCA cell growth and invasion in vitro. Taurocholate (TCA)-mediated CCA cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were significantly inhibited by JTE-013, a chemical antagonist of S1PR2, or by lentiviral short hairpin RNA silencing of S1PR2. In a novel organotypic rat CCA coculture model, TCA was further found to significantly increase the growth of CCA cell spheroidal/“duct-like” structures, which was blocked by treatment with JTE-013. Conclusion: Our collective data support the hypothesis that CBAs promote CCA cell-invasive growth through S1PR2. PMID:24700501

  7. Cytometry of deoxyribonuclei acid content and morphology of mammalian sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Gledhill, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    Because spermatogenesis is exquisitely sensitive to external influences, sperm can serve as a biological dosimeter. Advances in interpreting induced sperm abnormalities require a better understanding of sperm characteristics. This report reviews the application of several methods for automated, quantitative detection of shape changes, methods that are faster and more sensitive than conventional subjective technqiues. Variability of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid content as a bioassay of genetic damage is explored, and limitations of the bioassay are discussed. New flow cytometric techniques that could lead to sexing mammalian sperm are examined.

  8. Final report of the safety assessment of L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    L-Ascorbic Acid, Calcium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Sodium Ascorbate, and Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate function in cosmetic formulations primarily as antioxidants. Ascorbic Acid is commonly called Vitamin C. Ascorbic Acid is used as an antioxidant and pH adjuster in a large variety of cosmetic formulations, over 3/4 of which were hair dyes and colors at concentrations between 0.3% and 0.6%. For other uses, the reported concentrations were either very low (<0.01%) or in the 5% to 10% range. Calcium Ascorbate and Magnesium Ascorbate are described as antioxidants and skin conditioning agents--miscellaneous for use in cosmetics, but are not currently used. Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations ranging from 0.01% to 3%. Magnesium Ascorbyl Phosphate functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics and was reported being used at concentrations from 0.001% to 3%. Sodium Ascorbate also functions as an antioxidant in cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0003% to 0.3%. Related ingredients (Ascorbyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Dipalmitate, Ascorbyl Stearate, Erythorbic Acid, and Sodium Erythorbate) have been previously reviewed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel and found "to be safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of good use." Ascorbic Acid is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substance for use as a chemical preservative in foods and as a nutrient and/or dietary supplement. Calcium Ascorbate and Sodium Ascorbate are listed as GRAS substances for use as chemical preservatives. L-Ascorbic Acid is readily and reversibly oxidized to L-dehydroascorbic acid and both forms exist in equilibrium in the body. Permeation rates of Ascorbic Acid through whole and stripped mouse skin were 3.43 +/- 0.74 microg/cm(2)/h and 33.2 +/- 5.2 microg/cm(2)/h. Acute oral and parenteral studies in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, dogs, and cats demonstrated little toxicity

  9. Synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-4-quinolinyl phosphates from 2-acyl-benzoic acids

    PubMed Central

    He, Xinhua; Aglio, Tharcilla; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Rai, Rachita; Xue, Fengtian

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile synthesis of 1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-4-quinolinyl phosphates (1a-l) starting from 2-acyl-benzoic acids (2a-l) in the presence of phosphoryl azides via a one-pot cascade reaction involving a Curtius rearrangement, an intramolecular nucleophilic addition of the enol carbon to the isocyanate intermediate, and an addition-elimination of the enol oxygen to the phosphoryl azide. During the reaction three new bonds are formed under mild conditions to yield 1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-4-quinolinyl phosphates in modest yields. PMID:25937677

  10. Synthesis of lithium iron phosphate/carbon microspheres by using polyacrylic acid coated iron phosphate nanoparticles derived from iron(III) acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongwei; He, Yan-Bing; Chu, Xiaodong; Ding, Zhaojun; Li, Baohua; He, Jianfu; Du, Hongda; Qin, Xianying; Kang, Feiyu

    2015-03-01

    Lithium iron phosphate/carbon (LiFePO4 /C) microspheres with high rate and cycling performance are synthesized from iron phosphate/polyacrylic acid (FePO4 /PAA) nanoparticles. Iron(III) acrylate is used as a precursor for both the iron and carbon sources. FePO4 nanoparticles are first produced by a coprecipitation reaction. The byproduct, acrylic acid ions, is polymerized in situ to form a uniform PAA layer on the surface of the FePO4 nanoparticles. The as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres are composed of primary nanoparticles with sizes of 40-50 nm. The nanoparticles are fully coated with a thin, uniform carbon layer derived from the decomposition of the PAA layer. The uniform carbon-coating layer cooperates with interstitial and boundary carbon derived from sucrose successfully to construct an excellent interconnecting conductive network in the microspheres. As a result of the unique structure, the as-prepared LiFePO4 /C microspheres display both high electronic and ionic conductivities, which contribute to their high rate performance (162.9 mAh g(-1) at 0.1C and 126.1 mAh g(-1) at 5C) and excellent cycling stability (97.1% of capacity retention after 500 cycles at 5C/5C). PMID:25469674

  11. Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L

    1994-01-01

    In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

  12. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    PubMed

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatcontent on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  13. Agronomic effectiveness of biofertilizers with phosphate rock, sulphur and Acidithiobacillus for yam bean grown on a Brazilian tableland acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Stamford, N P; Santos, P R; Santos, C E S; Freitas, A D S; Dias, S H L; Lira, M A

    2007-04-01

    Phosphate rocks have low available P and soluble P fertilizers have been preferably used in plant crop production, although economic and effective P sources are needed. Experiments were carried out on a Brazilian Typic Fragiudult soil with low available P to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock (PR) compared with soluble phosphate fertilizer. Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) inoculated with rhizobia (strains NFB 747 and NFB 748) or not inoculated was the test crop. Biofertilizers were produced in field furrows by mixing phosphate rock (PR) and sulphur inoculated with Acidithiobacillus (S+Ac) in different rates (50, 100, 150 and 200 g S kg(-1) PR), with 60 days of incubation. Treatments were carried out with PR; biofertilizers B(50), B(100), B(150), B(200); triple super phosphate (TSP); B(200) without Acidithiobacillus and a control treatment without P application (P(0)). TSP and biofertilizers plus S inoculated with Acidithiobacillus increased plant growth. Soil acidity and available P increased when biofertilizers B(150) and B(200) were applied. We conclude that biofertilizers may be used as P source; however, long term use will reduce soil pH and potentially reduce crop growth. PMID:16815009

  14. Radiological, chemical and morphological characterizations of phosphate rock and phosphogypsum from phosphoric acid factories in SW Spain.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Villalobos, Marusia; Vioque, Ignacio; Mantero, Juan; Manjón, Guillermo

    2010-09-15

    In this work, radiological, chemical, and also morphological characterization was performed in phosphate rock and phosphogypsum samples, in order to understand the behavior of toxic elements. Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gamma spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX). Our results show that the phosphate rock was mainly composed of fluorapatite, calcite, perovskite, quartz, magnetite, pyrite and kaolinite, whereas phosphogypsum only exhibited dihydrated calcium sulfate. The activity concentration of U-series radioisotopes in phosphate rock was around 1640 Bq/kg. (226)Ra and (210)Pb tend to be distributed into phosphogypsum by up to 80%, whereas the fraction of U-isotopes is 10%. The most abundant trace elements in phosphate rock were Sr, Cr, V, Zn, Y, Ni and Ba. Some elements, such as Ba, Cd, Cu, La, Pb, Se, Sr, Th and Y, were enriched in the phosphogypsum. This enrichment may be attributed to an additional input associated to the sulfuric acid used for the phosphoric acid production. Furthermore, results from SEM-EDX demonstrated that toxic elements are not distributed homogeneously into phosphogypsum. Most of these elements are concentrated in particles <20 microm of high porosity, and could be easily mobilized by leaching and/or erosion. PMID:20537794

  15. Fabrication of novel poly(lactic acid)/amorphous magnesium phosphate bionanocomposite fibers for tissue engineering applications via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Lin, Boren; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2013-05-01

    Fibrous bionanocomposites consisting of amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) nanospheres and polylactic acid (PLA) were fabricated by electrospinning. There are two important signatures of this paper. First, AMP, as an alternative to well-known calcium phosphate (CaP) materials, is added to PLA as the second phase. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first attempt to fabricate magnesium phosphate (MgP)/biopolymer composite. This is made possible by our previously reported research on the successful synthesis of AMP nanospheres via microwave processing. Second, the sustained release of magnesium and phosphate ions from PLA matrix can stimulate a series of cell responses. The structure of the composites and their bone-like apatite-forming abilities in simulated body fluid (SBF) were examined. Additionally, the effects on the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblast cells were evaluated by performing in vitro cell culture and monitoring markers such as Osteocalcin (OCN), Osteopontin (OPN), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Collagen type-I (Col I) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For better dispersion of AMP in the fibers, a surfactant, 12-hydroxysteric acid (HSA), as previously reported in the literature, was used. However, HSA significantly inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of preosteoblast cells, indicating the potential risk in using HSA in the combination of AMP or MgP in tissue engineering applications. PMID:23498262

  16. Regulation of Amino Acid, Nucleotide, and Phosphate Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ljungdahl, Per O.; Daignan-Fornier, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the beginning of biochemical analysis, yeast has been a pioneering model for studying the regulation of eukaryotic metabolism. During the last three decades, the combination of powerful yeast genetics and genome-wide approaches has led to a more integrated view of metabolic regulation. Multiple layers of regulation, from suprapathway control to individual gene responses, have been discovered. Constitutive and dedicated systems that are critical in sensing of the intra- and extracellular environment have been identified, and there is a growing awareness of their involvement in the highly regulated intracellular compartmentalization of proteins and metabolites. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of amino acid, nucleotide, and phosphate metabolism and provides illustrative examples of how yeast cells combine a variety of mechanisms to achieve coordinated regulation of multiple metabolic pathways. Importantly, common schemes have emerged, which reveal mechanisms conserved among various pathways, such as those involved in metabolite sensing and transcriptional regulation by noncoding RNAs or by metabolic intermediates. Thanks to the remarkable sophistication offered by the yeast experimental system, a picture of the intimate connections between the metabolomic and the transcriptome is becoming clear. PMID:22419079

  17. Growth of DL-malic acid-doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystal and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, P.; Ramasamy, P.

    2009-06-01

    Single crystals of DL-malic acid-doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate have been grown using slow evaporation method and also by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method with the vision to improve the properties of the ADP crystals. The characterization of grown crystals was made by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, UV-vis. spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential thermal analysis (DTA), Vicker's microhardness, dielectric measurements, high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and second-harmonic studies. Structural difference between pure and doped crystal has been studied by XRD analysis. Functional groups were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The grown crystals were found to be transparent in the entire visible region. Decomposition temperatures of the grown crystals were measured by DTA. Vicker's hardness study carried out on (0 0 1) face at room temperature shows increased hardness of the doped crystals and SR-method-grown crystals. Dielectric measurements reveal that SR-method-grown DLM-doped ADP crystals have low dielectric loss. Crystalline perfection of the grown crystals is analyzed using HRXRD. Preliminary measurements indicate that the second harmonic generation efficiency of the doped crystals at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm is roughly 1.5 times greater than that of pure ADP.

  18. Photoactive layer-by-layer films of cellulose phosphate and titanium dioxide containing phosphotungstic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Sajjad; Acuña, José Javier Sáez; Pasa, André Avelino; Bilmes, Sara A.; Vela, Maria Elena; Benitez, Guillermo; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara Pereira

    2013-07-01

    A versatile layer-by-layer (LbL) procedure for the preparation of highly dispersed, adherent and porous multilayer films of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and phosphotungstic acid (HPW) on a variety of substrates at room temperature was developed based on the use of cellulose phosphate (CP) as an efficient and non-conventional polyelectrolyte. UV/vis absorption spectroscopy confirmed the linear and regular growth of the films with the number of immersion cycles and a strong adsorption ability of CP towards TiO2 NPs. FTIR spectroscopy showed that HPW binds to the surface of TiO2 through the oxygen atom at the corner of the Keggin structure. XPS results showed that the interaction between TiO2 and CP is through Ti-O-P linkage. A model is proposed for the TiO2-HPW interaction based on XPS and FTIR results. FEG/SEM study of the surface morphology revealed a porous film structure with a homogenous distribution of the TiO2 NPs induced by CP. HRTEM studies showed that the resulting composite films consist of crystalline anatase and rutile phases and poly-nano-crystalline HPW with a semi-crystalline TiO2-HPW interface. These CP/TiO2 and CP/TiO2/HPW LbL films showed good photoactivity against both saturated and unsaturated species, for instance, stearic acid (SA), crystal violet (CV) and methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. The CP/HPW films formed on bacterial cellulose (BC) showed good photochromic response which is enhanced in presence of TiO2 due to an interfacial electron transfer from TiO2 to HPW. This simple and environmentally safe method can be used to form coatings on a variety of surfaces with photoactive TiO2 and TiO2/HPW films.

  19. Reclamation of acidic, denuded copper basin land: Revegetation performance of phosphate rock vs other nutrient sources

    SciTech Connect

    Soileau, J.M.; Sikora, F.J.; Maddox, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Open pit smelting of Copper ore about 100 years ago resulted in approximately 9,300 ha of severely eroded, very acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0) soils at Copper Basin, Tennessee. Along with other essential nutrients, phosphorus (P) amendments are critical for long-term productivity and sustainability of vegetation on this depleted soil. A field study was conducted (1992-1995) to compare revegetation from surface-applied North Carolina phosphate rock (PR) and triple superphosphate (TSP) at 20, 59, and 295 kg P ha{sup -1}, and to determine benefits of starter NPK tree tablets. The experimental design consisted of 7.3 x 9.1 m replicated plots, each planted to 20 loblolly pine seedlings and aerially seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Tree survivability was high from all treatments. Through the third year, tree height and diameter increased with increasing P to 59 kg P ha without fertilizer tablets. There were no pine growth differences between PR and TSP. Weeping lovegrass has been the dominant cover crop through 1995, with increased stimulation to tree tablets and surface P. Tall fescue (KY 31), sericea lespedeza, and black locust responded more to PR than to TSP. Surface soil pH increased, and 0.01 M SrCl{sub 2} extractable Al decreased, with increasing rate of PR. For future loblolly pine plantings in the Copper Basin, this study suggests there is no benefit to applying both tree tablets and surface P at rates above 59 kg P ha{sup -1}. For reclaiming land with high acidity and low P fertility, PR has significant benefits. In reclaiming steep, gullied land, there is great potential for aerial application of PR and/or pelletized liming agents.

  20. Influence of process parameters on the content of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on titanium: a Taguchi analysis.

    PubMed

    Thammarakcharoen, Faungchat; Suvannapruk, Waraporn; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a statistical design of experimental methodology based on Taguchi orthogonal design has been used to study the effect of various processing parameters on the amount of calcium phosphate coating produced by such technique. Seven control factors with three levels each including sodium hydroxide concentration, pretreatment temperature, pretreatment time, cleaning method, coating time, coating temperature and surface area to solution volume ratio were studied. X-ray diffraction revealed that all the coatings consisted of the mixture of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) and the presence of each phase depended on the process conditions used. Various content and size (-1-100 μm) of isolated spheroid particles with nanosized plate-like morphology deposited on the titanium surface or a continuous layer of plate-like nanocrystals having the plate thickness in the range of -100-300 nm and the plate width in the range of 3-8 μm were formed depending on the process conditions employed. The optimum condition of using sodium hydroxide concentration of 1 M, pretreatment temperature of 70 degrees C, pretreatment time of 24 h, cleaning by ultrasonic, coating time of 6 h, coating temperature of 50 degrees C and surface area to solution volume ratio of 32.74 for producing the greatest amount of the coating formed on the titanium surface was predicted and validated. In addition, coating temperature was found to be the dominant factor with the greatest contribution to the coating formation while coating time and cleaning method were significant factors. Other factors had negligible effects on the coating performance. PMID:25942836

  1. Ribose metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis in normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient human erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, E F; Ruprecht, R M; Schulman, S; Vanderberg, J; Olson, J A

    1986-01-01

    The metabolism of pentose-phosphate was investigated in Plasmodium falciparum-infected normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient human red blood cells in vitro. 5'-Phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) content of infected normal red blood cells was increased 50-60-fold at the parasite trophozoite growth stage over that of uninfected cells. The PRPP increment in infected G6PD-deficient cells at comparable stage and parasitemia was only 40% of the value in normal infected cells. Red blood cell PRPP synthetase activity did not change during the growth cycle of the parasite and was similar in both normal and G6PD-deficient cells. Reduced glutathione (GSH) content of G6PD-deficient cells under conditions of culture fell to low or undetectable levels. These low levels of GSH were shown to inhibit the function of red blood cell PRPP synthetase, which requires GSH for full activity. Measurements of the incorporation of 1-14C or 6-14C selectively labeled glucose into parasite nucleic acids revealed that in normal infected red cells, approximately 20% of the pentose was produced via the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate, whereas in infected G6PD-deficient cells (Mediterranean type), none of the pentose was produced via the oxidative pathway. It is concluded that the low level of reduced GSH found in G6PD deficiency and the resultant partial inhibition of PRPP synthetase together with the missing oxidative pathway for ribose phosphate production can account fully for the reduced parasite growth rate in G6PD-deficient red blood cells described previously. Of these two mechanisms, the predominant one is the impaired PRPP synthetase activity due to low GSH levels in enzyme-deficient red blood cells. The contribution to the ribose-phosphate pool by the hexose monophosphate shunt is relatively minor. A co-existing oxidative stress (which is often hypothesized to mediate the destruction of parasitized red blood cells) is not required to explain growth inhibition

  2. Observations on the quantitation of the phosphate content of peptides by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Poulter, L; Ang, S G; Williams, D H; Cohen, P

    1987-07-29

    Equimolar mixtures of the phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms of several peptides have been subjected to fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS), to investigate whether the stoichiometry of phosphorylation can be determined from the relative molecular-ion abundances of the phospho and dephospho derivatives. It is concluded that quantitation can be achieved for peptides with large positive or negative hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity indices (delta F values) where addition of a phosphate group does not alter the distribution of the peptide within the matrix significantly. For peptides with small positive or negative delta F values, phosphopeptides tend to be partially suppressed by their dephosphorylated counterparts. Suppression can be partially or totally overcome by conversion of the peptide to a hydrophobic derivative, and by the selection of an appropriate matrix. Alternatively, addition of a very strong acid, perchloric acid, can even reverse the original suppression effect. This last effect is believed to be due to the increased ionic strength in the matrix, which forces a relatively hydrophilic analyte to the matrix surface; and the ability of such a phosphorylated analyte to form a more stable gas-phase cation. PMID:3038197

  3. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03. PMID:27126606

  4. A study of organic acid production in contrasts between two phosphate solubilizing fungi: Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Bai, Tongshuo; Dai, Letian; Wang, Fuwei; Tao, Jinjin; Meng, Shiting; Hu, Yunxiao; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF) have huge potentials in enhancing release of phosphorus from fertilizer. Two PSF (NJDL-03 and NJDL-12) were isolated and identified as Penicillium oxalicum and Aspergillus niger respectively in this study. The quantification and identification of organic acids were performed by HPLC. Total concentrations of organic acids secreted by NJDL-03 and NJDL-12 are ~4000 and ~10,000 mg/L with pH values of 3.6 and 2.4 respectively after five-days culture. Oxalic acid dominates acidity in the medium due to its high concentration and high acidity constant. The two fungi were also cultured for five days with the initial pH values of the medium varied from 6.5 to 1.5. The biomass reached the maximum when the initial pH values are 4.5 for NJDL-03 and 2.5 for NJDL-12. The organic acids for NJDL-12 reach the maximum at the initial pH = 5.5. However, the acids by NJDL-03 continue to decrease and proliferation of the fungus terminates at pH = 2.5. The citric acid production increases significantly for NJDL-12 at acidic environment, whereas formic and oxalic acids decrease sharply for both two fungi. This study shows that NJDL-12 has higher ability in acid production and has stronger adaptability to acidic environment than NJDL-03. PMID:27126606

  5. Presence and content of kynurenic acid in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Turski, M P; Zgrajka, W; Siwicki, A K; Paluszkiewicz, P

    2015-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) was found to be an antagonist of iontropic glutamate receptors and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Furthermore, it was documented that KYNA is an agonist of G-protein coupled GPR35 receptors which are mainly present in the gastrointestinal tract. It was also found that KYNA is present in the gastrointestinal tract and that its concentration gradually increases along it. The origin of KYNA in the gastrointestinal tract is not known. Both might be synthesized from tryptophan in it or absorbed from food and other dietary products. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the concentration of KYNA in animal feed. The results indicate that the highest concentration of KYNA was found in animal feeds intended for livestock. The lower amount of KYNA was detected in animal feeds for fish. Interestingly, the lowest amount of KYNA was found in dog and cat feeds. Furthermore, an analysis of KYNA content in animal food ingredients was conducted. The concentration of KYNA found in one of the ingredients – rapeseed meal – was several times higher in comparison to animal feeds studied. The content of KYNA in the remaining feed ingredients tested was significantly lower. This is the first report on the concentration of KYNA in animal feeds. There is a need for further detailed analysis leading to establishing a set of guidelines for animal feeding. PMID:25040314

  6. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

  7. Direct measurement of myocardial oxygen tension and high energy phosphate content under varying ventilatory conditions in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sebastian; Troitzsch, Dirk; Spath, Silvia; Portig, Irene; Moosdorf, Rainer

    2009-08-01

    Effective myocardial oxygen supply should not be compromised during cardiac surgery as it is essential to avoid circulatory and cardiac dysfunction. Local measurement of myocardial oxygen partial pressure (pO2) was therefore introduced into the operative monitoring of myocardial ischemia. The aim of the present study was to assess whether myocardial oxygen partial pressure correlates with the content of high energy phosphates (HEPs). Seven male rabbits were examined in parallel with measurement of myocardial pO2 by an implanted Clark electrode and 31phosphorus-NMR spectroscopy. The ventilatory management established hyperoxygenation followed by systemic hypoxia with hypercapnia for 20 min. Additionally, analysis of end-expiratory gas composition in combination with blood gas analysis was performed simultaneously, and hemodynamic parameter was recorded. Under hypoxic conditions the cardiovascular system was severely compromised, whereas the myocardial pO2 was only moderately impaired (pO2M 45.0+/-16.0 mm Hg). Immediately before cardiac arrest, low values of arterial and venous pO2 were found (17.6+/-6.0 and 12.9+/-6.1 mm Hg). In contrast to near normal myocardial pO2, HEP content in the myocardium was considerably reduced and inorganic phosphorus was increased. Artificial ventilation leading to systemic hypoxia and eventually circulatory arrest resulted in almost normal myocardial pO2 but severely compromised HEP content. This somewhat unexpected finding requires further clarification, but is in accordance with findings reported previously where regulatory mechanisms have been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of severe hypoxic conditions such as those for cellular oxygen delivery and demand, P/O coupling and finally control of HEP production facilitating the interaction between respiratory chain and myoglobin oxygen transport. PMID:19807283

  8. Stability and disperse composition of water-in-oil microemulsions in a tributyl phosphate-nitric acid system

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, I.V.; Zakharkin, V.S.; Shepel'kov, S.V.

    1988-05-01

    An investigation has been made of the influence of the concentrations of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and nitric acid on the surface and bulk distribution, the stability, and the disperse composition of water-in-oil microemulsions. A correlation has been established between the interphase tension and the time for complete stratification of the microemulsions. The process of forming stable microemulsions is interpreted on the basis of views on the surfactant properties of TBP hydratosolvates.

  9. The crystallinity of calcium phosphate powders influenced by the conditions of neutralized procedure with citric acid additions

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chengfeng

    2009-05-06

    Calcium phosphate powders with nano-sized crystallinity were synthesized by neutralization using calcium hydroxide and orthophosphoric acid with the assistance of citric acid. The influence of processing parameters, such as free or additive citric acid, synthetic temperature and ripening time, on the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction and microstructure observations showed that the crystallinity and morphology of nano-sized hydroxyapatite particles were influenced by the presence or absence of citric acid. It was found that the crystallinities and crystallite sizes of hydroxyapatite powders prepared with the additive citric acid increased with increasing synthetic temperature and ripening time. Especially, the crystallinities of (h k 0) planes were raised and more homogeneously grown particles were obtained with increasing synthetic temperature.

  10. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate/n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Tatiana G. Levitskaia; James M. Peterson; Emily L. Campbell; Amanda J. Casella; Dean R. Peterman; Samuel A. Bryan

    2013-12-01

    In liquid–liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness, and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores the feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to high-dose external ?-irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus, demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate /n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Campbell, Emily L.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterman, Dean; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-11-05

    In liquid-liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to the high dose external gamma irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  12. Effect of Ethionine on the Ribonucleic Acid, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, and Protein Content of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert C.; Salmon, W. D.

    1965-01-01

    Smith, Robert C. (Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.), and W. D. Salmon. Effect of ethionine on the ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, and protein content of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:687–692. 1965.—The addition of ethionine to cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 W6, a methionine-requiring auxotroph, led to inhibition of the rate of increase in optical density when the ratio of ethionine to methionine was 200:1. When the ratio was 600:1, the increase in optical density became linear. When ethionine was substituted for methionine in the medium, the optical density of the culture increased, and there was a parallel increase in protein content. There was no cell division in these cultures. The rate of synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in a culture containing ethionine was similar to that of a culture deprived of methionine, but the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid in a culture with ethionine was about twice that of a culture deprived of methionine. No detectable radioactivity from ethionine-ethyl-1-C14 was incorporated into RNA. Ethionine-ethyl-1-C14 was readily incorporated into the protein fraction. PMID:14273646

  13. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  14. Nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate activates the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hohenegger, Martin; Suko, Josef; Gscheidlinger, Regina; Drobny, Helmut; Zidar, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Calcium is a universal second messenger. The temporal and spatial information that is encoded in Ca(2+)-transients drives processes as diverse as neurotransmitter secretion, axonal outgrowth, immune responses and muscle contraction. Ca(2+)-release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores can be triggered by diffusible second messengers like Ins P (3), cyclic ADP-ribose or nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). A target has not yet been identified for the latter messenger. In the present study we show that nanomolar concentrations of NAADP trigger Ca(2+)-release from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. This was due to a direct action on the Ca(2+)-release channel/ryanodine receptor type-1, since in single channel recordings, NAADP increased the open probability of the purified channel protein. The effects of NAADP on Ca(2+)-release and open probability of the ryanodine receptor occurred over a similar concentration range (EC(50) approximately 30 nM) and were specific because (i) they were blocked by Ruthenium Red and ryanodine, (ii) the precursor of NAADP, NADP, was ineffective at equimolar concentrations, (iii) NAADP did not affect the conductance and reversal potential of the ryanodine receptor. Finally, we also detected an ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the sarcoplasmic reticulum fraction of skeletal muscle. This enzyme was not only capable of synthesizing cyclic GDP-ribose but also NAADP, with an activity of 0.25 nmol/mg/min. Thus, we conclude that NAADP is generated in the vicinity of type 1 ryanodine receptor and leads to activation of this ion channel. PMID:12102654

  15. Matrix Domain Modulates HIV-1 Gag's Nucleic Acid Chaperone Activity via Inositol Phosphate Binding ▿

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher P.; Datta, Siddhartha A. K.; Rein, Alan; Rouzina, Ioulia; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Retroviruses replicate by reverse transcribing their single-stranded RNA genomes into double-stranded DNA using specific cellular tRNAs to prime cDNA synthesis. In HIV-1, human tRNA3Lys serves as the primer and is packaged into virions during assembly. The viral Gag protein is believed to chaperone tRNA3Lys placement onto the genomic RNA primer binding site; however, the timing and possible regulation of this event are currently unknown. Composed of the matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC), and p6 domains, the multifunctional HIV-1 Gag polyprotein orchestrates the highly coordinated process of virion assembly, but the contribution of these domains to tRNA3Lys annealing is unclear. Here, we show that NC is absolutely essential for annealing and that the MA domain inhibits Gag's tRNA annealing capability. During assembly, MA specifically interacts with inositol phosphate (IP)-containing lipids in the plasma membrane (PM). Surprisingly, we find that IPs stimulate Gag-facilitated tRNA annealing but do not stimulate annealing in Gag variants lacking the MA domain or containing point mutations involved in PM binding. Moreover, we find that IPs prevent MA from binding to nucleic acids but have little effect on NC or Gag. We propose that Gag binds to RNA either with both NC and MA domains or with NC alone and that MA-IP interactions alter Gag's binding mode. We propose that MA's interactions with the PM trigger the switch between these two binding modes and stimulate Gag's chaperone function, which may be important for the regulation of events such as tRNA primer annealing. PMID:21123373

  16. Phosphate Stability in Diagenetic Fluids Constrains the Acidic Alteration Model for Lower Mt. Sharp Sedimentary Rocks in Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, J. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Gellert, R.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; VanBommel, S. J.; McAdam, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars rover Curiosity has encountered silica-enriched bedrock (as strata and as veins and associated halos of alteration) in the largely basaltic Murray Fm. of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) investigations of the Murray Fm. revealed decreasing Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Al, and higher S, as silica increased (Fig. 1). A positive correlation between SiO2 and TiO2 (up to 74.4 and 1.7 wt %, respectively) suggests that these two insoluble elements were retained while acidic fluids leached more soluble elements. Other evidence also supports a silica-retaining, acidic alteration model for the Murray Fm., including low trace element abundances consistent with leaching, and the presence of opaline silica and jarosite determined by CheMin. Phosphate stability is a key component of this model because PO4 3- is typically soluble in acidic water and is likely a mobile ion in diagenetic fluids (pH less than 5). However, the Murray rocks are not leached of P; they have variable P2O5 (Fig. 1) ranging from average Mars (0.9 wt%) up to the highest values in Gale Crater (2.5 wt%). Here we evaluate APXS measurements of Murray Fm. bedrock and veins with respect to phosphate stability in acidic fluids as a test of the acidic alteration model for the Lower Mt. Sharp rocks.

  17. Continuous monitoring of the zinc-phosphate acid-base cement setting reaction by proton nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apih, T.; Lebar, A.; Pawlig, O.; Trettin, R.

    2001-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic relaxation is a well-established technique for continuous and non destructive monitoring of hydration of conventional Portland building cements. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of the setting reaction of zinc-phosphate acid-base dental cements, which harden in minutes as compared to days, as in the case of Portland cements. We compare the setting of cement powder (mainly, zinc oxide) prepared with clinically used aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid solution with the setting of a model system where cement powder is mixed with pure orthophosphoric acid solution. In contrast to previously published NMR studies of setting Portland cements, where a decrease of spin-lattice relaxation time is attributed to enhanced relaxation at the growing internal surface, spin-lattice relaxation time T1 increases during the set of clinically used zinc-phosphate cement. Comparison of these results with a detailed study of diffusion, viscosity, and magnetic-field dispersion of T1 in pure and aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid demonstrates that the increase of T1 in the setting cement is connected with the increase of molecular mobility in the residual phosphoric acid solution. Although not taken into account so far, such effects may also significantly influence the relaxation times in setting Portland cements, particularly when admixtures with an effect on water viscosity are used.

  18. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Thai, Van Viet; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2010-06-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C. PMID:20333539

  19. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, M. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  20. Effects of gatifloxaine content in gatifloxacine-loaded PLGA and β-tricalcium phosphate composites on efficacy in treating osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kimishima, Kaori; Matsuno, Tomonori; Makiishi, Jun; Tamazawa, Gaku; Sogo, Yu; Ito, Atsuo; Satoh, Tazuko

    2016-01-01

    Composites of gatifloxacin (GFLX)-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (βTCP) containing 0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX (0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX composites), and GFLX-loaded PLGA containing 1, 5, and 10 wt % GFLX (1, 5, and 10wt % GFLX-PLGA) as controls were fabricated and characterized in vitro and in vivo. On in vitro evaluation, the 10 wt % GFLX composite released GFLX over at least 28 days in Hanks' balanced solution and exhibited clinically sufficient bactericidal activities against Streptococcus milleri and Bacteroides fragilis from 1 h to 10 days. The 0, 1, and 10 wt % GFLX composites and 10 wt % GFLX-PLGA were implanted in bone defects created by debridement of osteomyelitis lesions induced by S. milleri and B. fragilis in the mandible of rabbits (n = 5). Four weeks after implantation of the 10 wt % GFLX composite, inflammation in the debrided area disappeared in all the rabbits, while inflammation remained in all the rabbits after implantation of the 0 wt % GFLX composite and 10 wt % GFLX-PLGA, and in three rabbits after implantation of the 1 wt % GFLX composite. Bone formation appears to be less intense for the 10 wt % GFLX composite than for the 1 wt % GFLX composite probably owing to the rapid degradation of the 10 wt % GFLX composite. These findings show that the GFLX composite is effective for the local treatment of osteomyelitis. PMID:25533357

  1. Heritability of Oleic Acid Seed Content in Soybean Oil and its Genetic Correlation with Fatty Acid and Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid seed content is an important determinant of the nutritional value and the oxidative stability of soybean oil. Breeding for higher oleate content mandates the estimation of the heritability and the genetic correlations between oleate and fatty acid traits and between oleate and agronomic t...

  2. Crystal growth, structural and thermal studies of amino acids admixtured L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandan, P.; Saravanan, T.; Parthipan, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2011-05-01

    To study the improved characteristics of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals, amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been grown by slow cooling method. Amino acids like glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine have been selected for doping. Optical quality bulk crystals have been harvested after a typical growth period of about twenty days. The effect of amino acids in the crystal lattice and molecular vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) analyses respectively. Thermal behavior of the amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been studied from the TG and DTG analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to find the crystalline nature. Optical transmission studies have been carried out by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The cut off wavelength is below 240 nm for the grown crystals.

  3. Comparison of inhibitory activity on calcium phosphate precipitation by acidic proline-rich proteins, statherin, and histatin-1.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, N; Tada, T; Morita, M; Watanabe, T

    2002-07-01

    This study quantitatively compares the inhibition of calcium phosphate (CaP) precipitation by the salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) statherin and histatin-1. Saliva and CaCl2 in 125 mM imidazole buffer (pH 7.0) were incubated with potassium phosphate and a hydroxyapatite (HAP) suspension, for 30 min at 25 degrees C, then filtered through nitrocellulose. The calcium (Ca) concentration in the filtrate was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, then deducted from that in the initial solution to determine the amount of CaP precipitation after 30 min. The values of the inhibitory activities on CaP precipitation relative to crude parotid saliva were 4.7, 4.9, 6.9, and 65.8 for histatin-1, large PRPs, small PRPs, and statherin, respectively. PMID:12060866

  4. Molecular analysis of soybean lines with low palmitic acid content in the seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Palmitic acid is the major saturated fatty acid found in soybean oil, accounting for approximately 11% of the seed oil content. Reducing the palmitic acid levels of the oil is desirable because of the negative health effects specifically associated with this fatty acid. One of the genetic loci known...

  5. Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Silica Content and Distribution in Sugarcane 12

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Peter B.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Lee, Myong; Carlson, Thomas J.; Jones, John D.; Rigot, Ward; Bigelow, Wilbur C.; Kraus, Steve; Moore, Paul H.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid on the content and distribution of silicon in the stem, leaf sheath, and leaf lamina of sugarcane was analyzed in relation to the effect of gibberellic acid on stem growth. Silicon content was measured by neutron activation analysis, and its distribution was followed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Foliarly applied gibberellic acid increased stem length and fresh weight and decreased silicon content. Gibberellic acid treatments had little or no effect on growth or silicon content of leaf laminae or sheaths. The close correlation between increase in growth of an internode in response to gibberellic acid and the decrease in silicon content of that internode indicated a dilution effect of growth on the amount of silicon rather than a direct effect of gibberellic acid on silicon deposition. This conclusion was supported by scanning electrom microscopy, X-ray map photos, and counts of silica cells per unit of epidermis area. PMID:16661908

  6. Effect of methyl jasmonate application to grapevine leaves on grape amino acid content.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Santamaría, Pilar

    2016-07-15

    Over the last few years, considerable attention has been paid to the application of elicitors to vineyard. However, research about the effect of elicitors on grape amino acid content is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of foliar application of methyl jasmonate on must amino acid content. Results revealed that total amino acid content was not modified by the application of methyl jasmonate. However, the individual content of certain amino acids was increased as consequence of methyl jasmonate foliar application, i.e., histidine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, asparagine, methionine, and lysine. Among them, phenylalanine content was considerably increased; this amino acid is precursor of phenolic and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, foliar application of methyl jasmonate improved must nitrogen composition. This finding suggests that methyl jasmonate treatment might be conducive to obtain wines of higher quality since must amino acid composition could affect the wine volatile composition and the fermentation kinetics. PMID:26948648

  7. Relationship between cannabinoids content and composition of fatty acids in hempseed oils.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Marinko; Debeljak, Željko; Kezić, Nataša; Džidara, Petra

    2015-03-01

    Hempseed oils acquired on the Croatian markets were characterised by cannabinoid content and fatty acid composition. The new method for determination of cannabinoid content was developed and validated in the range of 0.05-60 mg/kg, and the content of tetrahydrocannabinol varied between 3.23 and 69.5 mg/kg. Large differences among the samples were obtained for phenotype ratio suggesting that not all of analysed hempseed oils were produced from industrial hemp. Sample clustering based on cannabinoid content assigned samples to two groups closely related to the phenotype ratios obtained. The results of this study confirm that hempseed oil is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, but the content varies a lot more than the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The grouping of samples on fatty acid content assigned samples to two groups which were consistent with the groups obtained based on cannabinoid content clustering. PMID:25306338

  8. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  9. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  10. [Influence of rations with various linoleic acid contents on the fatty acid composition of phospholipids in blood platelets of rats].

    PubMed

    Atrokhov, V V; Markov, Kh M

    1987-01-01

    Gas-liquid chromatography was used to study the fatty-acid composition of phospholipids in platelets of Wistar-Kioto rats which received semisynthetic rations with varying content of linoleic acid, 1 week prenatally and 18 weeks postnatally. In ration I the level of 18:2n6 was lower than 0.1 cal%, ration II contained 9.0 cal%, and ration III -- 16.0 cal%. Ration III, as compared to ration II, induced an increase in the content of linoleic fatty acids, arachidonic fatty acid content being unchanged. Ration I, as compared to ration II induced a decrease in linoleic fatty acid content, and an increase in the content of oleic and linolenic fatty acids attended by the appearance of appreciable amounts of 20:3n9 and 20:5n3. Long-term linoleic acid deficiency induced no changes in the unsaturation degree of fatty acids in platelet phospholipids of rats given ration I. This is an evidence of high reserve possibilities of the mechanisms regulating fatty acid metabolism in the mammals. PMID:2894094

  11. Effect of GxE interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine entries of varieties and advanced breeding lines were grown in two locations in three years with three replications to estimate the effects of G x E interaction on oil content and fatty acid composition of cultivated peanuts. Oil content and fatty acid composition were quantified by NMR ...

  12. The phosphate clamp: sequence selective nucleic acid binding profiles and conformational induction of endonuclease inhibition by cationic Triplatin complexes

    PubMed Central

    Prisecaru, Andreea; Molphy, Zara; Kipping, Ralph G.; Peterson, Erica J.; Qu, Yun; Kellett, Andrew; Farrell, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    The substitution-inert polynuclear platinum(II) complex (PPC) series, [{trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)nNH3)}2-μ-(trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)nNH2)2}](NO3)8, where n = 5 (AH78P), 6 (AH78 TriplatinNC) and 7 (AH78H), are potent non-covalent DNA binding agents where nucleic acid recognition is achieved through use of the ‘phosphate clamp' where the square-planar tetra-am(m)ine Pt(II) coordination units all form bidentate N–O–N complexes through hydrogen bonding with phosphate oxygens. The modular nature of PPC–DNA interactions results in high affinity for calf thymus DNA (Kapp ∼5 × 107 M−1). The phosphate clamp–DNA interactions result in condensation of superhelical and B-DNA, displacement of intercalated ethidium bromide and facilitate cooperative binding of Hoechst 33258 at the minor groove. The effect of linker chain length on DNA conformational changes was examined and the pentane-bridged complex, AH78P, was optimal for condensing DNA with results in the nanomolar region. Analysis of binding affinity and conformational changes for sequence-specific oligonucleotides by ITC, dialysis, ICP-MS, CD and 2D-1H NMR experiments indicate that two limiting modes of phosphate clamp binding can be distinguished through their conformational changes and strongly suggest that DNA condensation is driven by minor-groove spanning. Triplatin-DNA binding prevents endonuclease activity by type II restriction enzymes BamHI, EcoRI and SalI, and inhibition was confirmed through the development of an on-chip microfluidic protocol. PMID:25414347

  13. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperber, C. v.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields plant available inorganic phosphate (Pi) and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P-compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four Pi are released, and one oxygen atom from water is incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi is subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ 6 to 10‰), which is similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ∼ 7‰) where less than three Pi are released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ∼ -12‰), again similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ɛ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking substrate-dependency of

  14. Calcium Phosphate Mineralization in Cellulose Derivative/Poly(acrylic acid) Composites Having a Chiral Nematic Mesomorphic Structure.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, Takuya; Katsumura, Ayaka; Sugimura, Kazuki; Teramoto, Yoshikuni; Nishio, Yoshiyuki

    2015-12-14

    Calcium phosphate mineralization was conducted by using polymer composites of liquid-crystalline (ethyl)cellulose (EC) or (hydroxypropyl)cellulose (HPC) with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) as a scaffolding medium for the inorganic deposition. The EC/PAA and HPC/PAA samples were prepared in colored film form from EC and HPC lyotropic liquid crystals of left-handed and right-handed chiral nematics, respectively, by polymerization and cross-linking of acrylic acid as the main solvent component. The mineralization was allowed to proceed in a batchwise operation by soaking the liquid-crystalline films in an aqueous salt solution containing the relevant ions, Ca(2+) and HPO4(2-). The calcium phosphate-deposited EC/PAA and HPC/PAA composites (weight gain, typically 15-25% and 6-11%, respectively) retained the chiral nematic organization of the respective original handedness but exhibited selective light-reflection of longer wavelengths relative to that of the corresponding nonmineralized samples. From X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements, it was deduced that the calcium and phosphorus were incorporated inside the polymer matrices in three forms: amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, and a certain complex of PAA-Ca(2+). Dynamic mechanical analysis and thermogravimetry revealed that the inorganic hybridization remarkably enhanced the thermal and mechanical performance of the optically functionalized cellulosic/synthetic polymer composites; however, the effect was more drastic in the EC/PAA series rather than the HPC/PAA series, reflecting the difference in the deposited mineral amount between the two. PMID:26536381

  15. Mineralisation of reconstituted collagen using polyvinylphosphonic acid/polyacrylic acid templating matrix protein analogues in the presence of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl ions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Kyung; Gu, Li-sha; Bryan, Thomas E.; Kim, Jong Ryul; Chen, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yoon, James C.; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2010-01-01

    The complex morphologies of mineralised collagen fibrils are regulated through interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. In the present study, polyvinylphosphonic acid, a biomimetic analogue of matrix phosphoproteins, was synthesised and confirmed with FTIR and NMR. Biomimetic mineralisation of reconstituted collagen fibrils devoid of natural non-collagenous proteins was demonstrated with TEM using a Portland cement-containing resin composite and a phosphate-containing fluid in the presence of polyacrylic acid as sequestration, and polyvinylphosphonic acid as templating matrix protein analogues. In the presence of these dual biomimetic analogues in the mineralisation medium, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralisation via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the nonclassical crystallisation pathway could be identified. Conversely, only large mineral spheres with no preferred association with collagen fibrils were observed in the absence of biomimetic analogues in the medium. Mineral phases were evident within the collagen fibrils as early as 4 hours after the initially-formed amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors were transformed into apatite nanocrystals. Selected area electron diffraction patterns of highly mineralised collagen fibrils were nearly identical to those of natural bone, with apatite crystallites preferentially aligned along the collagen fibril axes. PMID:20621767

  16. Mineralisation of reconstituted collagen using polyvinylphosphonic acid/polyacrylic acid templating matrix protein analogues in the presence of calcium, phosphate and hydroxyl ions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Kyung; Gu, Li-sha; Bryan, Thomas E; Kim, Jong R; Chen, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yoon, James C; Breschi, Lorenzo; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2010-09-01

    The complex morphologies of mineralised collagen fibrils are regulated through interactions between the collagen matrix and non-collagenous extracellular proteins. In the present study, polyvinylphosphonic acid, a biomimetic analogue of matrix phosphoproteins, was synthesised and confirmed with FTIR and NMR. Biomimetic mineralisation of reconstituted collagen fibrils devoid of natural non-collagenous proteins was demonstrated with TEM using a Portland cement-containing resin composite and a phosphate-containing fluid in the presence of polyacrylic acid as sequestration, and polyvinylphosphonic acid as templating matrix protein analogues. In the presence of these dual biomimetic analogues in the mineralisation medium, intrafibrillar and extrafibrillar mineralisation via bottom-up nanoparticle assembly based on the non-classical crystallisation pathway could be identified. Conversely, only large mineral spheres with no preferred association with collagen fibrils were observed in the absence of biomimetic analogues in the medium. Mineral phases were evident within the collagen fibrils as early as 4 h after the initially-formed amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors were transformed into apatite nanocrystals. Selected area electron diffraction patterns of highly mineralised collagen fibrils were nearly identical to those of natural bone, with apatite crystallites preferentially aligned along the collagen fibril axes. PMID:20621767

  17. Investigating the use of coupling agents to improve the interfacial properties between a resorbable phosphate glass and polylactic acid matrix.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Rudd, Chris D; Walker, Gavin S; Scotchford, Colin A

    2013-09-01

    Eight different chemicals were investigated as potential candidate coupling agents for phosphate glass fibre reinforced polylactic acid composites. Evidence of reaction of the coupling agents with phosphate glass and their effect on surface wettability and glass degradation were studied along with their principle role of improving the interface between glass reinforcement and polymer matrix. It was found that, with an optimal amount of coupling agent on the surface of the glass/polymer, interfacial shear strength improved by a factor of 5. Evidence of covalent bonding between agent and glass was found for three of the coupling agents investigated, namely: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; etidronic acid and hexamethylene diisocyanate. These three coupling agents also improved the interfacial shear strength and increased the hydrophobicity of the glass surface. It is expected that this would provide an improvement in the macroscopic properties of full-scale composites fabricated from the same materials which may also help to retain these properties for the desired length of time by retarding the breakdown of the fibre/matrix interface within these composites. PMID:22781920

  18. Urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate spaces and their relationship to total body water during chronic hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ericsson, F.; Odar-Cederloef, I.E.; Eriksson, C.G.; Lindgren, S.; Kjellstrand, C.M.

    1988-07-01

    The authors determined total body water (TBW) with tritium in 11 patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared this space to that estimated by 60% of body weight, and removal spaces of urea, creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate (PO4). The latter spaces were determined by dividing the total amount of substance (measured in total dialysate) by pre- minus post-dialysis concentrations. Body water X 0.6 was more than 10% less than the tritium space, and showed a maximal variation of 10 liters, or 24%. The removal space of urea was 80% of the tritium space, but correlated closely with it. The difference between total body water and urea removal space was variable and dependent on fluid excess (edema) in the patients. Creatinine, uric acid, and phosphate removal spaces were highly variable and not correlated to total body water. The authors suggest that actual measured TBW should be used, rather than estimations using BW X 0.6, for V in K X T/V, where K = clearance, T = duration of dialysis, and V = the removal space of urea. Furthermore, one may need to introduce a correction factor for urea removal space over TBW in the equation to allow better quantification of dialysis in edematous patients and during very fast dialyses.

  19. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  20. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  1. Static corrosion of construction materials exposed to superphosphoric acid made from various sources of phosphate rock

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, D.T.; McDonald, C.L.; McGill, K.E.

    1994-10-01

    Corrosion tests were performed with various construction materials, such as carbon steel, cast iron, stainless steels, nickel and nickel-based alloys, copper and its alloys, aluminum alloy, zirconium alloy, and tantalum, exposed to wet-process superphosphoric acids (approximately 70% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) from all the suppliers in the United States and to a technical-grade (55% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) acid made by the electric furnace process. The study was conducted in response to reports from pipe-reactor users of excessive corrosion by superphosphoric acids and electric furnace acid. Test temperatures were ambient (approximately 21{degrees}C or 70{degrees}F), 66{degrees}C (150{degrees}F), and 93{degrees}C (200{degrees}F). Test results showed that temperature was a significant factor in acid corrosivity. Electric furnace acid was more corrosive than the superphosphoric acids. Carbon steel, cast iron, and aluminum alloy were not resistant to either the superphosphoric acids or the electric furnace acid. Nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and nickel-molybdenum (Ni-Mo) based alloys and tantalum exhibited adequate corrosion resistance in the superphosphoric acids and the electric furnace acid. Stainless steels performed well in all test acids at all test temperatures with some exceptions in the electric furnace acid at 93{degrees}C. Zirconium alloy, copper and its alloys, pure nickel, and Monel 400 provided adequate corrosion resistance to all test acids at ambient temperature only.

  2. Mechanical Behavior and Thermal Stability of Acid-Base Phosphate Cements and Composites Fabricated at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colorado Lopera, Henry Alonso

    This dissertation presents the study of the mechanical behavior and thermal stability of acid-base phosphate cements (PCs) and composites fabricated at ambient temperature. These materials are also known as chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs). Among other advantages of using PCs when compared with traditional cements are the better mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength), lower density, ultra-fast (controllable) setting time, controllable pH, and an environmentally benign process. Several PCs based on wollastonite and calcium and alumino phosphates after thermal exposure up to 1000°C have been investigated. First, the thermo-mechanical and chemical stability of wollastonite-based PC (Wo-PC) exposed to temperatures up to 1000°C in air environment were studied. The effects of processing conditions on the curing and shrinkage of the wollastonite-based PC were studied. The chemical reactions and phase transformations during the fabrication and during the thermal exposure are analyzed in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA Then, the thermo-mechanical and chemical stability of glass, carbon and basalt fiber reinforced Wo-PC composites, were studied using SEM, XRD, TGA. The flexural strength and Weibull statistics were analyzed. A significant strength degradation in the composites were found after the thermal exposure at elevated temperatures due to the interdifusion and chemical reactions across the fibers and the matrix at temperatures over 600°C. To overcome this barrier, we have developed a new PC based on calcium and alumino-phosphates (Ca-Al PCs). The Ca-Al PCs were studied in detail using SEM, XRD, TGA, curing, shrinkage, Weibull statistics, and compression tests. Our study has confirmed that this new composite material is chemically and mechanically stable at temperatures up to 1000°C. Moreover, the compression strength increases after exposure to 1000

  3. Variability of fatty acid content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Murkovic, M; Hillebrand, A; Winkler, J; Leitner, E; Pfannhauser, W

    1996-09-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common salad oil which is produced in Slovenia, Hungary and the southern parts of Austria. It is dark green and has a high content of free fatty acids. The seed itself can be eaten. Due to its colour and the foam formation, the oil cannot be used for cooking. The content of vitamin E, especially gamma-tocopherol, is very high. The oil content of the pumpkin seed is about 50%. The variability in the oil content is very high resulting from a broad genetic diversity. Thus a breeding programme for increasing the oil productivity is very promising. The four dominant fatty acids are palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. These four fatty acids make up 98 +/- 0.13% of the total amount of fatty acids, others being found at levels well below 0.5%. PMID:8873459

  4. Effect of surface modification of nanofibres with glutamic acid peptide on calcium phosphate nucleation and osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ozan; Kumar, Ankur; Moeinzadeh, Seyedsina; He, Xuezhong; Cui, Tong; Jabbari, Esmaiel

    2016-02-01

    Biomineralization is mediated by extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins with amino acid sequences rich in glutamic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium phosphate deposition on aligned nanofibres surface-modified with a glutamic acid peptide on osteogenic differentiation of rat marrow stromal cells. Blend of EEGGC peptide (GLU) conjugated low molecular weight polylactide (PLA) and high molecular weight poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was electrospun to form aligned nanofibres (GLU-NF). The GLU-NF microsheets were incubated in a modified simulated body fluid for nucleation of calcium phosphate crystals on the fibre surface. To achieve a high calcium phosphate to fibre ratio, a layer-by-layer approach was used to improve diffusion of calcium and phosphate ions inside the microsheets. Based on dissipative particle dynamics simulation of PLGA/PLA-GLU fibres, > 80% of GLU peptide was localized to the fibre surface. Calcium phosphate to fibre ratios as high as 200%, between those of cancellous (160%) and cortical (310%) bone, was obtained with the layer-by-layer approach. The extent of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of marrow stromal cells seeded on GLU-NF microsheets was directly related to the amount of calcium phosphate deposition on the fibres prior to cell seeding. Expression of osteogenic markers osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin and type 1 collagen increased gradually with calcium phosphate deposition on GLU-NF microsheets. Results demonstrate that surface modification of aligned synthetic nanofibres with EEGGC peptide dramatically affects nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate crystals on the fibres leading to increased osteogenic differentiation of marrow stromal cells and mineralization. PMID:23897753

  5. Content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in three canned fish species.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S

    2009-05-01

    Three canned fish species--Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), Pacific herring (Clupea harengus) and Baltic sprat (Sprattus sprattus)--most common and popular in Russia, were analyzed for fatty acids. Special attention was paid to long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3). Sums of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in saury, herring and sprat were, on average, 2.42, 1.80 and 1.43 g/100 g product, respectively. Contents of these essential acids in all the canned fish species were found to be very high compared with many other fish reported in the available literature. All the canned fish appeared to be highly valuable products for human nutrition concerning the content of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. PMID:18608541

  6. 26Al-containing acidic and basic sodium aluminum phosphate preparation and use in studies of oral aluminum bioavailability from foods utilizing 26Al as an aluminum tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokel, Robert A.; Urbas, Aaron A.; Lodder, Robert A.; Selegue, John P.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2005-04-01

    We synthesized 26Al-containing acidic and basic (alkaline) sodium aluminum phosphates (SALPs) which are FDA-approved leavening and emulsifying agents, respectively, and used them to determine the oral bioavailability of aluminum incorporated in selected foods. We selected applicable methods from published syntheses (patents) and scaled them down (∼3000- and 850-fold) to prepare ∼300-400 mg of each SALP. The 26Al was incorporated at the beginning of the syntheses to maximize 26Al and 27Al equilibration and incorporate the 26Al in the naturally-occurring Al-containing chemical species of the products. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the two SALP samples and some intermediate samples. Multi-elemental analysis (MEA) was used to determine Na, Al and P content. Commercial products were included for comparison. Satisfactory XRD analyses, near infrared spectra and MEA results confirmed that we synthesized acidic and basic SALP, as well as some of the syntheses intermediates. The 26Al-containing acidic and basic SALPs were incorporated into a biscuit material and a processed cheese, respectively. These were used in oral bioavailability studies conducted in rats in which the 26Al present in blood after its oral absorption was quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. The results showed oral Al bioavailability from acidic SALP in biscuit was ∼0.02% and from basic SALP in cheese ∼0.05%, lower than our previous determination of Al bioavailability from drinking water, ∼0.3%. Both food and water can appreciably contribute to the Al absorbed from typical human Al intake.

  7. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals.

    PubMed

    Mota, Carla; Santos, Mariana; Mauro, Raul; Samman, Norma; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile information. The aim of this work is to characterise the AA profile of these pseudocereals and compare them with rice. Total protein content revealed to vary from 16.3g/100g (quinoa Salta) to 13.1g/100g (buckwheat) and lower values were found in rice samples (6.7g/100g). For pseudocereals the most abundant essential AA was leucine. Quinoa-Salta evidences the highest leucine content (1013mg/100g) and the minor methionine content (199mg/100g). Buckwheat was the cereal with the highest phenylalanine content (862mg/100g). Rice (Oryza sativa) presents the lowest content for all AA. Results showed pseudocereals as the best source of AA. EuroFIR guidelines where strictly followed and proved to be a crucial tool to guarantee data interchangeability and comparability. PMID:26433287

  8. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid: effect of water content.

    PubMed

    Torres, Carlos F; Hill, Charles G

    2002-06-01

    The effect of the water content on the lipase-catalyzed (Candida rugosa) interesterification (acidolysis) of menhaden oil with conjugated linoleic acid was studied for amounts of added water ranging from 0-4% (w/w). The rate of the acidolysis reaction increased with increasing water content, but the corresponding percentage of n-3 fatty acids liberated also increased. The implications of water content for minimization of the release of n-3 fatty acid residues while maximizing incorporation of CLA are discussed. PMID:12115120

  9. Contents of phenolic acids, alkyl- and alkenylresorcinols, and avenanthramides in commercial grain products.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hellström, Jarkko

    2005-10-19

    The contents of free and total phenolic acids and alk(en)ylresorcinols were analyzed in commercial products of eight grains: oat (Avena sativa), wheat (Triticum spp.), rye (Secale cerale), barley (Hordeum vulgare), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), millet (Panicum miliaceum), rice (Oryza sativa), and corn (Zea mays). Avenanthramides were determined in three oat products. Free phenolic acids, alk(en)ylresorcinols, and avenanthramides were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, 100% methanol, and 80% methanol, respectively, and quantified by HPLC. The contents of total phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The highest contents of total phenolic acids were in brans of wheat (4527 mg/kg) and rye (4190 mg/kg) and in whole-grain flours of these grains (1342 and 1366 mg/kg, respectively). In other products, the contents varied from 111 mg/kg (white wheat bread) to 765 mg/kg (whole-grain rye bread). Common phenolic acids found in the grain products were ferulic acid (most abundant), ferulic acid dehydrodimers, sinapic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The grain products were found to contain either none or only low amounts of free phenolic acids. The content of avenanthramides in oat flakes (26-27 mg/kg) was about double that found in oat bran (13 mg/kg). The highest contents of alk(en)ylresorcinols were observed in brans of rye (4108 mg/kg) and wheat (3225 mg/kg). In addition, whole-grain rye products (rye bread, rye flour, and whole-wheat flour) contained considerable levels of alk(en)ylresorcinols (524, 927, and 759 mg/kg, respectively). PMID:16218677

  10. Loss of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor expression promotes the accumulation of lysobisphosphatidic acid in multilamellar bodies.

    PubMed

    Reaves, B J; Row, P E; Bright, N A; Luzio, J P; Davidson, H W

    2000-11-01

    A number of recent studies have highlighted the importance of lipid domains within endocytic organelles in the sorting and movement of integral membrane proteins. In particular, considerable attention has become focussed upon the role of the unusual phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). This lipid appears to be directly involved in the trafficking of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, and accumulates in a number of lysosomal storage disorders. Antibody-mediated disruption of LBPA function also leads to mis-sorting of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors. We now report that the converse is also true, and that spontaneous loss of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors from a rat fibroblast cell line led to the formation of aberrant late endocytic structures enriched in LBPA. Accumulation of LBPA was directly dependent upon the loss of the receptors, and could be reversed by expression of bovine cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors in the mutant cell line. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that the abnormal organelles were electron-dense, had a multi-lamellar structure, accumulated endocytosed probes, and were distinct from dense-core lysosomes present within the same cells. The late endocytic structures present at steady state within any particular cell likely reflect the balance of membrane traffic through the endocytic pathway of that cell, and the rate of maturation of individual endocytic organelles. Moreover, there is considerable evidence which suggests that cargo receptors also play a direct mechanistic role in membrane trafficking events. Therefore, loss of such a protein may disturb the overall equilibrium of the pathway, and hence cause the accumulation of aberrant organelles. We propose that this mechanism underlies the phenotype of the mutant cell line, and that the formation of inclusion bodies in many lysosomal storage diseases is also due to an imbalance in membrane trafficking within the endocytic pathway

  11. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate released from phytic acid by the activity of wheat and Aspergillus niger phytase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Sperber, C.; Tamburini, F.; Brunner, B.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Frossard, E.

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms. Under P-limiting conditions plants and microorganisms can exude extracellular phosphatases that release inorganic phosphate (Pi) from organic phosphorus compounds (Porg). Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, IP6) is an important form of Porg in many soils. The enzymatic hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase yields available Pi and less phosphorylated inositol derivates as products. The hydrolysis of organic P compounds by phosphatases leaves an isotopic imprint on the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of released Pi, which might be used to trace P in the environment. This study aims at determining the effect of phytase on the oxygen isotope composition of released Pi. For this purpose, enzymatic assays with histidine acid phytases from wheat and Aspergillus niger were prepared using IP6, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) and glycerophosphate (GPO4) as substrates. For a comparison to the δ18O of Pi released by other extracellular enzymes, enzymatic assays with acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ with IP6 as a substrate were prepared. During the hydrolysis of IP6 by phytase, four of the six Pi were released, and one oxygen atom from water was incorporated into each Pi. This incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi was subject to an apparent inverse isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ 6 to 10 ‰), which was similar to that imparted by acid phosphatase from potato during the hydrolysis of IP6 (ϵ ~ 7 ‰), where less than three Pi were released. The incorporation of oxygen from water into Pi during the hydrolysis of AMP and GPO4 by phytase yielded a normal isotopic fractionation (ϵ ~ -12 ‰), similar to values reported for acid phosphatases from potato and wheat germ. We attribute this similarity in ϵ to the same amino acid sequence motif (RHGXRXP) at the active site of these enzymes, which leads to similar reaction mechanisms. We suggest that the striking

  12. Perflourocarboxylic Acid Content in 116 Articles of Commerce

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) in house dust, suggesting strongly the presence of indoor sources of these compounds. The main goal of this study was to identify and rank potentially important indoor sources by determining th...

  13. O-Methyltransferase is shared between the pentose phosphate and shikimate pathways and is essential for mycosporine-like amino acid biosynthesis in Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413.

    PubMed

    Pope, Matthew A; Spence, Edward; Seralvo, Valentina; Gacesa, Ranko; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Weston, Andrew J; Dunlap, Walter C; Shick, J Malcolm; Long, Paul F

    2015-01-19

    The parent core structure of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) is 4-deoxygadusol, which, in cyanobacteria, is derived from conversion of the pentose phosphate pathway intermediate sedoheptulose 7-phosphate by the enzymes 2-epi-5-epivaliolone synthase (EVS) and O-methyltransferase (OMT). Yet, deletion of the EVS gene from Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 was shown to have little effect on MAA production, thus suggesting that its biosynthesis is not exclusive to the pentose phosphate pathway. Herein, we report how, using pathway-specific inhibitors, we demonstrated unequivocally that MAA biosynthesis occurs also via the shikimate pathway. In addition, complete in-frame gene deletion of the OMT gene from A. variabilis ATCC 29413 reveals that, although biochemically distinct, the pentose phosphate and shikimate pathways are inextricably linked to MAA biosynthesis in this cyanobacterium. Furthermore, proteomic data reveal that the shikimate pathway is the predominate route for UV-induced MAA biosynthesis. PMID:25487723

  14. Porous calcium phosphate-poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid composite bone cement: A viable tunable drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Roy, Abhijit; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Bayer, Emily; Fedorchak, Morgan; Little, Steve R; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-02-01

    Calcium phosphate based cements (CPCs) are frequently used as bone void fillers for non-load bearing segmental bone defects due to their clinically relevant handling characteristics and ability to promote natural bone growth. Macroporous CPC scaffolds with interconnected pores are preferred for their ability to degrade faster and enable accelerated bone regeneration. Herein, a composite CPC scaffold is developed using newly developed resorbable calcium phosphate cement (ReCaPP) formulation containing degradable microspheres of bio-compatible poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) serving as porogen. The present study is aimed at characterizing the effect of in-vitro degradation of PLGA microspheres on the physical, chemical and structural characteristics of the composite cements. The porosity measurements results reveal the formation of highly interconnected macroporous scaffolds after degradation of PLGA microspheres. The in-vitro characterizations also suggest that the degradation by products of PLGA reduces the pH of the local environment thereby increasing the dissolution rate of the cement. In addition, the in-vitro vancomycin release from the composite CPC scaffold suggests that the drug association with the composite scaffolds can be tuned to achieve control release kinetics. Further, the study demonstrates control release lasting for longer than 10weeks from the composite cements in which vancomycin is encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. PMID:26652353

  15. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (Naadp+) Is an Essential Regulator of T-Lymphocyte Ca2+-Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Ingeborg; Potter, Barry V.L.; Mayr, Georg W.; Guse, Andreas H.

    2000-01-01

    Microinjection of human Jurkat T-lymphocytes with nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP+) dose-dependently stimulated intracellular Ca2+-signaling. At a concentration of 10 nM NAADP+ evoked repetitive and long-lasting Ca2+-oscillations of low amplitude, whereas at 50 and 100 nM, a rapid and high initial Ca2+-peak followed by trains of smaller Ca2+-oscillations was observed. Higher concentrations of NAADP+ (1 and 10 μM) gradually reduced the initial Ca2+-peak, and a complete self-inactivation of Ca2+-signals was seen at 100 μM. The effect of NAADP+ was specific as it was not observed with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate– and cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose–mediated Ca2+-signaling were efficiently inhibited by coinjection of a self-inactivating concentration of NAADP+. Most importantly, microinjection of a self-inactivating concentration of NAADP+ completely abolished subsequent stimulation of Ca2+-signaling via the T cell receptor/CD3 complex, indicating that a functional NAADP+ Ca2+-release system is essential for T-lymphocyte Ca2+-signaling. PMID:10931869

  16. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide-phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation.

  17. Evolutionary Importance of the Intramolecular Pathways of Hydrolysis of Phosphate Ester Mixed Anhydrides with Amino Acids and Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziwei; Beaufils, Damien; Rossi, Jean-Christophe; Pascal, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Aminoacyl adenylates (aa-AMPs) constitute essential intermediates of protein biosynthesis. Their polymerization in aqueous solution has often been claimed as a potential route to abiotic peptides in spite of a highly efficient CO2-promoted pathway of hydrolysis. Here we investigate the efficiency and relevance of this frequently overlooked pathway from model amino acid phosphate mixed anhydrides including aa-AMPs. Its predominance was demonstrated at CO2 concentrations matching that of physiological fluids or that of the present-day ocean, making a direct polymerization pathway unlikely. By contrast, the occurrence of the CO2-promoted pathway was observed to increase the efficiency of peptide bond formation owing to the high reactivity of the N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) intermediate. Even considering CO2 concentrations in early Earth liquid environments equivalent to present levels, mixed anhydrides would have polymerized predominantly through NCAs. The issue of a potential involvement of NCAs as biochemical metabolites could even be raised. The formation of peptide–phosphate mixed anhydrides from 5(4H)-oxazolones (transiently formed through prebiotically relevant peptide activation pathways) was also observed as well as the occurrence of the reverse cyclization process in the reactions of these mixed anhydrides. These processes constitute the core of a reaction network that could potentially have evolved towards the emergence of translation. PMID:25501391

  18. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation. PMID:25216642

  19. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  20. Dietary ɛ-Polylysine Decreased Serum and Liver Lipid Contents by Enhancing Fecal Lipid Excretion Irrespective of Increased Hepatic Fatty Acid Biosynthesis-Related Enzymes Activities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Daiki; Otsuka, Ren; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro; Fukunaga, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    ɛ-Polylysine (EPL) is used as a natural preservative in food. However, few studies have been conducted to assess the beneficial functions of dietary EPL. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the inhibition of neutral and acidic sterol absorption and hepatic enzyme activity-related fatty acid biosynthesis following EPL intake. EPL digest prepared using an in vitro digestion model had lower lipase activity and micellar lipid solubility and higher bile acid binding capacity than casein digest. Male Wistar rats were fed an AIN-93G diet containing 1% (wt/wt) EPL or l-lysine. After 4 weeks of feeding these diets, the marked decrease in serum and liver triacylglycerol contents by the EPL diet was partly attributed to increased fecal fatty acid excretion. The activities of hepatic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis, were enhanced in rats fed EPL diet. The increased fatty acid biosynthesis activity due to dietary EPL may be prevented by the enhancement of fecal fatty acid excretion. The hypocholesterolemic effect of EPL was mediated by increased fecal neutral and acidic sterol excretions due to the EPL digest suppressing micellar lipid solubility and high bile acid binding capacity. These results show that dietary EPL has beneficial effects that could help prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:25866749

  1. Comparative study of myocardial high energy phosphate substrate content in slow and fast growing chicken and in chickens with heart failure and ascites.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, A A; Nain, S; Wojnarowicz, C; Laarveld, B; Alcorn, J; Ling, B B

    2007-09-01

    In order to explain the biochemical mechanisms associated with deteriorating heart function in broiler chickens, this study compared myocardial high energy phosphate substrates in leghorns, feed restricted (Broilers-Res) broilers, ad libitum fed broilers (Broilers-AL), and in broilers that developed heart failure and ascites. The profile of adenine nucleotide content in the heart tissue did not differ between leghorns and Broilers-Res, but there were significant differences among Broilers-Res, Broilers-AL, and broilers with ascites. During intensive growth periods, leghorns and Broilers-Res showed increasing trends in heart ATP levels, whereas in fast growing broilers the heart ATP declined (p<0.021). ATP:ADP and ATP:CrP ratios increased with age in both leghorn and Broilers-Res, declined in fast growing broilers, and were the lowest in broilers that developed heart failure. The changes in heart high energy phosphate profile in broilers suggest that the energy demand of the heart during a rapid growth phase may exceed the bird's metabolic capacity to supply adequate levels of high energy phosphate substrate. The insufficiency of energy substrate likely contributes to the declining heart rate. In some individuals this may lead to impaired heart pump function, and in more severe cases may progress to heart pump failure. PMID:17524693

  2. Urea, sugar, nonesterified fatty acid and cholesterol content of the blood in prolonged weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakhovskiy, I. S.; Orlova, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Biochemical blood composition studies on astronauts during weightlessness flight simulation tests and during actual space flights showed some disturbances of metabolic processes. Increases in blood sugar, fatty acid and cholesterol, and urea content are noted.

  3. Fatty acid content of New Zealand-grown walnuts (Juglans regia L.).

    PubMed

    Zwarts, L; Savage, G P; McNeil, D L

    1999-05-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) samples were collected during the 1994 and 1995 harvest from ten different cultivars of trees grown in a replicated trial in an experimental orchard at Lincoln University, New Zealand. Two US commercial cultivars (Tehama and Vina), three European commercial cultivars (Esterhazy, 139, G120) and five New Zealand selections (Rex, Dublin's Glory, Meyric, McKinster, Stanley) were evaluated. Total oil was extracted using a cold press and individual fatty acids were analysed by GLC. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 62.4 to 68.7%. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 14.3 to 26.1% of the total fatty acids, while the linoleic acid content ranged from 49.3 to 62.3% and the linolenic contents from 8.0 to 13.8%. PMID:10627834

  4. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  5. Influence of ethanol content in the precipitation medium on the composition, structure and reactivity of magnesium-calcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Babaie, Elham; Zhou, Huan; Lin, Boren; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-08-01

    Biocompatible amorphous magnesium calcium phosphate (AMCP) particles were synthesized using ethanol in precipitation medium from moderately supersaturated solution at pH10. Some synthesis parameters such as, (Mg+Ca):P, Mg:Ca ratio and different drying methods on the structure and stability of as-produced powder was studied and characterized using SEM, XRD and cell cytocompatibility. The results showed that depending on the Mg(2+) concentration, nano crystalline Struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) can also be alternatively formed. However, the as-formed AMCP preserved its amorphous structure after 7 days of incubation in SBF for tested phosphate concentration, and equally ionic concentration of magnesium and calcium. PMID:26042708

  6. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. PMID:25466077

  7. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26231126

  8. [Comparative study on selenium and amino acids content in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Chen, Hai-Rong; Shen, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most important Chinese herbs. It is widely used in Asian medicine to improve impaired brain function and to treat headaches, and used to treat prostate cancer. It is also known to be anti-inflammatory and antifungal, and also seems to have antiviral properties, including possible effectiveness against HIV. Scutellaria baicalensis tea and other products are in development. In the present study, the content of selenium (Se) in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis was determined by fluorescence photometer. The contents of 18 kinds of amino acids in the leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis were determined with amino acids instruments. The results showed that the two kinds of leaves were rich in Se content, and the content of Se in planted Scutellaria baicalensis (0.051 microg x g(-1)) was not significantly different from that in wild one (0.051 microg x g(-1), alpha = 0.05). The amino acids, of which the total content was up to 14.62% and 10.25% separately, were rich in both planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis. Among the 18 kinds of amino acids, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and leucine were comparatively high in leaves of planted and wild Scutellaria baicalensis. There are 8 kinds of amino acids essential to human body, which were higher in leaves of planted Scutellaria baicalensis than those of wild one. This study, for the first time, determined Se and amino acids content in Scutellaria baicalensis and concluded that the leaves of planted type have Se and amino acids content not lower or higher than that of wild type, and the planted type could be a good substitute of wild type in the development of Scutellaria baicalensis products. This study also provided useful data for explaining the multifunction of Scutellaria baicalensis and theological basis for developing its medical and edible value. PMID:19385241

  9. High performance of phosphate-functionalized graphene oxide for the selective adsorption of U(VI) from acidic solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xia; Li, Jiaxing; Wang, Xiangxue; Chen, Changlun; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-11-01

    In this study, phosphate-functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) was prepared by grafting triethyl phosphite onto the surface of GO using Arbuzov reaction. The as-prepared PGO was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and Zeta potential. The application of the PGO to remove U(VI) from aqueous solution was investigated with a maximum adsorption capacity of 251.7 mg/g at pH = 4.0 ± 0.1 and T = 303 K. The adsorption mechanism was also investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, indicating a chemical adsorption of U(VI) on PGO surface. Moreover, experimental results gave a better removal efficiency toward U(VI) on PGO surface than other heavy metal ions at acidic solution, indicating the selective extraction of U(VI) from environmental pollutants.

  10. n3- polyunsaturated Fat Acid Content of Some Edible Fish from Bahrain Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arrayedu, F. H.; Al Maskati, H. A.; Abdullah, F. J.

    1999-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in 10 fish species that are commonly consumed in Bahrain in addition to the main commercial shrimp species. White sardinella, which is a plankton feeder, had the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids. It had the highest value of eicosapentaenoic acid (146.5 ± 20 mg 100 g-1) and linolenic acid (98.9±f 100 g-1) and the second highest value of docosahexaenoic acid at (133.7 ± 22 mg 100 g-1). Spanish mackerel which feeds mainly on sardinella was second with eicosapentaenoc acid at 55 ± 5.4 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 161 ± 19.8 mg 100 g-1, linolenic acid at 16.4 mg 100 g-1 and docosapentaenoic acid at 25 ± 1.9 mg 100 g-1. Rabbitfish, the most popular edible fish in Bahrain which feeds mainly on benthic algae had the third highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids with eicosapentaenoic acid at 37.5 ± 3.9 mg 100 g-1, docosahexaenoic acid at 76 ± 6.7 mg 100 g-1, and docosapentaenoic acid at 85.8 ± 10 mg 100 g-1. The other fish and crustacean species studied were Arabian carpet shark, doublebar bream, grouper, gray grunt, golden travally, keeled mullet, spangled emperor and shrimp. The study explores the transfer of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids through the food webs of the examined fish. It is apparent, generally, that plankton feeders displayed the highest content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids followed by seaweed and algae grazers, with benthic carnivores feeding on invertebrates displaying the poorest content. The values reported here, however, are much lower than those reported for fish available in American markets and in Mediterranean fish. Warm water temperature and high salinity which lead to lowering of the density of phytoplankton and phytoplankton content of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids are suggested as the reason for the observed low values of n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids in Bahrain fish.

  11. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.

  12. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-07-28

    Our objective was to investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP)-to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to localmore » structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significantly, for the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified.« less

  13. Structural and dynamical studies of acid-mediated conversion in amorphous-calcium-phosphate based dental composites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Allen, Andrew J.; Levine, Lyle E.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Skrtic, Drago; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Kathleen M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the complex structural and dynamical conversion process of the amorphous-calcium-phosphate (ACP) -to-apatite transition in ACP based dental composite materials. Methods Composite disks were prepared using zirconia hybridized ACP fillers (0.4 mass fraction) and photo-activated Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin (0.6 mass fraction). We performed an investigation of the solution-mediated ACP-to-apatite conversion mechanism in controlled acidic aqueous environment with in situ ultra-small angle X-ray scattering based coherent X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and ex situ X-ray diffraction, as well as other complementary techniques. Results We established that the ACP-to-apatite conversion in ACP composites is a two-step process, owing to the sensitivity to local structural changes provided by coherent X-rays. Initially, ACP undergoes a local microstructural rearrangement without losing its amorphous character. We established the catalytic role of the acid and found the time scale of this rearrangement strongly depends on the pH of the solution, which agrees with previous findings about ACP without the polymer matrix being present. In the second step, ACP is converted to an apatitic form with the crystallinity of the formed crystallites being poor. Separately, we also confirmed that in the regular Zr-modified ACP the rate of ACP conversion to hydroxyapatite is slowed significantly compared to unmodified ACP, which is beneficial for targeted slow release of functional calcium and phosphate ions from dental composite materials. Significance For the first time, we were able to follow the complete solution-mediated transition process from ACP to apatite in this class of dental composites in a controlled aqueous environment. A two-step process, suggested previously, was conclusively identified. PMID:25082155

  14. Metabolic influence of lead on polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production and phosphate uptake in activated sludge fed with glucose or acetic acid as carbon source.

    PubMed

    You, Sheng-Jie; Tsai, Yung-Pin; Cho, Bo-Chuan; Chou, Yi-Hsiu

    2011-09-01

    Sludge in a sequential batch reactor (SBR) system was used to investigate the effect of lead toxicity on metabolisms of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) communities fed with acetic acid or glucose as their sole carbon source, respectively. Results showed that the effect of lead on substrate utilization of both PAOs and GAOs was insignificant. However, lead substantially inhibited both of phosphate release and uptake of PAOs. In high concentration of acetic acid trials, an abnormal aerobic phosphate release was observed instead of phosphate uptake and the release rate increased with increasing lead concentration. Results also showed that PAOs could normally synthesize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in the anaerobic phase even though lead concentration was 40 mg L(-1). However, they could not aerobically utilize PHB normally in the presence of lead. On the other hand, GAOs could not normally metabolize polyhydroxyvalerate (PHV) in both the anaerobic and aerobic phases. PMID:21704513

  15. Effects of DDT and BHC on amino acid content and its varieties in Chlorella vulgaris Beij. and Cladophora sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yixiong

    1991-03-01

    In Chlorella vulgaris Beij. and Cladophora sp. treated with different concentrations of r-BHC and p, p-DDT, the protein and free amino acid content in both were higher than those in the controls, and the free amino acid content was even higher than the protein amino acid content.

  16. Fatty acid composition and squalene content of the marine microalga Schizochytrium mangrovei.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yue; Fan, King-Wai; Wong, Raymond Tsz-Yeung; Chen, Feng

    2004-03-10

    Certain species of thraustochytrids are being explored as potential producer of polyunsaturated fatty acids for nutritional enrichment of food products and use as feed additives in aquaculture. The fatty acid composition and squalene content were determined in the thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium mangrovei that was newly isolated from decaying Kandelia candel leaves in Hong Kong mangrove habitat. The major fatty acid constituents identified in all three S. mangrovei strains were tetradeanoic acid (C14:0), hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n-6, DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). DHA was the most predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid, and the percentage of DHA (of total fatty acids) in all these strains varied from 32.29 to 39.14%. Only slight changes were observed in fatty acid composition of the S. mangrovei strains harvested at their early (day 3) and late stationary (day 5) phases. In contrast, the cellular squalene content was affected significantly by the culture time; the largest decrease of squalene content from 0.162 mg/g to 0.035 mg/g was found in S. mangrovei FB1 as the culture aged. PMID:14995120

  17. Use of capillary electrophoresis to determine oleic and linoleic acid content of peanut seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common consumer complaint regarding peanut products is one involving short shelf life and rapid rancidity. Peanut cultivars with elevated oleic acid content (and decreased linoleic content) have been shown to have an increased shelf life and thus have become largely preferred by peanut processors...

  18. Structural and kinetic properties of a novel purple acid phosphatase from phosphate-starved tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Bozzo, Gale G; Raghothama, Kashchandra G; Plaxton, William C

    2004-01-01

    An intracellular acid phosphatase (IAP) from P(i)-starved (-P(i)) tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) suspension cells has been purified to homogeneity. IAP is a purple acid phosphatase (PAP), as the purified protein was violet in colour (lambda(max)=546 nm) and was insensitive to L-tartrate. PAGE, periodic acid-Schiff staining and peptide mapping demonstrated that the enzyme exists as a 142 kDa heterodimer composed of an equivalent ratio of glycosylated and structurally dissimilar 63 (alpha-subunit) and 57 kDa (beta-subunit) polypeptides. However, the nine N-terminal amino acids of the alpha- and beta-subunits were identical, exhibiting similarity to the deduced N-terminal portions of several putative plant PAPs. Quantification of immunoblots probed with rabbit anti-(tomato acid phosphatase) immune serum revealed that the 4-fold increase in IAP activity due to P(i)-deprivation was correlated with similar increases in the amount of antigenic IAP alpha- and beta-subunits. IAP displayed optimal activity at pH 5.1, was activated 150% by 10 mM Mg(2+), but was potently inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(3+), molybdate, vanadate, fluoride and P(i). Although IAP demonstrated broad substrate selectivity, its specificity constant ( V (max)/ K (m)) with phosphoenolpyruvate was >250% greater than that obtained with any other substrate. IAP exhibited significant peroxidase activity, which was optimal at pH 9.0 and insensitive to Mg(2+) or molybdate. This IAP is proposed to scavenge P(i) from intracellular phosphate esters in -P(i) tomato. A possible secondary IAP role in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species is discussed. IAP properties are compared with those of two extracellular PAP isoenzymes that are secreted into the medium of -P(i) tomato cells [Bozzo, Raghothama and Plaxton (2002) Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 6278-6286]. PMID:14521509

  19. Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Analogs Substituted on the Nicotinic Acid and Adenine Ribosides. Effects on Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Trabbic, Christopher J.; Zhang, Fan; Walseth, Timothy F.; Slama, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a Ca2+ releasing intracellular second messenger in both mammals and echinoderms. We report that large functionalized substituents introduced at the nicotinic acid 5-position are recognized by the sea urchin receptor, albeit with a 20–500 fold loss in agonist potency. 5-(3-Azidopropyl)-NAADP was shown to release Ca2+ with an EC50 of 31 µM and to compete with NAADP for receptor binding with an IC50 of 56 nM. Attachment of charged groups to the nicotinic acid of NAADP is associated with loss of activity, suggesting that the nicotinate riboside moiety is recognized as a neutral zwitterion. Substituents (Br- and N3-) can be introduced at the 8-adenosyl position of NAADP while preserving high potency and agonist efficacy and an NAADP derivative substituted at both the 5-position of the nicotinic acid and at the 8-adenosyl position was also recognized although the agonist potency was significantly reduced. PMID:25826221

  20. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  1. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  2. Effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids in sweet potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; Oki, Tomoyuki; Kai, Yumi; Nishiba, Yoichi; Okuno, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated harvesting on the content of caffeic acid (CA) and seven species of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) in sweet potato leaves using a newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography method. Six cultivars and two breeding lines were used in this study. Leaves were collected at monthly intervals from 1st harvest (May) to 4th harvest (August) in 2011 and 2012. ANOVA analysis revealed that the contents of CQAs were significantly different among all cultivars and breeding lines, but no significant differences were found for CA. No annual variation was confirmed in CA and CQAs. Repeated harvest of sweet potato leaves affected the content of only 4-CQA and 5-CQA. Post-hoc comparisons using Tukey's method indicated that the contents of 4-CQA and 5-CQA in sweet potato leaves harvested at first time were significantly higher compared to those at the other harvest times. PMID:25971339

  3. Acid wash of second cycle solvent in the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock

    SciTech Connect

    York, W.R.

    1984-02-07

    Entrainment of contaminated water in the organic phase and poor phase disengagement is prevented in the second cycle scrubber, in a two cycle-uranium recovery process, by washing the organic solvent stream containing entrained H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ from the second cycle extractor, with a dilute aqueous sulfuric or nitric acid solution in an acid scrubber, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle stripper.

  4. Study on synthetic methods of trialkyl phosphate oxide and its extraction behavior of some acids

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, M.J.; Su, Y.F.

    1987-01-01

    Trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) is useful for the extraction of many inorganic and organic compounds. A mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) is similar in property to TOPO. The total number of carbon atoms per molecule of TRPO ranges from 15 to 27. Three methods for synthesizing TRPO are described in this paper. When TRPO is synthesized from an alcohol mixture it is significantly cheaper than a single pure alcohol as required for the production of TOPO; tedious purification steps are eliminated. TRPO is a brown liquid which is very slightly soluble in water. Toxicological measurements of LD50, AMES test, hereditary and accumulative toxicity show that TRPO is safe for use in the extraction of some pharmaceutical and biochemical compounds. Examinations of IR and NMR show that the complex interaction of P=O bond of TRPO with extracted substances is the same as that of TOPO. The distribution coefficients of phosphoric acid, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, and tartaric acid with TRPO are reported. The extraction of these acids is believed to proceed by neutral-complex mechanism.

  5. The influence of extrusion process on myo-inositol phosphate content and profile in snacks containing rye bran.

    PubMed

    Gambuś, H; Matusz-Mirlak, A; Duliński, R; Ziobro, R; Golachowski, A

    2012-02-01

    The analysis of phytates in extrudates containing rye bran was done by a colorimetric method with the Wade reagent. The changes in profiles of myo-inositol phosphates indicate that, although no isomers with positive physiological functions (such as I(1,4,5)P3, I(1,2,3)P3 or I(1,3,4,5)P4) were formed, the beneficial impact of extrusion is the reduction of phytates, as compared to the raw material. The obtained snacks containing rye bran received acceptable to desirable sensory scores. PMID:21718112

  6. [Effects of abscisic acid on chemical components content and color of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Liu, Chun-sheng; Liu, Yong; Song, Xiao-na; Gu, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted using cultivated Glycyrrhiza uralensis in age of one year to study the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on chemical components content and color of G. uralensis. By using different concentrations of ABA spraying on leaves, the change of the chemical component content was analyzed within 45 d after ABA stimulation, and the effects on quality were studied combined with colorimetric analysis data. It turned out that in some sense the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin had increased within 45 d, especially for liquiritin. After high concentrations of ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating, the content of glycyrrhizic acid rose 52% while liquiritin up 392% within 30 d. Then they both showed a decline in the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin on 45 d. Color index values of a* and b* were all significantly higher than that of the control group within 45 d, which meant the color of powders turned toward red and yellow. The conclusion was that ABA (3.96 mg · L(-1)) stimulating could not only improve the quality in the traditional sense through the color of G. uralensis, but also in the modern sense by improving the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin. PMID:26323130

  7. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of 11 species of Queensland (Australia) fish.

    PubMed

    Belling, G B; Abbey, M; Campbell, J H; Campbell, G R

    1997-06-01

    The fatty acid composition of 11 species of fish caught of the northeast coast of Australia was determined. No fatty acid profiles have been previously published for fish from this area nor for nine of these species. Although the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was the same as the calculated average for Australian fish (42.3%), the percentage of n-3 fatty acids was lower (24.4 +/- 5.4% vs. 30.7 +/- 10.1%) and the n-6 fatty acids higher (16.5 +/- 4.5% vs. 11.2 +/- 5.9%), P < 0.001 in each case. The major n-3 PUFA were docosahexaenoic (15.6 +/- 6.3%) and eicosapentaenoic acid (4.3 +/- 1.1%) while the major n-6 PUFA were arachidonic (8.3 +/- 3.2%) and n-6 docosatetraenoic acid (3.1 +/- 1.3%). The second-most abundant class of fatty acid was the saturates (31.6 +/- 3.5%) while the monounsaturates accounted for 17.4 +/- 4.3% of the total fatty acids. The monounsaturate with the highest concentration was octadecenoic acid (11.8 +/- 2.6%). There was a positive correlation between the total lipid content and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (r = 0.675 and 0.567, respectively) and a negative correlation between the total lipid content and PUFA (r = 0.774). PMID:9208391

  8. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm. PMID:22540530

  9. Glycerol-3-phosphate Acyltransferase Isoform-4 (GPAT4) Limits Oxidation of Exogenous Fatty Acids in Brown Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Daniel E; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2015-06-12

    Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-4 (GPAT4) null pups grew poorly during the suckling period and, as adults, were protected from high fat diet-induced obesity. To determine why Gpat4(-/-) mice failed to gain weight during these two periods of high fat feeding, we examined energy metabolism. Compared with controls, the metabolic rate of Gpat4(-/-) mice fed a 45% fat diet was 12% higher. Core body temperature was 1 ºC higher after high fat feeding. Food intake, fat absorption, and activity were similar in both genotypes. Impaired weight gain in Gpat4(-/-) mice did not result from increased heat loss, because both cold tolerance and response to a β3-adrenergic agonist were similar in both genotypes. Because GPAT4 comprises 65% of the total GPAT activity in brown adipose tissue (BAT), we characterized BAT function. A 45% fat diet increased the Gpat4(-/-) BAT expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR) target genes, Cpt1α, Pgc1α, and Ucp1, and BAT mitochondria oxidized oleate and pyruvate at higher rates than controls, suggesting that fatty acid signaling and flux through the TCA cycle were enhanced. To assess the role of GPAT4 directly, neonatal BAT preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes. Compared with controls, Gpat4(-/-) brown adipocytes incorporated 33% less fatty acid into triacylglycerol and 46% more into the pathway of β-oxidation. The increased oxidation rate was due solely to an increase in the oxidation of exogenous fatty acids. These data suggest that in the absence of cold exposure, GPAT4 limits excessive fatty acid oxidation and the detrimental induction of a hypermetabolic state. PMID:25918168

  10. A boron phosphate-phosphoric acid composite membrane for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2015-07-01

    A composite membrane based on a non-stoichiometric composition of BPO4 with excess of PO4 (BPOx) was synthesised and characterised for medium temperature fuel cell use (120-180 °C). The electrolyte was characterised by FTIR, SS-NMR, TGA and XRD and showed that the B-O is tetrahedral, in agreement with reports in the literature that boron phosphorus oxide compounds at B:P < 1 are exclusively built of borate and phosphate tetrahedra. Platinum micro electrodes were used to study the electrolyte compatibility and stability towards oxygen reduction at 150 °C and to obtain kinetic and mass transport parameters. The conductivities of the pure BPOx membrane electrolyte and a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-4BPOx composite membrane were 7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 4.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 respectively at 150 °C, 5%RH. Fuel cell tests showed a significant enhancement in performance of BPOx over that of typical 5.6H3PO4-PBI membrane electrolyte. The enhancement is due to the improved ionic conductivity (3×), a higher exchange current density of the oxygen reduction (30×) and a lower membrane gas permeability (10×). Fuel cell current densities at 0.6 V were 706 and 425 mA cm-2 for BPOx and 5.6H3PO4-PBI, respectively, at 150 °C with O2 (atm).

  11. Phosphorus leaching in an acid tropical soil "recapitalized" with phosphate rock and triple superphosphate.

    PubMed

    Gikonyo, Esther W; Zaharah, Abdul R; Hanafi, Mohamed M; Anuar, Rahim A

    2010-01-01

    With high rates of phosphorus applied to increase "capital P" as a stock for plant uptake over several years, the question of P leaching is inevitable. We conducted an intact soil column experiment in the field to evaluate P leached from soils treated with triple superphosphate (TSP) and Gafsa phosphate rock (GPR) at 300, 600, and 900 kg P ha-1 with and without integration of cattle manure. The lysimeters, made from PVC tubes of 30-cm length, were inserted into the soil up to the 25-cm depth. The tubes were fitted with a resin bag containing a mixture of cation and anion exchange resin (50:50) at the lower end of the tube inserted into the soil. The tubes, arranged in a completely randomized design, were sampled randomly at 10-week intervals for 12 months. Phosphorus extractable from the top- and subsoil at the end of experiment and leached P were determined. More P was leached out from TSP (threefold) compared to GPR, and the amount of P leached increased with increasing rates of P fertilizer applied. Application of manure intensified the amounts of P leached from TSP, particularly at the 6-month sampling time. There was hardly any substantial P leached from the soil treated with GPR. Thus, for effective and efficient long-term P fertilizer management strategies, choosing the right P fertilizer source and monitoring P losses through leaching has to be done for enhanced fertilizer use efficiency and thus reducing P pollution of ground waters. PMID:20694445

  12. The pathophysiology of acid-base changes in chronically phosphate-depleted rats: bone-kidney interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, M; Goldfarb, S; Agus, Z S; Narins, R G

    1977-01-01

    Acid-base disturbances may develop secondary to the changes in renal tubular function and bone dynamics which attend phosphate depletion (PD). This work characterizes the acid-base status of rats fed a low phosphate diet. After 18 days, PD rats had marked calciuria (pair-fed controls: 0.3 +/- 0.2; PD 32.2 +/- 2.5 mueq/h; P less than 0.001), severe bicarbonaturia (controls: 0; PD 17.6 +/- 0.2 meq/h; P less than 0.001), and negative net acid excretion (controls: 44.5 +/- 2.9; PD: --6.6 +/- 2.5 meq/h; P less than 0.001), but plasma pH, HCO3, and PCO2 were equal in both groups. After 45 days, plasma HCO3 fell to 21.1 +/- 0.9 meq/liter in PD (controls: 23.6 +/- 0.5 meq/liter; P less than 0.05), while bicarbonaturia (controls: 0.4 +/- 0.2; PD: 3.8 +/- 1 mueq/h; P less than 0.02) and calciuria were present but diminished. These data suggested the coexistence of bone HCO3 mobilization and renal HCO3 wasting in PD. To test this thesis, bicarbonaturia was eliminated by nephrectomy. 24 h later plasma HCO3 was higher in PD rats (controls: 19.3 +/- 0.02; PD: 22.6 +/- 0.8 meq/liter; P less than 0.05), consistend with the presence of extrarenal HCO3 production. After inhibition of bone resorption with colchicine (1 mg/kg), plasma HCO3 decreased to 16.8 +/- 0.6 meq/liter in PD rats (controls): 26.4 +/- 1 meq/liter; P less than 0.001) while bicarbonaturia persisted. These data indicate that the plasma HCO3 in PD is the net result of renal HCO3 wasting and bone HCO3 mobilization. These combined effects maintain normal blood HCO3 initially (18 days) but with time (45 days), bone resorption diminishes and the acidifying renal tubular defect predominates. PMID:833276

  13. Evaluation of Acid Digestion Procedures to Estimate Mineral Contents in Materials from Animal Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palma, M. N. N.; Rocha, G. C.; Valadares Filho, S. C.; Detmann, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rigorously standardized laboratory protocols are essential for meaningful comparison of data from multiple sites. Considering that interactions of minerals with organic matrices may vary depending on the material nature, there could be peculiar demands for each material with respect to digestion procedure. Acid digestion procedures were evaluated using different nitric to perchloric acid ratios and one- or two-step digestion to estimate the concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in samples of carcass, bone, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Six procedures were evaluated: ratio of nitric to perchloric acid at 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1 v/v in a one- or two-step digestion. There were no direct or interaction effects (p>0.01) of nitric to perchloric acid ratio or number of digestion steps on magnesium and zinc contents. Calcium and phosphorus contents presented a significant (p<0.01) interaction between sample type and nitric to perchloric acid ratio. Digestion solution of 2:1 v/v provided greater (p<0.01) recovery of calcium and phosphorus from bone samples than 3:1 and 4:1 v/v ratio. Different acid ratios did not affect (p>0.01) calcium or phosphorus contents in carcass, excreta, concentrate, forage, and feces. Number of digestion steps did not affect mineral content (p>0.01). Estimated concentration of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc in carcass, excreta, concentrated, forage, and feces samples can be performed using digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 4:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. However, samples of bones demand a stronger digestion solution to analyze the mineral contents, which is represented by an increased proportion of perchloric acid, being recommended a digestion solution of nitric to perchloric acid 2:1 v/v in a one-step digestion. PMID:26333671

  14. Altered expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 in mouse hippocampus after kainic acid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae; Kim, Joon Soo; Cho, Yong Woon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Roh, Gu Seob

    2010-03-12

    Kainic acid (KA) induces hippocampal cell death and astrocyte proliferation. There are reports that sphingosine kinase (SPHK)1 and sphingosine-1- phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1P{sub 1}) signaling axis controls astrocyte proliferation. Here we examined the temporal changes of SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} in mouse hippocampus during KA-induced hippocampal cell death. Mice were killed at 2, 6, 24, or 48 h after KA (30 mg/kg) injection. There was an increase in Fluoro-Jade B-positive cells in the hippocampus of KA-treated mice with temporal changes of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The lowest level of SPHK1 protein expression was found 2 h after KA treatment. Six hours after KA treatment, the expression of SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} proteins steadily increased in the hippocampus. In immunohistochemical analysis, SPHK1 and S1P{sub 1} are more immunoreactive in astrocytes within the hippocampus of KA-treated mice than in hippocampus of control mice. These results indicate that SPHK1/S1P{sub 1} signaling axis may play an important role in astrocytes proliferation during KA-induced excitotoxicity.

  15. Histopathological, morphometric and stereological studies of ascorbic acid and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate in a skin care formulation.

    PubMed

    Silva, G M; Maia Campos, P M

    2000-06-01

    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has been widely used in cosmetics and dermatological formulations due to its inhibitory effect on melanogenesis by affecting collagen synthesis and scavenger properties. However, ascorbic acid (AA) is quickly oxidized and decomposes in aqueous solution and to solve this problem, vitamin C derivatives were synthesized. In the present investigation, histopathological, morphometric and stereological studies were carried out to investigate the possible alterations caused by formulations containing AA or magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP) in the epidermis. Gel creams either with or without 2% AA or its derivative were selected for investigation. Guinea-pigs were shaved on the back, and four areas of 1.5 cm(2) each were used for the experiments. One untreated area was used for control and the others for the application of gel cream formulations either with or without AA or its derivatives. The formulations were applied daily for 2, 4 and 8 weeks and biopsies were then obtained from each area using a dermatological punch. The material collected was analysed by histopathological, morphometric and stereological techniques. We observed that, under the present experimental conditions, whole formulations acted on the epidermis causing a thickening of the epithelium, with cells of larger volume in the granulose and spinous layers. PMID:18503473

  16. The scope for manipulating the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of beef: a review.

    PubMed

    Vahmani, Payam; Mapiye, Cletos; Prieto, Nuria; Rolland, David C; McAllister, Tim A; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Dugan, Michael E R

    2015-01-01

    Since 1950, links between intake of saturated fatty acids and heart disease have led to recommendations to limit consumption of saturated fatty acid-rich foods, including beef. Over this time, changes in food consumption patterns in several countries including Canada and the USA have not led to improvements in health. Instead, the incidence of obesity, type II diabetes and associated diseases have reached epidemic proportions owing in part to replacement of dietary fat with refined carbohydrates. Despite the content of saturated fatty acids in beef, it is also rich in heart healthy cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, and can be an important source of long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in populations where little or no oily fish is consumed. Beef also contains polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation products, including vaccenic and rumenic acids, which have been shown to have anticarcinogenic and hypolipidemic properties in cell culture and animal models. Beef can be enriched with these beneficial fatty acids through manipulation of beef cattle diets, which is now more important than ever because of increasing public understanding of the relationships between diet and health. The present review examines recommendations for beef in human diets, the need to recognize the complex nature of beef fat, how cattle diets and management can alter the fatty acid composition of beef, and to what extent content claims are currently possible for beef fatty acids. PMID:26199725

  17. Retention of mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of a phosphate-based glass fiber/polylactic acid composite.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Cronin, P S; Abou Neel, E A; Parsons, A J; Knowles, J C; Rudd, C D

    2009-04-01

    Polymers prepared from polylactic acid (PLA) have found a multitude of uses as medical devices. The main advantage of having a material that degrades is so that an implant would not necessitate a second surgical event for removal. In addition, the biodegradation may offer other advantages. In this study, fibers produced from a quaternary phosphate-based glass (PBG) in the system 50P(2)O(5)-40CaO-5Na(2)O-5Fe(2)O(3) (nontreated and heat-treated) were used to reinforce the biodegradable polymer, PLA. Fiber properties were investigated, along with the mechanical and degradation properties and cytocompatibility of the composites produced. Retention of mechanical properties overtime was also evaluated. The mean fiber strength for the phosphate glass fibers was 456 MPa with a modulus value of 51.5 GPa. Weibull analysis revealed a shape and scale parameter value of 3.37 and 508, respectively. The flexural strength of the composites matched that for cortical bone; however, the modulus values were lower than those required for cortical bone. After 6 weeks of degradation in deionized water, 50% of the strength values obtained was maintained. The composite degradation properties revealed a 14% mass loss for the nontreated and a 10% mass loss for the heat-treated fiber composites. It was also seen that by heat-treating the fibers, chemical and physical degradation occurred much slower. The pH profiles also revealed that nontreated fibers degraded quicker, thus correlating well with the degradation profiles. The in vitro cell culture experiments revealed both PLA (alone) and the heat-treated fiber composites maintained higher cell viability as compared to the nontreated fiber composites. This was attributed to the slower degradation release profiles of the heat-treated composites as compared to the nontreated fiber composites. SEM analyses revealed a porous structure after degradation, and it is clear that there are possibilities here to tailor the distribution of porosity

  18. Phytic acid and inorganic phosphate composition in soybean lines with independent IPK1 mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] seeds contain a large amount of phosphorus (P), which is stored as phytic acid (PA). PA is indigestible by nonruminent livestock and considered an anti-nutritional factor because PA chelates divalent cations and prevents the uptake of essential nutrients. Interest in...

  19. Role of phosphate and Fe-oxides on the acid-aided extraction efficiency and readsorption of As in field-aged soil.

    PubMed

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Moon, Seheum; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-12-30

    This study was conducted to investigate arsenic (As) readsorption phenomenon in acid-treated soil using phosphate as a competing ion. Three field-aged soils (i.e., S1, paddy soil; S2, field soil; S3, forest soil) originally contaminated with As ranging from 30 to 59 mg/kg-soil were collected from a former smelter site. When 0.2M hydrochloric acid (HCl) alone was used as an extraction solution, As bound to iron (Fe) oxides was removed but significant amount of the released As was readsorbed onto residual Fe-oxides, yielding low As extraction efficiency of 11-27%. Readsorption of the released As seemed to occur preferentially on amorphous Fe-oxides. In contrast, As extraction efficiency was greatly increased by 0.2M HCl solution supplemented with monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4), which was greatly influenced by the molar ratio of acid to phosphate. In addition, by the extraction solution with an optimal ratio of 0.2M HCl/0.1M KH2PO4, As extraction efficiency differed with soil types, showing 79.6, 44.1, and 61.0% in S1, S2, and S3, respectively. The reason can be ascribed to the blocking of the available As readsorption sites by phosphate ions, the sites seemed to mainly reside on the residual amorphous Fe-oxides in soil. PMID:26177492

  20. Phytosterol content and fatty acid pattern of ten different nut types.

    PubMed

    Kornsteiner-Krenn, Margit; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Ten different nut kinds (almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) were evaluated for their total oil and phytosterol content as well as their fatty acid composition. The total oil content was the predominant component; mean values oscillated between 45.2 % (cashews) and 74.7 % (macadamias). Mean total phytosterol content ranged from 71.7 mg (Brazil nuts) to 271.9 mg (pistachios) per 100 g oil. ß-sitosterol was the major sterol (mean >71.7 mg/100 g oil) followed by minor contents of campesterol, ergosterol, and stigmasterol. Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamias, and pistachios were high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA; > 55 %). MUFA- and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich nuts were peanuts and pecans, whereas Brazil nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts had the highest PUFA content (> 50 %); the high unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio ranged from 4.5 to 11.8. However, the fatty acid pattern of every nut is unique. PMID:25305221

  1. An 11-bp Insertion in Zea mays fatb Reduces the Palmitic Acid Content of Fatty Acids in Maize Grain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Debo; Warburton, Marilyn; Chai, Yuchao; Zhang, Pan; Guo, Yuqiu; Yan, Jianbing; Li, Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in maize kernels strongly impacts human and livestock health, but is a complex trait that is difficult to select based on phenotype. Map-based cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a powerful but time-consuming method for the dissection of complex traits. Here, we combine linkage and association analyses to fine map QTL-Pal9, a QTL influencing levels of palmitic acid, an important class of saturated fatty acid. QTL-Pal9 was mapped to a 90-kb region, in which we identified a candidate gene, Zea mays fatb (Zmfatb), which encodes acyl-ACP thioesterase. An 11-bp insertion in the last exon of Zmfatb decreases palmitic acid content and concentration, leading to an optimization of the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids while having no effect on total oil content. We used three-dimensional structure analysis to explain the functional mechanism of the ZmFATB protein and confirmed the proposed model in vitro and in vivo. We measured the genetic effect of the functional site in 15 different genetic backgrounds and found a maximum change of 4.57 mg/g palmitic acid content, which accounts for ∼20–60% of the variation in the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids. A PCR-based marker for QTL-Pal9 was developed for marker-assisted selection of nutritionally healthier maize lines. The method presented here provides a new, efficient way to clone QTL, and the cloned palmitic acid QTL sheds lights on the genetic mechanism of oil biosynthesis and targeted maize molecular breeding. PMID:21931818

  2. Fatty acid mobilization and comparison to milk fatty acid content in northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melinda A; Debier, Cathy; Mignolet, Eric; Linard, Clementine; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental feature of the life history of true seals, bears and baleen whales is lactation while fasting. This study examined the mobilization of fatty acids from blubber and their subsequent partitioning into maternal metabolism and milk production in northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The fatty acid composition of blubber and milk was measured in both early and late lactation. Proportions of fatty acids in milk and blubber were found to display a high degree of similarity both early and late in lactation. Seals mobilized an enormous amount of lipid (~66 kg in 17 days), but thermoregulatory fatty acids, those that remain fluid at low temperatures, were relatively conserved in the outer blubber layer. Despite the stratification, the pattern of mobilization of specific fatty acids conforms to biochemical predictions. Long chain (>20C) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were the least mobilized from blubber and the only class of fatty acids that showed a proportional increase in milk in late lactation. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were more mobilized from the blubber, but neither proportion increased in milk at late lactation. These data suggest that of the long chain MUFA mobilized, the majority is directed to milk synthesis. The mother may preferentially use PUFA and SFA for her own metabolism, decreasing the availability for deposition into milk. The potential impacts of milk fatty acid delivery on pup diving development and thermoregulation are exciting avenues for exploration. PMID:24126964

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese from cows fed extruded oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, T R; Helmink, E D; McMahon, D J; Fife, R L; Pariza, M W

    1999-02-01

    Extruded oilseeds were fed to 24 dairy cows to study the influence on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese. Cows were fed one of three diets that contained forage and grain in a ratio of 47:53. A control diet containing 13.5% soybean meal was compared with diets containing 12% full fat extruded soybeans or 12% full fat extruded cottonseed. The control, extruded soybean, and extruded cottonseed diets contained 2.73, 4.89, and 4.56% fatty acids, respectively. Measurements were made during the last 5 wk of the 8-wk experiment. The DM intakes and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yields were higher for cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets than for cows fed the control diet. A tendency for lower fat and protein contents in the milk of cows fed the extruded soybean and extruded cottonseed diets was detected. Most of the C18 fatty acids were increased in the milk and cheese when extruded soybeans and cottonseeds were fed. The conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and cheese increased a mean of 109% when full fat extruded soybeans were fed and increased 77% when cottonseeds were fed compared with the conjugated linoleic acid content when the control diet was fed. Processing the milk into cheese did not alter the conjugated linoleic acid content. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk and cheese can be increased by the inclusion of full fat extruded soybeans and full fat extruded cottonseeds in the diets of dairy cows. PMID:10068962

  4. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits. PMID:19353365

  5. Alteration in the D-amino acid content of the rat pineal gland under anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hamase, K; Homma, H; Takigawa, Y; Imai, K

    1999-01-01

    In a previous report (Hamase, K. et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1134: 214-222 (1997)), we showed that the rat pineal gland contains D-leucine (D-Leu) as well as D-aspartic acid (D-Asp). In this communication we report alterations in the content of these D-amino acids during anesthesia. The D-Asp content was significantly increased from 2.8 to 5.0, 4.8 and 5.8 nmol/pineal gland by administration of ether, urethane and pentobarbital, respectively. In contrast, the D-Leu content was decreased by administration of urethane or pentobarbital. The D-Leu content decreased from 4.2 to 2.2 pmol/pineal gland 4 hours after administration of urethane, although the content remained unchanged until 1.5 hours after administration. The content of the L-enantiomers of these amino acids were not affected by anesthesia. The urethane-induced decrease in D-leucine content was almost completely suppressed by a beta-agonist, (-)-isoproterenol, whereas the agonist itself had no effect. PMID:10582126

  6. New layers in understanding and predicting α-linolenic acid content in plants using amino acid characteristics of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase.

    PubMed

    Zinati, Zahra; Zamansani, Fatemeh; Hossein KayvanJoo, Amir; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Mohammadi Dehcheshmeh, Manijeh

    2014-11-01

    α-linolenic acid (ALA) is the most frequent omega-3 in plants. The content of ALA is highly variable, ranging from 0 to 1% in rice and corn to >50% in perilla and flax. ALA production is strongly correlated with the enzymatic activity of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase. To unravel the underlying mechanisms of omega-3 diversity, 895 protein features of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase were compared between plants with high and low omega-3. Attribute weighting showed that this enzyme in plants with high omega-3 content has higher amounts of Lys, Lys-Phe, and Pro-Asn but lower Aliphatic index, Gly-His, and Pro-Leu. The Random Forest model with Accuracy criterion when run on the dataset pre-filtered with Info Gain algorithm was the best model in distinguishing high omega-3 content based on the frequency of Lys-Lys in the structure of fatty acid desaturase. Interestingly, the discriminant function algorithm could predict the level of omega-3 only based on the six important selected attributes (out of 895 protein attributes) of fatty acid desaturase with 75% accuracy. We developed "Plant omega3 predictor" to predict the content of α-linolenic acid based on structural features of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase. The software calculates the 6 key structural protein features from imported Fasta sequence of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase or utilizes the imported features and predicts the ALA content using discriminant function formula. This work unravels an underpinning mechanism of omega-3 diversity via discovery of the key protein attributes in the structure of omega-3 desaturase offering a new approach to obtain higher omega-3 content. PMID:25199845

  7. Induction of fatty acid synthase and S14 gene expression by glucose, xylitol and dihydroxyacetone in cultured rat hepatocytes is closely correlated with glucose 6-phosphate concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Mourrieras, F; Foufelle, F; Foretz, M; Morin, J; Bouche, S; Ferre, P

    1997-01-01

    It is now well established that the transcription of several genes belonging to the glycolytic and lipogenic pathway is stimulated in the presence of a high glucose concentration in adipocytes and hepatocytes. We have previously proposed that glucose 6-phosphate could be the signal metabolite that transduces the glucose effect. This proposal has recently been challenged and both an intermediate of the pentose phosphate pathway, xylulose 5-phosphate, and metabolites of the later part of glycolysis (3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate) have been proposed. To discriminate between these possibilities, we have measured concomitantly, in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes, the expression of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and S14 genes and the concentration of glucose metabolites. We have used various substrates entering at different steps of the glycolytic pathway (glucose, dihydroxyacetone) and the pentose phosphate pathway (xylitol). When compared with 5 mM glucose, 25 mM glucose induces a marked increase in both S14 and FAS gene expression, detectable as early as 2 h and peaking at 6 h. Increasing concentrations (1-5 mM) of xylitol and dihydroxyacetone in the presence of 5 mM glucose are also able to induce S14 and FAS gene expression progressively. Among the various glucose metabolites measured, glucose 6-phosphate, in contrast with xylulose 5-phosphate and metabolites of the lower part of glycolysis, is the only one that shows a clear-cut parallelism between its concentration and the degree of S14 and FAS gene expression. We conclude that glucose 6-phosphate is the most likely signal metabolite for the glucose-induced transcription of this group of genes. PMID:9291103

  8. Phytic Acid Synthesis and Vacuolar Accumulation in Suspension-Cultured Cells of Catharanthus roseus Induced by High Concentration of Inorganic Phosphate and Cations1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Naoto; Ohnishi, Miwa; Sekiguchi, Yoko; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Chang, Young-Tae; Chung, Sung-Kee; Inoue, Yoshinori; Reid, Robert J.; Yagisawa, Hitoshi; Mimura, Tetsuro

    2005-01-01

    We have established a new system for studying phytic acid, myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) synthesis in suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus. InsP6 and other intermediates of myo-inositol (Ins) phosphate metabolism were measured using an ion chromatography method. The detection limit for InsP6 was less than 50 nm, which was sufficient to analyze Ins phosphates in living cells. Synthesis of Ins phosphates was induced by incubation in high inorganic phosphate medium. InsP6 was mainly accumulated in vacuoles and was enhanced when cells were grown in high concentration of inorganic phosphates with the cations K+, Ca2+, or Zn2+. However, there was a strong tendency for InsP6 to accumulate in the vacuole in the presence of Ca2+ and in nonvacuolar compartments when supplied with Zn2+, possibly due to precipitation of InsP6 with Zn2+ in the cytosol. A vesicle transport inhibitor, brefeldin A, stimulated InsP6 accumulation. The amounts of both Ins(3)P1 myo-inositol monophosphate synthase, a key enzyme for InsP6 synthesis, and Ins(1,4,5)P3 kinase were unrelated to the level of accumulation of InsP6. The mechanisms for InsP6 synthesis and localization into vacuoles in plant cells are discussed. PMID:15965017

  9. Accelerating calcium phosphate growth on NaOH-treated poly-(lactic- co-glycolic acid) by evaporation-induced surface crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ke; Tang, Allen; Wang, Rizhi

    2008-12-01

    Poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a promising material for the regeneration of bone tissue, but its surface properties are not optimal for the application. Coating the surface of PLGA with a continuous layer of calcium phosphate is an effective approach to address the limitation. Current coating techniques for PLGA require immersion in supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions for days to weeks. In this study, we report a simple technique to accelerate the coating process to only 2 h immersion in supersaturated solutions. PLGA pellets were first treated with NaOH to increase their hydrophilicity. The NaOH-treated PLGA pellets were repeatedly dipped in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution and dried in air. After 10 times of the dip-and-dry treatment, a layer of calcium phosphate crystallites uniformly covered the surfaces of the pellets. After the crystallite-covered pellets were immersed in the supersaturated solution for 2 h, about 5-μm thick continuous calcium phosphate coatings formed on the surfaces. The dip-and-dry technique was also applied on a variety of metals and porous structures. An evaporation-induced surface crystallization process was suggested as the mechanism for the dip-and-dry treatment.

  10. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  11. Stabilization of amorphous calcium carbonate by phosphate rich organic matrix proteins and by single phosphoamino acids.

    PubMed

    Bentov, Shmuel; Weil, Simy; Glazer, Lilah; Sagi, Amir; Berman, Amir

    2010-08-01

    Stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a unique material produced naturally exclusively as a biomineral. It was demonstrated that proteins extracted from biogenic stable ACC induce and stabilize synthetic ACC in vitro. Polyphosphate molecules were similarly shown to induce amorphous calcium carbonate formation in vitro. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that biogenic ACC induction and stabilization is mediated by the phosphorylated residues of phosphoproteins. We show that extracellular organic matrix extracted from gastroliths of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus induce stable ACC formation in vitro. The proteinaceous fraction of this organic matrix is highly phosphorylated and is incorporated into the ACC mineral phase during precipitation. We have identified the major phosphoproteins of the organic matrix and showed that they have high calcium binding capacity. Based on the above, in vitro precipitation experiments with single phosphoamino acids were performed, indicating that phosphoserine or phosphothreonine alone can induce the formation of highly stable ACC. The results indicate that phosphoproteins may play a major role in the control of ACC formation and stabilization and that their phosphoamino acid moieties are key components in this process. PMID:20416381

  12. [Fatty acid content of the lipid fraction of the liver and fatty tissues of fattened geese].

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, K; Monov, G

    1986-01-01

    The content of fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the liver and in the body fats of fattened gray Landen geese. Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatography Chrom 41 supplied with Determinations were carried out with a gas chromatograph Chrom 41 supplied with a flame-ionization detector. It was found that the average content of fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) as expressed by percent of their total amount was 45.90% and 54.10% (liver), 36.58% and 63.42% (subcutaneous fatty tissue), 42.79% and 57.31% (inner lard), and 39.01% and 60.99% (skin fats). PMID:3727379

  13. Association of NLK polymorphisms with intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Supakankul, Pantaporn; Mekchay, Supamit

    2016-08-01

    Nemo-like protein kinase (NLK) is a key enzyme in the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway and it is involved in adipogenesis. In this study, the associations of the polymorphisms of the NLK gene with intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid (FA) composition traits were analyzed in crossbred commercial pigs. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine NLK gene were identified in 5'-flanking region and introns, consisting of g.403739_403764insdel, g.574462T>C and g.630426A>G. The NLK g.403739_403764insdel was significantly associated with IMF content and palmitoleic acid levels. No association of the NLK g.574462T>C SNP with IMF content was observed. However, this SNP was significantly associated with arachidic and eicosenoic acid levels. Moreover, the NLK g.630426A>G SNP was significantly associated with IMF content and the fatty composition of arachidic, linoleic, as well as polyunsaturated FA and ω6 FA levels. These results indicate the importance of porcine NLK as a candidate gene for porcine IMF content and fatty acid composition traits. PMID:27050409

  14. Selection of direct transesterification as the preferred method for assay of fatty acid content of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M J; van Hille, R P; Harrison, S T L

    2010-11-01

    Assays for total lipid content in microalgae are usually based on the Folch or the Bligh and Dyer methods of solvent extraction followed by quantification either gravimetrically or by chromatography. Direct transesterification (DT) is a method of converting saponifiable lipids in situ directly to fatty acid methyl esters which can be quantified by gas chromatography (GC). This eliminates the extraction step and results in a rapid, one-step procedure applicable to small samples. This study compared the effectiveness of DT in quantifying the total fatty acid content in three species of microalgae to extraction using the Folch, the Bligh and Dyer and the Smedes and Askland methods, followed by transesterification and GC. The use of two catalysts in sequence, as well as the effect of reaction water content on the efficiency of DT were investigated. The Folch method was the most effective of the extraction methods tested, but comparison with DT illustrated that all extraction methods were incomplete. Higher levels of fatty acid in the cells were obtained with DT in comparison with the extraction-transesterification methods. A combination of acidic and basic transesterification catalysts was more effective than each individually when the sample contained water. The two-catalyst reaction was insensitive to water up to 10% of total reaction volume. DT proved a convenient and more accurate method than the extraction techniques for quantifying total fatty acid content in microalgae. PMID:20820931

  15. Acid sulfate alteration of fluorapatite, basaltic glass and olivine by hydrothermal vapors and fluids: Implications for fumarolic activity and secondary phosphate phases in sulfate-rich Paso Robles soil at Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausrath, E. M.; Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate-rich rocks and a nearby phosphate-rich soil, Paso Robles, were analyzed in Gusev Crater, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and interpreted to be highly altered, possibly by hydrothermal or fumarolic alteration of primary, phosphate-rich material. To test mineral phases resulting from such alteration, we performed hydrothermal acid-vapor and acid-fluid experiments on olivine (Ol), fluorapatite (Ap), and basaltic glass (Gl) as single phases and a mixture of phases. Minerals formed include Ca-, Al-, Fe- and Mg-sulfates with different hydration states (anhydrite, bassanite, gypsum; alunogen; hexahydrite, and pentahydrite). Phosphate-bearing minerals formed included monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCP) (acid-vapor and acid-fluid alteration of fluorapatite only) and ferrian giniite (acid-fluid alteration of the Ol + Gl + Ap mixture). MCP is likely present in Paso Robles if primary Ca-phosphate minerals reacted with sulfuric acid with little transport of phosphate. Under fluid:rock ratios allowing transport of phosphate, a ferric phosphate phase such as ferrian giniite might form instead. Mössbauer measurements of ferrian giniite-bearing alteration products and synthetic ferrian giniite are consistent with Spirit's Mössbauer measurements of the ferric-bearing phase in Paso Robes soil, but are also consistent with ferric sulfate phases in the low-P soil Arad_Samra. Therefore, Mössbauer data alone do not constrain the fluid:rock ratio. However, the excess iron (hematite) in Paso Robles soil, which implies aqueous transport, combined with our laboratory experiments, suggest acid-sulfate alteration in a hydrothermal (fumarolic) environment at fluid:rock ratios sufficient to allow dissolution, transport, and precipitation of secondary chemical components including a ferric phosphate such as ferrian giniite.

  16. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . PMID:25980464

  17. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  18. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent's within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  19. Mechanical properties' improvement of a tricalcium phosphate scaffold with poly-l-lactic acid in selective laser sintering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Defu; Zhuang, Jingyu; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2013-06-01

    To improve the mechanical properties of a scaffold fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS), a small amount (0.5-3 wt%) of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) is added to the β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder. The fracture toughness of the scaffold prepared with the mixture powder containing 1 wt% PLLA increases by 18.18% and the compressive strength increases by 4.45% compared to the scaffold prepared from the β-TCP powder. The strengthening and toughening is related to the enhancement of β-TCP sintering characteristics via introducing a transient liquid phase in SLS. Moreover, the microcracks caused by the volume expansion due to the β-α phase transformation of TCP are reduced because of the PLLA inhibition function on the phase transformation. However, PLLA additive above 1 wt% would lead to a PLLA residue which will decrease the mechanical properties. The experimental results show that PLLA is an effective sintering aid to improve the mechanical properties of a TCP scaffold. PMID:23458914

  20. Coating of ß-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds-a comparison between graphene oxide and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid.

    PubMed

    Ardjomandi, N; Henrich, A; Huth, J; Klein, C; Schweizer, E; Scheideler, L; Rupp, F; Reinert, S; Alexander, D

    2015-08-01

    Bone regeneration in critical size defects is a major challenge in oral and maxillofacial surgery, and the gold standard for bone reconstruction still requires the use of autologous tissue. To overcome the need for a second intervention and to minimize morbidity, the development of new biomaterials with osteoinductive features is the focus of current research. As a scaffolding material, ß-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP) is suitable for bone regeneration purposes, although it does not carry any functional groups for the covalent immobilization of molecules. The aim of the present study was to establish effective coating variants for ß-TCP constructs to enable the biofunctionalization of anorganic blocks with different osteogenic molecules in future studies. We established working protocols for thin surface coatings consisting of polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and graphene oxide (GO) by varying parameters. Surface properties such as the angularity and topography of the developed scaffolds were analyzed. To examine biological functionality, the adhesion and proliferation behavior of jaw periosteal cells (JPCs) were tested on the coated constructs. Our results suggest that PLGA is the superior material for surface coating of ß-TCP matrices, leading to higher JPC proliferation rates and providing a more suitable basis for further biofunctionalization in the field of bone tissue engineering. PMID:26238604

  1. Identification of the orphan GPCR, P2Y(10) receptor as the sphingosine-1-phosphate and lysophosphatidic acid receptor.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masanori; Shiraishi, Akira; Tabata, Kenichi; Fujita, Norihisa

    2008-07-11

    Phylogenetic analysis of transmembrane regions of GPCRs using PHYLIP indicated that the orphan receptor P2Y(10) receptor was classified into the cluster consisting nucleotide and lipid receptors. Based on the results, we studied the abilities of nucleotides and lipids to activate the P2Y(10) receptors. As a result, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) evoked intracellular Ca(2+) increases in the CHO cells stably expressing the P2Y(10) fused with a G(16alpha) protein. These Ca(2+) responses were inhibited by S1P receptor and LPA receptor antagonists. The introduction of siRNA designed for P2Y(10) receptor into the P2Y(10)-CHO cells effectively blocked both S1P- and LPA-induced Ca(2+) increases. RT-PCR analysis showed that the mouse P2Y(10) was expressed in reproductive organs, brain, lung and skeletal muscle, suggesting the receptor plays physiological roles throughout the whole body. In conclusion, the P2Y(10) receptor is the first receptor identified as a dual lysophospholipid receptor. PMID:18466763

  2. Induction of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in human endothelial cells by lysophosphatidic acid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and platelets.

    PubMed

    Muehlich, Susanne; Schneider, Nadine; Hinkmann, Fabian; Garlichs, Christoph D; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete

    2004-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by multiple interactions between endothelial cells and components of the blood. This study focussed on the induction of the pro-atherogenic connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in endothelial cells by bioactive lipids and platelets. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) led to a time- and concentration-dependent increase in CTGF mRNA and protein expression in the human endothelial cell line EAHY 926 and in primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). As both cell types expressed various receptors for LPA and S1P, signaling pathways were further characterized by pharmacological means: induction of CTGF was pertussis toxin-insensitive and inhibition of activation of p42/44 MAP kinases only partially reduced CTGF expression. On the contrary, interference with the RhoA signaling pathway by simvastatin, an inhibitor of geranylgeranyltransferases, or the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632 prevented induction of CTGF. Co-incubation of endothelial cells with freshly isolated human platelets significantly increased the expression of CTGF mRNA in endothelial cells, which was also sensitive to simvastatin. Up-regulation of CTGF in endothelial cells, induced by LPA, S1P, or platelets, may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Interference of simvastatin with the synthesis of this pro-atherogenic factor further supports the anti-atherogenic role of statins. PMID:15262182

  3. Organic amendments increase soil solution phosphate concentrations in an acid soil: A controlled environment study

    SciTech Connect

    Schefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, R.

    2008-04-15

    Soil acidification affects at least 4 million hectares of agricultural land in Victoria, Australia. Low soil pH can inhibit plant growth through increased soluble aluminum (Al) concentrations and decreased available phosphorus (P). The addition of organic amendments may increase P availability through competition for P binding sites, solubilization of poorly soluble P pools, and increased solution pH. The effect of two organic amendments (lignite and compost) on P solubility in an acid soil was determined through controlled environment (incubation) studies. Three days after the addition of lignite and compost, both treatments increased orthophosphate and total P measured in soil solution, with the compost treatments having the greatest positive effect. Increased incubation time (26 days) increased soil solution P concentrations in both untreated and amended soils, with the greatest effect seen in total P concentrations. The measured differences in solution P concentrations between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were likely caused by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment with lignite or compost also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. Based on the results presented, it is proposed that the measured increase in soil solution P with amendment addition was likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including biotic and abiotic P solubilization reactions, and the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  4. Dry matter production and nutrient content of longan grown on an acid Ultisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the adaptability of longan (Dimocarpus longan) to acidic soils high in aluminum (Al). A 2-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient content in shoots of four cultivars of longan. S...

  5. Assessment of oil content and fatty acid composition variability in the U.S. peanut minicore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The established U.S. peanut minicore encompassing 112 accessions is useful resources for peanut breeders, geneticists, and curators. Oil content and fatty acid composition are important seed quality traits which can significantly affect the peanut price, nutrition value and down-stream processing. W...

  6. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-Base Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students' difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1)…

  7. Variation in Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition in the US Castor Bean Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor has potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition of castor bean seeds are therefore important factors determining the price and quality of castor bean biodiesel. Forty-eight castor bean and two soybean accessions were selected from the US germp...

  8. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  9. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of Forages with Varied Fatty Acid Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant diet can affect the fatty acid (FA) content of meat and dairy products, which indicates that managing forage consumption is important in determining the quality of the animal products. Mid-infrared spectroscopy is sensitive to changes in forage FA and has been used successfully to quantify ...

  10. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  11. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content.

    PubMed

    Garzke, Jessica; Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M H; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1-5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  12. Combined Effects of Ocean Warming and Acidification on Copepod Abundance, Body Size and Fatty Acid Content

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Thomas; Ismar, Stefanie M. H.; Sommer, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and global warming have initiated studies on the consequences of multiple-stressor interactions on marine organisms and ecosystems. We present a fully-crossed factorial mesocosm study and assess how warming and acidification affect the abundance, body size, and fatty acid composition of copepods as a measure of nutritional quality. The experimental set-up allowed us to determine whether the effects of warming and acidification act additively, synergistically, or antagonistically on the abundance, body size, and fatty acid content of copepods, a major group of lower level consumers in marine food webs. Copepodite (developmental stages 1–5) and nauplii abundance were antagonistically affected by warming and acidification. Higher temperature decreased copepodite and nauplii abundance, while acidification partially compensated for the temperature effect. The abundance of adult copepods was negatively affected by warming. The prosome length of copepods was significantly reduced by warming, and the interaction of warming and CO2 antagonistically affected prosome length. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by warming. The content of saturated fatty acids increased, and the ratios of the polyunsaturated essential fatty acids docosahexaenoic- (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) to total fatty acid content increased with higher temperatures. Additionally, here was a significant additive interaction effect of both parameters on arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that in a future ocean scenario, acidification might partially counteract some observed effects of increased temperature on zooplankton, while adding to others. These may be results of a fertilizing effect on phytoplankton as a copepod food source. In summary, copepod populations will be more strongly affected by warming rather than by acidifying oceans, but ocean acidification effects can modify some temperature impacts. PMID:27224476

  13. Contents of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars and dietary fibre in Swedish market basket diets.

    PubMed

    Becker, W; Eriksson, A; Haglund, M; Wretling, S

    2015-05-14

    The typical dietary supply of total fat, fatty acids, starch, sugars, polyols and dietary fibre in Sweden was assessed from analyses of market baskets (MB) purchased in 2005 and 2010. MB were based on food balance sheets, with each basket comprising about 130 foods, which represented more than 90% of annual dietary supply. Foods were divided into ten to twelve categories. In 2010, total fat contributed 34% of energy (E%), SFA 14.3 E%, MUFA 12.8 E%, PUFA 4.6 E%, n-6 fatty acids 3.6 E%, n-3 fatty acids 1.0 E% and trans-fatty acids (TFA) 0.5 E%. Glycaemic carbohydrates contributed 47 E%, monosaccharides 9 E%, sucrose 11 E%, disaccharides 15 E% and total sugars 24 E%. Added sugars contributed about 15 E%. Dietary fibre content was about 1.7 g/MJ in the 2010 MB. Compared with the 2005 MB, the dietary supply of TFA and dietary fibre was lower, otherwise differences were small. The present MB survey shows that the content of SFA and added sugars was higher than the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, while the content of PUFA and especially dietary fibre was lower. TFA levels decreased and dietary supply was well below the recommendations of the WHO. These results emphasise a focus on quality and food sources of fat and carbohydrates, limiting foods rich in SFA and added sugars and replacing them with foods rich in dietary fibre and cis-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25989998

  14. Bovine serum sialic acid: age-related changes in type and content.

    PubMed

    Sherblom, A P; Bharathan, S; Hall, P J; Smagula, R M; Moody, C E; Anderson, G W

    1988-01-01

    1. The sialic acid content of newborn calf serum (4.8 mumol/ml) is approx. 3-fold higher than that of mature animals (1.4 mumol/ml) and decreases to 2.4 mumol/ml at 20 days of age. Colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived calves have similar levels of sialic acid from birth to 14 days of age. 2. The high level of sialic acid in newborn calf serum is due predominantly to N-acetylneuraminic acid, since this sialic acid accounts for 93% of the total and since less than 5% of the sialic acid is O-acetylated. 3. Comparison of day 0 and day 20 serum by gel filtration and by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrates that the increase in sialic acid is associated with increased production and/or sialylation of components with MW of 45-60 kDa. 4. A high percentage (64%) of the sialic acid in newborn calf serum is detected with the lipid-linked sialic acid assay, relative to 20 day old (25%) or mature (18%) animals. 5. This indicates that the glycoproteins of newborn calf serum are more efficiently extracted under the conditions of this assay than glycoproteins of mature serum. PMID:3248673

  15. Erythrocyte Sialic Acid Content during Aging in Humans: Correlation with Markers of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Mohammad Murtaza; Singh, Prabhakar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sialic acids are substituted neuraminic acid derivatives which are typically found at the outermost end of glycan chains on the membrane in all cell types. The role of erythrocyte membrane sialic acids during aging has been established however the relationship between sialic acid and oxidative stress is not fully understood. The present work was undertaken to analyze the relationship between erythrocyte membrane sialic acid with its plasma level, membrane and plasma lipid hydroperoxide levels and plasma total antioxidant capacity. Results show that sialic acid content decreases significantly (P < 0.001) in RBC membrane (r = −0.901) and increases in plasma (r = 0.860) as a function of age in humans. Lipid peroxidation measured in the form of hydroperoxides increases significantly (P < 0.001) in plasma (r = 0.830) and RBC membranes (r = 0.875) with age in humans. The Trolox Equivalent Total Antioxidant Capacity (TETAC) of plasma was found to be significantly decreased (P < 0.001, r = −0.844). We observe significant correlations between decrease of erythrocyte membrane sialic acid and plasma lipid hydroperoxide and TETAC. Based on the observed correlations, we hypothesize that increase in oxidative stress during aging may influence the sialic acid decomposition from membrane thereby altering the membrane configuration affecting many enzymatic and transporter activities. Considering the importance of plasma sialic acid as a diagnostic parameter, it is important to establish age-dependent reference. PMID:22377734

  16. 2-ketogluconic acid secretion by incorporation of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon in Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 improves mineral phosphate solubilization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chanchal; Yadav, Kavita; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 is known to efficiently solubilize rock phosphate by secretion of approximately 50 mM gluconic acid in Tris-buffered medium in the presence of 75 mM glucose and in a mixture of seven aldosugars each at 15 mM concentration, mimicking alkaline vertisol soils. Efficacy of this bacterium in the rhizosphere requires P release in the presence of low amount of sugars. To achieve this, E. asburiae PSI3 has been manipulated to express gluconate dehydrogenase (gad) operon of Pseudomonas putida KT 2440 to produce 2-ketogluconic acid. E. asburiae PSI3 harboring gad operon had 438 U of GAD activity, secreted 11.63 mM 2-ketogluconic and 21.65 mM gluconic acids in Tris-rock phosphate-buffered medium containing 45 mM glucose. E. asburiae PSI3 gad transformant solubilized 0.84 mM P from rock phosphate in TRP-buffered liquid medium. In the presence of a mixture of seven sugars each at 12 mM, the transformant brought about a drop in pH to 4.1 and released 0.53 mM P. PMID:23666029

  17. Carbohydrate content of acid alpha-glucosidase (gamma-amylase) from human liver.

    PubMed

    Belen'ky, D M; Mikhajlov, V I; Rosenfeld, E L

    1979-05-01

    The presence of carbohydrates in homogeneous preparations of human liver acid alpha-glucosidase has been established and the carbohydrate content of the enzyme determined. The enzyme was purified with the specific purpose of removing all low-molecular-weight carbohydrates. It was specifically adsorbed on Concanavalin A-Sepharose, eluted with methyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside and gave a positive reaction with the phenol-sulphuric acid reagent. These facts taken together provide evidence that the enzyme studied is a glycoprotein. The analysis of the carbohydrate content of human liver acid alpha-glucosidase showed that there were 8.3 glucosamine, 13.2 mannose and possibly 3--4 glucose residues per molecule of the enzyme with a molecular weight of 98,000. PMID:376187

  18. /sup 18/O isotope effect in /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Part 9. Hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate by phosphatase enzymes and in acidic aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Parente, J.E.; Risley, J.M.; Van Etten, R.L.

    1984-12-26

    The /sup 18/O isotope-induced shifts in /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to establish the position of bond cleavage in the phosphatase-catalyzed and acid-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions of benzyl phosphate. The application of the /sup 18/O-isotope effect in NMR spectroscopy affords a continuous, nondestructive assay method for following the kinetics and position of bond cleavage in the hydrolytic process. The technique provides advantages over most discontinuous methods in which the reaction components must be isolated and converted to volatile derivatives prior to analysis. In the present study, (..cap alpha..-/sup 13/C,ester-/sup 18/O)benzyl phosphate and (ester-/sup 18/O)benzyl phosphate were synthesized for use in enzymatic and nonenzymatic studies. Hydrolysis reactions catalyzed by the alkaline phosphatase from E. coli and by the acid phosphatases isolated from human prostate and human liver were all accompanied by cleavage of the substrate phosphorus-oxygen bond consistent with previously postulated mechanisms involving covalent phosphoenzyme intermediates. An extensive study of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzyl phosphate at 75/sup 0/C revealed that the site of bond cleavage is dependent on pH. At pH less than or equal to 1.3, the hydrolysis proceeds with C-O bond cleavage; at 1.3 < pH < 2.0, there is a mixture of C-O and P-O bond scission, the latter progressively predominating as the pH is raised; at pH greater than or equal to 2.0, the hydrolysis proceeds with exclusive P-O bond scission. (S)-(+)-(..cap alpha..-/sup 2/H)Benzyl phosphate was also synthesized. Hydrolysis of this chiral benzyl derivative demonstrated that the acid-catalyzed C-O bond scission of benzyl phosphate proceeds by an A-1 (S/sub N/1) mechanism with 70% racemization and 30% inversion at carbon. 37 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. The effect of Si content on structure and mechanical features of silicon-containing calcium-phosphate-based films deposited by RF-magnetron sputtering on titanium substrate treated by pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmeneva, M.; Tyurin, A.; Mukhametkaliyev, T.; Teresov, A.; Koval, A.; Pirozhkova, T.; Shuvarin, I.; Chudinova, E.; Surmenev, R.

    2015-11-01

    Silicon-containing calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) coatings were fabricated by radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering using the targets prepared from hydroxyapatite (HA) powder with different silicon content. A powder of Si-HA (Ca10(PO4)6-x(SiO4)x(OH)2-x, x=0.5 and 1.72) was prepared by mechanochemical activation and then used as a precursor-powder to prepare a target for sputtering. The titanium substrate was acid etched and treated with pulsed electron beam with an energy density of 15 J/cm2. The average crystallite size as determined by XRD was 28 nm for the coatings obtained using the target prepared from the Si-HA powder (x=0.5), whereas Si-CaP (Si-HA powder x=1.72) films showed an amorphous structure. The nanohardness and the Young's modulus of the Si-CaP coating (x=0.5) deposited on titanium treated by pulsed electron beam are enhanced to 4.5 and 113 GPa compared to titanium substrate. Increase of Si content resulted in a dramatic decrease of the nanohardness and Young's modulus of Si-CaP films. However, Si-CaP coatings with the highest Si content revealed significantly lower values of elastic modulus, but slightly higher values of H/E and H3/E2 than did the non-coated specimens. Rf-magnetron sputtering allowed us to produce Si- CaP coatings with higher nanohardness and lower elastic modulus compared to titanium substrate.

  20. Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.

    PubMed

    Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

  1. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, Beata; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2003-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on the fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of egg-yolk lipids. Forty-five 25-week-old laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of nine hens each and maintained in individual laying cages, throughout 12 weeks of the experiment. They were assigned to the five treatments that consisted of commercial layer diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 g pure CLA/kg. Feed intake of hens varied little and insignificantly. Egg mass was uniformly lower (P<0.05) in the hens fed the CLA-enriched diets. Feed conversion efficiency, when expressed per kg eggs, was impaired (P<0.05), although without obvious relation to the dietary CLA concentration. Feeding the CLA-enriched diets resulted in gradually increasing deposition of CLA isomers (P<0.01) in egg-yolk lipids. Saturated fatty acids were increased (P<0.01) and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased (P<0.01). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), when expressed as non-CLA PUFA, were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). The most striking effects (P<0.01) were observed for palmitic (16 : 0) and stearic (18 : 0) acids, which increased from 23.6 to 34 % and from 7.8 to 18 %, respectively. On the other hand, oleic acid (18 : 1n-9) decreased from 45.8 to 24.3 %. Among non-CLA PUFA, linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (18 : 3n-3) acids were strongly (P<0.01) decreased, from 14.2 to 7.7 % and from 1.3 to 0.3 %, respectively. The same was true for arachidonic (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (22 : 6n-3) acids. The cholesterol content of egg yolks, when expressed in mg/g yolk, was not affected by the dietary CLA concentrations. In conclusion, unless the adverse effects of CLA feeding to laying hens on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks are eliminated, the CLA-enriched eggs cannot be considered functional food products. PMID:12844380

  2. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Vahjen, W; Baumgärtel, T; Rodehutscord, M; Mosenthin, R

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments with growing pigs were conducted to determine the effects of dietary P and Ca levels, phytase supplementation, and ileal pectin infusion on changes in bacterial populations in the ileum and on ileal and fecal fermentation patterns. Growing pigs (BW 30.1 +/- 1.3 kg) were fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum and were fed a low-P corn-soybean meal control diet (3 g of P/kg), or the control diet supplemented with either 15 g of monocalcium phosphate (MCP)/kg (Exp. 1) or 1,000 phytase units of phytase/kg (Exp. 2). Daily infusion treatments consisted of either 60 g of pectin dissolved in 1.8 L of demineralized water or 1.8 L of demineralized water as a control infusion, infused via the ileal cannula. In each experiment, 8 barrows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments according to a double incomplete 4 x 2 Latin square design. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were the control diet with water infusion, the control diet with pectin infusion, the MCP diet with water infusion, or the MCP diet with pectin infusion. In Exp. 2, the pigs received the same control treatments as in Exp. 1 and the phytase diet in combination with water or pectin infusion. Gene copy numbers of total bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus amylovorus/Lactobacillus sobrius, Lactobacillus mucosae, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacteria, the Clostridium coccoides cluster, the Clostridium leptum cluster, the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyrmonas group, and Enterobacteriaceae were determined by quantitative PCR in DNA extracts of ileal digesta. In Exp. 1, addition of MCP reduced ileal gene copy numbers of Enterococcus spp. (P = 0.048), E. faecium (P = 0.015), and the C. leptum cluster (P = 0.028), whereas pectin infusion enhanced (P = 0.008) ileal d-lactate concentration. In Exp. 2, supplemental phytase led to greater ileal gene copy numbers of the C. coccoides (P = 0.041) and C. leptum (P = 0.048) clusters and

  3. Alpha-linolenic acid content of commonly available nuts in Hangzhou.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Yao, Ting; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2006-01-01

    The total lipid content of eight species of nuts available in Hangzhou ranged from 49.5 g/100 g weight in Cannabis sativa to 75.4 g/100 g in walnut. The predominant content of lipid is triacylglycerol, ranging from 91.1% in Cannabis sativa to 98.4% in macadamia. There were two polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in all nuts analyzed; 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The content of 18:3n-3 ranging from 0.2% in almond to 15.2% in Cannabis sativa, 18:2n-6 ranged from 2.5% in macadamia to 61.6% in pine nut. The proportion of total PUFA in analyzed eight nut species ranging from 2.8% in macadamia to 71.7% in walnut (p < 0.001). Monounsaturated fatty acid composition ranged from 18.0% in Cannabis sativa to 82.6% in macadamia (p < 0.001). The proportion of saturated fatty acid ranged from 7.4% in filbert to 14.7% of total fatty acids in macadamia (p < 0.001). No C20 fatty acids were detected in any of the samples in the present study. The lipids content and fatty acid compositions in analyzed samples were varied between nut species. Cannabis sativa and walnut contained relatively high 18:3n-3, consumption of several these nuts each day can contribute to n-3 PUFA intake, especially for the vegetarian population. PMID:16711652

  4. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  5. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:17127473

  6. Probing Phosphorus Efficient Low Phytic Acid Content Soybean Genotypes with Phosphorus Starvation in Hydroponics Growth System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Varun; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Hada, Alkesh; Jolly, Monica; Ganapathi, Andy; Sachdev, Archana

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for soybean growth but is bound in phytic acid which causes negative effects on both the environment as well as the animal nutrition. Lowering of phytic acid levels is associated with reduced agronomic characteristics, and relatively little information is available on the response of soybean plants to phosphorus (P) starvation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different P starvation concentrations on the phytic acid content, growth, and yield of seven mutant genotypes along with the unirradiated control, JS-335, in a hydroponics growth system. The low phytic acid containing mutant genotypes, IR-JS-101, IR-DS-118, and IR-V-101, showed a relatively high growth rate in low P concentration containing nutrient solution (2 μM), whereas the high P concentration (50 μM) favored the growth of IR-DS-111 and IR-DS-115 mutant genotypes containing moderate phytate levels. The mutant genotypes with high phytic acid content, IR-DS-122, IR-DS-114, and JS-335, responded well under P starvation and did not have any significant effect on the growth and yield of plants. Moreover, the reduction of P concentration in nutrient solution from 50 to 2 μM also reduced the phytic acid content in the seeds of all the soybean genotypes under study. The desirable agronomic performance of low phytic acid containing mutant genotype IR-DS-118 reported in this study suggested it to be a P-efficient genotype which could be considered for agricultural practices under P limiting soils. PMID:26239443

  7. [Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content in naturally canned jurel, sardine, salmon, and tuna].

    PubMed

    Romero, N; Robert, P; Masson, L; Luck, C; Buschmann, L

    1996-03-01

    To obtain more information about fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of fat extracted from canned fish in brine habitually consumed in Chile, four different species Jurel (Trachurus murphyi), Sardine (Sardinops sagax), Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Tuna (Thunnus alalunga) were analyzed. The GLC of fatty acid methyl esters showed that the main group of fatty acids belongs to polyunsaturated, being omega-3 family the more important. The principal representants were eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), with percentages between 5%-11% and 12%-22% respectively. Omega-6 family was represented mainly by arachidonic acid (AA) with percentages between 2%-4%. Cholesterol content was similar to the values found in other animal origen meats. The figures were between 41-86 mg of cholesterol per 100 g of edible product, Tuna in brine, was the product with the lowest content of cholesterol. The calculated amount of EPA, DHA and total omega-3 fatty acids indicated values between 95-604, 390-1163 and 609-2775 mg respectively per 100 g of edible product. Due these results is important to emphasize the consumption of this type of canned fish in brine, that they really represent a good dietary source of mainly polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The international recommendations indicate to increase the consumption of fish, due the beneficial effects described in relation with cardiovascular disease, which is the mean cause of death in Chile, country with a wide variety of marine origen foods, but with a contradictory answer about its consumption which is not incorporated in the current diet. PMID:9161466

  8. Biosynthesis of Dolichyl Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Hopp, H. Esteban; Daleo, Gustavo R.; Romero, Pedro A.; Lezica, Rafael Pont

    1978-01-01

    This is the first report not only on the presence of polyprenyl phosphates and their site of synthesis in algae, but also on the formation of their sugar derivatives in this system. A glucose acceptor lipid was isolated from the nonphotosynthetic alga Prototheca zopfii. The lipid was acidic and resistant to mild acid and alkaline treatments. The glucosylated lipid was labile to mild acid hydrolysis and resistant to phenol treatment and catalytic hydrogenation, as dolichyl phosphate glucose is. These results are consistent with the properties of an α-saturated polyprenyl phosphate. The polyprenylic nature of the lipid was confirmed by biosynthesis from radioactive mevalonate. The [14C]lipid had the same chromatographic properties as dolichyl phosphate in DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex LH-20. Strong alkaline treatment and enzymic hydrolysis liberated free alcohols with chain lengths ranging from C90 to C105, C95 and C100 being the most abundant molecular forms. The glucose acceptor activity of the biosynthesized polyprenyl phosphate was confirmed. The ability of different subcellular fractions to synthesize dolichyl phosphate was studied. Mitochondria and the Golgi apparatus were the sites of dolichyl phosphate synthesis from mevalonate. PMID:16660269

  9. Free Amino Acid Contents of Stem and Phylloxera Gall Tissue Cultures of Grape 1

    PubMed Central

    Warick, R. P.; Hildebrandt, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and α-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. Images PMID:16656290

  10. Free amino Acid contents of stem and phylloxera gall tissue cultures of grape.

    PubMed

    Warick, R P; Hildebrandt, A C

    1966-04-01

    Free amino acid constituents were determined of grape stem and Phylloxera leaf gall callus in tissue culture. Fast, medium and slow growing single cell clones of, respectively, stem and gall origins were grown on a mineral salt-sucrose medium supplemented with coconut milk and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. Stem and gall clones showed qualitative similarities and quantitative variations in the amino acids and nitrogenous constituents. Nineteen amino acids, glucosamine, ethanolamine, sarcosine, methionine sulfoxides and ammonia were identified. Two free polypeptides accounted for over 30% of the amino compounds in the stem and gall callus tissues which were not found in the intact plant parts. Stem clones of different growth rates grown on agar showed generally an excess of amino acid constituents over gall tissues of similar growth rates, except for the free polypeptides. Fast growing stem clones grown on agar medium contained lower amounts of certain amino acids than the fast growing gall clones, but when grown in liquid medium they contained higher amounts of these acids than the gall clones. The total and nonsoluble nitrogen of stem clones were higher than in the gall clones. Tissue cultures differed from the original plant parts with respect to their free polypeptides and high amino acid contents. PMID:16656290

  11. The pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. Enzyme profiles and transient and steady-state content of intermediates of alternative pathways of glucose metabolism in Krebs ascites cells

    PubMed Central

    Gumaa, K. A.; McLean, Patricia

    1969-01-01

    1. The pentose phosphate pathway in Krebs ascites cells was investigated for regulatory reactions. For comparison, the glycolytic pathway was studied simultaneously. 2. Activities of the pentose phosphate pathway enzymes were low in contrast with those of the enzymes of glycolysis. The Km values of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase for both substrate and cofactor were about four times the reported upper limit for the enzyme from normal tissues. Fructose 1,6-diphosphate and NADPH competitively inhibited 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. 3. About 28% of the hexokinase activity was in the particulate fraction of the cells. The soluble enzyme was inhibited by fructose 1,6-diphosphate and ribose 5-phosphate, but not by 3-phosphoglycerate. The behaviour of the partially purified soluble enzyme in vitro in a system simulating the concentrations of ATP, glucose 6-phosphate and Pi found in vivo is reported. 4. Kinetics of metabolite accumulation during the transient state after the addition of glucose to the cells indicated two phases of glucose phosphorylation, an initial rapid phase followed abruptly by a slow phase extending into the steady state. 5. Of the pentose phosphate pathway intermediates, accumulation of 6-phosphogluconate, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate paralleled the accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate. Erythrose 4-phosphate reached the steady-state concentration by 2min., whereas the pentose phosphates accumulated linearly. 6. The mass-action ratios of the pentose phosphate pathway reactions were calculated. The transketolase reaction was at equilibrium by 30sec. and then progressively shifted away from equilibrium towards the steady-state ratio. The glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase was far from equilibrium at all times. 7. Investigation of the flux of [14C]glucose carbon confirmed the existence of an operative pentose phosphate pathway in ascites cells, contributing 1% of the total flux in control cells and 10% in cells treated with

  12. Preparation of core-shell PAN nanofibers encapsulated α-tocopherol acetate and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate for photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Branford-White, Christopher J; Yu, Deng-Guang; Chatterton, Nicholas P; Zhu, Li-Min

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (MAAP) and α-tocopherol acetate (α-TAc), as the stable vitamin C and vitamin E derivative, respectively, are often applied to skin care products for reducing UV damage. The encapsulation of MAAP (0.5%, g/mL) and α-TAc (5%, g/mL) together within the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers was demonstrated using a coaxial electrospinning technique. The structure and morphology characterizations of the core-shell fibers MAAP/α-TAc-PAN were investigated by SEM, FTIR and XRD. As a negative control, the blend nanofibers MAAP/α-TAc/PAN were prepared from a normal electrospinning method. The results from SEM indicated that the morphology and diameter of the nanofibers were influenced by concentration of spinning solution, the polymer component of the shell, the carrying agent of the core and the fabricating methods, and the core-shell nanofibers obtained at the concentration of 8% had finer and uniform structure with the average diameters of 200 ± 15nm. From in vitro release studies it could be seen that both different fiber specimens showed a gradual increase in the amount of α-TAc or MAAP released from the nanofibers. Furthermore, α-TAc and MAAP released from the blend nanofibers showed the burst release at the maximum release of ∼15% and ∼40% during the first 6h, respectively, but their release amount from the core-shell nanofibers was only 10-12% during the initial part of the process. These results showed that core-shell nanofibers alleviated the initial burst release and gave better sustainability compared to that of the blend nanofibers. The present study would provide a basis for further optimization of processing conditions to obtain desired structured core-shell nanofibers and release kinetics for practical applications in dermal tissue. PMID:20870398

  13. Effect of the Acidic Dental Resin Monomer 10-methacryloyloxydecyl Dihydrogen Phosphate on Odontoblastic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Haejin; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-11-01

    Although 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) is frequently used as an acidic resin monomer in dental adhesives, its effect on dental pulp cells (DPCs) has been rarely reported. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10-MDP on the inflammatory response and odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs at minimally toxic concentrations. We found that 10-MDP caused the release of inflammatory cytokines including NO, PGE2, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 10-MDP reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization nodule formation and mRNA expression of odontoblastic differentiation markers such as dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein-1, osterix and Runx2 in a concentration-dependent manner with low toxicity. In addition, 10-MDP induced activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target gene, haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We evaluated whether the effect of 10-MDP was related to the induction of HO-1 and found that treatment with a selective inhibitor of HO-1 reversed the production of 10-MDP-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inhibition of differentiation markers. Pre-treatment with either a GSH synthesis inhibitor or antioxidants blocked 10-MDP-induced mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Nrf2 and NF-κB pathways. Taken together, the results of this study showed that minimally toxic concentrations of 10-MDP promoted an inflammatory response and suppressed odontoblastic differentiation of DPCs by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction through MAPK and NF-κB signalling. PMID:25847254

  14. Comparison and preparation of multilayered polylactic acid fabric strengthen calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes for orthopedic applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Yang, Jia-Kai; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lin, Jia-Horng

    2016-03-01

    An attempt to maintain the three-dimensional space into restorative sites through the conveniently pack porous fillers are general used strategy. Advancement in the manufacturing protective shells in the scaffolds, which would be filled with brittle ceramic grafts for the development of highly connective pores provides the approach to solve crack problem for generating the tissues. Therefore, multilayered braided and alkalized poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites with calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) were synthesized and compared. The PLA/CPC composites were divided into various groups according to a series of heat-treatment temperatures (100-190 °C) and periods (1-3 h) and then characterized. The effects of 24-h immersion on the strength decay resistance of the samples were compared. Results showed that the residual oil capped on the surfaces of alkalized PLA braid was removed, and the structure was unaltered. However, the reduced tensile stress of alkalized PLA braids was due to ester-group formation by hydrolysis. Mechanical test results of PLA/CPC composites showed that the strength significantly increased after heat treatment, except when the heating temperature was higher than the PLA melting point at approximately 160-170 °C. The degree of PLA after recrystallization became higher than that of unheated composites, thereby leading to reduced strength and toughness of the specimen. Braiding fibers of biodegradable PLA reinforced and toughened the structure particularly of the extra-brittle material of thin-sheet CPC after implantation. PMID:26280316

  15. Mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate scaffolds coated with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Miao, Xigeng; Tan, Dawn Meifang; Li, Jian; Xiao, Yin; Crawford, Ross

    2008-05-01

    Regeneration of bone, cartilage and osteochondral tissues by tissue engineering has attracted intense attention due to its potential advantages over the traditional replacement of tissues with synthetic implants. Nevertheless, there is still a dearth of ideal or suitable scaffolds based on porous biomaterials, and the present study was undertaken to develop and evaluate a useful porous composite scaffold system. Here, hydroxyapatite (HA)/tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds (average pore size: 500 microm; porosity: 87%) were prepared by a polyurethane foam replica method, followed by modification with infiltration and coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The thermal shock resistance of the composite scaffolds was evaluated by measuring the compressive strength before and after quenching or freezing treatment. The porous structure (in terms of pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity) of the composite scaffolds was examined. The penetration of the bone marrow stromal stem cells into the scaffolds and the attachment of the cells onto the scaffolds were also investigated. It was shown that the PLGA incorporation in the HA/TCP scaffolds significantly increased the compressive strength up to 660 kPa and the residual compressive strength after the freezing treatment decreased to 160 kPa, which was, however, sufficient for the scaffolds to withstand subsequent cell culture procedures and a freeze-drying process. On the other hand, the PLGA coating on the strut surfaces of the scaffolds was rather thin (<5 microm) and apparently porous, maintaining the high open porosity of the HA/TCP scaffolds, resulting in desirable migration and attachment of the bone marrow stromal stem cells, although a thicker PLGA coating would have imparted a higher compressive strength of the PLGA-coated porous HA/TCP composite scaffolds. PMID:18054297

  16. Sex and depot differences in ex vivo adipose tissue fatty acid storage and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Chen, Liang; Oberschneider, Elisabeth; Harteneck, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue fatty acid storage varies according to sex, adipose tissue depot, and degree of fat gain. However, the mechanism(s) for these variations is not completely understood. We examined whether differences in adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) might play a role in these variations. We optimized an enzyme activity assay for total GPAT and GPAT1 activity in human adipose tissue and measured GPAT activity. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from obese and nonobese adults for measures of GPAT and GPAT1 activities, ex vivo palmitate storage, acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and diacylglycerol-acyltransferase (DGAT) activities, and CD36 protein. Total GPAT and GPAT1 activities decreased as a function of adipocyte size in both omental (r = −0.71, P = 0.003) and subcutaneous (r = −0.58, P = 0.04) fat. The relative contribution of GPAT1 to total GPAT activity increased as a function of adipocyte size, accounting for up to 60% of GPAT activity in those with the largest adipocytes. We found strong, positive correlations between ACS, GPAT, and DGAT activities for both sexes and depots (r values 0.58–0.91) and between these storage factors and palmitate storage rates into TAG (r values 0.55–0.90). We conclude that: 1) total GPAT activity decreases as a function of adipocyte size; 2) GPAT1 can account for over half of adipose GPAT activity in hypertrophic obesity; and 3) ACS, GPAT, and DGAT are coordinately regulated. PMID:25738782

  17. Lysophosphatidic Acid and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate: A Concise Review of Biological Function and Applications for Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Binder, Bernard Y K; Williams, Priscilla A; Silva, Eduardo A; Leach, J Kent

    2015-12-01

    The presentation and controlled release of bioactive signals to direct cellular growth and differentiation represents a widely used strategy in tissue engineering. Historically, work in this field has primarily focused on the delivery of large cytokines and growth factors, which can be costly to manufacture and difficult to deliver in a sustained manner. There has been a marked increase over the past decade in the pursuit of lipid mediators due to their wide range of effects over multiple cell types, low cost, and ease of scale-up. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are two bioactive lysophospholipids (LPLs) that have gained attention for use as pharmacological agents in tissue engineering applications. While these lipids can have similar effects on cellular response, they possess distinct chemical backbones, mechanisms of synthesis and degradation, and signaling pathways using a discrete set of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). LPA and S1P predominantly act extracellularly on their GPCRs and can directly regulate cell survival, differentiation, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and migration--each of the important functions that must be considered in regenerative medicine. In addition to these potent physiological functions, these LPLs play pivotal roles in a number of pathophysiological processes. To capitalize on the promise of these molecules in tissue engineering, these lipids have been incorporated into biomaterials for in vivo delivery. Here, we survey the effects of LPA and S1P on both cellular- and tissue-level phenotypes, with an eye toward regulating stem/progenitor cell growth and differentiation. In particular, we examine work that has translational applications for cell-based tissue engineering strategies in promoting cell survival, bone and cartilage engineering, and therapeutic angiogenesis. PMID:26035484

  18. Effects of selenite on chlorophyll fluorescence, starch content and fatty acid in the duckweed Landoltia punctata.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yu; Li, Yang; Cheng, Jay J

    2016-09-01

    Developing a Se-enriched feed for animal has become a considerable effort. In this study, Landoltia punctata 7449 was grown over a 12 day period under concentrations of selenite (Na2SeO3) from 0 to 80 μmol L(-1). The growth rate, the chlorophyll fluorescence, the starch content and fatty acid were measured. Se at low concentrations of ≤20 μmol L(-1) had positive effects also on growth rate, fatty acid content and yield of the L. punctata. The appropriate Se treatment enhanced the activity of the photosynthetic system by increasing Fv, Fm, Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo and decreasing Fo. However, negative impact to the L. punctata was observed when the duckweed was exposed to high Se concentrations (≥40 μmol L(-1)). Significant increases in starch content in the duckweed were observed after Se application. The present study suggests that the changes in growth rate, the photosynthetic system, the starch content and the fatty acid were closely associated with the application of Se. An increased Se concentration (0-20 μmol L(-1)) in duckweed could positively induce photosynthesis, thereby increasing the yield of L. punctata and could be a resource for high nutritive quality Se-enrich feed. PMID:27400684

  19. Procyanidin, anthocyanin, and chlorogenic acid contents of highbush and lowbush blueberries.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; Tabatabaee, Setareh; Lecras, Caroline; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2012-06-13

    The health benefits of blueberry consumption on the vascular system and brain are mediated in part by their flavonoid content. In light of this, six cultivated highbush blueberry varieties ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and one lowbush or wild blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium L.) were analyzed for their anthocyanin, flavanol oligomer, and chlorogenic acid contents. The highbush varieties Bluecrop, O'Neal, Bluejay, and Brigitta had significantly greater levels of anthocyanidins compared to the other varieties, whereas Bluejay and Brigitta organic had the highest amount of flavanol oligomers. The organically grown highbush blueberry had the highest flavanol oligomer and chlorogenic acid contents but a lower anthocyanidin content than its conventionally grown counterpart. The lowbush variety contained the highest chlorogenic acid concentration. Delphinidin and malvidin were the predominant anthocyanidins in the varieties tested, with concentrations ranging between 45.0 and 74.9 mg/100 g FW for delphinidin and between 37.1 and 62.2 mg/100 g FW for malvidin. Flavanol dimers were the most abundant flavanols, with a mean percentage of 24 ± 1.5% of the total, with flavanol monomers representing 11 ± 0.7%. PMID:22175691

  20. Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: Their isolation and content

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA). Materials and Methods: Compound were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. CQA content of leaf extracts was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. Results: From the MeOH leaf extract of V. glabra, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA or CGA were isolated. Content of 5-CQA of V. glabra was two times higher than flowers of L. japonica, while 3-CQA and 4-CQA content was 16 times higher. Conclusion: With much higher CQA content than the commercial source, leaves of V. glabra can serve as a promising alternative source. PMID:24497746

  1. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P < 0.001) for CONC and least (P < 0.001) for PA. Supplementation of grazing cattle increased (P < 0.001) total fatty acid content compared with PA, but concentrations were less (P < 0.001) than for CONC. Myristic and palmitic acid contents were greater (P < 0.001) for CONC than for PO and PC, which were greater (P < 0.001) than for PA. Stearic acid content was greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for CONC, PC, and PA. Finishing on CONC increased (P < 0.001) total MUFA content by 68% compared with PA. Corn grain supplementation increased (P < 0.001) MUFA content compared with PA; in contrast, MUFA content did not differ (P > 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) trans-11 vaccenic acid content in subcutaneous fat by 1.2-, 1.7- and 5.6-fold relative to PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Concentrations of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 54, 58, and 208% greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Corn grain

  2. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of air emissions, water effluents, and solid residues resulting from the manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. It includes the production of wet process phosphoric acid, superphosphoric acid, normal superphosphate, triple superphosphate, and ammonium ...

  3. Judd-Ofelt analysis and energy transfer processes of Er3+ and Nd3+ doped fluoroaluminate glasses with low phosphate content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Feifei; Zhang, Yu; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2014-12-01

    Spectroscopic property and energy transfer processes of singly doped and codoped Er3+ and Nd3+ fluoroaluminate glasses with low phosphate content are systematically analyzed. The absorption spectra of these glasses are tested, and the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) and radiative parameters are discussed based on J-O theory and the parameters changes substantially because of the other codoping ions. As for Nd3+: the main emission bands at 0.9 and 1.05 μm decrease in the codoped sample under the excitation of an 800 nm laser diode from the emission spectra because the Er3+: 4I11/2 level reduces the Nd3+: 4F3/2 level effectively through the energy transfer process Nd3+: 4F3/2 → Er3+: 4I11/2. For Er3+, the emission at 1.5 μm is restrained by codoping with Nd3+ ions from the energy transfer process Er3+: 4I13/2 → Nd3+: 4I15/2. The emission at 2.7 μm is enhanced because the Nd3+ ions deplete the lower level and exert a positive effect on the upper laser level. The microparameters of the energy transfer between the Er3+ and Nd3+ ions are calculated and discussed using Forster-Dexter theory. The energy transfer efficiencies of the Nd3+: 4F3/2 to the Er3+: 4I11/2 and the Er3+: 4I13/2 to the Nd3+: 4I15/2 are 28.8% and 74.5%, respectively. These results indicate that Nd3+ can be an efficient sensitizer for Er3+ to obtain Mid-infrared (Mid-IR) emission and the codoped Er3+/Nd3+ fluoroaluminate glass with low phosphate content is suitable to be used as the fiber optical gain media for 2.7 μm laser generation.

  4. Virulent Hessian fly larvae manipulate the free amino acid content of host wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Saltzmann, Kurt D; Giovanini, Marcelo P; Zheng, Cheng; Williams, Christie E

    2008-11-01

    Gall-forming insects induce host plants to form specialized structures (galls) that provide immature life stages of the insect access to host plant nutrients and protection from natural enemies. Feeding by larvae of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say) causes susceptible host wheat plants to produce a gall-like nutritive tissue that supports larval growth and development. To determine if changes in host plant free amino acid levels are associated with virulent Biotype L Hessian fly larval feeding, we quantified free amino acid levels in crown tissues of susceptible Newton wheat plants 1, 4, and 7 days after Hessian fly egg hatch. Hessian fly-infested susceptible plants were more responsive than resistant plants or uninfested controls, showing higher concentrations of alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and serine 4 days after egg hatch. This 4-day post-hatch time point corresponds to the maturation of nutritive tissue cells in susceptible plants and the onset of rapid larval growth. By 7 days after egg hatch, when virulent second instars are actively feeding on the contents of nutritive tissue cells, the aromatic amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine were more abundant compared to uninfested controls, but the levels of other free amino acids were no longer elevated. Changes in free amino acid abundance described in this report were associated with increased levels of mRNA encoded by wheat genes involved in amino acid synthesis and transport. PMID:18841417

  5. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  6. Effect of a Routine Synchrotron X-Ray Microtomography Scan on the Amino Acid Content of the Murchison CM Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J. M.; Glavin, D. P.; Rivers, M. L.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    We conducted experiments to examine if exposure to synchrotron radiation during a typical µCT scan causes detectable changes in the amino acid content of a carbonaceous chondrite. We found a µCT scan caused no change in the amino acid content.

  7. Variability in seed oil content and farry acid composition, phenotypic traits and self-incompatibility among selected niger germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Niger (Guizotia abyssinica, L.) is a desirable oilseed crop for birdseed, especially for finches (Spinus spp.) because of its high ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and relatively high oil content. In 2012, phenotypic traits, seed oil and fatty acid content measurements were made on 14 p...

  8. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (p<0.05) to that of the PC class. The phytosterol content of the NMC class, determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was distinct from the IMCs, but similar (p<0.05) to a portion of the PCs. Principal component analysis (eigenvalue⩾1) indicated that the NMCs can be differentiated from the IMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. PMID:24054210

  9. Modulation of spontaneous transmitter release from the frog neuromuscular junction by interacting intracellular Ca(2+) stores: critical role for nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP).

    PubMed Central

    Brailoiu, Eugen; Patel, Sandip; Dun, Nae J

    2003-01-01

    Nicotinic acid-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a recently described potent intracellular Ca(2+)-mobilizing messenger active in a wide range of diverse cell types. In the present study, we have investigated the interaction of NAADP with other Ca(2+)-mobilizing messengers in the release of transmitter at the frog neuromuscular junction. We show, for the first time, that NAADP enhances neurosecretion in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), cADP-ribose (cADPR) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), but not sphingosylphosphorylcholine. Thapsigargin was without effect on transmitter release in response to NAADP, but blocked the responses to subsequent application of IP(3), cADPR and S1P and their potentiation by NAADP. Asynchronous neurotransmitter release may therefore involve functional coupling of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores with distinct Ca(2+) stores targeted by NAADP. PMID:12749764

  10. Effects of mechanical stress or abscisic acid on growth, water status and leaf abscisic acid content of eggplant seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latimer, J. G.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Container-grown eggplant (Solanum melongena L. var esculentum Nees. 'Burpee's Black Beauty') seedlings were conditioned with brief, periodic mechanical stress or abscisic acid (ABA) in a greenhouse prior to outdoor exposure. Mechanical stress consisted of seismic (shaking) or thigmic (stem flexing) treatment. Exogenous ABA (10(-3) or 10(-4)M) was applied as a soil drench 3 days prior to outdoor transfer. During conditioning, only thigmic stress reduced stem elongation and only 10(-3) M ABA reduced relative growth rate (RGR). Both conditioning treatments increased leaf specific chlorophyll content, but mechanical stress did not affect leaf ABA content. Outdoor exposure of unconditioned eggplant seedlings decreased RGR and leaf-specific chlorophyll content, but tended to increase leaf ABA content relative to that of plants maintained in the greenhouse. Conditioning did not affect RGR of plants subsequently transferred outdoors, but did reduce stem growth. Seismic stress applied in the greenhouse reduced dry weight gain by plants subsequently transferred outdoors. Mechanical stress treatments increased leaf water potential by 18-25% relative to that of untreated plants.

  11. An Oral Load of [13C3]Glycerol and Blood NMR Analysis Detect Fatty Acid Esterification, Pentose Phosphate Pathway, and Glycerol Metabolism through the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Human Liver.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2016-09-01

    Drugs and other interventions for high impact hepatic diseases often target biochemical pathways such as gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, or the metabolic response to oxidative stress. However, traditional liver function tests do not provide quantitative data about these pathways. In this study, we developed a simple method to evaluate these processes by NMR analysis of plasma metabolites. Healthy subjects ingested [U-(13)C3]glycerol, and blood was drawn at multiple times. Each subject completed three visits under differing nutritional states. High resolution (13)C NMR spectra of plasma triacylglycerols and glucose provided new insights into a number of hepatic processes including fatty acid esterification, the pentose phosphate pathway, and gluconeogenesis through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fasting stimulated pentose phosphate pathway activity and metabolism of [U-(13)C3]glycerol in the tricarboxylic acid cycle prior to gluconeogenesis or glyceroneogenesis. Fatty acid esterification was transient in the fasted state but continuous under fed conditions. We conclude that a simple NMR analysis of blood metabolites provides an important biomarker of pentose phosphate pathway activity, triacylglycerol synthesis, and flux through anaplerotic pathways in mitochondria of human liver. PMID:27432878

  12. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Batch and Column Experiments: A Perspective from Phosphate Oxygen Isotope Fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Jaisi, D. P.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) are increasingly being advocated as an efficient and environment-friendly "green" phosphorus nanofertilizer attributed to their nanoscale dimension, large reactive surface area, and low leaching potential. However, knowledge of how naturally occurring low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) that are secreted by plant roots mediate the dissolution of HANPs (releasing PO43- ion for plant growth) is nonexistent. Here three most commonly encountered LMWOAs (acetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid) at environmentally relevant concentration (1 mM) were evaluated for their effects on HANPs' dissolution in static batch and dynamic column systems. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during dissolution was examined to disentangle mechanisms controlling the evolution of O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion. Our results reveal that in batch experiments the dissolution of HANPs was fast but the overall dissolution efficiency of HANPs was limited (≤30%). In contrast, ~100% HANPs were dissolved in columns where LMWOAs were continuously injected. The limited dissolution of HANPs in static batch systems was due primarily to pH buffer effect (pH increased sharply when LMWOA was added in HANPs suspension), whereas in dynamic column systems the HANPs were continuously dissolved by low pH LMWOAs and leached away. Regardless of LMWOA type and experimental system, the isotopically light phosphate (P16O4) was preferentially released during dissolution and the O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion increased gradually with increasing dissolution due to equilibrium isotope effect between dissolved PO43- ion and HANPs. However, the overall magnitude of O-isotopic fractionation of dissolved PO43- ion was less in batch than in column systems, due to less mass transfer between dissolved PO43- ions and HANPs in batch relative to column experiments. Our findings provide new insights into bioavailability

  13. Dietary fibre, mineral, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid content of seagrasses from Tuticorin Bay, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jeevitha, M; Athiperumalsami, T; Kumar, Venkataraman

    2013-06-01

    The amount of dietary fibre, mineral and vitamin were determined in root, rhizome and leaf of four commonly-available seagrasses, Cymodocea serrulata, Syringodium isoetifolium, Halophila ovalis and Halodule pinifolia at a station off Hare Island, Tuticorin (8°45' N, 78°12' E) in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere region during premonsoon (July-September), monsoon (October-December) and postmonsoon (January-March) seasons of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 study period. The entire tissues from each seagrass were subjected to HPLC and GC analysis for determining amino acid and fatty acid profiles respectively. The rhizomes of H. ovalis possessed highest amount of dietary fibre during monsoon. C. serrulata showed maximum content of K in rhizome during monsoon. Highest amount of Ca and Mg was recorded in the rhizome and leaf of H. pinifolia in postmonsoon. S. isoetifolium exhibited peak value for Na in its rhizome during monsoon. Highest amounts of Vitamin A, C and E were registered in the rhizome/root of Cymodocea during postmonsoon. Vitamin B3 was maximum in the root of Syringodium in monsoon. Eighteen of the twenty amino acids detected in seagrasses were found to the maximum level in Halodule. Syriingodium showed the highest amount of six of the seven fatty acids recorded. PMID:23510655

  14. Optimizing Available Phosphorus in Calcareous Soils Fertilized with Diammonium Phosphate and Phosphoric Acid Using Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    In calcareous soils, phosphorus (P) retention and immobilization take place due to precipitation and adsorption. Since soil pH is considered a major soil variable affecting the P sorption, an acidic P fertilizer could result in low P adsorption compared to alkaline one. Therefore, P adsorption from DAP and phosphoric acid (PA) required to produce desired soil solution P concentration was estimated using Freundlich sorption isotherms. Two soils from Faisalabad and T. T. Singh districts were spiked with 0, 10, and 20 % CaCO3 for 15 days. Freundlich adsorption isotherms (P = aCb/a) were constructed, and theoretical doses of PA and DAP to develop a desired soil solution P level (i.e., 0.20 mg L−1) were calculated. It was observed that P adsorption in soil increased with CaCO3. Moreover, at all the levels of CaCO3, P adsorption from PA was lower compared to that from DAP in both the soils. Consequently, lesser quantity of PA was required to produce desired solution P, 0.2 mg L−1, compared to DAP. However, extrapolating the developed relationship between soil CaCO3 contents and quantity of fertilizer to other similar textured soils needs confirmation. PMID:24307878

  15. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  16. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-04-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation.

  17. The Effect of Copper And Zinc Nanoparticles on the Growth Parameters, Contents of Ascorbic Acid, and Qualitative Composition of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae).

    PubMed

    Olkhovych, Olga; Volkogon, Mykola; Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Lyudmyla; Kravchenko, Inna

    2016-12-01

    The paper covers the research of copper and zinc nanoparticle effect on the content of ascorbic acid, and quantitative and qualitative composition of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Pistia stratiotes L. plants. Plant exposition to copper nanoparticles led to the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 25 %), and (3) the amount of all studied amino acids except for the glycine amino acid. At this, the amount of 5-oxoproline, arginine, leucine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, and tyrosine was two times lower than in control plants. The reduction of the contents of 8 out of 12 investigated acylcarnitines (namely C0, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C16, C18:1) was observed in plants under the influence of copper nanoparticles. The result of plants incubation with zinc nanoparticles was the decrease in (1) the amount of ascorbic acid, (2) the total content of amino acids (by 15 %), (3) the content of leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine (more than twice), and (4) the content of 10 acylcarnitines (C0, C2, C3, C4, C5, C10, C16, C18, C18:1, C18:2). The observed reduction in amino acid contents may negatively affect plants adaptive reactions associated with de novo synthesis of stress proteins. At the same time, the decrease in the content of acylcarnitines, responsible for fatty acid transportation, may lead to the changes in the activity and direction of lipid metabolism in plants and reduce plant's ability to use free fatty acids as the oxidation substrate for cell reparation. PMID:27107771

  18. Structural organization of fatty acid desaturase loci in linseed lines with contrasting linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the richest crop source of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), is a diploid plant with an estimated genome size of ~370 Mb and is well suited for studying genomic organization of agronomically important traits. In this study, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome clones harbouring the six FA desaturase loci sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b from the conventional variety CDC Bethune and the high linolenic acid line M5791 were sequenced, analysed and compared to determine the structural organization of these loci and to gain insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying FA composition in flax. With one gene every 3.2-4.6 kb, the desaturase loci have a higher gene density than the genome's average of one gene per 7.8-8.2 kb. The gene order and orientation across the two genotypes were generally conserved with the exception of the sad1 locus that was predicted to have additional genes in CDC Bethune. High sequence conservation in both genic and intergenic regions of the sad and fad2b loci contrasted with the significant level of variation of the fad2a and fad3 loci, with SNPs being the most frequently observed mutation type. The fad2a locus had 297 SNPs and 36 indels over ~95 kb contrasting with the fad2b locus that had a mere seven SNPs and four indels in ~110 kb. Annotation of the gene-rich loci revealed other genes of known role in lipid or carbohydrate metabolic/catabolic pathways. The organization of the fad2b locus was particularly complex with seven copies of the fad2b gene in both genotypes. The presence of Gypsy, Copia, MITE, Mutator, hAT and other novel repeat elements at the desaturase loci was similar to that of the whole genome. This structural genomic analysis provided some insights into the genomic organization and composition of the main desaturase loci of linseed and of their complex evolution through both tandem and whole genome duplications. PMID:27142663

  19. Nicotinic acid increases the lipid content of rat brain synaptosomes. [Ethanol effects

    SciTech Connect

    Basilio, C.; Flores, M.

    1989-02-09

    Chronic administration of nicotinic acid (NA) increase hepatic lipids and potentiates a similar effect induced by ethanol. The amethystic properties of NA promoted us to study its effects on the lipid content of brain synaptosomes of native and ethanol treated rats. Groups of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats received i.p. either saline, ethanol (4g/kg), NA (50mg/kg), or a mixture of both compounds once a week during 3 weeks. The sleeping time (ST) of the animals receiving ethanol was recorded, brain synaptosomes of all groups were prepared and total lipids (TL) and cholesterol (Chol) content were determined. NA, ethanol and ethanol + NA markedly increased both TL and Chol of synaptosomes. Animals treated with ethanol or ethanol + NA developed tolerance. The group treated with ethanol-NA showed the highest Chol content and slept significantly less than the one treated with ethanol alone indicating that the changes induced by NA favored the appearance of tolerance.

  20. Effect of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide and 3,4 dimethylpyrazole phosphate on gaseous emissions from grasslands under different soil water contents.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2009-01-01

    The intensification of grassland systems is leading to serious environmental risks due to the large input of nitrogen (N) in fertilizers and the subsequent gaseous losses. Addition of nitrification inhibitors (NI) or urease activity inhibitors to fertilizers could reduce these losses to the atmosphere. In the present study, the effects of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and the urease activity inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) were evaluated on NH3, N2O, NO, and CO2 emissions. Ammonium sulphate nitrate (ASN), urea and cattle slurry were applied at a rate of 70 kg N ha(-1) to a mixed clover-ryegrass sward in the Basque Country (northern Spain) under different soil water contents. NH3 and NO emissions were determined by photoacoustic and chemiluminescence respectively using an open chamber technique while N2O and CO2 emissions were measured by photoacoustic using a closed chamber technique. When the water filled pore space (WFPS) was under 60%, the application of NBPT reduced NO emissions a 34% on urea and an 18% on slurry, and the application of DMPP reduced them a 2% on ASN and a 4% on slurry. No significant effect was observed on NH3 losses. When WFPS was over 60%, no effect could be observed on NO and N2O emissions after the application of both inhibitors, but NH3 losses were reduced a 31% by NBPT when applied with the slurry. Carbon dioxide emissions were unaffected by the use of DMPP or NBPT at any soil water content. Neither grassland yield nor herbage N concentration were influenced by the application of both inhibitors. PMID:19141792

  1. Experienced Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teaching Acid-base Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drechsler, Michal; van Driel, Jan

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students’ difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1) students’ difficulties in understanding acid-base chemistry and (2) models of acids and bases in their teaching practice. In the interviews, the teachers were asked to comment on authentic student responses collected in a previous study that included student interviews about their understanding of acids and bases. Further, the teachers drew story-lines representing their level of satisfaction with their acid-base teaching. The results show that, although all teachers recognised some of the students’ difficulties as confusion between models, only a few chose to emphasise the different models of acids and bases. Most of the teachers thought it was sufficient to distinguish clearly between the phenomenological level and the particle level. The ways the teachers reflected on their teaching, in order to improve it, also differed. Some teachers reflected more on students’ difficulties; others were more concerned about their own performance. Implications for chemistry (teacher) education are discussed.

  2. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a laxative to clean the bowels before surgery or intestinal tests. Healthcare providers sometimes give potassium phosphate intravenously (by IV) for treating low phosphate and high calcium levels in the blood, and for preventing low phosphate in patients who are being tube-fed.

  3. The alpha-linolenic acid content of green vegetables commonly available in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C; Li, D; Sinclair, A J

    2001-07-01

    Green vegetable consumption has long been considered to have health benefits mainly due to the vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients (such as vitamin C, folate, antioxidants etc) contained in a vegetable-rich diet. Additionally, green vegetables are known to contain a relatively high proportion of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), primarily in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). However, there are no data available on the fatty acid composition and concentration of green vegetables commonly consumed in Australia. The present study determined the fatty acid content of 11 green vegetables that are commonly available in Australia. The total fatty acid concentrations of the vegetables under study ranged from 44 mg/100 g wet weight in Chinese cabbage to 372 mg/100 g in watercress. There were three PUFAs in all vegetables analyzed; these were 16:3n-3, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3 fatty acids. Sample vegetables contained significant quantities of 16:3n-3 and 18:3n-3, ranging from 23 to 225 mg/100 g. Watercress and mint contained the highest amounts of 16:3n-3 and 18:3n-3, and parsley had the highest amount of 18:2n-6 in both percentage composition and concentration. Mint had the highest concentration of 18:3n-3 with a value of 195 mg/100 g, while watercress contained the highest concentration of 16:3n-3 at 45 mg/100 g. All 11 green vegetables contained a high proportion of PUFAs, ranging from 59 to 72% of total fatty acids. The omega-3 PUFA composition ranged from 40 to 62% of total fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid composition was less than 6% of total fatty acids. The proportion of saturated fatty acids ranged from 21% in watercress and mint to 32% of total fatty acids in Brussels sprouts. No eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were detected in any of the samples. Consumption of green vegetables could contribute to 18:3n-3 PUFA intake, especially for vegetarian populations. PMID:11582857

  4. Branched Chain Fatty Acid (BCFA) Content of Foods and Estimated Intake in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bae, SangEun; Lawrence, Peter; Wang, Dong Hao

    2015-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are bioactive food components that constitute about 2% of fatty acids in cow’s milk fat. Little systematic information on the BCFA content of other foods is available to estimate dietary intakes. We report BCFA distribution and content of fresh and processed foods representing the major foods of Americans and estimate BCFA intake. BCFA are primarily components of dairy and ruminant foods, and were absent from chicken, pork, and salmon. Dairy and beef delivered most of the 500 mg per day mean intake; in comparison, intake of the widely studied long chain polyunsaturates eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is estimated to average 100 mg per day. Common adjustments in diet can double BCFA daily intake. The fermented foods sauerkraut and miso had appreciable fractions of BCFA but overall are low fat foods providing very small amounts in the diet, and other fermented foods did not contain BCFA as might have been expected from microbial exposure. These data support the quantitative importance of BCFA delivered primarily from dairy and beef and highlight the need for research into their health effects. PMID:24830474

  5. Measurement of sialic acid content is insufficient to assess bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Shigehiro; Taniguchi, Yuya; Hosono, Mareto; Yoshioka, Eiji; Ishikawa, Rika; Shimada, Yoshihiro; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Kutsukake, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of biological potency and its comparison with clinical effects are important in the quality control of therapeutic glycoproteins. Animal models are usually used for evaluating bioactivity of these compounds. However, alternative methods are required to simplify the bioassay and avoid ethical issues associated with animal studies. Negatively charged sialic acid residues are known to be critical for in vivo bioactivity of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). In this study, we used capillary zone electrophoresis, a charge-based separation method, to estimate the sialic acid content for predicting in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. In vivo bioactivities of rhEPO subfractions were measured and compared with sialylation levels. The results obtained indicated that in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO is not simply correlated with the sialylation level, which suggests that it is difficult to predict biological potency from the sialic acid content alone. N-Glycan moieties as well as sialic acid residues may have a significant impact on in vivo bioactivity of rhEPO. PMID:20823580

  6. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee.

    PubMed

    Mills, Charlotte E; Oruna-Concha, Maria Jose; Mottram, Donald S; Gibson, Glenn R; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-12-15

    Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are a class of polyphenols noted for their health benefits. These compounds were identified and quantified, using LC-MS and HPLC, in commercially available coffees which varied in processing conditions. Analysis of ground and instant coffees indicated the presence of caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), feruloylquinic acids (FQA) and dicaffeoylquinic acids (diCQA) in all 18 samples tested. 5-CQA was present at the highest levels, between 25 and 30% of total CGA; subsequent relative quantities were: 4-CQA>3-CQA>5-FQA>4-FQA>diCQA (sum of 3,4, 3,5 and 4,5-diCQA). CGA content varied greatly (27.33-121.25mg/200 ml coffee brew), driven primarily by the degree of coffee bean roasting (a high amount of roasting had a detrimental effect on CGA content). These results highlight the broad range of CGA quantity in commercial coffee and demonstrate that coffee choice is important in delivering optimum CGA intake to consumers. PMID:23993490

  7. Chromatographic method for determination of the free amino acid content of chamomile flowers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaoli; Zhao, Dongsheng; Li, Xinxia; Meng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the free amino acid contents of chamomile flowers using reverse-phase high-performance column chromatography preceded by pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC), and to determine the reliability of this method. Materials and Methods: Derivatization with reconstituted AQC was used to prepare the samples and standards for injection into the chromatography column. The peaks were analyzed by fluorescence detection (λ excitation, 250 nm; λ emission, 395 nm. Results: Alanine, proline, and leucine were the most abundant amino acids, whereas tyrosine and methionine were the least abundant. The linearity of the method was found to be good with amino acid concentrations of 0.012-0.36 μM. The precision was 0.05-1.36%; average recovery, 91.12-129.41%; and limit of detection, 0.006-0.058 μM. Conclusion: The method is reliable for determining the free amino acid content of different types of chamomile flowers. PMID:25709230

  8. Effect of proteolysis on the sialic acid content and bifidogenic activity of ovomucin hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Gänzle, Michael; Field, Catherine J; Wu, Jianping

    2016-12-01

    Ovomucin, accounting for ∼3.5% of egg white proteins, contains 2.6-7.4% of sialic acid; sialic acid is suggested to play important roles in host-recognition, cognition and memory development. However, ovomucin's limited water solubility might restrict its future applications. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of proteolysis of ovomucin on the sialic acid content and bifidogenic activity of ovomucin hydrolysates. Ovomucin extract was hydrolyzed by 14 proteases with yields and DHs ranging from 42.6% (flavourzyme) to 97.4% (protease N), and 2.4% (flavourzyme) to 46.3% (pronase), respectively. Ovomucin hydrolyzed by pronase and protex 26L showed molecular weight (Mw) distributions less than 40kDa while others larger than 200kDa. Allergenicity of ovomucin hydrolysates was significantly reduced (P<0.05) in comparison to ovomucin extract. The content of sialic acid in hydrolysates ranged from 0.1% (protex 26L) to 3.7% (pronase). Ovomucin hydrolysates did not generally support growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in vitro. PMID:27374509

  9. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

  10. Responses to phosphate deprivation in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Neelima; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential nutrient because it is required for the biosynthesis of nucleotides, phospholipids and metabolites in energy metabolism. During phosphate starvation, phosphatases play a major role in phosphate acquisition by hydrolyzing phosphorylated macromolecules. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PHM8 (YER037W), a lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase, plays an important role in phosphate acquisition by hydrolyzing lysophosphatidic acid and nucleotide monophosphate that results in accumulation of triacylglycerol and nucleotides under phosphate limiting conditions. Under phosphate limiting conditions, it is transcriptionally regulated by Pho4p, a phosphate-responsive transcription factor. In this review, we focus on triacylglycerol metabolism in transcription factors deletion mutants involved in phosphate metabolism and propose a link between phosphate and triacylglycerol metabolism. Deletion of these transcription factors results in an increase in triacylglycerol level. Based on these observations, we suggest that PHM8 is responsible for the increase in triacylglycerol in phosphate metabolising gene deletion mutants. PMID:26615590

  11. Short term tolvaptan increases water intake and effectively decreases urinary calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid supersaturations

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Erickson, Stephen B.; Rule, Andrew D.; Enders, Felicity; Lieske, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients cannot effectively increase water intake and urine volume to prevent urinary stones. Tolvaptan, a V2 receptor antagonist, blocks water reabsorption in the collecting duct and should reduce urinary supersaturation (SS) of stone forming solutes, but this has never been proven. Materials and Methods We conducted a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 21 adult calcium urinary stone formers stratified as majority calcium oxalate(CaOx, n=10) or calcium phosphate(CaP, n=11). Patients received tolvaptan 45 mg/day or placebo for 1 week, followed by a washout week and crossover to tolvaptan or placebo for week 3. A 24h urines was collected at the end of weeks 1 and 3. Results Tolvaptan vs. placebo decreased urinary osmolality (204±96 vs 529±213 mOsm/kg, P<0.001) and increased urinary volume (4.8±2.9 vs 1.8±0.9 L, P<0.001). The majority of urinary solute excretion rates including sodium and calcium did not significantly change, although oxalate secretion slightly increased (23±8 to 15±8 mg/24h, P = 0.009). Urinary CaOx SS (−0.01±1.14 vs 0.95±0.87 DG, P<0.001), CaP SS (−1.66±1.17 vs −0.13±1.02 DG, P<0.001) and Uric Acid SS (−2.05±4.05 vs −5.24±3.12 DG, P=0.04) all dramatically decreased. Effects did not differ between CaOx and CaP groups (P>0.05 for all interactions). Conclusions Tolvaptan increases urine volume and decreases urinary SS in calcium stone formers. Further study is needed to determine if long term use of V2 receptor antagonists results in fewer stone events. PMID:26598423

  12. Delineation of the roles of amino acids involved in the catalytic functions of Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Vought, V; Ciccone, T; Davino, M H; Fairbairn, L; Lin, Y; Cosgrove, M S; Adams, M J; Levy, H R

    2000-12-12

    The roles of particular amino acids in substrate and coenzyme binding and catalysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase of Leuconostoc mesenteroides have been investigated by site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic analysis, and determination of binding constants. The enzyme from this species has functional dual NADP(+)/NAD(+) specificity. Previous investigations in our laboratories determined the three-dimensional structure. Kinetic studies showed an ordered mechanism for the NADP-linked reaction while the NAD-linked reaction is random. His-240 was identified as the catalytic base, and Arg-46 was identified as important for NADP(+) but not NAD(+) binding. Mutations have been selected on the basis of the three-dimensional structure. Kinetic studies of 14 mutant enzymes are reported and kinetic mechanisms are reported for 5 mutant enzymes. Fourteen substrate or coenzyme dissociation constants have been measured for 11 mutant enzymes. Roles of particular residues are inferred from k(cat), K(m), k(cat)/K(m), K(d), and changes in kinetic mechanism. Results for enzymes K182R, K182Q, K343R, and K343Q establish Lys-182 and Lys-343 as important in binding substrate both to free enzyme and during catalysis. Studies of mutant enzymes Y415F and Y179F showed no significant contribution for Tyr-415 to substrate binding and only a small contribution for Tyr-179. Changes in kinetics for T14A, Q47E, and R46A enzymes implicate these residues, to differing extents, in coenzyme binding and discrimination between NADP(+) and NAD(+). By the same measure, Lys-343 is also involved in defining coenzyme specificity. Decrease in k(cat) and k(cat)/K(m) for the D374Q mutant enzyme defines the way Asp-374, unique to L. mesenteroides G6PD, modulates stabilization of the enzyme during catalysis by its interaction with Lys-182. The greatly reduced k(cat) values of enzymes P149V and P149G indicate the importance of the cis conformation of Pro-149 in accessing the correct transition state. PMID

  13. Alkali Metal Ion Complexes with Phosphates, Nucleotides, Amino Acids, and Related Ligands of Biological Relevance. Their Properties in Solution.

    PubMed

    Crea, Francesco; De Stefano, Concetta; Foti, Claudia; Lando, Gabriele; Milea, Demetrio; Sammartano, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    Alkali metal ions play very important roles in all biological systems, some of them are essential for life. Their concentration depends on several physiological factors and is very variable. For example, sodium concentrations in human fluids vary from quite low (e.g., 8.2 mmol dm(-3) in mature maternal milk) to high values (0.14 mol dm(-3) in blood plasma). While many data on the concentration of Na(+) and K(+) in various fluids are available, the information on other alkali metal cations is scarce. Since many vital functions depend on the network of interactions occurring in various biofluids, this chapter reviews their complex formation with phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, and related ligands of biological relevance. Literature data on this topic are quite rare if compared to other cations. Generally, the stability of alkali metal ion complexes of organic and inorganic ligands is rather low (usually log K < 2) and depends on the charge of the ligand, owing to the ionic nature of the interactions. At the same time, the size of the cation is an important factor that influences the stability: very often, but not always (e.g., for sulfate), it follows the trend Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+) > Cs(+). For example, for citrate it is: log K ML = 0.88, 0.80, 0.48, 0.38, and 0.13 at 25 °C and infinite dilution. Some considerations are made on the main aspects related to the difficulties in the determination of weak complexes. The importance of the alkali metal ion complexes was also studied in the light of modelling natural fluids and in the use of these cations as probes for different processes. Some empirical relationships are proposed for the dependence of the stability constants of Na(+) complexes on the ligand charge, as well as for correlations among log K values of NaL, KL or LiL species (L = generic ligand). PMID:26860301

  14. Detailed Dimethylacetal and Fatty Acid Composition of Rumen Content from Lambs Fed Lucerne or Concentrate Supplemented with Soybean Oil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Susana P.; Santos-Silva, José; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Bessa, Rui J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid metabolism in the rumen is responsible for the complex fatty acid profile of rumen outflow compared with the dietary fatty acid composition, contributing to the lipid profile of ruminant products. A method for the detailed dimethylacetal and fatty acid analysis of rumen contents was developed and applied to rumen content collected from lambs fed lucerne or concentrate based diets supplemented with soybean oil. The methodological approach developed consisted on a basic/acid direct transesterification followed by thin-layer chromatography to isolate fatty acid methyl esters from dimethylacetal, oxo- fatty acid and fatty acid dimethylesters. The dimethylacetal composition was quite similar to the fatty acid composition, presenting even-, odd- and branched-chain structures. Total and individual odd- and branched-chain dimethylacetals were mostly affected by basal diet. The presence of 18∶1 dimethylacetals indicates that biohydrogenation intermediates might be incorporated in structural microbial lipids. Moreover, medium-chain fatty acid dimethylesters were identified for the first time in the rumen content despite their concentration being relatively low. The fatty acids containing 18 carbon-chain lengths comprise the majority of the fatty acids present in the rumen content, most of them being biohydrogenation intermediates of 18∶2n−6 and 18∶3n−3. Additionally, three oxo- fatty acids were identified in rumen samples, and 16-O-18∶0 might be produced during biohydrogenation of the 18∶3n−3. PMID:23484024

  15. Improved biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) orv and poly-L-lactic acid blended with nanoparticulate amorphous calcium phosphate in vascular stent applications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxin; Wang, Yujue; Lan, Zhiyuan; Lyu, Yongnan; Feng, Gaoke; Zhang, Yipei; Tagusari, Shizu; Kislauskis, Edward; Robich, Michael P; McCarthy, Stephen; Sellke, Frank W; Laham, Roger; Jiang, Xuejun; Gu, Wei Wang; Wu, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers used as vascular stent coatings and stent platforms encounter a major challenge: biocompatibility in vivo, which plays an important role in in-stent restenosis (ISR). Co-formulating amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was investigated to address the issue. For stent coating applications, metal stents were coated with polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate/poly-n-butyl methacrylate (PEVA/PBMA), PLGA or PLGA/ACP composites, and implanted into rat aortas for one and three months. Comparing with both PEVA/PBMA and PLGA groups after one month, the results showed that stents coated with PLGA/ACP had significantly reduced restenosis (PLGA/ACP vs. PEVA/PBMA vs. PLGA: 21.24 +/- 2.59% vs. 27.54 +/- 1.19% vs. 32.12 +/- 3.93%, P < 0.05), reduced inflammation (1.25 +/- 0.35 vs. 1.77 +/- 0.38 vs. 2.30 +/- 0.21, P < 0.05) and increased speed of re-endothelialization (1.78 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.17 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.18, P < 0.05). After three months, the PLGA/ACP group still displayed lower inflammation score (1.33 +/- 0.33 vs. 2.27 +/- 0.55, P < 0.05) and higher endothelial scores (2.33 +/- 0.33 vs. 1.20 +/- 0.18, P < 0.05) as compared with the PEVA/PBMA group. Moreover, for stent platform applications, PLLA/ACP stent tube significantly reduced the inflammatory cells infiltration in the vessel walls of rabbit iliac arteries relative to their PLLA cohort (NF-kappaB-positive cells: 23.31 +/- 2.33/mm2 vs. 9.34 +/- 1.35/mm2, P < 0.05). No systemic biochemical or pathological evidence of toxicity was found in either PLGA/ACP or PLLA/ACP. The co-formulation of ACP into PLGA and PLLA resulted in improved biocompatibility without systemic toxicity. PMID:24749387

  16. Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Content of Some Spices and Herbs under Saudi Arabia Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasass, Fahad Mohammed; Al-Jasser, Mohammed Saud

    2012-01-01

    Some Saudi herbs and spices were analyzed. The results indicated that mustard, black cumin, and cress seeds contain high amount of fat 38.45%, 31.95% and 23.19%, respectively, as compared to clove (16.63%), black pepper (5.34%) and fenugreek (4.51%) seeds. Cress, mustard, black cumin and black pepper contain higher protein contents ranging from 26.61 to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Crude fiber and ash content ranged from 6.36 to 23.6% and from 3.57 to 7.1%, respectively. All seeds contain high levels of potassium (ranging from 383 to 823 mg/100g), followed by calcium (ranging from 75 to 270 mg/100g), Magnesium (ranged from 42 to 102 mg/100g) and iron (ranged from 20.5 to 65 mg/100g). However, zinc, manganese and copper were found at low levels. The major fatty acids in cress and mustard were linolenic acid (48.43%) and erucic acid (29.81%), respectively. The lenoleic acid was the major fatty acid in black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove oils being 68.07%, 34.85%, 33.03% and 44.73%, respectively. Total unsaturated fatty acids were 83.24, 95.62, 86.46, 92.99, 81.34 and 87.82% for cress, mustard, black cumin, fenugreek, black pepper and clove, respectively. The differences in the results obtained are due to environmental factors, production areas, cultivars used to produce seeds and also due to the different methods used to prepare these local spices. PMID:23319888

  17. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Phosphate Prodrugs of 4-Phospho-d -erythronohydroxamic Acid, an Inhibitor of 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Ruda, Gian Filippo; Alibu, Vincent P; Mitsos, Christos; Bidet, Olivier; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Barrett, Michael P; Gilbert, Ian H

    2007-01-01

    We have previously reported the discovery of potent and selective inhibitors of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, the third enzyme of the phosphate pentose pathway, from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative organism of human African trypanosomiasis. These inhibitors were charged phosphate derivatives with restricted capacity to enter cells. Herein, we report the synthesis of five different classes of prodrugs: phosphoramidate; bis-S-acyl thioethyl esters (bis-SATE); bis-pivaloxymethyl (bis-POM); CycloSaligenyl; and phenyl, S-acyl thioethyl mixed phosphate esters (mix-SATE). Prodrugs were studied for stability and activity against the intact parasites. Most prodrugs caused inhibition of the growth of the parasites. The activity of the prodrugs against the parasites appeared to be related to their stability in aqueous buffer. PMID:17615587

  18. Exploring amino acids derivatives as potent, selective, and direct agonists of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype-1.

    PubMed

    Evindar, Ghotas; Deng, Hongfeng; Bernier, Sylvie G; Doyle, Elisabeth; Lorusso, Jeanine; Morgan, Barry A; Westlin, William F

    2013-01-15

    In the quest to discover a potent and selective class of direct agonists to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, we explored the carboxylate functional group as a replacement to previously reported lead phosphates. This has led to the discovery of potent and selective direct agonists with moderate to substantial in vivo lymphopenia. The previously reported selectivity enhancing moiety (SEM) and selectivity enhancing orientation (SEO) in the phenylamide and phenylimidazole scaffolds were crucial to obtaining selectivity for S1P receptor subtype 1 over 3. PMID:23245510

  19. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and Gboma (S. macrocarpon) Eggplants

    PubMed Central

    Plazas, Mariola; Prohens, Jaime; Cuñat, Amparo Noelia; Vilanova, Santiago; Gramazio, Pietro; Herraiz, Francisco Javier; Andújar, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum) and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids). Heritability (H2) for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group) with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties. PMID:25264739

  20. Supplementation with Cashew Nut and Cottonseed Meal to Modify Fatty Acid Content in Lamb Meat.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elzania S; Mizubuti, Ivone Y; Oliveira, Ronaldo L; Pinto, Andréa P; Ribeiro, Edson L A; Gadelha, Carla R F; Campos, Ana C N; Pereira, Marília F; Carneiro, Maria S S; Arruda, Paulo C; Silva, Luciano P

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of cashew nut meal (CNM), whole cottonseed (WCS), and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA) on the fatty acid profiles of meat from hair lambs. Thirty-five 60-d-old, male, noncastrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete-block design with 7 blocks and 5 treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet (CON) without supplemental lipids and 4 test diets with different lipid supplements that were selected according to the degree of protection from ruminal hydrogenation and their polyunsaturated fatty acid richness. The tests diets included the following modifications: supplementation with WCS, supplementation with CNM, supplementation with both cottonseed and CNM (CSCNM), and supplementation with Ca-LCFA. The C18:1n9c content was highest in the meat of the animals fed the CNM diet (42.00%). The meat from lambs fed the WCS and Ca-LCFA diets had higher C18:0 contents (25.23 and 22.80%, respectively). The C16:1 content was higher in the meat from the animals fed the CNM and CON diets (1.54 and 1.49%, respectively). C18:2c9t11 concentration was higher in the meat from the animals fed the Ca-LCFA and CNM diets. The estimated enzyme activity of Δ9-desaturase C18 was highest in the muscles of the lambs fed the CON, CNM, and CSCNM diets. The use of cashew nuts in the diet resulted in an increase in the C18:2c9t11 content of the lamb meat, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat. PMID:27472154

  1. Effects of Liming on Forage Availability and Nutrient Content in a Forest Impacted by Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Pabian, Sarah E.; Ermer, Nathan M.; Tzilkowski, Walter M.; Brittingham, Margaret C.

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  2. Effects of liming on forage availability and nutrient content in a forest impacted by acid rain.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sarah E; Ermer, Nathan M; Tzilkowski, Walter M; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    Acidic deposition and subsequent forest soil acidification and nutrient depletion can affect negatively the growth, health and nutrient content of vegetation, potentially limiting the availability and nutrient content of forage for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other forest herbivores. Liming is a mitigation technique that can be used to restore forest health in acidified areas, but little is known about how it affects the growth or nutrient content of deer forage. We examined the effects of dolomitic limestone application on the growth and chemical composition of understory plants in an acidified forest in central Pennsylvania, with a focus on vegetative groups included as white-tailed deer forage. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact study design with observations 1 year before liming and up to 5 years post-liming on 2 treated and 2 untreated 100-ha sites. Before liming, forage availability and several nutrients were below levels considered optimal for white-tailed deer, and many vegetative characteristics were related to soil chemistry. We observed a positive effect of liming on forb biomass, with a 2.7 fold increase on limed sites, but no biomass response in other vegetation groups. We observed positive effects of liming on calcium and magnesium content and negative effects on aluminum and manganese content of several plant groups. Responses to liming by forbs and plant nutrients show promise for improving vegetation health and forage quality and quantity for deer. PMID:22761890

  3. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  4. Experimental Warming Decreases the Average Size and Nucleic Acid Content of Marine Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.

    2016-01-01

    Organism size reduction with increasing temperature has been suggested as a universal response to global warming. Since genome size is usually correlated to cell size, reduction of genome size in unicells could be a parallel outcome of warming at ecological and evolutionary time scales. In this study, the short-term response of cell size and nucleic acid content of coastal marine prokaryotic communities to temperature was studied over a full annual cycle at a NE Atlantic temperate site. We used flow cytometry and experimental warming incubations, spanning a 6°C range, to analyze the hypothesized reduction with temperature in the size of the widespread flow cytometric bacterial groups of high and low nucleic acid content (HNA and LNA bacteria, respectively). Our results showed decreases in size in response to experimental warming, which were more marked in 0.8 μm pre-filtered treatment rather than in the whole community treatment, thus excluding the role of protistan grazers in our findings. Interestingly, a significant effect of temperature on reducing the average nucleic acid content (NAC) of prokaryotic cells in the communities was also observed. Cell size and nucleic acid decrease with temperature were correlated, showing a common mean decrease of 0.4% per °C. The usually larger HNA bacteria consistently showed a greater reduction in cell and NAC compared with their LNA counterparts, especially during the spring phytoplankton bloom period associated to maximum bacterial growth rates in response to nutrient availability. Our results show that the already smallest planktonic microbes, yet with key roles in global biogeochemical cycling, are likely undergoing important structural shrinkage in response to rising temperatures. PMID:27242747

  5. Nucleic Acid Content in Crustacean Zooplankton: Bridging Metabolic and Stoichiometric Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Bullejos, Francisco José; Carrillo, Presentación; Gorokhova, Elena; Medina-Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Villar-Argaiz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and stoichiometric theories of ecology have provided broad complementary principles to understand ecosystem processes across different levels of biological organization. We tested several of their cornerstone hypotheses by measuring the nucleic acid (NA) and phosphorus (P) content of crustacean zooplankton species in 22 high mountain lakes (Sierra Nevada and the Pyrenees mountains, Spain). The P-allocation hypothesis (PAH) proposes that the genome size is smaller in cladocerans than in copepods as a result of selection for fast growth towards P-allocation from DNA to RNA under P limitation. Consistent with the PAH, the RNA:DNA ratio was >8-fold higher in cladocerans than in copepods, although ‘fast-growth’ cladocerans did not always exhibit higher RNA and lower DNA contents in comparison to ‘slow-growth’ copepods. We also showed strong associations among growth rate, RNA, and total P content supporting the growth rate hypothesis, which predicts that fast-growing organisms have high P content because of the preferential allocation to P-rich ribosomal RNA. In addition, we found that ontogenetic variability in NA content of the copepod Mixodiaptomus laciniatus (intra- and interstage variability) was comparable to the interspecific variability across other zooplankton species. Further, according to the metabolic theory of ecology, temperature should enhance growth rate and hence RNA demands. RNA content in zooplankton was correlated with temperature, but the relationships were nutrient-dependent, with a positive correlation in nutrient-rich ecosystems and a negative one in those with scarce nutrients. Overall our results illustrate the mechanistic connections among organismal NA content, growth rate, nutrients and temperature, contributing to the conceptual unification of metabolic and stoichiometric theories. PMID:24466118

  6. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding. PMID:27001403

  7. Plasmid load adversely affects growth and gluconic acid secretion ability of mineral phosphate-solubilizing rhizospheric bacterium Enterobacter asburiae PSI3 under P limited conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Archana, G; Naresh Kumar, G

    2011-01-20

    Effect of the metabolic load caused by the presence of plasmids on mineral phosphate-solubilizing (MPS) Enterobacter asburiae PSI3, was monitored with four plasmid cloning vectors and one native plasmid, varying in size, nature of the replicon, copy number and antibiotic resistance genes. Except for one plasmid, the presence of all other plasmids in E. asburiae PSI3 resulted in the loss of the MPS phenotype as reflected by the failure to bring about a drop in pH and release soluble P when grown in media containing rock phosphate (RP) as the sole P source. When 100 μM soluble P was supplemented along with RP, the adverse effects of plasmids on MPS phenotype and on growth parameters was reduced for some plasmid bearing derivatives, as monitored in terms of specific growth rates, glucose consumed, gluconic acids yields and P released. When 10 mM of soluble P as the only P source, was added to the medium all transformants showed growth and pH drop comparable with native strain. It may be concluded that different plasmids impose, to varying extents, a metabolic load in the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium E. asburiae PSI3 and results in diminishing its growth and P-solubilizing ability in P deficient conditions. PMID:20171856

  8. Matching phosphate and maleate buffer systems for dissolution of weak acids: Equivalence in terms of buffer capacity of bulk solution or surface pH?

    PubMed

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2016-06-01

    The development of in vitro dissolution tests able to anticipate the in vivo fate of drug products has challenged pharmaceutical scientists over time, especially in the case of ionizable compounds. In the seminal model proposed by Mooney et al. thirty-five years ago, the pH at the solid-liquid interface (pH0) was identified as a key parameter in predicting dissolution rate. In the current work it is demonstrated that the in vitro dissolution of the weak acid ibuprofen in maleate and phosphate buffer systems is a function of the pH0, which in turn is affected by properties of the drug and the medium. The reported pH0 for ibuprofen dissolution in bicarbonate buffer, the predominant buffer species in the human small intestine under fasting conditions, can be achieved by reducing the phosphate buffer concentration to 5.0mM or the maleate buffer concentration to 2.2mM. Using this approach to identify the appropriate buffer/buffer capacity combination for in vitro experiments in FaSSIF-type media, it would be possible to increase the physiological relevance of this important biopharmaceutics tool. However, the necessity of monitoring and adjusting the bulk pH during the experiments carried out in 5.0mM phosphate or 2.2mM maleate buffers must also be taken into consideration. PMID:27032508

  9. Incorporation of /sup 14/C from glucose into amino acids in brain in vitro in the presence of organo- and inorganic lead and pyridoxal phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Regunathan, S.; Sundaresan, R.

    1983-12-05

    The incorporation of label from U/sup 14/C glucose into glutamic acid, glutamine and GABA remained unaltered with the presence of lead acetate in the medium whereas tetraethyl lead (TEL) affected the incorporation in a characteristic manner in different regions of brain. Glucose uptake however was not influenced by TEL. Pyridoxal phosphate was found to reverse the effect of TEL on the incorporation especially in cerebellum and brainstem but with little effect in cerebral cortex. These findings suggest that the alterations in the GABA metabolism in TEL toxicity could be restored to some extent by pyridoxine in discrete brain areas.

  10. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  11. Chemical profile and seasonal variation of phenolic acid content in bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa; Pietraszek, Jacek

    2012-07-01

    Melittis melissophyllum L. is an old medicinal plant. Nowadays it is only used in the folk medicine but formerly it has been applied in the official medicine as a natural product described in French Pharmacopoeia. M. melissophyllum herbs used in our studies were collected from two localities in Poland in May and September. Methanolic plant extracts were purified by means of solid-phase extraction and then analysed by HPLC-DAD for their phenolic acid profile. Eleven compounds were identified in all plant samples and quantitatively analysed as: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acid. Plant materials contained free and bound phenolic acids. The main compounds were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (30.21-54.16 mg/100 g dw and 37.04-56.75 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively) and p-coumaric acid (40.48-80.55 mg/100 g dw and 28.09-40.85 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively). The highest amounts of the investigated compounds were found in all samples collected in September, e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic acid (September 51.72-54.16 mg/100 g dw vs. May 30.21-34.07 mg/100 g dw), p-coumaric acid (September 77.14-80.55 mg/100 g dw vs. May 40.48-43.2 5mg/100 g dw). Multivariate statistical and data mining techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to characterize the sample populations according to the geographical localities, vegetation period and compound form (free or bound). To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the results of quantitative analysis of M. melissophyllum phenolic acids and seasonal variation of their content. Plant herbs are usually collected at flowering for plant derived medical preparations. Our results show that it is not always the optimal time for the highest contents of active compounds. PMID:22513117

  12. Phenolic composition, ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2016-06-15

    The interest in Ziziphus jujube is growing because it is an excellent source of nutrients and phytochemicals, and can contribute to a healthy diet. Nutritional compounds (phenolic compounds and L-ascorbic acid), and antioxidant capacity of 4 Spanish jujube cultivars were studied. Polyphenols were identified by LC-MS-QTof and quantified by UPLC-PDA-FL. A total of 25 polyphenolic compounds were identified and classified as 10 flavan-3-ols, 13 flavonols, 1 flavanone, and 1 dihydrochalcone. The content of total polyphenols (TP) ranged from 1442 to 3432 mg/100 g dry matter (dm) in fruits of the cultivars 'DAT' and 'PSI', respectively. Flavan-3-ols, the major group of polyphenols in jujube represented ∼92% of the TP content, whereas flavonols only amounted for about ∼8% each. The content of L-ascorbic acid was very high and took values in the range of 387-555 mg/100 g fresh weight (fw). Some Spanish jujube cultivars, especially 'PSI' and 'MSI', may be selected to promote the growth of cultivars with valuable nutritional and phytochemical beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26868581

  13. The effects of antioxidants on the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the hen's egg.

    PubMed

    Kassab, A; Abrams, J T; Sainsbury, D W

    1979-01-01

    In experiments to see whether, in the possible interests of human health, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the chicken's egg can be increased by nutritional means, three strains of hen, light, medium, and heavy, each at the peak of lay, were first fed a basal, commercial, low-fat diet. The hens were then transferred to one of the following diets: basal + safflower oil (SO); basal + SO + butylated hydroxytoluene; or basal + SO + dl-a-toco-pheryl acetate. The diets were designated "Blank", "BHT", and "Vitamin E", respectively, the second and third containing the added antioxidants. The eggs produced were weighed, and their yolks weighed and analysed for lipid components. Additional of SO (7.5%) to the basal diet led to the PUFA content of the yolk lipids rising by 15.4% (linoleic acid, 14.1%), the magnitude of the increases being unaffected by the antioxidants. Diet "BHT" produced larger eggs and yolks than the other diets, but the proportion of yolk was the same on the three types of feed. The total cholesterol content of egg yolks was significantly affected neither by diet, nor by strain or age of hen. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:468476

  14. Comparison of nucleic acid content in populations of free-living and symbiotic Rhizobium meliloti by flow microfluorometry.

    PubMed Central

    Paau, A S; Lee, D; Cowles, J R

    1977-01-01

    Populations of symbiotic Rhizobium meliloti extracted from alfalfa nodules were shown by flow microfluorometry to contain a significant number of bacteroids with higher nucleic acid content than the free-living rhizobia. Bacteroids with lower nucleic acid content than the free-living bacteria were not detected in significant quantities in these populations. These results indicate that the incapability of bacteroids to reestablish growth in nutrient media may not be caused by a decrease in nucleic acid content of the symbiotic rhizobia. PMID:838682

  15. Two-step in situ biodiesel production from microalgae with high free fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Jun; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-05-01

    The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from microalgae biomass is generally low via traditional extraction-conversion route due to the deficient solvent extraction. In this study a two-step in situ process was investigated to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This was accomplished with a pre-esterification process using heterogeneous catalyst to reduce FFA content prior to the base-catalyzed transesterification. The two-step in situ process resulted in a total FAME recovery up to 94.87±0.86%, which was much higher than that obtained by a one-step acid or base catalytic in situ process. The heterogeneous catalyst, Amberlyst-15, could be used for 8 cycles without significant loss in activity. This process have the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. PMID:23548399

  16. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves.

    PubMed

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  17. Chlorogenic acid content, essential oil compositions, and in vitro antioxidant activities of Chromolaena odorata leaves

    PubMed Central

    Pitakpawasutthi, Yamon; Thitikornpong, Worathat; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2016-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Rob. is a Thai medicinal plant used for the treatment of wounds, rashes, diabetes, and insect repellent. The leaves of C. odorata were collected from 10 different sources throughout Thailand. The chemical constituents of essential oils were hydro-distilled from the leaves and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Chlorogenic acid contents were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - densitometry with winCATS software and TLC image analysis with ImageJ software. The TLC plate was developed in the mobile phase that consisted of ethyl acetate:water:formic acid (17:3:2). Antioxidant activities were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. C. odorata essential oil has shown the major components of pregeijerene, dauca-5, 8-diene, (E)-caryophyllene, β-pinene, and α-pinene. The chlorogenic acid content of C. odorata leaves was determined by TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis. Results have shown that TLC-densitometry and TLC image analysis method were not statistically significantly different. DPPH radical scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays of ethanolic extract of C. odorata leaves showed its antioxidant potential. PMID:27144150

  18. Decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialic acid content is associated with increased erythrocyte aggregation in human diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M E; Williams, D T; Niththyananthan, R; Rampling, M W; Heslop, K E; Johnston, D G

    1992-03-01

    1. Sialic acid moieties of erythrocyte membrane glycoproteins are the principal determinants of the negative charge on the cell surface. The resultant electrostatic repulsion between the cells reduces erythrocyte aggregation and hence the low shear rate viscosity and yield stress of blood. 2. Using g.c.-m.s., a decrease in sialic acid content has been observed in the major erythrocyte membrane glycoprotein, glycophorin A, obtained from nine diabetic patients compared with that from seven normal control subjects [median (range): 3.30 (0.01-11.90) versus 18.60 (3.20-32.60) micrograms/100 micrograms of protein, P less than 0.02]. 3. Erythrocyte aggregation, measured by viscometry as the ratio of suspension viscosity to supernatant viscosity (LS/S) in fibrinogen solution, was increased in ten diabetic patients compared with ten normal control subjects (mean +/- SEM, 37.6 +/- 1.3 versus 33.8 +/- 0.6, P less than 0.02). 4. In the patients in whom both viscometry and carbohydrate analysis were performed, the decrease in erythrocyte glycophorin sialylation and the increase in erythrocyte aggregation in fibrinogen solution were related statistically (LS/S correlated negatively with glycophorin sialic acid content, r = 0.73, P less than 0.05). 5. Decreased glycophorin sialylation provides an explanation at the molecular level for increased erythrocyte aggregation and it may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular disease in diabetes. PMID:1312416

  19. Phosphate solubilizing and indole-3-acetic acid producing bacteria from the soil of Garhwal Himalaya aimed to improve the growth of rice.

    PubMed

    Gusain, Yogendra Singh; Kamal, Ranveer; Mehta, C M; Singh, U S; Sharma, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, soil bacteria from rainfed agriculture field of Garhwal Himalaya, just prior to sowing of summer crop, were isolated and initially tested for solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophore. Two bacterial isolates, having efficient P- solubilizing activity in solid medium, were identified using 16S rRNA sequence analysis as Pseudomonas koreensis strainYB1 Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB3 and three bacterial isolates, producing high amount of IAA in liquid medium, were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca strainYB2 and two strain of Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, strainYB4 and YB5, respectively. In culture medium supplemented with L-Tryptophan, Klebsiella oxytoca produced high amount of IAA (337.44 μg l(-1)). The selected five bacterial strains were further tested for tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilizing abilities at three different incubation temperature viz., 4 degrees C, 10 degrees C and 28 degrees C, under in vitro conditions. At 28 degrees C, three bacterial strains Pseudomonas koreensis, Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB4 and Klebsiella oxytoca solubilized the phosphate efficiently. At 10 degrees C only two strains, Pseudomonas koreensis and Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus strainYB4 solubilized phosphate efficiently as compared to other strains. These five bacterial strains were tested for nitrogen, catalase activity, starch and cellulose hydrolysis as well as growth promotion activity on rice, under controlled conditions. All the five bacterial strains efficiently increased the biomass and phosphorus uptake in Swama and Swarna sub1 varieties of rice. PMID:26536808

  20. Polycarboxylic acids as network modifiers for water durability improvement of inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate low-melting glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Menaa, Bouzid . E-mail: bouzidmenaa@noncry.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Mizuno, Megumi; Takahashi, Masahide . E-mail: masahide@noncry.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2006-02-15

    We investigated the water durability of the inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate glasses Me{sub 2}SiO-SnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (Me designs the organic methyl group) doped with organic acids (salicylic acid (SA), tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (Canada) and butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)) containing one or more of carboxylic groups per molecule. The structure, thermal properties and durability of the final glasses obtained via a non-aqueous acid-base reaction were discussed owing to the nature and the concentration of the acid added. {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 31}P MAS NMR spectra, respectively, showed clearly a modification of the network in the host glass matrix of the Me{sub 2}SiO-SnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system. The polycondensation enhancement to form -P-O-Si-O-P- linkages (PSP) and the increase of the Q {sup 2} unit (two bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) over the Q {sup 3} unit (three bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) as a function of the acid in the order SAacids containing a large number of carboxylic groups per molecule. The presence of carboxylic groups of the acid acting as network modifier may retard the movement of water molecules through the glasses due to the steric hindrance strengthening the PSP connections in a chain-like structure.

  1. Trans- and cis-urocanic acid, biogenic amine and amino acid contents in ikan pekasam (fermented fish) produced from Javanese carp (Puntius gonionotus) and black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Ezzat, M A; Zare, D; Karim, R; Ghazali, H M

    2015-04-01

    Ikan pekasam is a fermented fish product produced in Malaysia and is usually made from freshwater fish with ground roasted uncooked rice as the main source of carbohydrate. In this study, the amino acid, biogenic amine, and trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) contents of fifteen commercial samples of Ikan pekasam made from Javanese carp and black tilapia, that had undergone either natural or acid-assisted fermentation, were quantified. The latter includes either tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pulp or dried slices of Garcinia atroviridis fruit in the fermentation process. Results showed that there are no significant differences in most of the biogenic amines including histamine, while there are significant differences in total UCA content, and trans- and cis-UCA contents between the two samples. Differences in the amino acid contents were largely fish-dependent. PMID:25442635

  2. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello

    PubMed Central

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. PMID:22639626

  3. Effect of Pre-Harvest Foliar Application of Citric Acid and Malic Acid on Chlorophyll Content and Post-Harvest Vase Life of Lilium cv. Brunello.

    PubMed

    Darandeh, Nafiseh; Hadavi, Ebrahim

    2011-01-01

    Citric acid is a regular ingredient in many vase solution formulations but pre-harvest use of citric acid is a novel method in vase life extension of cut flowers, which is reported on tuberose earlier. In order to verify previous result, and check for possible substitution of citric acid by malic acid, the current research was designed. Citric acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) and malic acid (0, 0.075, 0.15% w/v) were used in a factorial design with three replications. Foliar sprays were applied two times during growth period of Lilium plants. The results point out that 0.15% citric acid alone had increased vase life from 11.8 in control treatment to 14 days (α < 0.05). The interesting finding was the effect of citric acid on bulbil weight, which was decreased from 9 g in control to 1.5 g in treatment containing combination of 0.075% citric acid and 0.075% malic acid. Malic acid while having no direct effect on pre-mentioned traits surprisingly increased the chlorophyll content significantly. The interaction effect between citric acid and malic acid on vase life and chlorophyll content proved significant and was evident in results, both as antagonistic and synergistic in various traits. PMID:22639626

  4. [The oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed amaranth grain].

    PubMed

    Rodas, Brenda; Bressani, Ricardo

    2009-03-01

    The oil, fatty acid and squalene content of varieties of raw and processed grain amaranth. Six amaranth grain varieties were processed to yield a nixtamalized flour, one cooked in water, one expanded, a malted one and a laminate samples after a thermic treatment. The chemical values of the raw samples contained from 14.5% to 15.1% protein, 5.9 to 6.7% ether extract and from 2.3% to 3.2% ash on a dry weight basis. The flours from the different processes yield products with a fat content which varied from 6.4% to 7.0% for the 6 varieties. The flours coming from dry heat processing contained higher oil levels than those flours coming from wet processes. The oil from only 3 varieties and from 4 processes were analyzed from its fatty acid composition. The oil contained on the average 17.85% of C16:0, 68.1% of stearic, olic and linoleic acids, 3.86% of C18:3, 5.1% of C20:0 and small amounts of C20:1 and C22:0. The squalene content in the oil of the processed flours varied from 7.0 to 9.6 g/100 g for the raw flour, 8.1 -12.6 g/100 g for the flour from wet cooking in water, 9.0 -12.7g/ 100 g for the flour from the nixtamalization process, 10.1-12.8g/ 100 g for the expanded grain flour, 9.0 to 11.2 g/100 g for the malted flour and 6.0-9.5 g/100 g for the laminated grain flour. The squalene averages per process showed statistical significant differences. PMID:19480349

  5. Cardiolipin linoleic acid content and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity are associated in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Val Andrew; McMeekin, Lauren; Saint, Caitlin; LeBlanc, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an inner-mitochondrial membrane phospholipid that is important for optimal mitochondrial function. Specifically, CL and CL linoleic (18:2ω6) content are known to be positively associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. However, this association has not been examined in skeletal muscle. In this study, rats were fed high-fat diets with a naturally occurring gradient in linoleic acid (coconut oil [CO], 5.8%; flaxseed oil [FO], 13.2%; safflower oil [SO], 75.1%) in an attempt to alter both mitochondrial CL fatty acyl composition and COX activity in rat mixed hind-limb muscle. In general, mitochondrial membrane lipid composition was fairly resistant to dietary treatments as only modest changes in fatty acyl composition were detected in CL and other major mitochondrial phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). As a result of this resistance, CL 18:2ω6 content was not different between the dietary groups. Consistent with the lack of changes in CL 18:2ω6 content, mitochondrial COX activity was also not different between the dietary groups. However, correlational analysis using data obtained from rats across the dietary groups showed a significant relationship (p = 0.009, R(2) = 0.21). Specifically, our results suggest that CL 18:2ω6 content may positively influence mitochondrial COX activity thereby making this lipid molecule a potential factor related to mitochondrial health and function in skeletal muscle. PMID:25727371

  6. Effects of yeast trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1 on gene expression and carbohydrate contents of potato leaves under drought stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of drought-tolerant, elite varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a challenging task, which might be achieved by introducing transgenic lines into breeding. We previously demonstrated that strains of the White Lady potato cultivar that express the yeast trehalose-6-phosphate synthase ( TPS1) gene exhibit improved drought tolerance. Results We investigated the responses of the drought-sensitive potato cultivar White Lady and the drought-tolerant TPS1 transgenic variant to prolonged drought stress at both the transcriptional and metabolic levels. Leaf mRNA expression profiles were compared using the POCI microarray, which contains 42,034 potato unigene probes. We identified 379 genes of known function that showed at least a 2-fold change in expression across genotypes, stress levels or the interaction between these factors. Wild-type leaves had twice as many genes with altered expression in response to stress than TPS1 transgenic leaves, but 112 genes were differentially expressed in both strains. We identified 42 transcription factor genes with altered expression, of which four were uniquely up-regulated in TPS1 transgenic leaves. The majority of the genes with altered expression that have been implicated in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism were down-regulated in both the wild-type and TPS1 transgenic plants. In agreement with this finding, the starch concentration of the stressed leaves was very low. At the metabolic level, the contents of fructose, galactose and glucose were increased and decreased in the wild-type and TPS1 transgenic leaves, respectively, while the amounts of proline, inositol and raffinose were highly increased in both the wild-type and TPS1 transgenic leaves under drought conditions. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the most extensive transcriptional and metabolic analysis of a transgenic, drought-tolerant potato line. We identified four genes that were previously reported as drought

  7. Biomineralization of lepidocrocite and goethite by nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria: Effect of pH, bicarbonate, phosphate, and humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larese-Casanova, Philip; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Kappler, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Fe(III) solid phases are the products of Fe(II) oxidation by Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, but the Fe(III) phases reported to form within growth experiments are, at times, poorly crystalline and therefore difficult to identify, possibly due to the presence of ligands (e.g., phosphate, carbonate) that complex iron and disrupt iron (hydr)oxide precipitation. The scope of this study was to investigate the influences of geochemical solution conditions (pH, carbonate, phosphate, humic acids) on the Fe(II) oxidation rate and Fe(III) mineralogy. Fe(III) mineral characterization was performed using 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and μ-X-ray diffraction after oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) within Mops-buffered cell suspensions of Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1, a nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium. Lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) (90%), which also forms after chemical oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved O 2, and goethite (α-FeOOH) (10%) were produced at pH 7.0 in the absence of any strongly complexing ligands. Higher solution pH, increasing concentrations of carbonate species, and increasing concentrations of humic acids promoted goethite formation and caused little or no changes in Fe(II) oxidation rates. Phosphate species resulted in Fe(III) solids unidentifiable to our methods and significantly slowed Fe(II) oxidation rates. Our results suggest that Fe(III) mineralogy formed by bacterial Fe(II) oxidation is strongly influenced by solution chemistry, and the geochemical conditions studied here suggest lepidocrocite and goethite may coexist in aquatic environments where nitrate-reducing, Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria are active.

  8. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2007-09-01

    The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable. PMID:17594521

  9. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  10. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  11. Assessment of the arachidonic acid content in foods commonly consumed in the American diet.

    PubMed

    Taber, L; Chiu, C H; Whelan, J

    1998-12-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is an extremely important fatty acid involved in cell regulation. When provided in the diet, it is cogently incorporated in membrane phospholipids and enhances eicosanoid biosynthesis in vivo and in vitro; however, controversy exists as to the levels of AA in food and in the diet. This study determined the amount of AA in cooked and raw portions of beef (rib eye), chicken (breast and thigh), eggs, pork (loin), turkey (breast), and tuna; it compared these results to values published in Agriculture Handbook No. 8 (HB-8). The cooked portions were prepared as described in HB-8. With the exception of chicken thigh and tuna, the levels of AA (w/w) in the selected foods analyzed were significantly higher, in general, than those values published in HB-8. The greatest differences were observed in beef (raw and cooked), turkey breast (raw and cooked), and pork (cooked) where AA levels were twice that of the values in HB-8. In contrast, the AA and n-3 fatty acid contents in tuna were almost half the HB-8 values. The present data indicate that HB-8 tends to underreport the amounts of AA in a number of foods commonly consumed in the American diet, and new initiatives should be considered to validate and update the current database for fatty acid composition of foods. PMID:9930399

  12. Hierarchically structured meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content in acid catalysed esterification of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Arnaud; Wang, Quan-Yi; Wei, Yingxu; Liu, Zhongmin; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-11-15

    A simple synthesis pathway has been developed for the design of hierarchically structured spongy or spherical voids assembled meso-macroporous aluminosilicates with high tetrahedral aluminium content on the basis of the aqueous polymerisation of new stabilized alkoxy-bridged single molecular precursors. The intimate mixing of an aluminosilicate ester (sec-BuO)(2)-Al-O-Si(OEt)(3) and a silica co-reactant (tetramethoxysilane, TMOS) with variable ratios and the use of alkaline solutions (pH 13.0 and 13.5) improve significantly the heterocondensation rates between the highly reactive aluminium alkoxide part of the single precursor and added silica co-reactant, leading to aluminosilicate materials with high intra-framework aluminium content and low Si/Al ratios. The spherically-shaped meso-macroporosity was spontaneously generated by the release of high amount of liquid by-products (water/alcohol molecules) produced during the rapid hydrolysis and condensation processes of this double alkoxide and the TMOS co-reactant. It has been observed that both pH value and Al-Si/TMOS molar ratio can strongly affect the macroporous structure formation. Increasing pH value, even slightly from 13 to 13.5, can significantly favour the incorporation of Al atoms in tetrahedral position of the framework. After the total ionic exchange of Na(+) compensating cations, catalytic tests of obtained materials were realised in the esterification reaction of high free fatty acid (FFA) oils, showing their higher catalytic activity compared to commercial Bentonite clay, and their potential applications as catalyst supports in acid catalysed reactions. PMID:21875708

  13. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Alpay; Ar, İrfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  14. Geographic variation in the relationships of temperature, salinity or sigma sub t versus plant nutrient concentrations in the world ocean. [silicic acid, nitrate, and phosphate concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamykowski, D.; Zentara, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A NODC data set representing all regions of the world ocean was analyzed for temperature and sigma-t relationships with nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid. Six cubic regressions were for each ten degree square of latitude and longitude containing adequate data. World maps display the locations that allow the prediction of plant nutrient concentrations from temperature or sigma-t. Geographic coverage improves along the sequence: nitrate, phosphate, and silicic acid and is better for sigma-t than for temperature. Contour maps of the approximate temperature of sigma-t at which these nitrients are no longer measurable in a parcel of water are generated, based on a percentile analysis of the temperature or sigma-t at which less than a selected amount of plant nutrient occurs. Results are stored on magnetic tape in tabular form. The global potential to predict plant nutrient concentrations from remotely sensed temperature of sigma-t and to emphasize the latitudinally and longitudinally changing phytoplankton growth environment in present and past oceans is demonstrated.

  15. Arabidopsis plants deficient in plastidial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase show alterations in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction: interaction between ABA and primary metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Bermúdez, María Angeles; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) controls plant development and regulates plant responses to environmental stresses. A role for ABA in sugar regulation of plant development has also been well documented although the molecular mechanisms connecting the hormone with sugar signal transduction pathways are not well understood. In this work it is shown that Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapcp1gapcp2) are ABA insensitive in growth, stomatal closure, and germination assays. The ABA levels of gapcp1gapcp2 were normal, suggesting that the ABA signal transduction pathway is impaired in the mutants. ABA modified gapcp1gapcp2 gene expression, but the mutant response to the hormone differed from that observed in wild-type plants. The gene expression of the transcription factor ABI4, involved in both sugar and ABA signalling, was altered in gapcp1gapcp2, suggesting that their ABA insensitivity is mediated, at least partially, through this transcriptional regulator. Serine supplementation was able partly to restore the ABA sensitivity of gapcp1gapcp2, indicating that amino acid homeostasis and/or serine metabolism may also be important determinants in the connections of ABA with primary metabolism. Overall, these studies provide new insights into the links between plant primary metabolism and ABA signalling, and demonstrate the importance of plastidial glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in these interactions. PMID:21068209

  16. Nanouric acid or nanocalcium phosphate as central nidus to induce calcium oxalate stone formation: a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study on urinary nanocrystallites

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xu, Meng; Gui, Bao-Song; Wang, Feng-Xin; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to accurately analyze the relationship between calcium oxalate (CaOx) stone formation and the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Method High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction, fast Fourier transformation of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were performed to analyze the components of these nanocrystallites. Results The main components of CaOx stones are calcium oxalate monohydrate and a small amount of dehydrate, while those of urinary nanocrystallites are calcium oxalate monohydrate, uric acid, and calcium phosphate. The mechanism of formation of CaOx stones was discussed based on the components of urinary nanocrystallites. Conclusion The formation of CaOx stones is closely related both to the properties of urinary nanocrystallites and to the urinary components. The combination of HRTEM, fast Fourier transformation, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy could be accurately performed to analyze the components of single urinary nanocrystallites. This result provides evidence for nanouric acid and/or nanocalcium phosphate crystallites as the central nidus to induce CaOx stone formation. PMID:25258530

  17. Studies on the growth and indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid content of Zea mays seedlings grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, A.; Jensen, P. J.; Desrosiers, M.; Buta, J. G.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements were made of the fresh weight, dry weight, dry weight-fresh weight ratio, free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, and free and conjugated abscisic acid in seedlings of Zea mays grown in darkness in microgravity and on earth. Imbibition of the dry kernels was 17 h prior to launch. Growth was for 5 d at ambient orbiter temperature and at a chronic accelerational force of the order of 3 x 10(-5) times earth gravity. Weights and hormone content of the microgravity seedlings were, with minor exceptions, not statistically different from seedlings grown in normal gravity. The tissues of the shuttle-grown plants appeared normal and the seedlings differed only in the lack of orientation of roots and shoots. These findings, based upon 5 d of growth in microgravity, cannot be extrapolated to growth in microgravity for weeks, months, and years, as might occur on a space station. Nonetheless, it is encouraging, for prospects of bioregeneration of the atmosphere and food production in a space station, that no pronounced differences in the parameters measured were apparent during the 5 d of plant seedling growth in microgravity.

  18. The effects of dormancy status on the endogenous contents and biological activities of jasmonic acid, n-(jasmonoyl)-isoleucine, and tuberonic acid in potato tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of storage and dormancy progression on the endogenous contents and the growth-regulating activities of jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile), and tuberonic acid (TA) were determined in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Russet Burbank) minitubers and seed tubers over several ha...

  19. Distribution of natural radionuclides in the production and use of phosphate fertilizers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Saueia, C H R; Mazzilli, B P

    2006-01-01

    The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product, phosphoric acid and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) as by-products. Phosphoric acid is the starting material for triple superphosphate (TSP), single superphosphate (SSP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP). The phosphate rock used as raw material presents in its composition radionuclides of the U and Th natural series. Taking this into account, the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the fluxes of natural radionuclides and radioactive disequilibria involved in the Brazilian industrial process of phosphoric acid production; to determine the content of radioactivity in several commercial fertilizers produced by this industry; to estimate their radiological impact in crop soils and the long term exposure due to their application. Radiological characterization of phosphate rock, phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers was performed by alpha and gamma spectrometry. The fertilizer samples, which are derived directly from phosphoric acid, MAP and DAP, presented in their composition low activity concentrations for 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb. As for U and Th, the concentrations found in MAP and DAP are more significant, up to 822 and 850Bqkg(-1), respectively. SSP and TSP, which are obtained by mixing phosphoric acid with different amounts of phosphate rock, presented higher concentrations of radionuclides, up to 1158Bqkg(-1) for (238)U, 1167Bqkg(-1) for (234)U, 1169Bqkg(-1) for 230Th, 879Bqkg(-1) for 226Ra, 1255Bqkg(-1) for 210Pb, 521Bqkg(-1) for 232Th, 246Bqkg(-1) for 228Ra and 302Bqkg(-1) for 228Th. Long term exposure due to successive fertilizer applications was evaluated. Internal doses due to the application of phosphate fertilizer for 10, 50 and 100 years were below 1mSvy(-1), showing that the radiological impact of such practice is negligible. PMID:16849030

  20. Purification and properties of a phospholipase A2/lipase preferring phosphatidic acid, bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate, and monoacylglycerol from rat testis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masafumi; Tchoua, Urbain; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Tojo, Hiromasa

    2002-11-15

    Phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) was purified to homogeneity from the supernatant fraction of rat testis homogenate. The purified 63-kDa enzyme did not require Ca(2+) ions for activity and exhibited both phosphatidic acid-preferring PLA(2) and monoacylglycerol lipase activities with a modest specificity toward unsaturated acyl chains. Anionic detergents enhanced these activities. Serine-modifying irreversible inhibitors, (p-amidinophenyl) methanesulfonyl fluoride and methylarachidonyl fluorophosphonate, inhibited both activities to a similar extent, indicating a single active site is involved in PLA(2) and lipase activities. The sequence of NH(2)-terminal 12 amino acids of purified enzyme was identical to that of a carboxylesterase from rat liver. The optimal pH for PLA(2) activity (around 5.5) differed from that for lipase activity (around 8.0). At pH 5.5 the enzyme also hydrolyzed bis(monoacylglycerol) phosphate, or lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), that has been hitherto known as a secretory PLA(2)-resistant phospholipid and a late endosome marker. LBPA-enriched fractions were prepared from liver lysosome fractions of chloroquine-treated rats, treated with excess of pancreatic PLA(2), and then used for assaying LBPA-hydrolyzing activity. LBPA and the reaction products were identified by microbore normal phase high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry. These enzymatic properties suggest that the enzyme can metabolize phosphatidic and lysobisphosphatidic acids in cellular acidic compartments. PMID:12223468

  1. Substitution of glutamine for lysine at the pyridoxal phosphate binding site of bacterial D-amino acid transaminase. Effects of exogenous amines on the slow formation of intermediates.

    PubMed

    Futaki, S; Ueno, H; Martinez del Pozo, A; Pospischil, M A; Manning, J M; Ringe, D; Stoddard, B; Tanizawa, K; Yoshimura, T; Soda, K

    1990-12-25

    In bacterial D-amino acid transaminase, Lys-145, which binds the coenzyme pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in Schiff base linkage, was changed to Gln-145 by site-directed mutagenesis (K145Q). The mutant enzyme had 0.015% the activity of the wild-type enzyme and was capable of forming a Schiff base with D-alanine; this external aldimine was formed over a period of minutes depending upon the D-alanine concentration. The transformation of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate form of the enzyme to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form (i.e. the half-reaction of transamination) occurred over a period of hours with this mutant enzyme. Thus, information on these two steps in the reaction and on the factors that influence them can readily be obtained with this mutant enzyme. In contrast, these reactions with the wild-type enzyme occur at much faster rates and are not easily studied separately. The mutant enzyme shows distinct preference for D- over L-alanine as substrates but it does so about 50-fold less effectively than the wild-type enzyme. Thus, Lys-145 probably acts in concert with the coenzyme and other functional side chain(s) to lead to efficient and stereochemically precise transamination in the wild-type enzyme. The addition of exogenous amines, ethanolamine or methyl amine, increased the rate of external aldimine formation with D-alanine and the mutant enzyme but the subsequent transformation to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate form of the enzyme was unaffected by exogenous amines. The wild-type enzyme displayed a large negative trough in the circular dichroic spectrum at 420 nm, which was practically absent in the mutant enzyme. However, addition of D-alanine to the mutant enzyme generated this negative Cotton effect (due to formation of the external aldimine with D-alanine). This circular dichroism band gradually collapsed in parallel with the transformation to the pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate enzyme. Further studies on this mutant enzyme, which displays the characteristics of the wild

  2. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    PubMed

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens. PMID:10824962

  3. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family

    PubMed Central

    Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g-1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid . PMID:22438661

  5. Biochemical composition and fatty acid content of zooplankton from tropical lagoon for larval rearing.

    PubMed

    Lokman, H S

    1993-01-01

    Zooplankton samples were collected from the indigenous tropical brackish water lagoon during the wet monsoon (January and February 1990) and the dry monsoon (April and May 1990). The dominant copepod species in the zooplankton community comprising of Oithona sp (especially O. nana and O. robusta) accounted for more than 70% of the zooplankton in January and was gradually replaced by other zooplanktonic species later in the dry season. The lipid contents in zooplankton varied from 0.18 to 1.04% wet weight or 1.14 to 5.92% dry weight respectively. The major fatty acid contents of the zooplankton showed high concentration of 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:6 omega 3 especially in the wet season. It also contained high omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid series necessary for the growth of commercial fish larvae. It has a better food value than the normally use food organism, brine shrimp; thus reflecting its potential use as food organism for fish larval rearing. PMID:7508281

  6. Oleic acid content is responsible for the reduction in blood pressure induced by olive oil

    PubMed Central

    Terés, S.; Barceló-Coblijn, G.; Benet, M.; Álvarez, R.; Bressani, R.; Halver, J. E.; Escribá, P. V.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as α-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (≈70–80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (HII phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA. PMID:18772370

  7. Intramuscular fat content and genetic variants at fatty acid-binding protein loci in Austrian pigs.

    PubMed

    Nechtelberger, D; Pires, V; Söolknet, J; Stur; Brem, G; Mueller, M; Mueller, S

    2001-11-01

    Intramuscular fat is an important meat quality trait in pig production. Previously, genetic variants of the heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene and the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP) gene were suggested to be associated with intramuscular fat content. The objective of this investigation was to study these associations in the three most important Austrian breeding populations (Piétrain, Large White, and Landrace). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the H-FABP gene revealed a new MspI polymorphic site and genetic variation in all three breeds. Microsatellite analysis of the A-FABP locus showed up to nine different microsatellite alleles segregating. In Austrian breeds, no significant influence of the A-FABP and H-FABP gene polymorphisms on intramuscular fat could be detected. We also evaluated possible associations between the genetic variations at the H-FABP and A-FABP loci and other growth and carcass traits (average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, lean meat content, pH values, meat color, and drip loss). With regard to the extent of the effects, these genetic markers cannot be recommended for selection on growth and carcass traits in Austrian breeding populations. PMID:11768107

  8. Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid reduces neutral lipid content and may affect cryotolerance of in vitro-produced crossbred bovine embryos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to high neutral lipids accumulation in the cytoplasm, in vitro-produced embryos from Bos primigenius indicus and their crosses are more sensitive to chilling and cryopreservation than those from Bos primigenius taurus. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the development and cryotolerance of crossbred Bos primigenius taurus x Bos primigenius indicus embryos produced in vitro, and cultured in the presence of fetal calf serum. Bovine zygotes (n = 1,692) were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) Control, zygotes cultured in Charles Rosenkrans 2 amino acid (CR2aa) medium (n = 815) or 2) CLA, zygotes cultured in CR2aa medium supplemented with 100 μmol/L of trans-10, cis-12 CLA (n = 877). Embryo development (cleavage and blastocyst rates evaluated at days 3 and 8 of culture, respectively), lipid content at morula stage (day 5) and blastocyst cryotolerance (re-expansion and hatching rates, evaluated 24 and 72 h post-thawing, respectively) were compared between groups. Additionally, selected mRNA transcripts were measured by Real–Time PCR in blastocyst stage. Results The CLA treatment had no effect on cleavage and blastocyst rates, or on mRNA levels for genes related to cellular stress and apoptosis. On the other hand, abundance of mRNA for the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate 0-acyltransferase-encoding gene (AGPAT), which is involved in triglycerides synthesis, and consequently neutral lipid content, were reduced by CLA treatment. A significant increase was observed in the re-expansion rate of embryos cultured with trans-10, cis-12 CLA when compared to control (56.3 vs. 34.4%, respectively, P = 0.002). However, this difference was not observed in the hatching rate (16.5 vs. 14.0%, respectively, P = 0.62). Conclusions The supplementation with trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer in culture medium reduced the lipid content of in vitro produced

  9. Comparison of lipid content and fatty acid composition and their distribution within seeds of 5 small grain species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, oats, rice, sorghum, and wheat, each with two genotypes, were sequentially abraded by an electric seed scarifier. The pearling fines (PF) and pearled kernels (PK) at each cycle were analyzed for lipid (mostly nonpolar) content and fatty acid (FA)composition. The oil content in whole or deh...

  10. Inheritance of sugar and acid contents in the ripe berries of a tetraploid x diploid grape cross population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inheritance patterns of sugar and organic acid contents of ripe berries in a tetraploid x diploid table grape cross population were investigated in two successive years. The population segregated for three different ploidy levels: dipolids, triploids, and tetraploids. Sugar content in tetraploid pro...

  11. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    PubMed

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  12. Variations in caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents of coffees: what are we drinking?

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Mena, Pedro; Calani, Luca; Cid, Concepción; Del Rio, Daniele; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    The effect of roasting of coffee beans and the extraction of ground coffee with different volumes of hot pressurised water on the caffeine and the total caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) content of the resultant beverages was investigated. While caffeine was stable higher roasting temperatures resulted in a loss of CQAs so that the caffeine/CQA ratio was a good marker of the degree of roasting. The caffeine and CQA content and volume was determined for 104 espresso coffees obtained from coffee shops in Scotland, Italy and Spain, limited numbers of cappuccino coffees from commercial outlets and several instant coffees. The caffeine content ranged from 48-317 mg per serving and CQAs from 6-188 mg. It is evident that the ingestion of 200 mg of caffeine per day can be readily and unwittingly exceeded by regular coffee drinkers. This is the upper limit of caffeine intake from all sources recommended by US and UK health agencies for pregnant women. In view of the variable volume of serving sizes, it is also clear that the term "one cup of coffee" is not a reproducible measurement for consumption, yet it is the prevailing unit used in epidemiology to assess coffee consumption and to link the potential effects of the beverage and its components on the outcome of diseases. More accurate measurement of the intake of coffee and its potentially bioactive components are required if epidemiological studies are to produce more reliable information. PMID:25014672

  13. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity, and fecal water content

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Do Kyung; Jang, Seok; Baek, Eun Hye; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Kyung Soon; Shin, Hea Soon; Chung, Myung Jun; Kim, Jin Eung; Lee, Kang Oh; Ha, Nam Joo

    2009-01-01

    Background Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as lower cholesterol. Although present in many foods, most trials have been in spreads or dairy products. Here we tested whether Bifidobacteria isolates could lower cholesterol, inhibit harmful enzyme activities, and control fecal water content. Methods In vitro culture experiments were performed to evaluate the ability of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Koreans (20~30 years old) to reduce cholesterol-levels in MRS broth containing polyoxyethanylcholesterol sebacate. Animal experiments were performed to investigate the effects on lowering cholesterol, inhibiting harmful enzyme activities, and controlling fecal water content. For animal studies, 0.2 ml of the selected strain cultures (108~109 CFU/ml) were orally administered to SD rats (fed a high-cholesterol diet) every day for 2 weeks. Results B. longum SPM1207 reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL levels significantly (p < 0.05), and slightly increased serum HDL. B. longum SPM1207 also increased fecal LAB levels and fecal water content, and reduced body weight and harmful intestinal enzyme activities. Conclusion Daily consumption of B. longum SPM1207 can help in managing mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia, with potential to improve human health by helping to prevent colon cancer and constipation. PMID:19515264

  14. Renal cortex taurine content regulates renal adaptive response to altered dietary intake of sulfur amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, R W; Gusowski, N; Dabbagh, S

    1985-01-01

    Rats fed a reduced sulfur amino acid diet (LTD) or a high-taurine diet (HTD) demonstrate a renal adaptive response. The LTD results in hypotaurinuria and enhanced brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) accumulation of taurine. The HTD causes hypertaurinuria and reduced BBMV uptake. This adaptation may relate to changes in plasma or renal cortex taurine concentration. Rats were fed a normal-taurine diet (NTD), LTD, or HTD for 14 d or they underwent: (a) 3% beta-alanine for the last 8 d of each diet; (b) 3 d of fasting; or (c) a combination of 3% beta-alanine added for 8 d and 3 d of fasting. Each maneuver lowered the cortex taurine concentration, but did not significantly lower plasma taurine values compared with controls. Increased BBMV taurine uptake occurred after each manipulation. Feeding 3% glycine did not alter the plasma, renal cortex, or urinary taurine concentrations, or BBMV uptake of taurine. Feeding 3% methionine raised plasma and urinary taurine excretion but renal tissue taurine was unchanged, as was initial BBMV uptake. Hence, nonsulfur-containing alpha-amino acids did not change beta-amino acid transport. The increase in BBMV uptake correlates with the decline in renal cortex and plasma taurine content. However, since 3% methionine changed plasma taurine without altering BBMV uptake, it is more likely that the change in BBMV uptake and the adaptive response expressed at the brush border surface relate to changes in renal cortex taurine concentrations. Finally, despite changes in urine and renal cortex taurine content, brain taurine values were unchanged, which suggests that this renal adaptive response maintains stable taurine concentrations where taurine serves as a neuromodulator. PMID:3935668

  15. Effect of quarantine treatments on the carbohydrate and organic acid content of mangoes (cv. Tommy Atkins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. N.; Soares, C. A.; Fabbri, A. D. T.; Cordenunsi, B. R.; Sabato, S. F.

    2012-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest mango producers and the third largest mango exporter worldwide. Irradiation treatment and its commercial feasibility have been studied in our country to make it possible to develop new markets and, consequently, to compete with the major exporters of mangoes, Mexico and India. This work was designed to compare irradiation treatment with the hot water dip treatment in mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins for export and to verify that the main attributes for acceptance, color and texture, as well as carbohydrate and organic acid contents, were maintained. In this study, the fruit was divided into groups: control, hot water dip-treated (46 °C for 90 min), and irradiation-treated at doses of 0.4 kGy and 1.0 kGy. The fruit was stored at low temperature (11 °C±2) for 14 days and then at room temperature (23 °C±2) until the end of the study. The results indicated that the fruit given a dose of 1.0 kGy remained in a less advanced stage of ripening (stage 3) throughout the storage period, but experienced a greater loss of texture in the beginning of the experiment. It was noted that only the control group had higher levels of citric acid and succinic acid on the last day of the experiment. There were no significant differences in the total sugar content between any treatment groups. Gamma radiation can be used as a quarantine treatment and does not interfere negatively with the quality attributes of mangoes.

  16. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  17. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  18. PuPO4(cr, hyd.) Solubility Product and Pu3+ Complexes With Phosphate and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bolton, Harvey

    2010-06-15

    To determine the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) and the complexation constants of Pu(III) with phosphate and EDTA, the solubility of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) was investigated as a function of: 1) time and pH varying from 1.0 to 12.0 and at a fixed 0.00032 M phosphate concentration; 2) NaH2PO4 concentrations varying from 0.0001 M to 1.0 M and at a fixed pH value of 2.5; 3) time and pH varying from 1.3 to 13.0 at fixed concentrations of 0.00032 M phosphate and 0.0004 M or 0.002 M Na2H2EDTA; and 4) Na2H2EDTA concentrations varying from 0.00005 M to 0.0256 M at a fixed 0.00032 M phosphate concentration and at pH values of approximately 3.5, 10.6, and 12.6. A combination of solvent extraction and spectrophotometric techniques confirmed that the use of hydroquinone and Na2S2O4 helped maintain Pu as Pu(III). The solubility data were interpreted using Pitzer and SIT models, and both provided similar values for the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) and for the formation constant of PuEDTA-. The log10 of the solubility product of PuPO4(cr, hyd.) (PuPO4(cr, hyd.) = Pu3+ + PO4 ) was determined to be –(24.42 ± 0.38). Pitzer modeling showed that phosphate interactions with Pu3+ were extremely weak and did not require any phosphate complexes (e.g., PuPO4(aq), PuH2PO42+, Pu(H2PO4)2+, Pu(H2PO4)3(aq), and Pu(H2PO4)4-), as proposed in existing literature, to explain the experimental data. SIT modeling, however, required the inclusion of PuH2PO42+ to explain the data in high NaH2PO4 concentrations; this illustrates the differences one can expect when using these two chemical models to interpret the data. As the Pu(III)-EDTA species, only PuEDTA- was needed to interpret the experimental data in a large range in pH values (1.3–12.9) and EDTA concentrations (0.00005–0.256 M). Calculations based on density functional theory support the existence of PuEDTA- (with prospective stoichiometry as Pu(OH2)3EDTA-) as the chemically and structurally stable species. The log10 of the

  19. A thraustochytrid diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 with broad substrate specificity strongly increases oleic acid content in engineered Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Iskandarov, Umidjon; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2013-01-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyses the last step in acyl-CoA-dependent triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and is an important determinant of cellular oil content and quality. In this study, a gene, designated TaDGAT2, encoding a type 2 DGAT (DGAT2)-related enzyme was identified from the oleaginous marine protist Thraustochytrium aureum. The deduced TaDGAT2 sequence contains a ~460 amino acid domain most closely related to DGAT2s from Dictyostelium sp. (45–50% identity). Recombinant TaDGAT2 restored TAG biosynthesis to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246 TAG-deficient mutant, and microsomes from the complemented mutant displayed DGAT activity with C16 and C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA and diacylglycerol substrates. To examine its biotechnological potential, TaDGAT2 was expressed under control of a strong seed-specific promoter in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the high linoleic acid fad3fae1 mutant. In both backgrounds, little change was detected in seed oil content, but a striking increase in oleic acid content of seeds was observed. This increase was greatest in fad3fae1 seeds, where relative amounts of oleic acid increased nearly 2-fold to >50% of total fatty acids. In addition, >2-fold increase in oleic acid levels was detected in the triacylglycerol sn-2 position and in the major seed phospholipid phosphatidylcholine. These results suggest that increased seed oleic acid content mediated by TaDGAT2 is influenced in part by the fatty acid composition of host cells and occurs not by enhancing oleic acid content at the TAG sn-3 position directly but by increasing total oleic acid levels in seeds, presumably by limiting flux through phosphatidylcholine-based desaturation reactions. PMID:23814277

  20. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:15223592

  1. Apicoplast-Localized Lysophosphatidic Acid Precursor Assembly Is Required for Bulk Phospholipid Synthesis in Toxoplasma gondii and Relies on an Algal/Plant-Like Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Damien L.; Dubois, David; van Dooren, Giel G.; Shears, Melanie J.; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Maréchal, Eric; McConville, Malcolm J.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Yamaryo-Botté, Yoshiki; Botté, Cyrille Y.

    2016-01-01

    Most apicomplexan parasites possess a non-photosynthetic plastid (the apicoplast), which harbors enzymes for a number of metabolic pathways, including a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway. In Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, the FASII pathway is essential for parasite growth and infectivity. However, little is known about the fate of fatty acids synthesized by FASII. In this study, we have investigated the function of a plant-like glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (TgATS1) that localizes to the T. gondii apicoplast. Knock-down of TgATS1 resulted in significantly reduced incorporation of FASII-synthesized fatty acids into phosphatidic acid and downstream phospholipids and a severe defect in intracellular parasite replication and survival. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that lipid precursors are made in, and exported from, the apicoplast for de novo biosynthesis of bulk phospholipids. This study reveals that the apicoplast-located FASII and ATS1, which are primarily used to generate plastid galactolipids in plants and algae, instead generate bulk phospholipids for membrane biogenesis in T. gondii. PMID:27490259

  2. Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate from PC12 cells, a phospholipid that can comigrate with phosphatidic acid: molecular species analysis by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, P G; Pannell, L K; Murata, Y; Daly, J W

    1992-05-01

    Phospholipids from pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were purified by one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Material corresponding in RF to phosphatidic acid (PA) was analyzed by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB). The molecular ions of the major constituents corresponded in mass to phosphatidylglycerols (PG), which, however, have a lower RF value. Analysis of the mass spectra demonstrated that this material consists of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphates (BMP, lysobisphosphatidic acid), a structural isomers of PG. Linked scans of individual molecular ions indicate that BMP from PC12 cells is esterified almost exclusively with monounsaturated (16:1 and 18:1) and polyunsaturated (20:4 and 22:6) fatty acids. One of the two major molecular species contains two monounsaturated (18:1/18:1), while the other contains both a monounsaturated (18:1) and a polyunsaturated (22:6) fatty acid ester. FAB in combination with TLC is ideally suited for analysis of molecular species of phospholipids. PMID:1596522

  3. Apicoplast-Localized Lysophosphatidic Acid Precursor Assembly Is Required for Bulk Phospholipid Synthesis in Toxoplasma gondii and Relies on an Algal/Plant-Like Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Amiar, Souad; MacRae, James I; Callahan, Damien L; Dubois, David; van Dooren, Giel G; Shears, Melanie J; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Maréchal, Eric; McConville, Malcolm J; McFadden, Geoffrey I; Yamaryo-Botté, Yoshiki; Botté, Cyrille Y

    2016-08-01

    Most apicomplexan parasites possess a non-photosynthetic plastid (the apicoplast), which harbors enzymes for a number of metabolic pathways, including a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway. In Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, the FASII pathway is essential for parasite growth and infectivity. However, little is known about the fate of fatty acids synthesized by FASII. In this study, we have investigated the function of a plant-like glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (TgATS1) that localizes to the T. gondii apicoplast. Knock-down of TgATS1 resulted in significantly reduced incorporation of FASII-synthesized fatty acids into phosphatidic acid and downstream phospholipids and a severe defect in intracellular parasite replication and survival. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that lipid precursors are made in, and exported from, the apicoplast for de novo biosynthesis of bulk phospholipids. This study reveals that the apicoplast-located FASII and ATS1, which are primarily used to generate plastid galactolipids in plants and algae, instead generate bulk phospholipids for membrane biogenesis in T. gondii. PMID:27490259

  4. Further increased production of free fatty acids by overexpressing a predicted transketolase gene of the pentose phosphate pathway in Aspergillus oryzae faaA disruptant.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Koichi; Miura, Ai

    2016-09-01

    Free fatty acids are useful as source materials for the production of biodiesel fuel and various chemicals such as pharmaceuticals and dietary supplements. Previously, we attained a 9.2-fold increase in free fatty acid productivity by disrupting a predicted acyl-CoA synthetase gene (faaA, AO090011000642) in Aspergillus oryzae. In this study, we achieved further increase in the productivity by overexpressing a predicted transketolase gene of the pentose phosphate pathway in the faaA disruptant. The A. oryzae genome is predicted to have three transketolase genes and overexpression of AO090023000345, one of the three genes, resulted in phenotypic change and further increase (corresponding to an increased production of 0.38 mmol/g dry cell weight) in free fatty acids at 1.4-fold compared to the faaA disruptant. Additionally, the biomass of hyphae increased at 1.2-fold by the overexpression. As a result, free fatty acid production yield per liter of liquid culture increased at 1.7-fold by the overexpression. PMID:26998626

  5. Calcium phosphate deposition rate, structure and osteoconductivity on electrospun poly(l-lactic acid) matrix using electrodeposition or simulated body fluid incubation

    PubMed Central

    He, Chuanglong; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X.

    2013-01-01

    Mineralized nanofibrous scaffolds have been proposed as promising scaffolds for bone regeneration due to their ability to mimic both nanoscale architecture and chemical composition of natural bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, a novel electrodeposition method was compared with an extensively explored simulated body fluid (SBF) incubation method in terms of the deposition rate, chemical composition, and morphology of calcium phosphate formed on electrospun fibrous thin matrices with a fiber diameter in the range from about 200 nm to about 1400 nm prepared using 6, 8, 10 and 12 wt% poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions in a mixture of dichloromethane and acetone (2:1 in volume). The effects of the surface modification using the two mineralization techniques on osteoblastic cell (MC3T3-E1) proliferation and differentiation were also examined. It was found that electrodeposition was two to three orders of magnitude faster than the SBF method in mineralizing the fibrous matrices, reducing the mineralization time from about two weeks to an hour to achieve the same amounts of mineralization. The mineralization rate also varied with the fiber diameter but in opposite directions between the two mineralization methods. As a general trend, the increase of fiber diameter resulted in a faster mineralization rate for the electrodeposition method but a slower mineralization rate for the SBF incubation method. Using the electrodeposition method, one can control the chemical composition and morphology of the calcium phosphate by varying the electric deposition potential and electrolyte temperature to tune the mixture of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and hydroxy apatite (HAp). Using the SBF method, one can only obtain a low crystallinity HAp. The mineralized electrospun PLLA fibrous matrices from either method similarly facilitate the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells as compared to neat PLLA matrices. Therefore, the

  6. Complexes of Silver(I) Ions and Silver Phosphate Nanoparticles with Hyaluronic Acid and/or Chitosan as Promising Antimicrobial Agents for Vascular Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Chudobova, Dagmar; Nejdl, Lukas; Gumulec, Jaromir; Krystofova, Olga; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Kynicky, Jindrich; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Kopel, Pavel; Babula, Petr; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are currently widely used to replace a variety of natural materials with respect to their favourable physical and chemical properties, and due to their economic advantage. One of the most important branches of application of polymers is the production of different products for medical use. In this case, it is necessary to face a significant disadvantage of polymer products due to possible and very common colonization of the surface by various microorganisms that can pose a potential danger to the patient. One of the possible solutions is to prepare polymer with antibacterial/antimicrobial properties that is resistant to bacterial colonization. The aim of this study was to contribute to the development of antimicrobial polymeric material ideal for covering vascular implants with subsequent use in transplant surgery. Therefore, the complexes of polymeric substances (hyaluronic acid and chitosan) with silver nitrate or silver phosphate nanoparticles were created, and their effects on gram-positive bacterial culture of Staphylococcus aureus were monitored. Stages of formation of complexes of silver nitrate and silver phosphate nanoparticles with polymeric compounds were characterized using electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of complexes was determined using the methods of determination of growth curves and zones of inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the complex of chitosan, with silver phosphate nanoparticles, was the most suitable in order to have an antibacterial effect on bacterial culture of Staphylococcus aureus. Formation of this complex was under way at low concentrations of chitosan. The results of electrochemical determination corresponded with the results of spectrophotometric methods and verified good interaction and formation of the complex. The complex has an outstanding antibacterial effect and this effect was of several orders higher compared to other investigated complexes

  7. Electrostatic interplay: The interaction triangle of polyamines, silicic acid, and phosphate studied through turbidity measurements, silicomolybdic acid test, and 29Si NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jantschke, Anne; Spinde, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Summary The discovery of long-chain polyamines as biomolecules that are tightly associated to biosilica in diatom cell walls has inspired numerous in vitro studies aiming to characterize polyamine–silica interactions. The determination of these interactions at the molecular level is of fundamental interest on one hand for the understanding of cell wall biogenesis in diatoms and on the other hand for designing bioinspired materials synthesis approaches. The present contribution deals with the influence of amines and polyamines upon the initial self-assembly processes taking place during polyamine-mediated silica formation in solution. The influence of phosphate upon these processes is studied. For this purpose, sodium metasilicate solutions containing additives such as polyallylamine, allylamine and others in the presence/absence of phosphate were investigated. The analyses are based mainly on turbidity measurements yielding information about the early aggregation steps which finally give rise to the formation and precipitation of silica. PMID:25551030

  8. Electrostatic interplay: The interaction triangle of polyamines, silicic acid, and phosphate studied through turbidity measurements, silicomolybdic acid test, and (29)Si NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jantschke, Anne; Spinde, Katrin; Brunner, Eike

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of long-chain polyamines as biomolecules that are tightly associated to biosilica in diatom cell walls has inspired numerous in vitro studies aiming to characterize polyamine-silica interactions. The determination of these interactions at the molecular level is of fundamental interest on one hand for the understanding of cell wall biogenesis in diatoms and on the other hand for designing bioinspired materials synthesis approaches. The present contribution deals with the influence of amines and polyamines upon the initial self-assembly processes taking place during polyamine-mediated silica formation in solution. The influence of phosphate upon these processes is studied. For this purpose, sodium metasilicate solutions containing additives such as polyallylamine, allylamine and others in the presence/absence of phosphate were investigated. The analyses are based mainly on turbidity measurements yielding information about the early aggregation steps which finally give rise to the formation and precipitation of silica. PMID:25551030

  9. Triploidy does not decrease contents of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in filets of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Artamonova, Valentina S; Makhrov, Alexander A; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Kalachova, Galina S; Dgebuadze, Yury Y

    2017-02-01

    Triploid fish has become an important item of commercial aquaculture, but data on its fatty acid (FA) composition are still controversial, especially regarding essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA). We studied FA composition and content of diploid and triploid pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, reared in aquaculture in a bay of the White Sea (Russia). FA composition, measured as percentages of total FA of triploids and immature diploid females significantly differed from that of mature diploid fish. Specifically, mature diploids had higher percentage of EPA and DHA in their muscle tissue (filets) compared to that of triploids and immature diploid females. Nevertheless, the contents of EPA and DHA per mass of the filets in diploid and triploid specimens were similar. Thus, no special efforts are needed to improve EPA and DHA contents in filets of triploids. PMID:27596393

  10. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. PMID:26514651

  11. Seasonal variation of fatty acid content in natural microplankton from the Tumpat coastal waters of the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shamsudin, L

    1998-07-01

    In the search for better understanding on the nutritional quality of natural tropical plankton, samples were collected from shallow coastal waters facing the South China Sea during the dry monsoon (May-September) and the wet monsoon (November-April) seasons from March 1993 to July 1994. The total fatty acid content of the predominantly phytoplankton communities (25-200 microns sieve nets) varied four to fivefold with the lowest value occurring during the dry monsoon when blue-green became predominant. Saturated fatty acid content (SAFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and total omega 3 (sigma omega 3) showed the same seasonal pattern as the total fatty acid with high values in October to December 1993. When species of the dinoflagellate Peridinium and Ceratium were present in considerable amount, the docosahexaenoic acid DHA content was high, especially from March to May 1993. The maximum content of eicosapentaenoic acid EPA, total omega-3 fatty acid, PUFA and sigma omega 3 in phytoplankton occurred during the pre-monsoon period (October and November 1993) when the diatoms were present in large amounts. The larger fraction sample (> 200 microns sieve nets) which consisted predominantly of zooplankton had high amounts of PUFA from September to November 1993. PMID:10099722

  12. Export of Abscisic Acid, 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid, Phosphate, and Nitrate from Roots to Shoots of Flooded Tomato Plants (Accounting for Effects of Xylem Sap Flow Rate on Concentration and Delivery).

    PubMed Central

    Else, M. A.; Hall, K. C.; Arnold, G. M.; Davies, W. J.; Jackson, M. B.

    1995-01-01

    We determined whether root stress alters the output of physiologically active messages passing from roots to shoots in the transpiration stream. Concentrations were not good measures of output. This was because changes in volume flow of xylem sap caused either by sampling procedures or by effects of root stress on rates of whole-plant transpiration modified concentrations simply by dilution. Thus, delivery rate (concentration x sap flow rate) was preferred to concentration as a measure of solute output from roots. To demonstrate these points, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), abscisic acid, phosphate, nitrate, and pH were measured in xylem sap of flooded and well-drained tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Ailsa Craig) plants expressed at various rates from pressurized detopped roots. Concentrations decreased as sap flow rates were increased. However, dilution of solutes was often less than proportional to flow, especially in flooded plants. Thus, sap flowing through detopped roots at whole-plant transpiration rates was used to estimate solute delivery rates in intact plants. On this basis, delivery of ACC from roots to shoots was 3.1-fold greater in plants flooded for 24 h than in well-drained plants, and delivery of phosphate was 2.3-fold greater. Delivery rates of abscisic acid and nitrate in flooded plants were only 11 and 7%, respectively, of those in well-drained plants. PMID:12228364

  13. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  14. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Ishima, Yuya; Takenaka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  15. Fabrication of Poly-l-lactic Acid/Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate Composite Scaffolds with High Mechanical Strength—Implications for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tanataweethum, Nida; Liu, Wai Ching; Scott Goebel, W.; Li, Ding; Chu, Tien Min

    2015-01-01

    Scaffolds were fabricated from poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)/dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) composite by indirect casting. Sodium citrate and PLLA were used to improve the mechanical properties of the DCPD scaffolds. The resulting PLLA/DCPD composite scaffold had increased diametral tensile strength and fracture energy when compared to DCPD only scaffolds (1.05 vs. 2.70 MPa and 2.53 vs. 12.67 N-mm, respectively). Sodium citrate alone accelerated the degradation rate by 1.5 times independent of PLLA. Cytocompatibility of all samples were evaluated using proliferation and differentiation parameters of dog-bone marrow stromal cells (dog-BMSCs). The results showed that viable dog-BMSCs attached well on both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD composite surfaces. In both DCPD and PLLA/DCPD conditioned medium, dog-BMSCs proliferated well and expressed alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity indicating cell differentiation. These findings indicate that incorporating both sodium citrate and PLLA could effectively improve mechanical strength and biocompatibility without increasing the degradation time of calcium phosphate cement scaffolds for bone tissue engineering purposes. PMID:26556380

  16. Structural and Functional Characterization of the Clostridium perfringens N-Acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate 2-Epimerase Essential for the Sialic Acid Salvage Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Pélissier, Marie-Cécile; Sebban-Kreuzer, Corinne; Guerlesquin, Françoise; Brannigan, James A.; Bourne, Yves; Vincent, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria are endowed with an arsenal of specialized enzymes to convert nutrient compounds from their cell hosts. The essential N-acetylmannosamine-6-phosphate 2-epimerase (NanE) belongs to a convergent glycolytic pathway for utilization of the three amino sugars, GlcNAc, ManNAc, and sialic acid. The crystal structure of ligand-free NanE from Clostridium perfringens reveals a modified triose-phosphate isomerase (β/α)8 barrel in which a stable dimer is formed by exchanging the C-terminal helix. By retaining catalytic activity in the crystalline state, the structure of the enzyme bound to the GlcNAc-6P product identifies the topology of the active site pocket and points to invariant residues Lys66 as a putative single catalyst, supported by the structure of the catalytically inactive K66A mutant in complex with substrate ManNAc-6P. 1H NMR-based time course assays of native NanE and mutated variants demonstrate the essential role of Lys66 for the epimerization reaction with participation of neighboring Arg43, Asp126, and Glu180 residues. These findings unveil a one-base catalytic mechanism of C2 deprotonation/reprotonation via an enolate intermediate and provide the structural basis for the development of new antimicrobial agents against this family of bacterial 2-epimerases. PMID:25320079

  17. Plastidial Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Leads to Altered Root Development and Affects the Sugar and Amino Acid Balance in Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Cascales-Miñana, Borja; Mulet, Jose Miguel; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Pozueta-Romero, Javier; Kuhn, Josef M.; Segura, Juan; Ros, Roc

    2009-01-01

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway that, in plants, occurs in both the cytosol and the plastids. The glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate with concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. Both cytosolic (GAPCs) and plastidial (GAPCps) GAPDH activities have been described. However, the in vivo functions of the plastidial isoforms remain unresolved. In this work, we have identified two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) chloroplast/plastid-localized GAPDH isoforms (GAPCp1 and GAPCp2). gapcp double mutants display a drastic phenotype of arrested root development, dwarfism, and sterility. In spite of their low gene expression level as compared with other GAPDHs, GAPCp down-regulation leads to altered gene expression and to drastic changes in the sugar and amino acid balance of the plant. We demonstrate that GAPCps are important for the synthesis of serine in roots. Serine supplementation to the growth medium rescues root developmental arrest and restores normal levels of carbohydrates and sugar biosynthetic activities in gapcp double mutants. We provide evidence that the phosphorylated pathway of Ser biosynthesis plays an important role in supplying serine to roots. Overall, these studies provide insights into the in vivo functions of the GAPCps in plants. Our results emphasize the importance of the plastidial glycolytic pathway, and specifically of GAPCps, in plant primary metabolism. PMID:19675149

  18. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Potential Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria in Acid Sulfate Soils and Their Beneficial Effects on Rice Growth

    PubMed Central

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmolc kg−1, respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  19. Biochemical and molecular characterization of potential phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in acid sulfate soils and their beneficial effects on rice growth.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Qurban Ali; Naher, Umme Aminun; Shamshuddin, Jusop; Jusop, Shamshuddin; Othman, Radziah; Latif, Md Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Razi

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the total microbial population, the occurrence of growth promoting bacteria and their beneficial traits in acid sulfate soils. The mechanisms by which the bacteria enhance rice seedlings grown under high Al and low pH stress were investigated. Soils and rice root samples were randomly collected from four sites in the study area (Kelantan, Malaysia). The topsoil pH and exchangeable Al ranged from 3.3 to 4.7 and 1.24 to 4.25 cmol(c) kg(-1), respectively, which are considered unsuitable for rice production. Total bacterial and actinomycetes population in the acidic soils were found to be higher than fungal populations. A total of 21 phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) including 19 N2-fixing strains were isolated from the acid sulfate soil. Using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three potential PSB strains based on their beneficial characteristics were identified (Burkholderia thailandensis, Sphingomonas pituitosa and Burkholderia seminalis). The isolated strains were capable of producing indoleacetic acid (IAA) and organic acids that were able to reduce Al availability via a chelation process. These PSB isolates solubilized P (43.65%) existing in the growth media within 72 hours of incubation. Seedling of rice variety, MR 219, grown at pH 4, and with different concentrations of Al (0, 50 and 100 µM) was inoculated with these PSB strains. Results showed that the bacteria increased the pH with a concomitant reduction in Al concentration, which translated into better rice growth. The improved root volume and seedling dry weight of the inoculated plants indicated the potential of these isolates to be used in a bio-fertilizer formulation for rice cultivation on acid sulfate soils. PMID:25285745

  20. Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on the immobilization of aqueous Pb(II) using phosphate rock and different crystallized hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Cui, Jing; Wei, Zhenggui

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on the transformation of Pb(II) to geochemically stable pyromorphite (PY) by apatite materials (AMs), has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for contaminated water and soil. In this study, we systematically investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by natural phosphate rock (PR) and different crystallized hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the absence and presence of LMWOAs (oxalic, malic and citric acids). The results indicated that the effectiveness of PR and HAp in immobilizing Pb(II) followed in descending order by HAp2 (the poorly crystallized HAp), HAp1 (the well crystallized HAp) and PR, regardlessof the presence of LMWOAs. The presence of malic and citric acids significantly decreased the immobilizationefficiency of Pb(II) by HAp1 and PR, clarifying the lower adsorption affinities of Pb(II)-organic acid complexes on HAp1 and PR rather than Pb(II) ion. On thecontrary, oxalic acid could markedly enhance the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous solution by HAp1 and PR through the formation of lead oxalate, which was confirmed by FT-IR and XRDanalysis. Results also showed that LMWOAs had little promoting or inhibiting effect on the immobilization of Pb(II) by HAp2. This study suggested that the ubiquity of LMWOAs in natural environments could retard the transformation efficiency of Pb(II) to PY by AMs, especiallyin thepresenceof oxalic acid, and the poorly crystallized HAp2 had great potential to remediate Pb(II)-contaminated water and soil due to its insusceptibility to LMWOAs. PMID:24216261

  1. Gibberellic-acid-induced cell elongation in pea epicotyls: Effect on polyploidy and DNA content.

    PubMed

    Boeken, G; Van Oostveldt, P

    1977-01-01

    In gibberellic-acid(GA3)-treated epicotyls of dwarf peas (Pisum sativum L.) grown in the light, DNA (per cell and per epicotyl) is followed. Histofluorometric DNA determinations show that GA3-promoted cell elongation is not accompanied by increased endomitosis, but chemical estimations show an increased DNA content per epicotyl. This difference must therefore be the result of increased mitotic activity in the GA3-treated tissue. Epicotyls of seedlings grown with or without cotyledons under continuous light with GA3 are tetraploid, as are those of ecotylized embryos grown in darkness. These epicotyls reach no more than half the length of octaploid epicotyls of seedlings grown in darkness. This result provides evidence for a relationship between polyploidy and final possible cell length. PMID:24419898

  2. Evolution of the phase content of zirconia powders prepared by sol-gel acid hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, P.C.; Martinez, J.A.; Caracoche, M.C.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Lopez Garcia, A.R.; Pavlik, R.S. Jr.; Klein, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    The evolution of the phase content in zirconia powders that have been prepared by sol-gel acid hydrolysis has been investigated using the perturbed-angular-correlation (PAC) technique and X-ray diffractometry. As a consequence of performing annealing treatments at increasing temperatures between room temperature and 1,000 C, the amorphous starting material transforms to the tetragonal form and then to the monoclinic form. The metastable tetragonal phase exhibits two hyperfine components, one of which describes very defective zirconium surroundings. The evolution of PAC relative fractions is in agreement with the diffraction results. The durability of the samples in sodium hydroxide seems to increase as the relative amount of the most-defective zirconium surroundings of the tetragonal form increases.

  3. Omega-3 enriched egg production: the effect of α -linolenic ω -3 fatty acid sources on laying hen performance and yolk lipid content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Antruejo, A; Azcona, J O; Garcia, P T; Gallinger, C; Rosmini, M; Ayerza, R; Coates, W; Perez, C D

    2011-12-01

    1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs. 4. Flaxseed and flaxseed oil, along with chia seed and chia seed oil, were the two main sources of ω-3 fatty acid examined during the 84 d trial. 5. All α-linolenic enriched treatments yielded significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid contents per g of yolk and per yolk, than the non-α-linolenic enriched diets. Chia oil and chia seed yielded 54·5 and 63·5% more mg of ω-3 fatty acid per g of yolk for the 56 d test period, and 13·4 and 66·2% more for the 84 d test period, than flaxseed oil and flaxseed, respectively. 6. The differences in omega-3 content were significant, except for the chia oil compared with the flax oil, at the end of the trial. 7. This trial has shown that differences in conversion exist among ω-3 fatty acid sources, at least when fed to hens, and indicates that chia may hold a significant potential as a source of ω-3 fatty acid for enriching foods, thereby making these foods a healthier choice for consumers. PMID:22221241

  4. Analysis of the free amino acid content in pollen of nine Asteraceae species of known allergenic activity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A K; Parui, S; Mandal, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reports the free amino acid composition of the pollen of nine members of the family Asteraceae, i.e. Ageratum conyzoides L., Blumea oxyodonta DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Gnaphalium indicum L., Mikania scandens Willd., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Spilanthes acmella Murr., Vernonia cinerea (L.) Lees. and Xanthium strumarium L. by thin layer chromatography. The amino acid content was found to vary from 0.5-4.0% of the total dry weight. Fourteen amino acids were identified, among which amino-n-butyric acid, aspartic acid and proline were present in almost all pollen samples. The other major amino acids present in free form included arginine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, tryptophan and tyrosine. PMID:9852488

  5. Poly-N-acetylglucosamine and poly(glycerol phosphate) teichoic acid identification from staphylococcal biofilm extracts using excitation sculptured TOCSY NMR.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Jane L; Sadovskaya, Irina; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Jabbouri, Saïd; Howard, Mark J

    2008-02-01

    We report the successful application of selective excitation sculptured TOCSY NMR (SXS-TOCSY) to identify individual solution components from a heterogeneous system using selectively acquired (1)H NMR spin system patterns. SXS-TOCSY application is illustrated by detection of the simultaneous presence of poly-beta-(1,6)-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG) and poly(glycerol phosphate) teichoic acid (TA) carbohydrate polymer components in crude biofilm extracts from Staphylococcus epidermidis without the need for further sample purification and component separation. Biofilms are implicated in the barriers for resistance of microbes toward antibiotics and immune responses, therefore efficient rapid detection and quantification of key components are important to assist in the design of a clinical infection response. PMID:18213410

  6. Temperature Regulation of Growth and Endogenous Abscisic Acid-like Content of Tulipa gesneriana L

    PubMed Central

    Aung, Louis H.; De Hertogh, August A.

    1979-01-01

    The ontogenetic changes of dry matter and abscisic acid (ABA)-like content in the component organs of Tulipa gesneriana L. `Paul Richter' and `Golden Melody' under two temperature storage regimes were determined. The organ dry matter and ABA showed marked differences during 13 and 5 C dry storage and during subsequent growth at 13 C. Scale dry matter of both cultivars declined sharply when grown at 13 C. The basalplate of the cultivars showed an initial gain in dry matter, but declined subsequently. The shoot of both cultivars stored at 13 C exhibited greater dry matter gain than at 5 C. In contrast, the bulblets of the cultivars at 5 C showed a much higher rate of dry matter accumulation than at 13 C. An inhibitory substance extracted from tulip bulb organs co-chromatographed with authentic ABA and had identical thin layer chromatographic RF values of ABA in five solvent systems. The total ABA content per bulb increased 3-fold in `Golden Melody' and 2- to 4-fold in `Paul Richter' during the course of the temperature treatments. ABA was low in the scales and shoot, but it was high in the basalplate, bulblets, and roots. It is suggested that the probable ABA biosynthetic sites of tulip bulb are the developing bulblets, basalplate, and roots. PMID:16660867

  7. Contents of Neo-flavored Tea (GABA Kintaro) Containing γ-Aminobutyric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya

    The contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), catechins, theaflavins, caffeine and pheophorbide-a in neo-flavored tea (GABA Kintaro tea) were analyzed. 1)The amounts of GABA were increased over 1.5mg/g by means of infrared ray irradiation with agitation treatment. 2)There was a tendency for the amount of catechins to be decreased by this treatment, whereas the amount of theaflavins tended to increase with the same treatment. The composition of these contents in this GABA Kintaro tea was almost the same as that of black tea. 3)There was a tendency for the amount of caffeine to be decreased by this treatment. 4)There was a tendency for the amount of pheophorbide-a to be increased by this treatment. 5)The result of this study showed that the amounts of GABA and theaflavins in this GABA Kintaro tea were higher than ordinary green tea but contained few catechins.It became clear that the amount of pheophorbide-a in this GABA Kintaro tea was less than the standard value established in processed chlorella.

  8. Changes in free amino acids content in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle during thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martin, R I; Franco, J M; Aubourg, S; Gallardo, J M

    1988-11-01

    The effects of cooking and sterilization at several temperatures on the free amino acids (FAA) content in albacore (Thunnus alalunga) muscle were studied during the processing of canned tuna. FAAs were derivatized with o-phthalaldehyde, separated on a C18 column by HPLC and detected by both fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors. After cooking the loss of FAAs was not significant. However, in the final product sterilized at 115 degrees C and 110 degrees C (throughout the whole process) there were significant losses with regard to the start material, but not at 118 degrees C (all temperatures leading to the same lethal F-value). The influence of the thermal process time at 115 degrees C was evaluated for 60 and 100 min. Significant losses were found between both canned products (approximately 25%) and between the raw fish and the final product (approximately 12% and approximately 34%, process time 60 and 100 min, respectively). The determination of the content of FAA present in canned albacore may be a useful indication of the severity of the thermal processing. PMID:3206942

  9. Plasmid-Controlled Variation in the Content of Methylated Bases in Bacteriophage Lambda Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hattman, Stanley

    1972-01-01

    The N6-methyladenine (MeAde) and 5-methylcytosine (MeC) contents in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of bacteriophage lambda has been analyzed as a function of host specificity. The following facts have emerged: (i) lambda grown on strains harboring the P1 prophage contain ca. 70 more MeAde residues/DNA molecule than lambda grown either in the P1-sensitive parent, or in a P1 immune-defective lysogen which does not confer P1 modification; (ii) lambda grown on strains harboring the N-3 drug-resistance factor contain ca. 60 more MeC residues/DNA molecule than lambda grown on the parental strain lacking the factor; (iii) lambda grown in Escherichia coli B strains is devoid of MeC, whereas lambda grown in a B (N-3) host contains a high level of MeC; (iv) the MeAde content in lambda DNA is not affected by the N-3 factor. These results suggest that P1 controls an adenine-specific DNA methylase, and that the N-3 plasmid controls a cytosine-specific DNA methylase. The N-3 factor has been observed previously to direct cytosine-specific methylation of phage P22 DNA and E. coli B DNA in vivo; in vitro studies presented here demonstrate this activity. PMID:4561202

  10. High biobased content epoxy-anhydride thermosets from epoxidized sucrose esters of Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao; Sengupta, Partha; Webster, Dean C

    2011-06-13

    Novel highly functional biobased epoxy compounds, epoxidized sucrose esters of fatty acids (ESEFAs), were cross-linked with a liquid cycloaliphatic anhydride to prepare polyester thermosets. The degree of cure or conversion was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the sol content of the thermosets was determined using solvent extraction. The mechanical properties were studied using tensile testing to determine Young's modulus, tensile stress, and elongation at break. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to determine glass-transition temperature, storage modulus, and cross-link density. The nanomechanical properties of the surfaces were studied using nanoindentation to determine reduced modulus and indentation hardness. The properties of coatings on steel substrates were studied to determine coating hardness, adhesion, solvent resistance, and mechanical durability. Compared with the control, epoxidized soybean oil, the anhydride-cured ESEFAs have high modulus and are hard and ductile, high-performance thermoset materials while maintaining a high biobased content (71-77% in theory). The exceptional performance of the ESEFAs is attributed to the unique structure of these macromolecules: well-defined compact structures with high epoxide functionality. These biobased thermosets have potential uses in applications such as composites, adhesives, and coatings. PMID:21561167

  11. Effect of clay content on morphology and processability of electrospun keratin/poly(lactic acid) nanofiber.

    PubMed

    Isarankura Na Ayutthaya, Siriorn; Tanpichai, Supachok; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn

    2016-04-01

    This research work has concerned the development of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal filters from biomaterials, based on keratin extracted from chicken feather waste and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) (50/50%w/w) blend. Clay (Na-montmorillonite) was also added to the blend solution prior to carrying out an electro-spinning process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of clay content on viscosity, conductivity, and morphology of the electrospun fibers. Scanning electron micrographs showed that smooth and bead-free fibers were obtained when clay content used was below 2 pph. XRD patterns of the electrospun fibers indicated that the clay was intercalated and exfoliated within the polymers matrix. Percentage crystallinity of keratin in the blend increased after adding the clay, as evidenced from FTIR spectra and DSC thermograms. Transmission electron micrographs revealed a kind of core-shell structure with clay being predominately resided within the keratin rich shell and at the interfacial region. Filtration performance of the electrospun keratin/PLA fibers, described in terms of pressure drop and its capability of removing methylene blue, were also explored. Overall, our results demonstrated that it was possible to improve process-ability, morphology and filtration efficiency of the electrospun keratin fibers by adding a suitable amount of clay. PMID:26776870

  12. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1) values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA), eicosapentanoic (EPA), and arachidonic (AA) acids were present in very small amounts (<1%). In addition, the AA/EPA ratio was low (0.18). The fat and energetic values decreased (P < 0.01) during lactation. The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in saturated fatty acids content and an increase (P < 0.01) in the unsaturated fatty acids content. The n-6 to n-3 ratio and the LA/ALA ratio were approximately 2:1, with values <1 during the last period of lactation, suggesting the more optimal use of milk during this period. Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio

  13. Fatty acid content and profile of the aerial microalga Coccomyxa sp. isolated from dry environments.

    PubMed

    Abe, Katsuya; Ishiwatari, Takehiro; Wakamatsu, Michihiro; Aburai, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Aerial algae are considered to be highly tolerant of and adaptable to severe conditions including radiation, desiccation, high temperatures, and nutrient deficiency, compared with those from aquatic habitats. There are considerable variations in the fatty acid (FA) composition of aerial microalgae from dry environments. A new species with a high lipid level was found on concrete surfaces and was identified as Coccomyxa sp. KGU-D001 (Trebouxiophyceae). This study characterized its FA content and profile in a bath culture. The alga showed a constant specific growth rate (0.26 day(-1)) ranging in light intensity from 20 to 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). The algal cells started to form oil bodies in the early stationary phase of growth, and oil bodies occupied most of the cells during the late stationary phase when the cells accumulated 27 % total fatty acids (TFA). The process of lipid body formation accumulating large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) appeared to be very unusual in response to stress conditions persisting for a relatively long culture time (50 days). This study could indicate that aerial microalgae will be a candidate for biodiesel production when a new cultivation method is developed using extreme stresses such as nutritional deficiency and/or desiccation. PMID:25146196

  14. Spatio-Temporal Variations of High and Low Nucleic Acid Content Bacteria in an Exorheic River

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lili; Ji, Yurui; Bartlam, Mark; Wang, Yingying

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria with high nucleic acid (HNA) and low nucleic acid (LNA) content are commonly observed in aquatic environments. To date, limited knowledge is available on their temporal and spatial variations in freshwater environments. Here an investigation of HNA and LNA bacterial abundance and their flow cytometric characteristics was conducted in an exorheic river (Haihe River, Northern China) over a one year period covering September (autumn) 2011, December (winter) 2011, April (spring) 2012, and July (summer) 2012. The results showed that LNA and HNA bacteria contributed similarly to the total bacterial abundance on both the spatial and temporal scale. The variability of HNA on abundance, fluorescence intensity (FL1) and side scatter (SSC) were more sensitive to environmental factors than that of LNA bacteria. Meanwhile, the relative distance of SSC between HNA and LNA was more variable than that of FL1. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that the influence of geographical distance (reflected by the salinity gradient along river to ocean) and temporal changes (as temperature variation due to seasonal succession) on the patterns of LNA and HNA were stronger than the effects of nutrient conditions. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the distribution of LNA and HNA bacteria, including the abundance, FL1 and SSC, was controlled by different variables. The results suggested that LNA and HNA bacteria might play different ecological roles in the exorheic river. PMID:27082986

  15. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  16. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. Methods A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. Results The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41–79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Conclusion Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes. PMID:24588940

  17. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  18. Features of the acid protease partition in aqueous two-phase systems of polyethylene glycol-phosphate: chymosin and pepsin.

    PubMed

    Spelzini, Darío; Farruggia, Beatriz; Picó, Guillermo

    2005-07-01

    The partitioning of chymosin (from Aspergilus niger) and pepsin (from bovine stomach) was carried out in aqueous-two phase systems formed by polyethyleneglycol-potassium phosphate. The effects of polymer concentration, molecular mass and temperature were analysed. The partition was assayed at pH 7.0 in systems of polyethyleneglycol of molecular mass: 1450, 3350, 6000 and 8000. Both proteins showed high affinity for the polyethyleneglycol rich phase. The increase of polyethyleneglycol concentration favoured the protein transfer to the top phase, suggesting an important protein-polymer interaction. Polyethyleneglycol proved to have a stabilizing effect on the chymosin and pepsin, increasing its protein secondary structure. This finding agreed with the enhancement of the milk clotting activity by the polyethyleneglycol. The method appears to be suitable as a first step for the purification of these proteins from their natural sources. PMID:15894519

  19. RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIOLOGY OF CHLORINATED ETHENE CONTAMINATED SOILS: EFFECTS ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R. L.; Stanhopc, A.; Franck, M. M.; McKinsey, P. C.; Berry, C. J.

    2005-05-26

    Microbial degradation of chlorinated ethenes (CE) in rhizosphere soils was investigated at seepline areas impacted by CE plumes. Successful bioremediation of CE in rhizosphere soils is dependent on microbial activity, soil types, plant species, and groundwater CE concentrations. Seepline soils were exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) in the 10-50 ppb range. Greenhouse soils were exposed to 2-10 ppm TCE. Plants at the seepline were poplar and pine while the greenhouse contained sweet gum, willow, pine, and poplar. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses were performed to assess the microbial activity in rhizosphere soils. Biomass content was lowest in the nonvegetated control soil and highest in the Sweet Gum soil. Bacterial rhizhosphere densities, as measured by PLFA, were similar in different vegetated soils while fungi biomass was highly variable. The PLFA soil profiles showed diverse microbial communities primarily composed of Gram-negative bacteria. Adaptation of the microbial community to CE was determined by the ratio of {omega}7t/{omega}7c fatty acids. Ratios (16:1{omega}7v16:1{omega}7c and 18:l{omega}7t/18:1{omega}7c) greater than 0.1 were demonstrated in soils exposed to higher CE concentrations (10-50 ppm), indicating an adaptation to CE resulting in decreased membrane permeability. Ratios of cyclopropyl fatty acids showed that the vegetated control soil sample contained the fastest microbial turnover rate and least amount of environmental stress. PLFA results provide evidence that sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) are active in these soils. Microcosm studies with these soils showed CE dechlorinating activity was occurring. This study demonstrates microbial adaptation to environmental contamination and supports the application of natural soil rhizosphere activity as a remedial strategy.

  20. Evidence That a Malate/Inorganic Phosphate Exchange Translocator Imports Carbon across the Leucoplast Envelope for Fatty Acid Synthesis in Developing Castor Seed Endosperm.

    PubMed Central

    Eastmond, P. J.; Dennis, D. T.; Rawsthorne, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this study we examined the processes by which malate and pyruvate are taken up across the leucoplast envelope for fatty acid synthesis in developing castor (Ricinus communis L.) seed endosperm. Malate was taken up by isolated leucoplasts with a concentration dependence indicative of protein-mediated transport. The maximum rate of malate uptake was 704 [plus or minus] 41 nmol mg-1 protein h-1 and the Km was 0.62 [plus or minus] 0.08 mM. In contrast, the rate of pyruvate uptake increased linearly with respect to the substrate concentration and was 5-fold less than malate at a concentration of 5 mM. Malate uptake was inhibited by inorganic phosphate (Pi), glutamate, malonate, succinate, 2-oxoglutarate, and n-butyl malonate, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial malate/Pi-exchange translocator. Back-exchange experiments confirmed that malate was taken up by leucoplasts in counterexchange for Pi. The exchange stoichiometry was 1:1. The rate of malate-dependent fatty acid synthesis by isolated leucoplasts was 3-fold greater than from pyruvate at a concentration of 5 mM and was inhibited by n-butyl malonate. It is proposed that leucoplasts from developing castor endosperm contain a malate/Pi translocator that imports malate for fatty acid synthesis. This type of dicarboxylate transport activity has not been identified previously in plastids. PMID:12223747

  1. Enzymatic α-glucuronylation of maltooligosaccharides using α-glucuronic acid 1-phosphate as glycosyl donor catalyzed by a thermostable phosphorylase from Aquifex aeolicus VF5.

    PubMed

    Umegatani, Yuta; Izawa, Hironori; Nawaji, Mutsuki; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Kubo, Akiko; Yanase, Michiyo; Takaha, Takeshi; Kadokawa, Jun-ichi

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes thermostable phosphorylase-catalyzed α-glucuronylation of maltooligosaccharides for the direct synthesis of anionic oligosaccharides having a glucuronic acid residue at the non-reducing end. When the reaction of α-glucuronic acid 1-phosphate (GlcA-1-P) as a glycosyl donor and maltotriose as a glycosyl acceptor was performed in the presence of thermostable phosphorylase from Aquifex aeolicus VF5, high performance anion exchange chromatography analysis of the reaction mixture suggested the production of a glucuronylated tetrasaccharide, whose structure was also confirmed by the MALDI-TOF MS measurement of the crude products. Furthermore, treatment of the crude products with glucoamylase supported that the α-glucuronic acid unit was positioned at the non-reducing end of the tetrasaccharide and (1)H NMR analysis suggested that it was bound in an α-(1→4)-linkage. When the α-glucuronylation of maltotetraose using GlcA-1-P was conducted, α-glucuronylated oligosaccharides with various degrees of polymerization were produced. On the other hand, the α-glucuronylation of maltotetraose using GlcA-1-P in the presence of potato phosphorylase did not occur at all, indicating no recognition of GlcA-1-P by potato phosphorylase. PMID:22265379

  2. [Phosphate solubilization of Aureobasidium pullulan F4 and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Zhan, Jing; Sun, Qing-Ye

    2014-07-01

    The Aureobasidium pullulans F4 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Hippochaete ramosissimum in Tongguanshan mine wasteland in Tongling City, Anhui Province. Liquid culture was conducted with four kinds of phosphorus sources, calcium phosphate, aluminum phosphate, ferric phosphate and rock phosphate to determine the pH, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus in the bacteria and organic acid in the solution. The results showed that the phosphate solubilization by A. pullulans F4 varied with phosphorus sources, which decreased in order of aluminum phosphate > ferric phosphate, calcium phosphate > rock phosphate. The amounts of dissolved phosphorus in the different treatments were all higher than 200 mg x L(-1). The pH of the medium dropped immediately in 48 h, and the aluminum phosphate and ferric phosphate treatments showed a greater decrease in pH than the calcium phosphate and rock phosphate treatments. The organic acid synthesized by A. pullulans F4 included oxalic acid, citric acid and tartaric acid, and oxalic acid, among which oxalic acid was the dominated component. The phosphate dissolving capacity of A. pullulans F4 showed no significant correlation with organic acid, but significantly correlated with the pH. The available phosphorus was significantly improved with the combined application of A. pullulans F4 and glucose, suggesting A. pullulans F4 was a potent candidate for remediation of copper mine wastelands. PMID:25345061

  3. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; et al

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have largemore » implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  4. Effect of lignin content on changes occurring in poplar cellulose ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qining; Foston, Marcus; Meng, Xianzhi; Sawada, Daisuke; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Li, Hongjia; Wyman, Charles E.; Langan, Paul; Ragauskas, Art J.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2014-10-14

    Obtaining a better understanding of the complex mechanisms occurring during lignocellulosic deconstruction is critical to the continued growth of renewable biofuel production. A key step in bioethanol production is thermochemical pretreatment to reduce plant cell wall recalcitrance for downstream processes. Previous studies of dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) have shown significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure that occur during pretreatment, but there is still a substantial knowledge gap with respect to the influence of lignin on these cellulose ultrastructural changes. This study was designed to assess how the presence of lignin influences DAP-induced changes in cellulose ultrastructure, which might ultimately have large implications with respect to enzymatic deconstruction efforts. Native, untreated hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoids) samples and a partially delignified poplar sample (facilitated by acidic sodium chlorite pulping) were separately pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid (0.10 M) at 160°C for 15 minutes and 35 minutes, respectively . Following extensive characterization, the partially delignified biomass displayed more significant changes in cellulose ultrastructure following DAP than the native untreated biomass. With respect to the native untreated poplar, delignified poplar after DAP (in which approximately 40% lignin removal occurred) experienced: increased cellulose accessibility indicated by increased Simons’ stain (orange dye) adsorption from 21.8 to 72.5 mg/g, decreased cellulose weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) from 3087 to 294 units, and increased cellulose crystallite size from 2.9 to 4.2 nm. These changes following DAP ultimately increased enzymatic sugar yield from 10 to 80%. We conclude that, overall, the results indicate a strong influence of lignin content on cellulose ultrastructural changes occurring during DAP. With the reduction of lignin content during DAP, the enlargement of

  5. Baking Reduces Prostaglandin, Resolvin, and Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Content of Farm-Raised Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Brose, Stephen A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.; Burr, Gary S.; Wolters, William R.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon. We measured the content of several monohydroxy-fatty acids (MHFA), prostanoids, and resolvins. Our data demonstrate that baking did not change the overall total levels of MHFA. However, baking resulted in selective regio-isomeric loss of hydroxy fatty acids from arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and EPA while significantly increasing hydroxyl-linoleic acid levels. The content of prostanoids and resolvins were reduced several-fold with baking. The inclusion of coating upon the salmon prior to baking reduced the loss of some MHFA but had no effect upon prostanoid losses incurred by baking. Baking did not decrease n-3 PUFA content indicating that baking of salmon is an acceptable means of preparation that does not alter the potential health benefits of high n-3 seafood consumption. The extent to which the levels of MHFA, prostanoids and resolvins in the raw or baked fish have physiologic consequence for humans needs to be determined. PMID:21919483

  6. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils.

    PubMed

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Musazcan Özcan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  7. Oil Content, Fatty Acid Composition and Distributions of Vitamin-E-Active Compounds of Some Fruit Seed Oils

    PubMed Central

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Oil content, fatty acid composition and the distribution of vitamin-E-active compounds of selected Turkish seeds that are typically by-products of the food processing industries (linseed, apricot, pear, fennel, peanut, apple, cotton, quince and chufa), were determined. The oil content of the samples ranged from 16.9 to 53.4 g/100 g. The dominating fatty acids were oleic acid (apricot seed oil, peanut oil, and chufa seed oil) in the range of 52.5 to 68.4 g/100 g and linoleic acid (pear seed oil, apple seed oil, cottonseed oil and quince seed oil) with 48.1 to 56.3 g/100 g, while in linseed oil mainly α-linolenic acid (53.2 g/100 g) and in fennel seed oil mainly 18:1 fatty acids (80.5 g/100 g) with petroselinic acid predominating. The total content of vitamin-E-active compounds ranged from 20.1 (fennel seed oil) to 96 mg/100 g (apple seed oil). The predominant isomers were established as α- and γ-tocopherol. PMID:26785341

  8. Mechanisms for solubilization of various insoluble phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different soils by an efficient and salinity-tolerant Aspergillus niger strain An2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Luo, Lijin; Yang, Jinshui; Li, Baozhen; Yuan, Hongli

    2015-03-01

    Mechanisms for solubilization of different types of phosphates and activation of immobilized phosphates in different types of soils by an efficient fungal strain An2 were explored and evaluated in this study. An2 was isolated from a Chinese cabbage rhizosphere soil and identified as Aspergillus niger. It could fast release up to 1722, 2066, and 2356 mg L(-1) of soluble phosphorus (P) from 1 % Ca3(PO4)2, Mg3(PO4)2, and AlPO4 (Ca-P, Mg-P, and Al-P) and 215 and 179 mg L(-1) from 0.5 % FePO4 and rock phosphate (Fe-P and RP), respectively. HPLC assay demonstrated that An2 mainly secreted oxalic acid to solubilize Ca-P, Mg-P, Al-P, and Fe-P whereas secreted tartaric acid to solubilize RP. Furthermore, An2 could tolerate salinity up to 4 % NaCl without impairing its phosphate-solubilizing ability. The simulation experiments validated that An2 was able to effectively activate immobilized phosphates in general calcareous, acidic, as well as saline-alkali soils with high total P content. This study shows new insights into the mechanisms for microbial solubilization of different types of phosphates and supports the future application of strain An2 in different types of soils to effectively activate P for plants. PMID:25561059

  9. Efficiency of fatty acid synthesis by oleaginous yeasts: Prediction of yield and fatty acid cell content from consumed C/N ratio by a simple method.

    PubMed

    Granger, L M; Perlot, P; Goma, G; Pareilleux, A

    1993-11-20

    In nitrogen-limited media, growth and fatty acid formation by the oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis, i.e., yield and fatty acid cell content, have been characterized regarding carbon and nitrogen availabilities. It was shown that the formation of fatty acid free biomass was limited by nitrogen availability, whereas the fatty acid production was directly dependent on the consumed C/N ratio. According to these observations, the fraction of substrate consumed for fatty acid synthesis was estimated by using a simple method based on the actual yields, i.e., the mass of carbon source strictly converted into fatty acids and fatty acid free biomass. From these results, relationships were established allowing to predict in a simple and performing manner the maximal attainable fatty acid cell content and yield from the available carbon and nitrogen. These relationships were validated by using experimental data obtained by various authors with different yeast strains, and the proposed method was compared to the energetic and mass balance method previously described. PMID:18609663

  10. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. PMID:26616933

  11. Evaluation of microwave acid digestion for determination of fiber-volume contents in carbon-epoxy composites

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.C.; McLaughlin, V.N.; El-Amin, L.; Ilias, S.

    1995-06-01

    The analysis of carbon-epoxy composites for fiber-volume contents is significant in determining the quality and strength of a given composite. The method commonly being used is acid digestion in a hot water bath, which takes about 2.5 hours for digestion alone. A study has been done using a new technique, what is known as Microwave Acid Digestion (MAD) for quick determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites. This technique uses a specially designed teflon bomb for digestion. The bomb allows for temperatures up to 250 C and pressures up to 1,200 psi. Under such operating conditions, the MAD technique reduces digestion time to about 70 seconds. The study demonstrated that the microwave acid digestion (MAD) is an efficient means for determination of fiber-volume contents of carbon-epoxy composites.

  12. Content of short-chain fatty acids in the hindgut of rats fed processed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours varying in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, A M; Nyman, E M; Björck, I M

    2001-09-01

    Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) processed to differ in distribution and content of indigestible carbohydrates were used to study hindgut fermentability and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Bean flours with low or high content of resistant starch (RS), mainly raw and physically-inaccessible starch, were obtained by milling the beans before or after boiling. Flours containing retrograded starch and with a high or low content of oligosaccharides were prepared by autoclaving followed by freeze-drying with or without the boiling water. Six diets were prepared from these flours yielding a total concentration of indigestible carbohydrates of 90 or 120 g/kg (dry weight basis). The total fermentability of the indigestible carbohydrates was high with all diets (80-87 %). Raw and physically-inaccessible starch was more readily fermented than retrograded starch (97-99 % v. 86-95 %; ). Non-starch glucans were fermented to a lesser extent than RS, but the fermentability was higher in the case of autoclaved (50-54 %) than boiled beans (37-41 %). The distribution between acetic, propionic and butyric acid in the caecum was similar for all diets, with a comparatively high percentage of butyric acid (approximately 18). However, with diets containing the high amounts of RS, the butyric acid concentration was significantly higher in the distal colon than in the proximal colon ( and for the high- and low-level diets respectively), whereas it remained constant, or decreased along the colon in the case of the other diets. Furthermore, the two diets richest in RS also promoted the highest percentages of butyric acid in the distal colon (24 and 17 v. 12 and 12-16 for the high- and low-level diets respectively). PMID:11570990

  13. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  14. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  15. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  16. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  17. 21 CFR 101.62 - Nutrient content claims for fat, fatty acid, and cholesterol content of foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the criteria in § 101.60(b)(1) or (b)(2) for “calorie free” or “low calorie” claims. (b) Fat content... and not more than 30 percent of calories from fat; and (ii) If the product meets these conditions... total fat per 100 g and not more than 30 percent calories from fat. (1) The terms “saturated fat...

  18. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production. PMID:21838261

  19. [Effect of phenibut on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in rat brain structures].

    PubMed

    Borodkina, L E; Kudrin, V S; Klodt, P M; Narkevich, V B; Tiurenkov, I N

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the nootropic drug phenibut, which is a structural analog of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), on the content of monoamines, their metabolites, and neurotransmitter amino acids in brain structures have been studied on Wistar rats. It is established that a single administration of phenibut in a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.) produces a statistically significant increase in the content of dopamine metabolite (3,4-dioxyphenylacetic acid) and the retarding amino acid taurine in striatum. At the same time, phenibut did not significantly influence the levels of GABA, serotonin, and dopamine in various brain structures and produce a moderate decrease in the level of norepinephrine in the hippocampus. PMID:19334514

  20. Subclinical ketosis on dairy cows in transition period in farms with contrasting butyric acid contents in silages.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616