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Sample records for acid pickling spent

  1. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes.

  2. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes. PMID:25464702

  3. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    PubMed

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes. PMID:25508333

  4. Minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors in a pickling process with high-concentration hydrochloric acid solutions: mechanism and evaluation method.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Su, Wen; Wang, Jing; Fu, Fenglian; Yu, Guojun; Zhang, Jianyin

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to propose a strategy for minimizing the creation of spent pickling liquors through the synergistic corrosion inhibition of OP-10 and potassium iodide, thus facilitating a cleaner production process for acid pickling of metals with a high-concentration solution (6.0 mol/l) of hydrochloric acid. Results obtained with the methods of weight loss and electrochemical polarization showed that adding KI and OP-10 could enhance the energy barrier of the corrosion reaction and improved the corrosion inhibition for mild steel in high concentration of HCl solutions. A synergistic effect was identified when KI and OP-10 were present in suitable proportions. The results of the electrochemical experiments and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations showed that the complex inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor and it formed a compact film on the metal surface, thus providing an effective protection for the metal in the aggressive solutions, which significantly minimized the creation of spent pickling liquors. A simple and convenient method was also proposed for the quantificational evaluation of the inhibition degree in the creation of spent pickling liquors. PMID:22266479

  5. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  6. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed.

  7. Selective extraction of zinc(II) over iron(II) from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents by liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Marcelo Borges; Rocha, Sônia Denise Ferreira; Magalhães, Fernando Silva; Benedetto, Jeaneth dos Santos

    2008-02-11

    The selective removal of zinc(II) over iron(II) by liquid-liquid extraction from spent hydrochloric acid pickling effluents produced by the zinc hot-dip galvanizing industry was studied at room temperature. Two distinct effluents were investigated: effluent 1 containing 70.2g/L of Zn, 92.2g/L of Fe and pH 0.6, and effluent 2 containing 33.9 g/L of Zn, 203.9g/L of Fe and 2M HCl. The following extractants were compared: TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate), Cyanex 272 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid], Cyanex 301 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) dithiophosphinic acid] and Cyanex 302 [bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid]. The best separation results were obtained for extractants TBP and Cyanex 301. Around 92.5% of zinc and 11.2% of iron were extracted from effluent 1 in one single contact using 100% (v/v) of TBP. With Cyanex 301, around 80-95% of zinc and less than 10% of iron were extracted from effluent 2 at pH 0.3-1.0. For Cyanex 272, the highest extraction yield for zinc (70% of zinc with 20% of iron extraction) was found at pH 2.4. Cyanex 302 presented low metal extraction levels (below 10%) and slow phase disengagement characteristics. Reactions for the extraction of zinc with TBP and Cyanex 301 from hydrochloric acid solution were proposed. PMID:17570579

  8. A review on methods of regeneration of spent pickling solutions from steel processing.

    PubMed

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2010-05-15

    The review presents various techniques of regeneration of spent pickling solutions, including the methods with acid recovery, such as diffusion dialysis, electrodialysis, membrane electrolysis and membrane distillation, evaporation, precipitation and spray roasting as well as those with acid and metal recovery: ion exchange, retardation, crystallization solvent and membrane extraction. Advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are presented, discussed and confronted with the best available techniques requirements. Most of the methods presented meet the BAT requirements. The best available techniques are electrodialysis, diffusion dialysis and crystallization; however, in practice spray roasting and retardation/ion-exchange are applied most frequently for spent pickling solution regeneration. As "waiting for their chance" solvent extraction, non-dispersive solvent extraction and membrane distillation should be indicated because they are well investigated and developed. Environmental and economic benefits of the methods presented in the review depend on the cost of chemicals and wastewater treatment, legislative regulations and cost of modernization of existing technologies or implementation of new ones.

  9. Recovery of zinc(II) from HCl spent pickling solutions by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Regel, M; Sastre, A M; Szymanowski, J

    2001-02-01

    Recovery of zinc(II) from HCl spent pickling solutions by solvent extraction using CYANEX921, CYANEX923, CYANEX302, tributyl phosphate, and ALAMINE336 extractants was studied. Tributyl phosphate was selected as suitable extractant. It permitted both effective zinc(II) extraction and the stripping from loaded organic phase with water. The presence of iron(II) did not affect zinc extraction, and only negligible oxidation of iron(II) was observed during extraction experiments. CYANEX reagents and ALAMINE336 extracted zinc(II) strongly, but the stripping with water was ineffective. Moreover, a significant oxidation of iron(II) to iron(III) occurred during extraction. Each of three reagents (CYANEX923, ALAMINE336 and TBP) extracted iron(III) very well. Thus, if iron(III) was present in the spent pickling solution, prior to the extraction it had to be reduced to iron(II). The oxidation was low for tributyl phosphate and high for CYANEX923 and ALAMINE336. CYANEX302 was inactive both for zinc(II) and iron(III) and could not be used for extraction of zinc(II) from spent pickling hydrochloric acid solutions.

  10. A review on methods of regeneration of spent pickling solutions from steel processing.

    PubMed

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2010-05-15

    The review presents various techniques of regeneration of spent pickling solutions, including the methods with acid recovery, such as diffusion dialysis, electrodialysis, membrane electrolysis and membrane distillation, evaporation, precipitation and spray roasting as well as those with acid and metal recovery: ion exchange, retardation, crystallization solvent and membrane extraction. Advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are presented, discussed and confronted with the best available techniques requirements. Most of the methods presented meet the BAT requirements. The best available techniques are electrodialysis, diffusion dialysis and crystallization; however, in practice spray roasting and retardation/ion-exchange are applied most frequently for spent pickling solution regeneration. As "waiting for their chance" solvent extraction, non-dispersive solvent extraction and membrane distillation should be indicated because they are well investigated and developed. Environmental and economic benefits of the methods presented in the review depend on the cost of chemicals and wastewater treatment, legislative regulations and cost of modernization of existing technologies or implementation of new ones. PMID:20056321

  11. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pickling subcategory. 420.90 Section 420.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Pickling Subcategory § 420.90 Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory. The provisions... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid...

  12. Making Pickles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Sarah

    1977-01-01

    Making pickles developed from a laboratory lesson during a unit on solutions, suspensions, acids, and bases. The pickle lab has been used as a summation and application of these topics. Directions for setting up the lab experience and actually making the pickles are included. (MA)

  13. An unconventional method for the recovery of caustic soda from spent Al-rich pickling solutions.

    PubMed

    Aprea, Paolo; de Gennaro, Bruno; Colella, Carmine

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an unconventional procedure for the recovery of spent Al-rich caustic soda solutions from the pickling of dies for the production of aluminium extrusions. Caustic soda was regenerated at roughly 70%, by precipitating aluminate, after addition of a silica source, in the form of zeolite A, a microporous material that is widely used in many technological sectors. It was shown that the process is reliable and can be repeated for several cycles, provided the concentration of the caustic soda solution is suitably restored. The by-product obtained, zeolite A, proved to be a high-grade material with performance as a cation exchanger and physical sorbent that is certainly comparable to that reported in literature (e.g., cation exchange capacity equal to 5.14 meq g(-1) vs. 5.48 meq g(-1) and water vapour adsorption capacity of 26.5% vs. 27.6% at 16 torr and 298 K). The economics of the process, although not examined yet, would appear generally favourable, considering that zeolite A is a valuable by-product which widely covers the costs for the recovery of the spent solutions. There are, therefore, significant prospects for the use of zeolite A, particularly as a builder in detergent formulation.

  14. An unconventional method for the recovery of caustic soda from spent Al-rich pickling solutions.

    PubMed

    Aprea, Paolo; de Gennaro, Bruno; Colella, Carmine

    2011-07-01

    This work presents an unconventional procedure for the recovery of spent Al-rich caustic soda solutions from the pickling of dies for the production of aluminium extrusions. Caustic soda was regenerated at roughly 70%, by precipitating aluminate, after addition of a silica source, in the form of zeolite A, a microporous material that is widely used in many technological sectors. It was shown that the process is reliable and can be repeated for several cycles, provided the concentration of the caustic soda solution is suitably restored. The by-product obtained, zeolite A, proved to be a high-grade material with performance as a cation exchanger and physical sorbent that is certainly comparable to that reported in literature (e.g., cation exchange capacity equal to 5.14 meq g(-1) vs. 5.48 meq g(-1) and water vapour adsorption capacity of 26.5% vs. 27.6% at 16 torr and 298 K). The economics of the process, although not examined yet, would appear generally favourable, considering that zeolite A is a valuable by-product which widely covers the costs for the recovery of the spent solutions. There are, therefore, significant prospects for the use of zeolite A, particularly as a builder in detergent formulation. PMID:21458911

  15. Effect of Strip Velocity on Pickling Rate of Hot-Rolled Steel in Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. M.; Warning, C. J.

    1982-02-01

    The combined effect of strip velocity with other parameters on pickling rate of hot-rolled low-carbon steel in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions was determined. At temperatures from 150 to200°F(66 to 93°), the time required for pickling decreased substantially as strip velocity was increased from 0 to about 250 fpm (76 mpm); no further decrease in time resulted when velocities were increased to 800 fpm (244 mpm). Other pickling variables were studied with a velocity of 400 fpm (122 mpm). Pickling times decrease with increases in HCl concentrations, CHCl, and temperature, TF, according to prediction equations of the form log t = A + B log CHCl + D(459 + TF)-1. At 200°F, temper-mill scalebreaking decreased pickling times by about 5 sec; at lower temperatures, a larger magnitude effect was noted for one steel in the group tested.

  16. Steel--Project Fact Sheet: Recycling Acid and Metal Salts from Pickling Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, L.; Recca, L.

    1999-01-14

    Regenerating hydrochloric acids from metal finishing pickling baths reduces costs, wastes, and produces a valuable by-product--ferrous sulfate. Order your copy of this OIT project fact sheet and learn more about how your company can benefit.

  17. Preparation of nano-sized magnetic particles from spent pickling liquors by ultrasonic-assisted chemical co-precipitation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bing; Yuan, Liangjun; Shi, Taihong; Yu, Linfeng; Zhu, Youchun

    2009-04-30

    The aim of this study is to develop a new method for the preparation of high-value, environmentally friendly products from spent pickling liquors. An ultrasound treatment was introduced into a chemical co-precipitation process to control the size of the particles produced. The particles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic parameter was measured with a magnetic property measurement system. The product consisted of ferrous ferrite (Fe(3)O(4)) nano-sized cubic particles with a high level of crystallinity that exhibited super-paramagnetism. PMID:18762377

  18. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  19. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  20. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  1. 40 CFR 420.90 - Applicability; description of the acid pickling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... owned treatment works resulting from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, or combination acid pickling... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the acid... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY...

  2. Changes of phenolic acids and antioxidant activities during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) pickling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Hu, Yuxia; Liu, Donghong; Chen, Jianchu; Ye, Xingqian

    2008-06-01

    Phenolic acids in potherb mustard (Brassica juncea, Coss.) were determined and the effects of pickling methods on the contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities were investigated. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid were identified in the present study. The contents of total free phenolic acids, total phenolic acids and total phenolics in fresh potherb mustard were 84.8±0.58μg/g dry weight (DW), 539±1.36μg/g DW, and 7.95±0.28mg/g DW, respectively. The total free phenolic acids increased during the pickling processes, but the total phenolic acids, total phenolics, and antioxidant activities decreased. However, after 5 weeks of fermentation, all the pickling methods retained over 70% of total phenolic contents and above 65% of antioxidant capacities. The results indicated that pickling processes were relatively good methods for the preservation of phenolic acids and antioxidants for potherb mustard. PMID:26065739

  3. Optical measurement for the concentrations of the pickling acid with near infrared spectroscopy in steel making industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Gumin; Lee, Kwangchil; Park, Haesung; Lee, Jinho; Jung, Youngjean; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2010-08-01

    In the manufacturing process of stainless steel, it is essential to pickle the oxide layer of steel surface for high corrosion resistance and fine surface quality. Pickling liquor of stainless steel is commonly composed of mixed hydrofluoric and nitric acid. Real time monitoring of concentrations of each acid is crucial to optimize pickling process. It also reduces cost of production and decreases the generation of waste acid. We used non-contact near infrared spectroscopy technique and rapid analysis method, for the quantification of each acid in an on-line manner. Multivariate calibration such as partial least square regression method is employed for the better prediction results.

  4. Energy-saving regeneration of hydrochloric acid pickling liquor: NICE3 steel project fact sheet (NICE3 2000 award winners)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-19

    This is a fact sheet written for the NICE3 [National Industrial Competititveness through Energy, Environment, and Economics] Program on a new process for reusing hydrochloric acid from steel pickling operations.

  5. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  6. Screening lactic acid bacteria with high yielding-acid capacity from pickled tea for their potential uses of inoculating to ferment tea products.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ping; Huang, Youyi; Yang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Bowei; Quan, Xiaoxia

    2015-10-01

    For there were very short of excellent strains inoculated to ferment tea products, the lactic acid bacteria from pickled tea were isolated, characterized and identified, and the acid production capacity of part better strains was determined. There are only 22 strains isolated from pickled tea, and 2 of them were yeast, and 8 strains selected from the other 20 strains all were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. A1, L2 and L5 of L. plantarum with a high acid production capacity were screened out and could obviously shorten the fermentation time of pickled tea by the verification, which suggests that they have a potential use of inoculating to ferment tea products. It was the first report on screening lactic acid bacteria with high yielding-acid capacity from pickled tea, which will bring benefits to fermenting tea products by artificial inoculation. PMID:26396422

  7. Filtrates & Residues. Acid Pickling with Amines: An Experiment in Applied Chemistry for High School or Freshman Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Steven G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This article gives a brief description of the process of the removal of corrosion and millscale from the surfaces of ferrous metals by acid pickling. It suggests an experiment to illustrate this process including the procedure and a discussion of the results. (CW)

  8. In Vitro Properties of Potential Probiotic Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria Originating from Traditional Pickles.

    PubMed

    Tokatlı, Mehmet; Gülgör, Gökşen; Bağder Elmacı, Simel; Arslankoz İşleyen, Nurdan; Özçelik, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The suitable properties of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (preselected among 153 strains on the basis of their potential technological properties) isolated from traditional Çubuk pickles were examined in vitro. For this purpose, these strains (21 Lactobacillus plantarum, 11 Pediococcus ethanolidurans, and 7 Lactobacillus brevis) were tested for the ability to survive at pH 2.5, resistance to bile salts, viability in the presence of pepsin-pancreatin, ability to deconjugate bile salts, cholesterol assimilation, and surface hydrophobicity properties. Most of the properties tested could be assumed to be strain-dependent. However, L. plantarum and L. brevis species were found to possess desirable probiotic properties to a greater extent compared to P. ethanolidurans. In contrast to P. ethanolidurans strains, the tested L. plantarum and L. brevis strains exhibited bile salt tolerance, albeit to different extent. All tested strains showed less resistance to intestinal conditions than gastric juice environment. Based on the survival under gastrointestinal conditions, 22 of the 39 strains were selected for further characterization. The eight strains having the highest cholesterol assimilation and surface hydrophobicity ratios could be taken as promising probiotic candidates for further in vivo studies, because of the strongest variations found among the tested strains with regard to these properties. PMID:26101771

  9. Identification of the monobrominated derivative of Acid Red 52 (Food Red No. 106) in pickled vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Naoki; Okuda, Tetsuya; Fujii, Hisashi

    2016-09-01

    Two unknown dyes (purple and purplish-red) were detected by TLC in two pickled vegetable (sakura-zuke daikon) samples containing Acid Red 52 (AR) and New Coccine as food colorants. HPLC with diode-array detection and LC/MS analyses suggested that the purple dye is monobrominated AR and the purplish-red dye is its N-desethyl derivative, which would be generated mainly during sample preparation. For the identification of the purple dye, a reference compound was prepared by bromination of AR followed by isolation of the monobrominated AR, the structure of which was elucidated as 4'-brominated AR (4'BrAR) by LC/ToF-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The purple dye was confirmed as 4'BrAR by comparison of its retention time, ultraviolet-visible spectrum and mass spectrum with those of the prepared reference compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of 4'BrAR in foods. PMID:27662432

  10. Reclamation of acid pickling waste: A facile route for preparation of single-phase Fe3O4 nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxue; Lu, Bin; Tang, Huihui; Zhao, Jingxiang; Cai, Qinghai

    2015-05-01

    Using an alternative method of dropwise addition of iron salt in NaOH aqueous solution, nanocrystalline Fe3O4 materials were prepared from acid pickling waste as a starting material with ultrasonic enhancement and polyethylene glycol as a dispersant, as proved by XRD, TEM, TG-DSC and ICP-MS. The results showed that the Fe3O4 material was a well-crystallized magnetite with an average size of about 25 nm and purity 99.15%. Magnetic measurement revealed the nanocrystals were stronger superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization of 82.1 emu/g.

  11. Mitogenic response and probiotic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolated from indigenously pickled vegetables and fermented beverages.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Ghosh, Moushumi; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2012-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria from indigenous pickled vegetables and fermented beverages (fermented rice and Madhuca longifolia flowers) were isolated and investigated for their functional characteristics in vitro as potential new probiotic strains. Four isolates (all Lactobacillus spp.) selected on the basis of high tolerance to bile (0.2%) were identified by standard and molecular methods (16S rDNA) as L. helveticus, L. casei, L. delbrueckii and L. bulgaricus from pickled vegetables and fermented beverages respectively. These selected strains had antibiotic resistance, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and phenol (0.4%), enzymatic profile, and antagonistic activity against enteric pathogens (Enterobacter sakazakii, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri 2a, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila). All strains survived well in artificial gastric juice at low pH (3.0) values for 4 h, possessed bile salt hydrolase activity and were susceptible to most antibiotics including vancomycin. Additionally, the isolates exhibited high tolerance to phenol, high cell surface hydrophobicity (>60%) and induced proliferation of murine splenocytes. All the four strains of present study suppressed the Con A-stimulated proliferation of the mouse spleen cells, although L. casei had the strongest suppressive effect. The results of this study suggest a potential application of the strains (following human clinical trials), for developing probiotic foods.

  12. Decontamination of aquatic vegetable leaves by removing trace toxic metals during pickling process with acetic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbiao; Yang, Yixing

    2011-01-01

    The heavy-metal content of aquatic plants is mainly dependent upon their ecological system. This study indicated that although the toxic heavy-metal contents could be above the recommended maximum levels depending upon their concentrations in growing water, they can be decontaminated by pickling with 5% acetic acid solution. Almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.5% Pb, 96.7% Ag, or 97.1% Al were removed from Water Spinach leaves by soaking in acetic acid solution. For Water-Shield leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Pb, Ba, or Sb and 95.0% Ag or 96.1% Al were removed. For Watercress leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Pb or 99.7% Ag were removed. For Water Hyacinth leaves, almost all Cd, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Hg, 98.5% Pb, 95.0% Ag, or 98.7% Al were removed.

  13. Decontamination of aquatic vegetable leaves by removing trace toxic metals during pickling process with acetic acid solution.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbiao; Yang, Yixing

    2011-01-01

    The heavy-metal content of aquatic plants is mainly dependent upon their ecological system. This study indicated that although the toxic heavy-metal contents could be above the recommended maximum levels depending upon their concentrations in growing water, they can be decontaminated by pickling with 5% acetic acid solution. Almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.5% Pb, 96.7% Ag, or 97.1% Al were removed from Water Spinach leaves by soaking in acetic acid solution. For Water-Shield leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Pb, Ba, or Sb and 95.0% Ag or 96.1% Al were removed. For Watercress leaves, almost all Cd, Hg, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Pb or 99.7% Ag were removed. For Water Hyacinth leaves, almost all Cd, Ba, or Sb and 99.0% Hg, 98.5% Pb, 95.0% Ag, or 98.7% Al were removed. PMID:21888602

  14. 3-Methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, isolated from Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon, Cucumis melo var. conomon), enhanced differentiation in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Nakayama, Yuko; Ando, Hitomi; Tanaka, Atsuo; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Upham, Brad L; Chang, Chia-Cheng; Trosko, James E; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2008-05-14

    The fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon ( Cucumis melo var. conomon) has rarely been used for food because the midripened fruit is utilized for making pickles, but the fully ripened fruit is no longer valuable for pickles due to the fruit body being too soft. We have considered the utilization of the fully ripened Katsura-uri fruit that may be used for nonpickling products, particularly if the fully ripened fruit demonstrated health benefits such as anticarcinogenic properties. The phytochemical extract from the fully ripened fruit of Katsura-uri Japanese pickling melon was purified via a bioassay-guided fractionation scheme, which was based on the induction of differentiation in a RCM-1 human colon cancer cell line. On the criteria of two differentiation markers (duct formation and alkaline phosphatase activity), the most potent fraction contained a compound identified as 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester, based on GC retention time, EI-MS, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectra. Previously, the role of 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester was considered as an odor producing compound in many fruits, but this study indicates potential medical benefits of this compound. PMID:18426216

  15. 40 CFR 420.94 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and... associated with a hydrochloric acid pickling operation. (c) Combination acid pickling (spent acid...

  16. Corrosion Mitigation of Copper in Acidic Chloride Pickling Solutions by 2-Amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, El-Sayed M.

    2010-08-01

    Corrosion of copper in acidic chloride pickling solutions of 0.5 M HCl and its mitigation by 2-amino-5-ethyl-1,3,4-thiadiazole (AETDA) have been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and weight-loss measurements. The study was also complemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy investigations. The presence of AETDA and the increase of its concentration in the chloride solutions greatly decreased the corrosion rate and increased the surface and polarization resistances of copper as indicated by the electrochemical measurements. Weight-loss data also indicated that AETDA decreases the dissolution of copper coupons in the studied chloride solution. SEM/EDX investigations showed that AETDA molecules are strongly adsorbed onto copper surface. The UV-Visible absorption spectra confirmed that AETDA molecules suppress the corrosion of copper via their interactions with the copper surface via their adsorption then formation of AETDA-Cu complex.

  17. Behaviour of tetramine inhibitors during pickling of hot rolled steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornu, Marie-José; Koltsov, Alexey; Nicolas, Sabrina; Colom, Lydia; Dossot, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    To avoid the dissolution of steel in industrial pickling process, tetramine inhibitors are added to the pickling bath. This study is devoted to the understanding of the action mechanism of these inhibitors in hydrochloric and sulphuric baths on non-alloyed and alloyed steels. Pickling experiments and characterization with XPS, Raman and infrared spectroscopies have shown that inhibitors work only in acid media and leached out from the steel surfaces during the rinsing operation just after pickling. The effectiveness of inhibitors depends on the acid media and the temperature. Experimental data are consistent with a surface mechanism, i.e., the so-called "outer-sphere" adsorption.

  18. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage. PMID:17995647

  19. Leaching of spent lead acid battery paste components by sodium citrate and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinfeng; He, Xiong; Yang, Jiakuan; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Yang, Danni; Sun, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qin; Kumar, R Vasant

    2013-04-15

    A sustainable method, with minimal pollution and low energy cost in comparison with the conventional smelting methods, is proposed for treating components of spent lead-acid battery pastes in aqueous organic acid(s). In this study, PbO, PbO2, and PbSO4, the three major components in a spent lead paste, were individually reacted with a mixture of aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid solution. Pure lead citrate precursor of Pb3(C6H5O7)2 · 3H2O is the only product crystallized in each leaching experiment. Conditions were optimized for individual lead compounds which were then used as the basis for leaching real industrial spent paste. In this work, efficient leaching process is achieved and raw material cost is reduced by using aqueous sodium citrate and acetic acid, instead of aqueous sodium citrate and citric acid as reported in a pioneering hydrometallurgical method earlier. Acetic acid is not only cheaper than citric acid but is also more effective in aiding dissolution of the lead compounds thus speeding up the leaching process in comparison with citric acid. Lead citrate is readily crystallized from the aqueous solution due to its low solubility and can be combusted to directly produce leady oxide as a precursor for making new battery pastes.

  20. Light-Emitting Pickles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.; Mollmann, K-P.

    2015-01-01

    We present experiments giving new insights into the classical light-emitting pickle experiment. In particular, measurements of the spectra and temperatures, as well as high-speed recordings, reveal that light emission is connected to the polarity of the electrodes and the presence of hydrogen.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of D-Branched-Chain Amino Acid Producer Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040T, Isolated from a Traditional Japanese Pickle.

    PubMed

    Doi, Katsumi; Mori, Kazuki; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Tashiro, Kosuke; Fujino, Yasuhiro; Ohmori, Taketo; Kuhara, Satoru; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus otakiensis strain JCM 15040(T) was isolated from an unsalted pickling solution used in the production of sunki, a traditional Japanese pickle. Here, we prepared a draft genome sequence for this strain consisting of 40 contigs containing a total of 2,347,132 bp, 2,310 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 42.4%. PMID:23929467

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  5. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-76 - Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). 151.50-76 Section 151.50-76 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Hydrochloric acid, spent (NTE 15%). (a)(1) Gravity type cargo tanks must be designed and tested to meet...

  7. Corrosion of copper in aerated acidic pickling solutions and its inhibition by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol.

    PubMed

    Sherif, El-Sayed M; Erasmus, R M; Comins, J D

    2007-02-01

    Corrosion of copper in aerated acidic chloride pickling (0.5 M HCl) solutions and its inhibition by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (ATT) have been investigated using electrochemical techniques and weight-loss measurements, along with Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements for copper after varied immersion periods of 0, 24, and 48 h showed that the presence of ATT and the increase of its concentration significantly decrease cathodic, anodic, corrosion (j(Corr)) currents and corrosion rates (K(Corr)), as well as the dissolution currents at 300 mV vs Ag/AgCl, while increasing polarization resistance (Rp), degree of surface coverage (theta) and inhibition efficiency (IE%) to a great extent. Weight-loss measurements after different immersion periods of 6 to 48 h revealed that the dissolution of copper decreased to a minimum and the corresponding IE% increased with increasing ATT concentration. The detection of ATT molecules on the copper surface by Raman spectroscopy indicated that inhibition of copper corrosion is achieved by strong adsorption of ATT molecules onto the copper surface. PMID:17084854

  8. Pickled luminescent silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukherroub, R.; Morin, S.; Wayner, D. D. M.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    In freshly prepared porous Si, the newly exposed silicon-nanostructure surface is protected with a monolayer of hydrogen, which is very reactive and oxidizes in air leading to a loss of luminescence intensity and a degradation of the electronic properties. We report a surface passivation approach based on organic modification that stabilizes the luminescence. This novel 'pickling' process not only augments the desired optoelectronic properties, but also is adaptable to further chemical modification for integration into chemical and biophysical sensors.

  9. Succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes using hydrolysates of spent yeast cells and corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke-Quan; Li, Jian; Ma, Jiang-Feng; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ying, Han-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysate of spent yeast cells was evaluated as a nitrogen source for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113, using corn fiber hydrolysate as a carbon source. When spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used directly as a nitrogen source, a maximum succinic acid concentration of 35.5 g/l was obtained from a glucose concentration of 50 g/l, with a glucose utilization of 95.2%. Supplementation with individual vitamins showed that biotin was the most likely factor to be limiting for succinic acid production with spent yeast cell hydrolysate. After supplementing spent yeast cell hydrolysate and 90 g/l of glucose with 150 μg/l of biotin, cell growth increased 32.5%, glucose utilization increased 37.6%, and succinic acid concentration was enhanced 49.0%. As a result, when biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate was used with corn fiber hydrolysate, a succinic acid yield of 67.7% was obtained from 70.3 g/l of total sugar concentration, with a productivity of 0.63 g/(l h). Our results suggest that biotin-supplemented spent yeast cell hydrolysate may be an alternative nitrogen source for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes NJ113, using renewable resources. PMID:20801644

  10. Revisiting the Electric Pickle Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The electric pickle is a classic demonstration that is widely used in both high school and college settings to explain the general principles behind atomic emission. The demonstration fails to provide an interesting multi-line spectrum.

  11. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  12. Conversion of spent solid phosphoric Acid catalyst to environmentally friendly fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Merwe, Werner van der

    2010-03-01

    Solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalysts are widely used in the petroleum industry. Despite a high phosphorus content the spent catalyst is generally not reused. Moreover, due to the limited life spans that are achieved industrially, large quantities of spent catalyst requires disposal, often by landfill. SPA can be readily converted to fertilizer, but the presence of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst presents a potential environmental hazard. This work demonstrates that these deposits are mostly polyaromatic (amorphous carbon) with smaller amounts of oxygenates and aliphatics. Neither the chemical makeup nor the physical structure of the catalyst or the presence of coke precludes it from use as fertilizer. Subsequently, the spent catalyst was milled, neutralized with lime and ammonium hydroxide, and then calcined to yield a phosphate-rich fertilizer. Toxicity characteristic leaching tests of the spent catalyst fertilizer showed low levels of metals and organics, establishing that no harmful compounds are likely to be absorbed into plant life or groundwater. A plant growth study of the spent catalyst fertilizer indicated that it is approximately as effective as superphosphate fertilizer when used in alkaline soil. The spent catalyst fertilizer is environmentally benign and economically efficient.

  13. Conversion of spent solid phosphoric Acid catalyst to environmentally friendly fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Merwe, Werner van der

    2010-03-01

    Solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalysts are widely used in the petroleum industry. Despite a high phosphorus content the spent catalyst is generally not reused. Moreover, due to the limited life spans that are achieved industrially, large quantities of spent catalyst requires disposal, often by landfill. SPA can be readily converted to fertilizer, but the presence of carbonaceous deposits on the catalyst presents a potential environmental hazard. This work demonstrates that these deposits are mostly polyaromatic (amorphous carbon) with smaller amounts of oxygenates and aliphatics. Neither the chemical makeup nor the physical structure of the catalyst or the presence of coke precludes it from use as fertilizer. Subsequently, the spent catalyst was milled, neutralized with lime and ammonium hydroxide, and then calcined to yield a phosphate-rich fertilizer. Toxicity characteristic leaching tests of the spent catalyst fertilizer showed low levels of metals and organics, establishing that no harmful compounds are likely to be absorbed into plant life or groundwater. A plant growth study of the spent catalyst fertilizer indicated that it is approximately as effective as superphosphate fertilizer when used in alkaline soil. The spent catalyst fertilizer is environmentally benign and economically efficient. PMID:20146419

  14. Development of an effective treatment for a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli in refrigerated pickle products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated cucumber pickle products cannot be heat processed due to the loss of characteristic sensory attributes. Typically brined refrigerated pickles contain less than 100 mM acetic acid with pH values of 3.7 to 4.0. Refrigeration (4 to 10 ºC) helps to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria an...

  15. Antioxidant Compounds in Traditional Indian Pickles May Prevent the Process-Induced Formation of Benzene.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Mahesh M; Adiani, Vanshika; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2016-01-01

    Pickles in the Indian market contain ascorbic acid from the raw material used and benzoate as an added preservative that are involved in the formation of benzene in soft drinks. In this work, 24 market pickle samples were surveyed for benzene content, as well as its precursors and other constituents that influence its formation. The analysis showed that pickle samples were high in acid content (low pH) and showed significant amount of ascorbic acid, minerals (Cu and Fe), and benzoic acid present in them. Also, most samples exhibited high antioxidant activity that might be attributed to the ingredients used, such as fruits and spices. The solid-phase microextraction headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed in-house for benzene analysis. Eleven of 24 samples had benzene, with the highest concentration of 4.36 ± 0.82 μg of benzene per kg of pickle for a lime pickle that was also reported to have highest benzoic acid and considerably less hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) scavenging activity. However, benzene levels for all 11 samples were considerably below the World Health Organization regulatory limit of 10 μg/kg for benzene in mineral water. Studies on model systems revealed that the high antioxidant activity of Indian pickles may have had a strong inhibitory effect on benzene formation.

  16. Antioxidant Compounds in Traditional Indian Pickles May Prevent the Process-Induced Formation of Benzene.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Mahesh M; Adiani, Vanshika; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2016-01-01

    Pickles in the Indian market contain ascorbic acid from the raw material used and benzoate as an added preservative that are involved in the formation of benzene in soft drinks. In this work, 24 market pickle samples were surveyed for benzene content, as well as its precursors and other constituents that influence its formation. The analysis showed that pickle samples were high in acid content (low pH) and showed significant amount of ascorbic acid, minerals (Cu and Fe), and benzoic acid present in them. Also, most samples exhibited high antioxidant activity that might be attributed to the ingredients used, such as fruits and spices. The solid-phase microextraction headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed in-house for benzene analysis. Eleven of 24 samples had benzene, with the highest concentration of 4.36 ± 0.82 μg of benzene per kg of pickle for a lime pickle that was also reported to have highest benzoic acid and considerably less hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) scavenging activity. However, benzene levels for all 11 samples were considerably below the World Health Organization regulatory limit of 10 μg/kg for benzene in mineral water. Studies on model systems revealed that the high antioxidant activity of Indian pickles may have had a strong inhibitory effect on benzene formation. PMID:26735038

  17. 4-Pyridoxic Acid in the Spent Dialysate: Contribution to Fluorescence and Optical Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kalle, Sigrid; Tanner, Risto; Arund, Jürgen; Tomson, Ruth; Luman, Merike; Fridolin, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Aim In this work we estimated the contribution of the fluorescence of 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA) to the total fluorescence of spent dialysate with the aim of evaluating the on-line monitoring of removal of this vitamin B-6 metabolite from the blood of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods Spectrofluorometric analysis of spent dialysate, collected from hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration sessions of 10 patients receiving regularly pyridoxine injections after dialysis treatment, was performed in the range of Ex/Em 220–500 nm. 4-PA in dialysate samples was identified and quantified using HPLC with fluorescent and MS/MS detection. Results Averaged HPLC chromatogram of spent dialysate had many peaks in the wavelength region of Ex320/Em430 nm where 4-PA was the highest peak with contribution of 42.2±17.0% at the beginning and 47.7±18.0% in the end of the dialysis. High correlation (R = 0.88–0.95) between 4-PA concentration and fluorescence intensity of spent dialysate was found in the region of Ex310-330/Em415-500 nm, respectively. Conclusion 4-PA elimination from the blood of ESRD patients can be potentially followed using monitoring of the fluorescence of the spent dialysate during dialysis treatments. PMID:27598005

  18. Thermochemical decomposition of spent sulfuric acid on a catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Perfilev, V.M.; CHapyluk, N.S.; Mel'nikov, S.E.; Sushchev, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    The paper reports on an investigation of the thermocatalytic splitting of SSA obtained as a waste material in the production of liquid paraffins. The studies were performed by a dynamic method in the continuous-flow unit with a quartz reactor in the form of an open tube. These studies are of value because commercial utilization of sulfuric acid wastes is an important ecological and economic problem. The studies of the catalyst behavior in thermocatalytic splitting of SSA established that the specific surface area of the silica gel without impregnation, or impregnated with 1.6% iron(III) oxide, decrease in 20 h of operation. This decrease in surface area is apparently related to recrystallization processes.

  19. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    PubMed

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases. PMID:27374402

  20. Pickling of laser-cut NiTi slotted tube stents: Effect on surface morphology, dimension changes and mechanical behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, H.; Stalmans, R.; van Humbeeck, J.; de Scheerder, I.

    2003-10-01

    Production of the NiTi slotted tube stents by laser cutting leads to strong burr formation and depositions on the material surface. Acid pickling is one of the major methods to remove the burr and the depositions. In this study, as a pre-treatment of polishing the NiTi stents, pickling was tested for various times in an acid solution at room temperature. Its effect on the surface morphology, dimension changes, and mechanical behaviour of the NiTi stents was evaluated. The burr and depositions could be removed practically. The removal (weight loss) of the material increases linearly with the pickling time. The burr and depositions were removed totally from the cutting zone when pickling time reached a specific value. Experimental relations among weight loss, dimensions, mechanical properties and pickling time of the NiTi stents were established.

  1. Sulfuric acid baking and leaching of spent Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-In; Park, Kyung-Ho; Mishra, Devabrata

    2009-07-30

    Dissolution of metals from a pre-oxidized refinery plant spent Co-Mo/Al(2)O(3) catalyst have been tried through low temperature (200-450 degrees C) sulfuric acid baking followed by mild leaching process. Direct sulfuric acid leaching of the same sample, resulted poor Al and Mo recoveries, whereas leaching after sulfuric acid baking significantly improved the recoveries of above two metals. The pre-oxidized spent catalyst, obtained from a Korean refinery plant found to contain 40% Al, 9.92% Mo, 2.28% Co, 2.5% C and trace amount of other elements such as Fe, Ni, S and P. XRD results indicated the host matrix to be poorly crystalline gamma- Al(2)O(3). The effect of various baking parameters such as catalyst-to-acid ratio, baking temperature and baking time on percentage dissolutions of metals has been studied. It was observed that, metals dissolution increases with increase in the baking temperature up to 300 degrees C, then decreases with further increase in the baking temperature. Under optimum baking condition more than 90% Co and Mo, and 93% Al could be dissolved from the spent catalyst with the following leaching condition: H(2)SO(4)=2% (v/v), temperature=95 degrees C, time=60 min and Pulp density=5%.

  2. Waste minimization charges up recycling of spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Queneau, P.B.; Troutman, A.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Substantial strides are being made to minimize waste generated form spent lead-acid battery recycling. The Center for Hazardous Materials Research (Pittsburgh) recently investigated the potential for secondary lead smelters to recover lead from battery cases and other materials found at hazardous waste sites. Primary and secondary lead smelters in the U.S. and Canada are processing substantial tons of lead wastes, and meeting regulatory safeguards. Typical lead wastes include contaminated soil, dross and dust by-products from industrial lead consumers, tetraethyl lead residues, chemical manufacturing by-products, leaded glass, china clay waste, munitions residues and pigments. The secondary lead industry also is developing and installing systems to convert process inputs to products with minimum generation of liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. The industry recently has made substantial accomplishments that minimize waste generation during lead production from its bread and butter feedstock--spent lead-acid batteries.

  3. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  4. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  5. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-01

    Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe-Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC2O4 ⋅ 2H2O and Li2CO3 using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor. PMID:25619126

  6. Selective Acidic Leaching of Spent Zinc-Carbon Batteries Followed by Zinc Electrowinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalchian, Hossein; Rafsanjani-Abbasi, Ali; Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Babakhani, Abolfazl

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a selective acidic leaching procedure was employed for recycling zinc from spent zinc-carbon batteries. Leaching experiments were carried out in order to maximize zinc recovery and minimize manganese recovery in diluted sulfuric acid media. Response surface methodology and analysis of variance were employed for experimental design, data analysis, and leaching optimization. The experimental design has 28 experiments that include 24 main runs and four replicate in center point. The optimal conditions obtained from the selective acidic leaching experiments, were sulfuric acid concentration of 1 pct v/v, leaching temperature of 343 K (70 °C), pulp density of 8 pct w/v, and stirring speed of 300 rpm. The results show that the zinc and manganese recoveries after staged selective leaching are about 92 and 15 pct, respectively. Finally, metallic zinc with purity of 99.9 pct and electrolytic manganese dioxide were obtained by electrowinning.

  7. Pickles, pectin, and penicillin.

    PubMed

    Demain, Arnold L

    2004-01-01

    My professional life has been devoted to the study of microbial products and their biosynthesis, regulation, and overproduction. These have included primary metabolites (glutamic acid, tryptophan, inosinic acid, guanylic acid, vitamin B(12), riboflavin, pantothenic acid, ethanol, and lactic acid) and secondary metabolites (penicillin, cephalosporins, streptomycin, fosfomycin, gramicidin S, rapamycin, indolmycin, microcin B17, fumagillin, mycotoxins, Monascus pigments, and tetramethylpyrazine). Other areas included microbial nutrition, strain improvement, bioconversions of statins and beta-lactams, sporulation and germination, plasmid stability, gel microdroplets, and the production of double-stranded RNA, the polymer xanthan, and enzymes (polygalacturonase, protease, cellulase). Most of the studies were carried out with me by devoted and hardworking industrial scientists for 15 years at Merck & Co. and by similarly characterized students, postdoctorals, and visiting scientists during my 32 years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I owe much of my success to my mentors from academia and industry. My recent research activities with undergraduate students at the Charles A. Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti (R.I.S.E.) at Drew University have been very rewarding and are allowing me to continue my career. PMID:15487928

  8. Pickles, pectin, and penicillin.

    PubMed

    Demain, Arnold L

    2004-01-01

    My professional life has been devoted to the study of microbial products and their biosynthesis, regulation, and overproduction. These have included primary metabolites (glutamic acid, tryptophan, inosinic acid, guanylic acid, vitamin B(12), riboflavin, pantothenic acid, ethanol, and lactic acid) and secondary metabolites (penicillin, cephalosporins, streptomycin, fosfomycin, gramicidin S, rapamycin, indolmycin, microcin B17, fumagillin, mycotoxins, Monascus pigments, and tetramethylpyrazine). Other areas included microbial nutrition, strain improvement, bioconversions of statins and beta-lactams, sporulation and germination, plasmid stability, gel microdroplets, and the production of double-stranded RNA, the polymer xanthan, and enzymes (polygalacturonase, protease, cellulase). Most of the studies were carried out with me by devoted and hardworking industrial scientists for 15 years at Merck & Co. and by similarly characterized students, postdoctorals, and visiting scientists during my 32 years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. I owe much of my success to my mentors from academia and industry. My recent research activities with undergraduate students at the Charles A. Dana Research Institute for Scientists Emeriti (R.I.S.E.) at Drew University have been very rewarding and are allowing me to continue my career.

  9. Preparation and characterization of nano-structured lead oxide from spent lead acid battery paste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Yang, Danni; Gao, Linxia; Liu, Jianwen; Kumar, R Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2012-02-15

    As part of contribution for developing a green recycling process of spent lead acid battery, a nanostructural lead oxide was prepared under the present investigation in low temperature calcination of lead citrate powder. The lead citrate, the precursor for preparation of this lead oxide, was synthesized through leaching of spent lead acid battery paste in citric acid solution. Both lead citrate and oxide products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the lead citrate was sheet-shape crystal of Pb(C(6)H(6)O(7)) · H(2)O. When the citrate was calcined in N(2) gas, β-PbO in the orthorhombic phase was the main product containing small amount of Pb and C and it formed as spherical particles of 50-60 nm in diameter. On combusting the citrate in air at 370°C (for 20 min), a mixture of orthorhombic β-PbO, tetragonal α-PbO and Pb with the particle size of 100-200 nm was obtained, with β-PbO as the major product. The property of the nanostructural lead oxide was investigated by electrochemical technique, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV). The CV measurements presented the electrochemical redox potentials, with reversibility and cycle stability over 15 cycles.

  10. Characterization of the optical properties of normal and defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.; Cen, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pickling cucumbers. This research was intended to measure the spectral absorption and scattering properties of normal and internally defective pickling cucumbers and whole pickles, using hyperspectral imaging-based spatially-resolved technique. Spatially-resolved hyperspectral scattering images were acquired from 50 freshly harvested 'Journey' pickling cucumbers in the summer of 2008. The cucumbers were then subjected to rolling under mechanical load to induce internal damage. The damaged cucumbers were imaged again one hour and one day after the mechanical stress treatment. In addition, 20 whole pickles each of normal and defective (bloated) class were also measured by following the same procedure as that for pickling cucumbers. Spectra of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for pickling cucumbers and whole pickles were extracted from the spatially-resolved scattering profiles, using an inverse algorithm for a diffusion theory model, for the spectral range of 700-1,000 nm. It was found that within one hour after mechanical damage, changes in the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients for the cucumbers were minimal. One day after mechanical damage, the absorption coefficient for the cucumbers increased noticeably for the wavelengths of 700-920 nm, whereas the reduced scattering coefficient decreased more significantly for the wavelengths of 700-1,000 nm. Overall mechanical damage had greater impact on the scattering properties than on the absorption properties. After brining, pickles became translucent and scattering was greatly diminished. Thus the diffusion theory model was no longer valid for determining the optical properties of whole pickles. This

  11. Hydrometallurgical recovery of metal values from sulfuric acid leaching liquor of spent lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiangping; Chen, Yongbin; Zhou, Tao Liu, Depei; Hu, Hang; Fan, Shaoyun

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Selective precipitation and solvent extraction were adopted. • Nickel, cobalt and lithium were selectively precipitated. • Co-D2EHPA was employed as high-efficiency extraction reagent for manganese. • High recovery percentages could be achieved for all metal values. - Abstract: Environmentally hazardous substances contained in spent Li-ion batteries, such as heavy metals and nocuous organics, will pose a threat to the environment and human health. On the other hand, the sustainable recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries may bring about environmental and economic benefits. In this study, a hydrometallurgical process was adopted for the comprehensive recovery of nickel, manganese, cobalt and lithium from sulfuric acid leaching liquor from waste cathode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries. First, nickel ions were selectively precipitated and recovered using dimethylglyoxime reagent. Recycled dimethylglyoxime could be re-used as precipitant for nickel and revealed similar precipitation performance compared with fresh dimethylglyoxime. Then the separation of manganese and cobalt was conducted by solvent extraction method using cobalt loaded D2EHPA. And McCabe–Thiele isotherm was employed for the prediction of the degree of separation and the number of extraction stages needed at specific experimental conditions. Finally, cobalt and lithium were sequentially precipitated and recovered as CoC{sub 2}O{sub 4}⋅2H{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using ammonium oxalate solution and saturated sodium carbonate solution, respectively. Recovery efficiencies could be attained as follows: 98.7% for Ni; 97.1% for Mn, 98.2% for Co and 81.0% for Li under optimized experimental conditions. This hydrometallurgical process may promise a candidate for the effective separation and recovery of metal values from the sulfuric acid leaching liquor.

  12. Behavior of glucosinolates in pickling cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chise; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Murata, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2006-12-13

    Crucifer species, which include widely consumed vegetables, contain glucosinolates as secondary metabolites. Cruciferous vegetables are consumed in Japan in salt-preserved or pickled form as well as cooked and raw fresh vegetables. In this study, changes in contents of glucosinolates during the pickling process were investigated. 4-Methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate, a major glucosinolate in the root of Japanese radish, daikon (Raphanus sativus L.), was detected in pickled products with a short maturation period but not in those with a long maturation period. As a model pickling experiment, fresh watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and blanched watercress were soaked in 3% NaCl solution for 7 days. The results showed that the ratio of indole glucosinolates to total glucosinolates increased during the pickling process, whereas total glucosinolates decreased. Myrosinase digestion of glucosinolates in nozawana (Brassica rapa L.) indicated that indole glucosinolates, especially 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, were relatively resistant to the enzyme. The effect of pickling on glucosinolate content and the possible mechanism are discussed in view of degradation by myrosinase and synthetic reaction in response to salt stress or compression during the pickling process.

  13. Behavior of glucosinolates in pickling cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chise; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Murata, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2006-12-13

    Crucifer species, which include widely consumed vegetables, contain glucosinolates as secondary metabolites. Cruciferous vegetables are consumed in Japan in salt-preserved or pickled form as well as cooked and raw fresh vegetables. In this study, changes in contents of glucosinolates during the pickling process were investigated. 4-Methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate, a major glucosinolate in the root of Japanese radish, daikon (Raphanus sativus L.), was detected in pickled products with a short maturation period but not in those with a long maturation period. As a model pickling experiment, fresh watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and blanched watercress were soaked in 3% NaCl solution for 7 days. The results showed that the ratio of indole glucosinolates to total glucosinolates increased during the pickling process, whereas total glucosinolates decreased. Myrosinase digestion of glucosinolates in nozawana (Brassica rapa L.) indicated that indole glucosinolates, especially 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, were relatively resistant to the enzyme. The effect of pickling on glucosinolate content and the possible mechanism are discussed in view of degradation by myrosinase and synthetic reaction in response to salt stress or compression during the pickling process. PMID:17147429

  14. Recovery of cobalt and lithium from spent lithium ion batteries using organic citric acid as leachant.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Ge, Jing; Wu, Feng; Chen, Renjie; Chen, Shi; Wu, Borong

    2010-04-15

    In this work, a hydrometallurgical process based on leaching is applied to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Citric acid and hydrogen peroxide are introduced as leaching reagents and the leaching of cobalt and lithium with a solution containing C(6)H(8)O(7) x H(2)O is investigated. When both C(6)H(8)O(7) x H(2)O and H(2)O(2) are used an effective recovery of Li and Co as their respective citrates is possible. The leachate is characterized by scanning electron micrography (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The proposed procedure includes the mechanical separation of metal-containing particles and a chemical leaching process. Conditions for achieving a recovery of more than 90% Co and nearly 100% Li are achieved experimentally by varying the concentrations of leachant, time and temperature of the reaction as well as the starting solid-to-liquid ratio. Leaching with 1.25 M citric acid, 1.0 vol.% hydrogen peroxide and a S:L of 20 g L(-1) with agitation at 300 rpm in a batch extractor results in a highly efficient recovery of the metals within 30 min of the processing time at 90 degrees C. This hydrometallurgical process is found to be simple, environmentally friendly and adequate for the recovery of valuable metals from spent LIBs.

  15. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Johnson, Andrew; Tian, Guoxin; Jiang, Weilin; Rao, Linfeng; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for application in spent nuclear fuel separation. The high affinity of DTPA towards actinides aids in separation from the highly acidic medium of nuclear waste. The solubility and magnetization of particles at low pH is protected by encapsulating them in silica layer. Surface functionalization of silica coated particles with polyamines enhances the loading capacity of the chelators on MNPs. The particles were characterized before and after surface modification using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and uncoated samples were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to understand the change in magnetic properties due to the influence of the surface functionalization. The hydrodynamic size and surface charge of the particles are investigated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was investigated. The sorption result shows the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. The high removal efficiency and fast uptake of actinides make the chelator conjugated MNPs an effective method for spent nuclear fuel separation.

  16. Extraction of aluminum from a pickling bath with supported liquid membrane extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Berends, A.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; Rosmalen, G.M. van

    1999-04-01

    Large amounts of waste are produced yearly in the galvanic and chemical surface treatment industry. Bath liquids used in the various processes lose their function due to contamination. The spent bath liquids have to be replaced and treated prior to disposal, leading to high costs and a high environmental burden. In this paper, a proposed solution to the problem is investigated: the selective removal of the contaminant with supported liquid membrane extraction. The extraction of aluminum, a contaminant at high concentrations, from a pickling bath liquid with hydrofluoric acid and phosphoric acid as its main components has been carried out with the basic extractants Alamine 308 and Alamine 336 in a flat sheet-supported liquid membrane setup. Aluminum transport rates were obtained in the order of 10{sup {minus}6}--10{sup {minus}5} mol/(m{sup 2} {center_dot} s), which are normal values for this technique. The extraction was not completely selective as dissolved phosphorus was coextracted. In all experiments, precipitation took place on the surface of the liquid membrane and in the bulk of the strip phase. Increasing the stripping alkalinity from pH = 8 to pH = 13 reduced the amount of precipitation in the bulk of the strip phase but caused a substantial decrease in the aluminum flux. The precipitation prevents industrial application of the systems investigated.

  17. Effects of pretreatments and salt concentration on rohu (Labeo rohita) roes for preparation of roe pickle.

    PubMed

    Balaswamy, K; Prabhakara Rao, P G; Rao, D G; Jyothirmayi, T

    2010-03-01

    In India, fish egg (roes) is the underutilized rich source of protein and essential fatty acids. An attempt was made to utilize the roes for the preparation of pickle product. Roes of rohu (Labeo rohita) were subjected to pretreatments such as pasteurization and blanching in varying molar concentrations of salt solutions to improve the texture and sensory quality. Losses in protein content and absorption of salt by roes were assessed in both pasteurized and blanched roes for processing them into roe pickle. The pasteurized roes were very soft coupled with high fishy odour. Roes blanched in 1M NaCl solution were found to be good in taste in terms of salt, minimum loss in protein content and reduced fishy odour. The blanched roes were used to prepare fish roe pickle. The pickle was analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, microbial and sensory quality during storage. The roe pickle packed in glass bottle was shelf-stable and scored good for sensory characteristics of flavour, texture, taste and overall acceptability during a storage period of 6 months at room temperature (28 ± 2°C). PMID:23572628

  18. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process.

  19. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process. PMID:25036999

  20. Effects on temperature and acidic pre-treatment on Fenton-driven oxidation of MTBE-spent granular activated carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temperature-dependent mechanisms in the Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated. Prior to iron (Fe) amendment to the GAC, acid-treatment altered the surface chemistry of the GAC and lowered the p...

  1. Effects of Temperature and Acidic Pre-Treatment on Fenton-Driven Oxidation of MTBE-Spent Granular Activated Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temperature-dependent mechanisms in the Fenton-driven chemical oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was investigated. Prior to iron (Fe) amendment to the GAC, acid-treatment altered the surface chemistry of the GAC and lowered the pH ...

  2. Combined alkali and acid pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for reducing sugar and biofertilizer production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Liu, Jia-Heng; Sun, Li-Fan; Hu, Zong-Fu; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pretreated with alkaline reagents including potassium hydroxide, lime and ammonia to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Under the best pretreatment conditions (1M KOH, 80 °C, 90 min; 1M lime, 80 °C, 120 min; 10 M ammonia, 70 °C, 120 min), the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield reached 258.6, 204.2 and 251.2 mg/g raw SMS, which were respectively 6.15, 4.86, and 5.98 times of untreated SMS. The effects of pretreatment by above alkaline reagents and sulfuric acid on the composition and structure of SMS were evaluated to provide comparative performance data. A new process, combined alkali and acid (CAA) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, was innovatively proposed to improve the cost-effectiveness and avoid environmental problems. The SMS residue after CAA pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis process was converted to biofertilizer with Pichia farinose FL7 and a cell density of 3.0×10(8) cfu/g in biomass was attained.

  3. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  4. Making cents of acid recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrey, G.; Shanley, A.

    1993-04-01

    Acid recovery may be expensive, but rising transportation and landfill costs may soon make it the only alternative. Traditionally, acids used in processes from titanium dioxide production to gasoline alkylation and metal pickling were neutralized and discharged into waterways or injected into deep wells. Today, however, discharge permits are being phased out in many countries, and deep well injection is coming under closer scrutiny. An even cheaper option was selling spent acid to fertilizer producers, who used it to dissolve phosphate ores. Health concerns, a depressed fertilizer market and tightening disposal regulations for gypsum byproduct have dried up this option. The paper discusses the processes and costs involved in spent acid regeneration, gypsum-free gas treatments, and problems with explosive contaminants.

  5. The influence of the pickling and curing processes in the manufacturing of positive tubular electrodes on the performance of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferg, E. E.; Geyer, L.; Poorun, A.

    The effects of changing the dipping and curing times of tubular positive electrodes on the discharge capacity were investigated. The comparative study showed that longer dipping and curing times do not necessarily result in electrodes with better first capacity performance. Acid adsorption studies of tubular plates filled with lead oxide showed that about one-third of the acid, that would have been adsorbed after 15 h, was already adsorbed after 5 s of dipping. The optimum surface area and porosity of the cured active material was obtained after 15-60 min of dipping. This is equivalent to the rest period used in the formation process where the plates are kept in the acid just before charging. Curing times should be kept around 24 h in order to reduce the free lead in the oxide. The study showed that the pore size distribution of the formed active material influenced the high current discharge ability more than the available surface area of the positive electrode. However, the surface area and pore size distribution changed dramatically during capacity cycling and the continuous capacity performance of the tubular electrode was partially influenced by the initial characteristics of the cured active material.

  6. Succinic acid-based leaching system: A sustainable process for recovery of valuable metals from spent Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Qu, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-05-01

    A hydrometallurgical method involving natural organic acid leaching has been developed for recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials in spent lithium-ion batteries. Succinic acid is employed as leaching agent and H2O2 as reductant. The cobalt and lithium contents from the succinic acid-based treatment of spent batteries are determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy to calculate the leaching efficiency. The spent LiCoO2 samples after calcination and the residues after leaching are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that nearly 100% of cobalt and more than 96% of lithium are leached under optimal conditions: succinic acid concentration of 1.5 mol L-1, H2O2 content of 4 vol.%, solid-to-liquid ratio of 15 g L-1, temperature of 70 °C, and reaction time of 40 min. Results are also given for fitting of the experimental data to acid leaching kinetic models.

  7. Elecrokinetic separation of sulphate and lead from sludge of spent lead acid battery.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, S; Dhanibabu, T; Veluchamy, A; Palanichamy, S; Subramanian, P; Palaniswamy, N

    2011-10-15

    A novel electrokinetic (EK) technique is applied to separate lead and sulphate from the sludge of used/spent lead acid battery. XRD reveals that the sludge is a mixture of (PbO)(4) [Pb(SO(4))], Pb(2)O(3), PbSO(4), Pb(S(2)O(3)) and Pb(2)(SO(4)) which upon DC voltage application in a EK cell employing either titanium electrodes or titanium substrate insoluble anode as electrodes caused migration of sulphates and lead ions respectively into anode and cathode compartments, and accumulation of insoluble lead oxides at the central compartment. The insoluble lead oxides accumulated at the central compartment in the ratio 1:3, respectively for the high oxygen over-voltage Ti-anode (Ti-EK cell) and low oxygen over-voltage TSIA-anode (TSIA-EK cell) shows the superiority of Ti anode over TSIA anode. Also thermal investigation reveals Pb deposited at Ti-cathode is superior to that from TSIA cathode. This process does not release air/soil pollutants which are usually associated with high temperature pyrotechnic process.

  8. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... to remove residual acid. This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid... hydrochloric acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process....

  9. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... to remove residual acid. This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid... hydrochloric acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process....

  10. 40 CFR 63.1156 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Steel Pickling-HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid... to remove residual acid. This definition includes continuous spray towers. Hydrochloric acid... hydrochloric acid pickling solution from spent pickle liquor using a thermal treatment process....

  11. Corrosion property of 9Cr-ODS steel in nitric acid solution for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, M.; Koizumi, T.; Inoue, M.; Koyama, S.I.

    2013-07-01

    Corrosion tests of oxide dispersion strengthened with 9% Cr (9Cr-ODS) steel, which is one of the desirable materials for cladding tube of sodium-cooled fast reactors, in pure nitric acid solution, spent FBR fuel solution, and its simulated solution were performed to understand the corrosion behavior in a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. In this study, the 9Cr-ODS steel with lower effective chromium content was evaluated to understand the corrosion behavior conservatively. As results, the tube-type specimens of the 9Cr-ODS steels suffered severe weight loss owing to active dissolution at the beginning of the immersion test in pure nitric acid solution in the range from 1 to 3.5 M. In contrast, the weight loss was decreased and they showed a stable corrosion in the higher nitric acid concentration, the dissolved FBR fuel solution, and its simulated solution by passivation. The corrosion rates of the 9Cr-ODS steel in the dissolved FBR fuel solution and its simulated solution were 1-2 mm/y and showed good agreement with each other. The passivation was caused by the shift of corrosion potential to noble side owing to increase in nitric acid concentration or oxidative ions in the dissolved FBR fuel solution and the simulated spent fuel solution. (authors)

  12. Use of mild organic acid reagents to recover the Co and Li from spent Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Nayaka, Girish Praveen; Pai, Karkala Vasantakumar; Manjanna, Jayappa; Keny, Sangita J

    2016-05-01

    New organic acid mixtures have been investigated to recover the valuable metal ions from the cathode material of spent Li-ion batteries. The cathodic active material (LiCoO2) collected from spent Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is dissolved in mild organic acids, iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and maleic acid (MA), to recover the metals. Almost complete dissolution occurred in slightly excess (than the stoichiometric requirement) of IDA or MA at 80°C for 6h, based on the Co and Li released. The reducing agent, ascorbic acid (AA), converts the dissolved Co(III)- to Co(II)-L (L=IDA or MA) thereby selective recovery of Co as Co(II)-oxalate is possible. The formation of Co(III)- and Co(II)-L is evident from the UV-Vis spectra of the dissolved solution as a function of dissolution time. Thus, the reductive-complexing dissolution mechanism is proposed here. These mild organic acids are environmentally benign unlike the mineral acids. PMID:26709049

  13. Pickle Flavors Relish in Drosophila Immunity.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Tiina Susanna; Rämet, Mika

    2016-09-14

    Immune responses must be tightly controlled to avoid host damage. In Drosophila, two NF-κB signaling pathways, Toll and Imd, mediate host immune responses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Morris et al. (2016) introduce Pickle, a nuclear IκB that inhibits Drosophila immune signaling by modulating the NF-κB Relish. PMID:27631694

  14. Value Addition to Sulfate Waste Pickle Liquor of Steel Industry Using Hydrometallurgical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Archana; Sahu, K. K.

    2009-12-01

    The solvent extraction of concentrated acid was investigated from sulfate waste pickle liquors using Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO); manufactured by Cytec Industries Inc., Woodland Park, NJ; provided by Cyanamid Canada Inc. (Markham, Canada)) as an extractant. The effect of various parameters was studied such as extractant concentration, organic-to-aqueous phase ratio, temperature. and retention time on acid extraction from the waste pickle liquor to the organic phase, After the saturation of the organic phase with sulfuric acid, stripping studies were performed to back-extract the pure acid into the aqueous phase. The raffinate of the solvent extraction process that contains both ferrous and ferric iron as well as trace impurities was subjected to oxidation and hydrothermal treatment to precipitate iron with a well-defined pseudo-cubic morphology and a high coercivity value that renders it suitable for high-grade ferrite production.

  15. 1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR, SIDE OF PICKLE BARREL RESTAURANT AND ADJOINING STORE - Silverton Historic District, East Thirteenth & Green Streets (Commercial Building), East Thirteenh & Green Streets, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  16. Mutants of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus tolerant to hardwood spent sulfite liquor and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Harner, Nicole K; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Habash, Marc B; Trevors, Jack T; Austin, Glen D; Lee, Hung

    2014-01-01

    A strain development program was initiated to improve the tolerance of the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Several rounds of UV mutagenesis followed by screening were used to select for mutants of P. tannophilus NRRL Y2460 with improved tolerance to hardwood spent sulfite liquor (HW SSL) and acetic acid in separate selection lines. The wild type (WT) strain grew in 50 % (v/v) HW SSL while third round HW SSL mutants (designated UHW301, UHW302 and UHW303) grew in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL, with two of these isolates (UHW302 and UHW303) being viable and growing, respectively, in 70 % (v/v) HW SSL. In defined liquid media containing acetic acid, the WT strain grew in 0.70 % (w/v) acetic acid, while third round acetic acid mutants (designated UAA301, UAA302 and UAA303) grew in 0.80 % (w/v) acetic acid, with one isolate (UAA302) growing in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid. Cross-tolerance of HW SSL-tolerant mutants to acetic acid and vice versa was observed with UHW303 able to grow in 0.90 % (w/v) acetic acid and UAA302 growing in 60 % (v/v) HW SSL. The UV-induced mutants retained the ability to ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol in defined media. These mutants of P. tannophilus are of considerable interest for bioconversion of the sugars in lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol.

  17. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  18. Lead acetate trihydrate precursor route to synthesize novel ultrafine lead oxide from spent lead acid battery pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Xinfeng; Hu, Yuchen; Yang, Danni; Yuan, Xiqing; Yu, Wenhao; Dong, Jinxin; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Vasant Kumar, R.; Liang, Sha

    2014-12-01

    A novel green recycling process is investigated to prepare lead acetate trihydrate precursors and novel ultrafine lead oxide from spent lead acid battery pastes. The route contains the following four processes. (1) The spent lead pastes are desulphurized by (NH4)2CO3. (2) The desulphurized pastes are converted into lead acetate solution by leaching with acetic acid solution and H2O2; (3) The Pb(CH3COO)2·3H2O precursor is crystallized and purified from the lead acetate solution with the addition of glacial acetic acid; (4) The novel ultrafine lead oxide is prepared by the calcination of lead acetate trihydrate precursor in N2 or air at 320-400 °C. Both the lead acetate trihydrate and lead oxide products are characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, and SEM techniques. The calcination products are mainly α-PbO, β-PbO, and a small amount of metallic Pb. The particle size of the calcination products in air is significantly larger than that in N2. Cyclic voltammetry measurements of the novel ultrafine lead oxide products show good reversibility and cycle stability. The assembled batteries using the lead oxide products as cathode active materials show a good cyclic stability in 80 charge/discharge cycles with the depth of discharge (DOD) of 100%.

  19. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    PubMed

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal. PMID:22751850

  20. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source. PMID:26640784

  1. Selection of the Strain Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43121 and Its Application to Brewers' Spent Grain Conversion into Lactic Acid.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Rossana; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Ionata, Elena; Marcolongo, Loredana; Faraco, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Six Lactobacillus strains were analyzed to select a bacterium for conversion of brewers' spent grain (BSG) into lactic acid. Among the investigated strains, L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 showed the highest yield of lactic acid production (16.1 g/L after 48 hours) when grown in a synthetic medium. It was then analyzed for its ability to grow on the hydrolysates obtained from BSG after acid-alkaline (AAT) or aqueous ammonia soaking (AAS) pretreatment. The lactic acid production by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 through fermentation of the hydrolysate from AAS treated BSG was 96% higher than that from the AAT treated one, although similar yields of lactic acid per consumed glucose were achieved due to a higher (46%) glucose consumption by L. acidophilus ATCC 43121 in the AAS BSG hydrolysate. It is worth noting that adding yeast extract to the BSG hydrolysates increased both the yield of lactic acid per substrate consumed and the volumetric productivity. The best results were obtained by fermentation of AAS BSG hydrolysate supplemented by yeast extract, in which the strain produced 22.16 g/L of lactic acid (yield of 0.61 g/g), 27% higher than the value (17.49 g/L) obtained in the absence of a nitrogen source.

  2. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  3. Dissipation behavior of organophosphorus pesticides during the cabbage pickling process: residue changes with salt and vinegar content of pickling solution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuele; Yang, Zhonghua; Shen, Luyao; Liu, Zhenmin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Diao, Jinling

    2013-03-01

    In this experiment, the behavior of 10 pesticides in three different cabbage pickling treatments has been studied. The brine used for pickling was made up with different salt and vinegar contents to determine the influence of different pickling solutions on pesticide dissipation and distribution. A modified QuECHERS and SPE method was established for the analysis of the pesticides in the cabbage and brine. It was found that different pesticides showed different dissipation patterns and finally represented dissimilar residue levels in the cabbage and brine. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the distinctions of these pesticides between each treatment and proved that salt content and pH value had certain influence on the dissipation and distribution of these pesticides during the pickling process. The data from this experiment would help to control pesticide residues in pickled cabbage and prevent potential risk to human health and environmental safety. PMID:23402557

  4. In vitro studies on the stability in the proximal gastrointestinal tract and bioaccessibility in Caco-2 cells of chlorogenic acids from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Monente, Carmen; Ludwig, Iziar A; Stalmach, Angelique; de Peña, Maria Paz; Cid, Concepción; Crozier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Spent coffee grounds are a potential commercial source of substantial amounts of chlorogenic acids (CGAs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of spent coffee CGAs using in vitro simulated gastroduodenal digestion and to investigate their potential absorption using an in vitro Caco-2 model of human small intestinal epithelium. During in vitro digestion, lactones were partially degraded while caffeoylquinic and feruloylquinic acids were much more stable. Transport and metabolism studies showed that 1% of the total CGAs were absorbed and transported from the apical to the basolateral side of a Caco-2 cell monolayer after 1 h. Lactones and coumaroylquinic acids showed the rate of highest absorption. Caco-2 cells possessed low metabolic activity. In conclusion, spent coffee extracts contain large amounts of CGAs, which remained bioaccessible across the intestinal barrier, albeit to a relatively low degree.

  5. Precipitation of jarosite-type double salts from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, G.

    1990-09-21

    The precipitation of jarosite compounds to remove Na, K, Fe, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} impurities from spent acid solutions from a chemical coal cleaning process was studied. Simple heating of model solutions containing Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} caused jarosite (KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}) to form preferentially to natrojarosite (NaFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}). Virtually all of the K, about 90% of the Fe, and about 30% of the SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} could be precipitated from those solutions at 95{degree}C, while little or no Na was removed. However, simple heating of model solutions containing only Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} up to 95{degree}C for {le}12 hours produced low yields of jarosite compounds, and the Fe concentration in the solution had to be increased to avoid the formation of undesirable Fe compounds. Precipitate yields could be increased dramatically in model solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} containing excess Fe by using either CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, or ZnO to neutralize H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} released during hydrolysis of the Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and during the precipitation reactions. Results obtained from the studies with model solutions were applied to spent acids produced during laboratory countercurrent washing of coal which had been leached with a molten NaOH/KOH mixture. Results indicated that jarosite compounds can be precipitated effectively from spent acid solutions by heating for 6 hours at 80{degree}C while maintaining a pH of about 1.5 using CaCO{sub 3}.

  6. Hazardous waste to materials: recovery of molybdenum and vanadium from acidic leach liquor of spent hydroprocessing catalyst using alamine 308.

    PubMed

    Sahu, K K; Agrawal, Archana; Mishra, D

    2013-08-15

    Recovery of valuable materials/metals from waste goes hand in hand with environmental protection. This paper deals with the development of a process for the recovery of metals such as Mo, V, Ni, Al from spent hydroprocessing catalyst which may otherwise cause a nuisance if dumped untreated. A detailed study on the separation of molybdenum and vanadium from the leach solution of spent hydroprocessing catalyst of composition: 27.15% MoO₃, 1.7% V₂O₅, 3.75% NiO, 54.3% Al₂O₃, 2.3% SiO₂ and 10.4% LOI is reported in this paper. The catalyst was subjected to roasting under oxidizing atmosphere at a temperature of about 550 °C and leaching in dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and part of aluminium. Metals from the leach solution were separated by solvent extraction. Both molybdenum and vanadium were selectively extracted with a suitable organic solvent leaving nickel and dissolved aluminium in the raffinate. Various parameters such as initial pH of the aqueous feed, organic to aqueous ratio (O:A), solvent concentration etc. were optimized for the complete extraction and recovery of Mo and V. Molybdenum and vanadium from the loaded organic were stripped by ammonia solution. They were recovered as their corresponding ammonium salt by selective precipitation, and were further calcined to get the corresponding oxides in pure form.

  7. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Zhou, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a hydrometallurgical process has been proposed to recover valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media. Leaching efficiencies as high as 97%, 95%, 94%, and 99% of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li were achieved under the optimal leaching experimental conditions of citric acid concentration of 2 mol L(-1), leaching temperature of 80 °C, leaching time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 30 ml g(-1), and 2 vol. % H2O2. For the metals recovery process, nickel and cobalt were selectively precipitated by dimethylglyoxime reagent and ammonium oxalate sequentially. Then manganese was extracted by Na-D2EHPA and the manganese-loaded D2EHPA was stripped with sulfuric acid. The manganese was recovered as MnSO4 in aqueous phase and D2EHPA could be reused after saponification. Finally, lithium was precipitated by 0.5 mol L(-1) sodium phosphate. Under their optimal conditions, the recovery percentages of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li can reach 98%, 97%, 98%, and 89%, respectively. This is a relatively simple route in which all metal values could be effectively leached and recovered in citric acid media.

  8. Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangping; Zhou, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a hydrometallurgical process has been proposed to recover valuable metals from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media. Leaching efficiencies as high as 97%, 95%, 94%, and 99% of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li were achieved under the optimal leaching experimental conditions of citric acid concentration of 2 mol L(-1), leaching temperature of 80 °C, leaching time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 30 ml g(-1), and 2 vol. % H2O2. For the metals recovery process, nickel and cobalt were selectively precipitated by dimethylglyoxime reagent and ammonium oxalate sequentially. Then manganese was extracted by Na-D2EHPA and the manganese-loaded D2EHPA was stripped with sulfuric acid. The manganese was recovered as MnSO4 in aqueous phase and D2EHPA could be reused after saponification. Finally, lithium was precipitated by 0.5 mol L(-1) sodium phosphate. Under their optimal conditions, the recovery percentages of Ni, Co, Mn, and Li can reach 98%, 97%, 98%, and 89%, respectively. This is a relatively simple route in which all metal values could be effectively leached and recovered in citric acid media. PMID:25378255

  9. Adsorption properties of biomass-based activated carbon prepared with spent coffee grounds and pomelo skin by phosphoric acid activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Ouyang, Feng

    2013-03-01

    Activated carbon prepared from spent coffee grounds and pomelo skin by phosphoric acid activation had been employed as the adsorbent for ethylene and n-butane at room temperature. Prepared activated carbon was characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. It was confirmed that pore structure played an important role during the adsorption testes. Adsorption isotherms of ethylene and n-butane fitted well with Langmuir equation. The prepared samples owned better adsorption capacity for n-butane than commercial activated carbon. Isosteric heats of adsorptions at different coverage were calculated through Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Micropore filling effect was explained in a thermodynamic way.

  10. Reductive atmospheric acid leaching of spent alkaline batteries in H2SO4/Na2SO3 solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcali, Mehmet Hakan

    2015-07-01

    This work studies the optimum reductive leaching process for manganese and zinc recovery from spent alkaline battery paste. The effects of reducing agents, acid concentration, pulp density, reaction temperature, and leaching time on the dissolution of manganese and zinc were investigated in detail. Manganese dissolution by reductive acidic media is an intermediate-controlled process with an activation energy of 12.28 kJ·mol-1. After being leached, manganese and zinc were selectively precipitated with sodium hydroxide. The zinc was entirely converted into zincate (Zn(OH){4/2-}) ions and thus did not co-precipitate with manganese hydroxide during this treatment (2.0 M NaOH, 90 min, 200 r/min, pH > 13). After the manganese was removed from the solution, the Zn(OH){4/2-} was precipitated as zinc sulfate in the presence of sulfuric acid. The results indicated that this process could be effective in recovering manganese and zinc from alkaline batteries.

  11. A novel ultrafine leady oxide prepared from spent lead pastes for application as cathode of lead acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Danni; Liu, Jianwen; Wang, Qin; Yuan, Xiqing; Zhu, Xinfeng; Li, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Yuchen; Sun, Xiaojuan; Kumar, R. Vasant; Yang, Jiakuan

    2014-07-01

    A novel ultrafine leady oxide has been prepared from a combustion-calcination process of lead citrate precursor (Pb3(C6H5O7)2·3H2O), by hydrometallurgical leaching of spent lead pastes firstly. The leady oxides are used to assemble lead acid battery which are subjected to cyclic voltammetry (CV) and battery testing. Various key properties of the new oxides, such as morphology, crystalline phases, degree of oxidation, apparent density and water and acid absorption value have been characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that leady oxides synthesized at different calcination temperatures mainly comprise β-PbO, α-PbO and Pb. Unlike traditional leady oxide, the new oxide product prepared at 375 °C has a rod-like morphology with greater porous structure, and appears smaller density, lower value of acid absorption and larger propensity for water absorption. In battery testing, the 20 h rate and 1C rate discharge time have exceeded 26 h and 40 min, respectively. Results reveal that the leady oxide prepared at 375 °C exhibits excellent electrochemical performance and initial capacity as positive active material. While leady oxide obtained at 450 °C presents a relatively improved cycle life. Further work is to optimize the battery manufacturing process for better cycle performance.

  12. Passive treatment of acid mine drainage using coal combustion by-products and spent mushroom substrate: Results of column study

    SciTech Connect

    Crisp, T.E.; Nairn, R.W.; Strevett, K.A.; Everett, J.

    1998-12-31

    A column study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using of coal combustion by-products (CCB) as alkaline materials in a field scale downflow constructed wetlands for acid mine drainage treatment. Five columns (15.24 cm in diameter and 91.44 cm high) were constructed and filled with a combination of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and one of three alkaline materials (limestone, hydrated fly ash, or fluidized bed ash). The five mixtures utilized were 10% fluidized bed ash/40% limestone (FBA/LS), 10% fluidized bed ash (FBA), 50% limestone (LS), 50% hydrated fly ash (HFA),m and 50% sieved (>1.5 cm) hydrated fly ash (S. HFA) with the remainder as SMS on a w/w basis. Column received synthetic acid mine drainage containing: 400 mg/L iron, 59 mg/L aluminum, 11 mg/L manganese, 50% mg/L magnesium, 40 mg/L calcium, and 1200 mg/L sulfate for 5 months. Anoxic conditions in the influent reservoirs were maintained by a positive nitrogen pressure head. Flow rates of 2.0 mL/minute to each column were maintained by a multichannel peristaltic pump. For all columns, effluent acidity concentrations were less than influent acidity concentration (877{sup {minus}}30, n = 75f). Mean effluent acidity concentrations were 241 mg/L (FBA/LS), 186 mg/L (FBA), 419 mg/L (LS), {minus}28.5 mg/L (HFA), and 351 mg/L (S. HFA), respectively. While all column produced measurable alkalinity, only the HFA column produced a net alkaline discharge. The results of these column studies are applicable to the design and sizing of innovative field scale systems using alkaline-rich CCB`s.

  13. Recovery of lead from lead paste in spent lead acid battery by hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunjian; Qiu, Keqiang

    2015-06-01

    Lead sulfate, lead oxides and lead metal are the main component of lead paste in spent lead acid battery. When lead sulfate was desulfurized and transformed into lead carbonate by sodium carbonate, lead metal and lead oxides remained unchanged. Lead carbonate is easily decomposed to lead oxide and carbon dioxide under high temperature. Namely, vacuum thermal process is the reduction reaction of lead oxides. A compatible environmental process consisted of hydrometallurgical desulfurization and vacuum thermal reduction to recycle lead was investigated in this research. Lead paste was firstly desulfurized with sodium carbonate, by which, the content of sulfur declined from 7.87% to 0.26%. Then, the desulfurized lead paste was reduced by charcoal under vacuum. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., vacuum thermal reduction at temperature 850°C under 20 Pa for 45 min, a 22.11×10(-2) g cm(-2) min(-1) reduction rate, and a 98.13% direct recovery ratio of fine lead (99.77%) had been achieved, respectively.

  14. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yu-jie; Tang, Chao-bo; Tang, Mo-tang; Chen, Yong-ming

    2015-08-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead-acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: T = 880°C; t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The results suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic calculations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  15. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  16. Optical Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers for 700-1000 nm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  17. Modernizing Pickles - A Tool for Planning and Scheduling HST Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Aaron; McArthur, B.; Benedict, G. F.

    2007-12-01

    Pickles is a Macintosh program written in C that was developed as a tool for determining pointings and rolls of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to place targets and astrometric reference stars in the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) field of regard ("pickles"). The program was developed in the late 1980s and runs under the "Classic” System. Ongoing HST astrometry projects require that this code be ported to the Intel-Mac OSX, because the Classic System is now unsupported. Pickles is a vital part of HST astrometry research. It graphically aids the investigator to determine where, when, and how the HST/FGS combination can observe an object and associated astrometric reference stars. Presently, Pickles can extract and display star positions from Guide Star Catalogs, such as the ACRS, SAO, and AGK3 catalogs via CD-ROMs. Future improvements will provide access to these catalogs and others through the internet. As an example of the past utility of Pickles, we highlight the recent determination of parallaxes for ten galactic Cepheids to determine an improved solar-metallicity Period-Luminosity relation. Support for this work was provided by NASA through grants GO-10989, -11210, and -11211 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  18. Kinetics of Mo, Ni, V and Al leaching from a spent hydrodesulphurization catalyst in a solution containing oxalic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2011-02-28

    The kinetics of molybdenum, nickel, vanadium and aluminium leaching from a spent hydrodesulphurization catalyst in a solution containing oxalic acid and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The effects of temperature and particle size were examined. In addition, the reaction mechanism for the dissolution of the spent catalyst was discussed. The results of the kinetic analysis for various experimental conditions indicated that the reaction rate of leaching process is controlled by chemical reaction at the particle surface. The values of the activation energies of 31±2, 36±4, 30±4 and 57±3 kJ mol(-1) for Mo, Ni, V and Al, respectively, are characteristic for mechanism controlled by chemical reaction. PMID:21167639

  19. Evaluation of an integrated biorefinery based on fractionation of spent sulphite liquor for the production of an antioxidant-rich extract, lignosulphonates and succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Alexandri, Maria; Papapostolou, Harris; Komaitis, Michael; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-08-01

    Spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been used for the production of lignosulphonates (LS), antioxidants and bio-based succinic acid. Solvent extraction of SSL with isopropanol led to the separation of approximately 80% of the total LS content, whereas the fermentations carried out using the pretreated SSL with isopropanol led to the production of around 19g/L of succinic acid by both Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Fractionation of SSL via nanofiltration to separate the LS and solvent extraction using ethyl acetate to separate the phenolic compounds produced a detoxified sugar-rich stream that led to the production of 39g/L of succinic acid by B. succiniciproducens. This fractionation scheme resulted also in the production of 32.4g LS and 1.15g phenolic-rich extract per 100g of SSL. Both pretreatment schemes removed significant quantities of metals and heavy metals. This novel biorefinery concept could be integrated in acidic sulphite pulping mills.

  20. Decomposition of dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spent acid from toluene nitration process by ozonation and photo-ozonation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Juan, Chien-Neng; Wei, Kuo-Ming

    2007-08-17

    Ozone and UV/O3 were employed to mineralize dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in spent acid from toluene nitration process. The oxidative degradation tests were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the performance of mineralization of total organic compounds (TOC) in spent acid, including reaction temperature, intensity of UV (254 nm) irradiation, dosage of ozone and concentration of sulfuric acid. It is remarkable that the nearly complete mineralization of organic compounds can be achieved by ozonation combined with UV irradiation. Nevertheless, the hydroxyl radicals (*OH) would not be generated by either ozone decomposition or photolysis of ozone under the experimental condition of this study. According to the spectra identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and further confirmed by gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), the multiple oxidation pathways of DNT isomers are given, which include o-, m-, p-mononitrotoluene (MNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In addition, oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-TNT leads to a 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene intermediate. PMID:17257749

  1. Isolation and characterization of acetic acid-tolerant galactose-fermenting strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from a spent sulfite liquor fermentation plant.

    PubMed Central

    Lindén, T; Peetre, J; Hahn-Hägerdal, B

    1992-01-01

    From a continuous spent sulfite liquor fermentation plant, two species of yeast were isolated, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia membranaefaciens. One of the isolates of S. cerevisiae, no. 3, was heavily flocculating and produced a higher ethanol yield from spent sulfite liquor than did commercial baker's yeast. The greatest difference between isolate 3 and baker's yeast was that of galactose fermentation, even when galactose utilization was induced, i.e., when they were grown in the presence of galactose, prior to fermentation. Without acetic acid present, both baker's yeast and isolate 3 fermented glucose and galactose sequentially. Galactose fermentation with baker's yeast was strongly inhibited by acetic acid at pH values below 6. Isolate 3 fermented galactose, glucose, and mannose without catabolite repression in the presence of acetic acid, even at pH 4.5. The xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) activities were determined in some of the isolates as well as in two strains of S. cerevisiae (ATCC 24860 and baker's yeast) and Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. The S. cerevisiae strains manifested xylose reductase activity that was 2 orders of magnitude less than the corresponding P. stipitis value of 890 nmol/min/mg of protein. The xylose dehydrogenase activity was 1 order of magnitude less than the corresponding activity of P. stipitis (330 nmol/min/mg of protein). Images PMID:1622236

  2. Decomposition of dinitrotoluene isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in spent acid from toluene nitration process by ozonation and photo-ozonation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Shing; Juan, Chien-Neng; Wei, Kuo-Ming

    2007-08-17

    Ozone and UV/O3 were employed to mineralize dinitrotoluene (DNT) isomers and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in spent acid from toluene nitration process. The oxidative degradation tests were carried out to elucidate the influence of various operating variables on the performance of mineralization of total organic compounds (TOC) in spent acid, including reaction temperature, intensity of UV (254 nm) irradiation, dosage of ozone and concentration of sulfuric acid. It is remarkable that the nearly complete mineralization of organic compounds can be achieved by ozonation combined with UV irradiation. Nevertheless, the hydroxyl radicals (*OH) would not be generated by either ozone decomposition or photolysis of ozone under the experimental condition of this study. According to the spectra identified by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and further confirmed by gas chromatograph/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), the multiple oxidation pathways of DNT isomers are given, which include o-, m-, p-mononitrotoluene (MNT) and 1,3-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In addition, oxidative degradation of 2,4,6-TNT leads to a 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene intermediate.

  3. Extraction of manganese by alkyl monocarboxylic acid in a mixed extractant from a leaching solution of spent lithium-ion battery ternary cathodic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Dongju; Oh, ChangHyun; Wang, Jei-Pil; Shin, Shun Myung

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the separation of manganese by an antagonistic effect from a leaching solution of ternary cathodic material of spent lithium-ion batteries that contain 11,400 mg L-1 Co, 11,700 mg L-1 Mn, 12,200 mg L-1 Ni, and 5300 mg L-1 Li using a mixture of alkyl monocarboxylic acid and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid extractants. pH isotherm, distribution coefficient, separation factor, McCabe-Thiele diagram, selective scrubbing, and countercurrent extraction tests are carried out to prove an antagonistic effect and to recover manganese using alkyl monocarboxylic in the mixed extractant. Slope analysis is used to determine the extraction mechanism between a mixture of extractants and valuable metals. An increasing concentration of alkyl monocarboxylic acid in the mixture of extractants results in a decrease in distribution coefficient of cobalt and manganese, however, the separation factor value (β(Mn/Co)) increases at pH 4.5. This is caused by slope analysis where alkyl monocarboxylic acid disrupts the extraction mechanism between di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and cobalt. Finally, continuous countercurrent extraction in a mini-plant test demonstrate the feasibility of manganese recovery from cobalt, nickel, and lithium.

  4. The effect of spent bleaching earth ageing process on its physicochemical and microbial composition and its potential use as a source of fatty acids and triterpenes.

    PubMed

    Krzyśko-Łupicka, Teresa; Cybulska, Krystyna; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Możdżer, Ewa; Nowak, Maciej J

    2014-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the physicochemical and microbiological changes that took place during the ageing process of spent bleaching earth in the presence of autochthonous microorganisms. Research material included fresh spent bleaching earth (SBE0) and the same material after 3 years of storage at the constant temperature of 20 °C, without aeration and moistening (SBE3). Changes in the chemical composition of analysed waste material were observed during its ageing process point to a spontaneous bioconversion of fat substance towards formation and/or release of free saturated fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 (14.3 g 100 g(-1) D.M.), triterpenes (8.48 g 100 g(-1) D.M.), cholesterol (3.29 g 100 g(-1) D.M.), small quantities of carbohydrates and esters (0.80 g 100 g(-1) D.M.). This process was accompanied by other changes in physicochemical parameters of the waste material, such as colour, odour and viscosity, decrease in fat content from 28.27 to 24.6 % and that of soluble forms of metals (Mo, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr and Mn), ranging from 25 to 75 %, and an increase in pH, from 3.85 to 4.2. At the same time, changes in the microbial consortium were observed. PMID:24875308

  5. Pickled essence of Englishman: Thomas Lovell Beddoes--time to unearth a neglected poet?

    PubMed

    Bamforth, I

    2004-06-01

    Thomas Lovell Beddoes (1803-1849) was a doctor and intermittently brilliant poet whose explorations of "the florid Gothic in poetry" (his words) offer some of the most haunting, claustrophobic, and grotesque verse in the English language. Son of the pioneering Bristol scientist Thomas Beddoes and nephew of Maria Edgeworth the novelist, he stemmed, like Mary Shelley, author of the celebrated novel Frankenstein, from a line of influential freethinkers. This article situates Beddoes's work in the transition from the confident empiricism of the eighteenth century to the nineteenth century's imaginative reaction to social and intellectual life after the Napoleonic wars. Having spent most of his adult life in Germany (where he studied anatomy with the famous biologist Blumenbach) and latterly Switzerland, Beddoes engaged in radical politics, dabbled in the occult, and may even have encountered the German doctor/playwright Georg Büchner, whose career parallels his own. Beddoes hoped that by reading the body literally, in terms of its material structure, he would be able to bring about a revival of English theatre. Inevitable defeat led him to develop his signature form of abject irony. In view of the current interest in semiotics (a development of medical semiology), and the subterranean analogies in Beddoes's writing between the corpus and the corpse, his reputation ought to be rescued from the "critical pickle".

  6. Evaluation of an integrated biorefinery based on fractionation of spent sulphite liquor for the production of an antioxidant-rich extract, lignosulphonates and succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Alexandri, Maria; Papapostolou, Harris; Komaitis, Michael; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Danezis, Georgios P; Georgiou, Constantinos A; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2016-08-01

    Spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been used for the production of lignosulphonates (LS), antioxidants and bio-based succinic acid. Solvent extraction of SSL with isopropanol led to the separation of approximately 80% of the total LS content, whereas the fermentations carried out using the pretreated SSL with isopropanol led to the production of around 19g/L of succinic acid by both Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Fractionation of SSL via nanofiltration to separate the LS and solvent extraction using ethyl acetate to separate the phenolic compounds produced a detoxified sugar-rich stream that led to the production of 39g/L of succinic acid by B. succiniciproducens. This fractionation scheme resulted also in the production of 32.4g LS and 1.15g phenolic-rich extract per 100g of SSL. Both pretreatment schemes removed significant quantities of metals and heavy metals. This novel biorefinery concept could be integrated in acidic sulphite pulping mills. PMID:27176670

  7. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  8. Detection of Fruit Fly Infestation in Pickling Cucumbers using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labo...

  9. Corrosion-Resistant Ti- xNb- xZr Alloys for Nitric Acid Applications in Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivasagam, Geetha; Anbarasan, V.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Raj, Baldev

    2011-09-01

    This article reports the development, microstructure, and corrosion behavior of two new alloys such as Ti-4Nb-4Zr and Ti-2Nb-2Zr in boiling nitric acid environment. The corrosion test was carried out in the liquid, vapor, and condensate phases of 11.5 M nitric acid, and the potentiodynamic anodic polarization studies were performed at room temperature for both alloys. The samples subjected to three-phase corrosion testing were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAX). As Ti-2Nb-2Zr alloy exhibited inferior corrosion behavior in comparison to Ti-4Nb-4Zr in all three phases, weldability and heat treatment studies were carried out only on Ti-4Nb-4Zr alloy. The weldability of the new alloy was evaluated using tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes, and the welded specimen was thereafter tested for its corrosion behavior in all three phases. The results of the present investigation revealed that the newly developed near alpha Ti-4Nb-4Zr alloy possessed superior corrosion resistance in all three phases and excellent weldability compared to conventional alloys used for nitric acid application in spent nuclear reprocessing plants. Further, the corrosion resistance of the beta heat-treated Ti-4Nb-4Zr alloy was superior when compared to the sample heat treated in the alpha + beta phase.

  10. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Paiva, A P; Oliveira, P C; Costa, M C; da Costa, A M Rosa

    2014-08-15

    The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4h, [HCl] = 6M, [Cu(2+)] = 0.3M). PMID:24953939

  11. Oxidative leaching process with cupric ion in hydrochloric acid media for recovery of Pd and Rh from spent catalytic converters.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, C A; Paiva, A P; Oliveira, P C; Costa, M C; da Costa, A M Rosa

    2014-08-15

    The recycling of platinum-group metals from wastes such as autocatalytic converters is getting growing attention due to the scarcity of these precious metals and the market pressure originated by increase of demand in current and emerging applications. Hydrometallurgical treatment of such wastes is an alternative way to the most usual pyrometallurgical processes based on smelter operations. This paper focuses on the development of a leaching process using cupric chloride as oxidising agent, in HCl media, for recovery of palladium and rhodium from a spent catalyst. The chloride media allows the adequate conditions for oxidising and solubilising the metals, as demonstrated by equilibrium calculations based on thermodynamic data. The experimental study of the leaching process revealed that Pd solubilisation is clearly easier than that of Rh. The factors temperature, time, and HCl and Cu(2+) concentrations were significant regarding Pd and Rh leaching, the latter requiring higher factor values to achieve the same results. Leaching yields of 95% Pd and 86% Rh were achieved under optimised conditions (T = 80 °C, t = 4h, [HCl] = 6M, [Cu(2+)] = 0.3M).

  12. Stability of monosodium glutamate in green table olives and pickled cucumbers as a function of packing conditions and storage time.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Beato, Víctor Manuel; Casado, Francisco Javier; Montaño, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different packing conditions and storage times on the stability of monosodium glutamate (MSG) added to two different fermented vegetables (Spanish-type green table olives and pickled cucumbers) were studied. Factors such as packaging material (glass bottle versus plastic pouch), heat treatment (pasteurisation versus non-pasteurisation), and the presence or not of a preservative compound (potassium sorbate) were considered. The MSG content of pickled cucumbers was stable for up to 1 year of storage in all packing conditions studied. The MSG content also remained stable in pasteurised green table olives. On the contrary, MSG was extensively degraded (>75% degradation) after 54 weeks of storage in unpasteurised green olives with a higher degradation rate in glass bottles compared with plastic pouches. In the presence of potassium sorbate, MSG was also considerably degraded in olives packed in plastic pouches (>50% degradation), but hardly degraded in glass bottles. The results indicate that MSG degradation in olives is due to the action of both lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, with the formation of γ-aminobutyric acid as the major end-product. PMID:24720705

  13. A novel leady oxide combined with porous carbon skeleton synthesized from lead citrate precursor recovered from spent lead-acid battery paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuchen; Yang, Jiakuan; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yanlin; Wang, Junxiong; Yuan, Xiqing; Vasant Kumar, R.; Liang, Sha; Hu, Jingping; Wu, Xu

    2016-02-01

    A novel nanostructured leady oxides comprising porous carbon skeleton has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of lead citrate precursor, recovered from spent lead-acid battery paste. The influences of O2 percentage in the calcination atmosphere (O2/N2 mixture) and the temperature on leady oxide product characteristics are studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The major crystalline phases of the products are identified as lead oxides, metallic Pb, and carbon. Porous carbon is observed as skeletons within the leady oxide (PbO containing some Pb metal) particles. Mass percentage of Pb metal in the leady oxide increases with increasing the proportion of oxygen in the calcination atmosphere. However, the amount of carbon decreases from approximately 8.0 to 0.3 wt%, and the porous carbon skeleton structure is gradually damaged with oxygen concentration increasing. A model about the thermal decomposition of lead citrate precursor is firstly proposed to elucidate these observations. The nanostructured leady oxides combined with porous carbon can be directly used as precursor of active materials in a new lead acid battery.

  14. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles.

  15. Copper-spent activated carbon as a heterogeneous peroxydisulfate catalyst for the degradation of Acid Orange 7 in an electrochemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lin, Heng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The exhausted activated carbon generated from the adsorption of heavy metal wastewater needs further treatment/disposal. In this study, a new application of copper-spent activated carbon (Cu-AC) was proposed. Cu-AC was used to activate peroxydisulfate (PDS) for the decolorization of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and electrical current was introduced to enhance the process. The decolorization followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic pattern well (R(2) > 0.95). 92.4% of color removal at 60 min and 38.3% of total organic carbon removal at 180 min were achieved when initial pH value was 9.0, current density was 16 mA/cm(2), PDS concentration was 5 mM and Cu-AC dosage was 0.25 g/L. The radical scavengers including methanol, tert-butanol and phenol, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance test, were employed to investigate the oxidizing species responsible for AO7 decolorization. The stability of Cu-AC was confirmed by three recycle experiments.

  16. Fabrication of granular activated carbons derived from spent coffee grounds by entrapment in calcium alginate beads for adsorption of acid orange 7 and methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Won; Choi, Brian Hyun; Hwang, Min-Jin; Jeong, Tae-Un; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Biomass-based granular activated carbon was successfully prepared by entrapping activated carbon powder derived from spent coffee grounds into calcium-alginate beads (SCG-GAC) for the removal of acid orange 7 (AO7) and methylene blue (MB) from aqueous media. The dye adsorption process is highly pH-dependent and essentially independent of ionic effects. The adsorption kinetics was satisfactorily described by the pore diffusion model, which revealed that pore diffusion was the rate-limiting step during the adsorption process. The equilibrium isotherm and isosteric heat of adsorption indicate that SCG-GAC possesses an energetically heterogeneous surface and operates via endothermic process in nature. The maximum adsorption capacities of SCG-GAC for AO7 (pH 3.0) and MB (pH 11.0) adsorption were found to be 665.9 and 986.8mg/g at 30°C, respectively. Lastly, regeneration tests further confirmed that SCG-GAC has promising potential in its reusability, showing removal efficiency of more than 80% even after seven consecutive cycles. PMID:27494099

  17. Copper-spent activated carbon as a heterogeneous peroxydisulfate catalyst for the degradation of Acid Orange 7 in an electrochemical reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Lin, Heng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The exhausted activated carbon generated from the adsorption of heavy metal wastewater needs further treatment/disposal. In this study, a new application of copper-spent activated carbon (Cu-AC) was proposed. Cu-AC was used to activate peroxydisulfate (PDS) for the decolorization of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and electrical current was introduced to enhance the process. The decolorization followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic pattern well (R(2) > 0.95). 92.4% of color removal at 60 min and 38.3% of total organic carbon removal at 180 min were achieved when initial pH value was 9.0, current density was 16 mA/cm(2), PDS concentration was 5 mM and Cu-AC dosage was 0.25 g/L. The radical scavengers including methanol, tert-butanol and phenol, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance test, were employed to investigate the oxidizing species responsible for AO7 decolorization. The stability of Cu-AC was confirmed by three recycle experiments. PMID:27120633

  18. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  19. Improving the Surface Roughness of Pickled Steel Strip by Control of Rolling Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Nan; Lin, Szu-Ning; Liou, Horng-Yih; Chang, Chu-Wei; Wu, Chia-Chan; Wang, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is to analyze the surface roughness problem of low carbon pickled steel strips from the view points of prior hot rolling conditions and the hot-rolled scales. The results showed that, compared with other parameters, the most important factor in hot rolling to affect the surface roughness was the rolling temperature. As the temperature was increased, the amount of the outer brittle α-Fe2O3 increased, leading to rough scale/substrate interface and rough surface after pickling. However, the effect of coiling temperature was almost negligible because no further rolling existed after that stage. Quantitative estimation showed that decrease in rolling temperature in this investigation reduced the surface roughness, Ra, from 1.06-1.78 μm to 0.88-1.10 μm after pickling in laboratory. Similar degree of improvement in roughness was also observed after pickling in mill.

  20. Surface integrity after pickling and anodization of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermesse, Eric; Mabru, Catherine; Arurault, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    The surface integrity of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was studied at different stages of surface treatments, especially pickling and compact anodization, through surface characteristics potentially worsening fatigue resistance.

  1. Lactobacillus furfuricola sp. nov., isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles.

    PubMed

    Irisawa, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Naoto; Kitahara, Maki; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya; Okada, Sanae

    2014-08-01

    Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Nu27(T) and Nu29, were isolated from Nukadoko, rice bran paste for Japanese pickles. The isolates were Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-negative, non-motile and facultatively anaerobic lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. The closest relatives to strain Nu27(T) based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were Lactobacillus versmoldensis KU-3(T) (98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus nodensis iz4b(T) (96.3%) and Lactobacillus tucceti CECT 5290(T) (97.2%). DNA-DNA relatedness values revealed genotype separation of the two isolates from the above three species. Based on the physiological, biochemical and genotypic characteristics provided, the isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which name is Lactobacillus furfuricola proposed. The type strain is Nu 27(T) ( = JCM 18764(T) = NRIC 0900(T) = DSM 27174(T)).

  2. Pectinatus sottacetonis sp. nov., isolated from a commercial pickle spoilage tank.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Jane M; Juvonen, Riikka; Brown, James; Breidt, Fred

    2013-10-01

    A strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, motile bacterium, designated strain FSRU B0405(T), was isolated from a commercial pickle spoilage tank and characterized by biochemical, physiological and molecular biological methods. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain FSRU B0405(T) showed affiliation to the class Negativicutes in the phylum Firmicutes, with the closest relatives being the type strains of Pectinatus haikarae (96 %) and Pectinatus brassicae (95 %). In maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining phylogenetic trees, strain FSRU B0405(T) clustered definitively (in 100 % of bootstrapped trees) within the genus Pectinatus, but not specifically with any characterized species within this genus. Strain FSRU B0405(T) was a slightly curved rod, varying from 3 to 30 µm in length, motile with a distinctive X-wise movement, having flagella only on the concave side of the cell. The isolate produced acetate and propionate from fructose and glucose as major metabolites similar to type strains of species of the genus Pectinatus. The major fatty acids were C11 : 0, C13 : 0, C15 : 0, C13 : 0 3-OH, C17 : 1 and C18 : 1ω11t. Strain FSRU B0405(T) differed from the pickle wastewater strain, Pectinatus brassicae TY(T), due to its lack of susceptibility to vancomycin, acetoin production, growth temperature range, acid production from adonitol, erythritol, glycerol, inositol, lactose, maltose, mannose, ribose, salicin, sorbitol, trehalose and xylitol and lack of hydrolysis of milk. Strain FSRU B0405(T) could be differentiated from other species of the genus Pectinatus both phenotypically and genetically. The results indicate that strain FSRU B0405(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pectinatus, for which the name Pectinatus sottacetonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FSRU B0405(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2501(T) = VTT E-113163(T)). An emended description of the genus Pectinatus is also provided.

  3. Recovery of manganese and zinc from spent Zn-C cell powder: Experimental design of leaching by sulfuric acid solution containing glucose.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ranjit K; Karmakar, Aneek K; Kumar, Sree L

    2016-05-01

    The spent Zn-C cell powder, containing ZnMn2O4, ZnO, MnO(OH) and possibly Mn2O3 and Mn3O4, can be leached by a sulfuric acid solution mixed with some glucose. The leaching is found to be dependent on solid to liquid (S/L) ratio, amount of glucose, concentration of sulfuric acid solution, time and pulp agitation speed. For 5g powder (S), 1h leaching time and 300rpm pulp agitation speed, two-level four-factor (2(4)) experimental designs have been carried out to derive models for extraction of both Mn(II) and Zn(II). Amount of glucose (G, g), concentration of H2SO4 solution (C, mol/L), volume of H2SO4 solution as leachant (L, mL) and leaching temperature (T, °C) are considered as factors (variables). The model in both cases consists of mean, factor effects and interaction effects. The four-factor interaction effect is observed in neither of the cases. Some two-factor and three-factor effects are found to have produced positive or negative contributions to dissolution percentage in both cases. The models are examined for comparison with experimental results with good fits and also used for optimization of factors. At optimized condition (G=0.50g, C=2mol/L, L=250mL and T=100°C), an aliquot of 5g powder in 1h and at 300rpm produces a solution containing (7.08±0.10)g/L Mn(II) and (2.20±0.06)g/L Zn(II) corresponding to almost 100% extraction of both metal ions. PMID:26564257

  4. Signal Integration by the IκB Protein Pickle Shapes Drosophila Innate Host Defense.

    PubMed

    Morris, Otto; Liu, Xi; Domingues, Celia; Runchel, Christopher; Chai, Andrea; Basith, Shaherin; Tenev, Tencho; Chen, Haiyang; Choi, Sangdun; Pennetta, Giuseppa; Buchon, Nicolas; Meier, Pascal

    2016-09-14

    Pattern recognition receptors are activated following infection and trigger transcriptional programs important for host defense. Tight regulation of NF-κB activation is critical to avoid detrimental and misbalanced responses. We describe Pickle, a Drosophila nuclear IκB that integrates signaling inputs from both the Imd and Toll pathways by skewing the transcriptional output of the NF-κB dimer repertoire. Pickle interacts with the NF-κB protein Relish and the histone deacetylase dHDAC1, selectively repressing Relish homodimers while leaving other NF-κB dimer combinations unscathed. Pickle's ability to selectively inhibit Relish homodimer activity contributes to proper host immunity and organismal health. Although loss of pickle results in hyper-induction of Relish target genes and improved host resistance to pathogenic bacteria in the short term, chronic inactivation of pickle causes loss of immune tolerance and shortened lifespan. Pickle therefore allows balanced immune responses that protect from pathogenic microbes while permitting the establishment of beneficial commensal host-microbe relationships. PMID:27631699

  5. Monitoring of the microbiota profile in nukadoko, a naturally fermented rice bran bed for pickling vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ono, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shoko; Tsurii, Jun; Kawamoto, Tetsuhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2014-11-01

    Nukadoko is a fermented rice bran mash traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. To date, the production of both homemade and commercial nukadoko depends on natural fermentation without using starter cultures. Here, we monitored chemical and microbiological changes in the initial batch fermentation of nukadoko. Nukadoko samples were prepared by spontaneous fermentation of four different brands of rice bran, and microbiome dynamics were analyzed for 2 months. In the first week, non-Lactobacillales lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which differed among the samples, grew proportionally to pH decrease and lactate increase. Thereafter, Lactobacillus plantarum started growing and consumed residual sugars, causing further lactate increase in nukadoko. Finally, microbial communities in all tested nukadoko samples were dominated by L. plantarum. Taken together, our results suggest that the mixture of the fast-growing LAB species and slow-growing L. plantarum may be used as a suitable starter culture to promote the initial fermentation of nukadoko. PMID:24906947

  6. Comparison of volatile components in Chinese traditional pickled peppers using HS-SPME-GC-MS, GC-O and multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z B; Zhu, J C; Feng, T; Tian, H X; Yu, H Y; Niu, Y W; Zhang, X M

    2010-12-01

    Volatile compounds of Chinese traditional pickled peppers (CTPPs) were extracted by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) to visually compare their volatile compositions by applying principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 67 volatile components were identified by GC-MS, including 7 acids, 6 alkanes, 14 alcohols, 9 esters, 11 terpenes, 3 aldehydes, 5 ketones, 7 phenols and 5 miscellaneous compounds, tentatively identified or identified by comparing with mass spectra and retention indices of the standards or from literature. Of 45 volatile compounds detected in the sniffing port of GC-O, the majority of odour-active components included acetic acid, 2-ethyl phenol, L-linalool, tridecane, butyl butanoate, δ-3-carene. The individual concentrations of the volatile compounds such as acetic acid, ethanol, 1-propanol, L-linalool, hexyl 2-methyl butyrate and hexyl pentanoate corresponded well to the intensities of related attributes in the correlation analysis. Due to their high concentration level and low threshold value, these compounds played an important role in the final aromatic profile of the pickled peppers. The differences in flavours were observed by applying PCA to GC-MS data sets. From the PCA results, samples were primarily separated along the first principal component.

  7. Changes of microstructure characteristics and intermolecular interactions of preserved egg white gel during pickling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Zhangyi; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Shao, Yaoyao; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-07-15

    Changes in gel microstructure characteristics and in intermolecular interactions of preserved egg whites during pickling were investigated. Spin-spin relaxation times of preserved egg whites significantly decreased in the first 8 days and remained unchanged after the 16th day. SEM images revealed a three-dimensional gel network, interwoven with a loose linear fibrous mesh structure. The protein gel mesh structure became more regular, smaller, and compacted with pickling time. Free sulfhydryl contents in the egg whites increased significantly, while total sulfhydryl contents dramatically decreased during pickling. The primary intermolecular forces in the preserved egg white gels were ionic and disulfide bonds. Secondary forces included hydrophobic interaction and relatively few hydrogen bonds. During the first 8 days, the proportion of ionic bonds sharply decreased, and that of disulfide bonds increased over the first 24 days.

  8. A study on sludge minimization during the treatment of pickling effluent.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anupam; Tewari, V K; Prakash, Satya

    2006-04-01

    In pickling industries, a lot of sludge is generated during the treatment of pickling effluent and there is severe problem of its disposal. Disposal of this sludge as per the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 is not easy. Its transportation and construction of lined disposal sites pose very severe problems. In the normal practice, the sludge is being disposed of at the sides of roads and railway tracks to fill low lying areas. This may cause serious health hazards. Considering these problems, a study has been undertaken to minimize the sludge generation during the treatment of pickling effluent by neutralizing it with lime, sodium hydroxide and combination of both. An attempt has been made to do an economic evaluation of the above process. PMID:17913186

  9. Changes of microstructure characteristics and intermolecular interactions of preserved egg white gel during pickling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Zhangyi; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Shao, Yaoyao; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-07-15

    Changes in gel microstructure characteristics and in intermolecular interactions of preserved egg whites during pickling were investigated. Spin-spin relaxation times of preserved egg whites significantly decreased in the first 8 days and remained unchanged after the 16th day. SEM images revealed a three-dimensional gel network, interwoven with a loose linear fibrous mesh structure. The protein gel mesh structure became more regular, smaller, and compacted with pickling time. Free sulfhydryl contents in the egg whites increased significantly, while total sulfhydryl contents dramatically decreased during pickling. The primary intermolecular forces in the preserved egg white gels were ionic and disulfide bonds. Secondary forces included hydrophobic interaction and relatively few hydrogen bonds. During the first 8 days, the proportion of ionic bonds sharply decreased, and that of disulfide bonds increased over the first 24 days. PMID:26948621

  10. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  11. Pickled vegetables and the risk of oesophageal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Islami, F; Ren, J-S; Taylor, P R; Kamangar, F

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ecological and experimental studies have suggested a relationship between Asian pickled vegetable consumption and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but the results of epidemiological studies investigating the association have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies of this association to evaluate the existing evidence. Methods: We searched the PubMed, ISI-Web of Science, J-EAST, IndMed, Vip Chinese Periodical, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for all studies published in English or Chinese languages. Pooled results for all studies combined and for several study subgroups were computed. Results: A total of 34 studies were included in this analysis. The overall random effects odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for pickled vegetable consumption was 2.08 (1.66–2.60), but the results were heterogeneous across studies. After excluding the three most influential studies, the respective numbers were 2.32 (1.92–2.81). Similar to the overall association, the majority of subgroup analyses showed a statistically significant association between consuming pickled vegetables and OSCC risk. There were only three prospective studies. Conclusion: Our results suggest a potential two-fold increased risk of oesophageal cancer associated with the intake of pickled vegetables. However, because the majority of data was from retrospective studies and there was a high heterogeneity in the results, further well-designed prospective studies are warranted. PMID:19862003

  12. Consumer acceptability of cucumber pickles produced by fermentation in calcium chloride brine for reduced environmental impact

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentat...

  13. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  14. PickleHerring and Marlsite Projects: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Junk Music-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Matt

    2008-01-01

    This project report describes the way PickleHerring Theatre approaches community music-making with "junk" materials. The report has an emphasis on the group experience, the participants' creativity, and their play. In conclusion a case is presented for the efficacy of junk music-making as a dynamic form of community music. (Contains 5 footnotes…

  15. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of a red colored spoilage in cucumber pickle products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in fermented cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the cucumbers. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from two outbreaks of this spoilage which occurred a...

  16. Synthesis of M-type hexaferrites from steel pickling liquors (ID 109)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, J.; Latorre, R.; Alcalá, E. M.; Negro, C.; Formoso, A.; López-Mateos, F.

    1996-05-01

    The recovery of steel pickling liquors is one of the main environmental aspects that the steelmaking industry must resolve. We propose the synthesis of barium M-type hexaferrite from these liquors as a recovery treatment. Two methods of synthesis have been studied: a variation of the ceramic method, and an oxicoprecipitation process. Products with excellent magnetic properties have been obtained.

  17. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  18. Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a hyperspectral i...

  19. Consumer Acceptability of Cucumber Pickles Produced by Fermentation in Calcium Chloride Brine for Reduced Environmental Impact.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily M; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Osborne, Jason A

    2015-06-01

    Fermentation of cucumbers in calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) brine has been proposed as an alternative process to reduce the environmental impact of traditional, high salt fermentations. The objective of this research was to determine whether consumer acceptability of pickle products would be impacted by fermentation and storage of cucumbers in CaCl2 brine. Cucumbers were fermented and stored with 0.1M CaCl2 or 1M sodium chloride (NaCl) in open-air, 3000 gal tanks at a commercial facility and processed into hamburger dill chips containing 0.38M NaCl. Cucumbers fermented in CaCl2 required additional desalting to reduce CaCl2 concentrations to that of current products. Consumers (n = 101) showed no significant preference for pickles from different fermentation treatments, whether stored for 2 mo (P = 0.75) or 8 mo (P = 0.68) prior to processing. In contrast, NaCl fermented pickles were preferred over CaCl2 fermented pickles stored for 10 mo and desalted only once (P < 0.01). A series of preference tests indicated that the taste of CaCl2 was not the factor affecting consumer preference, and the 50% detection threshold of CaCl2 in dill pickle chips was found to be 61.8 ± 7.6 mM, indicating that processors could potentially use CaCl2 fermentations with a single desalting step. Consumer liking of flavor (n = 73) was not influenced by fermentation in CaCl2 or by 23 or 35 mM CaCl2 in finished products (P > 0.05), but variability in texture decreased consumer liking (P < 0.05). Although promising, individual fermentation variability and texture quality of CaCl2 fermented products should be further evaluated prior to broad implementation of this process.

  20. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  1. Effect of basic alkali-pickling conditions on the production of lysinoalanine in preserved eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Luo, Xuying; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Tu, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    During the pickling process, strong alkali causes significant lysinoalanine (LAL) formation in preserved eggs, which may reduce the nutritional value of the proteins and result in a potential hazard to human health. In this study, the impacts of the alkali treatment conditions on the production of LAL in preserved eggs were investigated. Preserved eggs were prepared using different times and temperatures, and alkali-pickling solutions with different types and concentrations of alkali and metal salts, and the corresponding LAL contents were measured. The results showed the following: during the pickling period of the preserved egg, the content of LAL in the egg white first rapidly increased and then slowly increased; the content of LAL in the egg yolk continued to increase significantly. During the aging period, the levels of LAL in both egg white and egg yolk slowly increased. The amounts of LAL in the preserved eggs were not significantly different at temperatures between 20 and 25ºC. At higher pickling temperatures, the LAL content in the preserved eggs increased. With the increase of alkali concentration in the alkali-pickling solution, the LAL content in the egg white and egg yolk showed an overall trend of an initial increase followed by a slight decrease. The content of LAL produced in preserved eggs treated with KOH was lower than in those treated with NaOH. NaCl and KCl produced no significant effects on the production of LAL in the preserved eggs. With increasing amounts of heavy metal salts, the LAL content in the preserved eggs first decreased and then increased. The LAL content generated in the CuSO4 group was lower than that in either the ZnSO4 or PbO groups. PMID:26188034

  2. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%. PMID:27295250

  3. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%.

  4. 40 CFR 420.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... operations associated with such immersions. (b) The term hydrochloric acid pickling means those operations in which steel products are immersed in hydrochloric acid solutions to chemically remove oxides and scale... unreacted acid from spent pickling acid solutions. (h) The term acid regeneration means those...

  5. Antimutagenic; differentiation-inducing; and antioxidative effects of fragrant ingredients in Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon).

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Watanabe, Shinpei; Kageyama, Minami; Shirota, Keiko; Shirota, Koji; Amano, Hisashi; Kashimoto, Tadahiro; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Okamoto, Shigehisa; Park, Eun Young; Sato, Kenji

    2010-12-21

    Six fragrant ingredients were identified in fully-ripened Katsura-uri (Japanese pickling melon; Cucumis melo var. conomon). Four of them were sulfur-containing compounds [methylthioacetic acid ethyl ester (MTAE), acetic acid 2-methylthio ethyl ester (AMTE), 3-methylthiopropionic acid ethyl ester (MTPE), and acetic acid 3-methylthio propyl ester (AMTP)]; and the others were benzyl acetate and eugenol. The newly identified MTAE and AMTP possessed antimutagenic activity as determined by their ability to inhibit the UV-induced mutation in repair-proficient E. coli B/r WP2. MTAE and MTPE (esters with thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol) induced the differentiation of human colon cancer cells (RCM-1 cells), but AMTE and AMTP (esters with carbonic acid and thioalkyl alcohol) did not. A specific thioester motif containing a thiocarbonic acid and alkyl alcohol correlated with these compounds ability to induce differentiation. AMTE, MTPE, AMTP, and eugenol had higher oxygen radical absorbing capacity than the antioxidative vitamin, ascorbic acid. The quantity of MTPE, AMTP and eugenol increased 49-fold, >1175-fold and 11-fold, respectively, in the fully-ripened fruit as compared to the mid-ripened fruit. PMID:20801232

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel with Hmta Inhibitor in Pickling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Huang, L. P.

    In this investigation, attempts have been made to study the inhibitive effect of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) on carbon steel in 10% HCl (mass%) by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS, and AFM. Results indicate that inhibition efficiency (IE) of HMTA increases with the increase in pickling immersion time from 10 to 60 min, and IE also increases with the increase in temperature. At higher temperatures (80°C), the IE values are higher and almost independent of pickling time. HMTA can be adsorbed on the surface of metal and reduce the corrosion rate of metal. HMTA is a kind of mixed inhibitor and can retard both the anodic dissolution and cathodic hydrogen evolution reactions independently. IE increases with the concentration of HMTA. Electrochemistry measurement shows that adsorption follows the Langmuir isotherm and the value of free energies of adsorption (ΔGads) is < 0, so the adsorption process can occur automatically. AFM analyses show HMTA can affect the surface roughness and protect metal.

  7. Sequential Determination of Free Acidity and Plutonium Concentration in the Dissolver Solution of Fast-Breeder Reactor Spent Fuels in a Single Aliquot.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, K; Pius, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    A simple potentiometric method for determining the free acidity without complexation in the presence of hydrolysable metal ions and sequentially determining the plutonium concentration by a direct spectrophotometric method using a single aliquot was developed. Interference from the major fission products, which are susceptible to hydrolysis at lower acidities, had been investigated in the free acidity measurement. This method is applicable for determining the free acidity over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations as well as the plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution prior to solvent extraction. Since no complexing agent is introduced during the measurement of the free acidity, the purification step is eliminated during the plutonium estimation, and the resultant analytical waste is free from corrosive chemicals and any complexing agent. Hence, uranium and plutonium can be easily recovered from analytical waste by the conventional solvent extraction method. The error involved in determining the free acidity and plutonium is within ±1% and thus this method is superior to the complexation method for routine analysis of plant samples and is also amenable for remote analysis. PMID:27063711

  8. Sequential Determination of Free Acidity and Plutonium Concentration in the Dissolver Solution of Fast-Breeder Reactor Spent Fuels in a Single Aliquot.

    PubMed

    Dhamodharan, K; Pius, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    A simple potentiometric method for determining the free acidity without complexation in the presence of hydrolysable metal ions and sequentially determining the plutonium concentration by a direct spectrophotometric method using a single aliquot was developed. Interference from the major fission products, which are susceptible to hydrolysis at lower acidities, had been investigated in the free acidity measurement. This method is applicable for determining the free acidity over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations as well as the plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution prior to solvent extraction. Since no complexing agent is introduced during the measurement of the free acidity, the purification step is eliminated during the plutonium estimation, and the resultant analytical waste is free from corrosive chemicals and any complexing agent. Hence, uranium and plutonium can be easily recovered from analytical waste by the conventional solvent extraction method. The error involved in determining the free acidity and plutonium is within ±1% and thus this method is superior to the complexation method for routine analysis of plant samples and is also amenable for remote analysis.

  9. 40 CFR 420.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... associated with such immersions. (b) The term hydrochloric acid pickling means those operations in which steel products are immersed in hydrochloric acid solutions to chemically remove oxides and scale, and... from spent pickling acid solutions. (h) The term acid regeneration means those hydrochloric...

  10. 40 CFR 420.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... associated with such immersions. (b) The term hydrochloric acid pickling means those operations in which steel products are immersed in hydrochloric acid solutions to chemically remove oxides and scale, and... from spent pickling acid solutions. (h) The term acid regeneration means those hydrochloric...

  11. 40 CFR 420.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... associated with such immersions. (b) The term hydrochloric acid pickling means those operations in which steel products are immersed in hydrochloric acid solutions to chemically remove oxides and scale, and... from spent pickling acid solutions. (h) The term acid regeneration means those hydrochloric...

  12. 40 CFR 420.91 - Specialized definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... associated with such immersions. (b) The term hydrochloric acid pickling means those operations in which steel products are immersed in hydrochloric acid solutions to chemically remove oxides and scale, and... from spent pickling acid solutions. (h) The term acid regeneration means those hydrochloric...

  13. Spent fuel storage. Facts booklet

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a spent nuclear fuel policy where the Government would, under certain conditions, take title to and store spent nuclear fuel from commercial power reactors. The policy is intended to provide spent fuel storage until final disposition is available. DOE has programs for providing safe, long-term disposal of nuclear waste. The spent fuel storage program is one element of waste management and compliments the disposal program. The costs for spent fuel services are to be fully recovered by the Government from the utilities. This will allow the utilities to confidently consider the costs for disposition of spent fuel in their rate structure. The United States would also store limited amounts of foreign spent fuel to meet nonproliferation objectives. This booklet summarizes information on many aspects of spent fuel storage.

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction of Cd(II) from pure and Ni/Cd acidic chloride media using Cyanex 921: a selective treatment of hazardous leachate of spent Ni-Cd batteries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seon-Young; Nguyen, Viet Tu; Lee, Jae-Chun; Kang, Ho; Pandey, B D

    2014-08-15

    The present paper is focused on solvent extraction of hazardous Cd(II) from acidic chloride media by Cyanex 921, a new extractant mixed with 10% (v/v) TBP in xylene. The optimum conditions for extraction and stripping of Cd(II) were investigated with an aqueous feed of 0.1 mol/L Cd(II) in 2.0 mol/L HCl. McCabe-Thiele diagram was in good agreement with the simulation studies, showing the quantitative extraction (99.9%) of Cd(II) within two counter-current stages utilizing 0.30 mol/L Cyanex 921 at O/A ratio of 3/2 in 10 min. Stoichiometry of the complexes extracted was determined and confirmed by numerical treatment and graphical method, revealing the formation of HCdCl3 · 2L and HCdCl3 · 4L for Cyanex 921(L) concentration in the range 0.03-0.1 mol/L and 0.1-1.0 mol/L, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters for the extraction of cadmium were also determined. The stripping efficiency of cadmium from the loaded organic with 0.10 mol/L HCl was 99.6% in a three-stage counter-current process at an O/A ratio of 2/3. Cyanex 921 was successfully applied for the separation of Cd(II) from Ni(II) in the simulated leach liquor of spent Ni-Cd batteries. The study demonstrates the applicability of the present hydrometallurgical approach for the treatment of hazardous waste, the spent Ni-Cd batteries. PMID:24981677

  15. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section... § 148.275 Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. (a) Before spent iron oxide or spent iron sponge is... been cooled and weathered for at least eight weeks. (b) Both spent iron oxide and spent iron sponge...

  16. Cellular differentiation regulated by gibberellin in the Arabidopsis thaliana pickle mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Ogas, J.; Somerville, C.; Cheng, Jin-Chen; Sung, R.

    1997-07-04

    The plant growth regulator gibberellin (GA) has a profound effect on shoot development and promotes developmental transitions such as flowering. Little is known about any analogous effect GA might have on root development. In a screen for mutants, Arabi-dopsis plants carrying a mutation designated pickle (pkl) were isolated in which the primary root meristem retained characteristics of embryonic tissue. Expression of this aberrant differentiation state was suppressed by GA. Root tissue from plants carrying the pkl mutation spontaneously regenerated new embryos and plants. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Degradation of pectic polysaccharides in pickled green olives.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Romero, C; Guillén, R; Heredia, A; Jiménez, A; Fernández-Bolaños, J

    1998-01-01

    The changes that occur in the pectic fractions in the cell wall of olives of the Manzanilla variety (Olea europaea pomiformis) during processing (initial treatment at high pH and subsequent lactic fermentation) have been researched. After studying various conditions for fractionating the pectic polysaccharides, the most adequate were chosen, involving sequential extraction with water, imidazole-hydrochloric acid buffer, sodium carbonate, 1 M potassium hydroxide, and 4 M potassium hydroxide. In the unprocessed fruit, the fractions studied consist mainly of high-molecular-weight acidic polysaccharides (70 to 250 kDa): homogalacturonans, rhamnogalacturonans, and branched arabinans. These were found in different proportions depending on the extraction agent used. At the same time, significant amounts of relatively low-molecular-weight (10 to 10.5 kDa) neutral branched arabinans were found in the water-soluble fraction. As a result of the processing, changes occurred in the proportions of the different groups of polysaccharides in accordance with changes in their solubility characteristics. These changes were reflected in the processed fruit by (i) and increase in the neutral branched arabinans in the water-soluble fraction due to the increased presence of such polysaccharides originally found in the carbonate and 4 M KOH-soluble fractions; (ii) an increase in homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonans, without significant changes in molecular weights, in the imidazole-soluble fraction as a result of the increased presence of corresponding polysaccharides originally found in the carbonate-soluble and water-soluble fractions; (iii) a substantial increase in uronic acids in the 1 M potassium hydroxide-soluble fraction, preferentially as low-molecular-weight polysaccharides; and (iv) a solubilization of arabinans in the 4 M potassium hydroxide-soluble fraction. PMID:9708257

  18. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... fume scrubber associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent.... The above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric...

  19. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... fume scrubber associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent.... The above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric...

  20. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... fume scrubber associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent.... The above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric...

  1. 40 CFR 420.92 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve... fume scrubber associated with a sulfuric acid pickling operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent.... The above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric...

  2. Tuning the diffusion dialysis performance by surface cross-linking of PPO anion exchange membranes--simultaneous recovery of sulfuric acid and nickel from electrolysis spent liquor of relatively low acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Tongwen, Xu; Weihua, Yang

    2004-06-18

    The results of the development of the industrial diffusion dialysis technology and the unit based on it for sulfate acid recovery from nickel electrolysis waste have been considered. Unlike most acid recovery systems, this system has a relatively low acid concentration and the main aim is to recover both nickel and acid sulfate by recycling the waste and the recovered acid to the respective steps of electrolysis process. So the waste volume control seems to be the most important thing. To satisfy with this new request, the membrane is surface-cross-linked with aqueous ammonium to decrease waste volume expansion caused by the water osmosis. The results showed that the best membrane for such operation is the one that cross-linked at least 8 h with a volumetric expansion factor (volumetric ratio of waste to feed) less than 1.1. Pilot diffusional runs were conducted with this membrane at various feed flow rate and flow ratio of stripping water and feed. After comprehensively considering all factors, the range of feed flow and the flow ratio has been recommended to be 1.2-1.8 l/h and 1.05-1.1, respectively. Under these conditions, nickel leakage can be controlled within 4% and the acid recover ratio can attain as high as 66-72%. The recovered acid can be recycled to the back-extraction step by mixing it with high concentration acid and the waste recycled to the initial leaching stage by adjusting the acid concentration to recover valuable metal nickel and the residual acid. Therefore, the new technology discards nothing and shows many advantages whether in environmental aspect or economical aspect and thus should be deserved attention. PMID:15177755

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01, Isolated from Nukadoko, a Pickling Bed of Fermented Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Kato, Keita; Toh, Hidehiro; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Hibi, Naruhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus namurensis Chizuka 01 was isolated from nukadoko, which is a fermented rice bran bed traditionally used in Japan for pickling vegetables. Here, we report the first draft of an annotated genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of L. namurensis. PMID:24504001

  4. Evaluation of the impact on food safety of a Lactobacillus coryniformis strain from pickled vegetables with degradation activity against nitrite and other undesirable compounds.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Feng, Tingting; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Four strains of lactic acid bacteria showing antimicrobial activity against some food-spoilage microorganisms or pathogens, including both Gram-negative and -positive strains, were isolated from naturally fermented pickled vegetables and a traditional cheese product. Among these isolates, Lactobacillus coryniformis strain BBE-H3, characterised previously to be a non-biogenic amine producer, showed a high level of activity in degrading sodium nitrite and exhibited the ability to eliminate ethyl carbamate and one of its precursors, urea. The antimicrobial substance produced by L. coryniformis BBE-H3 was found to be active at an acidic pH range of 4.0-4.5. The antimicrobial activity of this strain decreased differentially after treatment with proteolytic enzymes (pepsin, papain, trypsin and proteinase K), implying this growth inhibitory compound is either a protein or a polypeptide. The results of this study show the suitability of L. coryniformis BBE-H3 as a starter in food manufacturing processes, and demonstrate its potential role in eliminating food origin carcinogens such as sodium nitrite and ethyl carbamate. PMID:26898528

  5. [Recycle of spent cells from anaerobic succinate fermentation].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuefei; Chen, Kequan; Ye, Guizi; Huang, Xiumei; Li, Jian; Jiang, Min

    2010-09-01

    Spent cells recovered from anaerobic fermentation by Actinobacillus succinogenes were used as nitrogen source for succinic acid production. Three methods were investigated for cell wall-breaking. The results showed that enzymatic hydrolysis was more effective for higher succinic acid yield. When the enzymatic hydrolysate of spent cells was added to reach a total nitrogen concentration 1.11 g/L (equivalent to 10 g/L yeast extract), the succinic acid concentration was 42.0 g/L, but it increased slightly when enhancing the level of enzymatic hydrolysate. However, when 5 g/L yeast extract was supplemented with the enzymatic hydrolysate of spent cells, the succinic acid concentration reached 75.5 g/L after 36 hours and, the succinic acid productivity was 2.10 g/(L x h), which increased by 66.7% compared with the fermentation using 10 g/L yeast extract. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysate of spent cells could replace 50% yeast extract in the original medium for succinic acid production.

  6. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  7. Mutagens in larger fungi. II. The mutagenicity of commercial pickled Lactarius necator in the Salmonella assay.

    PubMed

    Sterner, O; Bergman, R; Franzén, C; Kesler, E; Nilsson, L

    1982-01-01

    In the course of an ongoing screening of larger mushrooms for the occurrence of chemical mutagens, 33 out of 48 species tested exhibited a significant direct mutagenic activity in the Salmonella/microsome assay (Sterner et al., 1982). (No mutagens requiring metabolic activation were indicated.) These findings are of some concern, since mushrooms are used extensively as food in many areas, and there are strong indications that carcinogens in food are of considerable importance in cancer aetiology (Sugimura, 1979). A recent communication by Knuutinen and von Wright (1982) on the mutagenicity of 4 Lactarius species collected in Finland prompts us to report our own results from mutagenicity tests with commercially preserved (pickled) Lactarius necator.

  8. Ni-Cu-Zn Ferrite Powder Prepared from Steel Pickled Liquor and Electroplating Waste Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chung-Wen; Fu, Yen-Pei; Lin, Cheng-Hsiung

    2007-03-01

    In this study, we propose a new method of synthesizing Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite powder using steel pickled liquor and electroplating waste solutions as starting materials. It was found that the Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite powder prepared by a hydrothermal process from the waste solutions shows the formation of cubic ferrite with a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 31.5 emu/g and an intrinsic coercive force (Hci) of 19.3 Oe. Upon annealing at 750 °C for 2 h, the saturation magnetization increases to 52.6 emu/g and the intrinsic coercive force reaches 42.8 Oe. This useful method can promote the recycling of industrial waste solution and contribute to the preservation of the earth. Moreover, this method decreases the manufacturing cost in the treatment of the industrial waste solution for electroplating and steel industries.

  9. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.

    1997-02-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD`s work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools.

  10. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate.

  11. Active Interrogation for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    The DDA instrument for nuclear safeguards is a fast, non-destructive assay, active neutron interrogation technique using an external 14 MeV DT neutron generator for characterization and verification of spent nuclear fuel assemblies.

  12. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  13. Treatment of spent metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christina; Phipps, David; Alkhaddar, Rafid M

    2005-10-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWFs) are widely used for cooling and lubricating during the machining process. The worldwide annual usage is estimated to exceed 2 x 10(9)l and the waste could be more than ten times the usage, as the MWFs have to be diluted prior to use. For UK industry the disposal cost is estimated to be up to pound16 million per year. Used MWFs cause high levels of contamination and rancid odours due to the presence of complex chemicals, biocides, etc., so that their treatment and final disposal must be handled carefully. Conventionally this has been done by combined physical and chemical methods but, with tightened legislation, these routes are no longer acceptable. Now, biological treatment is being increasingly adopted as it seems to offer an alternative with the potential for significant cost saving. However, there are significant difficulties in operating bioreactors, such as maintenance of the stability of the microbial communities present in activated sludge plants (ASP). In order to resolve these problems, four major areas need to be considered: (1) the composition of the spent MWF and its inherent biodegradability, (2) the recalcitrant compounds existing in waste MWFs and their impact on microbes, (3) the nature of the microbial consortia and means of optimising it, e.g, temperature and the practical design of the bioreactor and (4) the requirements for nutrient supplements and optimal control conditions. The potential importance of understanding the microbial community has been studied by the use of molecular biological techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The application of attached biofilm bioreactors and thermophilic aerobic technology (TAT) has also been studied. This review describes recent advances in each of these areas. PMID:16112709

  14. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems` Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  15. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-10-15

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-10-25

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  17. Maillard Reaction of Pidan White as Inhibited by Chinese Black Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) in the Pickling Solution

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Benjakul, Soottawat; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Maillard reaction of pidan white were monitored with A294, fluorescence intensity, and browning intensity during pickling in the absence and presence of Chinese black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) at levels of 2% and 5% together with 0.2% ZnCl2 or 0.2% CaCl2 up to 3 wk, followed by ageing for another 3 wk. Browning intensity and A294 of pidan white increased with increasing pickling/ageing, while fluorescence intensity decreased during ageing (p<0.05), irrespective of treatments. At wk 6, pidan white treated with 0.2% ZnCl2 and 0.2% CaCl2 showed slightly higher browning intensity, fluorescence intensity and A294 than those treated with divalents together with Chinese black tea (p<0.05). Free amino group and sugar contents showed continuous decrease during pickling and ageing irrespective of tea and cations used. However, pidan treated without Chinese black tea extract showed significantly lower free amino group and sugar during the ageing of 6 wk (p<0.05). Thus, Chinese black tea extract had an inhibitory effect on the Maillard reaction during ageing of pidan white. PMID:26761277

  18. Maillard Reaction of Pidan White as Inhibited by Chinese Black Tea Extract (Camellia sinensis) in the Pickling Solution.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Palanivel; Benjakul, Soottawat; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2014-01-01

    Changes in Maillard reaction of pidan white were monitored with A294, fluorescence intensity, and browning intensity during pickling in the absence and presence of Chinese black tea extract (Camellia sinensis) at levels of 2% and 5% together with 0.2% ZnCl2 or 0.2% CaCl2 up to 3 wk, followed by ageing for another 3 wk. Browning intensity and A294 of pidan white increased with increasing pickling/ageing, while fluorescence intensity decreased during ageing (p<0.05), irrespective of treatments. At wk 6, pidan white treated with 0.2% ZnCl2 and 0.2% CaCl2 showed slightly higher browning intensity, fluorescence intensity and A294 than those treated with divalents together with Chinese black tea (p<0.05). Free amino group and sugar contents showed continuous decrease during pickling and ageing irrespective of tea and cations used. However, pidan treated without Chinese black tea extract showed significantly lower free amino group and sugar during the ageing of 6 wk (p<0.05). Thus, Chinese black tea extract had an inhibitory effect on the Maillard reaction during ageing of pidan white. PMID:26761277

  19. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K. S.; Weiner, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel.

  20. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  1. Spent graphite fuel element processing

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, N.D.; Olsen, C.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.

  2. Adsorption of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution using spinel ferrite prepared from steel pickling sludge.

    PubMed

    Fang, Binbin; Yan, Yubo; Yang, Yang; Wang, Fenglian; Chu, Zhen; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, spinel ferrite with high crystallinity and high saturation magnetization was successfully prepared from steel pickling sludge by adding iron source and precipitator in the hydrothermal condition. The obtained spinel ferrite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Zeta potential methods and investigated as an adsorbent for removal of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed by varying the pH values, contact time, temperature and initial metal concentration. The result of pH impact showed that the adsorption of Pb(2+) was a pH dependent process, and the pH 5.8 ± 0.2 was found to be the optimum condition. The achieved experimental data were analyzed with various kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic studies revealed that Pb(2+) adsorption onto spinel ferrite followed a pseudo-second order model, and the Langmuir isotherm model provided the perfect fit to the equilibrium experimental data. At different temperatures, the maximum Pb(2+) adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir equation were in the range of 126.5-175.4 mg/g, which can be in competition with other adsorbents. The thermodynamic results showed that the spinel ferrite could spontaneously and endothermically adsorb Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. The regeneration studies showed that spinel ferrite could be used five times (removal efficiency (%) >90%) by desorption with HNO3 reagent. PMID:26942534

  3. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1).

  4. A Truck, a Plasma and a Pickle: On the Road with MIT's Traveling Plasma Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2004-11-01

    For the past 12 years MIT's Mr. Magnet community outreach program has brought the excitement of magnetism into New England's local schools. Averaging 60-70 school visits each year, Mr. Magnet has become a popular school assembly choice. Paul Thomas, the program's creator, has recently expanded the program to offer a one-hour lecture on the principles of plasma science, geared toward middle schools and high schools. The behavior of particles of matter and light in a plasma is complex. Rather than attempt to convey a complete understanding of their quantum nature in a single lecture, Paul Thomas focuses on presenting just enough information to excite a student's imagination. Using a glow discharge plasma, an emission spectrometer, and such ubiquitous substances as nail polish remover, local dirt and a pickle, students discover, by experiment, the unique properties of the plasma state. Equal parts teacher and showman, Paul explains the basic science of plasma while engaging students with hands-on experiments. Paul Thomas will showcase some of his plasma experiments ``live on stage.'' He will explain some of the mechanics involved with traveling to schools, and how he succeeds in engaging students in science exploration. His goal is to spark curiosity, which may lead a student to study science in college or pursue science as a career. He hopes also to encourage APS-DPP members who may wish to establish educational outreach programs for their local communities.

  5. Adsorption of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution using spinel ferrite prepared from steel pickling sludge.

    PubMed

    Fang, Binbin; Yan, Yubo; Yang, Yang; Wang, Fenglian; Chu, Zhen; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Lianjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, spinel ferrite with high crystallinity and high saturation magnetization was successfully prepared from steel pickling sludge by adding iron source and precipitator in the hydrothermal condition. The obtained spinel ferrite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Zeta potential methods and investigated as an adsorbent for removal of Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed by varying the pH values, contact time, temperature and initial metal concentration. The result of pH impact showed that the adsorption of Pb(2+) was a pH dependent process, and the pH 5.8 ± 0.2 was found to be the optimum condition. The achieved experimental data were analyzed with various kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic studies revealed that Pb(2+) adsorption onto spinel ferrite followed a pseudo-second order model, and the Langmuir isotherm model provided the perfect fit to the equilibrium experimental data. At different temperatures, the maximum Pb(2+) adsorption capacities calculated from the Langmuir equation were in the range of 126.5-175.4 mg/g, which can be in competition with other adsorbents. The thermodynamic results showed that the spinel ferrite could spontaneously and endothermically adsorb Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. The regeneration studies showed that spinel ferrite could be used five times (removal efficiency (%) >90%) by desorption with HNO3 reagent.

  6. Response of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) to surrounding land cover in Wisconsin pickling cucumber.

    PubMed

    Lowenstein, D M; Huseth, A S; Groves, R L

    2012-06-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is among the plants highly dependent on insect-mediated pollination, but little is known about its unmanaged pollinators. Both domestic and wild bee populations in central Wisconsin pickling cucumber fields were assessed using a combination of pan trapping and floral observations before and during bloom. Together with land cover analyses extending 2,000 m from field centers, the relationship of land cover components and bee abundance and diversity were examined. Over a 2-yr sample interval distributed among 18 experimental sites, 3,185 wild bees were collected representing >60 species. A positive association was found between both noncrop and herbaceous areas with bee abundance and diversity only during bloom. Response of bee abundance and diversity to land cover was strongest at larger buffers presumably because of the heterogeneous nature of the landscape and connectivity between crop and noncrop areas. These results are consistent with previous research that has found a weak response of wild bees to surrounding vegetation in moderately fragmented areas. A diverse community of wild bees is present within the fields of a commercial cucumber system, and there is evidence of floral visitation by unmanaged bees. This evidence emphasizes the importance of wild pollinators in fragmented landscapes and the need for additional research to investigate the effectiveness of individual species in pollen deposition. PMID:22732611

  7. Modeling of bovine type-I collagen fibrils: interaction with pickling and retanning agents.

    PubMed

    Bulo, Rosa E; Siggel, Lorenz; Molnar, Ferenc; Weiss, Horst

    2007-02-12

    Bovine Type I collagen was investigated, building on a large scale computer model of a collagen fibril in water, and focusing on two stages of the leather manufacturing process. The effects of different salts (NaCl, CaCl(2), and Na(2)SO(4)) on the swelling behavior of collagen at low pH (the pickling process) were studied. The salts suppress the swelling of the fibrils at low pH and we find specific stabilizing influences for CaCl(2) and Na(2)SO(4), due to weak Ca(2+)/Cl(-) and strong SO(4) (2-)/lysine/arginine interactions, respectively. Using state-of-the-art sampling techniques, such as the metadynamics algorithm, to allow an efficient exploration of configuration space, we were able to investigate the effect of polyacrylate and poly(methyl acrylate) - two polymeric retanning agents - on the fibril. Both polymers interact with the ammonium groups on the surface, but polyacrylate shows significantly stronger interactions. We suggest that it is this stronger interaction that contributes to the reduced suitability of PAA as a tanning agent. PMID:17295396

  8. Risk assessment for chemical pickling of metals contaminated by radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Donzella, A; Formisano, P; Giroletti, E; Zenoni, A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with (60)Co, (137)Cs, (241)Am and (226)Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g(-1) of (60)Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y(-1)), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of (241)Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case, radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y(-1). PMID:16849378

  9. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. A study on the expulsion of iodine from spent-fuel solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Akira; Ishikawa, Niroh

    1995-02-01

    During dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, some radioiodine remains in spent-fuel solutions. Its expulsion to dissolver off-gas is important to minimize iodine escape to the environment. In our current work, the iodine remaining in spent-fuel solutions varied from 0 to 10% after dissolution of spent PWR-fuel specimens (approximately 3 g each). The amount remaining probably was dependent upon the dissolution time required. The cause is ascribable to the increased nitrous acid concentration that results from NOx generated during dissolution. The presence of nitrous acid was confirmed spectrophotometrically in an NO-HNO{sub 3} system at 100{degrees}C. Experiments examining NOx concentration versus the quantity of iodine in a simulated spent-fuel solution indicate that iodine (I{minus}) in spent fuels is subjected to the following three reactions: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid arising from NOx, and (3) formation of colloidal iodine (AgI, PdI{sub 2}), the major iodine species in a spent-fuel solution. Reaction (2) competes with reaction (3) to control the quantity of iodine remaining in solution. The following two-step expulsion process to remove iodine from a spent-fuel solution was derived from these experiments: Step One - Heat spent-fuel solutions without NOx sparging. When aged colloidal iodine is present, an excess amount of iodate should be added to the solution. Step Two - Sparge the fuel solution with NOx while heating. Effect of this new method was confirmed by use of a spent PWR-fuel solution.

  11. Dissolution of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Carbonate-Peroxide Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2010-01-31

    This study shows that spent UO2 fuel can be completely dissolved in a carbonate-peroxide solution apparently without attacking the metallic Mo-Tc-Ru-Rh-Pd fission product phase. Samples of spent nuclear fuel were pulverized and sieved to a uniform size, then duplicate aliquots were weighed into beakers for analysis. One set was dissolved in near-boiling 10M nitric acid, and the other set was dissolved in a solution of ammonium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. All the resulting fuel solutions were then analyzed for Sr-90, Tc-99, Cs-137, plutonium, and Am-241. For all the samples, the concentrations of Cs-137, Sr-90, plutonium, and Am-241 were the same for both the nitric acid dissolution and the ammonium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide dissolution, but the technetium concentration of the ammonium carbonate-hydrogen peroxide fuel solution was only about 25% of the same fuels dissolved in hot nitric acid.

  12. Spent fuel data for waste storage programs

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, E M

    1980-09-01

    Data on LWR spent fuel were compiled for dissemination to participants in DOE-sponsored waste storage programs. Included are mechanical descriptions of the existing major types of LWR fuel assemblies, spent LWR fuel fission product inventories and decay heat data, and inventories of LWR spent fuel currently in storage, with projections of future quantities.

  13. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  14. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  15. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs.

  16. Isolation and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from commercial asazuke (Japanese light pickles).

    PubMed

    Maklon, Khuanwalai; Minami, Atsuka; Kusumoto, Akiko; Takeshi, Koichi; Nguyen, Thi Bich Thuy; Makino, Sou-ichi; Kawamoto, Keiko

    2010-05-15

    Asazuke is a ready-to-eat Japanese light pickle, mainly made of vegetables which are known to be one of the sources of Listeria monocytogenes contamination. Although asazuke is a popular side-dish in Japan, the hazard of bacterial contamination has not been evaluated yet. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) and coliforms in 108 asazuke samples that randomly collected from supermarkets in Obihiro (Hokkaido prefecture, Japan) during the period of June to November 2007. Twelve (11.11%) L. monocytogenes were isolated with predominant serotype 4b (seven isolates) followed by 1/2a (two isolates), 1/2b, 3b and 4c (one isolate each) while Salmonella spp., VTEC and coliforms were not detected. All L. monocytogenes isolates demonstrated hemolytic activity by CAMP test and possessed all the virulence-associated genes (prfA, actA, mpl, inlA, inlC, plcA, plcB, hly, iap, clpC and opuCA) as resulted in PCR, thus revealed their potential pathogenicity. Moreover, 7 out of 12 isolates were from asazuke samples produced by the same factory and their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles suggested that 6 of them were indistinguishable and one was different. L. monocytogenes contamination in the asazuke factory environment was further investigated and 23 out of 60 environmental swabs (38.33%) contained the bacterium. Comparison of PFGE profiles showed relatedness between food and environmental isolates indicating that contamination probably occurred in the asazuke factory during manufacturing. Interestingly, after HACCP training course conducted to the factory workers, 20 samples collected during the period of November to December 2008 were negative to L. monocytogenes revealing that the hygienic status has improved. PMID:20388574

  17. Criticality of spent reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The storage capacity of spent reactor fuel pools can be greatly increased by consolidation. In this process, the fuel rods are removed from reactor fuel assemblies and are stored in close-packed arrays in a canister or skeleton. An earlier study examined criticality consideration for consolidation of Westinghouse fuel, assumed to be fresh, in canisters at the Millstone-2 spent-fuel pool and in the General Electric IF-300 shipping cask. The conclusions were that the fuel rods in the canister are so deficient in water that they are adequately subcritical, both in normal and in off-normal conditions. One potential accident, the water spill event, remained unresolved in the earlier study. A methodology is developed here for spent-fuel criticality and is applied to the water spill event. The methodology utilizes LEOPARD to compute few-group cross sections for the diffusion code PDQ7, which then is used to compute reactivity. These codes give results for fresh fuel that are in good agreement with KENO IV-NITAWL Monte Carlo results, which themselves are in good agreement with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. These methodologies are in reasonable agreement with critical measurements for undepleted fuel.

  18. Antioxidant and genoprotective effects of spent coffee extracts in human cells.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Jimena; Arbillaga, Leire; de Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepcion

    2013-10-01

    Spent coffee has been shown as a good source of hydrophilic antioxidant compounds. The ability of two spent coffee extracts rich in caffeoylquinic acids, mainly dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeine (Arabica filter and Robusta espresso) to protect against oxidation and DNA damage in human cells (HeLa) was evaluated at short (2 h) and long (24 h) exposure times. Cell viability (MTT) was not affected by spent coffee extracts (>80%) up to 1000 μg/mL after 2 h. Both spent coffee extracts significantly reduced the increase of ROS level and DNA strand breaks (29-73% protection by comet assay) induced by H₂O₂. Pretreatment of cells with robusta spent coffee extract also decreased Ro photosensitizer-induced oxidative DNA damage after 24 h exposure. The higher effectiveness of Robusta spent coffee extract, with less caffeoylquinic acids and melanoidins, might be due to other antioxidant compounds, such as caffeine and other Maillard reaction products. This work evidences the potential antioxidant and genoprotective properties of spent coffee in human cells.

  19. Terasakiella brassicae sp. nov., isolated from the wastewater of a pickle-processing factory, and emended descriptions of Terasakiella pusilla and the genus Terasakiella.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuai-Bo; Su, Yue; Hu, Jing; Wang, Rui-Jun; Sun, Cong; Wu, Dildar; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, motile, polyhydroxybutyrate-accumulating, aerobic, S-shaped bacterium, designated B3T, was isolated from the wastewater of a pickle-processing factory. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis showed that it was most closely related to the type strain, Terasakiella pusilla (96.6% similarity). Strain B3T was able to grow at 4-40 °C (optimum 32-37 °C), pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum 6.5-7.5) and with 0.5-8% (w/v) NaCl present (optimum 1-2%, w/v). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10, the major fatty acids included C16:0, C18:1ω7c and C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:2-OH. The major polar lipids included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, aminophospholipid and three uncharacterized phospholipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain B3T was 42.3 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between B3T and T. pusilla DSM 9263T was 23.9%. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics of strain B3T, it represents a novel species of the genus Terasakiella, for which the name Terasakiella brassicae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B3T (=KCTC 42652T=CGMCC 1.15254T). Emended descriptions of T. pusilla and the genus Terasakiella are also presented. PMID:26828022

  20. 16S rRNA pyrosequencing-based investigation of the bacterial community in nukadoko, a pickling bed of fermented rice bran.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Naoshige; Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    Nukadoko is a naturally fermented rice bran mash traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan; its refreshment and fermentation cycles sometimes continue for many years. Here, we investigated the structure and dynamics of the bacterial community in nukadoko by conducting pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA). Of the 16 different samples studied, 13 showed Lactobacillus-dominated microbiota, suggesting that aged nukadoko samples tend to realize a niche, favorable Lactobacillus species. The lactic acid bacterial community of each of the 16 samples was classified into 3 types according to the presence or absence of 2 predominant species, Lactobacillus namurensis and Lactobacillus acetotolerans. The dynamics of the bacterial community during fermentation and the subsequent ripening process were examined using a laboratory model of nukadoko inoculated with an aged nukadoko sample (inoculated model). Lb. namurensis grew rapidly in the first 2 days, accompanied with a rapid decrease in pH and an increase in lactate levels, while Lb. acetotolerans grew with a longer doubling time and slow acidification during the 20 days after inoculation. On the other hand, spontaneous fermentation of the nukadoko model prepared from fresh rice bran without the nukadoko inoculation (inoculant-free model), showed the growth of some non-Lactobacillus species such as staphylococci and bacilli within the first 10 days; thereafter, Lb. namurensis was dominant, while Lb. acetotolerans was not detected during the 20-day experimental period. These results suggest that the naturally established Lactobacillus community in aged nukadoko is effectively involved in the biocontrol of the microbial community of nukadoko during the refreshment and fermentation cycles. PMID:21084126

  1. Molecular monitoring of bacterial community structure in long-aged nukadoko: pickling bed of fermented rice bran dominated by slow-growing lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Jiro; Hoshiko, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Mizuki; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Naoshige; Tanaka, Shigemitsu; Ohue, Kazutoshi; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2007-12-01

    Nukadoko is the fermented rice bran bed traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. Here, we investigate the bacterial community structure of nukadoko using several culture-independent methods. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequence analysis of V2-V3 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) fragments amplified from a long-aged nukadoko bacterial community indicated seven predominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) closely related to known Lactobacillus species. Phylogenetic analysis of these OTUs indicated a major cluster consisting of six OTUs including a dominant OTU closely related to Lactobacillus acidifarinae and one distinct OTU corresponding to Lactobacillus acetotolerans. L. acetotolerans was commonly detected as a dominant species in samples from different seasons. The succession of microbial community structure in the fermentation and ripening processes was investigated using a laboratory model nukadoko. The L. acidifarinae-like bacteria grew rapidly with a pH decrease in the first few days after inoculation, whereas L. acetotolerans grew slowly and became dominant after one week. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) showed that the doubling time of L. acetotolerans was 12 h, while that of total bacteria was 4 h. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) targeting 16S rRNA showed a low metabolic activity of L. acetotolerans throughout the fermentation and ripening processes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that L. acetotolerans was a dominant bacterium in the ripening period and had a low metabolic activity. These results indicate that the slow-growing L. acetotolerans stably dominated nukadoko microbiota after the L. acidifarinae-like bacteria mainly contributed to the lactic acid fermentation of the rice bran. PMID:18215635

  2. Bioleaching of spent hydrotreating catalyst by acidophilic thermophile Acidianus brierleyi: Leaching mechanism and effect of decoking.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Abhilasha; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2013-02-01

    Bioleaching of spent hydrotreating catalyst by thermophillic archae Acidianus brierleyi was investigated. The spent catalyst (containing Al, Fe, Ni and Mo as major elements) was characterized, and the effect of pretreatment (decoking) on two-step and spent medium leaching was examined at 1% w/v pulp density. Decoking resulted in removal of carbonaceous deposits and volatile impurities, and affected the solubility of metal compounds through oxidization of the metal sulfides. Nearly 100% extraction was achieved using spent medium leaching for Fe, Ni and Mo, and 67% for Al. Bioleaching reduced nickel concentration in the leachate below the regulated levels for safe waste disposal. Chemical (i.e. abiotic) leaching using equimolar concentration of sulfuric acid produced by the bacteria during two-step process achieved a lower leaching efficiency (by up to 30%). Results indicated that A. brierleyi successfully leached heavy metals from spent catalyst. PMID:23334026

  3. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications. PMID:26446494

  4. Persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil following application of liquid hog manure for production of pickling cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Côté, Caroline; Quessy, Sylvain

    2005-05-01

    Liquid hog manure is routinely applied to farm land as a crop fertilizer. However, this practice raises food safety concerns, especially when manure is used on fruit and vegetable crops. The objectives of this project were to evaluate the persistence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in surface soil after application of liquid hog manure to fields where pickling cucumbers were grown and to verify the microbiological quality of harvested cucumbers. Mineral fertilizers were replaced by liquid hog manure at various ratios in the production of pickling cucumbers in a 3-year field study. The experimental design was a randomized complete block comprising four replicates in sandy loam (years 1, 2, and 3) and loamy sand (year 3). Soil samples were taken at a depth of 20 cm every 2 weeks after June application of organic and inorganic fertilizers. Vegetable samples were also taken at harvest time. Liquid hog manure, soil, and vegetable (washed and unwashed) samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli. An exponential decrease of E. coli populations was observed in surface soil after the application of manure. The estimated average time required to reach undetectable concentrations of E. coli in sandy loam varied from 56 to 70 days, whereas the absence of E. coli was estimated at 77 days in loamy sand. The maximal Salmonella persistence in soil was 54 days. E. coli and Salmonella were not detected in any vegetable samples.

  5. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-10-08

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications.

  6. The effects of presalting methods from injection to pickling, on the yields of heavily salted cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Thorarinsdottir, Kristin Anna; Arason, Sigurjon; Thorkelsson, Gudjon; Sigurgisladottir, Sjofn; Tornberg, Eva

    2010-10-01

    The production of heavy-salted cod (Bacalao) has changed from being a single-step process (kench) salting to a multistep procedure varying between producers and countries. Presalting by injection, brining, or pickling is increasingly applied prior to pile (dry) salting. This article describes the effects of different presalting methods (injection and brining, brining only, and pickling) on yield and chemical composition of salted cod fillets, in comparison to a single-kench salting step. The procedures used influenced the weight yields and chemical composition of the products. Injection was significantly different from other methods in increasing weight yields throughout brining, dry salting, and rehydration. The yield of nitrogenous compounds tended to be lower for injected and brine-salted fillets, mainly due to higher losses of nonprotein nitrogen. Practical Application: Salting procedures for cod have changed rapidly in recent years. Injection is increasingly used as a presalting method. It has been suggested to have strong effects on weight yields of salted cod products. This article describes the effects of injection on weight yields on products in salted, rehydrated, and cooked stage. PMID:21535494

  7. The development of sausage including meat from spent laying hen surimi.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Kim, I S; Jung, H J; Kim, D H; Choi, Y J; Hur, S J

    2007-12-01

    The sausage samples were made from pork with spent laying hen breast surimi. The samples were divided into 4 groups [sausage made from pork (control) and sausage made from pork with 20% (T1), 40% (T2), and 60% (T3) of spent laying hen breast surimi]. In proximate compositions, the moisture and ash contents of the control were higher than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples in all storage periods. The pH and cooking loss were higher in T3 compared with other sausage samples. However, there was no significant difference in water-holding capacity among the sausage samples, whereas shear force was significantly higher in T2. In meat color, sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples (T1, T2, and T3) have shown to have higher lightness (L) compared with control, and redness (a) was significantly higher in control and T1. Total amino acid content and essential amino acids were increased in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples at 0 d of storage. In fatty acid composition, saturated fatty acid was higher in control than sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value was lower in sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples than control at 2 and 4 wk of storage. Cholesterol content was lower in control compared with sausage containing spent laying hen surimi samples. In sensory evaluation, most test items were not significantly different among the sausage samples although tenderness was higher in T2 and T3 at 0 d of storage.

  8. Characterization and recovery of mercury from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min; Hong, Seung Mo; Park, Jae K

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescent lamps rely on mercury as the source of ultraviolet radiation for the production of visible light. Partitioning of mercury among vapor phase, loose phosphor powders produced during breaking and washing steps, glass matrices, phosphor powders attached on the glass and aluminum end caps was examined from simulated laboratory lamp recycling tests for different types of spent and new fluorescent lamps. Mercury concentrations in lamp glasses taken from commercial lamp recyclers were also analyzed for comparison with the simulated results of spent and new lamps of different types. The mercury content of the glass from spent lamps was highly variable depending on the lamp type and manufacturer; the median values of the mercury concentration in glasses for spent 26- (T8) and 38-mm (T12) diameter fluorescent lamps were approximately 30 and 45 microg/g, respectively. The average mercury concentration of samples taken from recycler A was 29.6 microg/g, which was about 64% of median value measured from the spent T12 lamps. Over 94% of total mercury in lamps remained either as a component of phosphor powders attached inside the lamp or in glass matrices. New T12 lamps had a higher partitioning percentage of elemental mercury in the vapor phase (0.17%) than spent T12 lamps (0.04%), while spent lamps had higher partitioning percentages of mercury resided on end-caps and phosphor powders detached from the breaking and washing steps. The TCLP values of simulated all lamp-glasses and samples obtained from recyclers were higher than the limit of LDR standard (0.025 mg/L). After investigating acid treatment and high temperature treatment as mercury reclamation techniques, it was found that heating provided the most effective mercury capture. Although the initial mercury concentrations of individual sample were different, the mercury concentrations after 1 h exposure at 100 degrees C were below 4 mug/g for all samples (i.e., <1% remaining). Therefore, it is recommended that

  9. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-02-08

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation.

  10. Fast esterification of spent grain for enhanced heavy metal ions adsorption.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzhu; Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Qingwei; Yang, Zhihui; Yan, Huxiang; Wang, Yunyan

    2010-05-01

    This work describes a novel method for fast esterification of spent grain to enhance its cationic adsorption capacity. The esterification of spent grain with citric acid was achieved by using sodium hypophosphite monohydrate (NaH(2)PO(2).H(2)O) as a catalyst in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis revealed the formation of ester groups after esterification, demonstrating that spent grain was successfully esterified with citric acid. The adsorption capacity of esterified spent grain (ESG) for each metal ion was greatly improved as compared with that of raw spent grain (RSG). Typically, Pb(2+) adsorption capacity increased from 125.84mg g(-1) of RSG to 293.30mg g(-1) of ESG. This increase can be attributed to both the formation of ester linkage and the grafting of carboxyl groups on spent grain. The results suggest that a fast process for esterification of spent grain has been realized and ESG has strong ability to adsorb heavy metal ions.

  11. Plasma and Electrolyte Changes in Exercising Humans After Ingestion of Multiple Boluses of Pickle Juice

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, Michael A.; Miller, Kevin C.; Deal, James E.; Garden-Robinson, Julie A.; Rhee, Yeong S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Twenty-five percent of athletic trainers administer pickle juice (PJ) to treat cramping. Anecdotally, some clinicians provide multiple boluses of PJ during exercise but warn that repeated ingestion of PJ may cause hyperkalemia. To our knowledge, no researchers have examined the effect of ingesting multiple boluses of PJ on the same day or the effect of ingestion during exercise. Objective: To determine the short-term effects of ingesting a single bolus or multiple boluses of PJ on plasma variables and to characterize changes in plasma variables when individuals ingest PJ and resume exercise. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nine euhydrated men (age = 23 ± 4 years, height = 180.9 ± 5.8 cm, mass = 80.7 ± 13.8 kg, urine specific gravity = 1.009 ± 0.005). Intervention(s): On 3 days, participants rested for 30 minutes, and then a blood sample was collected. Participants ingested 0 or 1 bolus (1 mL·kg−1 body weight) of PJ, donned sweat suits, biked vigorously for 30 minutes (approximate temperature = 37°C, relative humidity = 18%), and had a blood sample collected. They either rested for 60 seconds (0- and 1-bolus conditions) or ingested a second 1 mL·kg−1 body weight bolus of PJ (2-bolus condition). They resumed exercise for another 35 minutes. A third blood sample was collected, and they exited the environmental chamber and rested for 60 minutes (approximate temperature = 21°C, relative humidity = 18%). Blood samples were collected at 30 and 60 minutes postexercise. Main Outcome Measure(s): Plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, plasma osmolality, and changes in plasma volume. Results: The number of PJ boluses ingested did not affect plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, plasma osmolality, or changes in plasma volume over time. The plasma sodium concentration, plasma potassium concentration, and plasma osmolality did not exceed 144.6 mEq·L−1 (144.6 mmol

  12. Electrolyte and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Mustard, and Deionized Water Ingestion in Dehydrated Humans

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Some athletes ingest pickle juice (PJ) or mustard to treat exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs). Clinicians warn against this because they are concerned it will exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause hyperkalemia. Few researchers have examined plasma responses after PJ or mustard ingestion in dehydrated, exercised individuals. Objective: To determine if ingesting PJ, mustard, or deionized water (DIW) while hypohydrated affects plasma sodium (Na+) concentration ([Na+]p), plasma potassium (K+) concentration ([K+]p), plasma osmolality (OSMp), or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na+ content. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 9 physically active, nonacclimated individuals (age = 25 ± 2 years, height = 175.5 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 13.8 kg). Intervention(s): Participants exercised vigorously for 2 hours (temperature = 37°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 24% ± 4%). After a 30-minute rest, a baseline blood sample was collected, and they ingested 1 mL/kg body mass of PJ or DIW. For the mustard trial, participants ingested a mass of mustard containing a similar amount of Na+ as for the PJ trial. Postingestion blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): The dependent variables were [Na+]p, [K+]p, OSMp, and percentage change in plasma Na+ content and plasma volume. Results: Participants became 2.9% ± 0.6% hypohydrated and lost 96.8 ± 27.1 mmol (conventional unit = 96.8 ± 27.1 mEq) of Na+, 8.4 ± 2 mmol (conventional unit = 8.4 ± 2 mEq) of K+, and 2.03 ± 0.44 L of fluid due to exercise-induced sweating. They ingested approximately 79 mL of PJ or DIW or 135.24 ± 22.8 g of mustard. Despite ingesting approximately 1.5 g of Na+ in the PJ and mustard trials, no changes occurred within 60 minutes postingestion for [Na+]p, [K+]p, OSMp, or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na+ content (P > .05). Conclusions: Ingesting a small bolus of PJ or large

  13. Electrolyte and Plasma Responses After Pickle Juice, Mustard, and Deionized Water Ingestion in Dehydrated Humans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kevin C

    2014-02-12

    Context : Some athletes ingest pickle juice (PJ) or mustard to treat exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs). Clinicians warn against this because they are concerned it will exacerbate exercise-induced hypertonicity or cause hyperkalemia. Few researchers have examined plasma responses after PJ or mustard ingestion in dehydrated, exercised individuals. Objective : To determine if ingesting PJ, mustard, or deionized water (DIW) while hypohydrated affects plasma sodium (Na(+)) concentration ([Na(+)]p), plasma potassium (K(+)) concentration ([K(+)]p), plasma osmolality (OSMp), or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na(+) content. Design : Crossover study. Setting : Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants : A total of 9 physically active, nonacclimated individuals (age = 25 ± 2 years, height = 175.5 ± 9.0 cm, mass = 78.6 ± 13.8 kg). Intervention(s) : Participants exercised vigorously for 2 hours (temperature = 37°C ± 1°C, relative humidity = 24% ± 4%). After a 30-minute rest, a baseline blood sample was collected, and they ingested 1 mL/kg body mass of PJ or DIW. For the mustard trial, participants ingested a mass of mustard containing a similar amount of Na(+) as for the PJ trial. Postingestion blood samples were collected at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s) : The dependent variables were [Na(+)]p, [K(+)]p, OSMp, and percentage change in plasma Na(+) content and plasma volume. Results : Participants became 2.9% ± 0.6% hypohydrated and lost 96.8 ± 27.1 mmol (conventional unit = 96.8 ± 27.1 mEq) of Na(+), 8.4 ± 2 mmol (conventional unit = 8.4 ± 2 mEq) of K(+), and 2.03 ± 0.44 L of fluid due to exercise-induced sweating. They ingested approximately 79 mL of PJ or DIW or 135.24 ± 22.8 g of mustard. Despite ingesting approximately 1.5 g of Na(+) in the PJ and mustard trials, no changes occurred within 60 minutes postingestion for [Na(+)]p, [K(+)]p, OSMp, or percentage changes in plasma volume or Na(+) content (P > .05). Conclusions

  14. A large outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157, caused by low-salt pickled Napa cabbage in nursing homes, Japan, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Tabuchi, Ayako; Wakui, Taku; Yano, Koichi; Azuma, Kotaro; Yamagishi, Takuya; Nakashima, Kazutoshi; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Matsui, Tamano; Oishi, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective In August 2012, an outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 infection was investigated by the City of Sapporo and Hokkaido Prefectural Government. The initial notification reported an illness affecting 94 residents of 10 private nursing homes distributed across multiple areas of Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan; at this time three cases were confirmed as EHEC O157 infection. The objectives of the investigation were to identify the source of infection and recommend control measures to prevent further illness. Methods A suspected case was defined as a resident of one of the private nursing homes in Hokkaido who had at least one of the following gastrointestinal symptoms: diarrhoea, bloody stool, abdominal pain or vomiting between 10 July and 10 September 2012. Cases were confirmed by the presence of Shiga toxin 1- and 2-producing EHEC O157 in stool samples of suspected cases. We conducted an epidemiological analysis and an environmental investigation. Results We identified 54 confirmed and 53 suspected cases in 12 private nursing homes including five fatalities. Of the 107 cases, 102 (95%) had consumed pickles, all of which had been manufactured at the same facility. EHEC O157 isolates from two pickle samples, 11 cases and two staff members of the processing company were indistinguishable. The company that produced the pickles used inadequate techniques to wash and sanitize the vegetables. Discussion Contaminated pickles were the likely source of this outbreak. We recommended that the processing company improve their methods of washing and sanitizing raw vegetables. As a result of this outbreak, the sanitation requirements for processing pickles were revised. PMID:26306209

  15. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air. Volume 3, Results from exposure of spent fuel to fluorine-contaminated air

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.E.; Thomas, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The Behavior of Spent Fuel in Storage (BSFS) Project has conducted research to develop data on spent nuclear fuel (irradiated U0{sub 2}) that could be used to support design, licensing, and operation of dry storage installations. Test Series B conducted by the BSFS Project was designed as a long-term study of the oxidation of spent fuel exposed to air. It was discovered after the exposures were completed in September 1990 that the test specimens had been exposed to an atmosphere of bottled air contaminated with an unknown quantity of fluorine. This exposure resulted in the test specimens reacting with both the oxygen and the fluorine in the oven atmospheres. The apparent source of the fluorine was gamma radiation-induced chemical decomposition of the fluoro-elastomer gaskets used to seal the oven doors. This chemical decomposition apparently released hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor into the oven atmospheres. Because the Test Series B specimens were exposed to a fluorine-contaminated oven atmosphere and reacted with the fluorine, it is recommended that the Test Series B data not be used to develop time-temperature limits for exposure of spent nuclear fuel to air. This report has been prepared to document Test Series B and present the collected data and observations.

  16. Transportation accident scenarios for commercial spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmot, E L

    1981-02-01

    A spectrum of high severity, low probability, transportation accident scenarios involving commercial spent fuel is presented together with mechanisms, pathways and quantities of material that might be released from spent fuel to the environment. These scenarios are based on conclusions from a workshop, conducted in May 1980 to discuss transportation accident scenarios, in which a group of experts reviewed and critiqued available literature relating to spent fuel behavior and cask response in accidents.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A Stellar Spectral Flux Library: 1150 - 25000 A (Pickles 1998)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickles, A. J.

    1998-09-01

    . fi (IUE) Heck et al. 1984, Cat. fg Gunn & Stryker 1983, Cat. fk Kiehling 1987, Cat. fj Jacoby, Hunter & Christian 1984, Cat. fs Silva & Cornell 1992, Cat. fp Pickles 1985, Cat. fn (N6522) Pickles & van der Kruit 1990 (1990A&AS...84..421P) fr fr1, fr2 Serote Roos, Boisson & Joly 1996, Cat. fd fdd1, fdd2; fd3, fd4 Danks & Dennefeld 1994 (1994PASP..106..382D) UVKLIB component codes Code Reference source fh spectrum from UVILIB fse interpolated spectrum based on standardized flux points fl Lancon & Rocca-Volmerange 1992, Cat. fd Dallier, Boisson & Joly 1996, Cat. fk Kleinmann & Hall 1986 (1986ApJS...62..501K) fc Cohen et al. (1995, 1996a, 1996b); Cat. , , fm Fluks et al. 1994, Cat. M giant spectra in UVKLIB include the synthetic M0-M10 MK type spectra from Fluks et. al. (1994), and are a combination of these and the UVILIB spectra in the range 1150-10620A. M0-M8 III are the only cases where the 1150-10500A data differ between UVILIB and UVKLIB. M9 and M10 III spectra are exclusively synthetic spectra from Fluks et. al. (1994) in both libraries. In addition to the spectrum library itself, synthetic photometry and selected local equivalent widths & magnitude indices are provided in tables synphot.dat and lew.dat. The standard infrared colors used to form the smooth energy curves used in UVKLIB spectra are listed in irstphot.dat. Further documentation details are available in the *.doc files as described below in the table notes in this ReadMe. (265 data files).

  18. Sequential co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol with spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Eilhann E; Yi, Haakrho; Jeon, Young Jae

    2013-05-01

    The sequential co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel from spent coffee grounds was investigated. The direct conversion of bioethanol from spent coffee grounds was not found to be a desirable option because of the relatively slow enzymatic saccharification behavior in the presence of triglycerides and the free fatty acids (FFAs) found to exist in the raw materials. Similarly, the direct transformation of the spent coffee grounds into ethanol without first extracting lipids was not found to be a feasible alternative. However, the crude lipids extracted from the spent coffee grounds were themselves converted into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the non-catalytic biodiesel transesterification reaction. The yields of bioethanol and biodiesel were 0.46 g g(-1) and 97.5±0.5%, which were calculated based on consumed sugar and lipids extracted from spent coffee grounds respectively. Thus, this study clearly validated our theory that spent coffee grounds could be a strong candidate for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel. PMID:23567719

  19. Evaluation of Dechlorinating Chemicals for Spent Membrane Cleaning Solutions.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jiyun; Parker, Wayne; Liu, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The use of dechlorinating chemicals for removal of chlorine from spent membrane cleaning solutions was investigated. Addition of calcium thiosulfate resulted in a decrease in pH at low dosages of calcium thiosulfate, but when higher dosages were used, the pH was not affected. Other dechlorinating agents (sodium bisulfite, sodium sulfite, and ascorbic acid) generated smaller pH declines than calcium thiosulfate. The declines in pH were observed after the dechlorination reaction was effectively complete and pH did not appear to influence the rate of dechlorination. The rate of dechlorination in spent cleaning solution was slower than that observed in clean water. Dechlorination with calcium thiosulfate resulted in the lowest half-life and reaction time. At lower doses (less than 565 mg/L), it was not possible to discriminate between the different dechlorinating agents. The times required for dechlorination were more sensitive to increases in dechlorination chemical dose at lower doses. PMID:27131060

  20. Value recovery from spent alumina-base catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Hyatt, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A process for the recovery of aluminum and at least one other metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, nickel and cobalt from a spent hydrogenation catalyst comprising (1) adding about 1 to 3 parts H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 to each part of spent catalyst in a reaction zone of about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. under sulfide gas pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (2) separating the resultant Al.sub.2 (SO.sub.4).sub.3 solution from the sulfide precipitate in the mixture, (3) oxidizing the remaining sulfide precipitate as an aqueous slurry at about 20.degree. to 200.degree. C. in an oxygen-containing atmosphere at a pressure between about 1 and about 35 atmospheres, (4) separating the slurry to obtain solid molybdic acid and a sulfate liquor containing said at least one metal, and (5) recovering said at least one metal from the sulfate liquor in marketable form.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  2. Pickling Peridotites in the IBM Mantle Wedge: Inferences from the Guguan Cross-Chain, Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Bloomer, S. H.; Leybourne, M.; Miller, N. R.; Hargrove, U. S.; Griffin, W. R.; Fouch, M.; Kohut, E.; Vervoort, J.; Prytulak, J.

    2003-12-01

    Variations in lava compositions observed in arc `cross-chains' reveal chemical and isotopic gradients resulting from 'pickling' of convecting asthenosphere by fluids and melts from the descending slab. This can be studied using lavas from arc cross-chains. We report geochemical and isotopic data for basalts and basaltic andesites from the Guguan cross-chain at 17° 15'N in the Mariana Arc, comprising the active volcanic island Guguan (and submarine cone N. Guguan) along the magmatic front (~125 km above the subducted slab) and two seamounts to the west, W. Guguan (~150km) and Guguan II (~230 km). Guguan lavas represent the `fluid-dominated' endmember of Mariana arc lavas, and comprise fractionated basalts, basaltic andesites, and subordinate andesites (Mg# = 35-51, Ni<30ppm). Lavas from N. Guguan seamount consists of less fractionated basalts (Mg# = 52, ~50ppm Ni). Basalts from W. Guguan (Mg# = 61, 60-80 ppm Ni) and Guguan II (Mg#= 63-75, 100-400 ppm Ni) are much less fractionated. Guguan, N. Guguan, and W. Guguan lavas straddle the Low- to Medium-K boundary on a K2O-SiO2 plot, whereas Guguan II lavas are slightly more enriched and plot in the Medium-K field. Strong enrichments in K and other LIL elements observed for the Kasuga cross-chain farther north in the Mariana arc are absent. Olivine Fo decreases and plagioclase An increases towards the magmatic front. These relations suggest that water contents increase towards the magmatic front in the Guguan cross-chain. Spider diagrams for Guguan cross-chain lavas show the characteristic elemental enrichments of arc lavas, most notably LIL elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U, K, Pb, and Sr); similar but muted enrichments are found in basalts formed by seafloor spreading in the Mariana Trough (MTSB). Trace element variations observed across the Guguan cross-chain indicate that the fluid-dominated `Subduction Component' diminishes away from the magmatic front and is replaced by a component that manifests either sediment melt or the

  3. Microbiology of spent nuclear fuel storage basins.

    PubMed

    Santo Domingo, J W; Berry, C J; Summer, M; Fliermans, C B

    1998-12-01

    Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel storage basins at Savannah River Site (SRS) were performed as a preliminary step to elucidate the potential for microbial-influenced corrosion (MIC) in these facilities. Total direct counts and culturable counts performed during a 2-year period indicated microbial densities of 10(4) to 10(7) cells/ml in water samples and on submerged metal coupons collected from these basins. Bacterial communities present in the basin transformed between 15% and 89% of the compounds present in Biologtrade mark plates. Additionally, the presence of several biocorrosion-relevant microbial groups (i.e., sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria) was detected with commercially available test kits. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectra analysis of osmium tetroxide-stained coupons demonstrated the development of microbial biofilm communities on some metal coupons submerged for 3 weeks in storage basins. After 12 months, coupons were fully covered by biofilms, with some deterioration of the coupon surface evident at the microscopical level. These results suggest that, despite the oligotrophic and radiological environment of the SRS storage basins and the active water deionization treatments commonly applied to prevent electrochemical corrosion in these facilities, these conditions do not prevent microbial colonization and survival. Such microbial densities and wide diversity of carbon source utilization reflect the ability of the microbial populations to adapt to these environments. The presumptive presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria and the development of biofilms on submerged coupons indicated that an environment for MIC of metal components in the storage basins may occur. However, to date, there has been no indication or evidence of MIC in the basins. Basin chemistry control and corrosion surveillance programs instituted several years ago have substantially abated all corrosion mechanisms.

  4. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY SPENT FUEL CLADDING HULLS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; John Mickalonis, J

    2006-09-27

    The reprocessing of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) generates a Zircaloy cladding hull waste which requires disposal as a high level waste in the geologic repository. The hulls are primarily contaminated with fission products and actinides from the fuel. During fuel irradiation, these contaminants are deposited in a thin layer of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) which forms on the cladding surface at the elevated temperatures present in a nuclear reactor. Therefore, if the hulls are treated to remove the ZrO{sub 2} layer, a majority of the contamination will be removed and the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a low level waste (LLW). Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant savings due to the high costs associated with geologic disposal. To assess the feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls, two treatment processes developed for dissolving fuels containing zirconium (Zr) metal or alloys were evaluated. Small-scale dissolution experiments were performed using the ZIRFLEX process which employs a boiling ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F)/ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) solution to dissolve Zr or Zircaloy cladding and a hydrofluoric acid (HF) process developed for complete dissolution of Zr-containing fuels. The feasibility experiments were performed using Zircaloy-4 metal coupons which were electrochemically oxidized to produce a thin ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface. Once the oxide layer was in place, the ease of removing the layer using methods based on the two processes was evaluated. The ZIRFLEX and HF dissolution processes were both successful in removing a 0.2 mm (thick) oxide layer from Zircaloy-4 coupons. Although the ZIRFLEX process was effective in removing the oxide layer, two potential shortcomings were identified. The formation of ammonium hexafluorozirconate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}ZrF{sub 6}) on the metal surface prior to dissolution in the bulk solution could hinder the decontamination

  5. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics. PMID:27449232

  6. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics.

  7. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1990-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp., to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  8. A novel process for the treatment of spent potlining

    SciTech Connect

    Besida, J.; Pong, T.K.; Adrien, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    A description of a new process for the treatment of spent potlining (SPL) is presented in this paper together with a comparison between laboratory results and those obtained from a 100kg demonstration plant. The process uses a series of aqueous leaching steps, conducted at low temperature, to extract cyanide from SPL and recover the fluoride values as smelter grade AlF{sup 3} or acid grade CaF{sup 2}. The final carbonaceous residue contains the refractory compounds corundum and sodium beta-aluminate and TCLP tests demonstrate that it meets environmental requirements for land filling. 2 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Kazunori; Takahashi, A.

    1997-08-01

    The results of laboratory-scale experiments concerning the behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, which were carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, are summarized. Based on previous and new experimental results, the difference in quantity of residual iodine in the fuel solution between laboratory-scale experiments and reprocessing plants is discussed, Iodine in spent fuels is converted to the following four states: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid generated in the dissolution, (3) formation of a colloid of insoluble iodides such as AgI and PdI{sub 2}, and (4) deposition on insoluble residue. Nitrous acid controls the amount of colloid formed. As a result, up to 10% of iodine in spent fuels is retained in the fuel solution, up to 3% is deposited on insoluble residue, and the balance volatilizes to the off-gas, Contrary to earlier belief, when the dissolution is carried out in 3 to 4 M HNO{sub 3} at 100{degrees}C, the main iodine species in a fuel solution is a colloid, not iodate, Immediately after its formation, the colloid is unstable and decomposes partially in the hot nitric acid solution through the following reaction: AgI(s) + 2HNO{sub 3}(aq) = {1/2}I{sub 2}(aq) + AgNO{sub 3}(aq) + NO{sub 2}(g) + H{sub 2}O(1). For high concentrations of gaseous iodine, I{sub 2}(g), and NO{sub 2}, this reaction is reversed towards formation of the colloid (AgI). Since these concentrations are high near the liquid surface of a plant-scale dissolver, there is a possibility that the colloid is formed there through this reversal, Simulations performed in laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated this reversal, This phenomenon can be one reason the quantity of residual iodine in spent fuels is higher in reprocessing plants than in laboratory-scale experiments. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of spent coffee obtained from the most common coffeemakers as a source of hydrophilic bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Jimena; Juániz, Isabel; Monente, Carmen; Caemmerer, Bettina; Kroh, Lothar W; De Peña, M Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2012-12-26

    The main hydrophilic antioxidant compounds (3-, 4-, and 5-monocaffeoylquinic and 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids, caffeine, and browned compounds, including melanoidins) and the antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ABTS, DPPH, Fremy's salt, and TEMPO) were evaluated in Arabica and Robusta spent coffee obtained from the preparation of coffee brews with the most common coffeemakers (filter, espresso, plunger, and mocha). All spent coffee grounds, with the exception of those from the mocha coffeemaker, had relevant amounts of total caffeoylquinic acids (6.22-13.24 mg/g of spent coffee), mainly dicaffeoylquinic acids (3.31-5.79 mg/g of spent coffee), which were 4-7-fold higher than in their respective coffee brews. Caffeine ranged from 3.59 to 8.09 mg/g of spent coffee. The antioxidant capacities of the aqueous spent coffee extracts were 46.0-102.3% (filter), 59.2-85.6% (espresso), and <42% (plunger) in comparison to their respective coffee brews. This study obtained spent coffee extracts with antioxidant properties that can be used as a good source of hydrophilic bioactive compounds. PMID:23214450

  11. Establishment of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L. ) on spent oil shale from the Paraho process

    SciTech Connect

    George, M.R.; McKell, C.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1981-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with the following obtectives: (i) to study the emergence and seedling growth of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in soil and in Paraho spent oil shale that was either leached, treated with sulfuric acid, covered with soil, or mixed with soil, and (ii) to study emergence and seedling growth of cheatgrass on spent shale that was fertilized with ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate. The Ec/sub e/ of the spent shale was 14 mmhos/cm, the pH was 9 and the shale was low in plant available N and P. The soil from Federal oil shale lease tract U-a near Bonanza, Utah was a coarse textured alluvium with low moisture retention. Cheatgrass planted on soil alone and shale covered with soil had the highest emergence rates (75 to 86%) and produced the greatest total biomass (8.55 to 13.4 g). Seedling emergence rates on leached and unleached spent shale were 44% and 36%, respectively, and total biomass was < 1 g on either treatment. Seedlings failed to emerge on sulfuric acid-treated spent shale. The addition of sulfuric acid to spent shale increased the EC/sub e/ of the shale to over 21 mmhos/cm. Leached and unleached spent shale was fertilized with N at rates of 0, 28, and 56 kg/ha and P at rates of 0, 24.4, and 48.8 kg/ha. The total biomass for any fertilizer treatment was < 1 g. We conclude that covering shale disposal piles with topsoil may improve the site for successful invasion by a colonizing species such as cheatgrass.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel reprocessing modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakova, S.; Shmidt, O.; Podymova, T.; Shadrin, A.; Tkachenko, V.; Makeyeva, I.; Tkachenko, V.; Verbitskaya, O.; Schultz, O.; Peshkichev, I.

    2013-07-01

    The long-term wide development of nuclear power requires new approaches towards the realization of nuclear fuel cycle, namely, closed nuclear fuel cycle (CNFC) with respect to fission materials. Plant nuclear fuel cycle (PNFC), which is in fact the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel unloaded from the reactor and the production of new nuclear fuel (NF) at the same place together with reactor plant, can be one variant of CNFC. Developing and projecting of PNFC is a complicated high-technology innovative process that requires modern information support. One of the components of this information support is developed by the authors. This component is the programme conducting calculations for various variants of process flow sheets for reprocessing SNF and production of NF. Central in this programme is the blocks library, where the blocks contain mathematical description of separate processes and operations. The calculating programme itself has such a structure that one can configure the complex of blocks and correlations between blocks, appropriate for any given flow sheet. For the ready sequence of operations balance calculations are made of all flows, i.e. expenses, element and substance makeup, heat emission and radiation rate are determined. The programme is open and the block library can be updated. This means that more complicated and detailed models of technological processes will be added to the library basing on the results of testing processes using real equipment, in test operating mode. The development of the model for the realization of technical-economic analysis of various variants of technologic PNFC schemes and the organization of 'operator's advisor' is expected. (authors)

  13. Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160482.html Depression Common After Time Spent in ICU About one-third of ICU ... among former ICU patients are three to four times higher than in the general population, according to ...

  14. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984.

  15. Combustion of Australian spent shales compared

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The combustion kinetics of spent oil shales from seven major Australian deposits have been examined using a fluidized bed batch technique. Chemical rate constants were shown to vary between the shales and to be less than extrapolations of data from American spent oil shales. The effective diffusivity also varies widely among the shales. The seven oil shales were from the Condor, Duaringa, Lowmead, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Rundle and Stuart deposits in Queensland. Results are briefly described. 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, Herbert J.; Clark, Philip M.; Gilcrest, James D.

    1978-06-20

    A rack for storing spent nuclear fuel elements in which a plurality of aligned rows of upright enclosures of generally square cross-sectional areas contain vertically disposed fuel elements. The enclosures are fixed at the lower ends thereof to a base. Pockets are formed between confronting walls of adjacent enclosures for receiving high absorption neutron absorbers, such as Boral, cadmium, borated stainless steel and the like for the closer spacing of spent fuel elements.

  17. Empirical Modeling of Iron Oxide Dissolution in Sulphuric and Hydrochloric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmelmann, Jan C.; Xu, Hao; Krumm, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    A new approach is presented to an empirical modeling of chemical pickling processes, based on the activation energy of oxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The model allows us to calculate pickling times as a function of definite parameters. The main oxide layers on hot-rolled materials are magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), and wustite (FeO). On the laboratory scale, the activation energy of each oxide has been determined. FeO is a metastable oxide and has been produced based on magnetite powder in a H2/H2O atmosphere. The oxide powders used for the experimental procedure have been analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction to insure the proper stoichiometry and composition. The model allows us to calculate the time of oxide dissolution based on the parameters temperature, acid concentration, and the composition of the oxide layer. Calculated values are verified by surface potential measurement on industrial oxide layers. The hot-rolled material used for verification is low carbon steel. A comparison between calculated pickling times and experimental data will be presented.

  18. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been reprocessed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) since 1953 to recover uranium-235 and krypton-85 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The resulting acidic high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel underground bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage at the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal.

  19. The development of imitation crab sticks by substituting spent laying hen meat for Alaska pollack.

    PubMed

    Jin, S K; Hur, I C; Jeong, J Y; Choi, Y J; Choi, B D; Kim, B G; Hur, S J

    2011-08-01

    Imitation crab stick (ICS) samples were divided into 5 treatments, a control composed of commercial ICS containing no breast meat from spent laying hens, and treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, in which 5, 10, 15, and 20% batter from breast meat of whole spent laying hens was substituted for Alaska pollack surimi, respectively. Imitation crab stick samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher moisture levels than the control sample. However, the myoglobin and metmyoglobin levels did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among ICS samples. During storage, whiteness was greater in the control sample than in the ICS samples containing spent laying hen breast meat batter. The saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increased, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased in response to substituting surimi with spent laying hen breast meat batter. The moisture content and pH were increased as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. The lipid oxidation value (TBA-reactive substances) and protein degradation value (volatile basic nitrogen) tended to increase during storage as the amount of spent laying hen breast meat batter increased. None of the sensory evaluation items differed among ICS samples during storage, although the color of the final products, mechanical color (by colorimeter), and textural properties did differ among samples. These results indicate that substituting laying hen breast meat batter for Alaska pollack surimi is a very useful method for the production of ICS because it enables the use of a simple production process that does not require steps, such as washing or pH adjustment, for myofibrillar protein recovery.

  20. Degradation of spent craft brewer’s yeast by caprine rumen hyper ammonia-producing bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spent brewer’s yeast has long been included in ruminant diets as a protein supplement. However, modern craft beers often include more hops (Humulus lupulus L.) compounds than traditional recipes. These compounds include alpha and beta-acids, which are antimicrobial to the rumen hyper ammonia-produci...

  1. LAB STUDY ON REGENERATION OF SPENT DOWEX 21K 16-20 MESH ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, J.B.

    2007-01-24

    Currently the effort to remove chromate from groundwater in the 100K and 100H Areas uses DOWEX 21K 16-20. This report addresses the procedure and results of a laboratory study for regeneration of the spent resin by sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, or sodium sulfate to determine if onsite regeneration by the Effluent Treatment Facility is a feasible option.

  2. Degradation of organic dye using zero-valent iron prepared from by-product of pickling line.

    PubMed

    Jung, S C; Cho, H C; Ra, D G; Park, S H; Yoon, H S; Kim, S C; Kim, S J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, zero-valent iron (ZVI) was produced using iron oxide that is a by-product of a pickling line at a steel works. The reaction activity of the produced ZVI was evaluated through a series of decomposition experiments of Orange II aqueous solution. The size of ZVI particles increased with reduction temperature due to coalescence. Correspondingly, the specific surface area of ZVI decreased with increasing reduction temperature. The decomposition efficiency of synthesized ZVI particles was higher at a lower pH. In particular, no significant decomposition reaction was observed at pH of 4 and higher. The rate of the ZVI-assisted decomposition of Orange II was increased by addition of H2O2 at pH of 3, whereas it was reduced by addition of H2O2 at a higher pH of 6. Nevertheless, simultaneous use of ZVI, UV and H2O2 led to a considerable increase in the decomposition rate even at a high pH condition (pH = 6). PMID:22097085

  3. 78 FR 3853 - Retrievability, Cladding Integrity and Safe Handling of Spent Fuel at an Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 71 and 72 Retrievability, Cladding Integrity and Safe Handling of Spent Fuel at an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation and During Transportation AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... transport of spent nuclear fuel are separate from requirements for storage of spent nuclear fuel....

  4. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section 148.275 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE... be transported on open hold all-steel barges after exposure to air for a period of at least ten days....

  5. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section 148.275 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE... be transported on open hold all-steel barges after exposure to air for a period of at least ten days....

  6. 46 CFR 148.275 - Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iron oxide, spent; iron sponge, spent. 148.275 Section 148.275 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE... be transported on open hold all-steel barges after exposure to air for a period of at least ten days....

  7. Geomechanics of the Spent Fuel Test: Climax

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Three years of geomechanical measurements were made at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) 1400 feet underground in fractured granitic rock. Heating of the rock mass resulted from emplacement of spent fuel as well as the heating by electrical heaters. Cooldown of the rock occurred after the spent fuel was removed and the heaters were turned off. The measurements program examines both gross and localized responses of the rock mass to thermal loading, to evaluate the thermomechanical response of sheared and fractured rock with that of relatively unfractured rock, to compare the magnitudes of displacements during mining with those induced by extensive heating of the rock mass, and to check assumptions regarding symmetry and damaged zones made in numerical modeling of the SFT-C. 28 refs., 113 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  9. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S; Zucker, M S; Bieber, Jr, A M

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly.

  10. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M. S.; Bieber, Jr., A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  11. 40 CFR 420.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire and coil... above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric acid...

  12. 40 CFR 420.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire and coil... above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric acid...

  13. 40 CFR 420.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire and coil... above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric acid...

  14. 40 CFR 420.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire and coil... above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric acid...

  15. 40 CFR 420.93 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125... operation. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire and coil... above limitations shall be applicable to each fume scrubber associated with a hydrochloric acid...

  16. Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic

  17. Apparatus for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Metz, III, Curtis F.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type comprising an array of fuel pins disposed within an outer metal shell or shroud. A spent fuel assembly is first compacted in a known manner and then incrementally sheared using fixed and movable shear blades having matched laterally projecting teeth which slidably intermesh to provide the desired shearing action. Incremental advancement of the fuel assembly after each shear cycle is limited to a distance corresponding to the lateral projection of the teeth to ensure fuel assembly breakup into small uniform segments which are amenable to remote chemical processing.

  18. Method for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Bradley S.; Watson, Clyde D.

    1977-01-01

    A method is disclosed for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type wherein a plurality of long metal tubes packed with ceramic fuel are supported in a spaced apart relationship within an outer metal shell or shroud which provides structural support to the assembly. Spent nuclear fuel assemblies are first compacted in a stepwise manner between specially designed gag-compactors and then sheared into short segments amenable to chemical processing by shear blades contoured to mate with the compacted surface of the fuel assembly.

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  20. Biochar characteristics produced from malt spent rootlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi N.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. Malt spent rootlets (MSR) is a by-product formed during beer production, is inexpensive and is produced in high quantities. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced from MSR, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Isotherms with 30 adsorption and 20 desorption points were conducted at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K). Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using t-plot method and Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. Raw MSR demonstrates low surface area that increases by 1 order of magnitude by thermal treatment up to 750oC. At temperatures from 750 up to 900oC, pyrolysis results to biochars with surface areas 210-340 m2/g. For the same temperature range, a high percentage (46-73%) of the pore volume of the biochars is due to micropores. Similar results were observed for all the grain size fractions of the raw MSR. The up-scaling of the biochar production was easily performed by using increased biomass analogous to the bigger vessels used each time. Positive results were obtained

  1. Bioleaching of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries using Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horeh, N. Bahaloo; Mousavi, S. M.; Shojaosadati, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a bio-hydrometallurgical route based on fungal activity of Aspergillus niger was evaluated for the detoxification and recovery of Cu, Li, Mn, Al, Co and Ni metals from spent lithium-ion phone mobile batteries under various conditions (one-step, two-step and spent medium bioleaching). The maximum recovery efficiency of 100% for Cu, 95% for Li, 70% for Mn, 65% for Al, 45% for Co, and 38% for Ni was obtained at a pulp density of 1% in spent medium bioleaching. The HPLC results indicated that citric acid in comparison with other detected organic acids (gluconic, oxalic and malic acid) had an important role in the effectiveness of bioleaching using A. niger. The results of FTIR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis of battery powder before and after bioleaching process confirmed that the fungal activities were quite effective. In addition, bioleaching achieved higher removal efficiency for heavy metals than the chemical leaching. This research demonstrated the great potential of bio-hydrometallurgical route to recover heavy metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries.

  2. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  3. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB. PMID:27682089

  4. Development and engineering plan for graphite spent fuels conditioning program

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, C.L.; Fillmore, D.L.; Kirkham, R.J.; Lord, D.L.; Phillips, M.B.; Pinto, A.P.; Staiger, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    Irradiated (or spent) graphite fuel stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) includes Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reactor and Peach Bottom reactor spent fuels. Conditioning and disposal of spent graphite fuels presently includes three broad alternatives: (1) direct disposal with minimum fuel packaging or conditioning, (2) mechanical disassembly of spent fuel into high-level waste and low-level waste portions to minimize geologic repository requirements, and (3) waste-volume reduction via burning of bulk graphite and other spent fuel chemical processing of the spent fuel. A multi-year program for the engineering development and demonstration of conditioning processes is described. Program costs, schedules, and facility requirements are estimated.

  5. How Time Is Spent in Elementary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenshine, Barak V.

    2015-01-01

    The Beginning Teacher Evaluation Study (BTES) provides valuable information on how time is spent in elementary classrooms. Some of the major topics are: the average minutes per day which students spend engaged in reading and math activities, student engagement rates in different settings (that is, teacher-led settings versus seatwork) and…

  6. Temperature for Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    1992-07-13

    DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) calculates allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel and the cumulative damage fraction of Zircaloy cladding for specified initial storage temperature and stress and cooling histories. It is made available to ensure compliance with NUREG 10CFR Part 72, Licensing Requirements for the Storage of Spent Fuel in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Although the program''s principal purpose is to calculate estimatesmore » of allowable temperature limits, estimates for creep strain, annealing fraction, and life fraction as a function of storage time are also provided. Equations for the temperature of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gas storage are included explicitly in the code; in addition, an option is included for a user-specified cooling history in tabular form, and tables of the temperature and stress dependencies of creep-strain rate and creep-rupture time for Zircaloy at constant temperature and constant stress or constant ratio of stress/modulus can be created. DATING includes the GEAR package for the numerical solution of the rate equations and DPLOT for plotting the time-dependence of the calculated cumulative damage-fraction, creep strain, radiation damage recovery, and temperature decay.« less

  7. Corrosion of spent Advanced Test Reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, L.B.; Croson, M.L.

    1994-11-01

    The results of a study of the condition of spent nuclear fuel elements from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) currently being stored underwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. This study was motivated by a need to estimate the corrosion behavior of dried, spent ATR fuel elements during dry storage for periods up to 50 years. The study indicated that the condition of spent ATR fuel elements currently stored underwater at the INEL is not very well known. Based on the limited data and observed corrosion behavior in the reactor and in underwater storage, it was concluded that many of the fuel elements currently stored under water in the facility called ICPP-603 FSF are in a degraded condition, and it is probable that many have breached cladding. The anticipated dehydration behavior of corroded spent ATR fuel elements was also studied, and a list of issues to be addressed by fuel element characterization before and after forced drying of the fuel elements and during dry storage is presented.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  9. Selection and identification of non-pathogenic bacteria isolated from fermented pickles with antagonistic properties against two shrimp pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zokaeifar, Hadi; Balcázar, José Luis; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Arshad, Aziz; Saad, Che Roos

    2012-06-01

    In this study, potential probiotic strains were isolated from fermented pickles based on antagonistic activity against two shrimp pathogens (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Two strains L10 and G1 were identified by biochemical tests, followed by16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis as Bacillus subtilis, and characterized by PCR amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements (Rep-PCR). Subsequently, B. subtilis L10 and G1 strains were tested for antibacterial activity under different physical conditions, including culture medium, salinity, pH and temperature using the agar well diffusion assay. Among the different culture media, LB broth was the most suitable medium for antibacterial production. Both strains showed the highest level of antibacterial activity against two pathogens at 30 °C and 1.0% NaCl. Under the pH conditions, strain G1 showed the greatest activity against V. harveyi at pH 7.3-8.0 and against V. parahaemolyticus at pH 6.0-8.0, whereas strain L10 showed the greatest activity against two pathogens at pH 7.3. The cell-free supernatants of both strains were treated with four different enzymes in order to characterize the antibacterial substances against V. harveyi. The result showed considerable reduction of antibacterial activity for both strains, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the antibacterial substances. A wide range of tolerance to NaCl, pH and temperature was also recorded for both strains. In addition, both strains showed no virulence effect in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. On the basis of these results and safety of strains to L. vannamei, they may be considered for future challenge experiments in shrimp as a very promising alternative to the use of antibiotics. PMID:22491136

  10. Chemical Forms and Distribution of Platinum Group Metals and Technetium During Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Amongst the fission products present in spent nuclear fuel of Nuclear Power Plants there are considerable quantities of platinum group metals (PGMs): ruthenium, rhodium and palladium. At the same time there are considerable amounts of technetium in the spent fuel, the problem of its removal at radiochemical plants being in operation encountering serious difficulties. Increased interest in this radionuclides is due not only to its rather large yield, but to higher mobility in the environment as well. However, the peculiarities of technetium chemistry in nitric acid solutions create certain problems when trying to separate it as a single product in the course of NPP's spent fuel reprocessing. The object of this work was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of platinum group metals and technetium behavior at various stages of spent fuel reprocessing and to seek the decisions which could make it possible to separate its as a single product. The paper will report data on platinum metals (PGM) and technetium distribution in spent fuel reprocessing products. The description of various techniques for palladium recovery from differing in composition radioactive solutions arising from reprocessing is given. (authors)

  11. From spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide to porous carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Laipan, Minwang; Zhu, Runliang; Chen, Qingze; Zhu, Jianxi; Xi, Yunfei; Ayoko, Godwin A; He, Hongping

    2015-12-30

    Adsorption has been considered as an efficient method for the treatment of dye effluents, but proper disposal of the spent adsorbents is still a challenge. This work attempts to provide a facile method to reutilize the spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-LDH) after the adsorption of orange II (OII). Herein, the spent hybrid was carbonized under the protection of nitrogen, and then washed with acid to obtain porous carbon materials. Thermogravimetric analysis results suggested that the carbonization could be well achieved above 600°C, as mass loss of the spent hybrid gradually stabilized. Therefore, the carbonization process was carried out at 600, 800, and 1000°C, respectively. Scanning electron microscope showed that the obtained carbon materials possessed a crooked flaky morphology. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption results showed that the carbon materials had large BET surface area and pore volume, e.g., 1426 m(2)/g and 1.67 cm(3)/g for the sample carbonized at 800°C. Moreover, the pore structure and surface chemistry compositions were tunable, as they were sensitive to the temperature. Toluene adsorption results demonstrated that the carbon materials had high efficiency in toluene removal. This work provided a facile approach for synthesizing porous carbon materials using spent Mg/Al-LDH.

  12. From spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide to porous carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Laipan, Minwang; Zhu, Runliang; Chen, Qingze; Zhu, Jianxi; Xi, Yunfei; Ayoko, Godwin A; He, Hongping

    2015-12-30

    Adsorption has been considered as an efficient method for the treatment of dye effluents, but proper disposal of the spent adsorbents is still a challenge. This work attempts to provide a facile method to reutilize the spent Mg/Al layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-LDH) after the adsorption of orange II (OII). Herein, the spent hybrid was carbonized under the protection of nitrogen, and then washed with acid to obtain porous carbon materials. Thermogravimetric analysis results suggested that the carbonization could be well achieved above 600°C, as mass loss of the spent hybrid gradually stabilized. Therefore, the carbonization process was carried out at 600, 800, and 1000°C, respectively. Scanning electron microscope showed that the obtained carbon materials possessed a crooked flaky morphology. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption results showed that the carbon materials had large BET surface area and pore volume, e.g., 1426 m(2)/g and 1.67 cm(3)/g for the sample carbonized at 800°C. Moreover, the pore structure and surface chemistry compositions were tunable, as they were sensitive to the temperature. Toluene adsorption results demonstrated that the carbon materials had high efficiency in toluene removal. This work provided a facile approach for synthesizing porous carbon materials using spent Mg/Al-LDH. PMID:26257095

  13. Numerical Estimation of the Spent Fuel Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Durbin, Samuel; Wilke, Jason; Margraf, J.; Dunn, T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Sabotage of spent nuclear fuel casks remains a concern nearly forty years after attacks against shipment casks were first analyzed and has a renewed relevance in the post-9/11 environment. A limited number of full-scale tests and supporting efforts using surrogate materials, typically depleted uranium dioxide (DUO 2 ), have been conducted in the interim to more definitively determine the source term from these postulated events. However, the validity of these large- scale results remain in question due to the lack of a defensible spent fuel ratio (SFR), defined as the amount of respirable aerosol generated by an attack on a mass of spent fuel compared to that of an otherwise identical surrogate. Previous attempts to define the SFR in the 1980's have resulted in estimates ranging from 0.42 to 12 and include suboptimal experimental techniques and data comparisons. Because of the large uncertainty surrounding the SFR, estimates of releases from security-related events may be unnecessarily conservative. Credible arguments exist that the SFR does not exceed a value of unity. A defensible determination of the SFR in this lower range would greatly reduce the calculated risk associated with the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask systems. In the present work, the shock physics codes CTH and ALE3D were used to simulate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and DUO 2 targets impacted by a high-velocity jet at an ambient temperature condition. These preliminary results are used to illustrate an approach to estimate the respirable release fraction for each type of material and ultimately, an estimate of the SFR. This page intentionally blank

  14. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    1997-10-08

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codesmore » for single phase fluid analysis, and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.« less

  15. Characterization of phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of red radish brines during lactic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jing, Pu; Song, Li-Hua; Shen, Shan-Qi; Zhao, Shu-Juan; Pang, Jie; Qian, Bing-Jun

    2014-07-07

    Red radish (Raphanus L.) pickles are popular appetizers or spices in Asian-style cuisine. However, tons of radish brines are generated as wastes from industrial radish pickle production. In this study, we evaluated the dynamic changes in colour properties, phenolics, anthocyanin profiles, phenolic acid composition, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties in radish brines during lactic acid fermentation. The results showed that five flavonoids detected were four anthocyanins and one kaempferol derivative, including pelargonidin-3-digluoside-5-glucoside derivatives acylated with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric and manolic acids, or ferulic and malonic acids. Amounts ranged from 15.5-19.3 µg/mL in total monomeric anthocyanins, and kaempferol-3,7-diglycoside (15-30 µg/mL). 4-Hydroxy-benzoic, gentisic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic and salicylic acids were detected in amounts that varied from 70.2-92.2 µg/mL, whereas the total phenolic content was 206-220 µg/mL. The change in colour of the brine was associated with the accumulation of lactic acid and anthocyanins. The ORAC and Fe2+ chelation capacity of radish brines generally decreased, whereas the reducing power measured as FRAP values was increased during the fermentation from day 5 to day 14. This study provided information on the phytochemicals and the antioxidative activities of red radish fermentation waste that might lead to further utilization as nutraceuticals or natural colorants.

  16. Observation of Studtite and Metastudtite on Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2003-12-31

    We have characterized significant quantities of uranyl peroxide phases on commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) samples formed under immersion conditions over a two-year-period. Milligrams of corroded fuel aggregates were observed at the air water interface in each sample. The bulk fuel and the suspended material were examined by SEM, EDX, and XRD and were found to contain studtite and metastudtite, respectively. The reason for the partitioning of the two phases is unclear at this time. SEM micrographs of the bulk powders indicate extensive corrosion. Indeed, under the conditions that developed in the sample containers, dissolution of the fuel was in some cases as severe as a purposeful etching of the surface with concentrated nitric acid. Radiochemical analyses of the leachates and the aggregate materials indicate that dissolution of the fuel surface by hydrogen peroxide may have resulted in rapid release and increased solubility of radiocontaminants in the fuel matrix.

  17. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, was used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improve the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study were: (1) Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems. (2) Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system. (3) Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit. (4) Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system. and (5) Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts (not completed due to lack of funds)

  18. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  19. Enzymatic decolorization of spent textile dyeing baths composed by mixtures of synthetic dyes and additives.

    PubMed

    Ciullini, Ilaria; Gullotto, Antonella; Tilli, Silvia; Sannia, Giovanni; Basosi, Riccardo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2012-10-01

    The effects of different components of real dyeing bath formulations, such as the equalizing and fixing additives-acids, salts, and surfactants-on the decolorization catalyzed by Funalia trogii enzymatic extracts, were investigated to understand their influence on the recalcitrance to biodegradation of this type of wastewater. The decolorization of selected dyes and dye mixtures after tissue dyeing was performed in the presence/absence of auxiliary compounds. All spent dyeing baths were enzymatically decolorized to different extents, by the addition of extracts containing laccase only or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Whereas surfactant auxiliaries, in some instances, inhibit the decolorization of spent dyeing baths, in several occurrences the acid/salt additives favor the enzymatic process. In general, the complete spent dyeing formulations are better degraded than those containing the dyes only. The comparison of extracellular extracts obtained from spent straws from the commercial growth of Pleurotus sp. mushrooms with those from F. trogii reveals similar decolorization extents thus allowing to further reduce the costs of bioremediation.

  20. Effects of protein leakage on online monitoring of ultraviolet absorbance in spent dialysate.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Ken-Ichiro; Hirakawa, Shinya; Murakami, Jun; Akiba, Takashi; Mineshima, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Recently, dialysis dose during hemodialysis treatment has been monitored by measuring the concentration of urea-like solutes such as uric acid in spent dialysate using near-ultraviolet (UV) light. The measured absorbance has been shown to have a good correlation with the time course of urea level even if the absorbance does not result from urea. However, the spent dialysate includes various solutes such as uric acid and albumin as well as unknown solutes that also absorb UV light. The effects of these solutes on monitored absorbance values are not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of protein leakage on data from the UV monitoring of spent dialysate. Albumin leakage in the earlier stage of the treatment may result in an increase in absorbance greater than the expected value. As a result, there is a possibility that the dialysis dose is overestimated. On the other hand, the quantity of albumin leakage could be estimated by a spent dialysate monitoring technique combined with a protein removal process.

  1. Treatment of spent electropolishing solution for removal of cobalt-60

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.; Youngblood, E.L.; Macon, R.J.

    1996-02-01

    The Irradiated Materials Examination and Testing (IMET) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory electropolishes various types of irradiated metal specimens prior to examination of metallurgical and mechanical properties. The standard electropolishing solution used at IMET for most specimens consists of a 7:1 methanol/sulfuric acid mixture, with smaller amounts of a 3:1 methanol/nitric acid solution and a 10:6:1 methanol/2-butoxyethanol/perchloric acid solution also being used. Cobalt-60 is the primary source of gamma radiation in the spent solutions, with lesser amounts from manganese-54 and iron-59. A treatment method is needed to remove most of the Co-60 from these solutions to allow the waste solutions to be contact-handled for disposal. A wide range of adsorbents was tested for removing cobalt from the electropolishing solutions. No adsorbent was found that would treat full strength solution, but a complexing ion exchange resin (Chelex 100, BioRad Labs, or Amberlite IRC-718, Rohm and Haas Co.) will remove cobalt and other heavy metals from partially neutralized (pH=3) solution. A 5 wt% sodium hydroxide solution is used for pH adjustment, since more concentrated caustic caused sodium sulfate precipitates to form. Lab-scale column tests have shown that about 10 bed volumes of methanol/sulfuric acid solution, 30 bed volumes of methanol/nitric acid solution or 15 bed volumes of methanol/2-butoxyethanol/perchloric acid solution can be treated prior to initial Co-60 breakthrough.

  2. Nitrite pickling salt as an alternative to formaldehyde for embalming in veterinary anatomy--A study based on histo- and microbiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Pawel; Weigner, Janet; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Kaessmeyer, Sabine; Plendl, Johanna

    2011-02-20

    Formaldehyde, the traditional embalming agent has negative health effects. Nitrite pickling salt has been reported to be a good and inexpensive alternative when supplemented with antioxidants, but the antioxidants caused yellowish colouration of cadavers, and damaged corrosion-resistant steel tables and stone floors. Here, nitrite pickling salt was supplemented with ethanol and Pluriol(®) and tested for effectiveness as an embalming agent of twenty dog cadavers: 10 with open, and 10 with closed abdominal cavity. The texture of the tissue was monitored intermittently for 12 months throughout the course of an anatomical dissection class. Histological and microbiological analysis of samples from muscles, lungs, duodenum and colon were performed. Dogs with an open abdomen remained suitable for dissection purposes during the entire course. The abdominal organs of the closed cadavers lost their natural features, without histological signs of autolysis. Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp. and Clostridium perfringens were recorded after 24 weeks. The open cadavers underwent additional maintenance via renewed treatment with ethanol and Pluriol(®) after each dissection. After 30 weeks, C. perfringens was massively reduced in the colon of the open cadavers. The tested solution successfully embalms open bodies, carries no health risks and is environmentally friendly and cost effective.

  3. Nitrite pickling salt as an alternative to formaldehyde for embalming in veterinary anatomy--A study based on histo- and microbiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Pawel; Weigner, Janet; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Kaessmeyer, Sabine; Plendl, Johanna

    2011-02-20

    Formaldehyde, the traditional embalming agent has negative health effects. Nitrite pickling salt has been reported to be a good and inexpensive alternative when supplemented with antioxidants, but the antioxidants caused yellowish colouration of cadavers, and damaged corrosion-resistant steel tables and stone floors. Here, nitrite pickling salt was supplemented with ethanol and Pluriol(®) and tested for effectiveness as an embalming agent of twenty dog cadavers: 10 with open, and 10 with closed abdominal cavity. The texture of the tissue was monitored intermittently for 12 months throughout the course of an anatomical dissection class. Histological and microbiological analysis of samples from muscles, lungs, duodenum and colon were performed. Dogs with an open abdomen remained suitable for dissection purposes during the entire course. The abdominal organs of the closed cadavers lost their natural features, without histological signs of autolysis. Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Bacillus spp. and Clostridium perfringens were recorded after 24 weeks. The open cadavers underwent additional maintenance via renewed treatment with ethanol and Pluriol(®) after each dissection. After 30 weeks, C. perfringens was massively reduced in the colon of the open cadavers. The tested solution successfully embalms open bodies, carries no health risks and is environmentally friendly and cost effective. PMID:20829010

  4. Taenia solium metacestode viability in infected pork after preparation with salt pickling or cooking methods common in Yucatán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; de, la Gala D Pacheco; Villegas-Perez, S; Fraser, A; Craig, P S; Cob-Galera, L; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L

    2002-04-01

    The cestode parasite Taenia solium is an important cause of foodborne infection throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Ingestion of pork meat infected with T. solium larvae can lead to taeniasis infection in humans. With tourism and the consumption of native food increasing, it is important to investigate potential risks of transmission associated with food preparation methods. In this study, traditional Mexican salt pickling and two methods of pork preparation (as roast pork [cochinita pibil] and in pork and beans [frijol con puerco]) were evaluated in order to determine their effects on T. solium cyst viability in infected tissue. In the control groups, all metacestodes isolated were 100% viable, and only small changes in pH (from 6.0 to 5.9) and temperature (29 to 30 degrees C) were recorded. No viable cysts were detected after 12 and 24 h of salt pickling. The pH of the meat during salting dropped from 6.0 to 5.3. Osmotic changes and dehydration from the salting, rather than a change in pH, could be considered the main cause of cyst death. Temperatures of >65 degrees C damaged T. solium metacestodes in roast pork and in pork and beans. The results of this study indicate that if traditional pork dishes are prepared properly, T. solium cysts are destroyed. The criteria used in this study to evaluate the viability of tissue cysts are discussed. PMID:11952216

  5. Recovery of metals from a mixture of various spent batteries by a hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2016-10-01

    Spent batteries contain hazardous materials, including numerous metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, etc.) that are present at high concentrations. Therefore, proper treatment of these wastes is necessary to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Current recycling processes are mainly applied to treat each type of spent battery separately. In this laboratory study, a hydrometallurgical process has been developed to simultaneously and efficiently solubilize metals from spent batteries. Among the various chemical leaching agents tested, sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient and cheapest reagent. A Box-Behnken design was used to identify the influence of several parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, retention time and number of leaching steps) on the removal of metals from spent batteries. According to the results, the solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration seemed to be the main parameters influencing the solubilization of zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium and cobalt from spent batteries. According to the results, the highest metal leaching removals were obtained under the optimal leaching conditions (pulp density = 180 g/L (w/v), [H2SO4] = 1 M, number of leaching step = 3 and leaching time = 30 min). Under such optimum conditions, the removal yields obtained were estimated to be 65% for Mn, 99.9% for Cd, 100% for Zn, 74% for Co and 68% for Ni. Further studies will be performed to improve the solubilization of Mn and to selectively recover the metals. PMID:27318877

  6. Recovery of metals from a mixture of various spent batteries by a hydrometallurgical process.

    PubMed

    Tanong, Kulchaya; Coudert, Lucie; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Francois

    2016-10-01

    Spent batteries contain hazardous materials, including numerous metals (cadmium, lead, nickel, zinc, etc.) that are present at high concentrations. Therefore, proper treatment of these wastes is necessary to prevent their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Current recycling processes are mainly applied to treat each type of spent battery separately. In this laboratory study, a hydrometallurgical process has been developed to simultaneously and efficiently solubilize metals from spent batteries. Among the various chemical leaching agents tested, sulfuric acid was found to be the most efficient and cheapest reagent. A Box-Behnken design was used to identify the influence of several parameters (acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, retention time and number of leaching steps) on the removal of metals from spent batteries. According to the results, the solid/liquid ratio and acid concentration seemed to be the main parameters influencing the solubilization of zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium and cobalt from spent batteries. According to the results, the highest metal leaching removals were obtained under the optimal leaching conditions (pulp density = 180 g/L (w/v), [H2SO4] = 1 M, number of leaching step = 3 and leaching time = 30 min). Under such optimum conditions, the removal yields obtained were estimated to be 65% for Mn, 99.9% for Cd, 100% for Zn, 74% for Co and 68% for Ni. Further studies will be performed to improve the solubilization of Mn and to selectively recover the metals.

  7. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  8. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  9. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1)...

  10. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  11. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  12. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a...

  13. Assessment of total (free and bound) phenolic compounds in spent coffee extracts.

    PubMed

    Monente, Carmen; Ludwig, Iziar A; Irigoyen, Angel; De Peña, María-Paz; Cid, Concepción

    2015-05-01

    Spent coffee is the main byproduct of the brewing process and a potential source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids easily extracted with water. Free and bound caffeoylquinic (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA), dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured by HPLC, after the application of three treatments (alkaline, acid, saline) to spent coffee extracts. Around 2-fold higher content of total phenolics has been estimated in comparison to free compounds. Phenolic compounds with one or more caffeic acid molecules were approximately 54% linked to macromolecules such as melanoidins, mainly by noncovalent interactions (up to 81% of bound phenolic compounds). The rest of the quantitated phenolic acids were mainly attached to other structures by covalent bonds (62-97% of total bound compounds). Alkaline hydrolysis and saline treatment were suitable to estimate total bound and ionically bound phenolic acids, respectively, whereas acid hydrolysis is an inadequate method to quantitate coffee phenolic acids.

  14. Spent Sealed Sources Management in Switzerland - 12011

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, H.F.

    2012-07-01

    Information is provided about the international recommendations for the safe management of disused and spent sealed radioactive sources wherein the return to the supplier or manufacturer is encouraged for large radioactive sources. The legal situation in Switzerland is described mentioning the demand of minimization of radioactive waste as well as the situation with respect to the interim storage facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Based on this information and on the market situation with a shortage of some medical radionuclides the management of spent sealed sources is provided. The sources are sorted according to their activity in relation to the nuclide-specific A2-value and either recycled as in the case of high active sources or conditioned as in the case for sources with lower activity. The results are presented as comparison between recycled and conditioned activity for three selected nuclides, i.e. Cs-137, Co-60 and Am-241. (author)

  15. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W. ); Armstrong, S.; Hamberger, C., Schmid, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide available historical data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments that have been completed in the United States between 1964 and 1989. This information includes data on the sources of spent fuel that has been shipped, the types of shipping casks used, the number of fuel assemblies that have been shipped, and the number of shipments that have been made. The data are updated periodically to keep abreast of changes. Information on shipments is provided for planning purposes; to support program decisions of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); and to inform interested members of the public, federal, state, and local government, Indian tribes, and the transportation community. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    SciTech Connect

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-30

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification.

  17. Spent fuel container alignment device and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Stewart D.; Chapek, George V.

    1996-01-01

    An alignment device is used with a spent fuel shipping container including a plurality of fuel pockets for spent fuel arranged in an annular array and having a rotatable cover including an access opening therein. The alignment device includes a lightweight plate which is installed over the access opening of the cover. A laser device is mounted on the plate so as to emit a laser beam through a laser admittance window in the cover into the container in the direction of a pre-established target associated with a particular fuel pocket. An indexing arrangement on the container provides an indication of the angular position of the rotatable cover when the laser beam produced by the laser is brought into alignment with the target of the associated fuel pocket.

  18. Code System for Spent Fuel Heating Analysis.

    1999-05-24

    Version 00 SFHA calculates steady-state fuel rod temperatures for hexagon and square-fuel bundles. The code is used to perform sensitivity studies and confirmatory analyses of results submitted by applicants for spent fuel storage licenses. All three modes of heat transfer are considered; radiation, convection, and conduction. Each is modeled separately. SFHA benchmark calculations were made with test data to validate the use of a simple one-dimensional heat transfer model for estimating fuel rod temperatures. Benchmarkmore » results show that SFHA is capable of calculating spent fuel rod temperatures for square and hexagonal fuel bundles under various environments for the consolidated or unconsolidated condition. The program is menu-driven and executes automatically after all required information is entered.« less

  19. 40 CFR 420.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 420.96 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any... must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. (a... operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire,...

  20. 40 CFR 420.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 420.96 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any... must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. (a... operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire,...

  1. 40 CFR 420.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 420.96 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any... must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. (a... operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire,...

  2. 40 CFR 420.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 420.96 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any... must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. (a... operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire,...

  3. 40 CFR 420.96 - Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Subcategory § 420.96 Pretreatment standards for new sources (PSNS). Except as provided in 40 CFR 403.7, any... must comply with 40 CFR part 403 and achieve the following pretreatment standards for new sources. (a... operations. (b) Hydrochloric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire,...

  4. 40 CFR 420.97 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any...) Sulfuric acid pickling (spent acid solutions and rinse waters)—(1) Rod, wire and coil. Subpart I Pollutant... cold rolling wastewaters. 2 Within the range of 6.0 to 9.0. (2) Bar, billet and bloom. Subpart...

  5. Disposal of spent tributylphosphate by gliding arc plasma.

    PubMed

    Moussa, David; Brisset, Jean Louis

    2003-08-29

    The gliding arc in humid air is a relevant source of free radicals and strongly oxidising species such as HO* (shown by emission spectroscopy), which are able to degrade organic wastes. This feature was used in a new process for mineralising spent tributylphosphate (TBP) which is an important waste from nuclear industry. The degradation kinetics is examined by monitoring the conversion of TBP into phosphoric acid in a batch reactor. The kinetics exhibits three steps and especially an overall zero-order linear step with a rate of 10 mmol h(-1) at the beginning of the treatment. This zero-order step agrees with a surface oxidation process. After a 13.7h treatment, about 45% of the TBP is converted into inorganic phosphorus compounds, with phosphoric acid as the major product (63% of inorganic phosphorus compounds), and at least 19.5% is not degraded. Dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) was identified as the main by-product by a nuclear magnetic resonance technique, infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography.

  6. Spent fuel pool analysis using TRACE code

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Saez, F.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Martorell, S.

    2012-07-01

    The storage requirements of Spent Fuel Pools have been analyzed with the purpose to increase their rack capacities. In the past, the thermal limits have been mainly evaluated with conservative codes developed for this purpose, although some works can be found in which a best estimate code is used. The use of best estimate codes is interesting as they provide more realistic calculations and they have the capability of analyzing a wide range of transients that could affect the Spent Fuel Pool. Two of the most representative thermal-hydraulic codes are RELAP-5 and TRAC. Nowadays, TRACE code is being developed to make use of the more favorable characteristics of RELAP-5 and TRAC codes. Among the components coded in TRACE that can be used to construct the model, it is interesting to use the VESSEL component, which has the capacity of reproducing three dimensional phenomena. In this work, a thermal-hydraulic model of the Maine Yankee spent fuel pool using the TRACE code is developed. Such model has been used to perform a licensing calculation and the results obtained have been compared with experimental measurements made at the pool, showing a good agreement between the calculations predicted by TRACE and the experimental data. (authors)

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  8. Spent Fuel Working Group Report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    O`Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary`s initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group`s Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities.

  9. Impact of oxidation and reduction on the leaching potential of trace metals from spent oil shale. [Reducing and oxidizing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Carroll, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    The long-term quality of water produced at spent oil shale disposal facilities is a critical concern. Understanding the release and mobility of trace elements as natural weathering of the disposal pile occurs is particularly important. Because spent oil shale leachates are highly alkaline, weathering reactions that increase leachate acidity, thus trace element release and mobility, must be characterized. In order to simulate weathering environments that would occur in a waste disposal pile (i.e., saturated and unsaturated groundwater environments), spent oil shale has been leached under saturated and unsaturated conditions. Unsaturated conditions (an oxidizing environment) allow the oxidation of iron sulfides and adsorption of carbon dioxide. Saturated leaching conditions (a reducing environment) should not allow the acid generation by oxidation or carbon dioxide adsorption. Both of these conditions generate hydrogen ions and should reduce pH in spent oil shale leachate. Spent oil shale was leached for six weeks and the leachate analyzed for pH, sulfates, arsenic, boron, cadimum, calcium, copper, lithium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, strontium, and zinc. The leaching studies indicate that the oxidizing simulation did not significantly decrease the leachate pH, and under reducing conditions the greatest concentration of trace elements were leached from the shale. The trace elements extracted from the spent oil shale in the greatest concentrations are all soluble in high pH solutions. These results indicate that spent oil shale disposal piles in arid to semiarid environments may maintain an alkaline pH because of an extremely high alkaline buffering capacity. These data also indicate that research on carbon dioxide absorption is needed to assess the long-term contribution of acidity to modify solution pH and trace element mobility. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and Taiwanese pickled cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Yi; Lin, Pei-Rong; Ng, Chang-Chai; Shyu, Yuan-Tay

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of breast-fed infants and from Taiwanese pickled cabbage for their possible use in probiotic fermented foods by evaluating their (i) in vitro adhesive ability, resistance to biotic stress, resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and production of β-galactosidase; (ii) milk technological properties; and (iii) in vivo adhesive ability, intestinal survival and microbial changes during and after treatment. Five Lactobacillus isolates identified as Lactobacillus reuteri F03, Lactobacillus paracasei F08, Lactobacillus rhamnosus F14, Lactobacillus plantarum C06, and Lactobacillus acidophilus C11 that showed resistance to gastric juice and bile salts were selected for further evaluation of their probiotic properties. All the strains demonstrated the ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells, particularly, strain L. plantarum C06 and L. reuteri F03 showed satisfactory abilities, which were similar to that of the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. The strains L. paracasei F08 and L. acidophilus C11 had the highest β-galactosidase activity. Most of the strains were resistant to aminoglycosides and vancomycin but sensitive to ampicillin, erythromycin, and penicillin. All the 5 strains elicited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and -negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) pathogens. Moreover, the strains L. reuteri F03, L. paracasei F08, and L. plantarum C06 could grow rapidly in milk without nutrient supplementation and reached 10⁸ cfu/mL after 24 h of fermentation at 37 °C. The viable cell counts of the 3 strains remained above 10⁷ cfu/mL after 21 d of storage at 4 °C. In the animal feeding trial, the number of intestinal lactobacilli increased significantly after administration of milk fermented with the 3 strains, and the counts of fecal coliforms and Clostridium perfringens were markedly reduced

  11. Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L.; Hsu, P. C.; Holtz, E. V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

    1997-03-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of

  12. Characterization of biocoals and dissolved organic matter phases obtained upon hydrothermal carbonization of brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Wedwitschka, H; Baskyr, I; Koehler, R; Kopinke, F-D

    2014-07-01

    The wet biomass brewer's spent grain was subjected to hydrothermal carbonization to produce biocoal. Mass balance considerations indicate for about two thirds of the organic carbon of the input biomass to be transferred into the biocoal. The van Krevelen plot refers to a high degree of defunctionalization with decarboxylation prevailing over dehydration. Calorific data revealed a significant energy densification of biocoals as compared to the input substrate. Sorption coefficients of organic analytes covering a wide range of hydrophobicities and polarities on biocoal were similar to those for dissolved humic acids. Data from GC/MS analysis indicated that phenols and benzenediols along with fatty acids released from bound lipids during the hydrothermal process constituted abundant products. Our findings demonstrate that the brewer's spent grain by-product is a good feedstock for hydrothermal carbonization to produce biocoal, the latter offering good prospects for energetic and soil-improving application fields.

  13. DECONTAMINATION OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING HULLS FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.

    2010-09-29

    The feasibility of decontaminating spent fuel cladding hulls using hydrofluoric acid (HF) was investigated as part of the Global Energy Nuclear Partnership (GNEP) Separations Campaign. The concentrations of the fission product and transuranic (TRU) isotopes in the decontaminated hulls were compared to the limits for determining the low level waste (LLW) classification in the United States (US). The {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations met the disposal criteria for a Class C LLW; although, in a number of experiments the criteria for disposal as a Class B LLW were met. The TRU concentration in the hulls generally exceeded the Class C LLW limit by at least an order of magnitude. The concentration decreased sharply as the initial 30-40 {micro}m of the cladding hull surface were removed. At depths beyond this point, the TRU activity remained relatively constant, well above the Class C limit. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel generates a cladding waste which would likely require disposal as a Greater than Class C LLW in the US. If the cladding hulls could be treated to remove a majority of the actinide and fission product contamination, the hulls could potentially meet acceptance criteria for disposal as a LLW or allow recycle of the Zr metal. Discard of the hulls as a LLW would result in significant cost savings compared to disposal as a Greater than Class C waste which currently has no disposition path. During fuel irradiation and reprocessing, radioactive materials are produced and deposited in the Zircaloy cladding. Due to short depths of penetration, the majority of the fission products and actinide elements are located in the ZrO{sub 2} layer which forms on the surface of the cladding during fuel irradiation. Therefore, if the oxide layer is removed, the majority of the contamination should also be removed. It is very difficult, if not impossible to remove all of the activity from spent fuel cladding since traces of U and Th in the unirradiated Zircaloy

  14. Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergistic effect for Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus). The addition of salt increased the cytoplasmic pH of E. coli O157:H7, but decreased the cytoplasmic pH of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus on treatment with acetic acid. Therefore, the addition of salt increases the acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 possibly by increasing its acid resistance response and consequently preventing the acidification of its cytoplasm by organic acids.

  15. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  16. Pyrochemical Treatment of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Goff; K. L. Howden; G. M. Teske; T. A. Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Over the last 10 years, pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel has progressed from demonstration activities to engineering-scale production operations. As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, pyrochemical treatment operations are being performed as part of the treatment of fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II at the Idaho National Laboratory. Integral to these treatment operations are research and development activities that are focused on scaling further the technology, developing and implementing process improvements, qualifying the resulting high-level waste forms, and demonstrating the overall pyrochemical fuel cycle.

  17. Electrometallurgical treatment of oxide spent fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Karell, E. J.

    1999-06-08

    The Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of spent nuclear fuel contains a wide variety of oxide fuel types that may be unsuitable for direct repository disposal in their current form. The molten-salt electrometallurgical treatment technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has the potential to simplify preparing and qualifying these fuels for disposal by converting them into three uniform product streams: uranium metal, a metal waste form, and a ceramic waste form. This paper describes the major steps in the electrometallurgical treatment process for oxide fuels and provides the results of recent experiments performed to develop and scale up the process.

  18. Surrogate Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L

    2014-01-01

    Transportation packages for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) must meet safety requirements under normal and accident conditions as specified by federal regulations. During transportation, SNF experiences unique conditions and challenges to cladding integrity due to the vibrational and impact loading encountered during road or rail shipment. ORNL has been developing testing capabilities that can be used to improve our understanding of the impacts of vibration loading on SNF integrity, especially for high burn-up SNF in normal transportation operation conditions. This information can be used to meet nuclear industry and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission needs in the area of safety of SNF storage and transportation operations.

  19. DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    F. Habashi

    1998-06-26

    The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container (SNF DC) supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access mains, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container provides long term confinement of DOE SNF waste, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The DOE SNF Disposal Containers provide containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limit radionuclide release thereafter. The disposal containers maintain the waste in a designated configuration, withstand maximum handling and rockfall loads, limit the individual waste canister temperatures after emplacement. The disposal containers also limit the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resist corrosion in the expected repository environment, and provide complete or limited containment of waste in the event of an accident. Multiple disposal container designs may be needed to accommodate the expected range of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel. The disposal container will include outer and inner barrier walls and outer and inner barrier lids. Exterior labels will identify the disposal container and contents. Differing metal barriers will support the design philosophy of defense in depth. The use of materials with different failure mechanisms prevents a single mode failure from breaching the waste package. The corrosion-resistant inner barrier and inner barrier lid will be constructed of a high-nickel alloy and the corrosion-allowance outer barrier and outer barrier lid will be made of carbon steel. The DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Containers interface with the emplacement drift environment by transferring heat from the waste to the external environment and by protecting

  20. Overview of spent fuel burnup measurements

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, N.B. Associates, Inc., Oakton, VA )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the principal factors that influence burnup measurement accuracy, and the manner in which different combinations of these factors in any particular application influence the achievable accuracy in that application. The principal focus of the paper is on the passive measurement of various burnup indicators. This paper also provides a general background for four subsequent papers which discuss burnup measurement in two particular applications: for burnup credit in spent fuel shipping casks; and for safeguards purposes. This paper provides a basis for comparing these two applications in terms that directly relate to the measurement process.

  1. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors.

  2. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  3. Valuation of brewers spent yeast polysaccharides: a structural characterization approach.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mariana; Coelho, Elisabete; Nunes, Alexandra; Brandão, Tiago; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-02-13

    Brewers spent yeast (BSY) is a by-product from beer industry that can be exploited as source of glucans and mannoproteins, with potential biological activities. In order to solubilize these carbohydrate-rich polymeric materials, a sequential extraction with hot water and alkaline solutions (0.1-8 M KOH) was performed. Mannoproteins were mainly (85%) extracted with 4 M KOH whereas glucans were extracted with 8 M KOH and in an amount that accounted only for 34% of total glucose. Final residue still accounted for 34% of the initial glucans and contained 98% of glucose. Cellulase and α-amylase treatments showed the presence of both α- and β-(1→4)-Glc linkages. To promote total solubilization of these insoluble glucans, the final residue was submitted to a partial acid hydrolysis. This work is the first report showing that the most abundant polysaccharides in BSY are polymers that contain structural features similar to cellulose, thus justifying their resistance to alkaline extractions, acid hydrolysis, and insolubility in water.

  4. Competition for in vitro (/sup 3/H)gibberellin A/sub 4/ binding in cucumber by gibberellins and their derivatives. [Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling

    SciTech Connect

    Yalpani, N.; Srivastava, L.M.

    1985-12-01

    The gibberellin (GA) binding properties of a cytosol fraction from hypocotyls of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv National Pickling) were examined using a DEAE filter paper assay, (/sup 3/H)GA/sub 4/, and over 20 GAs, GA derivatives and other growth regulators. The results demonstrate structural specificity of the binding protein for ..gamma..-lactonic C-19 GAs with a 3 ..beta..-hydroxyl and a C-6 carboxyl group. Additional hydroxylations of the A, C, or D ring of the ent-gibberellane skeleton and methylation of the C-6 carboxyl impede or abolish binding affinity. Bioassay data are generally supported by the in vitro results but significantly GA/sub 9/ and GA/sub 36/, both considered to be precursors of GA/sub 4/ in cucumber, show no affinity for the binding protein. The results are discussed in relation to the active site of the putative GA/sub 4/ receptor in cucumber.

  5. Characterization of the Calcination Products of the Precipitates Obtained from the Bio-Oxidation with Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans of Sulphuric Water Pickling Liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, J. F.; Gancedo, J. R.; López, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    The characterization of the calcination products of the precipitates obtained from the bio-oxidation with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans of sulphuric water pickling liquors has been carried out by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that a full transformation of the precipitates into α-Fe2O3 is achieved at temperatures higher than 850°C. Calcination at 700°C during two hours results in the formation of α-Fe2O3, ζ-Fe2O3 and Fe12O3(SO4)15. The Mössbauer parameters of ζ-Fe2O3 and Fe12O3(SO4)15 at 298 and 17K are reported.

  6. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki-Moon

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal content of blood lipids often results in metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. Many agents, including natural sources from traditional food, have been developed to regulate the blood lipid contents. In this study, we examined the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar (RNSpBRV), a Korean traditional pickled soybean food. Since RNSpBRV is made of R. nulubilis seeds (RNS) soaked in brown rice vinegar (BRV), we compared the anti-adipogenic activity between RNS, BRV and solid fraction of RNSpBRV (SF-RNSpBRV), liquid fraction of RNSpBRV (LF-RNSpBRV). For this, the inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was checked by adding methanol extracts of mixed RNS and BRV, LF-RNSpBRV, and SF-RNSpBRV. The addition of each methanol extract up to 1 mg/ml showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and approximately 20% of the lipid droplet formation was suppressed with the methanol extract of BRL or SF-RNSpBRV. The highest suppression (42.1%) was achieved with LF-RNSpBRV. In addition, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 5% RNSpBRV powder led to increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower blood glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol compared to mice fed with a HFD diet only. Interestingly, the size of the epididymis cells gradually decreased in HFD + 1% RNSpBRV- and HFD + 5% RNSpBRV-fed mice if compared those of HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that RNSpBRV has a regulatory role in lipid metabolism that is related to hyperlipidemia. PMID:24353830

  7. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Moon; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    The abnormal content of blood lipids often results in metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. Many agents, including natural sources from traditional food, have been developed to regulate the blood lipid contents. In this study, we examined the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar (RNSpBRV), a Korean traditional pickled soybean food. Since RNSpBRV is made of R. nulubilis seeds (RNS) soaked in brown rice vinegar (BRV), we compared the anti-adipogenic activity between RNS, BRV and solid fraction of RNSpBRV (SF-RNSpBRV), liquid fraction of RNSpBRV (LF-RNSpBRV). For this, the inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was checked by adding methanol extracts of mixed RNS and BRV, LF-RNSpBRV, and SF-RNSpBRV. The addition of each methanol extract up to 1 mg/ml showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and approximately 20% of the lipid droplet formation was suppressed with the methanol extract of BRL or SF-RNSpBRV. The highest suppression (42.1%) was achieved with LF-RNSpBRV. In addition, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 5% RNSpBRV powder led to increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower blood glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol compared to mice fed with a HFD diet only. Interestingly, the size of the epididymis cells gradually decreased in HFD + 1% RNSpBRV- and HFD + 5% RNSpBRV-fed mice if compared those of HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that RNSpBRV has a regulatory role in lipid metabolism that is related to hyperlipidemia.

  8. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables.

  9. Mescalero spent fuel storage facility regulation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Browser, R.C.; Silberg, J.; Phares, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Mescalero Apache Tribe was the first entity to respond to the United States Government`s invitation to study the feasibility of voluntarily hosting a Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility. Through its studies, the Mescalero Apache Tribe became convinced that such a facility could be built and operated safely. When the government`s voluntary siting initiative stalled, the Mescalero Apache Tribe began discussions with Northern States Power Company and several other utilities regarding hosting a private spent fuel storage facility. It was clear that such a facility could be licensed in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 72 (10 CFR 72). However, a broader regulatory assessment approach was necessary for two reasons. First, other than General Electric`s (GE) Morris Facility, no other away-from-reactor spent fuel storage facility had been licensed in the United States. Additionally, the effect of the Mescalero Apache Tribe`s sovereign status had to be considered and evaluated. This paper describes both the approach that the Mescalero/Utility Regulatory Planning Group used to develop the facility licensing strategy, and the preliminary assessments.

  10. Buckling analysis of spent fuel basket

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.S.; Bumpas, S.E.

    1995-05-01

    The basket for a spent fuel shipping cask is subjected to compressive stresses that may cause global instability of the basket assemblies or local buckling of the individual members. Adopting the common buckling design practice in which the stability capacity of the entire structure is based on the performance of the individual members of the assemblies, the typical spent fuel basket, which is composed of plates and tubular structural members, can be idealized as an assemblage of columns, beam-columns and plates. This report presents the flexural buckling formulas for five load cases that are common in the basket buckling analysis: column under axial loads, column under axial and bending loads, plate under uniaxial loads, plate under biaxial loadings, and plate under biaxial loads and lateral pressure. The acceptance criteria from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code are used to determine the adequacy of the basket components. Special acceptance criteria are proposed to address the unique material characteristics of austenitic stainless steel, a material which is frequently used in the basket assemblies.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Yan, Yong; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to collect dynamic experimental data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT), the hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The collected CIRFT data will be utilized to support ongoing spent fuel modeling activities, and support SNF transportation related licensing issues. Recent testing to understand the effects of hydride reorientation on SNF vibration integrity is also being evaluated. CIRFT results have provided insight into the fuel/clad system response to transportation related loads. The major findings of CIRFT on the HBU SNF are as follows: SNF system interface bonding plays an important role in SNF vibration performance, Fuel structure contributes to the SNF system stiffness, There are significant variations in stress and curvature of SNF systems during vibration cycles resulting from segment pellets and clad interaction, and SNF failure initiates at the pellet-pellet interface region and appears to be spontaneous. Because of the non-homogeneous composite structure of the SNF system, finite element analyses (FEA) are needed to translate the global moment-curvature measurement into local stress-strain profiles. The detailed mechanisms of the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interactions and the stress concentration effects at the pellet-pellet interface cannot be readily obtained directly from a CIRFT system measurement. Therefore, detailed FEA is used to understand the global test response, and that data will also be presented.

  12. Pyroprocess for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William E.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    2002-01-01

    This is a pyroprocess for processing spent nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel is chopped into pieces and placed in a basket which is lowered in to a liquid salt solution. The salt is rich in ZrF.sub.4 and containing alkali or alkaline earth fluorides, and in particular, the salt chosen was LiF-50 mol % ZrF.sub.4 with a eutectic melting point of 500.degree. C. Prior to lowering the basket, the salt is heated to a temperature of between 550.degree. C. and 700.degree. C. in order to obtain a molten solution. After dissolution the oxides of U, Th, rare earth and other like oxides, the salt bath solution is subject to hydro-fluorination to remove the oxygen and then to a fluorination step to remove U as gaseous UF.sub.6. In addition, after dissolution, the basket contains PuO.sub.2 and undissolved parts of the fuel rods, and the basket and its contents are processed to remove the Pu.

  13. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    SciTech Connect

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  14. Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively.

  15. Durable titania films for solar treatment of biomethanated spent wash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Rokhsareh; S. Ghole, Vikram; Javadpour, Sirus

    2016-10-01

    The use of TiO2 films for treatment of biomethanated spent wash is reported. The films of TiO2 were formed and photocatalytic performance of the prepared films in degradation of methylene blue and biomethanated spent wash were studied. Photocatalytic use of these films was found to be effective for degradation of biomethanated spent wash. The photocatalyst was used up for 20 cycles without significant reduction in activities showing long life of the catalyst.

  16. Composition of Insoluble Residues Generated During Spent Fuel Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhitonov, Y.; Aleksandruk, V.; Bibichev, B.; Novikov, G.; Riazantsev, V.; Saprykin, V.; Rance, P.

    2002-02-27

    One type of HLW associated with the procedures of spent fuel reprocessing or conditioning as would be required in order to implement accelerator driven transmutation of waste, is the insoluble residue, which remains after the majority of the fuel, is dissolved. This material is separated as part of the head-end processing and must be suitably encapsulated within a waste-form to permit its disposal. In spite of the fact that the specific contribution of insoluble deposits, arising from SNF dissolution does not exceed 0,5-1 % of the general volume of wastes, the radionuclides, contained in them introduce a rather significant hazard and demand the most careful treatment of the material during its treatment and subsequent disposal. The main contributors to the insoluble residues are the slowly dissolving metallic fission product inclusions found in spent fuel and the certain fission products which although initially soluble precipitate during the dissolution process. The most significant elements, in mass terms are the platinum group metals (PGM) and, also molybdenum and zirconium. In turn, the formed deposits are capable of adsorbing fission products and actinides, for example, antimony, uranium and plutonium. This group of elements presents two issues one relating to the activity and heat of the relatively short-lived isotopes, in particular {sup 106}Ru/{sup 106}Rh and {sup 125}Sb and the other due to the presence of the long-lived and potentially environmentally mobile {sup 99}Tc. The main factors determining the amount and composition of insoluble residues are the temperature and degree of burnup and conditions of fuel dissolution. In this paper the results on composition and mass determination of insoluble residues (primary and secondary), derived from samples of fuel with burnup from 15 up to 54 MWd/kgU are given. Dissolution of spent fuel samples was conducted at the boiling temperature and at 80 C. The concentration of nitric acid in the final solutions varied

  17. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W.; Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  18. Concentrated sulfite-yeast fermenting mixture as a corrosion inhibitor of copper in mixtures of sulfuric and nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Agaev, N.M.; Smorodin, A.E.; Rzaev, E.R.; Tyr, S.G.; Shlimak, Ya.B.; Geidarova, G.D.; Eremeeva, R.A.; Nasirov, G.N.

    1987-03-01

    At the Baku factory of residential air conditioning systems both preliminary and final pickling of copper tubing is carried out in a solution of sulfuric and nitric acids. The authors of this study, in seeking an inhibitor to control this process, evaluate the protective properties of an inhibitor based on a concentrated sulfite-yeast fermenting mixture that is generated as a common waste product by the cellulose-pulp industry. It consists of calcium, sodium, and ammonium salts of lignin sulfonic acids. Tests revealed not only its inhibiting effectiveness but also its capacity to lower toxic gas levels of nitrogen oxides in the plant environment.

  19. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Streams: An Evaluation of Spent Fuel Solutions via Raman, Visible, and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Peterson, James M.

    2011-09-01

    The potential of using optical spectroscopic techniques, such as Raman and Visible/Near Infrared (Vis/NIR), for on-line process control and special nuclear materials accountability applications at a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing facility was evaluated. Availability of on-line real-time techniques that directly measure process concentrations of nuclear materials will enhance performance and proliferation resistance of the solvent extraction processes. Further, on-line monitoring of radiochemical streams will also improve reprocessing plant operation and safety. This report reviews current state of development of the spectroscopic on-line monitoring techniques for such solutions. To further examine applicability of optical spectroscopy for monitoring reprocessing solutions, segments of a spent nuclear fuel, with approximate burn-up values of 70 MWd/kgM, were dissolved in concentrated nitric acid and adjusted to varying final concentrations of HNO3. The resulting spent fuel solutions were batch-contacted with tributyl phosphate/dodecane organic solvent. The feed and equilibrium aqueous and loaded organic solutions were subjected to optical measurements. The obtained spectra showed the presence of the quantifiable Raman bands due to NO3- and UO22+ and Vis/NIR bands due to multiple species of Pu(IV), Pu(VI), Np(V), the Np(V)-U(VI) cation-cation complex, and Nd(III) in fuel solutions, justifying spectroscopic techniques as a promising methodology for monitoring spent fuel processing solutions in real-time. Quantitative evaluation of the fuel solution was performed based on spectroscopic measurements and compared to ICP-MS analysis.

  20. Bioleaching of nickel from spent petroleum catalyst using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohita; Bisht, Varsha; Singh, Bina; Jain, Pratiksha; Mandal, Ajoy K; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with optimization of culture conditions and process parameters for bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst collected from a petroleum refinery. The efficacy of Ni bioleaching from spent petroleum catalyst was determined using pure culture of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478. The culture conditions of pH, temperature and headspace volume to media volume ratio were optimized. EDX analysis was done to confirm the presence of Ni in the spent catalyst after roasting it to decoke its surface. The optimum temperature for A. thiooxidans DSM-11478 growth was found to be 32 degrees C. The enhanced recovery of nickel at very low pH was attributed to the higher acidic strength of sulfuric acid produced in the culture medium by the bacterium. During the bioleaching process, 89% of the Ni present in the catalyst waste could be successfully recovered in optimized conditions. This environment friendly bioleaching process proved efficient than the chemical method. Taking leads from the lab scale results, bioleaching in larger volumes (1, 5 and 10 L) was also performed to provide guidelines for taking up this technology for in situ industrial waste management.

  1. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, R.H.

    1987-04-21

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100 C with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  2. Removal of arsenic, vanadium and/or nickel compounds from spent catecholated polymer

    DOEpatents

    Fish, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. For vanadium and nickel removal an amine, preferably a diamine is included. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic, vanadium, and/or nickel bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: treating the spent polymer containing any vanadium and/or nickel with an aqueous acid to achieve an acid pH; and, separating the solids from the liquid; and then treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10; and, separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment of arsenic containing catecholated polymer is in two steps wherein the first step is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, the steps are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  3. Bioleaching of nickel from spent petroleum catalyst using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohita; Bisht, Varsha; Singh, Bina; Jain, Pratiksha; Mandal, Ajoy K; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-06-01

    The present work deals with optimization of culture conditions and process parameters for bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst collected from a petroleum refinery. The efficacy of Ni bioleaching from spent petroleum catalyst was determined using pure culture of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DSM- 11478. The culture conditions of pH, temperature and headspace volume to media volume ratio were optimized. EDX analysis was done to confirm the presence of Ni in the spent catalyst after roasting it to decoke its surface. The optimum temperature for A. thiooxidans DSM-11478 growth was found to be 32 degrees C. The enhanced recovery of nickel at very low pH was attributed to the higher acidic strength of sulfuric acid produced in the culture medium by the bacterium. During the bioleaching process, 89% of the Ni present in the catalyst waste could be successfully recovered in optimized conditions. This environment friendly bioleaching process proved efficient than the chemical method. Taking leads from the lab scale results, bioleaching in larger volumes (1, 5 and 10 L) was also performed to provide guidelines for taking up this technology for in situ industrial waste management. PMID:26155679

  4. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF.

  5. Storage assembly for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lapides, M.E.

    1982-04-27

    A technique for storing spent fuel rods from a nuclear reactor is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes a housing including a closed inner chamber for containing the fuel rods and a thermally conductive member located partially within the housing chamber and partially outside the housing for transferring heat generated by the fuel rods from the chamber to the ambient surroundings. Particulate material is located within the chamber and surrounds the fuel rods contained therein. This material is selected to serve as a heat transfer media between the contained cells and the heat transferring member and, at the same time, stand ready to fuse into a solid mass around the contained cells if the heat transferring member malfunctions or otherwise fails to transfer the generated heat out of the housing chamber in a predetermined way.

  6. Recovery and regeneration of spent MHD seed material by the formate process

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, Atul C.; Holt, Jeffrey K.; Rasnake, Darryll G.; Solomon, Robert L.; Wilson, Gregory L.; Herrigel, Howard R.

    1991-01-01

    The specification discloses a spent seed recovery and regeneration process for an MHM power plant employing an alkali metal salt seed material such as potassium salt wherein the spent potassium seed in the form of potassium sulfate is collected from the flue gas and reacted with calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide in an aqueous solution to cause the formation of calcium sulfate and potassium formate. The pH of the solution is adjusted to supress formation of formic acid and to promote precipitation of any dissolved calcium salts. The solution containing potassium formate is then employed to provide the potassium salt in the form of potassium formate or, optionally, by heating the potassium formate under oxidizing conditions to convert the potassium formate to potassium carbonate.

  7. Recovery and regeneration of spent MHD seed material by the formate process

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, A.C.; Holt, J.K.; Rasnake, D.G.; Solomon, R.L.; Wilson, G.L.; Herrigel, H.R.

    1991-10-15

    The specification discloses a spent seed recovery and regeneration process for an MHD power plant employing an alkali metal salt seed material such as potassium salt wherein the spent potassium seed in the form of potassium sulfate is collected from the flue gas and reacted with calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide in an aqueous solution to cause the formation of calcium sulfate and potassium formate. The pH of the solution is adjusted to suppress formation of formic acid and to promote precipitation of any dissolved calcium salts. The solution containing potassium formate is then employed to provide the potassium salt in the form of potassium formate or, optionally, by heating the potassium formate under oxidizing conditions to convert the potassium formate to potassium carbonate. 5 figures.

  8. An approach to meeting the spent fuel standard

    SciTech Connect

    Makhijani, A.

    1996-05-01

    The idea of the spent fuel standard is that there should be a high surface gamma radiation to prevent theft. For purposes of preventing theft, containers should be massive, and the plutonium should be difficult to extract. This report discusses issues associated with the spent fuel standard.

  9. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Program. HTGR Spent Fuel Treatment Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    The spent fuel treatment (SFT) program plan addresses spent fuel volume reduction, packaging, storage, transportation, fuel recovery, and disposal to meet the needs of the HTGR Lead Plant and follow-on plants. In the near term, fuel refabrication will be addressed by following developments in fresh fuel fabrication and will be developed in the long term as decisions on the alternatives dictate. The formulation of this revised program plan considered the implications of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) which, for the first time, established a definitive national policy for management and disposal of nuclear wastes. Although the primary intent of the program is to address technical issues, the divergence between commercial and government interests, which arises as a result of certain provisions of the NWPA, must be addressed in the economic assessment of technically feasible alternative paths in the management of spent HTGR fuel and waste. This new SFT program plan also incorporates a significant cooperative research and development program between the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany. The major objective of this international program is to reduce costs by avoiding duplicate efforts.

  10. Highly selective removal of Zn(II) ion from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste with amino-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nano-adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shuangyou; Tang, Lihong; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping; Peng, Jinhui; Guo, Huibin; Zhu, Tingting; Liu, Ye

    2016-01-15

    Amino-functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 magnetic nano-adsorbent was used as a novel sorbent to highly selective removal of Zn(II) ion from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste in the presence of Fe(II). These hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste mainly contain ZnCl2 and FeCl2 in aqueous HCl media. The properties of this magnetic adsorbent were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and BET surface area measurements. Various factors influencing the adsorption of Zn(II) ion such as initial concentration of metal ions, the amount of adsorbent, pH value of the solutions, the concentration of coexisting iron ion were investigated by batch experiments. The results indicated that the adsorption equilibrium data obeyed the Freundlich model with maximum adsorption capacities for Zn(II) to 169.5mg/g. The maximum adsorption occurred at pH 5±0.1 and Fe(II) interferences had no obvious influence. This work provides a potential and unique technique for zinc ion removal from hot-dip galvanizing pickling waste. PMID:26458121

  11. Rejuvenation of Spent Media via Supported Emulsion Liquid Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to maximize the reuseability of spent fermentation media. Supported emulsion liquid membrane separation, a highly efficient extraction technique, is used to remove inhibitory byproducts during fermentation; thus, improving the yield while reducing the need for fresh water. The key objectives of this study are: Develop an emulsion liquid membrane system targeting low molecular weight organic acids which has minimal toxicity on a variety of microbial systems; Conduct mass transfer studies to allow proper modeling and design of a supported emulsion liquid membrane system; Investigate the effect of gravity on emulsion coalescence within the membrane unit; Access the effect of water re-use on fermentation yields in a model microbial system; Develop a perfusion-type fermentor utilizing a supported emulsion liquid membrane system to control inhibitory fermentation byproducts; Work for the coming year will focus on the determination of toxicity of various solvents, selection of the emulsifying agents, as well as characterizing the mass transfer of hollow-fiber contactors.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY FOR SPENT OXIDE FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Seo, Chung-Seok; Kim, Ik-Soo; Hong, Sun-Seok; Kang, Dae-Seung; Park, Seong-Won

    2003-02-27

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) has been under development at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since 1997. The concept is to convert spent oxide fuel into metallic form and to remove high heat-load fission products such as Cs and Sr from the spent fuel. The heat power, volume, and radioactivity of spent fuel can decrease by a factor of a quarter via this process. For the realization of ACP, a concept of electrochemical reduction of spent oxide fuel in Li2O-LiCl molten salt was proposed and several cold tests using fresh uranium oxides have been carried out. In this new electrochemical reduction process, electrolysis of Li2O and reduction of uranium oxide are taking place simultaneously at the cathode part of electrolysis cell. The conversion of uranium oxide to uranium metal can reach more than 99% ensuring the feasibility of this process.

  13. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  14. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. BWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrity Research and Development Survey for UKABWR Spent Fuel Interim Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Mertyurek, Ugur; Belles, Randy; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this report is to identify issues and support documentation and identify and detail existing research on spent fuel dry storage; provide information to support potential R&D for the UKABWR (United Kingdom Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) Spent Fuel Interim Storage (SFIS) Pre-Construction Safety Report; and support development of answers to questions developed by the regulator. Where there are gaps or insufficient data, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has summarized the research planned to provide the necessary data along with the schedule for the research, if known. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants has historically been stored on site (wet) in spent fuel pools pending ultimate disposition. Nuclear power users (countries, utilities, vendors) are developing a suite of options and set of supporting analyses that will enable future informed choices about how best to manage these materials. As part of that effort, they are beginning to lay the groundwork for implementing longer-term interim storage of the SNF and the Greater Than Class C (CTCC) waste (dry). Deploying dry storage will require a number of technical issues to be addressed. For the past 4-5 years, ORNL has been supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in identifying these key technical issues, managing the collection of data to be used in issue resolution, and identifying gaps in the needed data. During this effort, ORNL subject matter experts (SMEs) have become expert in understanding what information is publicly available and what gaps in data remain. To ensure the safety of the spent fuel under normal and frequent conditions of wet and subsequent dry storage, intact fuel must be shown to: 1.Maintain fuel cladding integrity; 2.Maintain its geometry for cooling, shielding, and subcriticality; 3.Maintain retrievability, and damaged fuel with pinhole or hairline cracks must be shown not to degrade further. Where PWR (pressurized water reactor) information is

  16. Leachate chemistry of field-weathered spent mushroom substrate.

    PubMed

    Guo, M; Chorover, J; Rosario, R; Fox, R H

    2001-01-01

    Passive leaching by rainfall and snowmelt is a popular method to treat piles of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) before its reuse. During this field weathering process, leachate percolates into the underlying soils. A field study was conducted to examine the chemistry of SMS leachate and effects of infiltration. Two SMS piles were deposited (90 and 150 cm in height) over a Typic Hapludult and weathered for 24 mo. Leachate was collected biweekly using passive capillary samplers. The SMS leachate contained high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 0.8-11.0 g L(-1)), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON; 0.1-2 g L(-1)), and inorganic salts. The pH, electrical conductivity, and acid neutralizing capacity were 6.6 to 9.0, 21 to 66 ds m(-1), and 10 to 75 mmolc L(-1), respectively. Inorganic chemistry of the leachate was dominated by K+, Cl-, and SO24-. Leachate DOC was predominantly low molecular weight (<1000 Da) organic acids. During 2 yr of weathering, the 90-cm SMS pile released (per cubic meter of SMS) 3.0 kg of DOC, 1.6 kg of dissolved N, and 26.6 kg of inorganic salts. The 150-cm pile released (per cubic meter of SMS) 2.8 kg of DOC, 0.7 kg of dissolved N, and 13.6 kg of inorganic salts. The 150 cm pile retained more water and exhibited lower net nitrification compared with the 90-cm pile. The top 90 cm of soil retained 20 to 89% of the leachate solutes. Weathering of SMS in piles of 90 cm depth or greater may adversely affect ground water quality.

  17. Storage of LWR spent fuel in air: Volume 1: Design and operation of a spent fuel oxidation test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thornhill, C.K.; Campbell, T.K.; Thornhill, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes the design and operation and technical accomplishments of a spent-fuel oxidation test facility at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of the experiments conducted in this facility was to develop a data base for determining spent-fuel dry storage temperature limits by characterizing the oxidation behavior of light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuels in air. These data are needed to support licensing of dry storage in air as an alternative to spent-fuel storage in water pools. They are to be used to develop and validate predictive models of spent-fuel behavior during dry air storage in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The present licensed alternative to pool storage of spent fuel is dry storage in an inert gas environment, which is called inerted dry storage (IDS). Licensed air storage, however, would not require monitoring for maintenance of an inert-gas environment (which IDS requires) but does require the development of allowable temperature limits below which UO/sub 2/ oxidation in breached fuel rods would not become a problem. Scoping tests at PNL with nonirradiated UO/sub 2/ pellets and spent-fuel fragment specimens identified the need for a statistically designed test matrix with test temperatures bounding anticipated maximum acceptable air-storage temperatures. This facility was designed and operated to satisfy that need. 7 refs.

  18. Optical detection of concentrations for mixed acid: HF and HNO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Gumin; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2009-02-01

    Mixed acid, which consist of HF and HNO3, is used as a good etchant for silicon dioxide in the wet etching and pickling process of stainless steel. The optical detection of concentration for such mixed acids is crucial to optimize and cut costs in the manufacturing process. Optical detection in the IR regime has been utilized to measure the concentration of the mixed acid for HF and HNO3, because that has several strong absorption peaks, which is contributed by vibrational mode of each acid molecular in this spectrum. In this research, we observed the concentrations of mixed acid to consist of HF and HNO3, as we measured the absorption intensity of OH- stretch and NO3 - stretch band by optical spectroscopy. The concentration range of HF over 1.5-3 wt% and that of HNO3 over 2-10 wt% were studied in room temperature.

  19. Safeguards instrument to monitor spent reactor fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, N.; Dowdy, E. J.; Holt, D. M.; Stump, C.

    1981-10-01

    A hand held instrument for monitoring irradiated nuclear fuel inventories located in water filled storage ponds has been developed. This instrument provides sufficient precise qualitative and quantitative information to be useful as a confirmatory technique to International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors, and is believed to be of potential use to nuclear fuel managers and to operators of spent fuel storage facilities, both at reactor and away from reactor, and to operators of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Because the Cerenkov radiation glow can barely be seen by the unaided eye under darkened conditions, a night vision device is incorporated to aid the operator in locating the fuel assembly to be measured. Beam splitting optics placed in front of the image intensifier and a preset aperture select a predetermined portion of the observed scene for measurement of the light intensity using a photomultiplier (PM) tube and digital readout. The PM tube gain is adjusted by use of an internal optical reference source, providing long term repeatability and instrument to instrument consistency. Interchangeable lenses accommodate various viewing and measuring conditions.

  20. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, A. V.; Zavyalov, N. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Sitnikov, N. P.; Smetanin, M. L.; Tarantasov, V. P.; Shadrin, D. N.; Shorikov, I. V.; Liakumovich, A. L.; Miryasova, F. K.

    2002-03-01

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing.

  1. Mercury Sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manariotis, I. D.; Anagnostopoulos, V.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Chrysikopoulos, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a metal of particular concern due to its toxicity even at relatively low concentrations. The maximum permissible level for mercury in drinking water set by the European Union is 0.001 mg/L. Mercury is released into the environment via four principal pathways: (1) natural processes; i.e. a volcanic eruption, (2) incidental to some other activity; i.e. coal burning power plants, (3) accidentally during the manufacture, breakage or disposal of products that have mercury put into them deliberately, and (4) direct use in industrial settings. The present study focuses on the removal of mercury (II) from aqueous solutions via sorption onto Malt Spent Rootlets (MSR). Batch experiments were conducted employing MSR with size ranging from 0.18 to 1 mm. The effects of pH, mercury concentration, contact time, and solid to liquid ratio on mercury sorption onto MSR were investigated. The highest mercury removal from the aqueous phase, of 41%, was observed at pH of 5.

  2. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project operational staffing plan

    SciTech Connect

    Debban, B.L.

    1996-03-01

    Using the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project`s current process flow concepts and knowledge from cognizant engineering and operational personnel, an initial assessment of the SNF Project radiological exposure and resource requirements was completed. A small project team completed a step by step analysis of fuel movement in the K Basins to the new interim storage location, the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This analysis looked at fuel retrieval, conditioning of the fuel, and transportation of the fuel. This plan describes the staffing structure for fuel processing, fuel movement, and the maintenance and operation (M&O) staffing requirements of the facilities. This initial draft does not identify the support function resources required for M&O, i.e., administrative and engineering (technical support). These will be included in future revisions to the plan. This plan looks at the resource requirements for the SNF subprojects, specifically, the operations of the facilities, balances resources where applicable, rotates crews where applicable, and attempts to use individuals in multi-task assignments. This plan does not apply to the construction phase of planned projects that affect staffing levels of K Basins.

  3. Regeneration of ammonia borane spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Andrew David; Davis, Benjamin L; Gordon, John C

    2009-01-01

    A necessary target in realizing a hydrogen (H{sub 2}) economy, especially for the transportation sector, is its storage for controlled delivery, presumably to an energy producing fuel cell. In this vein, the U.S. Department of Energy's Centers of Excellence (CoE) in Hydrogen Storage have pursued different methodologies, including metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents, for the expressed purpose of supplanting gasoline's current > 300 mile driving range. Chemical H{sub 2} storage has been dominated by one appealing material, ammonia borane (H{sub 3}N-BH{sub 3}, AB), due to its high gravimetric capacity of H{sub 2} (19.6 wt %) and low molecular weight (30.7 g mol{sup -1}). In addition, AB has both hydridic and protic moieties, yielding a material from which H{sub 2} can be readily released in contrast to the loss of H{sub 2} from C{sub 2}H{sub 6} which is substantially endothermic. As such, a number of publications have described H{sub 2} release from amine boranes, yielding various rates depending on the method applied. The viability of any chemical H{sub 2} storage system is critically dependent on efficient recyclability, but reports on the latter subject are sparse, invoke the use of high energy reducing agents, and suffer from low yields. Our group is currently engaged in trying to find and fully demonstrate an energy efficient regeneration process for the spent fuel from H{sub 2} depleted AB with a minimum number of steps. Although spent fuel composition depends on the dehydrogenation method, we have focused our efforts on the spent fuel resulting from metal-based catalysis, which has thus far shown the most promise. Metal-based catalysts have produced the fastest rates for a single equivalent of H{sub 2} released from AB and up to 2.5 equiv. of H{sub 2} can be produced within 2 hours. While ongoing work is being carried out to tailor the composition of spent AB fuel, a method has been developed for regenerating the predominant product, polyborazylene

  4. Disposition of ORNL's Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D. W.; DeMonia, B. C.; Horton, L. L.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the process of retrieving, repackaging, and preparing Oak Ridge spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for off-site disposition. The objective of the Oak Ridge SNF Project is to safely, reliably, and efficiently manage SNF that is stored on the Oak Ridge Reservation until it can be shipped off-site. The project required development of several unique processes and the design and fabrication of special equipment to enable the successful retrieval, transfer, and repackaging of Oak Ridge SNF. SNF was retrieved and transferred to a hot cell for repackaging. After retrieval of SNF packages, the storage positions were decontaminated and stainless steel liners were installed to resolve the vulnerability of water infiltration. Each repackaged SNF canister has been transferred from the hot cell back to dry storage until off-site shipments can be made. Three shipments of aluminum-clad SNF were made to the Savannah River Site (SRS), and five shipments of non-aluminum-clad SNF are planned to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Through the integrated cooperation of several organizations including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and various subcontractors, preparations for the disposition of SNF in Oak Ridge have been performed in a safe and successful manner.

  5. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

  6. A combined recovery process of metals in spent lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Wang, Zefeng; Chen, Yao; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2009-11-01

    This work proposes a new process of recovering Co from spent Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by a combination of crushing, ultrasonic washing, acid leaching and precipitation, in which ultrasonic washing was used for the first time as an alternative process to improve the recovery efficiency of Co and reduce energy consumption and pollution. Spent LIBs were crushed with a 12 mm aperture screen, and the undersize products were put into an ultrasonic washing container to separate electrode materials from their support substrate. The washed materials were filtered through a 2mm aperture screen to get underflow products, namely recovered electrodes. Ninety two percent of the Co was transferred to the recovered electrodes where Co accounted for 28% of the mass and impurities, including Al, Fe, and Cu, accounted for 2%. The valuable materials left in 2-12 mm products, including Cu, Al, and Fe, were presented as thin sheets, and could be easily separated. The recovered electrodes were leached with 4.0M HCl for 2.0 h, at 80 degrees C, along with concurrent agitation. Ninety seven percent of the Li and 99% of the Co in recovered electrodes could be dissolved. The impurities could be removed at pH 4.5-6.0 with little loss of Co by chemical precipitation. This process is feasible for recycling spent LIBs in scale-up.

  7. A METHOD FOR REGENERATION OF SPENT ELECTROCHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION SOLUTION AND ITS TREATMENT FOR FINAL DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, D.Yu.; Davydov, Yu.P.; Toropov, I.G.; John, J.; Rosikova, K.; Motl, A.; Hudson, M.J.; Prazska, M.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the method of regeneration of spent electrochemical decontamination solution. The proposed method allows separation of radionuclides and stable metals from spent decontamination solution in a form suitable for final disposal and repeated use of the remaining solution for electrochemical decontamination. Development of this method was based on the results of the speciation studies which showed that Fe(III) can be precipitated in the presence of organic complexing agents, in a form of iron hydroxide, and Ag-110m, Co-60, Mn-54 radionuclides can be coprecipitated on it. In order to verify the conclusions made as a result of the speciation studies, the experiments with electrochemically prepared simulant solution and real solution were carried out. The test results proved that the proposed method can be applied in practice. Treatment of the ultimately spent decontamination solutions can be also made applying iron precipitation, which allows for removal of the bulk amount of contaminants, as the first step. Then, if necessary the remaining radionuclides can be removed by sorption. A series of novel absorbers has been tested for their potential for the sorption removal of the remaining radionuclides from the supernate. The test results showed that most of them were more effective in neutral or alkaline range of pH, however, the high efficiency of the sorption removal can be achieved only after the removal of the oxalic and citric acids from solution.

  8. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS SEPARATION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2005-02-01

    Two new solvent extraction technologies have been recently developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel, following dissolution in nitric acid. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. This new strip reagent reduces product volume by a factor of 20, over the baseline process. Countercurrent flowsheet tests on simulated spent nuclear fuel feed streams have been performed with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4',4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance.

  9. Spent fuel test project, Climax granitic stock, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D.

    1980-10-24

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of dry geologic storage of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The SFT-C is located at a depth of 420 m in the Climax granitic stock at the Nevada Test Site. Eleven canisters of spent commercial PWR fuel assemblies are to be stored for 3 to 5 years. Additional heat is supplied by electrical heaters, and more than 800 channels of technical information are being recorded. The measurements include rock temperature, rock displacement and stress, joint motion, and monitoring of the ventilation air volume, temperature, and dewpoint.

  10. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

    1980-04-01

    A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

  11. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing.

  12. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  13. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of sealed storage cask containing spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitten, P.F.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-08-01

    A PWR spent fuel assembly was encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in a instrumented above surface storage cell during December 1978 for thermal testing. Instrumentation provided to measure canister, liner and concrete temperatures consisted of thermocouples which were inserted into tubes on the outside of the canister and liner and in three radial positions in the concrete. Temperatures from the SSC test assembly have been recorded throughout the past 16 months. Canister and liner temperatures have reached their peak values of 200{sup 0}F and 140{sup 0}F, respectively. Computer predictions of the transient and steady-state temperatures show good agreement with the test data.

  14. An unusual abscisic acid and gibberellic acid synergism increases somatic embryogenesis, facilitates its genetic analysis and improves transformation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Kim E; Song, Youhong; Liao, Siyang; Saeed, Nasir A; Zhang, Xiyi; Rose, Ray J

    2014-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) can be readily induced in leaf explants of the Jemalong 2HA genotype of the model legume Medicago truncatula by auxin and cytokinin, but rarely in wild-type Jemalong. Gibberellic acid (GA), a hormone not included in the medium, appears to act in Arabidopsis as a repressor of the embryonic state such that low ABA (abscisic acid): GA ratios will inhibit SE. It was important to evaluate the GA effect in M. truncatula in order to formulate generic SE mechanisms, given the Arabidopsis information. It was surprising to find that low ABA:GA ratios in M. truncatula acted synergistically to stimulate SE. The unusual synergism between GA and ABA in inducing SE has utility in improving SE for regeneration and transformation in M. truncatula. Expression of genes previously shown to be important in M. truncatula SE was not increased. In investigating genes previously studied in GA investigations of Arabidopsis SE, there was increased expression of GA2ox and decreased expression of PICKLE, a negative regulator of SE in Arabidopsis. We suggest that in M. truncatula there are different ABA:GA ratios required for down-regulating the PICKLE gene, a repressor of the embryonic state. In M. truncatula it is a low ABA:GA ratio while in Arabidopsis it is a high ABA:GA ratio. In different species the expression of key genes is probably related to differences in how the hormone networks optimise their expression. PMID:24937316

  15. Neutron Generators for Spent Fuel Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A

    2010-12-30

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). The 14 NDA techniques being studied include several that require an external neutron source: Delayed Neutrons (DN), Differential Die-Away (DDA), Delayed Gammas (DG), and Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy (LSDS). This report provides a survey of currently available neutron sources and their underlying technology that may be suitable for NDA of SNF assemblies. The neutron sources considered here fall into two broad categories. The term 'neutron generator' is commonly used for sealed devices that operate at relatively low acceleration voltages of less than 150 kV. Systems that employ an acceleration structure to produce ion beam energies from hundreds of keV to several MeV, and that are pumped down to vacuum during operation, rather than being sealed units, are usually referred to as 'accelerator-driven neutron sources.' Currently available neutron sources and future options are evaluated within the parameter space of the neutron generator/source requirements as currently understood and summarized in section 2. Applicable neutron source technologies are described in section 3. Commercially available neutron generators and other source options that could be made available in the near future with some further development and customization are discussed in sections 4 and 5, respectively. The pros and cons of the various options and possible ways forward are discussed in section 6. Selection of the best approach must take a number of parameters into account including cost, size, lifetime, and power consumption, as well as neutron flux, neutron energy spectrum, and pulse structure that satisfy the requirements of the NDA instrument to be built.

  16. Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister System Description

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-03-27

    In 1978 and 1979, a total of 72 blanket fuel assemblies (BFAs), irradiated during the operating cycles of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station's Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Core 2 from April 1965 to February 1974, were transferred to the Hanford Site and stored in underwater storage racks in Cell 2R at the 221-T Canyon (T-Plant). The initial objective was to recover the produced plutonium in the BFAs, but this never occurred and the fuel assemblies have remained within the water storage pool to the present time. The Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) is a confinement system that provides safe transport functions (in conjunction with the TN-WHC cask) and storage for the BFAs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The current plan is for these BFAs to be retrieved from wet storage and loaded into SSFCs for dry storage. The sealed SSFCs containing BFAs will be vacuum dried, internally backfilled with helium, and leak tested to provide suitable confinement for the BFAs during transport and storage. Following completion of the drying and inerting process, the SSFCs are to be delivered to the CSB for closure welding and long-term interim storage. The CSB will provide safe handling and dry storage for the SSFCs containing the BFAs. The purpose of this document is to describe the SSFC system and interface equipment, including the technical basis for the system, design descriptions, and operations requirements. It is intended that this document will be periodically updated as more equipment design and performance specification information becomes available.

  17. Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, Donald G.; Sastre, Cesar; Winsche, Warren

    1981-01-01

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  18. Scientists warn of 'trillion-dollar' spent-fuel risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-07-01

    A study by two Princeton University physicists suggests that a major fire in the spent nuclear fuel stored on the sites of US nuclear reactors could “dwarf the horrific consequences of the Fukushima accident”.

  19. Application of ALARA principles to shipment of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Greenborg, J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Murphy, D.W. Burnett, R.A.; Lewis, J.R.

    1980-05-01

    The public exposure from spent fuel shipment is very low. In view of this low exposure and the perfect safety record for spent fuel shipment, existing systems can be considered satisfactory. On the other hand, occupational exposure reduction merits consideration and technology improvement to decrease dose should concentrate on this exposure. Practices that affect the age of spent fuel in shipment and the number of times the fuel must be shipped prior to disposal have the largest impact. A policy to encourage a 5-year spent fuel cooling period prior to shipment coupled with appropriate cask redesign to accommodate larger loads would be consistent with ALARA and economic principles. And finally, bypassing high population density areas will not in general reduce shipment dose.

  20. Spent fuel storage at Prairie Island: January 1995 status

    SciTech Connect

    Closs, J.; Kress, L.

    1995-12-31

    The disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been an issue for the US since the inception of the commercial nuclear power industry. In the past decade, it has become a critical factor in the continued operation of some nuclear power plants, including the two units at Prairie Island. As the struggles and litigation over storage alternatives wage on, spent fuel pools continue to fill and plants edge closer to premature shutdown. Due to the delays in the construction of a federal repository, many nuclear power plants have had to seek interim storage alternatives. In the case of Prairie Island, the safest and most feasible option is dry cask storage. This paper discusses the current status of the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) Project at Prairie Island. It provides a historical background to the project, discusses the notable developments over the past year, and presents the projected plans of the Northern States Power Company (NSP) in regards to spent fuel storage.

  1. FENTON-DRIVEN CHEMICAL REGENERATION OF MTBE-SPENT GAC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-spent granular activated carbon (GAC) was chemically regenerated utilizing the Fenton mechanism. Two successive GAC regeneration cycles were performed involving iterative adsorption and oxidation processes: MTBE was adsorbed to the GAC, oxidized, r...

  2. Method for storing spent nuclear fuel in repositories

    DOEpatents

    Schweitzer, D.G.; Sastre, C.; Winsche, W.

    A method for storing radioactive spent fuel in repositories containing sulfur as the storage medium is disclosed. Sulfur is non-corrosive and not subject to radiation damage. Thus, storage periods of up to 100 years are possible.

  3. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. A large sample of spent catalyst has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of energy at the Pittsburgh energy Technology Center. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  4. Effect of Helium Accumulation on the Spent Fuel Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, Cecile; Piron, Jean-Paul; Stout, Ray

    2007-07-01

    In a nuclear spent fuel repository, the aqueous rapid release of radio-activity from exposed spent fuel surfaces will depend on the pellet microstructure at the arrival time of water into the disposal container. Research performed on spent fuel evolution in a closed system has shown that the evolution of microstructure under disposal conditions should be governed by the cumulated {alpha}-decay damage and the subsequent helium behavior. The evolution of fission gas bubble characteristics under repository conditions has to be assessed. In UO{sub 2} fuels with a burnup of 47.5 GWd/t, the pressure in fission gas bubbles, including the pressure increase from {alpha}-decay helium atoms, is not expected to reach the critical bubble pressure that will cause failure, thus micro-cracking in UO{sub 2} spent fuel grains is not expected. (authors)

  5. Equipment designs for the spent LWR fuel dry storage demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, R.J.; Kurasch, D.H.; Hardin, R.T.; Schmitten, P.F.

    1980-01-01

    In conjunction with the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program (SFHPP) equipment has been designed, fabricated and successfully utilized to demonstrate the packaging and interim dry storage of spent LWR fuel. Surface and near surface storage configurations containing PWR fuel assemblies are currently on test and generating baseline data. Specific areas of hardware design focused upon include storage cell components and the support related equipment associated with encapsulation, leak testing, lag storage, and emplacement operations.

  6. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin

    2010-09-10

    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  7. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  8. Spent nuclear fuel Canister Storage Building CDR Review Committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    The Canister Storage Building (CSB) is a subproject under the Spent Nuclear Fuels Major System Acquisition. This subproject is necessary to design and construct a facility capable of providing dry storage of repackaged spent fuels received from K Basins. The CSB project completed a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) implementing current project requirements. A Design Review Committee was established to review the CDR. This document is the final report summarizing that review

  9. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1987-2020

    SciTech Connect

    Walling, R.C.; Heeb, C.M.; Purcell, W.L.

    1988-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from U.S. commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water eactors (BWR), and one existing high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the U.S. reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Administration (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: No New Orders (assumes increasing burnup), No New Orders with No Increased Burnup, Upper Reference (assumes increasing burnup), Upper Reference with No Increased Burnup, and Lower Reference (assumes increasing burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum at-reactor storage plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1985 to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1986-09-01

    The creation of four spent-fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No New Orders with Extended Burnup, (2) No New Orders with Constant Burnup, (3) Middle Case with Extended Burnup, and (4) Middle Case with Constant Burnup. Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel.

  11. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections: 1986 to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Walling, R.C.; Purcell, W.L.

    1987-03-01

    The creation of five reactor-specific spent fuel data bases that contain information on the projected amounts of spent fuel to be discharged from US commercial nuclear reactors through the year 2020 is described. The data bases contain detailed spent-fuel information from existing, planned, and projected pressurized water reactors (PWR) and boiling water reactors (BWR). The projections are based on individual reactor information supplied by the US reactor owners. The basic information is adjusted to conform to Energy Information Agency (EIA) forecasts for nuclear installed capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharged. The EIA cases considered are: (1) No new orders with extended burnup, (2) No new orders with constant burnup, (3) Upper reference (which assumes extended burnup), (4) Upper reference with constant burnup, and (5) Lower reference (which assumes extended burnup). Detailed, by-reactor tables are provided for annual discharged amounts of spent fuel, for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor storage, and for storage requirements assuming maximum-at-reactor plus intra-utility transshipment of spent fuel. 6 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. EDI as a Treatment Module in Recycling Spent Rinse Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Robert P.; Morrison, Dennis J.

    1999-08-11

    Recycling of the spent rinse water discharged from the wet benches commonly used in semiconductor processing is one tactic for responding to the targets for water usage published in the 1997 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). Not only does the NTRS list a target that dramatically reduces total water usage/unit area of silicon manufactured by the industry in the future but for the years 2003 and beyond, the NTRS actually touts goals which would have semiconductor manufacturers drawing less water from a regional water supply per unit area of silicon manufactured than the quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) used in the production of that same silicon. Achieving this latter NTRS target strongly implies more widespread recycling of spent rinse waters at semiconductor manufacturing sites. In spite of the fact that, by most metrics, spent rinse waters are of much higher purity than incoming municipal waters, recycling of these spent rinse waters back into the UPW production plant is not a simple, straightforward task. The rub is that certain of the chemicals used in semiconductor manufacturing, and thus potentially present in trace concentrations (or more) in spent rinse waters, are not found in municipal water supplies and are not necessarily removed by the conventional UPW production sequence used by semiconductor manufacturers. Some of these contaminants, unique to spent rinse waters, may actually foul the resins and membranes of the UPW system, posing a threat to UPW production and potentially even causing a shutdown.

  14. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  15. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  16. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  18. Safety Aspects of Dry Spent Fuel Storage and Spent Fuel Management - 13559

    SciTech Connect

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.

    2013-07-01

    Dry storage systems are characterized by passive and inherent safety systems ensuring safety even in case of severe incidents or accidents. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of such passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more and more obvious. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Following safety aspects must be achieved throughout the storage period: - safe enclosure of radioactive materials, - safe removal of decay heat, - securing nuclear criticality safety, - avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. Furthermore, transport capability must be guaranteed during and after storage as well as limitation and control of radiation exposure. The safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks can be achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat must be ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility. The safe confinement of radioactive inventory has to be ensured by mechanical integrity of fuel assembly structures. This is guaranteed, e.g. by maintaining the mechanical integrity of the fuel rods or by additional safety measures for defective fuel rods. In order to ensure nuclear critically safety, possible effects of accidents have also to be taken into consideration. In case of dry storage it might be necessary to exclude the re-positioning of fissile material inside the container and/or neutron moderator exclusion might be taken into account. Unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the cask or canister vault system itself. In Germany dry storage of SF in

  19. Recovery of nickel, cobalt and some salts from spent Ni-MH batteries.

    PubMed

    Rabah, M A; Farghaly, F E; Abd-El Motaleb, M A

    2008-01-01

    This work provides a method to help recover nickel, cobalt metals and some of their salts having market value from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (SNiB). The methodology used benefits the solubility of the battery electrode materials in sulfuric or hydrochloric acids. The results obtained showed that sulfuric acid was slightly less powerful in leaching SNiB compared to HCl acid. Despite that, sulfuric acid was extremely applied on economic basis. The highest level of solubility attained 93.5% using 3N sulfuric acid at 90 degrees C for 3h. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the reacting acid solution improved the level of solubility and enhanced the process in a shorter time. The maximum recovery of nickel and cobalt metals was 99.9% and 99.4%, respectively. Results were explained in the light of a model assuming that solubility was a first order reaction. It involved a multi-step sequence, the first step of which was the rate determining step of the overall solubility. Nickel salts such as hydroxide, chloride, hexamminenickel chloride, hexamminenickel nitrate, oxalate and nickel oleate were prepared. With cobalt, basic carbonate, chloride, nitrate, citrate, oleate and acetate salts were prepared from cobalt hydroxide Cost estimates showed that the prices of the end products were nearly 30% lower compared to the prices of the same chemicals prepared from primary resources. PMID:17714929

  20. Recovery of nickel, cobalt and some salts from spent Ni-MH batteries.

    PubMed

    Rabah, M A; Farghaly, F E; Abd-El Motaleb, M A

    2008-01-01

    This work provides a method to help recover nickel, cobalt metals and some of their salts having market value from spent nickel-metal hydride batteries (SNiB). The methodology used benefits the solubility of the battery electrode materials in sulfuric or hydrochloric acids. The results obtained showed that sulfuric acid was slightly less powerful in leaching SNiB compared to HCl acid. Despite that, sulfuric acid was extremely applied on economic basis. The highest level of solubility attained 93.5% using 3N sulfuric acid at 90 degrees C for 3h. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the reacting acid solution improved the level of solubility and enhanced the process in a shorter time. The maximum recovery of nickel and cobalt metals was 99.9% and 99.4%, respectively. Results were explained in the light of a model assuming that solubility was a first order reaction. It involved a multi-step sequence, the first step of which was the rate determining step of the overall solubility. Nickel salts such as hydroxide, chloride, hexamminenickel chloride, hexamminenickel nitrate, oxalate and nickel oleate were prepared. With cobalt, basic carbonate, chloride, nitrate, citrate, oleate and acetate salts were prepared from cobalt hydroxide Cost estimates showed that the prices of the end products were nearly 30% lower compared to the prices of the same chemicals prepared from primary resources.

  1. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Matos, Leonardo José Brandão Lima; Lima, Larissa Pinto de; Figueiredo, Pablo Marciano da Silva; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds (SCG). The extraction of oil from SCG, biodiesel production and ethanol production processes were studied. The liquid-to-solid ratio and temperature were evaluated in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the oil from SCG. The highest yield (12%) was obtained using 4 mL g(-1) liquid-to-solid ratio at 60°C for 45 min. The process to produce biodiesel showed a yield of 97% into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The highest glucose yield (192 mg g SCG(-1)) was obtained by hydrolysis with 0.4 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid at 121°C for 15 min. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining 19.0 g L(-1) at 10h of process of ethanol with a yield of ethanol and productivity of 0.50 g g(-1) and 1.90 g L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Spent coffee grounds were considered a potential feedstock for biodiesel and ethanol production.

  2. Pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for enhancing the conversion of fermentable sugar.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songqing; Lan, Yanjiao; Wu, Zhimao; Peng, Yan; Chen, Siqi; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, Xiong; Zhang, Lingling; Zou, Shuangquan

    2013-11-01

    To develop a cost-effective biopesticide, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) extract was studied as a potential carbon source for cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Several pretreatments were compared to determine the optimal method for degrading cellulose to produce reducing sugars, including dilute sulfuric acid (0.5-2.0% v/v, 50-121°C, 1h), sodium hydroxide (0.5-2% w/v, 50-121°C, 1h), calcium hydroxide (0.2-4% w/v, 50-121°C, 1h), and hot water (50-121°C, 1h). Pretreatment was followed by standard enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Results showed that the highest cellulose degradation was obtained using 2% dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment at 121°C for 1h, resulting in a high yield of reducing sugar (284.24 g/kg SMS). Sporulation was also highest using the same pretreatment. Use of SMS is not only an alternative way to commercialize Bt-based biopesticide, but also a potential solution for the environmental pollution associated with accumulation of the spent substrate of the mushroom industry.

  3. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Valderez Ponte; de Matos, Leonardo José Brandão Lima; Lima, Larissa Pinto de; Figueiredo, Pablo Marciano da Silva; Lucena, Izabelly Larissa; Fernandes, Fabiano André Narciso; Gonçalves, Luciana Rocha Barros

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds (SCG). The extraction of oil from SCG, biodiesel production and ethanol production processes were studied. The liquid-to-solid ratio and temperature were evaluated in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the oil from SCG. The highest yield (12%) was obtained using 4 mL g(-1) liquid-to-solid ratio at 60°C for 45 min. The process to produce biodiesel showed a yield of 97% into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The highest glucose yield (192 mg g SCG(-1)) was obtained by hydrolysis with 0.4 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid at 121°C for 15 min. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining 19.0 g L(-1) at 10h of process of ethanol with a yield of ethanol and productivity of 0.50 g g(-1) and 1.90 g L(-1)h(-1), respectively. Spent coffee grounds were considered a potential feedstock for biodiesel and ethanol production. PMID:24997378

  4. Pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for enhancing the conversion of fermentable sugar.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songqing; Lan, Yanjiao; Wu, Zhimao; Peng, Yan; Chen, Siqi; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, Xiong; Zhang, Lingling; Zou, Shuangquan

    2013-11-01

    To develop a cost-effective biopesticide, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) extract was studied as a potential carbon source for cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Several pretreatments were compared to determine the optimal method for degrading cellulose to produce reducing sugars, including dilute sulfuric acid (0.5-2.0% v/v, 50-121°C, 1h), sodium hydroxide (0.5-2% w/v, 50-121°C, 1h), calcium hydroxide (0.2-4% w/v, 50-121°C, 1h), and hot water (50-121°C, 1h). Pretreatment was followed by standard enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Results showed that the highest cellulose degradation was obtained using 2% dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment at 121°C for 1h, resulting in a high yield of reducing sugar (284.24 g/kg SMS). Sporulation was also highest using the same pretreatment. Use of SMS is not only an alternative way to commercialize Bt-based biopesticide, but also a potential solution for the environmental pollution associated with accumulation of the spent substrate of the mushroom industry. PMID:24047726

  5. Application of a Plasma Mass Separator to Advanced LWR Spent Fuel Reprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Richard; Miller, Robert; Papay, Larry; Wagoner, John; Ahlfeld, Charles; Czerwinski, Ken

    2006-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating spent fuel reprocessing for the purposes of increasing the effective capacity of a deep geological repository, reducing the radiotoxicity of waste placed in the repository and conserving nuclear fuel resources. DOE is considering hydro-chemical processing of the spent fuel after cutting the fuel cladding and fuel dissolution in nitric acid. The front end process, known as UREX, is largely based on the PUREX process and extracts U, Tc as well as fission product gases. A number of additional processing steps have become known as UREX+. One of the steps includes a further chemical treatment of remove Cs and Sr to reduce repository heat load. Other steps include successive extraction of the actinides from residual fission products, including the lanthanides. The additional UREX+ processing renders the actinides suitable for burning as reactor fuel in an advanced reactor to convert actinides to shorter-lived fission products and to produce power. New methods for separating groups of elements by their atomic mass have been developed and can be exploited to enhance spent fuel reprocessing. These physical processes dry the waste streams so that they can be vaporized and singly ionized in plasma that is contained in longitudinal magnetic and perpendicular electric fields. Proper configuration of the fields causes the plasma to rapidly rotate and expel heavier mass ions at the center of the machine. Lower mass ions form closed orbits within the cylindrical plasma column and are transported to either end of the machine. This plasma mass separator was originally developed to reduce the mass of material that must be immobilized in borosilicate glass from DOE defense waste at former weapons production facilities. The plasma mass separator appears to be well-suited for processing the UREX raffinate and solids streams by exploiting the large atomic mass gap that exists between lanthanides (< {approx}180 amu) and actinides

  6. Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloys in Wet Hydrofluoric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B

    2004-02-06

    Hydrofluoric acid is a water solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF). Hydrofluoric acid is used widely in diverse types of industrial applications; traditionally, it is used in pickling solutions in the metal industry, in the fabrication of chlorofluorocarbon compounds, as an alkylation agent for gasoline and as an etching agent in the industry of glass. In recent years, hydrofluoric acid has extensively been used in the manufacture of semiconductors and microelectronics during the wet chemical cleaning of silicon wafers. Hydrofluoric acid can be considered a reducing acid and although it is chemically classified as weaker than, for example, sulfuric or hydrochloric acids, it is extremely corrosive. This acid is also particularly toxic and poses greater health hazard than most other acids. The corrosion behavior of metals in hydrofluoric acid has not been as systematic studied in the laboratory as for other common inorganic acids. This is largely because tests using hydrofluoric acid cannot be run in standard equipment and because of the toxic nature of this acid. Moreover, short-term weight loss laboratory corrosion tests in hydrofluoric acid can be frustrating since the results are not as highly reproducible as in the case of other acids such as sulfuric or hydrochloric. One of the reasons is because hydrofluoric acid commonly attacks the coupons used for testing in a non-uniform manner. That is, the corrosive power of this acid is not aimed to uniform thinning but mostly to localized penetration below the skin of the metal in the form of thin cracks, voids, pits, trenches and sometimes intergranular attack. Figure 1 shows the cross section of a coupon of Alloy 600 (N06600) exposed for 336 h to the vapor phase of a solution of 20% HF at 93 C. In cases where internal penetration occurs such as in Figure 1, it may not be recommended to use corrosion rates based on weight loss for material selection.

  7. Surfactant-assisted pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of spent mushroom compost for the production of sugars.

    PubMed

    Kapu, N U S; Manning, M; Hurley, T B; Voigt, J; Cosgrove, D J; Romaine, C P

    2012-06-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC), a byproduct of commercial mushroom cultivation, poses serious environmental problems that have hampered the growth of this important agro-industry. In an effort to develop new applications for SMC, we explored its use as a feedstock for bioethanol production. SMC constitutes approximately 30%w/w polysaccharides, 66% of which is glucan. Following dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, both in the presence of PEG 6000, 97% of glucan and 44% of xylan in SMC were converted into the corresponding monosaccharides. Incorporation of PEG 6000 reduced the cellulase requirement by 77%. Zwittergent 3-12 and 3-14 also significantly increased the efficacy of acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The use of SMC in bioethanol production represents a potential mitigation solution for the critical environmental issues associated with the stockpiling of the major byproduct of the mushroom industry.

  8. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, María V.; Falco, Lorena R.; Peluso, Miguel A.; Sambeth, Jorge E.; Thomas, Horacio J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  9. Stabilization of spent sorbents from coal-based power generation processes. Technical report, September 1, 1995--November 30,1995

    SciTech Connect

    Abbassian, J.; Hill, A.H.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this study is to determine the effect of implementation of the new and more stringent EPA Protocol Test Method involving sulfide containing waste, on the suitability of the oxidized spent sorbents from gasification of of high sulfur coals for disposal in landfills, and to determine the optimum operating conditions in a ``final`` hydrolysis stage for conversion of the residual calcium sulfide in these wastes to materials that are suitable for disposal in landfills. An additional objective is to study the effect of ash on the regeneration and ash-sorbent separation steps in the Spent Sorbent Regeneration Process (SSRP). To achieve these objectives, a large set of oxidized samples of sulfided calcium-based sorbents (produced in earlier ICCI-funded programs) as well as oxidized samples of gasifier discharge (containing ash and spent sorbent) are tested according to the new EPA test protocol. Samples of the oxidized spent sorbents that do not pass the EPA procedure are reacted with water and carbon dioxide to convert the residual calcium sulfide to calcium carbonate. During this quarter, samples of oxidized sulfided calcium-based sorbents, including untreated calcium sulfide-containing feed materials, were analyzed using both weak acid and more stringent strong acid tests. Preliminary analysis of the H{sub 2}S leachability test results indicate that all samples (including those that were not oxidized) pass the EPA requirement of 500 mg H{sub 2}S per kg of solid waste. However, under the strong acid test procedure, samples containing more than 2.5% calcium sulfide fail the EPA requirement.

  10. Selective recovery of valuable metals from spent Li-ion batteries using solvent-impregnated resins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuqiang; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2013-01-01

    Selective recovery of valuable metals (Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Li(+)) from leachate of spent lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries was investigated in acidic chloride media using solvent impregnated resins (SIRs). An SIR containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) had high selectivity for Fe(3+) and Al(3+), with an order of selectivity Fe(3+) > Al(3+) > Cu(2+) > Co(2+). Fe(3+) and Al(3+) could be removed from synthetic leachate by precipitation, followed by column adsorption with the SIR containing D2EHPA. The synthetic leachate was then applied to chromatography for selective recovery of Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Li(+). The solution was first fed upward to a column packed with an SIR containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A) for selective separation of Cu(2+), followed by upward feed to another column packed with an SIR comprising PC-88A and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) for selective recovery of Co(2+). Finally, a column packed with a synergistic SIR containing both 1-phenyl-1,3-tetradecanedione (C11phbetaDK) and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used for selective recovery of Li(+). A process flowsheet is proposed for selective recovery of Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Li(+) using several SIRs. This process was found to be simple and efficient for selective recovery of valuable metals from leachate of spent Li-ion batteries. Pure copper, cobalt and lithium products were obtained, with high elution yields. PMID:24191463

  11. Selective recovery of valuable metals from spent Li-ion batteries using solvent-impregnated resins.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuqiang; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2013-01-01

    Selective recovery of valuable metals (Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Li(+)) from leachate of spent lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries was investigated in acidic chloride media using solvent impregnated resins (SIRs). An SIR containing bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) had high selectivity for Fe(3+) and Al(3+), with an order of selectivity Fe(3+) > Al(3+) > Cu(2+) > Co(2+). Fe(3+) and Al(3+) could be removed from synthetic leachate by precipitation, followed by column adsorption with the SIR containing D2EHPA. The synthetic leachate was then applied to chromatography for selective recovery of Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Li(+). The solution was first fed upward to a column packed with an SIR containing 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A) for selective separation of Cu(2+), followed by upward feed to another column packed with an SIR comprising PC-88A and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) for selective recovery of Co(2+). Finally, a column packed with a synergistic SIR containing both 1-phenyl-1,3-tetradecanedione (C11phbetaDK) and tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) was used for selective recovery of Li(+). A process flowsheet is proposed for selective recovery of Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Li(+) using several SIRs. This process was found to be simple and efficient for selective recovery of valuable metals from leachate of spent Li-ion batteries. Pure copper, cobalt and lithium products were obtained, with high elution yields.

  12. Spent nuclear fuel assembly inspection using neutron computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Chad Lee

    The research presented here focuses on spent nuclear fuel assembly inspection using neutron computed tomography. Experimental measurements involving neutron beam transmission through a spent nuclear fuel assembly serve as benchmark measurements for an MCNP simulation model. Comparison of measured results to simulation results shows good agreement. Generation of tomography images from MCNP tally results was accomplished using adapted versions of built in MATLAB algorithms. Multiple fuel assembly models were examined to provide a broad set of conclusions. Tomography images revealing assembly geometric information including the fuel element lattice structure and missing elements can be obtained using high energy neutrons. A projection difference technique was developed which reveals the substitution of unirradiated fuel elements for irradiated fuel elements, using high energy neutrons. More subtle material differences such as altering the burnup of individual elements can be identified with lower energy neutrons provided the scattered neutron contribution to the image is limited. The research results show that neutron computed tomography can be used to inspect spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of identifying anomalies such as missing elements or substituted elements. The ability to identify anomalies in spent fuel assemblies can be used to deter diversion of material by increasing the risk of early detection as well as improve reprocessing facility operations by confirming the spent fuel configuration is as expected or allowing segregation if anomalies are detected.

  13. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report presents available historic data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments in the United States from 1964 through 1989. Data include sources of the spent fuel shipped, types of shipping casks used, number of fuel assemblies shipped, and number of shipments made. This report also addresses the shipment of spent research reactor fuel. These shipments have not been documented as well as commercial power reactor spent fuel shipment activity. Available data indicate that the greatest number of research reactor fuel shipments occurred in 1986. The largest campaigns in 1986 were from the Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brooklyn, New York, to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in Tennessee and the Rockwell International Reactor in California to the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. For all years addressed in this report, DOE facilities in Idaho Falls and Savannah River were the major recipients of research reactor spent fuel. In 1989, 10 shipments were received at the Idaho facilities. These originated from universities in California, Michigan, and Missouri. 9 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Microbial Biofilm Growth on Irradiated, Spent Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    S.M. Frank

    2009-02-01

    A fundamental criticism regarding the potential for microbial influenced corrosion in spent nuclear fuel cladding or storage containers concerns whether the required microorganisms can, in fact, survive radiation fields inherent in these materials. This study was performed to unequivocally answer this critique by addressing the potential for biofilm formation, the precursor to microbial-influenced corrosion, in radiation fields representative of spent nuclear fuel storage environments. This study involved the formation of a microbial biofilm on irradiated spent nuclear fuel cladding within a hot cell environment. This was accomplished by introducing 22 species of bacteria, in nutrient-rich media, to test vessels containing irradiated cladding sections and that was then surrounded by radioactive source material. The overall dose rate exceeded 2 Gy/h gamma/beta radiation with the total dose received by some of the bacteria reaching 5 × 103 Gy. This study provides evidence for the formation of biofilms on spent-fuel materials, and the implication of microbial influenced corrosion in the storage and permanent deposition of spent nuclear fuel in repository environments.

  15. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials. PMID:27427893

  16. Spent fuel in geologic repositories: Swedish aspects of safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Ekenstam, G.; Larsson, S.E.; Forsstroem, H.

    1996-12-31

    When the safeguards system was defined and established, spent fuel was destined for reprocessing. The deposition without reprocessing represents a conceptual change for the back end of the fuel cycle in that nuclear material is not intended for further use in any nuclear application. Much effort has been devoted to finding a solution whereby the spent fuel can be left unattended forever. The disposal of spent fuel, and specifically the need to protect humans and the environment in the distant future, is given particular attention in all countries engaged in nuclear generation. The system considered for spent-fuel disposal in Sweden includes the encapsulation of the spent fuel elements in a corrosion-resistant tight canister and disposal of the canister at {approx}500m depth in Swedish bedrock. The canister will be made of thick copper (for corrosion resistance) and will have an internal steel container (for mechanical strength). The encapsulation is planned to be performed in a new facility to be built adjacent to the central interim storage facility, CLAB.

  17. Foreign experience in extended dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-06-01

    Most countries with nuclear power are planning for spent nuclear fuel (or high-level waste from reprocessing of spent fuel) to be disposed of in national deep geological repositories starting in the time period of about 2010 to 2050. While spent fuel has been stored in water basins for the early years after discharge from the reactors, interim dry storage for extended periods (i.e., several tens of years) is being implemented or considered in an increasing number of countries. Dry storage technology is generally considered to be developed on a world-wide basis, and is being initiated and/ or expanded in a number of countries. This paper presents a summary of status and experience in dry storage of spent fuel in other countries, with emphasis on zirconium-clad fuels. Past activities, current status, future plans, research and development, and experience in dry storage are summarized for Argentina, Canada, France, former West Germany, former East Germany, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. Conclusions from their experience are presented. Their experience to date supports the expectations that proper dry storage should provide for safe extended dry storage of spent fuel.

  18. Integrated approach to trailer design for spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.M.; Burgoyne, R.M.; Grenier, R.M.; Meyer, R.J.

    1989-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing the GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel transportation systems. The scope of our contract includes spent fuel casks, legal weight trailers, and ancillary equipment. Recent structural failures of spent fuel trailers have focused attention on trailer design. As a major element of spent fuel transportation systems, the concerns address the adequacy of trailer performance requirements, structural design and analysis, and in-service inspection and maintenance procedures. In response to these concerns, GA has applied an integrated approach to the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 transportation systems. The objectives are to design reliable, high-integrity trailers and to demonstrate their performance by test. Once the design is complete, a prototype trailer will be fabricated and a performance test program conducted in accordance with a comprehensive test program. GA`s trailer test program will include both design and operations elements, and will be used to optimize the operations and maintenance plan. The results of this program will provide positive public and regulatory perception of trailer durability and will support the development of industry standards for both legal weight and overweight trailers for spent fuel applications. 2 figs.

  19. Status of spent-fuel shipping cask development

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the Cask Systems Development Program is to develop a variety of cask systems that can safely and economically transport commercial spent fuel and high-level waste from the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This paper is limited to a discussion of the status of from-reactor spent-fuel cask development; future cask development plans include MRS-to-repository casks, specialty casks for nonstandard spent fuel and nonfuel materials, and defense high-level waste casks. Spent-fuel casks must be available in the late 1990s to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) shipments from utilities. DOE-Idaho, with the support of EG G Idaho, Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, and selected cask developing contractors, has been assigned the responsibility for developing a new generation of cask systems. Four categories of spent fuel casks were initially proposed: (1) legal weight truck (LWT) casks (2) overweight truck (OWT) casks (3) rail/barge (R/B) casks (4) dual purpose (DP) storage/transport casks. Casks are being designed for reduced occupational radiation exposure at the receiving facility by facilitating the use of remote handling equipment. Automation of remote handling systems may be used to reduce cask turnaround time. Reducing turnaround time promotes reduced radiation exposure to occupational workers and improves cask utilization efficiency.

  20. Integrated approach to trailer design for spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.M.; Burgoyne, R.M.; Grenier, R.M.; Meyer, R.J.

    1989-02-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing the GA-4 and GA-9 spent fuel transportation systems. The scope of our contract includes spent fuel casks, legal weight trailers, and ancillary equipment. Recent structural failures of spent fuel trailers have focused attention on trailer design. As a major element of spent fuel transportation systems, the concerns address the adequacy of trailer performance requirements, structural design and analysis, and in-service inspection and maintenance procedures. In response to these concerns, GA has applied an integrated approach to the design of the GA-4 and GA-9 transportation systems. The objectives are to design reliable, high-integrity trailers and to demonstrate their performance by test. Once the design is complete, a prototype trailer will be fabricated and a performance test program conducted in accordance with a comprehensive test program. GA's trailer test program will include both design and operations elements, and will be used to optimize the operations and maintenance plan. The results of this program will provide positive public and regulatory perception of trailer durability and will support the development of industry standards for both legal weight and overweight trailers for spent fuel applications. 2 figs.

  1. Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel: A review.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, Jessica

    2016-11-15

    This review summarises the methods currently available to extract radioactive actinide elements from solutions of spent nuclear fuel. This separation of actinides reduces the hazards associated with spent nuclear fuel, such as its radiotoxicity, volume and the amount of time required for its' radioactivity to return to naturally occurring levels. Separation of actinides from environmental water systems is also briefly discussed. The actinide elements typically found in spent nuclear fuel include uranium, plutonium and the minor actinides (americium, neptunium and curium). Separation methods for uranium and plutonium are reasonably well established. On the other hand separation of the minor actinides from lanthanide fission products also present in spent nuclear fuel is an ongoing challenge and an area of active research. Several separation methods for selective removal of these actinides from spent nuclear fuel will be described. These separation methods include solvent extraction, which is the most commonly used method for radiochemical separations, as well as the less developed but promising use of adsorption and ion-exchange materials.

  2. Modeling of Spent Fuel Oxidation at Low Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Poulesquen, Arnaud; Ferry, Cecile; Desgranges, Lionel

    2007-07-01

    During dry storage, the oxidation of the spent fuel in case of cladding and container failure (accidental scenario) could be detrimental for further handling of the spent fuel rod and for the safety of the facilities. Depending on whether the uranium dioxide is under the form of powder or pellet, irradiated or unirradiated, the weight gain curves do not present the same shape. To account for these different behaviours, two models have been developed. Firstly, the oxidation of unirradiated powders has been modelled based on the coexistence, during the oxidation, of two intermediate products, U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7}. The comparison between the calculation and the literature data is good in terms of weight gain curves and chemical diffusion coefficient of oxygen within the two phases. Secondly, the oxidation of spent fuel fragments is approached by a convolution procedure between a grain oxidation model and an empirical parameter which represents the linear oxidation speed of grain boundary or an average distance able to cover the entire spent fuel fragment. This procedure of calculation allows in one hand to account for the incubation period noticed on unirradiated pellets or spent fuel and in another hand to link the empirical parameter to physical as porosity, cracks or linear power, or operational parameters such as fission gas release (FGR) respectively. A comparison of this new modelling with experimental data will be proposed. (authors)

  3. Selective adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by EDA-Fe3O4 nanoparticles prepared from steel pickling waste liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X. B.; Fang, Z. Q.; Tsang, P. K. E.; Cheng, W.; Yan, X. M.; Zheng, L. C.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) prepared from steel pickling waste liquor were functionalized with ethylenediamine (EDA) to form EDA-Fe3O4 NPs for engineering applications. The obtained EDA-Fe3O4 NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analyzer and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the EDA-Fe3O4 NPs had a crystalline structure with a particle size range of 20-50 nm and a BET surface area of 28 m2 g-1. Functionalization with EDA was able to improve the adsorption selectivity of Fe3O4 for Cr(VI) in Cr(VI)/Cl-or Cr(VI)/SO42- double-mixture systems. The adsorption isotherm data fitted better to the Langmuir adsorption model, and the adsorption kinetics was better described by the pseudo-second order equation. The spontaneous and endothermic characteristics of this adsorption reaction were confirmed by thermodynamic study. Based on the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrostatic attraction and surface complexation between Cr(VI) and EDA-Fe3O4 NPs are postulated as mechanisms for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The EDA-Fe3O4 NPs retained a high adsorption capacity after several consecutive adsorption-desorption processes, indicating that EDA-Fe3O4 NPs serve as an excellent regenerable adsorbent for Cr(VI).

  4. Ultrasonic Fenton-like catalytic degradation of bisphenol A by ferroferric oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles prepared from steel pickling waste liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruixiong; Fang, Zhanqiang; Fang, Xiaobo; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2014-12-15

    In this study, Fe3O4 NPs (named as Fe3O4 NPs-PO) were prepared by steel pickling waste liquor to reduce the cost of preparation, and were compared with those obtained by the common co-precipitation method (named as Fe3O4 NPs-CP) which prepared from chemical reagent using BET, XRD, XPS, TEM and SEM techniques. The results indicated that Fe3O4 NPs-PO nanoparticles mainly existed in the form of Fe3O4 and appeared to be roughly spherical in shape with a size range of 20-50 nm. The heterogeneous Fenton-like catalytic capacity of Fe3O4 NPs-PO in US+Fe3O4+H2O2 system was comprehensively investigated. BPA could be degraded within a wide pH range of 7-10. The removal efficiencies of BPA were close to 100% and about 45% total organic carbon (TOC) in solution was eliminated at the optimized conditions. It was found that ·OH radicals which mainly caused the degradation of BPA were promptly generated due to the catalysis of the Fe3O4 NPs-PO. Furthermore, the comparative study of catalytic activity, stability and reusability between Fe3O4 NPs-PO and Fe3O4 NPs-CP showed that the two catalysts both remained good activity after several reaction cycles and no significant change in composition and structure was observed, the loss of catalyst was negligible, which demonstrated that Fe3O4 NPs-PO were promising in ultrasonic Fenton-like process to treat refractory organics.

  5. Ultrasonic Fenton-like catalytic degradation of bisphenol A by ferroferric oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles prepared from steel pickling waste liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruixiong; Fang, Zhanqiang; Fang, Xiaobo; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2014-12-15

    In this study, Fe3O4 NPs (named as Fe3O4 NPs-PO) were prepared by steel pickling waste liquor to reduce the cost of preparation, and were compared with those obtained by the common co-precipitation method (named as Fe3O4 NPs-CP) which prepared from chemical reagent using BET, XRD, XPS, TEM and SEM techniques. The results indicated that Fe3O4 NPs-PO nanoparticles mainly existed in the form of Fe3O4 and appeared to be roughly spherical in shape with a size range of 20-50 nm. The heterogeneous Fenton-like catalytic capacity of Fe3O4 NPs-PO in US+Fe3O4+H2O2 system was comprehensively investigated. BPA could be degraded within a wide pH range of 7-10. The removal efficiencies of BPA were close to 100% and about 45% total organic carbon (TOC) in solution was eliminated at the optimized conditions. It was found that ·OH radicals which mainly caused the degradation of BPA were promptly generated due to the catalysis of the Fe3O4 NPs-PO. Furthermore, the comparative study of catalytic activity, stability and reusability between Fe3O4 NPs-PO and Fe3O4 NPs-CP showed that the two catalysts both remained good activity after several reaction cycles and no significant change in composition and structure was observed, the loss of catalyst was negligible, which demonstrated that Fe3O4 NPs-PO were promising in ultrasonic Fenton-like process to treat refractory organics. PMID:25280370

  6. Investigation of radioactivity concentration in spent technetium generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Alaamer, Abdulaziz S.; Eisa, M. H.; Sam, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out to survey and measure radioactivity concentration and estimate radiation dose level at the surface of spent technetium generator columns for the safe final disposal of radioactive waste. High resolution γ-spectrometry with the aid of handheld radiation survey meters has been used. The radioactivity measurements has shown that 238U, 40K and 137Cs were only measurable in one sample whereas 125Sb was found in 14 samples out of total of 20 samples with an activity concentration which ranged from 21 to 7404 with an average value of 1095 Bq/kg. The activity concentration of 125Sb is highly variable indicating that the spent 99mTc generator columns are of different origin. This investigation highlighted the importance of radiation monitoring of spent technetium generators in the country in order to protect workers, and the public from the dangers posed by radioactive waste.

  7. Information handbook on independent spent fuel storage installations

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, M.G.; Waters, M.D.

    1996-12-01

    In this information handbook, the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes (1) background information regarding the licensing and history of independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), (2) a discussion of the licensing process, (3) a description of all currently approved or certified models of dry cask storage systems (DCSSs), and (4) a description of sites currently storing spent fuel in an ISFSI. Storage of spent fuel at ISFSIs must be in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR Part 72. The staff has provided this handbook for information purposes only. The accuracy of any information herein is not guaranteed. For verification or for more details, the reader should refer to the respective docket files for each DCSS and ISFSI site. The information in this handbook is current as of September 1, 1996.

  8. Spent fuel burnup estimation by Cerenkov glow intensity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kuribara, Masayuki . Communication and Information Research Lab.)

    1994-10-01

    The Cerenkov glow images from irradiated fuel assemblies of boiling-water reactors (BWR) and pressurized-water reactors (PWR) are generally used for inspections. For this purpose, a new UV-I.I. CVD (ultra-violet light image intensifier Cerenkov viewing device), has been developed. This new device can measure the intensity of the Cerenkov glow from a spent fuel assembly, thus making it possible to estimate the burnup of the fuel assembly by comparing the Cerenkov glow intensity to the reference intensity. The experiment was carried out on BWR spent fuel assemblies and the results show that burnups are estimated within 20% accuracy compared to the declared burnups for the tested spent fuel assemblies for cooling times ranging from 900--2.000 d.

  9. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from US reactors 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) administers the Nuclear Fuel Data Survey, Form RW-859. This form is used to collect data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the United States, and the current inventories and storage capacities of those reactors. These data are important to the design and operation of the equipment and facilities that DOE will use for the future acceptance, transportation, and disposal of spent fuels. The data collected and presented identifies trends in burnup, enrichment, and spent nuclear fuel discharged form commercial light-water reactor as of December 31, 1993. The document covers not only spent nuclear fuel discharges; but also site capacities and inventories; canisters and nonfuel components; and assembly type characteristics.

  10. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  11. Fractionation of sulphite spent liquor for biochemical processing using ion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, D L A; Silva, C M; Xavier, A M R B; Evtuguin, D V

    2012-12-31

    Sulphite spent liquor (SSL) is a side product from acidic sulphite pulping of wood, which organic counterpart is composed mainly by lignosulphonates (LS) and sugars. The last are a prominent substrate for the bioprocessing although a previous purification step is necessary to eliminate microbial inhibitors. In this study a fractionation of hardwood SSL (HSSL) has been accomplished employing ion exchange resins in order to separate sugars fraction from concomitant inhibitors: LS, acetic acid, furan derivatives, phenolics, acetic acid and excess of inorganic salts. The fractionation of HSSL has been carried out using two fixed-bed ion exchangers in series (cationic+anionic). The first cation exchange column packed with Dowex 50WX2 resin was able to eliminate free cations and partially separate sugars from high molecular weight LS and furan derivatives. The second anion exchange column packed with Amberlite IRA-96 sorbed remaining LS, phenolics and acetic acid. Overall, the series arrangement under investigation has removed 99.99% of Mg(2+), 99.0% of Ca(2+), 99.6% of LS, and 100% of acetic acid, whereas the yield of recovered sugars was at least 72% of their total amount in HSSL.

  12. Systems for the Intermodal Routing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Steven K; Liu, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The safe and secure movement of spent nuclear fuel from shutdown and active reactor facilities to intermediate or long term storage sites may, in some instances, require the use of several modes of transportation to accomplish the move. To that end, a fully operable multi-modal routing system is being developed within Oak Ridge National Laboratory s (ORNL) WebTRAGIS (Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System). This study aims to provide an overview of multi-modal routing, the existing state of the TRAGIS networks, the source data needs, and the requirements for developing structural relationships between various modes to create a suitable system for modeling the transport of spent nuclear fuel via a multimodal network. Modern transportation systems are comprised of interconnected, yet separate, modal networks. Efficient transportation networks rely upon the smooth transfer of cargoes at junction points that serve as connectors between modes. A key logistical impediment to the shipment of spent nuclear fuel is the absence of identified or designated transfer locations between transport modes. Understanding the potential network impacts on intermodal transportation of spent nuclear fuel is vital for planning transportation routes from origin to destination. By identifying key locations where modes intersect, routing decisions can be made to prioritize cost savings, optimize transport times and minimize potential risks to the population and environment. In order to facilitate such a process, ORNL began the development of a base intermodal network and associated routing code. The network was developed using previous intermodal networks and information from publicly available data sources to construct a database of potential intermodal transfer locations with likely capability to handle spent nuclear fuel casks. The coding development focused on modifying the existing WebTRAGIS routing code to accommodate intermodal transfers and the selection of

  13. Spent fuel dissolution studies FY 1991 to 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Wilson, C.N.

    1995-12-01

    Dissolution and transport as a result of groundwater flow are generally accepted as the primary mechanisms by which radionuclides from spent fuel placed in a geologic repository could be released to the biosphere. To help provide a source term for performance assessment calculations, dissolution studies on spent fuel and unirradiated uranium oxides have been conducted over the past few years at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This report describes work for fiscal years 1991 through 1994. The objectives of these studies and the associated conclusions, which were based on the limited number of tests conducted so far, are described in the following subsections.

  14. Automated shielding analysis sequences for spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.S.; Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.

    1987-01-01

    Two important Shielding Analysis Sequences (SAS) have recently been developed within the SCALE computational system. These sequences significantly enhance the existing SCALE system capabilities for evaluating radiation doses exterior to spent fuel casks. These new control module sequences (SAS1 and SAS4) and their capabilities are discussed and demonstrated, together with the existing SAS2 sequence that is used to generate radiation sources for spent fuel. Particular attention is given to the new SAS4 sequence which provides an automated scheme for generating and using biasing parameters in a subsequent Monte Carlo analysis of a cask.

  15. NUHOMS modular spent-fuel storage system: Performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Strope, L.A.; McKinnon, M.A. ); Dyksterhouse, D.J.; McLean, J.C. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of a heat transfer and shielding performance evaluation of the NUTECH HOrizontal MOdular Storage (NUHOMS{reg sign}) System utilized by the Carolina Power and Light Co. (CP L) in an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The ISFSI is located at CP L's H. B. Robinson Nuclear Plant (HBR) near Hartsville, South Carolina. The demonstration included testing of three modules, first with electric heaters and then with spent fuel. The results indicated that the system was conservatively designed, with all heat transfer and shielding design criteria easily met. 5 refs., 45 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. The burnup dependence of light water reactor spent fuel oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Over the temperature range of interest for dry storage or for placement of spent fuel in a permanent repository under the conditions now being considered, UO{sub 2} is thermodynamically unstable with respect to oxidation to higher oxides. The multiple valence states of uranium allow for the accommodation of interstitial oxygen atoms in the fuel matrix. A variety of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric phases is therefore possible as the fuel oxidizers from UO{sub 2} to higher oxides. The oxidation of UO{sub 2} has been studied extensively for over 40 years. It has been shown that spent fuel and unirradiated UO{sub 2} oxidize via different mechanisms and at different rates. The oxidation of LWR spent fuel from UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2.4} was studied previously and is reasonably well understood. The study presented here was initiated to determine the mechanism and rate of oxidation from UO{sub 2.4} to higher oxides. During the early stages of this work, a large variability in the oxidation behavior of samples oxidized under nearly identical conditions was found. Based on previous work on the effect of dopants on UO{sub 2} oxidation and this initial variability, it was hypothesized that the substitution of fission product and actinide impurities for uranium atoms in the spent fuel matrix was the cause of the variable oxidation behavior. Since the impurity concentration is roughly proportional to the burnup of a specimen, the oxidation behavior of spent fuel was expected to be a function of both temperature and burnup. This report (1) summarizes the previous oxidation work for both unirradiated UO{sub 2} and spent fuel (Section 2.2) and presents the theoretical basis for the burnup (i.e., impurity concentration) dependence of the rate of oxidation (Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 2.5), (2) describes the experimental approach (Section 3) and results (Section 4) for the current oxidation tests on spent fuel, and (3) establishes a simple model to determine the activation energies

  17. Method for the regeneration of spent molten zinc chloride

    DOEpatents

    Zielke, Clyde W.; Rosenhoover, William A.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for regenerating spent molten zinc chloride which has been used in the hydrocracking of coal or ash-containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbonaceous materials derived therefrom and which contains zinc chloride, zinc oxide, zinc oxide complexes and ash-containing carbonaceous residue, by incinerating the spent molten zinc chloride to vaporize the zinc chloride for subsequent condensation to produce a purified molten zinc chloride: an improvement comprising the use of clay in the incineration zone to suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc. Optionally water is used in conjunction with the clay to further suppress the vaporization of metals other than zinc.

  18. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of isolated drywells containing spent fuel (1 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R; Wright, J B

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel Isolated Drywell Test was conducted at the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site. Two PWR spent fuel assemblies having a decay heat level of approximately 1.1 kW were encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in instrumented near-surface drywell storage cells. Temperatures from the two isolated drywells and the adjacent soil have been recorded throughout the 19 month Isolated Drywell Test. Canister and drywell liner temperatures reached their peak values (254{sup 0}F and 203{sup 0}F, respectively) during August 1979. Thereafter, all temperatures decreased and showed a cycling pattern which responded to seasonal atmospheric temperature changes. A computer model was utilized to predict the thermal response of the drywell. Computer predictions of the drywell temperatures and the temperatures of the surrounding soil are presented and show good agreement with the test data.

  19. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  20. WASTE TREATABILITY TESTS OF SPENT SOLVENT AND OTHER ORGANIC WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some commercial and industrial facilities treat RCRA spent solvent wastewaters by steam stripping, carbon adsorption, and/or biological processes. Thirteen facilities were visited by EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) from June 1985 to September 1986, to conduct sampl...

  1. 5 CFR 551.426 - Time spent in charitable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent in charitable activities. 551.426 Section 551.426 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  2. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention. 551.425 Section 551.425 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  3. 5 CFR 551.426 - Time spent in charitable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time spent in charitable activities. 551.426 Section 551.426 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  4. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention. 551.425 Section 551.425 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  5. 5 CFR 551.426 - Time spent in charitable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent in charitable activities. 551.426 Section 551.426 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  6. 5 CFR 551.426 - Time spent in charitable activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time spent in charitable activities. 551.426 Section 551.426 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  7. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention. 551.425 Section 551.425 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  8. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention. 551.425 Section 551.425 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Application of Principles...

  9. Women's Cancer Risk Rises with Years Spent Overweight

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160451.html Women's Cancer Risk Rises With Years Spent Overweight Study found odds for 4 types rose 10 percent for every decade of obesity To use the ... her risk of several cancers, researchers report. The study, which followed nearly 74, ...

  10. Spent Fuel Test - Climax data acquisition system operations manual

    SciTech Connect

    Nyholm, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granite rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. The multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system (DAS) collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the software element of the LLNL developed SFT-C Data Acquisition System. It defines the operating system and hardware interface configurations, the special applications software and data structures, and support software.

  11. Spent fuel test. Climax data acquisition system integration report

    SciTech Connect

    Nyholm, R.A.; Brough, W.G.; Rector, N.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) is a test of the retrievable, deep geologic storage of commercially generated, spent nuclear reactor fuel in granitic rock. Eleven spent fuel assemblies, together with 6 electrical simulators and 20 guard heaters, are emplaced 420 m below the surface in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. On June 2, 1978, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) secured funding for the SFT-C, and completed spent fuel emplacement May 28, 1980. This multi-year duration test is located in a remote area and is unattended much of the time. An extensive array of radiological safety and geotechnical instrumentation is deployed to monitor the test performance. A dual minicomputer-based data acquisition system collects and processes data from more than 900 analog instruments. This report documents the design and functions of the hardware and software elements of the Data Acquisition System and describes the supporting facilities which include environmental enclosures, heating/air-conditioning/humidity systems, power distribution systems, fire suppression systems, remote terminal stations, telephone/modem communications, and workshop areas. 9 figures.

  12. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  13. Time Spent Eating and Its Implications for Americans' Energy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zick, Cathleen D.; Stevens, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    The upward trend in Americans' weight has precipitated research aimed at identifying its underlying causes. In this paper we examine trends in Americans' time spent eating in an attempt to gain a better understanding of Americans' changing eating habits and their predictors. Data used in the analyses come from four national time use surveys…

  14. Spent nuclear fuel project design basis capacity study

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, K.J.

    1996-09-09

    A parametric study of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project system capacity is presented. The study was completed using a commercially available software package to develop a summary level model of the major project systems. Alternative configurations, sub-system cycle times, and operating scenarios were tested to identify their impact on total project duration and equipment requirements.

  15. 77 FR 28406 - Spent Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... time there have been two affirmations of this conclusion for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation... into the safety of SNF transportation. The risks associated with SNF transportation come from the... protection of public health and safety during the transportation of SNF. The staff is seeking any...

  16. Recycling practices of spent MgO-C refractories

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.

    2002-10-01

    The recycling options of spent MgO-C refractories from an electrical arc furnace (EAF) have been evaluated. The economic, quality of spent refractories and products made from it, the ease of implementation of a recycling practice and the interest of steel melt shops were considered. It was decided that the best option of most EAF shops would be to recycle spent MgO-C refractory as a foaming slag conditioner because of their MgO content. Crushed MgO-C spent refractories can be reused directly back into an EAF without complex and costly beneficiation. Even though this practice is simple, it is critical to know the optimum amount of MgO in the slag to achieve the best foaming quality. A computer model was designed to find the optimum MgO amount. This modeling also helps the melt shop extend refractory service life, increase the energy efficiency, increase productivity, and decrease the amount of slag. Issues related to the refractory recycling will be discussed.

  17. Do Workplace Flexibility Policies Influence Time Spent in Domestic Labor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Mary C.; Estes, Sarah Beth; Glass, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. midwestern sample of mothers and fathers, the authors examine whether using workplace flexibility policies alters time spent in housework and child care. They hypothesize that an individual's policy use will lead to more time in domestic labor and that his or her spouse's policy use will lead to less time in domestic labor.…

  18. Status of spent-fuel transportation system development

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.L.; Hall, I.K.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the Cask Systems Development Program (CSDP) is to develop a variety of cask systems that can safely and economically be used to move commercial spent fuel and high-level waste from the generator to the federal repository or monitored retrievable storage facility. There are four initiatives to the CSDP, but only the first, from reactor casks, has been activated. This paper is limited to a discussion of the status of that initiative. Schedule objectives for the CSDP include development of spent-fuel cask systems by 1995 to support the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management shipments of spent fuel from utilities beginning in the late 1990s. The US Department of Energy (DOE)-Idaho, with the support of EG G Idaho, Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, and selected cask development contractors, has been assigned the responsibility for developing a family of cask systems that are suitable for the task. Initially, four categories of spent-fuel casks were to be developed. They are legal-weight truck (LWT) casks, overweight truck (OWT) casks, rail/barge (R/B) casks, and dual purpose (DP) (storage/transport) casks. For a variety of reasons, OWT and DP cask development activities have been deferred. Program goals include developing a family of casks that will permit minimizing total system life cycle costs, ensure safety to the general public and to occupational workers, and attain public confidence in the transportation system.

  19. Pinhole Breaches in Spent Fuel Containers: Some Modeling Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarsham K.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2006-06-04

    This paper replaces PNNL-SA-48024 and incorporates the ANS reviewer's comments, including the change in the title. Numerical methods to solve the equations for gas diffusion through very small breaches in spent fuel containers are presented and compared with previous literature results.

  20. Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister (SSFC) Design Report Project W-518

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-27

    The SSFC Design Report Describes A spent fuel canister for Shippingport Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies. The design of the SSFC is a minor modification of the MCO. The modification is limited to the Shield Plug which remains unchanged with regard to interfaces with the canister shell. The performance characteristics remain those for the MCO, which bounds the payload of the SSFC.

  1. Separator assembly for use in spent nuclear fuel shipping cask

    DOEpatents

    Bucholz, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A separator assembly for use in a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask has a honeycomb-type wall structure defining parallel cavities for holding nuclear fuel assemblies. Tubes formed of an effective neutron-absorbing material are embedded in the wall structure around each of the cavities and provide neutron flux traps when filled with water.

  2. Microbial recovery of metals from spent catalysts. [Thiobacillus sulfolobus

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types are the subject of the contract. The first is a Ni-Mo catalyst supported on alumina (Shell 324) as is used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. This plant is run and operated by Southern Clean Fuels. A large sample of spent catalyst from this facility has been obtained. The second material is an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the No content of this particular sample is too low for the current studies and no new catalyst has since been obtained. The object of the contract is to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, but also other Thiobacillus sp. and possibly Sulfolobus, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which can be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  3. Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantiora, Dimitra

    2014-05-01

    Evaluation of malt spent rootlets biochar as catalyst for biodiesel production. Dimitra Pantiora1, Hrissi K. Karapanagioti1, Ioannis D. Manariotis2, Alexis Lycourghiotis1, Christos Kordulis1,3 (1) University of Patras, Department of Chemistry, GR 26500, Patras, Greece, (2) University of Patras, Department of Civil Engineering, Patras, Greece, (3) Institute of Chemical Engineering Science (FORTH/ ICE-HT), Stadiou Str., Platani, GR 26500, Patras, Greece Biodiesel is an attractive renewable fuel, environmentally friendly, and can readily be synthesized from the triglycerides found in animal fats and vegetable oils. It can be used in existing engines. Biodiesel consists of fatty acid alkyl esters. Conversion of triglycerides to biodiesel fuel is commonly achieved through a series of transesterification reactions involving the reaction of an alkoxy group of an ester (i.e., mono-, di-, or triglyceride) with that of a small alcohol (usually methanol). This reaction is traditionally catalyzed by homogeneous catalysts, such as bases or mineral acids. Basic catalysts have been proved to be much more active than acidic ones. However, due to environmental (waste water) and economic concerns (catalyst separation and product and by-product cleaning), heterogeneous catalysts are much more desirable. In the present study we have evaluated the use of biochar, produced from malt spent rootlets, as a potential basic catalyst, for transesterification of triglycerides using triacetin as a probe molecule. The biochar used in this study was prepared by heating malt spent rootlets in an oxygen-limited environment. It is a carbon rich material, containing 66% C, 22% O, 0.45% Mg, 0.86% Si, 5.7% K, 1.5% Cl, 0.61% Ca, and 2.4% P. Aqueous suspension of this material equilibrates at pH= 10. This is probably due to high K content. Furthermore, it exhibits high specific surface area (SSA= 183 m2g-1). The above described characteristics make this material very promising catalyst for

  4. Recycling of a spent iron based catalyst for the complete oxidation of toluene: effect of palladium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Chai; Nah, Jae Woon

    2015-01-01

    Complete oxidation of volatile organic compound (toluene) was carried out to assess the property and activity of the palladium-spent iron based catalyst. The properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized by using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method and by conducting temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and field emission transmission electron microscopy. The addition of palladium to the spent iron based catalyst pretreated with oxalic acid shifted the conversion curve for the total oxidation of toluene to lower temperature. An increase in the toluene conversion due to palladium was highly related to the easier lattice oxygen mobility of the catalysts. Instrumental analysis suggested the presence of a strong interaction between palladium and iron oxide species. Moreover, in the case of reducing the Pd/Fe catalyst with hydrogen, palladium accelerated the reducing iron oxides, subsequently decreasing the toluene conversion. As a result, the oxidation states of palladium and iron had an important effect on the catalytic activity.

  5. Preparation and storage stability of meat spread developed from spent hens

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Mendiratta, S. K.; Sen, Arup Ratan; Kandeepan, G.; Talukder, Suman; Sharma, Heena; Soni, Arvind; Irshad, A.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to develop a meat spread as a healthier alternative to already existing meat products utilizing undervalued spent hen meat to add a new dimension to meat products. Materials and Methods: Carcasses were processed within 30 min of slaughter and conditioned at 4±1°C for about 24 h and then braised along with other ingredients to get the final product. The products were evaluated for proximate composition, peroxide values, pH, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: The mean percent values for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, and total ash content of developed product were 58.75±0.32, 9.12±0.44, 11.19±0.16, and 2.35±0.17, respectively. No significant difference was observed for mean coliform and the yeast and mold counts with the progression of storage period, but samples differed significantly for mean pH, thiobarbituric acid and total viable plate count during storage of meat spread. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The meat spread was found to be a good alternative to process the underutilized spent hens for its efficient utilization for product development. PMID:27047151

  6. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Spent fuel behavior under abnormal thermal transients during dry storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, D.; Landow, M.P.; Burian, R.J.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of abnormally high temperatures on spent fuel behavior. Prior to testing, calculations using the CIRFI3 code were used to determine the steady-state fuel and cask component temperatures. The TRUMP code was used to determine transient heating rates under postulated abnormal events during which convection cooling of the cask surfaces was obstructed by a debris bed covering the cask. The peak rate of temperature rise during the first 6 h was calculated to be about 15/sup 0/C/h, followed by a rate of about 1/sup 0/C/h. A Turkey Point spent fuel rod segment was heated to approx. 800/sup 0/C. The segment deformed uniformly with an average strain of 17% at failure and a local strain of 60%. Pretest characterization of the spent fuel consisted of visual examination, profilometry, eddy-current examination, gamma scanning, fission gas collection, void volume measurement, fission gas analysis, hydrogen analysis of the cladding, burnup analysis, cladding metallography, and fuel ceramography. Post-test characterization showed that the failure was a pinhole cladding breach. The results of the tests showed that spent fuel temperatures in excess of 700/sup 0/C are required to produce a cladding breach in fuel rods pressurized to 500 psing (3.45 MPa) under postulated abnormal thermal transient cask conditions. The pinhole cladding breach that developed would be too small to compromise the confinement of spent fuel particles during an abnormal event or after normal cooling conditions are restored. This behavior is similar to that found in other slow ramp tests with irradiated and nonirradiated rod sections and nonirradiated whole rods under conditions that bracketed postulated abnormal heating rates. This similarity is attributed to annealing of the irradiation-strengthened Zircaloy cladding during heating. In both cases, the failure was a benign, ductile pinhole rupture.

  8. Regulation of spent nuclear fuel shipment: A state perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R.J.; Sinderbrand, C.; Woodbury, D.

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) sought to regulate rail shipments of spent nuclear fuel through the state, because federal regulations did not adequately protect the environmentally sensitive corridor along the route of the shipments. A state interagency working group identified five serious deficiencies in overall federal regulatory scheme: 1) failure to consider the safety or environmental risks associated with selected routes; 2) abscence of route-specific emergency response planning; 3) failure of the NRC to regulate the carrier of spent nuclear fuel or consider its safety record; 4) abscence of requirements for determination of need for, or the propriety of, specific shipments of spent nuclear fuel; and 5) the lack of any opportunity for meaningful public participation with respect to the decision to transport spent nuclear fuel. Pursuant to Wisconsin's hazardous substance statutes, the WDNR issues an order requiring the utility to file a spill prevention and mitigation plan or cease shipping through Wisconsin. A state trial court judge upheld the utility's challenge to Wisconsin's spill plan requirements, based on federal preemption of state authority. The state is now proposing federal legislation which would require: 1) NRC determination of need prior to approval of offsite shipment of spent fuel by the licensees; 2) NRC assessment of the potential environmental impacts of shipments along the proposed route, and comparative evaluation of alternative modes and routes; and 3) NRC approval of a route-specific emergency response and mitigation plan, including local training and periodic exercises. Additionally, the proposed legislation would authorize States and Indian Tribes to establish regulatory programs providing for permits, inspection, contingency plans for monitoring, containments, cleanup and decontamination, surveillance, enforcement and reasonable fees. 15 refs.

  9. Near-term commercial spent fuel shipping cask requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes an analysis of the near-term commercial light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel transportation system. The objective was to determine if the existing commercial spent fuel shipping cask fleet is adequate to provide the needed transportation services for the period of time the US government would be authorized to accept spent fuel for Federal Interim Storage (FIS). A spent fuel shipping cask supply-demand analysis was performed to evaluate the existing fleet size. The results of the shipping cask handling capability study indicated that by weight, 75% of the spent fuel shipments will be by truck (overweight plus legal-weight truck). From the results of the shipping cask supply-demand analysis it was concluded that, if utilities begin large-scale applications for FIS, the five legal-weight truck (LWT) casks currently in service would be inadequate to perform all of the needed shipments as early as 1987. This further assumes that a western site would be selected for the FIS facility. If the FIS site were to be located in the East, the need for additional LWT casks would be delayed by about two years. The overweight truck (OWT) cask fleet (two PWR and two BWR versions) will be adequate through 1992 if some shipments to FIS can be made several years before a reactor is projected to lose full core reserve. This is because OWT cask requirements increase gradually over the next several years. The feasibility of shipping before losing full core reserve has not been evaluated. Cask utilization requirements in later years will be reduced if some shipments can be made prior to the time they are actually needed. The existing three rail casks are adequate to perform near-term shipments. 18 references, 4 figures, 18 tables.

  10. Air Shipment of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Romania to Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Lucian Biro; Alexander Buchelnikov

    2010-10-01

    Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without shipment license special exceptions when the last Romanian highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel was transported to the Russian Federation in June 2009. This air shipment required the design, fabrication, and licensing of special 20 foot freight containers and cask tiedown supports to transport the eighteen TUK 19 shipping casks on a Russian commercial cargo aircraft. The new equipment was certified for transport by road, rail, water, and air to provide multi modal transport capabilities for shipping research reactor spent fuel. The equipment design, safety analyses, and fabrication were performed in the Russian Federation and transport licenses were issued by both the Russian and Romanian regulatory authorities. The spent fuel was transported by truck from the VVR S research reactor to the Bucharest airport, flown by commercial cargo aircraft to the airport at Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to the final destination in a secure nuclear facility at Chelyabinsk, Russia. This shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU was coordinated by the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), in close cooperation with the Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, and was managed in Romania by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). This paper describes the planning, shipment preparations, equipment design, and license approvals that resulted in the safe and secure air shipment of this spent nuclear fuel.

  11. On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterson, James M.; Lines, Amanda M.; Jordan, Elizabeth A.; Verdugo, Dawn E.; Skomurski, Frances N.

    2011-07-19

    There is a renewed interest worldwide to promote the use of nuclear power and close the nuclear fuel cycle. The long term successful use of nuclear power is critically dependent upon adequate and safe processing and disposition of the spent nuclear fuel Liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique commonly employed for the processing of the dissolved spent nuclear fuel. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. In addition, the ability for continuous on-line monitoring allows for numerous benefits. Our team experimentally assessed the potential of Raman and vis-NIR spectrophotometric techniques for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid and Pu(IV)/Np(V)/Nd(III), respectively, in solutions relevant to spent fuel reprocessing. Both techniques demonstrated robust performance in the repetitive batch measurements of each analyte in a wide concentration range using simulant and commercial dissolved spent fuel solutions. Static spectroscopic measurements served as training sets for the multivariate data analysis to obtain partial least squares predictive models, which were validated using on-line centrifugal contactor extraction tests. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the PUREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as

  12. Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wei, Chien-Mei; Siao, Jen-Hung; Tsai, Tsang-Chi; Ko, Wang-Ping; Chang, Kuei-Jen; Hii, Choon-Hoon; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE) in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1–10 mg/mL) and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25–50 μM) effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid. PMID:27375763

  13. Supercritical Fluid Extract of Spent Coffee Grounds Attenuates Melanogenesis through Downregulation of the PKA, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Wei, Chien-Mei; Siao, Jen-Hung; Tsai, Tsang-Chi; Ko, Wang-Ping; Chang, Kuei-Jen; Hii, Choon-Hoon; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2016-01-01

    The mode of action of spent coffee grounds supercritical fluid CO2 extract (SFE) in melanogenesis has never been reported. In the study, the spent coffee grounds were extracted by the supercritical fluid CO2 extraction method; the chemical constituents of the SFE were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the SFE and its major fatty acid components on melanogenesis were evaluated by mushroom tyrosinase activity assay and determination of intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content. The expression level of melanogenesis-related proteins was analyzed by western blotting assay. The results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds (1-10 mg/mL) and its major fatty acids such as linoleic acid and oleic acid (6.25-50 μM) effectively suppressed melanogenesis in the B16F10 murine melanoma cells. Furthermore, the SFE decreased the expression of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2). The SFE also decreased the protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-p38, p-ERK, and p-CREB. Our results revealed that the SFE of spent coffee grounds attenuated melanogenesis in B16F10 cells by downregulation of protein kinase A (PKA), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways, which may be due to linoleic acid and oleic acid. PMID:27375763

  14. Fenton- and Persulfate-driven Regeneration of Contaminant-spent Granular Activated Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenton- or persulfate-driven chemical oxidation regeneration of spent granular activated carbon (GAC) involves the combined, synergistic use of two treatment technologies: adsorption of organic chemicals onto GAC and chemical oxidation regeneration of the spent-GAC. Environmental...

  15. Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores

    2017-02-01

    The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:27596399

  16. Mercury reduction studies to facilitate the thermal decontamination of phosphor powder residues from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Alves Durao, Walter; Andreva de Castro, Camila; Carvalhinho Windmoeller, Claudia

    2008-11-15

    This work investigates the thermal release of mercury from phosphor powder of spent fluorescent lamps. The treatment conditions and the ability of various reducing agents (primarily sodium borohydride) to lower the overall heating temperature required to improve the release of Hg have been evaluated. Hg species in samples were monitored in a thermal desorption atomic absorption spectrometer system, and total mercury was analyzed in a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer. Sodium borohydride was the best reducing agent among the ones studied. However, citric acid presented a high capacity to weaken mercury bonds with the matrix. When the sample was crushed with sodium borohydride for 40 min in a mass ratio of 10:1 (sample:reducing agent) and submitted to thermal treatment at 300 deg. C for 2 h, the concentration of mercury in a phosphor powder sample with 103 mg kg{sup -1} of mercury reached 6.6 mg kg{sup -1}.

  17. Mercury reduction studies to facilitate the thermal decontamination of phosphor powder residues from spent fluorescent lamps.

    PubMed

    Durão, Walter Alves; de Castro, Camila Andreva; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2008-11-01

    This work investigates the thermal release of mercury from phosphor powder of spent fluorescent lamps. The treatment conditions and the ability of various reducing agents (primarily sodium borohydride) to lower the overall heating temperature required to improve the release of Hg have been evaluated. Hg species in samples were monitored in a thermal desorption atomic absorption spectrometer system, and total mercury was analyzed in a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer. Sodium borohydride was the best reducing agent among the ones studied. However, citric acid presented a high capacity to weaken mercury bonds with the matrix. When the sample was crushed with sodium borohydride for 40 min in a mass ratio of 10:1 (sample:reducing agent) and submitted to thermal treatment at 300 degrees C for 2 h, the concentration of mercury in a phosphor powder sample with 103 mg kg(-1) of mercury reached 6.6 mg kg(-1).

  18. Pre-hydrolysis with carbohydrases facilitates the release of protein from brewer's spent grain.

    PubMed

    Niemi, Piritta; Martins, Duarte; Buchert, Johanna; Faulds, Craig B

    2013-05-01

    Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant side-stream from brewing. It is food-grade being rich in dietary fibre and protein and thus having potential as their source for both food and non-food applications. Initial treatment of milled BSG with a carbohydrase cocktail from Humicola insolens significantly enhanced the subsequent solubilisation of protein from the residual biomass. When treated with an alkaline protease, 76% of BSG protein was solubilized, whereas the yields were significantly lower with neutral or acidic proteases. In alkaline conditions significant amount of protein (53%) as predominantly low molecular weight protein was solubilized even without any protease addition. The degree of protein solubilisation was influenced by the time of exposure of modified BSG to the alkaline environment. The non-enzymatic protein solubilisation was, however, only observed when BSG had been initially treated with the carbohydrase, suggesting the protein is surrounded by cell wall polysaccharides restricting its initial release.

  19. Report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel. Midwestern high-level radioactive waste transportation project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The report on interim storage of spent nuclear fuel discusses the technical, regulatory, and economic aspects of spent-fuel storage at nuclear reactors. The report is intended to provide legislators state officials and citizens in the Midwest with information on spent-fuel inventories, current and projected additional storage requirements, licensing, storage technologies, and actions taken by various utilities in the Midwest to augment their capacity to store spent nuclear fuel on site.

  20. Determination of Plutonium Content in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Fensin, M. L.; Lee, S. Y.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Menlovea, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Rajasingume, A.; Schearf, M. A.; Smith, L. E.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-06-30

    There are a variety of reasons for quantifying plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel such as independently verifying the Pu content declared by a regulated facility, making shipper/receiver mass declarations, and quantifying the input mass at a reprocessing facility. As part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, NA-241 has recently funded a multilab/university collaboration to determine the elemental Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies. This research effort is anticipated to be a five year effort: the first part of which is a two years Monte Carlo modeling effort to integrate and down-select among 13 nondestructive assay (NDA) technologies, followed by one year for fabricating instruments and then two years for measuring spent fuel. This paper gives a brief overview of the approach being taken for the Monte Carlo research effort. In addition, preliminary results for the first NDA instrument studied in detail, delayed neutron detection, will be presented. In order to cost effectively and robustly model the performance of several NDA techniques, an"assembly library" was created that contains a diverse range of pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies (burnup, enrichment, cooling time) similar to that which exists in spent pools today and in the future, diversion scenarios that capture a range of possible rod removal options, spatial and isotopic detail needed to accurately quantify the capability of all the NDA techniques so as to enable integration. Integration is being designed into this study from the beginning since it is expected that the best performance will be obtained by combining a few NDA techniques. The performance of each instrument will be quantified for the full assembly library in three different media: air, water and borated water. In this paper the preliminary capability of delayed neutron detection will be quantified for the spent fuel library for all three media. The 13 NDA techniques being researched are the following: Delayed Gamma, Delayed