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Sample records for acid plasma concentrations

  1. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  2. Plasma bile acid concentrations in response to feeding in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus).

    PubMed

    Lumeij, J T; Remple, J D

    1992-01-01

    A significant post-prandial increase of plasma bile acid concentration (PBAC) was observed in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). In order to avoid physiological food-induced elevations in PBAC, which can complicate interpretation of plasma chemistry results in birds of prey, it is recommended that blood samples be obtained after a fasting period of at least 24 hours.

  3. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and skeletal muscle after transurethral resection syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R; Essén, P; Wernerman, J

    1992-01-01

    The concentrations of amino acids in plasma and skeletal muscle were measured 1 and 4 hours after transurethral prostatic resection in three patients who developed symptoms of the transurethral resection syndrome. The irrigating solution contained 1.5% of glycine and 1% of ethanol. The concentrations of glycine in plasma and muscle were equal within an hour of the operation, and at four hours the abnormally high glycine concentration persisted in muscle, though it had decreased rapidly in plasma. Our data suggest that skeletal muscle is a quantitatively important reservoir for glycine when this amino acid is supplied in potentially toxic amounts, but that the plasma glycine concentration returns to normal as the patient's clinical condition improves. PMID:1279783

  4. Elevated plasma bile acid concentrations in two sisters with tyrosinaemia type I.

    PubMed

    Sass, J O; Skladal, D

    2000-02-01

    A 21-month-old girl suffering from tyrosinaemia type I and undergoing treatment with 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoro-methylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC) presented with pruritus which rapidly ceased with administration of high doses of ursodeoxycholic acid. Determination of plasma bile acids revealed clearly elevated levels both in samples taken before and after the onset of NTBC therapy, thus indicating, that the increase was not related to the administration of this drug. This result is corroborated by data from the first patient's newborn sister, diagnosed with the same disease, who showed elevated plasma bile acid concentrations in all samples examined, except for the cord plasma. This is the first report on altered bile acid concentrations in tyrosinaemia type I, and underlines the need for thorough investigation of bile acid metabolism in this disease.

  5. Plasma and synovial fluid meclofenamic acid concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Koup, J R; Thomas, D; Tucker, E; Black, A; Ruderman, M; Dixon, J A; Kinkel, A

    1988-01-01

    We have measured plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of meclofenamic acid at 2, 4, 8, and 12 h during steady-state administration (100 mg three times daily for 4-7 days). Paired plasma and synovial samples were obtained pre-treatment and at one of the above times in twelve patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the extent of protein binding of meclofenamic acid was assessed in vitro in the pre-treatment plasma and synovial fluid specimens. Peak total concentrations of 1.73 and 0.86 micrograms.ml-1 were observed in plasma (at 2 h) and synovial fluid (at 4 h) respectively. The extent of protein binding was 99.7 and 99.6% (not significantly different) in plasma and synovial fluid respectively. The results of this study are compared to those from similar reported studies of other nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory compounds.

  6. Plasma osmotic and electrolyte concentrations of largemouth bass from some acidic Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Canfield, D.E. Jr.; Maceina, M.J.; Nordlie, F.G.; Shireman, J.V.

    1985-05-01

    Five acidic clear (pH 3.7-4.9), three acidic colored (pH 4.1-4.6), and three neutral (pH 6.9-7.3) north-central Florida lakes were surveyed in 1983 to determine plasma osmotic and electrolyte concentrations, growth, and coefficients of condition for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Plasma osmotic concentrations averaged greater than 273 milliosmoles/kg in fish from acidic colored and circumneutral lakes, but averaged less than 269 milliosmoles/kg in four of the acidic clear lakes. Growth and coefficients of condition of largemouth bass > 305 mm total length in the acidic lakes were significantly lower than in the neutral lakes. Reductions in fish growth and condition, however, could be related to either acidic conditions or lake trophic status. 29 references, 3 tables.

  7. Forced swimming and imipramine modify plasma and brain amino acid concentrations in mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsuro; Yamane, Haruka; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus in mice. Forced swimming caused cerebral cortex concentrations of L-glutamine, L-alanine, and taurine to be increased, while imipramine treatment caused decreased concentrations of L-glutamate, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, and L-ornithine. In the hypothalamus, forced swimming decreased the concentration of L-serine while imipramine treatment caused increased concentration of beta-alanine. Forced swimming caused increased plasma concentration of taurine, while concentrations of L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamine and beta-alanine were decreased. Imipramine treatment caused increased plasma concentration of all amino acid, except for L-aspartate and taurine. In conclusion, forced swimming and imipramine treatment modify central and peripheral amino acid metabolism. These results may aid in the identification of amino acids that have antidepressant-like effects, or may help to refine the dosages of antidepressant drugs. PMID:19010319

  8. Plasma urea, creatinine and uric acid concentrations in relation to feeding in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus).

    PubMed

    Lumeij, J T; Remple, J D

    1991-03-01

    Significant post-prandial increases in plasma uric acid and plasma urea concentrations were observed in peregrine falcons. Post-prandial uric acid concentrations were similar to those in birds suffering from hyperuricaemia and gout and were well above the theoretical limit of solubility of sodium urate in plasma. It is not clear why under normal circumstances no urate deposits occur in peregrine falcons (and probably other raptorial birds), which show hyperuricaemia for at least 12 h after ingesting a natural meal. It is important to evaluate renal function in peregrine falcons (and perhaps other birds) after a 24-h fast to avoid misinterpretation due to physiological food-induced elevated concentrations of nonprotein nitrogen substances.

  9. Comprehensive Profiling of Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Young Healthy Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; Clarke, Shannon E.; Nielsen, Daiva E.; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Mutch, David M.; Ma, David W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating fatty acids (FA) are associated with a multitude of chronic diseases. However, a major gap in establishing such relationships is the lack of accepted fatty acid reference ranges representing healthy individuals. Data on validated FA reference ranges would provide a better understanding of study baseline measures and aid in the evaluation and interpretation of pharmaceutical or dietary interventions. Reference ranges for plasma FA levels have been reported in a few small studies and on a limited number of FA. Therefore, we determined the average and percentiles of a broad set of 61 FA (C14 - C24:1) from plasma total lipids from an ethnically diverse population of healthy young Canadian males and females (Total n = 826). Plasma concentrations of some of the major FA ranged from 0.3 to 4.1 mmol/L for palmitic acid, 0.1 to 1.0 mmol/L for stearic acid, 0.03 to 3.2 mmol/L for oleic acid, 0.2 to 5.0 mmol/L for linoleic acid (LA), 12.0 to 186.9 μmol/L for α-linolenic acid, and 7.2 to 237.5 μmol/L for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Males had significantly higher plasma concentrations of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and lower concentrations of palmitoleic acid, LA and DHA than females. Comparison of FA concentrations between Caucasians, East Asians and South Asians revealed that South Asians had significantly lower levels of palmitoleic acid (p < 0.01) and oleic acid (p = 0.01) while East Asians had lower levels of GLA (p = 0.02) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (p = 0.03). Overall, these data provide a comprehensive set of quantitative values that profiles a small cohort of Canadians which highlights the utility of establishing validated FA reference ranges that may be used to understand how deficient, suboptimal, or excess amounts of a given FA may be associated with chronic disease. PMID:25675440

  10. Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of free amino acids in adult humans administered abuse doses of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Baker, G L

    1981-02-01

    Plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of amino acids were measured in 18 fasting adult subjects (9 male, 9 female) administered abuse doses of aspartame (100, 150, and 200 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in 500 ml orange juice. Six subjects were studied at each dose. Plasma aspartate concentrations increased significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) over baseline values after ingestion of each dose. However, the increase was small in each case, and maximal levels observed were below those noted postprandially in formula-fed infants. No significant changes (p greater than 0.05) were noted in erythrocyte glutamate, or erythrocyte aspartate concentrations after any dose. Plasma phenylalanine concentrations increased significantly over fasting concentrations (p less than 0.01) from 15 min to 6 h after each dose, and the increase was proportional to dose. Mean (+/- SD) peak plasma phenylalanine concentrations were 20.3 +/- 2.03, 35.1 +/- 11.3, and 48.7 +/- 15.5 mumol/dl, respectively, after aspartame doses of 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg. Erythrocyte phenylalanine concentrations showed similar changes. Although these phenylalanine concentrations are considerably above the normal postprandial range (12 +/- 3 mumol/dl), they are below values associated with toxic findings. These data indicate little risk to normal subjects from excessive aspartate or phenylalanine levels after ingestion of single abuse loads of aspartame.

  11. Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Predict Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Bartels, Michael; Becker, Susen; Scholz, Markus; Thiery, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background The liver plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. In former studies, a ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (Fischer’s ratio) revealed associations with hepatic encephalopathy. Furthermore, low concentrations of branched-chain amino acids were linked to sarcopenia in literature. Encephalopathy and sarcopenia are known to dramatically worsen the prognosis. Aim of this study was to investigate a complex panel of plasma amino acids in the context of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. Methods 166 patients evaluated for orthotopic liver transplantation were included. 19 amino acids were measured from citrated plasma samples using mass spectrometry. We performed survival analysis for plasma amino acid constellations and examined the relationship to established mortality predictors. Results 33/166 (19.9%) patients died during follow-up. Lower values of valine (p<0.001), Fischer’s ratio (p<0.001) and valine to phenylalanine ratio (p<0.001) and higher values of phenylalanine (p<0.05) and tyrosine (p<0.05) were significantly associated with mortality. When divided in three groups, the tertiles discriminated cumulative survival for valine (p = 0.016), phenylalanine (p = 0.024) and in particular for valine to phenylalanine ratio (p = 0.003) and Fischer’s ratio (p = 0.005). Parameters were also significantly correlated with MELD and MELD-Na score. Conclusions Amino acids in plasma are valuable biomarkers to determine increased risk of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. In particular, valine concentrations and constellations composed of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were strongly associated with prognosis. Due to their pathophysiological importance, the identified amino acids could be used to examine individual dietary recommendations to serve as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27410482

  12. Repeated ingestion of aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Baker, G L

    1988-03-01

    Aspartame (APM) is a dipeptide sweetener (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester). It has been suggested that excessive use of the product might elevate plasma aspartate and phenylalanine concentrations. Eight normal adults (four male, four female) ingested three successive 12-oz servings of APM-sweetened beverage at two-hour intervals. The study was carried out in two parts in a randomized cross-over design. In one study the beverage was not sweetened. In the other, the beverage provided 10 mg APM/kg body weight per serving. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured throughout the six-hour study period. The addition of APM to the beverage had no significant effect on plasma aspartate concentration. APM addition did increase plasma phenylalanine levels 1.64 to 2.05 mumol/dL above baseline values (5.09 +/- 0.82 mumol/dL) 30 to 45 minutes after each dose. However, plasma phenylalanine levels did not exceed normal postprandial values at any time. The data indicate ready metabolism of APM's amino acid content when administered at levels likely to be ingested by individuals who are heavy users of such beverages.

  13. Plasma free fatty acid metabolism during storage of platelet concentrates for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Cesar, J; DiMinno, G; Alam, I; Silver, M; Murphy, S

    1987-01-01

    New containers allow storage of platelet concentrates (PC) at 22 degrees C for up to 7 days, during which glycolytic and oxidative metabolism is vigorous. Recent evidence suggests that 85 percent of adenosine triphosphate regeneration is based on oxidative metabolism and that substrates other than glucose may be used. Because platelets can oxidize free fatty acids (FFA) as a possible source of energy during storage, the authors studied their availability, distribution, and turnover. Plasma FFA concentration was unchanged after 1 day of PC storage but significantly increased on Days 3, 5, and 7. Platelet-free plasma (PFP) stored under the same conditions as PC demonstrated a progressive increase in FFA, suggesting that some of the FFA accumulating in PC were derived from plasma rather than platelets. Indeed, during PC storage, plasma triglycerides decreased significantly, suggesting that they are a possible source of the increased levels of FFA found on Day 3 and thereafter. Thus, PC have a plasma FFA pool available continuously for oxidation during storage. Studies with radiolabeled palmitate suggested that FFA oxidation by platelets occurs during storage. The current findings show that plasma FFA could be a significant substrate for oxidative metabolism during storage of PC and that the oxidized FFA are replenished at least in part from plasma. These results may allow platelet storage to be improved, particularly in synthetic media. PMID:3629676

  14. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  15. Plasma amino acid concentrations in normal adults administered aspartame in capsules or solution: lack of bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E

    1987-05-01

    Some clinical studies require administration of test compounds in capsules to assure that the compound cannot be distinguished from a placebo. This raises the question of whether the pharmacokinetic responses produced by capsule administration are similar to values obtained when test compounds are ingested in solution. To test this, plasma phenylalanine and aspartate concentrations were compared in ten normal subjects ingesting 3 g aspartame in solution and in capsules in a balanced Latin square design. Peak plasma phenylalanine levels were significantly higher (191 +/- 65.4 v 117 +/- 39.5 mumol/L, mean +/- SD) and were reached significantly earlier (32 +/- 15 v 123 +/- 74 minutes) when aspartame was administered in solution than when it was administered in capsules. The area under the four-hour plasma phenylalanine concentration-time curve was significantly higher (15,340 +/- 4,820 v 8,465 +/- 3,356 mumol/L X min) when aspartame was ingested in solution. Administration in solution also produced a significantly higher ratio of plasma phenylalanine concentration to the sum of the plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids (0.36 +/- 0.12 v 0.23 +/- 0.06). Similarly, peak plasma aspartate concentrations were significantly higher 26.2 +/- 16.3 v 10.4 +/- 5.0 mumol/L) and were reached significantly earlier (30 +/- 14 v 106 +/- 61.3 min) when aspartame was administered in solution. The data indicate different plasma phenylalanine and aspartate pharmacokinetics between solution and capsule administration of aspartame.

  16. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma concentration of adipic acid was significantly higher by 101.6% one year after total gastrectomy procedure in the patients when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.01). Plasma concentration of silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid

  17. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men

    PubMed Central

    Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma concentration of adipic acid was significantly higher by 101.6% one year after total gastrectomy procedure in the patients when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.01). Plasma concentration of silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid

  18. Phytanic acid: measurement of plasma concentrations by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and associations with diet and other plasma fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Naomi E; Grace, Philip B; Ginn, Annette; Travis, Ruth C; Roddam, Andrew W; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that a diet rich in animal foods may be associated with an increased risk of several cancers, including cancers of the prostate, colorectum and breast, but the possible mechanism is unclear. It is hypothesised that phytanic acid, a C20 branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in foods from ruminant animals, may be involved in early cancer development because it has been shown to up regulate activity of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, an enzyme commonly found to be over-expressed in tumour cells compared with normal tissue. However, little is known about the distribution of plasma phytanic acid concentrations or its dietary determinants in the general population. The primary aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine circulating phytanic acid concentrations among ninety-six meat-eating, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan women, aged 20-69 years, recruited into the Oxford component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Meat-eaters had, on average, a 6.7-fold higher geometric mean plasma phytanic acid concentration than the vegans (5.77 v. 0.86 micromol/l; P < 0.0001) and a 47 % higher mean concentration than the vegetarians (5.77 v. 3.93 micromol/l; P = 0.016). The strongest determinant of plasma phytanic acid concentration appeared to be dairy fat intake (r 0.68; P < 0.0001); phytanic acid levels were not associated with age or other lifestyle factors. These data show that a diet high in fat from dairy products is associated with increased plasma phytanic acid concentration, which may play a role in cancer development. PMID:17868488

  19. Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations in 108 Children Receiving a Pediatric Amino Acid Formulation as Part of Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Chasity M.; Clark, Amanda J.; Storm, Michael C.; Helms, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Plasma amino acid (PAA) levels can be largely normalized during parenteral nutrition (PN) in infants and children using a pediatric-specific amino acid (AA) formulation. However, these previous results were based on individual clinical studies of small populations of neonates and infants. OBJECTIVE We have now examined AA levels in 108 children (0–7 years of age) receiving a pediatric-specific AA formulation in PN using a single analytical methodology. METHODS Infants and children were enrolled in specific protocols and parents/caregivers gave informed consent. Patients were stable and receiving age-appropriate intakes of AA and non-protein calories. Samples were obtained between 8 and10 am, processed immediately, deproteinized, and AA concentrations (μmol/L) were determined on a Beckman 6300 analyzer. Means and SD were calculated for sub-populations stratified by age: 0–1 month (48 patients, n=139), 1–6 months (36 patients, n=124), 7–12 months (11 patients, n=41), and 1–7 years (13 patients, n=51). Z scores were calculated for each amino acid [(observed mean - normal control mean)/normal control SD]. RESULTS When compared to the neonatal reference range, nonessential AA had Z scores that ranged from −1.84 (asparagine) to +1.48 (threonine). Only plasma free cystine, free tyrosine, and phenylalanine had Z scores outside the −2.0 to +2.0 range (95% confidence limits). Plasma free cystine values were low in all groups except neonates. Free tyrosine levels were low in all groups despite the presence of N-acetyl-L-tyrosine in the pediatric AA formulation. Phenylalanine levels were elevated only in neonates. When children 1 to 7 years old were compared with an age-matched reference range, plasma free cystine values were low (Z score −2.47), as were plasma glutamine values (−3.11), but elevations were found in the dicarboxylic amino acids aspartic acid (+2.5) and glutamic acid (+4.27). Regardless of reference range used for comparison, all

  20. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma concentrations of free amino acids, insulin, and energy substrates in young men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Sato, Juichi; Bajotto, Gustavo; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in the concentrations of plasma free amino acids, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and urea nitrogen induced by branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young men. Overnight-fasted subjects ingested drinks containing 1 or 5 g of a BCAA mixture (weight ratio of 1 : 2.3 : 1.2 for isoleucine : leucine : valine), and blood was intermittently collected for 3 h after ingestion. Ingestion of the BCAA mixture resulted in significant increases in the plasma concentrations of individual BCAAs, corresponding to the amounts of amino acids ingested. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids tended to decrease in the trial with 5 g BCAAs, suggesting that BCAA ingestion affects the metabolism of these amino acids. The ingestion of BCAAs temporarily increased plasma insulin levels and affected plasma concentrations of FFAs, but had almost no effect on glucose or urea nitrogen. PMID:21512300

  1. Concentrations of unmetabolized folic acid and primary folate forms in plasma after folic acid treatment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rima; Kirsch, Susanne H; Kasoha, Mariz; Eckert, Rudolf; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Folate deficiency can cause age-related disease. Folic acid (FA) has been used in studies aiming at disease prevention. Recently, unmetabolized FA in plasma raised public health concerns; but numerous studies used FA for disease prevention. Concentrations of the folate forms FA, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), and tetrahydrofolate (THF) were measured before and after 3-week placebo or FA 5 mg, vitamin B6 40 mg, and cyanocobalamin 2 mg per day administrated to 74 older adults (median age, 82 years). Concentrations of 5-MTHF and total homocysteine (tHcy) (r = -0.392) and S-adenosylmethionine (r = 0.329) were correlated at baseline. Twenty-six percent of the elderly subjects had unmetabolized FA in plasma at the start, and concentrations of FA were increased after 3 weeks of FA treatment (median FA = 0.08 nmol/L at baseline and 15.3 nmol/L at the end of the treatment in the vitamin group). Folic acid caused a 10- and a 5-fold increase in 5-MTHF and THF, respectively, and lowered tHcy (median tHcy = 17.2 μmol/L at baseline vs 9.0 μmol/L after treatment). Concentrations of unmetabolized FA were positively related to those of 5-MTHF and THF. People showed wide variations in folate forms at baseline, but these were reduced after FA treatment. Folic acid given to older adults is mostly converted to THF and 5-MTHF and lowered concentrations of tHcy, but caused a substantial increase in unmetabolized FA in the plasma.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and effects on plasma retinol concentrations of 13-cis-retinoic acid in melanoma patients.

    PubMed Central

    Formelli, F.; Cavadini, E.; Mascheroni, L.; Belli, F.; Cascinelli, N.

    1997-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cisRA) and its effects on retinol plasma levels were investigated after the first and the last doses in melanoma patients, who participated in a study run to assess tolerance over a long period of a treatment schedule of 13cisRA associated with recombinant interferon alpha2a (rIFN-alpha2a). Melanoma patients with regional node metastases after radical surgery were randomized to be treated for 3 months with rIFN-alpha2a, 3 x 10(6) IU s.c. every other day, associated with oral 13cisRA at doses of 20 mg day(-1) (five patients) or 40 mg every other day (seven patients). Maximum 13cisRA blood concentrations usually occurred 4 h after drug administration, with average values of 406 and 633 ng ml(-1) (i.e. 1.3 and 2.1 microM) after the 20 and 40 mg dose respectively. The average half-life (t(1/2)) was approximately 30 h. The maximum concentration, the t(1/2) and the area under the concentration-time curves from 0 to 48 h (AUC(0-48)) of 13cisRA did not change after multiple dosing, whereas the AUC(0-48) of its major blood metabolite, 4-oxo-13-cis-retinoic acid, increased. Immediately after 13cisRA treatment, retinol plasma levels started to decline and they reached the lowest values (approximately 20% reduction) shortly after the time of maximum 13cisRA concentrations (i.e. 4-12 h after drug intake). Afterwards, values returned to baseline. The amount of retinol reduction in time was correlated with 13cisRA maximum concentrations. PMID:9413958

  3. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina dose. With the exception of Trp and Gly, AID values decreased (P < 0.05) linearly or quadratically for all amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Plasma concentrations of Arg and Tyr decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina inoculation dose and plasma Gln and Asn decreased quadratically (P < 0.01). Linear increases (P < 0.05) were observed for plasma Lys, Leu, Ile, Val, Pro, and Orn as E. acervulina inoculation dose increased. Plasma α1-acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations

  4. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina dose. With the exception of Trp and Gly, AID values decreased (P < 0.05) linearly or quadratically for all amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Plasma concentrations of Arg and Tyr decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina inoculation dose and plasma Gln and Asn decreased quadratically (P < 0.01). Linear increases (P < 0.05) were observed for plasma Lys, Leu, Ile, Val, Pro, and Orn as E. acervulina inoculation dose increased. Plasma α1-acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations

  5. Elevated anthranilic acid plasma concentrations in type 1 but not type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory; van der Hart, Marieke; Summergrad, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data suggested involvement of tryptophan (Trp) – kynurenine (Kyn) pathway (TKP) in mechanisms of autoimmune, type 1 (T1D), and metabolic, type 2 (T2D), diabetes. However, clinical evaluations of TKP metabolites were limited to T2D. We assessed Trp, Kyn and TKP metabolites: anthranilic (AA), kynurenic (KYNA) and xanthurenic (XA) acids, in plasma samples of fifteen T1D, thirty T2D patients and twenty eight non-diabetic subjects by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Trp concentrations were higher in T1D than in T2D and controls while Kyn concentrations were not changed suggesting down-regulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme of TKP, in T1D. AA concentrations were 2.3-fold higher in T1D than in T2D and in controls. KYNA and XA concentrations were higher in T1D than in controls, and in previously reported T2D. AA elevation might be a specific feature of T1D. TKP shift towards AA formation in T1D may result from riboflavin deficiency, that increases AA in rats and baboons, and is highly associated with T1D but not T2D. AA augments autoimmune-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cells (PC) by increasing formation of antibodies to PC auto-antigen. Marked increase of AA was reported in rheumatoid arthritis, another autoimmune disorder. Trp, an essential amino acid for humans, is synthesized from AA by diabetogenic intestinal microbiome. AA down-regulates IDO by inhibition of Trp entry into cells. Resulting elevation of Trp attenuates Trp depletion-induced protection of PC against autoimmunity. Further studies of TKP might offer new tools for prevention and treatment of T1D and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:26523229

  6. Effects of starvation, surgery and infusion of adrenocorticotrophin on plasma amino acid concentration in the pregnant ewe.

    PubMed

    Slater, J S; Mellor, D J

    1977-01-01

    Total plasma amino acid concentrations (TAA) in 12 Scottish Blackface ewes between 80 and 140 days of pregnancy were unaltered by two days of starvation, but concentrations of essential amino acids (EAA) increased and non-essential amino acid (NAA) levels decreased. These trends were more pronounced later in pregnancy. Ewes fasted before surgery to implant fetal catheters showed marked reductions in mean TAA levels (--26 per cent, n-5) on the day after operation (day+ 1). Half of this decrease was accounted for by glycine. Mean concentrations of NAA increased after day +1 but by day +6 were still 15 per cent below baseline values. In contrast mean plasma concentrations of EAA were 31 per cent above prestarvation levels on day +6 and maximal on day +4(+39 per cent). Following a two-day fast, sheep given half rations and simultaneously infused with adrenocorticotrophin showed changes in plasma-free amino acid composition like those observed during the two days after operation. Disturbances to plasma amino acid concetrations persisted for up to 12 days after operation and are attributed to the preoperative starvation and the combined effects of irregular feeding patterns and elevated plasma corticosteroid levels during and after operation.

  7. Abnormal concentrations of B vitamins and amino acids in plasma and B vitamins in bile of rabbits with aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Viogt, M N; Clarke, J D; Jain, A V; Ayres, J C; Koehler, P E; Hatch, R C

    1981-01-01

    The dosages of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) required to produce significant changes in concentrations of B vitamins in plasma and bile and of amino acids in plasma of rabbits were determined. Folate increased by 98% in plasma, whereas concentration of thiamine, vitamin B6, and biotin decreased by more than 50%. In bile, choline and biotin increased 14- and 18-fold, respectively, whereas folate and niacin decreased by more than 50%. All amino acids in plasma increased between 76 and 155%. The dosages of AFB1 required to induce these changes were usually between 12.5 and 37.5 microgram/kg of body weight per day. Except for changes in biliary concentrations of pantothenic acid, folic acid, and biotin, lower threshold dosages of aflatoxin were required to produce weight loss and anorexia (5.0 and 8.5 microgram of AFB1/kg per day, respectively) than for changes in vitamins and amino acids (approximately 25 to 50 microgram of AFB1/kg per day). The data indicated that AFB1 interfered with the metabolism of B vitamins and amino acids in rabbits. PMID:6786221

  8. The effect of feeding canola meal on concentrations of plasma amino acids.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2014-03-01

    An initial meta-analysis on isonitrogenous experiments where a protein source was replaced by canola meal (CM) showed that CM feeding increased yields of milk and milk protein and apparent N efficiency. The objective of the current study was to determine if these responses were related to increased changes in plasma AA concentrations. Although only half of the experiments of the initial meta-analysis reported concentrations of plasma AA and could be used in the current meta-analysis, lactational responses to CM feeding were similar to those reported previously. In the current meta-analysis, CM feeding increased plasma concentrations of total AA, total essential AA (EAA) and all individual EAA, but decreased concentrations of blood and milk urea-N. The current meta-analysis suggests that CM feeding increased the absorption of EAA, which would be responsible for the increased milk protein secretion and the increased apparent N efficiency.

  9. The effect of feeding canola meal on concentrations of plasma amino acids.

    PubMed

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Lapierre, H

    2014-03-01

    An initial meta-analysis on isonitrogenous experiments where a protein source was replaced by canola meal (CM) showed that CM feeding increased yields of milk and milk protein and apparent N efficiency. The objective of the current study was to determine if these responses were related to increased changes in plasma AA concentrations. Although only half of the experiments of the initial meta-analysis reported concentrations of plasma AA and could be used in the current meta-analysis, lactational responses to CM feeding were similar to those reported previously. In the current meta-analysis, CM feeding increased plasma concentrations of total AA, total essential AA (EAA) and all individual EAA, but decreased concentrations of blood and milk urea-N. The current meta-analysis suggests that CM feeding increased the absorption of EAA, which would be responsible for the increased milk protein secretion and the increased apparent N efficiency. PMID:24440260

  10. A folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid from supplements in decreasing plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; Vilaseca, M Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Artuch, Rafael; Corbella, Emili; Meco, José F; Vila, Ramon; Pujol, Ramon; Grinberg, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Background & Aims: At least 500 mug of folic acid are required daily to treat hyperhomocysteinemia. To reach this amount by dietary changes alone may be difficult because food has a low folic acid content and bioavailability. No studies have compared the effects of similar amounts of additional folate derived from a combination of folate-rich and fortified foods or folic acid from supplements on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, which was the aim of this study. Methods: Twenty male patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and coronary artery disease were included in a randomized, crossover intervention trial. Patients were treated daily with a combination of foods containing approximately 500 mug of folate or with one 500 mug capsule of synthetic folic acid over two five-week periods separated by a five-week wash-out period. Results: Plasma folate increased markedly (p<0.001) and plasma tHcy decreased (p<0.001) with both therapies. Folate-rich foods decreased tHcy by 8.6% (95% CI: -15.9 to -1.2) and synthetic folic acid capsules by 8% (95% CI: -13.3 to -2.7). Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time in the literature, that a folate-rich diet is as effective as folic acid capsules in decreasing plasma tHcy concentrations and adds further support to the recommendation of those diets to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  11. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38 and 50% (P < 0.05) in the plasma and 66 and 46% (P < 0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P < 0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (R (2) = 0.55, P < 0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  12. Comparison of blood lead and blood and plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid concentrations as biomarkers for lead poisoning in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Bischoff, Karyn; Ebel, Joseph G; Cha, Sang Ho; McCardle, James; Choi, Cheong Up

    2010-11-01

    Lead (Pb) concentrations in whole blood and δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in plasma and whole blood from 37 cattle with suspected Pb exposure were determined in order to investigate the usefulness of ALA as a biological indicator for Pb poisoning in cattle. Cows were divided into 4 groups based on blood Pb, as follows: <30 ppb (group 1), 30-100 ppb (group 2), 100-300 ppb (group 3), and >300 ppb (group 4). The derivatization reaction for ALA was improved by a greater than 2-fold measure in whole blood and by a 10-fold measure in plasma by adding 75 and 50 µl of 0.1 N HCl, respectively. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from <25 ppb to 1,006 ppb (185.5 ± 254.9 ppb), with 17 samples containing >50 ppb Pb. Delta-aminolevulinic acid concentrations in whole blood and plasma ranged from <62.7 ppb to 96.9 ppb (77.4 ± 8.4 ppb) and from <5.0 ppb to 24.0 ppb (4.6 ± 3.8 ppb), respectively. Whole blood ALA did not correlate with blood lead concentrations in any group. Increase in plasma ALA concentration was dependent on blood Pb concentration. There was no correlation between blood Pb concentration and plasma ALA concentration in group 2 (n  =  4), but correlation coefficients were 0.736 in group 3 and 0.807 in group 4, respectively. The correlation coefficient was increased to 0.851 when groups 3 and 4 were combined. Based on these observations, in cattle, plasma ALA is a more reliable biological biomarker for Pb exposure than is blood ALA.

  13. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  14. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Dasgin, Halil; Gülec, Atila; Onbasilar, İlyas; Akyol, Asli

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring's plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring's plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development.

  15. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Dasgin, Halil; Gülec, Atila; Onbasilar, İlyas; Akyol, Asli

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring’s plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring’s plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development. PMID:26633475

  16. Effect of aspartame loading on plasma and erythrocyte free amino acid concentrations in one-year-old infants.

    PubMed

    Filer, L J; Baker, G L; Stegink, L D

    1983-08-01

    Aspartame is a new dipeptide sweetener. It has been suggested that infants metabolize its constituent amino acids (aspartate and phenylalanine) less well than adults. To test this hypothesis, 24 1-year-old infants were administered 34, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight aspartame in cherry-flavored beverage mix. Plasma amino acid concentrations and the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) were determined and were compared with values in adults administered equivalent doses. The doses studied include the 99th percentile of projected ingestion for adults (34 mg/kg), a very high use dose (50 mg/kg body weight), and a potentially abusive dose (100 mg/kg body weight). Plasma aspartate concentrations did not change significantly (P greater than 0.05) at aspartame doses of 34 and 50 mg/kg body weight, but did increase significantly at the 100 mg/kg body weight dose. The change over base line was similar in infants and adults. Aspartame dosing significantly increased both the mean peak plasma phenylalanine concentration and the plasma phenylalanine AUC value in proportion to dose. Mean (+/- SD) peak plasma phenylalanine concentrations in infants were 9.37 +/- 1.44, 11.6 +/- 4.44 and 22.3 +/- 11.5 mumol/100 ml at aspartame doses of 34, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Values in infants were similar to those noted in adults. The data do not support the suggestion that infants metabolize the amino acids of aspartame less well than adults.

  17. Relationships between circulating plasma concentrations and duodenal flows of essential amino acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, R A; Hristov, A N; Parys, C; Lapierre, H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to better define essential AA (EAA) requirements in lactating dairy cows through examination of the relationship between plasma essential AA concentration (p[EAA]) and predicted duodenal flow of essential AA (EAAduo). Our hypothesis was that at a given level of milk protein output, p[EAA] would remain steady in response to increasing EAAduo until the EAA requirement was met, at which point p[EAA] would increase rapidly in response to greater duodenal flow of EAA until p[EAA] reached a plateau as other body processes degraded excess EAA to avoid toxicity. Thus, the requirement of each EAA would be fulfilled when p[EAA] increased rapidly. To investigate this hypothesis, we compiled a literature database that included 102 studies with 420 treatment means that reported p[EAA], dietary nutrient content, body weight, and milk production. A second database was produced to validate relationships developed in the first database and included 32 studies with 98 treatment means. All relationships were evaluated as regression equations with study as a random factor. Breed, days in milk, body weight, and milk protein production had no effect on the plasma concentration of any EAA. Other than metabolizable protein supply, nutritional content of the rations did not affect p[EAA]. Only p[Arg] was affected by parity, with primiparous cows having higher concentrations of Arg than older cows. No break points in the relationship between p[EAA] versus EAAduo were detected as either steep increases or plateaus. Plasma Arg, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val concentrations were best associated with their respective EAAduo as quadratic equations, whereas His, Leu, Met, and Phe were associated only linearly. Adding a quadratic term improved the adjusted R(2) or decreased the root mean square error marginally (<2.0%). Thus, we conclude that the main effect of EAAduo on p[EAA] is linear. Abomasal or duodenal infusions of Met, Lys, His, Lys+Met, and casein revealed that Met

  18. Plasma amino acid concentrations in normal adults fed meals with added monosodium L-glutamate and aspartame.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Baker, G L

    1983-09-01

    Aspartame is a dipeptide sweetener containing aspartate. It has been suggested that aspartame addition to meals containing large amounts of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) would result in a rapid rise in plasma glutamate and/or aspartate concentrations and increase the potential for dicarboxylic amino acid--induced toxicity. Sic normal adult subjects were fed three hamburger and milk shake meals providing protein at 1 g/kg body weight in a Latin square design. One meal had no additions, the second provided MSG at 150 mg/kg body weight, and the third provided MSG at 150 mg/kg body weight and aspartame at 23 mg/kg body weight. The addition of MSG alone significantly increased plasma glutamate + aspartate concentration above values noted after ingestion of the meal alone. Aspartame addition to meals already containing MSG did not further significantly increase plasma glutamate + aspartate concentration above values noted when only MSG was added. However, aspartame addition did significantly increase the mean plasma phenylalanine concentration above values noted after ingestion of the meal alone or the meal with added MSG, reflecting aspartame's phenylalanine content. The data do not support the suggestion that aspartame addition to high protein meals already containing large amounts of MSG, will promote a rapid and dangerous rise in plasma glutamate and aspartate concentrations.

  19. Effect of strength training session on plasma amino acid concentration following oral ingestion of leucine, BCAAs or glutamine in men.

    PubMed

    Mero, Antti; Leikas, Anne; Knuutinen, Juha; Hulmi, Juha J; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2009-01-01

    We examined the acute effects of a 1-h strength training session (STS) on plasma amino acid concentration following orally ingestion of leucine, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or glutamine in nine physically active men who participated in double-blinded and randomised experiments. The subjects took placebo, leucine, BCAAs, or glutamine capsules (50 mg/kg) in either rest (REST) or STS condition. Blood samples were taken before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the beginning of the treatment and they were assayed for plasma amino acids with HPLC. Following both leucine and BCAA ingestion the peak concentration of leucine was similar at rest (524 +/- 46 and 530 +/- 29 nmol/ml, respectively) and similar after STS (398 +/- 43 and 387 +/- 46 nmol/ml, respectively) but the rest and STS concentrations differed from each other (P < 0.01-0.001). The modelled polynomial data for the leucine treatment showed that the peak concentration of leucine occurred at 67 min at rest and at 90 min in STS (difference between REST and STS: P = 0.012). For the BCAA treatment the polynomial data showed that the peak concentration of leucine occurred at 72 min at rest and at 78 min in STS (P = 0.067). The peak concentration of glutamine was similar in both rest and STS condition and occurred at 60 min at rest and at 57 min in STS. In conclusion, 1-h of STS slows the increase in the peak concentration of plasma leucine similarly after oral ingestion of leucine or BCAAs but after oral ingestion of glutamine it has no slowing effect on glutamine concentration. PMID:19015870

  20. The effects of aspirin on platelet function and lysophosphatidic acids depend on plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA

    PubMed Central

    Block, Robert C; Abdolahi, Amir; Tu, Xin; Georas, Steve N; Brenna, J. Thomas; Phipps, Richard P; Lawrence, Peter; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin’s prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is controversial. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and aspirin all affect the cyclooxygenase enzyme. The relationship between plasma EPA and DHA and aspirin’s effects has not been determined. Thirty adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus ingested aspirin (81 mg/day) for 7 days, then EPA+DHA (2.6 g/day) for 28 days, then both for another 7 days. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species and more classic platelet function outcomes were determined. Plasma concentrations of total EPA+DHA were associated with 7-day aspirin reduction effects on these outcomes in a “V”-shaped manner for all 11 LPA species and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This EPA+DHA concentration was quite consistent for each of the LPA species and ADP. These results support aspirin effects on lysolipid metabolism and platelet aggregation depending on plasma EPA+DHA concentrations in individuals with a disturbed lipid milieu. PMID:25555354

  1. Aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in normal adults and adults heterozygous for phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Wolf-Novak, L C; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E; Krause, W L; Brummel, M C

    1987-11-01

    Twelve normal subjects ingested either unsweetened beverage (n = 6) or beverage providing 4 mg/kg body weight as aspartame (APM) (n = 6). Neither beverage had any significant effect on plasma aspartate or phenylalanine concentrations. After this study, eight normal and six obligate phenylketonuric (PKU) heterozygous adults each ingested a 354-mL (12-oz) beverage serving on two occasions in a randomized cross-over design. On one occasion the beverage was not sweetened; on the other occasion, the beverage provided 10 mg APM/kg body weight. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured throughout the 2-h study period. The addition of 10 mg APM/kg body weight to the beverage had no significant effect on plasma aspartate concentration. APM ingestion increased plasma phenylalanine levels of normal subjects from a mean +/- SD baseline value of 5.09 +/- 0.82 mumol/dL to a high mean value of 6.73 +/- 0.75 mumol/dL. In PKU heterozygous subjects the plasma phenylalanine level increased from a mean +/- SD of 9.04 +/- 1.71 to a high mean value of 12.1 +/- 2.08 mumol/dL. The data indicate ready metabolism of the aspartate and phenylalanine portion of APM when administered at levels likely to be ingested by individuals who drink diet beverages.

  2. Repeated ingestion of aspartame-sweetened beverage: effect on plasma amino acid concentrations in individuals heterozygous for phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Baker, G L; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E; Brummel, M C; Krause, W L

    1989-01-01

    It has been suggested that excessive use of aspartame (APM) (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) might grossly elevate plasma aspartate and phenylalanine concentrations in individuals heterozygous for phenylketonuria (PKUH). In study 1 six adult PKUH (three males; three females) ingested three successive 12-oz servings of beverage at 2-h intervals. The study was carried out in two parts in a randomized crossover design. In one arm the beverage was not sweetened. In the other the beverage provided 10 mg APM/kg body weight per serving. The addition of APM to the beverage did not significantly increase plasma aspartate concentration but did increase plasma phenylalanine levels 2.3 to 4.1 mumol/dL above baseline values 30 to 45 min after each dose. The high mean plasma phenylalanine level after repeated APM dosing (13.9 +/- 2.15 mumol/dL) was slightly, but not significantly, above the normal postprandial range for PKUH (12.6 +/- 2.11 mumol/dL). In study 2 six different adult PKUH ingested beverage providing 30 mg APM/kg body weight as a single bolus. The high mean plasma phenylalanine concentration and the phenylalanine to large neutral amino acid ratio were significantly higher when APM was ingested as a single bolus than when ingested as a divided dose.

  3. Controlled trial of whole body protein synthesis and plasma amino acid concentrations in yearling horses fed graded amounts of lysine.

    PubMed

    Mastellar, S L; Coleman, R J; Urschel, K L

    2016-10-01

    Lysine has been reported as the first limiting amino acid in typical equine diets. Indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) has become the standard method for determining amino acid requirements in other species, but prior to this study, it has not been used to determine equine requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate whole body protein synthesis and plasma and muscle amino acid concentrations in response to graded levels of lysine intake in yearling horses. Six Thoroughbred colts (358 ± 5 kg) were fed each of six treatment lysine intakes ranging from 76 to 136 mg/kg body weight/day. Blood samples were taken before and 90 min after the morning concentrate meal. Gluteal muscle biopsies were taken ~100 min after the morning concentrate meal. The next day, whole body phenylalanine kinetics were determined using a 2 h primed, constant infusion of [(13)C] sodium bicarbonate followed by a 6 h primed, constant infusion of [1-(13)C] phenylalanine. Plasma lysine concentrations increased linearly (P <0.05) at both the 0 and 90 min time points with increasing lysine intakes. Free muscle asparagine, aspartate, arginine, glutamine, lysine, taurine and tryptophan concentrations responded quadratically to lysine intake (P <0.05). Phenylalanine kinetics did not differ between treatment intakes (P > 0.10). A broken line analysis of lysine intake and phenylalanine oxidation failed to yield a breakpoint from which to determine a lysine requirement. These diets may have been limiting in an amino acid other than lysine, underscoring the lack of data concerning amino acid requirements and bioavailability data in the horse. PMID:27687933

  4. Controlled trial of whole body protein synthesis and plasma amino acid concentrations in yearling horses fed graded amounts of lysine.

    PubMed

    Mastellar, S L; Coleman, R J; Urschel, K L

    2016-10-01

    Lysine has been reported as the first limiting amino acid in typical equine diets. Indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) has become the standard method for determining amino acid requirements in other species, but prior to this study, it has not been used to determine equine requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate whole body protein synthesis and plasma and muscle amino acid concentrations in response to graded levels of lysine intake in yearling horses. Six Thoroughbred colts (358 ± 5 kg) were fed each of six treatment lysine intakes ranging from 76 to 136 mg/kg body weight/day. Blood samples were taken before and 90 min after the morning concentrate meal. Gluteal muscle biopsies were taken ~100 min after the morning concentrate meal. The next day, whole body phenylalanine kinetics were determined using a 2 h primed, constant infusion of [(13)C] sodium bicarbonate followed by a 6 h primed, constant infusion of [1-(13)C] phenylalanine. Plasma lysine concentrations increased linearly (P <0.05) at both the 0 and 90 min time points with increasing lysine intakes. Free muscle asparagine, aspartate, arginine, glutamine, lysine, taurine and tryptophan concentrations responded quadratically to lysine intake (P <0.05). Phenylalanine kinetics did not differ between treatment intakes (P > 0.10). A broken line analysis of lysine intake and phenylalanine oxidation failed to yield a breakpoint from which to determine a lysine requirement. These diets may have been limiting in an amino acid other than lysine, underscoring the lack of data concerning amino acid requirements and bioavailability data in the horse.

  5. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations in older adults: a dose-response trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Cheryl A M; Jee, Sun Ha; Charleston, Jeanne; Narrett, Matthew; Appel, Lawrence J

    2010-10-15

    The authors' objective in this study was to estimate the changes in serum folate and homocysteine concentration that resulted from 6 weeks of supplementation with folic acid. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response trial with a parallel-group design was conducted. A total of 133 participants aged 60-90 years (70% female, 19% nonwhite) were assigned to receive 0, 100, 400, 1,000, or 2,000 μg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. Data were collected in the United States between June and September 1996. At baseline, median serum folate and plasma homocysteine concentrations were 5.7 ng/mL (interquartile range (25th-75th percentiles), 4.1-7.8) and 8.3 μmol/L (interquartile range, 7.1-10.0), respectively. As the folic acid dose increased, serum folate levels increased (P-trend < 0.001). There was no dose-response relation with homocysteine level among all participants. In analyses restricted to persons with the lowest serum folate concentration (<4.5 ng/mL) at baseline, there was a trend (P = 0.06) toward decreased homocysteine levels with increasing folic acid dose. In healthy, older adults with adequate folate status, folic acid supplementation is not beneficial for homocysteine reduction. However, for older adults with low serum folate levels, supplementation will improve folate status and may be beneficial for lowering homocysteine concentrations.

  6. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao

    2007-03-01

    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased. PMID:17331341

  7. Sample preparation for measurement of plasma mycophenolic acid concentrations using chromatographically functionalized magnetic micro-particles.

    PubMed

    König, Katrin; Vogeser, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing chromatographically modified magnetic micro-particles is an innovative principle of sample preparation for quantitative analysis of small molecules in complex biomedical samples by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Since no vacuum or pressure has to be applied-in contrast to cartridge based solid phase extraction protocols-the principle's main characteristics are potentially straightforward automation and a high extraction performance (in terms of µg of extraction material per µL of sample). Following first descriptions of the approach, this article reports, the validation of a magnetic particle-based, analytical method for the quantification of the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid in plasma. This sample preparation technology has shown a good performance for this clinically relevant analyte. As a result, we conclude that further work towards the implementation of this technology in a multi- analyte approach on robotic systems, aiming towards a fully automated process, is justified. PMID:23221116

  8. Plasma levels of nitric oxide related amino acids in demented subjects with Down syndrome are related to neopterin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Coppus, A M W; Fekkes, D; Verhoeven, W M A; Tuinier, S; van Duijn, C M

    2010-03-01

    Subjects with Down syndrome (DS) have abnormalities in virtually all aspects of the immune system and almost all will be affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is thought that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of AD. In the present study, including a total of 401 elderly DS subjects, the spectrum of plasma amino acids and neopterin was investigated and related to development of AD. Concentrations of nearly all amino acids in DS subjects differed significantly from those of healthy controls. Neopterin was increased in DS subjects, especially in dementia. The production of NO as reflected by an increased citrulline/arginine ratio (Cit/Arg ratio) was enhanced during development of clinical dementia. Neopterin concentrations correlated to the Cit/Arg ratio only in the group of prevalent demented subjects (rho = 0.48, P = 0.006). The results of this study are suggestive for an increase in oxidative processes in DS subjects with AD.

  9. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with Type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TransFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining, with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). We sought to determine whether plasma 18-carbon TFA a...

  10. Acculturation and plasma fatty acid concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may...

  11. LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of arachidonic acid and 32 related metabolites in human plasma: Basal plasma concentrations and aspirin-induced changes of eicosanoids.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Dhananjay D; Kim, Kwon-Bok; Oh, Kyung-Suk; Abdalla, Nagi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Bae, Soo Kyung; Shon, Ji-Hong; Kim, Ho-Sook; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Jae Gook

    2012-12-12

    Eicosanoids play an important role in various biological responses and can be used as biomarkers for specific diseases. Therefore, we developed a highly selective, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method to measure arachidonic acid and its 32 metabolites in human plasma. Sample preparation involved solid phase extraction, which efficiently removed sources of interference present in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna C(8)-column with 0.5mM ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization interface in negative ion mode. The matrix did not affect the reproducibility and reliability of the assay. All analytes showed good linearity over the investigated concentration range (r>0.997). The validated lower limit of quantitation for the analytes ranged from 10 to 400pg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision (RDS%) over the concentration ranges for all eicosanoids were within 16.8%, and accuracy ranged between 88.1 and 108.2%. This assay was suitable for the determination of basal plasma levels of eicosanoids and the evaluation of effect of aspirin on eicosanoid plasma levels in healthy subjects. PMID:23217314

  12. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of

  13. Gender, but not CYP7A1 or SLCO1B1 polymorphism, affects the fasting plasma concentrations of bile acids in human beings.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaoqiang; Backman, Janne T; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko

    2012-03-01

    Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid production in human beings, and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) may influence bile acid hepatic uptake and cholesterol and bile acid synthesis rate. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of gender and CYP7A1 and SLCO1B1 polymorphisms on the fasting plasma concentrations of bile acids, bile acid synthesis marker and total cholesterol in a Finnish population. Fasting plasma concentrations of 16 endogenous bile acids, their synthesis marker (7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one) and total cholesterol were measured in 243 samples from 143 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were genotyped for 6 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP7A1 and two functionally relevant SNPs in SLCO1B1. The mean plasma concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid and glycoursodeoxycholic acid were 61-111% higher in men than in women (P ≤ 0.001). Accordingly, the mean concentration of total bile acids was 51% higher in men than in women (P = 0.001). The CYP7A1 rs8192879 and rs1023652 SNPs were associated with deoxycholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid concentrations, respectively, but the associations were not significant after correction for multiple testing. None of the six CYP7A1 SNPs was associated with the plasma concentrations of cholesterol or 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one. SLCO1B1 genotype was associated with total plasma cholesterol concentration only, but the association was not significant after correction for multiple testing. In general, the gender contributes substantially more to variation in fasting plasma bile acid concentrations than CYP7A1 or SLCO1B1 polymorphism do. Common genetic variability in CYP7A1 is unlikely to play a significant role in cholesterol metabolism and bile acid homeostasis under normal physiological conditions.

  14. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Andrew M.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Bierau, Jörgen; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2) ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen) in an upright seated position (control) and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion). Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05), which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA) response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05). Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05). Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease. PMID:27089362

  15. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  16. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  17. Value of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status in the differential diagnosis of hyperpara-thyroidism from other causes of hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wills, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    A study is reported of the estimation of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status in the differentiation of primary hyperparathyroidism from all other causes of hypercalcaemia. In the two groups of patients studied, all of whom had hypercalcaemia, there was complete separation between the two groups on the basis of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status. In 16 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism the increase in plasma chloride concentration and associated metabolic acidosis could have been accounted for by the known renal tubular effects of parathyroid hormone. In 13 patients with hypercalcaemia due to various other causes the decrease in plasma chloride concentration and associated metabolic alkalosis could be accounted for either by the known effects of an excess of calcium-ion on the renal tubules, or perhaps by suppression of endogenous parathyroid hormone secretion. In patients with hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia of `pseudohyperparathyroidism' associated with non-endocrine tumours it is postulated that the low plasma chloride concentrations and metabolic alkalosis found in these patients were due either to a differing biological activity of the parathyroid-hormone-like polypeptide secreted by the tumour cells, or possibly to simultaneous secretion by these cells of an ACTH-like polypeptide. PMID:5573436

  18. Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Novak, L C; Stegink, L D; Brummel, M C; Persoon, T J; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E; Krause, W L

    1990-04-01

    Seven subjects homozygous for phenylketonuria (PKU) and seven normal subjects were administered four beverage regimens after an overnight fast: unsweetened beverage, beverage providing carbohydrate (CHO), beverage providing aspartame (APM), and beverage providing APM plus CHO. The APM dose (200 mg) was the amount provided in 12 oz of diet beverage; the CHO was partially hydrolyzed starch (60 g). Plasma amino acid concentrations were determined after dosing and the molar plasma phenylalanine (Phe) to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratio calculated. APM administration without CHO did not increase plasma Phe concentrations over baseline values in either normal or PKU subjects (5.48 +/- 0.85 and 150 +/- 23.0 mumols/dL, respectively). Similarly, the Phe/LNAA did not increase significantly. Ingestion of beverage providing APM and CHO did not significantly increase plasma Phe concentrations over baseline values in either normal or PKU subjects. However, ingestion of beverage providing CHO (with or without APM) significantly decreased plasma levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine 1.5 to 4 hours after dosing in both normal and PKU subjects, thereby increasing the Phe/LNAA ratio significantly. These data indicate that changes noted in Phe/LNAA values after ingestion of beverage providing APM plus CHO were due to CHO. The plasma insulin response to beverage providing CHO (with or without APM) was significantly higher in PKU subjects than in normals.

  19. Relation of soya bean meal level to the concentration of plasma free amino acids and body growth in white rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish; Mondal, Santanu; Saxena, Vijaylaxmi; Saxena, Ashok K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Saha, Mitali

    2012-04-01

    Amino acid (AA) levels in plasma and body growth were determined in rats (n20) fed diets with different soya bean meal levels. Free AA in plasma was determined by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We have used four levels of protein diets like 8%, 15%, 23% and 35% in this trial. Rats which were fed the low-protein (8%) diet with low percentage of soya bean meal were found to be growth-retarded. The body weight gain of high protein group (35%) was lower than that of the 23% groups. In the rats fed with the low-soya bean meal diet, some nonessential AA (NEAA) in plasma like asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and serine increased, whereas the essential AA (EAA), with the exception of arginine, methionine and valine decreased. Here, plasma EAA-to-NEAA ratios were not correlated to growth and experimental diet. We hypothesize that AA metabolism is associated to changes in growth in rats on different protein intake. This study has showed the sensitivity of body mass gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate of rats to four levels of protein in the diet under controlled experimental conditions.

  20. Intravenous infusion of L-isomers of phenylalanine and tryptophan stimulate gastric acid secretion at physiologic plasma concentrations in normal subjects and after parietal cell vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, K E; Isenberg, J I; Hogan, D L; Dreier, S J

    1983-01-01

    To determine whether intravenous infusion of individual amino acids stimulated gastric acid secretion in man, graded doses of phenylalanine, tryptophan, glycine, alanine, histidine, and NaCl control were infused on separate days in nine healthy subjects. Intravenous infusion of phenylalanine and tryptophan significantly stimulated gastric acid secretion to 50 and 52%, respectively, of the acid secretory response to intragastric peptone. Intravenous alanine and histidine were without effect, whereas glycine produced a slight response. Serum gastrin concentrations did not significantly change during intravenous amino acid infusion, except in response to 0.1 M phenylalanine. However, the increase in serum gastrin occurred 2 h after acid secretion had significantly increased in response to the 0.025 M phenylalanine infusion. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured during intravenous amino acid infusion and in response to a steak meal in five of the subjects. At a time when acid secretion was significantly increased during intravenous infusion of phenylalanine and tryptophan, plasma amino acids were similar to, or less than, that observed after the steak meal, suggesting that circulating levels of these three amino acids have a physiologic effect on gastric secretion in man. Intravenous infusion of a combination of graded doses of phenylalanine plus a continuous infusion of 0.01 M tryptophan shifted the dose-response curve to the left and resulted in a significantly greater response than to either amino acid alone. In five subjects with parietal cell vagotomy, intravenous phenylalanine and tryptophan stimulated acid secretion, whereas histidine was without effect, similar to normal subjects. These studies indicate that intravenous infusion of small amounts of phenylalanine (0.025 M, 3.1 mmol/h) and tryptophan (0.01 M, 1.25 mmol/h) stimulated gastric acid secretion at plasma concentrations similar to those observed after a steak meal, suggesting a physiologic role

  1. High concentrations of plasma n3 fatty acids are associated with decreased risk for late age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Malet, Florence; Féart, Catherine; Le Goff, Mélanie; Peuchant, Evelyne; Letenneur, Luc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Colin, Joseph; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delcourt, Cécile

    2013-04-01

    High dietary intakes of n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and fish have been consistently associated with a decreased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We assessed the associations of late AMD with plasma n3 PUFA, a nutritional biomarker of n3 PUFA status. The Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Occulaires (Alienor) Study is a prospective, population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 residents of Bordeaux (France) aged ≥73 y. Participants had a first eye examination in 2006-2008 and were followed for 31 mo on average. Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC from fasting blood samples collected in 1999-2001. AMD was graded from non-mydriatic color retinal photographs at all examinations and spectral domain optical coherence tomography at follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, physical activity, plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, CFH Y402H, apoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, and follow-up time, high plasma total n3 PUFA was associated with a reduced risk for late AMD [OR = 0.62 for 1-SD increase (95% CI: 0.44-0.88); P = 0.008]. Associations were similar for plasma 18:3n3 [OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88); P = 0.008] and n3 long-chain PUFA [OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.92); P = 0.01]. This study gives further support to the potential role of n3 PUFAs in the prevention of late AMD and highlights the necessity of randomized clinical trials to determine more accurately the value of n3 PUFAs as a means of reducing AMD incidence. PMID:23406618

  2. Individual and combined associations of genetic variants in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and SLCO1B1 with simvastatin and simvastatin acid plasma concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Luzum, Jasmine A.; Theusch, Elizabeth; Taylor, Kent D.; Wang, Ann; Sadee, Wolfgang; Binkley, Philip F.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Medina, Marisa W.; Kitzmiller, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the associations of genetic variants affecting simvastatin (SV) and simvastatin acid (SVA) metabolism (CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3) and transport (SLCO1B1 T521C) with 12-hour plasma SV and SVA concentrations. The variants were genotyped, and concentrations were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS in 646 participants of the Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics clinical trial of 40 mg/day SV for 6 weeks. The genetic variants were tested for association with 12-hour plasma SV, SVA, or the SVA/SV ratio using general linear models. CYP3A5*3 was not significantly associated with 12-hour plasma SV or SVA concentration. CYP3A4*1/*22 participants had 58% higher 12-hour plasma SV concentration compared to CYP3A4*1/*1 participants (p=0.006). SLCO1B1 521T/C and 521C/C participants had 71% (p<0.001) and 248% (p<0.001) higher 12-hour plasma SVA compared to SLCO1B1 521T/T participants, respectively. CYP3A4 and SLCO1B1 genotypes combined categorized participants into low (<1), intermediate (≈1), and high (>1) SVA/SV ratio groups (p=0.001). In conclusion, CYP3A4*22 and SLCO1B1 521C were significantly associated with increased plasma 12-hour concentrations of SV and SVA, respectively. CYP3A5*3 was not significantly associated with 12-hour plasma SV or SVA concentrations. The combination of CYP3A4*22 and SLCO1B1 521C was significantly associated with SVA/SV ratio, which may translate into different clinical SV risk/benefit profiles. PMID:26164721

  3. Diurnal variation in concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen and amino acids in pigs given free access to feed or fed twice daily.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Zimmerman, D R; Ewan, R C

    1994-07-01

    A repeated-measures experiment was conducted to test the effect of sampling times after feeding on concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and plasma free amino acids (PFAA) in pigs fed by two feeding methods. Seven castrated male pigs (mean weight of 65 kg) were randomly assigned to switchback treatments that were 3-d periods of either free access to feed or twice daily feeding. Blood was sampled at 2-h intervals (sampling points) during the day (0800 to 1800 h) and again during the night (2000 to 0600 h) on the last day of each of three 3-d feeding treatment periods. Concentrations of PUN and most PFAA were not affected by the feeding method and time of day (day and night), but they were affected by sampling points. The pigs fed twice daily had postprandial peak PUN at 4 h (32% increase over prepandial) and peak PFAA at 2 h after feeding during 12-h day and night periods. However, the pigs with free access to feed exhibited only a slight fluctuation of PUN during the day and night and almost constant concentrations of most PFAA during a 24-h period. The PFAA results suggest that concentrations of most plasma essential and nonessential amino acids varied relatively more than those of other amino acids in response to sampling times.

  4. Plasma Concentrations of Endocannabinoids and Related Primary Fatty Acid Amides in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; Gola, Hannah; Campolongo, Patrizia; Morath, Julia; Roozendaal, Benno; Hamuni, Gilava; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Atsak, Piray; Vogeser, Michael; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Background Endocannabinoids (ECs) and related N-acyl-ethanolamides (NAEs) play important roles in stress response regulation, anxiety and traumatic memories. In view of the evidence that circulating EC levels are elevated under acute mild stressful conditions in humans, we hypothesized that individuals with traumatic stress exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder characterized by the inappropriate persistence and uncontrolled retrieval of traumatic memories, show measurable alterations in plasma EC and NAE concentrations. Methods We determined plasma concentrations of the ECs anandamide (ANA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and the NAEs palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), stearoylethanolamine (SEA), and N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA) by HPLC-MS-MS in patients with PTSD (n = 10), trauma-exposed individuals without evidence of PTSD (n = 9) and in healthy control subjects (n = 29). PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria by administering the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), which also assesses traumatic events. Results Individuals with PTSD showed significantly higher plasma concentrations of ANA (0.48±0.11 vs. 0.36±0.14 ng/ml, p = 0.01), 2-AG (8.93±3.20 vs. 6.26±2.10 ng/ml, p<0.01), OEA (5.90±2.10 vs. 3.88±1.85 ng/ml, p<0.01), SEA (2.70±3.37 vs. 0.83±0.47, ng/ml, p<0.05) and significantly lower plasma levels of OLDA (0.12±0.05 vs. 0.45±0.59 ng/ml, p<0.05) than healthy controls. Moreover, PTSD patients had higher 2-AG plasma levels (8.93±3.20 vs. 6.01±1.32 ng/ml, p = 0.03) and also higher plasma concentrations of PEA (4.06±1.87 vs. 2.63±1.34 ng/ml, p<0.05) than trauma-exposed individuals without evidence of PTSD. CAPS scores in trauma-exposed individuals with and without PTSD (n = 19) correlated positively with PEA (r = 0.55, p = 0.02) and negatively with OLDA plasma levels (r = −0.68, p<0.01). CAPS subscores for intrusions (r = −0.65, p<0

  5. Increased plasma plant sterol concentrations and a heterozygous amino acid exchange in ATP binding cassette transporter ABCG5: a case report.

    PubMed

    Keller, Sylvia; Prechtl, Danielle; Aslanidis, Charalampos; Ceglarek, Uta; Thiery, Joachim; Schmitz, Gerd; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Whilst conducting a scientific study, an elevated plasma plant sterol concentration of 3.07 mg/dL was established in one proband. Similar levels found in his mothers plasma (2.73 mg/dL) were suggestive of a heterozygous sitosterolemia. The resulting gene analysis for ATP binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/G8) revealed a heterozygous polymorphism in ABCG8 (Thr400Lys, rs4148217), which the proband had inherited from his father. However, a heterozygous amino acid exchange (Arg406Gln) in exon 9 of ABCG5 was revealed, which was inherited from his mother. Although not sufficient evidence exists to regard this sequence variation as a mutation, this previously unreleased sequence variation occurred in a "hot spot" area for sitosterolemia of the ABCG5 gene (exon 9) and the similar increased plasma plant sterol concentrations of the heterozygous mother contribute to the notion, that this very likely presents an inactivating mutation.

  6. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    PubMed Central

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  7. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults--Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study.

    PubMed

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  8. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid plasma concentrations during foie gras production in male mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos × Cairina moschata).

    PubMed

    Flament, A; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Marlier, D

    2012-01-01

    1. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and uric acid (UA) plasma concentration were measured at 8 (7 days after group housing), 12 (after 7 days of force feeding) and 13 weeks of age (at slaughter after 12 days of force feeding), and 45 min after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test at 8 weeks of age in 12 male mule ducks in an on-farm experiment. 2. No significant increase of corticosterone was found during the force-feeding period compared with the concentration after housing. 3. Comparison of corticosterone and cortisol values indicates that cortisol can be considered as a reliable acute stress indicator in future routine examinations. 4. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and aspartate aminotransferase increased progressively from pre-force feeding period to slaughtering. 5. Plasma concentrations of uric acid increased from the start at 8 weeks of age to the mid-force feeding period but no difference was noticed between the mid-force feeding period and slaughtering. 6. It is concluded that acute stress induced by force-feeding is similar at the beginning and end of the commercial production of foie gras.

  9. Protein and energy intakes affected amino acid concentrations in plasma, muscle, and liver, and cell signaling in the liver of growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Rius, A G; Weeks, H A; Cyriac, J; Akers, R M; Bequette, B J; Hanigan, M D

    2012-04-01

    The nutrient content of and feeding recommendations for milk replacers (MR) vary widely in North America, and acceleration of growth through manipulation of protein and energy intakes can reduce rearing costs of dairy operations. The effects of varying the protein and energy intake of MR on metabolite concentrations in plasma, liver, and muscle and the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase B (AKT) and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) cell signals in liver and muscle were assessed. Twenty-four newborn Holstein calves were fed 1 of 4 MR for 9 wk (n=6/treatment): (1) a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat MR fed at 441 g of dry matter (DM)/d (CON); (2) a high-protein, medium-fat MR (HPMF; 28% CP, 20% fat) fed at 951 g of DM/d; (3) a high-protein, high-fat MR (HPHF; 27% CP, 28% fat) fed at 951 g of DM/d; and (4) HPHF fed at 1,431 g of DM/d (HPHF+). Water and starter (20% CP, 1.43% fat) were offered ad libitum and calves were fed MR twice daily. Plasma samples were obtained at 1, 5, and 9 wk of age. Calves were not weaned and were slaughtered after the last blood sampling. Liver and muscle tissues were collected and analyzed for metabolite concentrations and cell signaling activity. Calves fed all treatments had lower plasma concentrations of Phe and Tyr, and a trend for lower Leu, but greater concentrations of Thr relative to calves fed CON. Calves fed all treatments had increased muscle concentrations of Met and muscle to plasma ratios of Phe, Tyr, and branched-chain amino acids compared with CON. All treatments increased liver to plasma ratios of Phe and Tyr but diminished the ratios of Met compared with CON. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B was not affected by treatment; however, relative to calves fed HPHF, HPMF and HPHF+ diets increased phosphorylation ratios of ribosomal protein S6 in the liver. Therefore, the changes in plasma and tissue concentrations and plasma to tissue ratios of amino acids were associated with enhanced growth rates. However, cell signaling

  10. Behavioral alteration of plasma phenylalanine concentration.

    PubMed

    Jevning, R; Pirkle, H C; Wilson, A F

    1977-11-01

    The concentration of 13 neutral and acidic plasma amino acids was measured before, during and after either 40 min of control relaxation or 40 min of the process known as transcendental meditation (TM). An electro-oculogram, electroencephalogram, and electromyogram were simultaneously monitored in these subjects. Increased phenylalanine concentration was noted during TM practice with no change during control relaxation; no difference between the groups of total time slept or sleep stage percent was observed. The stability of phenylalanine concentration in controls and lack of correlation of increased phenylalanine with sleep in the long-term practitioners seem to suggest a relationship of the phenylalanine increase to TM practice.

  11. Oral administration of ethanol with aspirin increases the concentration of salicylic acid in plasma and organs, especially the brain, in mice.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideaki; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Kobayashi, Masaki; Sakabe, Masaaki; Funaki, Hironao; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2010-06-10

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) has been widely used as an over-the-counter drug to relieve pain throughout the world. In suicide attempts, aspirin is one of the most common drugs taken in large quantities. The concentration of salicylic acid shows a low-level distribution in the mouse brain, a site that may be critical regarding the expression of symptoms (e.g. hyperpnea, coma, convulsion and tremor) during acute aspirin toxicity. Therefore, it was suggested that sensitivity to salicylic acid concerning acute toxicity was higher in the brain than in other organs. Moreover, it is thought that it is common for aspirin and ethanol to be ingested at the same time. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the influence of ethanol on the distribution of salicylic acid, which is a primary metabolite of aspirin, and its related metabolite, salicyluric acid. The oral co-administration of aspirin (0.5g/kg) and ethanol (2.5g/kg; 10ml/kg of 25% (w/v)) enhanced the concentrations of salicylic acid in the plasma and organs, especially in the brain, compared with the aspirin alone-treated group. On the other hand, ethanol did not influence the concentrations of salicyluric acid in the plasma and kidney compared with the aspirin alone-treated group. These results suggest that ethanol enhances aspirin absorption from the gastrointestinal tract but has no influence on its metabolism. Thus, it is dangerous to ingest the alcohol and aspirin at the same time, as this may exacerbate the acute toxicity of aspirin.

  12. Changes in amino acid concentration in plasma and type I and type II fibres during resistance exercise and recovery in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Blomstrand, Eva; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2009-10-01

    Eight male subjects performed leg press exercise, 4 x 10 repetitions at 80% of their maximum. Venous blood samples were taken before, during exercise and repeatedly during 2 h of recovery. From four subjects, biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle prior to, immediately after and following one and 2 h of recovery. Samples were freeze-dried, individual muscle fibres were dissected out and identified as type I or type II. Resistance exercise led to pronounced reductions in the glutamate concentration in both type I (32%) and type II fibres (70%). Alanine concentration was elevated 60-75% in both fibre types and 29% in plasma. Glutamine concentration remained unchanged after exercise; although 2 h later the concentrations in both types of fibres were reduced 30-35%. Two hours after exercise, the plasma levels of glutamate and six of the essential amino acids, including the branched-chain amino acids were reduced 5-30%. The data suggest that glutamate acts as an important intermediate in muscle energy metabolism during resistance exercise, especially in type II fibres. PMID:18931969

  13. A high-fat diet enriched with low omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio reduced fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Tekeleselassie, A W; Goh, Y M; Rajion, M A; Motshakeri, M; Ebrahimi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on the accretion pattern of major fat pads, inguinal fat cellularity, and their relation with plasma leptin concentration. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and received the following diets for 22 weeks: (1) standard rat chow diet (CTRL), (2) CTRL + 10% (w/w) butter (HFAR), (3) CTRL + 3.33% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 6.67% (w/w) soybean oil (MFAR), and (4) CTRL + 6.67% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 3.33% (w/w) soybean oil (LFAR). Inguinal fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration were measured in this study. Results for inguinal fat cellularity showed that the mean adipocyte number for the MFAR (9.2 ∗ 10⁵ ± 3.6) and LFAR (8.5 ∗ 10⁵ ± 5.1) groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the rest, while the mean adipocyte diameter of HFAR group was larger (P < 0.05) (46.2 ± 2.8) than the rest. The plasma leptin concentration in the HFAR group was higher (P < 0.05) (3.22 ± 0.32 ng/mL), than the other groups. The higher inguinal fat cellularity clearly indicated the ability of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and butter supplemented diets to induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells, respectively, which caused adipocyte remodeling due to hyperleptinemia.

  14. Effect of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentration, puberty and semen quality in male buffalo.

    PubMed

    Tran, L V; Malla, B A; Sharma, A N; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Nitin; Tyagi, A K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentrations, puberty, sperm fatty acid profile and semen quality in male buffalo. Eighteen male buffalo calves were distributed randomly in three different groups and fed concentrate mixture along with green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios as per requirements. Basis ration of animals in group I was supplemented with 4% of prilled fat (PFA), while in group II and group III were added 4.67% of Calcium salt from Soybean (CaSFA) and Linseed oil (CaLFA), respectively. Male buffalo fed omega-3 PUFA high diet significantly increased concentrations of IGF-1 and testosterone in plasma as compared to two other diets (p<0.05). The age of puberty and scrotal circumference significantly increased by dietary fat effect (p<0.05) of which n-3 PUFA enriched diet (CaLFA) had the largest influence as compared to other diets (PFA and CaSFA). Feeding of n-3 PUFA rich diet significantly increased the DHA (C22:6n-3) content in sperm (p<0.05), which contributed to increased fluidity of plasma membrane, elevated quality of sperm (motility, viability) and in vitro fertility (plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity) in both fresh and post-thawing semen. These findings indicate that feeding of n-3 PUFA enriched diet increased IGF-1 and testosterone secretion, reduced pubertal age and improved both fresh and post-thawing semen quality in male buffalo.

  15. Effect of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentration, puberty and semen quality in male buffalo.

    PubMed

    Tran, L V; Malla, B A; Sharma, A N; Kumar, Sachin; Tyagi, Nitin; Tyagi, A K

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA enriched diet on plasma IGF-1 and testosterone concentrations, puberty, sperm fatty acid profile and semen quality in male buffalo. Eighteen male buffalo calves were distributed randomly in three different groups and fed concentrate mixture along with green fodder and wheat straw in 50:40:10 ratios as per requirements. Basis ration of animals in group I was supplemented with 4% of prilled fat (PFA), while in group II and group III were added 4.67% of Calcium salt from Soybean (CaSFA) and Linseed oil (CaLFA), respectively. Male buffalo fed omega-3 PUFA high diet significantly increased concentrations of IGF-1 and testosterone in plasma as compared to two other diets (p<0.05). The age of puberty and scrotal circumference significantly increased by dietary fat effect (p<0.05) of which n-3 PUFA enriched diet (CaLFA) had the largest influence as compared to other diets (PFA and CaSFA). Feeding of n-3 PUFA rich diet significantly increased the DHA (C22:6n-3) content in sperm (p<0.05), which contributed to increased fluidity of plasma membrane, elevated quality of sperm (motility, viability) and in vitro fertility (plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity) in both fresh and post-thawing semen. These findings indicate that feeding of n-3 PUFA enriched diet increased IGF-1 and testosterone secretion, reduced pubertal age and improved both fresh and post-thawing semen quality in male buffalo. PMID:27596261

  16. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the expression of genes involved in the endocannabinoid system in the bovine endometrium and increases plasma progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, A; Dirandeh, E; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Shohreh, B

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids are derived from phospholipids and reduce fertility by interfering with implantation. Identification of changes in the expression of genes of the endocannabinoid system as a result of dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is critical to the advancement of our understanding of the nutritional regulation of uterine function. An experiment was conducted on transition cows to evaluate the expression of key endocannabinoid genes in bovine endometrium in response to dietary supplementation with CLA. A total of 16 cows were randomly assigned to two treatments: (1) control (75 g/day palm oil) and (2) CLA (75 g/day CLA) from 21 days prepartum to Day 42 postpartum. Cows underwent uterine biopsy on days 21 and 42 postpartum. The abundance of mRNA encoding endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) was measured by real-time PCR. Results reported that relative levels of mRNA encoding CNR2 and NAPEPLD were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with control cows between Days 21 and 42 postpartum. Relative levels of mRNA coding for NAAA and MGLL were not different (P > 0.05) in the same situation. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher in CLA-fed cows compared with control cows at Day 42 postpartum (3.51 and 1.42 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with CLA are the result of a decrease in relative gene expression of the endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2) and enzymes that synthesize fatty acid amides (NAPEPLD) and of an increase in the expression of PTGS2 that in turn can oxidate endocannabinoids and consequently resulted in increased plasma progesterone concentrations during early lactation. PMID:27262886

  17. Growth and plasma amino acid concentrations in very low birthweight infants fed either human milk protein fortified human milk or a whey-predominant formula.

    PubMed

    Moro, G; Fulconis, F; Minoli, I; Pohlandt, F; Räihä, N

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective, study involving 20 VLBW-infants (AGA), divided into two study groups of 10 infants, we have evaluated the effects on growth and metabolism of human milk fortified with ultrafiltrated human milk protein and a whey-predominant (whey/casein = 60/40) formula containing 2 g/dl of protein. The study was initiated at a mean age of 30 days when an oral intake of 180 ml/kg/d was tolerated and continued until a weight of 2 kg was reached. The protein intake in both groups was about 3.7 g/kg/d. All infants in both groups reached intrauterine rates of growth for the age, weight gain 18.0 g/kg/d, and length 1.2 cm/week. BUN, acid-base status, total protein and albumin were normal and similar in the two groups. Plasma levels of threonine, glycine, citrulline and methionine were significantly greater in the formula-fed infants. Taurine and proline had higher concentrations in the protein fortified human milk group. There was good tolerance of protein from both sources but the differences in plasma amino acid profiles suggest that the dietary protein quality in formulas for preterm infants must be further modified, if the goal of formula feeding is to achieve metabolic indices of protein metabolism similar to those found when human milk protein is used.

  18. Interactions between plasma concentrations of folate and markers of vitamin B(12) status with cognitive performance in elderly people not exposed to folic acid fortification: the Hordaland Health Study.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; Ueland, Per M; Tell, Grethe S; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nygård, Ottar K; Van't Veer, Pieter; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Nurk, Eha; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; Eussen, Simone J P M

    2014-03-28

    A combination of high folate with low vitamin B12 plasma status has been associated with cognitive impairment in a population exposed to mandatory folic acid fortification. The objective of the present study was to examine the interactions between plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 markers in relation to cognitive performance in Norwegian elderly who were unexposed to mandatory or voluntary folic acid fortification. Cognitive performance was assessed by six cognitive tests in 2203 individuals aged 72-74 years. A combined score was calculated using principal component analysis. The associations of folate concentrations, vitamin B12 markers (total vitamin B12, holotranscobalamin (holoTC) and methylmalonic acid (MMA)) and their interactions in relation to cognitive performance were evaluated by quantile regression and least-squares regression, adjusted for sex, education, apo-ɛ4 genotype, history of CVD/hypertension and creatinine. Cross-sectional analyses revealed an interaction (P= 0·009) between plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in relation to cognitive performance. Plasma vitamin B12 concentrations in the lowest quartile ( < 274 pmol/l) combined with plasma folate concentrations in the highest quartile (>18·5 nmol/l) were associated with a reduced risk of cognitive impairment compared with plasma concentrations in the middle quartiles of both vitamins (OR 0·22, 95 % CI 0·05, 0·92). The interaction between folate and holoTC or MMA in relation to cognitive performance was not significant. In conclusion, this large study population unexposed to mandatory folic acid fortification showed that plasma folate, but not plasma vitamin B12, was associated with cognitive performance. Among the elderly participants with vitamin B12 concentrations in the lower range, the association between plasma folate and cognitive performance was strongest.

  19. Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J A; Rinaldi, S; Scalbert, A; Ferrari, P; Achaintre, D; Gunter, M J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J; Travis, R C

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Subjects/Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30–49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing. Results: In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of −13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters). Conclusions: Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes. PMID:26395436

  20. Acid-base parameters and steroid concentrations in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of lactating dairy cows with spontaneous and synchronized oestrus or follicular cyst.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H A; Boryczko, Z; Bostedt, H

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to compare the acid-base balance and steroid concentrations between follicular fluids (FF) of pre-ovulatory follicles derived from a spontaneous oestrus (SO), synchronized or induced oestrus (IO) and follicular cysts (CYS) and between FF and blood in dairy cows. Forty-two dairy cows were included in this study. The animals were allocated to three groups: SO (n = 23); IO (n = 11) using GnRH at day 0 and day 9 and PGF2 α at day 7; and animals with CYS (n = 10). The follicular fluids (FF) were aspirated from the cyst/pre-ovulatory follicles (∅ ≥ 15 mm) after SO and after second GnRH dose in IO by transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up technique. Blood samples (BL) were collected in heparinized vacutainer tubes. The oxygen tension (pO2) in FF of IO was higher (p < 0.05) than in SO and CYS groups. There were negative correlations (p < 0.001, r = -0.89) between FF and blood pO2. The carbon dioxide tension (pCO2) and lactate level in FF of CYS group were higher (p < 0.05) than in SO and IO groups. There were negative correlations (p < 0.01, r = -0.73) between blood and FF pO2. Oestradiol-17β concentration in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of the SO group was higher (p < 0.001) than in IO and CYS groups. Progesterone concentration in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of the SO and IO groups was lower (p < 0.01) than in CYS group. Plasma androstenedione concentration in SO and IO groups was higher (p < 0.05) than in CYS group. In conclusion, acid-base parameters, E2 and P4 levels in the follicular fluid of both IO and CYS groups were deviated greatly from the physiological level (disturbances of intrafollicular/intracystic environment), which may affect the quality of both the oocyte and the granulosa cells.

  1. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency.

  2. Plasma amino acid concentrations in normal adults ingesting aspartame and monosodium L-glutamate as part of a soup/beverage meal.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Baker, G L

    1987-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of monosodium L-glutamate with aspartame produces a marked increase in plasma glutamate and aspartate concentrations. Twelve normal adults (6 males, 6 females) ingested three different soup/beverage meals in a balanced Latin square design. One meal (A) provided no aspartame (APM) or monosodium L-glutamate (MSG); a second (B) provided 50 mg MSG/kg body weight; while the third (C) provided 50 mg MSG and 34 mg APM per kg body weight. Plasma glutamate (Glu) concentrations were not significantly affected by meal A but increased significantly after meals B and C (no significant difference between B and C). Plasma aspartate (Asp) concentrations were not significantly affected by meal A but increased significantly after meals B and C (values significantly higher after meal C than meal B). Plasma Glu + Asp concentrations were not significantly affected by meal A but increased significantly from a mean (+/- SD) baseline value of 5.64 +/- 2.62 mumol/dL to high mean values of 23.1 +/- 7.29 and 26.8 +/- 9.74 mumol/dL after ingestion of meals B and C, respectively (no significant difference between meals B and C). Similarly, the area under the plasma Glu + Asp concentration-time curve did not differ significantly between meals B and C (624 +/- 197 v 763 +/- 277 mumol/dL x min, respectively). Peak plasma Glu + Asp concentrations for each subject (ignoring time) were also examined. The mean peak plasma Glu + Asp concentrations were 7.39 +/- 2.77, 23.0 +/- 6.61, and 27.3 +/- 9.07 mumol/dL, respectively after meals A, B, and C.

  3. Acute heat stress up-regulates neuropeptide Y precursor mRNA expression and alters brain and plasma concentrations of free amino acids in chicks.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kentaro; Bahry, Mohammad A; Hui, Yang; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2015-09-01

    Heat stress causes an increase in body temperature and reduced food intake in chickens. Several neuropeptides and amino acids play a vital role in the regulation of food intake. However, the responses of neuropeptides and amino acids to heat-stress-induced food-intake regulation are poorly understood. In the current study, the hypothalamic mRNA expression of some neuropeptides related to food intake and the content of free amino acids in the brain and plasma was examined in 14-day-old chicks exposed to a high ambient temperature (HT; 40±1 °C for 2 or 5 h) or to a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30±1 °C). HT significantly increased rectal temperature and plasma corticosterone level and suppressed food intake. HT also increased the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) precursor mRNA, while no change was observed in pro-opiomelanocortin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, or corticotropin-releasing hormone precursor mRNA. It was further found that the diencephalic content of free amino acids - namely, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, valine and serine - was significantly higher in HT chicks with some alterations in their plasma amino acids in comparison with CT chicks. The induction of NPY and ASIP expression and the alteration of some free amino acids during HT suggest that these changes can be the results or causes the suppression of food intake.

  4. Effect of repeated ingestion of aspartame-sweetened beverage on plasma amino acid, blood methanol, and blood formate concentrations in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E; Tephly, T R

    1989-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is a widely used dipeptide sweetener (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester). It has been suggested that excessive use of APM might elevate plasma aspartate, phenylalanine, and/or methanol concentrations to levels that are potentially harmful. Six normal young adults ingested eight successive servings of unsweetened and APM-sweetened beverage at one-hour intervals in a balanced crossover design. In one part, the beverage was not sweetened. In the other, each serving of beverage provided 600 mg APM, a dose equivalent to the amount provided by 36 oz of APM-sweetened diet beverage. Plasma aspartate concentration was not significantly increased after ingestion of unsweetened or APM-sweetened beverage. Similarly, ingestion of the unsweetened beverage had no significant effect on plasma phenylalanine concentration. However, ingestion of APM-sweetened beverage significantly increased plasma phenylalanine levels 1.41 to 2.35 mumol/dL above baseline 30 minutes after ingestion. Plasma phenylalanine values reached a steady state after administration of four to five servings and did not exceed normal postprandial values at any time. Blood methanol and formate concentrations remained within normal limits. The data indicate ready metabolism of APM when administered at levels that may be ingested by normal individuals who are heavy users of diet beverages.

  5. Effect of preduodenal lipase inhibition in suckling rats on dietary octanoic acid (C8:0) gastric absorption and plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, F; Cavalier, J-F; Garcia, C; Boissel, F; Point, V; Catheline, D; Legrand, P; Carrière, F; Rioux, V

    2016-09-01

    Part of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) coming from dietary triglycerides (TGs) can be directly absorbed through the gastric mucosa after the action of preduodenal lipase (lingual lipase in the rat). MCFA gastric absorption, particularly that of octanoic acid (C8:0), may have a physiological importance in the octanoylation of ghrelin, the orexigenic gastric peptide acting as an endogenous ligand of the hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a). However, the amount of C8:0 absorbed in the stomach and its metabolic fate still haven't been clearly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize and quantify the importance of preduodenal lipase activity on the release and gastric absorption of dietary C8:0 and on the subsequent ghrelin octanoylation in the stomach mucosa. Fifteen days old rats received fat emulsions containing triolein or [1,1,1-(13)C]-Tri-C8:0 and a specific inhibitor of preduodenal lipase, 5-(2-(benzyloxy)ethoxy)-3-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one or BemPPOX. The fate of the (13)C-C8:0 was followed in rat tissues after 30 and 120min of digestion and octanoylated ghrelin was measured in the plasma. This work (1) demonstrates that part of C8:0 coming from Tri-C8:0 is directly absorbed at the gastric level, (2) allows the estimation of C8:0 gastric absorption level (1.3% of the (13)C-C8:0 in sn-3 position after 30min of digestion), as well as (3) the contribution of rat lingual lipase to total lipolysis and to duodenal absorption of dietary FAs (at least 30%), (4) shows no short-term effect of dietary Tri-C8:0 consumption and subsequent increase of C8:0 gastric tissue content on plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration. PMID:27317984

  6. Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Byrnes, Graham; Deharveng, Geneviève; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Jenab, Mazda; Peeters, Petra H M; Ocké, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Jakszyn, Paula; González, Carlos A; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Martinez, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Suárez, Laudina Rodriguez; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöethlings, Ute; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Dimosthenis; Oustoglou, Erifili; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2011-11-01

    Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.

  7. Plasma concentrations of voriconazole in falcons.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, V; Demiraj, F; Di Somma, A; Bailey, T; Ungemach, F R; Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E

    2007-08-25

    Doses of 12.5 mg voriconazole/kg bodyweight administered every 12 hours by crop gavage to six falcons for 14 days provided peak plasma concentrations of more than 1 microg/ml, but the trough concentrations were lower and sometimes undetectable. Administering the same doses incorporated into meat that was fed to one falcon for seven days and to three falcons for up to 91 days provided similar plasma concentrations.

  8. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    PubMed

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic. PMID:318307

  9. Esterification by the Plasma Acidic Water: Novel Application of Plasma Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the possibility of plasma acid as acid catalyst in organic reactions. Plasma acidic water was prepared by dielectric barrier discharge and used to catalyze esterification of n-heptanioc acid with ethanol. It is found that the plasma acidic water has a stable and better performance than sulfuric acid, meaning that it is an excellent acid catalyst. The plasma acidic water would be a promising alternative for classic mineral acid as a more environment friendly acid.

  10. Plasma amino acid relationships during parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wells, F E; Smits, B J

    1980-01-01

    The plasma amino acidfs of 17 patients were studied before and during total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The amino acid (AA) pattern changed similarly for all patients. The AA concentration changes relative to preinfusion (PAER) were the most informative index of change. Two groups of AA were defined, the "branched chain" group (five amino acids) and the "hepatic" group (four amino acids) based on the correlation of PAER values. Comparison of PAER values with the ratio of AA intake to requirement indicated that the requirements of the sick patients were more similar to those of children than those of healthy adults.

  11. Plasma concentrations of PGFM and uterine and ovarian responses in early lactation dairy cows fed omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Hashemi, F Adib; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zeinoaldini, S; Roodbari, A Rezaei; Saberifar, T; Petit, H V

    2013-07-15

    A total of 120 dairy cows were assigned randomly to three diets to determine the effects of omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation on uterine diseases, ovarian responses, and blood concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and PGFM in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Diets contained either protected palm oil (C), extruded linseed (L), or roasted whole soybeans (S), and they were fed from calving to Day 70 postpartum. Estrous cycles were synchronized and ovarian follicular development was monitored daily for an entire cycle. There were no differences among diets in the incidence of lameness, mastitis, or metritis, but the incidence of clinical endometritis was lower (P < 0.05) in cows fed S (0%) compared with cows fed C (28.2%) and L (20.5%). Uterine involution in cows fed S occurred 3.77 and 2.78 days earlier, respectively, than in those fed C and L. The PGFM response 60 minutes after an oxytocin challenge was highest for cows fed S and lowest for cows fed L. Mean plasma progesterone concentration on Day 15 of the synchronized cycle was higher in cows fed S (14.5 ng/mL) and L (15.0 ng/mL) than in those fed C (12.0 ng/mL). The ovulatory follicle on Day 21 of the estrous cycle (estrous = Day 0) was larger in cows fed S (16.1 ± 0.9 mm) and L (15.7 ± 0.7 mm) compared with cows fed C (13.2 ± 0.87 mm; P = 0.02) but there were no significant differences between cows fed diets S and L. The mean number of small and medium follicles and diameter of subordinate follicle were similar among diets. In conclusion, feeding a source of omega-6 FA can be a strategy to improve uterine health after calving, although a source of omega-3 FA such as L should be fed after uterine involution to decrease PGF2α secretion.

  12. Decreased plasma motilin concentrations in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, N D; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Borberg, C; Gillmer, M D

    1982-01-01

    Plasma motilin concentrations were measured in 37 women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy and one week after delivery. The mean plasma motilin concentrations, both fasting and after a glucose load and a mixed meal, were significantly (p less than 0.001) reduced during pregnancy, returning to the normal range one week post partum. Pregnancy appears to have a profound inhibitory effect on plasma motilin, and this may in part be responsible for the gastrointestinal hypomotility associated with pregnancy. PMID:6814598

  13. Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentrations Are Associated With Changes in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis and Partitioning Prior to Changes in Liver Fat Content in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Pramfalk, Camilla; Pavlides, Michael; Banerjee, Rajarshi; McNeil, Catriona A; Neubauer, Stefan; Karpe, Fredrik; Hodson, Leanne

    2016-07-01

    Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin <11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin >11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically, without any significant effect on liver fat content when observed in healthy people. This is likely to be explained by increased triglyceride secretion as observed by hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27207513

  14. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Helling, Gunnel; Wahlin, Staffan; Smedberg, Marie; Pettersson, Linn; Tjäder, Inga; Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Wernerman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations. Methods Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40), acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20), acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20), and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20). Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion. Results All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100), severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong. Conclusion Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure. PMID:26938452

  15. Plasma interactions with biased concentrator solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, R. P.; Stevens, N. J.

    1986-12-01

    Concentrator solar arrays are being proposed for future space missions as replacements for less efficient (power/mass) planar arrays. While planar solar arrays have been used in space and their characteristics evaluated, concentrator cell interactions have not. This study investigates the possible interactions between a biased concentrator cell and a plasma environment. This study involved experimental and preliminary analytical work. It has been found that the electric fields associated with the biased cell are confined to the light collector region of the cell configuration, and that the cell arcs in dense plasma environments, at negative voltages of less than -200 volts, in a way similar to the arcing experienced by planar cells.

  16. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans.Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations.Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations.Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  17. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of (/sup 3/H)adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of (/sup 3/H)adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA.

  18. Feed intake is related to changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration and hepatic acetyl CoA content following feeding in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Piantoni, P; Ylioja, C M; Allen, M S

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between hepatic acetyl CoA (AcCoA) content and dry matter intake (DMI) was evaluated using 28 multiparous Holstein cows; 14 were early postpartum (PP; 12.6 ± 3.8 d in milk) and 14 were late-lactation cows (LL; 269 ± 30 d in milk). Cows were fed once daily, and DMI was determined for the first 4h after feeding. Liver and blood samples were collected before feeding and 4h after feeding. Feed intake over the 4-h period ranged from 3.7 to 9.6 kg of dry matter and was similar for the 2 stages of lactation. Before feeding, hepatic AcCoA content was greater for PP compared with LL cows (34.4 vs. 12.5 nmol/g), and decreased over the 4h after feeding for PP only (28.7 vs. 34.4 nmol/g). The range for change in AcCoA over the 4-h period was wide for both PP (-24.3 to 10.4 nmol/g) and LL (-5.7 to 16.1 nmol/g), and was related negatively to DMI at 4h for both PP (R(2) = 0.55) and LL (R(2) = 0.31). The reduction in plasma NEFA concentration over the 4-h period was greater for PP than LL cows (-681 vs. -47 µEq/L), and was related to DMI at 4h for both PP and LL (both R(2) = 0.38). Greater DMI among cows over the first 4h after feeding might have been from a sharper reduction in supply of AcCoA in the liver for oxidation during meals because of the reduction in plasma NEFA concentration. Consistent with this is that the change in AcCoA was positively related to the reduction in plasma NEFA concentration for PP cows (R(2) = 0.31). However, change in plasma NEFA concentration was not related to change in hepatic AcCoA in LL cows, indicating that the pool of AcCoA in LL cows is not as dependent on NEFA flux to the liver as that of PP cows. Further research is required to determine production and fate of AcCoA within the timeframe of meals and the effects of feeding on energy charge in hepatic tissue.

  19. Plasma glutamine concentration in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Rogeri, P S; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2005-09-23

    Glutamine, a non-essential amino acid, is the most important source of energy for macrophages and lymphocytes. Reduction in its plasma concentration is related with loss of immune function, as leukocyte proliferation and cytokine production. It is well known that glutamine is largely produced by the skeletal muscle which is severely compromised as a consequence of the paralysis due to the damage of the spinal cord. In spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, infections, such as pneumonia and sepsis in general, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In comparison with the control group, a 54% decrease in plasma glutamine concentration was observed as well as a decrease in the production of TNF and IL-1 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultivated for 48 h in SCI patients. Therefore, we propose that a decrease in plasma glutamine concentration is an important contributor to the immunosuppression seen in SCI patients. PMID:16024049

  20. Plasma concentrations of coffee polyphenols and plasma biomarkers of diabetes risk in healthy Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A H; Tan, L 'B; Hiramatsu, N; Ishisaka, A; Alfonso, H; Tanaka, A; Uemura, N; Fujiwara, Y; Takechi, R

    2016-01-01

    Coffee consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. This anti-diabetic effect of coffee may be attributed to its high content in polyphenols especially caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. However, the association between plasma coffee polyphenols and diabetic risks has never been investigated in the literature. In this study, fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38–73 (mean 52, s.d. 8) years recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma coffee polyphenols were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Diabetes biomarkers in the plasma/serum samples were analysed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The results showed that plasma chlorogenic acid exhibited negative associations with fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, whereas plasma total coffee polyphenol and plasma caffeic acid were weakly associated with these biomarkers. Our preliminary data support previous findings that coffee polyphenols have anti-diabetic effects but further replications with large samples of both genders are recommended. PMID:27270110

  1. Plasma concentrations of coffee polyphenols and plasma biomarkers of diabetes risk in healthy Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Lee, A H; Tan, L 'b; Hiramatsu, N; Ishisaka, A; Alfonso, H; Tanaka, A; Uemura, N; Fujiwara, Y; Takechi, R

    2016-06-06

    Coffee consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. This anti-diabetic effect of coffee may be attributed to its high content in polyphenols especially caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. However, the association between plasma coffee polyphenols and diabetic risks has never been investigated in the literature. In this study, fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38-73 (mean 52, s.d. 8) years recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma coffee polyphenols were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Diabetes biomarkers in the plasma/serum samples were analysed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The results showed that plasma chlorogenic acid exhibited negative associations with fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, whereas plasma total coffee polyphenol and plasma caffeic acid were weakly associated with these biomarkers. Our preliminary data support previous findings that coffee polyphenols have anti-diabetic effects but further replications with large samples of both genders are recommended.

  2. Determination of isotopic composition of dissolved copper in seawater by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after pre-concentration using an ethylenediaminetriacetic acid chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Takano, Shotaro; Tanimizu, Masaharu; Hirata, Takafumi; Sohrin, Yoshiki

    2013-06-19

    Copper is an essential trace metal that shows a vertical recycled-scavenged profile in the ocean. To help elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of Cu in the present and past oceans, it is important to determine the distribution of Cu isotopes in seawater. However, precise isotopic analysis of Cu has been impaired by the low concentrations of Cu as well as co-existing elements that interfere with measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The objective of this study is to develop a simple Cu pre-concentration method using Nobias-chelate PA1 resin (Hitachi High Technologies). This extraction followed by anion exchange, allows precise analysis of the Cu isotopic composition in seawater. Using this method, Cu was quantitatively concentrated from seawater and >99.9999% of the alkali and alkaline earth metals were removed. The technique has a low procedural blank of 0.70 ng for Cu for a 2L sample and the precision of the Cu isotopic analysis was ±0.07‰ (±2SD, n=6). We applied this method to seawater reference materials (i.e., CASS-5 and NASS-6) and seawater samples obtained from the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The range of dissolved δ(65)Cu was 0.40-0.68‰.

  3. Factors influencing lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration

    PubMed Central

    Stöhr, Wolfgang; Back, David; Dunn, David; Sabin, Caroline; Winston, Alan; Gilson, Richard; Pillay, Deenan; Hill, Teresa; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Gazzard, Brian; Leen, Clifford; Bansi, Loveleen; Fisher, Martin; Orkin, Chloe; Anderson, Jane; Johnson, Margaret; Easterbrook, Philippa; Gibbons, Sara; Khoo, Saye

    2010-01-01

    Background The protease inhibitors lopinavir and atazanavir are both recommended for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Considerable inter-individual variability in plasma concentration has been observed for both drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate which demographic factors and concomitant drugs are associated with lopinavir and atazanavir plasma concentration. Methods Data from the Liverpool TDM (therapeutic drug monitoring) Registry were linked with the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study. For each patient, the first measurement of lopinavir (twice daily) or atazanavir [once daily, ritonavir boosted (/r) or unboosted] plasma concentration was included. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association of dose, gender, age, weight, ethnicity and concomitant antiretroviral drugs or rifabutin with log-transformed drug concentration, adjusted for time since last intake. Results Data from 439 patients on lopinavir (69% 400 mg/r, 31% 533 mg/r; 3% concomitant rifabutin) and 313 on atazanavir (60% 300 mg/r, 32% 400 mg/r, 8% 400 mg) were included. Multivariable models revealed the following predictors for lopinavir concentration: weight (11% decrease per additional 10 kg; P = 0.001); dose (25% increase for 533 mg/r; P = 0.024); and rifabutin (116% increase; P < 0.001). For atazanavir the predictors were dose (compared with 300 mg/r: 40% increase for 400 mg/r, 67% decrease for 400 mg; overall P < 0.001) and efavirenz (32% decrease; P = 0.016) but not tenofovir (P = 0.54). Conclusions This analysis confirms that efavirenz decreases atazanavir concentrations, and there was a negative association of weight and lopinavir concentrations. The strong impact of rifabutin on lopinavir concentration should be studied further. PMID:19897506

  4. Dietary determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Petra; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2005-05-01

    Severe hyperhomocysteinemia is typically caused by rare enzymatic defects or by renal failure. In contrast, mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia chiefly results from suboptimal status of nutritional factors involved in homocysteine metabolism. Low dietary intake of folate is the most important nutritional cause of elevated homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. Folic acid is more effective than dietary folate in lowering tHcy concentrations, and a daily dose of 400 mug of folic acid is the minimum daily dose associated with the maximum tHcy-lowering effect ( approximately 20-25% reduction). Mean fasting tHcy concentrations have dropped substantially in populations with mandatory folic acid fortification, and other B-vitamins, such as vitamin B (12), are important determinants of tHcy levels in this setting. Vitamins B (2) and B (6) have little influence on fasting tHcy concentrations, although the former may be relevant in individuals with the MTHFR 677 TT-genotype, and the latter may improve tHcy catabolism in elderly individuals. Betaine and choline can lower fasting tHcy concentrations to a similar extent as folic acid, particularly in the setting of a high intake of methionine. Consumption of tea and coffee increase tHcy concentrations by up to 20%. A high-protein meal also increases tHcy, but these changes are transient, and levels return to normal after an overnight fast. Serine and cystine also influence the methionine-induced postprandial rise in tHcy concentrations. In conclusion, alteration in dietary intake or use of folic acid supplements can substantially lower tHcy concentrations. However, it is not known whether lowering tHcy levels can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease or cognitive decline or prevent pregnancy complications or osteoporosis. PMID:16047264

  5. Effect of genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism on the concentration of serum folate and plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy) in healthy subjects after short-term folic acid supplementation: a randomized, double blind, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Cabo, Rona; Hernes, Sigrunn; Slettan, Audun; Haugen, Margaretha; Ye, Shu; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, M Azam

    2015-05-01

    Data on the effect of combined genetic polymorphisms, involved in folate metabolism, on the concentration of serum folate after folic acid supplementation are scarce. Therefore, we investigated the impact of seven gene polymorphisms on the concentration of serum folate and p-tHcy in healthy subjects after short-term folic acid supplementation. In a randomized, double blind, crossover study, apparently healthy subjects were given either 0.8 mg folic acid per day (n = 46) or placebo (n = 45) for 14 days. The washout period was 14 days. Fasting blood samples were collected on day 1, 15, 30 and 45. Data on subjects on folic acid supplementation (n = 91) and on placebo (n = 45) were used for the statistical analysis. The concentration of serum folate increased higher in subjects with higher age (53.5 ± 7.0 years) than in subjects with lower age (24.3 ± 3.2 years) after folic acid supplementation (p = 0.006). The baseline concentration of serum folate in subjects with polymorphism combination, reduced folate carrier protein, RFC1-80 GA and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR677 CT+TT, was lower than RFC1-80 AA and MTHFR677 CT+TT (p = 0.002). After folic acid supplementation, a higher increase in the concentration of serum folate was detected in subjects with polymorphism combination RFC1-80 GA and MTHFR677 CC than RFC1-80 GG and MTHFR CT+TT combination (p < 0.0001). The baseline concentration of plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy) was altered by combined polymorphisms in genes associated with folate metabolism. After folic acid supplementation, in subjects with combined polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, MTHFD1-1958 and MTHFR-677 genes, the concentration of p-tHcy was changed (p = 0.002). The combination of RFC1-80 and MTHFR-677 polymorphisms had a profound affect on the concentration of serum folate in healthy subjects before and after folic acid supplementation.

  6. Do plasma melatonin concentrations decline with age?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Daniels, J. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Klerman, E. B.; Shanahan, T. L.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Numerous reports that secretion of the putative sleep-promoting hormone melatonin declines with age have led to suggestions that melatonin replacement therapy be used to treat sleep problems in older patients. We sought to reassess whether the endogenous circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin concentration changes with age in healthy drug-free adults. METHODS: We analyzed the amplitude of plasma melatonin profiles during a constant routine in 34 healthy drug-free older subjects (20 women and 14 men, aged 65 to 81 years) and compared them with 98 healthy drug-free young men (aged 18 to 30 years). RESULTS: We could detect no significant difference between a healthy and drug-free group of older men and women as compared to one of young men in the endogenous circadian amplitude of the plasma melatonin rhythm, as described by mean 24-hour average melatonin concentration (70 pmol/liter vs 73 pmol/liter, P = 0.97), or the duration (9.3 hours vs 9.1 hours, P = 0.43), mean (162 pmol/liter vs 161 pmol/liter, P = 0.63), or integrated area (85,800 pmol x min/liter vs 86,700 pmol x min/liter, P = 0.66) of the nocturnal peak of plasma melatonin. CONCLUSION: These results do not support the hypothesis that reduction of plasma melatonin concentration is a general characteristic of healthy aging. Should melatonin replacement therapy or melatonin supplementation prove to be clinically useful, we recommend that an assessment of endogenous melatonin be carried out before such treatment is used in older patients.

  7. Effects of particle size, helium gas pressure and microparticle dose on the plasma concentration of indomethacin after bombardment of indomethacin-loaded poly-L-lactic acid microspheres using a Helios gun system.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Masaki; Natsume, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2002-05-01

    We investigated the effects of the particle size of indomethacin-loaded poly-L-lactic acid microspheres (IDM-loaded PLA MS), the helium pressure used to accelerate the particles, and the bombardment dose of PLA MS on the plasma concentration of IDM after bombarding with IDM-loaded PLA MS of different particle size ranges, 20-38, 44-53 and 75-100 microm, the abdomen of hairless rats using the Helios gene gun system (Helios gun system). Using larger particles and a higher helium pressure, produced an increase in the plasma IDM concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and resultant F (relative bioavailability with respect to intracutaneous injection) of IDM increased by an amount depending on the particle size and helium pressure. Although a reduction in the bombardment dose led to a decrease in C(max) and AUC, F increased on decreasing the bombardment dose. In addition, a more efficient F was obtained after bombarding with IDM-loaded PLA MS of 75-100 microm in diameter at each low dose in different sites of the abdomen compared with that after bolus bombardment with a high dose (dose equivalent). These results suggest that the bombardment injection of drug-loaded microspheres by the Helios gun system is a very useful tool for delivering a variety of drugs in powder form into the skin and systemic circulation.

  8. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control.

  9. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control. PMID:3598878

  10. Plasma homocysteine concentration changes after renal transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Aicha; Delvin, Edgar E; Genest, Jacques; Rozen, Rima; Lambert, Marie

    2002-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is found in children as well as in 80% of adult patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in plasma homocysteine concentrations after renal transplantation (RT). Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate concentrations were prospectively measured in six patients at three points, before and post transplantation (6 months, 4 years), and compared with controls using standardized scores (Z score) for each of these parameters. Folic acid supplementation was introduced after the evaluation at 6 months. Patients had elevated median plasma homocysteine Z scores during dialysis (4.12). When assessed at 6 months and 4 years, median plasma homocysteine Z scores were, respectively, 2.35 and 0.29. Median folate Z scores were 1.89 during dialysis, -0.26 at 6 months, and 3.26 at 4 years post RT. Median vitamin B(12) Z score was 2.12 during dialysis, 0.58 at 6 months, and -0.07 at 4 years post RT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) improved after RT, with median GFR of 84.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at 6 months. This stabilized to a value of 70.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at 4 years. When comparing values before and after RT at 6 months, changes were observed only for GFR ( P<0.03) and vitamin B(12) ( P<0.05). There were no changes in plasma homocysteine, folate, and serum albumin. At 4 years, a significant decrease in plasma homocysteine was observed ( P<0.05) with increased GFR ( P<0.03). No significant changes were observed in plasma albumin, folate, and vitamin B(12) concentrations. In conclusion, elevated plasma homocysteine in children during dialysis persists after RT despite a significant improvement in renal function. However, normalization was attained when patients were supplemented with folic acid. Further controlled studies are required to evaluate the determinants and treatment of elevated plasma homocysteine in pediatric transplant patients. PMID:12172766

  11. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  12. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  13. Prediction of free imatinib concentrations based on total plasma concentrations in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Haouala, Amina; Widmer, Nicolas; Guidi, Monia; Montemurro, Michael; Leyvraz, Serge; Buclin, Thierry; Eap, Chin B; Decosterd, Laurent A; Csajka, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Aim Total imatinib concentrations are currently measured for the therapeutic drug monitoring of imatinib, whereas only free drug equilibrates with cells for pharmacological action. Due to technical and cost limitations, routine measurement of free concentrations is generally not performed. In this study, free and total imatinib concentrations were measured to establish a model allowing the confident prediction of imatinib free concentrations based on total concentrations and plasma proteins measurements. Methods One hundred and fifty total and free plasma concentrations of imatinib were measured in 49 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours. A population pharmacokinetic model was built up to characterize mean total and free concentrations with inter-patient and intrapatient variability, while taking into account α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and human serum albumin (HSA) concentrations, in addition to other demographic and environmental covariates. Results A one compartment model with first order absorption was used to characterize total and free imatinib concentrations. Only AGP influenced imatinib total clearance. Imatinib free concentrations were best predicted using a non-linear binding model to AGP, with a dissociation constant Kd of 319 ng ml−1, assuming a 1:1 molar binding ratio. The addition of HSA in the equation did not improve the prediction of imatinib unbound concentrations. Conclusion Although free concentration monitoring is probably more appropriate than total concentrations, it requires an additional ultrafiltration step and sensitive analytical technology, not always available in clinical laboratories. The model proposed might represent a convenient approach to estimate imatinib free concentrations. However, therapeutic ranges for free imatinib concentrations remain to be established before it enters into routine practice. PMID:22891806

  14. A novel method for simultaneous measurement of concentration and enrichment of NO synthesis-specific amino acids in human plasma using stable isotopes and LC/MS ion trap analysis.

    PubMed

    Oosterink, J Efraim; Buijs, Nikki; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Schierbeek, Henk

    2014-05-01

    Stable isotope studies offer the opportunity to study the in-depth metabolic pathway of glutamine, citrulline, and arginine amino acids involved in NO synthesis. The use of multiple stable isotopes can be used to elucidate the exact transformation of glutamine to citrulline and arginine de novo synthesis. This novel method provides a purification step using cation exchange resin in combination with a rapid and easy derivatization procedure for a precise and robust measurement of the concentration and isotopic enrichments of NO synthesis-specific amino acids using a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) ion trap system with high sensitivity and selectivity. The ethyl chloroformate derivatization procedure is beneficial in terms of robustness, velocity, simplicity, and derivative stability. In addition, the ethyl chloroformate derivatization can be performed at room temperature in an aqueous environment without incubation and the isolation of the derivatives from the reaction mixture also serves as a purification step. The concentration and enrichment of NO synthesis-specific amino acids as well as phenylalanine and tyrosine to determine protein turnover, were measured with good inter-day precision for the concentration (<7.4%) and enrichment (<12.7%) in plasma samples at low and high levels. The low limit of quantification was 0.2μmol/L for most of the amino acids and the purification method showed to have good recoveries between 78% and 98%. No ion-suppression was observed by post-column infusion experiments. In order to develop new nutritional strategies, this novel method can be used to support the elucidation of the effect of administration of specific supplements on the glutamine-citrulline-arginine pathway by using stable isotope studies.

  15. Plasma polymerized allylamine coated quartz particles for humic acid removal.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Karyn L; Majewski, Peter

    2012-08-15

    Allylamine plasma polymerization has been used to modify the surface of quartz particles for humic acid removal via an inductively coupled rotating barrel plasma reactor. Plasma polymerized allylamine (ppAA) films were deposited at a power of 25 W, allylamine flow rate of 4.4 sccm and polymerization times of 5-60 min. The influence of polymerization time on surface chemistry was investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and electrokinetic analysis. Acid orange 7 adsorption/desorption quantified the number of surface amine groups. Humic acid removal via ppAA quartz particles was examined by varying pH, removal time, humic acid concentration, and particle mass. Increasing the polymerization time increased the concentration of amine groups on the ppAA quartz surface, thus also increasing the isoelectric point. ToF-SIMS demonstrated uniform distribution of amine groups across the particle surface. Greatest humic acid removal was observed at pH 5 due to electrostatic attraction. At higher pH values, for longer polymerization times, humic acid removal was also observed due to hydrogen bonding. Increasing the initial humic acid concentration increased the mass of humic acid removed, with longer polymerization times exhibiting the greatest increases. Plasma polymerization using a rotating plasma reactor has shown to be a successful method for modifying quartz particles for the removal of humic acid. Further development of the plasma polymerization process and investigation of additional contaminants will aid in the development of a low cost water treatment system.

  16. Increased corticosteroid binding capacity of plasma albumin but not of corticosteroid-binding globulin caused by ACTH-induced changes in free fatty acid concentrations in snowshoe hares and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, R; Tinnikov, A A

    1998-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) are rapidly mobilized by ACTH and have been shown to be potent endogenous modulators of steroid-protein interactions. We increased FFA in lagomorphs by ACTH and then separated the transient increase in glucocorticoid binding capacity of plasma into that accounted for by changes in binding to albumin and to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). Sequential injections of dexamethasone and ACTH into both snowshoe hares and laboratory rabbits resulted in the rapid mobilization of FFA only after the ACTH injection. The maximum corticosteroid binding capacity increase paralleled that of the FFA increase in both species. In rabbits, CBG levels remained constant over the duration of the experiment. Corticosterone binding by rabbit albumin increased in a dose-dependent fashion in response to increases in FFA (oleic and linoleic acid) concentrations. Finally, by stimulating FFA release in snowshoe hares with ACTH and separating the increase in corticosteroid binding capacity through selective denaturing of CBG by heat, we determined that the increase in plasma binding capacity was a response to changes in binding by albumin, not CBG. Thus FFA released in response to stressors in lagomorphs may effect short-term increases in steroid binding.

  17. Hyperammonemia Associated with Valproic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Alvariza, Silvana; Magallanes, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid, a branched short-chain fatty acid, has numerous action mechanisms which turn it into a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug and make its use possible in some other pathologies such as bipolar disorder. It is extensively metabolized in liver, representing β-oxidation in the mitochondria one of its main metabolic route (40%). Carnitine is responsible for its entry into the mitochondria as any other fatty acid. Long-term high-dose VPA therapy or acute VPA overdose induces carnitine depletion, resulting in high levels of ammonia in blood. As a high correlation between salivary valproic acid levels and plasma ultrafiltrate levels was found in humans, saliva becomes a promising monitoring fluid in order to study valproic acid pharmacokinetics and its toxic effect. Extended-release (twice daily) formulations of valproic acid or carnitine supplementation are the proposed two therapeutic strategies in order to reverse hyperammonemia. PMID:24868521

  18. Effect of octreotide acetate on the plasma concentration and urinary excretion of uridine and purine bases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Moriwaki, Yuji; Takahashi, Sumio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Ka, Tsuneyoshi; Hada, Toshikazu

    2002-04-01

    To determine the effect of octreotide acetate on urinary excretion of uric acid and plasma concentration of uridine, we subcutaneously administered octreotide acetate (1 microg/kg of body weight) to 5 healthy subjects. Ninety minutes after administration, octreotide acetate increased the plasma concentration of uridine by 15% and decreased the plasma concentration of glucagon by 24% and that of insulin to below the detection limits. In addition, octreotide acetate decreased the urinary excretion of uric acid, sodium, and chloride by 60%, 40%, and 38%, respectively, at 1 hour after administration. However, octreotide acetate did not affect the concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, cyclic AMP in plasma, lactic acid and pyruvic acid in blood, urinary excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine, or creatinine clearance. From these results, we speculated that octreotide acetate decreases the urinary excretion of uric acid by decreasing the concentration of glucagon and/or urinary excretion of sodium, and increases the plasma concentration of uridine via decreased concentrations of glucagon and insulin.

  19. Amino acid concentrations in human embryological fluids.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Sherwood, R A; Jurkovic, D; Boa, F G; Campbell, S

    1994-06-01

    The concentrations of amino acids in samples of coelomic fluid (n = 15), amniotic fluid (n = 9) and maternal serum (n = 15) obtained from normal pregnancies between 7 and 12 weeks of gestation were measured using reversed-phase chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The total molar concentration of the 18 amino acids measured was 2.3 times higher in coelomic fluid than in maternal serum. All amino acids except serine and tryptophan were present in significantly higher concentrations in coelomic fluid than in maternal serum. Significant correlations between maternal serum and coelomic fluid were only found for proline, tyrosine, and tryptophan, suggesting that levels of the other amino acids are mainly influenced by placental synthesis and do not directly depend on maternal amino acid metabolism. Levels of all amino acids were significantly higher in coelomic fluid compared to amniotic fluid. Compared to maternal serum, the amniotic fluid contained significantly higher levels of arginine, lysine, alanine and tyrosine and lower levels of serine, glutamine and tryptophan. The total molar amino acid concentration decreased significantly with gestational age in both coelomic fluid and maternal serum. These results suggest that amino acids accumulate in coelomic fluid to support the metabolism of the secondary yolk sac, and that the exocoelomic cavity is the reservoir for most nutrients needed by the embryo and early fetus in the first trimester of human pregnancy.

  20. Associations of plasma phospholipid fatty acids with plasma homocysteine in Chinese vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Yu, Xiaomei; Shou, Tianxing; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo

    2013-05-01

    The association of plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) in Chinese vegetarians is not understood. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma PL fatty acid status, and its association with plasma Hcy in Chinese vegetarians and omnivores. A total of 103 male vegetarians and 128 male omnivores were recruited in Linyin Temple, Hangzhou. Plasma Hcy and PL fatty acid concentrations were determined by standard methods. Compared with omnivores, plasma PL n-3 PUFA (P< 0·001), 22 : 6n-3 (P< 0·001), 22 : 5n-6 (P= 0·021), 22 : 2n-6 (P< 0·001) and SFA (P= 0·017) were significantly lower, while plasma PL n-6 PUFA (P= 0·007) and total PUFA (P< 0·001) were significantly higher in vegetarians. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) in vegetarians (26·47 %) was significantly higher than that in omnivores (13·28 %). In vegetarians, plasma PL 22 : 6n-3 (r − 0·257, P= 0·046) was significantly negatively associated with plasma Hcy. In omnivores, plasma PL 18 : 1n-7 (r 0·237, P= 0·030) was significantly positively associated with plasma Hcy. Plasma PL 22 : 6n-3 (r − 0·217, P= 0·048) was negatively associated with plasma Hcy in omnivores. Plasma PL SFA were positively associated with the prevalence of HHcy. It would seem appropriate for vegetarians to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA and decrease dietary SFA, and thus reduce the risk of HHcy.

  1. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. Methods We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Results The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P < 0.001). In addition, dietary EPA, C22:5 n-3 and DHA were significantly correlated with the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids and DHA, with the Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.35 (P < 0.001). Moreover, compared with those in the lowest fish intake quintile, participants in the highest quintile had a significantly higher DHA level (adjusted mean difference, 0.99 ± 0.10%, test for trend, P < 0.001). Similar patterns between dietary DHA intake and plasma DHA levels were found. However, the association between dietary fish intake and plasma EPA was not significant (test for trend, P = 0.69). Conclusions The dietary intakes of fish and of long chain n-3 fatty acids, as determined by the food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PMID:23414574

  2. Effect on days of lactation and methionine hydroxy analog on incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglycerides

    SciTech Connect

    Pullen, D.L.; Emergy, R.S. ); Palmquist, D.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Methionine hydroxy analog has been proposed to stimulate hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglyceride. Seven cows were fed diets containing 0 to 30 g analog/d starting 14 d prepartum. At approximately 30 and 60 d postpartum, cows were continuously infused intravenously with 1-({sup 14}C)palmitic acid for 160 min to achieve steady-state labeling of plasma fatty acid and triglyceride. Turnover of fatty acid and transfer quotients for triglyceride and CO{sub 2} were 3.3 an 2.7 mmol min{sup {minus}1}; 13.0 and 10.0%; and 8.0 and 5.0%, for control and analog, respectively. Proportion of fatty acid turnover incorporated into triglyceride and CO{sub 2} were 14.0 and 15.0%; and 21.0 and 18.0, respectively, for control and analog. Analog increased {sup 14}C recovered in milk fat (52 vs. 36%). Plasma concentration of fatty acids, percent oxidized to CO{sub 2}, and percent of CO{sub 2} from fatty acids decreased with increasing lactation days. Milk fat percent and yield fatty acid turnover, and oxidation were positively correlated with concentration of plasma fatty acids, whereas fatty acid incorporated into plasma triglyceride was negatively correlated with fatty acid concentration. The data suggest that hepatic triglyceride secretion is not increased in early lactation; further, no effects of analog on lipid metabolism were detected.

  3. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  4. Spinal anaesthesia in newborns: total and free bupivacaine plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Beauvoir, C; Rochette, A; Desch, G; D'Athis, F

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to measure total and free bupivacaine (B) after spinal anaesthesia in newborns and to evaluate a possible influence of adrenaline on B absorption. Twenty-two newborns were randomly allocated to receive either plain B (group 1) or adrenaline added to B (group 2) for spinal anaesthesia. A single blood sample was collected ten min after spinal injection. Total B concentration was found 0.31 +/- 0.17 microgram ml-1 in group 1 and 0.25 +/- 0.09 microgram ml-1 in group 2. Bound B concentration was 0.27 +/- 0.17 microgram ml-1 in group 1 and 0.22 +/- 0.09 microgram ml-1 in group 2. No difference was found between the two groups for these parameters. Albumin but not alpha 1-acid-glyco-protein correlated to age and weight, bound B correlated to alpha 1-acid-glyco-protein but not to albumin. Despite the low plasma concentration of binding proteins in newborns, spinal anaesthesia with B does not result in a high level of free drug. Adrenaline does not have any pharmacological advantage in these patients.

  5. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Increased plasma serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid concentrations are associated with impaired systolic and late diastolic forward flows during cardiac cycle and elevated resistive index at popliteal artery and renal insufficiency in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Jun; Suzuki, Eiji; Tajima, Yoshitaka; Takami, Kazuhisa; Horikawa, Yukio; Takeda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Although lower extremity arterial disease is frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus, the association of circulating biomarkers with flow components during the cardiac cycle in lower-leg arteries has yet to be fully elucidated. We enrolled 165 type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI 1.0-1.4), comprising 106 normoalbuminuric and 59 microalbuminuric patients, and 40 age-matched nondiabetic subjects consecutively admitted to our hospital. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF) and vasoconstrictor serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were measured. An automatic device was used to measure ABI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Flow components during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume, and resistive index at popliteal artery were evaluated using gated magnetic resonance imaging. Although estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), early diastolic flow reversal, heart rate, and ABI were similar between the groups, diabetic patients had higher log hsCRP (p<0.001), VWF (p<0.001), 5-HIAA (p=0.002), resistive index (p<0.001) and baPWV (p<0.001) and lower systolic (p=0.026) and late diastolic (p<0.001) forward flows and total flow volume (p<0.001) than nondiabetic subjects. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that 5-HIAA in microalbuminuric patients showed higher associations with systolic and late diastolic forward flows during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume and resistive index at popliteal artery, and eGFR compared to normoalbuminuric patients. In microalbuminuric patients, 5-HIAA was a significant independent determinant among these factors. Thus, increased plasma 5-HIAA levels are involved in the pathogenesis of impaired blood flow in lower extremities and renal insufficiency in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

  7. Effects of hemorrhagic hypotension on tyrosine concentrations in rat spinal cord and plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Roberts, C. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Tyrosine is the precursor for catecholamine neurotransmitters. When catecholamine-containing neurons are physiologically active (as sympathoadrenal cells are in hypotension), tyrosine administration increases catecholamine synthesis and release. Since hypotension can alter plasma amino acid composition, the effects of an acute hypotensive insult on tyrosine concentrations in plasma and spinal cord were examined. Rats were cannulated and bled until the systolic blood pressure was 50 mmHg, or were kept normotensive for 1 h. Tyrosine and other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) known to compete with tyrosine for brain uptake were assayed in plasma and spinal cord. The rate at which intra-arterial (H-3)tyrosine disappeared from the plasma was also estimated in hemorrhaged and control rats. In plasma of hemorrhaged animals, both the tyrosine concentration and the tyrosine/LNAA ratio was elevated; moreover, the disappearance of (H-3)tyrosine was slowed. Tyrosine concentrations also increased in spinal cords of hemorrhaged-hypotensive rats when compared to normotensive controls. Changes in plasma amino acid patterns may thus influence spinal cord concentrations of amino acid precursors for neurotransmitters during the stress of hemorrhagic shock.

  8. Intracellular accumulation of boceprevir according to plasma concentrations and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Jessica; Allegra, Sarah; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Boglione, Lucio; Fatiguso, Giovanna; Abdi, Adnan Mohamed; Cariti, Giuseppe; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Boceprevir (BOC) is a directly-acting antiviral agent for the treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection. It is a mixture of two stereoisomers, the inactive R and the active S isomers. No data have previously been published on BOC intracellular accumulation. In this study, BOC isomer concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma were determined. The influence of various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on plasma and intracellular drug exposure at Week 4 of triple therapy were also evaluated. Plasma and intracellular BOC concentrations were determined at the end of the dosing interval (C(trough)) using a UPLC-MS/MS validated method. Allelic discrimination was performed through real-time PCR. Median plasma concentrations were 65.97 ng/mL for the S isomer and 36.31 ng/mL for the R isomer; the median S/R plasma concentration ratio was 1.66. The median PBMC concentration was 2285.88 ng/mL for the S isomer; the R isomer was undetectable within PBMCs. The median S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio was 28.59. A significant positive correlation was found between plasma and PBMC S isomer concentrations. ABCB1 1236, SLC28A2 124 and IL28B rs12979860 SNPs were associated with the S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio. In regression models, S isomer plasma levels and FokI polymorphism were able to predict S isomer intracellular exposure, whereas SNPs in AKR1, BCRP1 and SLC28A2 predicted the S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio. No similar data regarding BOC pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics have been published previously. This study adds a novel and useful overview of the pharmacological properties of this drug. PMID:25836019

  9. Intracellular accumulation of boceprevir according to plasma concentrations and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Jessica; Allegra, Sarah; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Boglione, Lucio; Fatiguso, Giovanna; Abdi, Adnan Mohamed; Cariti, Giuseppe; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Boceprevir (BOC) is a directly-acting antiviral agent for the treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection. It is a mixture of two stereoisomers, the inactive R and the active S isomers. No data have previously been published on BOC intracellular accumulation. In this study, BOC isomer concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma were determined. The influence of various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on plasma and intracellular drug exposure at Week 4 of triple therapy were also evaluated. Plasma and intracellular BOC concentrations were determined at the end of the dosing interval (C(trough)) using a UPLC-MS/MS validated method. Allelic discrimination was performed through real-time PCR. Median plasma concentrations were 65.97 ng/mL for the S isomer and 36.31 ng/mL for the R isomer; the median S/R plasma concentration ratio was 1.66. The median PBMC concentration was 2285.88 ng/mL for the S isomer; the R isomer was undetectable within PBMCs. The median S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio was 28.59. A significant positive correlation was found between plasma and PBMC S isomer concentrations. ABCB1 1236, SLC28A2 124 and IL28B rs12979860 SNPs were associated with the S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio. In regression models, S isomer plasma levels and FokI polymorphism were able to predict S isomer intracellular exposure, whereas SNPs in AKR1, BCRP1 and SLC28A2 predicted the S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio. No similar data regarding BOC pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics have been published previously. This study adds a novel and useful overview of the pharmacological properties of this drug.

  10. Plasma Concentrations of Hepcidin in Anemic Zimbabwean Infants

    PubMed Central

    Mupfudze, Tatenda G.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Rukobo, Sandra; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Anemia in infancy is a global public health problem. We evaluated the relative contributions of iron deficiency and inflammation to infant anemia. Methods We measured plasma hepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein (CRP) by ELISA on archived plasma from 289 HIV-unexposed anemic or non-anemic Zimbabwean infants at ages 3mo, 6mo and 12mo. Among anemic infants, we determined the proportion with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of inflammation (AI). We undertook regression analyses of plasma hepcidin and anemia status, adjusting for sex, age and birthweight. Results Anemic infants at 3mo were more stunted and had higher CRP (median 0.45 vs 0.21mg/L; P = 0.037) and hepcidin (median 14.7 vs 9.7ng/mL; P = 0.022) than non-anemic infants, but similar levels of ferritin and sTfR; 11% infants had IDA and 15% had AI. Anemic infants at 6mo had higher hepcidin (median 7.9 vs 4.5ng/mL; P = 0.016) and CRP (median 2.33 vs 0.32mg/L; P<0.001), but lower ferritin (median 13.2 vs 25.1μg/L; P<0.001) than non-anemic infants; 56% infants had IDA and 12% had AI. Anemic infants at 12mo had lower ferritin (median 3.2 vs 22.2μg/L; P<0.001) and hepcidin (median 0.9 vs 1.9ng/mL; P = 0.019), but similar CRP levels; 48% infants had IDA and 8% had AI. Comparing anemic with non-anemic infants, plasma hepcidin was 568% higher, 405% higher and 64% lower at 3mo, 6mo and 12mo, respectively, after adjusting for sex and birthweight (all p<0.01). Plasma hepcidin declined significantly with age among anemic but not non-anemic infants. Girls had 61% higher hepcidin than boys, after adjusting for age, anemia and birthweight (p<0.001). Conclusion Anemia is driven partly by inflammation early in infancy, and by iron deficiency later in infancy, with plasma hepcidin concentrations reflecting the relative contribution of each. However, there is need to better characterize the drivers of hepcidin during infancy in developing

  11. Taurine concentrations in the diet, plasma, urine and breast milk of vegans compared with omnivores.

    PubMed

    Rana, S K; Sanders, T A

    1986-07-01

    1. The concentration of taurine in the diets, plasma, urine and breast milk were measured in vegans and age- and sex-matched omnivore controls. Plasma and urinary amino acid concentrations were also determined. 2. Taurine was absent from the vegan diet and occurred in variable amounts in the diets of the omnivores. Urinary taurine levels were less than half those of the omnivores but plasma and breast-milk levels were only slightly lower. 3. Dietary energy intakes were similar in the vegans and omnivores, but protein intakes tended to be lower in the vegans.

  12. Taurine concentrations in the diet, plasma, urine and breast milk of vegans compared with omnivores.

    PubMed

    Rana, S K; Sanders, T A

    1986-07-01

    1. The concentration of taurine in the diets, plasma, urine and breast milk were measured in vegans and age- and sex-matched omnivore controls. Plasma and urinary amino acid concentrations were also determined. 2. Taurine was absent from the vegan diet and occurred in variable amounts in the diets of the omnivores. Urinary taurine levels were less than half those of the omnivores but plasma and breast-milk levels were only slightly lower. 3. Dietary energy intakes were similar in the vegans and omnivores, but protein intakes tended to be lower in the vegans. PMID:3676193

  13. Hormone-fuel concentrations in anephric subjects. Effect of hemodialysis (with special reference to amino acids).

    PubMed Central

    Ganda, O P; Aoki, T T; Soeldner, J S; Morrison, R S; Cahill, G F

    1976-01-01

    Arterial blood concentrations of insulin, glucagon, and various substrates were determined in six anephric subjects in the postabsorptive state and immediately after hemodialysis. Plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were normal, and declined during dialysis. Plasma glucagon was elevated and remained unchanged. There was moderate hypertriglyceridemia before dialysis, but this decreased significantly after administration of heparin just before the start of dialysis, and at the end of dialysis was lowered further into the normal range. Comparison of postabsorptive whole blood concentrations of amino acids with those in normal, healthy adults revealed striking differences. Glutamine, proline, citrulline, glycine and both 1- and 3-methyl-histidines were increased, while serine, glutamate, tyrosine, lysine, and branched-chain amino acids were decreased. The glycine/serine ratio was elevated to 300% and tyrosine/phenylalanine ratio was lowered to 60% of normal. To investigate the potential role of blood cells in amino acid transport, the distribution of individual amino acids in plasma and blood cell compartments was studied. Despite a markedly diminished blood cell mass (mean hematocrit, 20.6 +/- 1.4%), there was no significant decrease in the fraction of most amino acids present in the cell compartment, and this was explained by increases of several amino acids in cellular water. None were decreased. Furthermore, during dialysis, whole blood and plasma amino acids declined by approximately 30% and 40%, respectively, whereas no significant change was observed in the cell compartment. Alanine was the only amino acid whose concentration declined in the cells as well as in plasma. The results indicate (a) significant alterations in the concentrations of hormones and substrates in patients on chronic, intermittent hemodialysis; (b) removal of amino acids during hemodialysis, predominantly from the plasma compartment, with no significant change in cell content

  14. Plasma and brain fatty acid profiles in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Schneider, Julie A; Tangney, Christine; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Fortier, Mélanie; Bennett, David A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish but despite numerous studies, it is still unclear whether there are differences in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma or brain. In matched plasma and brain samples provided by the Memory and Aging Project, fatty acid profiles were quantified in several plasma lipid classes and in three brain cortical regions. Fatty acid data were expressed as % composition and as concentrations (mg/dL for plasma or mg/g for brain). Differences in plasma fatty acid profiles between AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those with no cognitive impairment (NCI) were most apparent in the plasma free fatty acids (lower oleic acid isomers and omega-6 fatty acids in AD) and phospholipids (lower omega-3 fatty acids in AD). In brain, % DHA was lower only in phosphatidylserine of mid-frontal cortex and superior temporal cortex in AD compared to NCI (-14% and -12%, respectively; both p < 0.05). The only significant correlation between plasma and brain fatty acids was between % DHA in plasma total lipids and % DHA in phosphatidylethanolamine of the angular gyrus, but only in the NCI group (+0.77, p < 0.05). We conclude that AD is associated with altered plasma status of both DHA and other fatty acids unrelated to DHA, and that the lipid class-dependent nature of these differences reflects a combination of differences in intake and metabolism. PMID:22466064

  15. Plasma amylin and insulin concentrations in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, T A; Rand, J S

    1996-01-01

    The recently discovered pancreatic peptide amylin is postulated to be involved in the pathogenesis of feline diabetes mellitus. However, plasma amylin concentrations in normal and diabetic cats have not yet been published. The aim of the present study was to validate a commercial amylin radioimmunoassay kit for the measurement of feline amylin in unextracted plasma, and to measure plasma amylin concentrations in normal and diabetic cats. The kit had satisfactory specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision, and can be recommended for measurement of feline amylin in unextracted EDTA plasma, when nonspecific binding of plasma samples is used in the calculation of measured amylin concentration. Fasting amylin concentration in cats with normal glucose tolerance was 97 +/- 4 pmol/L. Plasma amylin increased in parallel with insulin after glucose administration in cats with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. In contrast to cats with normal glucose tolerance, cats with impaired glucose tolerance had markedly delayed amylin and insulin secretion. Diabetic cats had basal hypoinsulinemia combined with hyperamylinemia. Hyperamylinemia may lead to reduced insulin secretion and insulin resistance, and contribute to the development of feline diabetes. In conclusion, feline amylin can be measured in unextracted EDTA plasma. Fasting amylin concentrations are approximately 100 pmol/L, and amylin and insulin are cosecreted in cats with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. Increased amylin concentrations may contribute to the development of feline diabetes mellitus. PMID:8746416

  16. Partition functions and concentrations in plasmas out of thermal equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, P.

    1995-06-01

    Taking into account the disequilibrium between the temperatures (electronic, rotational, vibrational, translational) in a nitrogen-plasma out of thermal equilibrium, different partition function and chemical potential calculation method are described and applied. From the variation of the temperature hypotheses, their influence on the plasma concentration is shown.

  17. The effects of short intensive exercise on plasma free amino acids in standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; van den Hoven, R; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short intense exercise on plasma amino acid concentrations in trotters and to test the repeatability of plasma amino acids concentration in samples obtained on two independent days under field conditions. Plasma amino acid concentrations were analysed in blood samples of 36 standardbred trotters before and after intense exercise over a distance of 2000 m. Sampling was repeated in 20 horses after 35 days. Exercise intensity was estimated from post-exercise lactate levels. Horses were divided in two groups according to a cut-off lactate concentration at 15 mmol/l. The plasma concentrations of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and taurine increased and arginine, asparagine, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, histidine, methionine, serine, tryptophan and 3-methylhistidine decreased after exercise. Ornithine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and valine concentrations remained constant. Higher intensity of exercise significantly decreased tryptophan and increased taurine concentrations. Sampling day had a significant effect on the absolute pre- and post-exercise amino acid concentrations. Exercise had a significant influence on the concentrations of most plasma amino acids in trotters. These changes could reflect shifts between the free amino acid compartments, but there were also some indications for muscle catabolism. The amino acid supply of sporting horses could be of specific significance for maintaining muscle integrity and for the improvement of post-exercise recovery of competition horses. PMID:19320929

  18. Prospective determination of plasma imipenem concentrations in critically ill children.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Eric; Moreillon, Philippe; Cotting, Jacques; Moessinger, Adrien; Bille, Jacques; Décosterd, Laurent; Zanetti, Giorgio; Majcherczyk, Paul; Bugnon, Denis

    2006-07-01

    Plasma imipenem concentrations were measured in 19 critically ill children (median age, 0.8 year; range, 0.02 to 12.9 years). Wide interindividual variations (2 to 4x at peak and >10x at trough concentrations) resulted in unpredictable plasma levels in several children. To avoid subtherapeutic drug levels, we recommend treatment with at least 100 mg/kg of body weight/day of imipenem-cilastatin for critically ill children requiring such therapy.

  19. Serum and plasma concentration of oxidant and antioxidants in patients of Helicobacter pylori gastritis and its correlation with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Khanzode, Shruti S; Khanzode, Suchet D; Dakhale, Ganesh N

    2003-05-30

    Serum superoxide dismutase, plasma ascorbic acid and lipid peroxidation in H. pylori gastritis and gastric cancer patients were compared with values for age matched healthy subjects. Serum superoxide dismutase and serum malondialdehyde were analyzed spectrophotometrically whereas plasma ascorbic acid was determined by colorimetric method. Significant increase in serum superoxide dismutase and serum malondialdehyde and significant decrease in plasma ascorbic acid were observed in H. pylori gastritis and gastric cancer patients compared to control subjects. The concentration of serum superoxide dismutase and serum malondialdehyde was significantly higher and plasma ascorbic acid was significantly lower in gastric cancer as compared to H. pylori gastritis patients. Our results demonstrate that a correlation existed between the concentration of serum superoxide dismutase, plasma ascorbic acid and lipid peroxidation in H. pylori gastritis and gastric cancer patients.

  20. Plasma concentrations of endothelin in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Predel, H.G.; Meyer-Lehnert, H.; Baecker, A.; Stelkens, H.; Kramer, H.J. )

    1990-01-01

    We measured circulating concentrations of endothelin in healthy subjects and in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity. Endothelin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay after extraction of plasma using Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges in healthy subjects, in patients with diabetes mellitus type I, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and in non-dialyzed patients with stable chronic renal failure. Plasma concentrations were similar in healthy controls, in diabetics and in hypertensive patients averaging 5.0{plus minus}0.6 pg/ml, 4.7{plus minus}0.2 pg/ml and 6.5{plus minus}1.0 pg/ml, respectively. In contrast, plasma concentrations of endothelin were markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure averaging 16.6{plus minus}2.9 pg/ml. No correlations were observed between serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 124 to 850 {mu}mol/l or blood pressure and plasma concentrations of endothelin. Bicycle ergometric exercise in six healthy subjects and an acute modest i.v. saline load of 1,000 ml of 0.45% NaCl administered within 60 min in six patients with mild essential hypertension did not affect plasma concentrations of endothelin.

  1. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  2. Analytic calculation of physiological acid-base parameters in plasma.

    PubMed

    Wooten, E W

    1999-01-01

    Analytic expressions for plasma total titratable base, base excess (DeltaCB), strong-ion difference, change in strong-ion difference (DeltaSID), change in Van Slyke standard bicarbonate (DeltaVSSB), anion gap, and change in anion gap are derived as a function of pH, total buffer ion concentration, and conditional molar equilibrium constants. The behavior of these various parameters under respiratory and metabolic acid-base disturbances for constant and variable buffer ion concentrations is considered. For constant noncarbonate buffer concentrations, DeltaSID = DeltaCB = DeltaVSSB, whereas these equalities no longer hold under changes in noncarbonate buffer concentration. The equivalence is restored if the reference state is changed to include the new buffer concentrations.

  3. Influence of exercise on plasma and muscle free amino acids in trained rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Marín, J F; Mendiola, P; Hernández, M D; De Costa, J; Zamora, S

    1999-12-01

    Variations in the concentration of free amino acids in the muscle and plasma of trout submitted to 5 minutes of intense exercise have been studied. The responses of untrained fish and those trained performing the same type of exercise twice daily for 28 days are compared. Total amino acid concentrations in muscle tend to diminish after intense exercise. Significant decreases are observed in muscle content of alanine, beta-alanine, isoleucine and ornithine. Plasma amino acids tend to increase after exercise with significant differences in glutamate, GABA, methionine and NH4+. The small variations due to intense exercise suggest that the amino acids are mobilised. Training led to a decrease in total amino acid concentration in plasma but not in muscle, where levels of aspartate and ornithine increased. This suggests a metabolic adaptation to exercise, with amino acid level retention in the muscle.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma releasate differently stimulates cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage according to concentration

    PubMed Central

    Matsiko, Amos; Tomazette, Marcel RP; Rocha, Wanessa KR; Cordeiro-Spinetti, Eric; Levingstone, Tanya J; Farina, Marcos; O’Brien, Fergal J; El-Cheikh, Marcia C; Balduino, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma has been used to treat articular cartilage defects, with the expectations of anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on cellular chondrogenic or fibrogenic commitment is still a controversy. Herein, the role of platelet-rich plasma releasate, the product obtained following platelet-rich plasma activation, on cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage was evaluated in vitro. Human nasoseptal chondrogenic cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were used as cell types already committed to the chondrogenic lineage and undifferentiated cells, respectively, as different concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were tested in comparison to commonly used fetal bovine serum. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate (2.5%) presented similar effects on cellular growth compared to 10% fetal bovine serum, for both cell types. In a three-dimensional culture system, platelet-rich plasma releasate alone did not induce full nasoseptal chondrogenic cells cartilage-like pellet formation. Nonetheless, platelet-rich plasma releasate played a significant role on cell commitment as high-passage nasoseptal chondrogenic cells only originated cartilage-like pellets when expanded in the presence of platelet-rich plasma releasate rather than fetal bovine serum. Histological analyses and measurements of pellet area demonstrated that even low concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were enough to prevent nasoseptal chondrogenic cells from losing their chondrogenic potential due to in vitro expansion thereby promoting their recommitment. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate supplemented in chondrogenic medium also increased the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells seeded on collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds, as observed by an increase in chondrogenic-related gene expression, sulfated glycosaminoglycan production, and compressive modulus following in vitro culture. On the

  5. Photovoltaic concentrator pointing dynamics and plasma interaction study

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, T.G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment are to use the Space Technology Experiments Platform (STEP) system to demonstrate the viability of concentrator photovoltaic arrays by: (1) configuring a deployable mast on the STEP pallet with concentrator mass models and some active photovoltaic modules (2) measuring the array pointing dynamics under normal rotation as well as disturbance conditions (3) performing an array plasma interaction experiment to determine the steady-state plasma losses under various voltage conditions and (4) providing active distributed control of the support truss to determine the improvement in dynamic response. Experiment approach and test control and instrumentation are described.

  6. A simplified strong ion model for acid-base equilibria: application to horse plasma.

    PubMed

    Constable, P D

    1997-07-01

    The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and Stewart's strong ion model are currently used to describe mammalian acid-base equilibria. Anomalies exist when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is applied to plasma, whereas the strong ion model does not provide a practical method for determining the total plasma concentration of nonvolatile weak acids ([Atot]) and the effective dissociation constant for plasma weak acids (Ka). A simplified strong ion model, which was developed from the assumption that plasma ions act as strong ions, volatile buffer ions (HCO-3), or nonvolatile buffer ions, indicates that plasma pH is determined by five independent variables: PCO2, strong ion difference, concentration of individual nonvolatile plasma buffers (albumin, globulin, and phosphate), ionic strength, and temperature. The simplified strong ion model conveys on a fundamental level the mechanism for change in acid-base status, explains many of the anomalies when the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is applied to plasma, is conceptually and algebraically simpler than Stewart's strong ion model, and provides a practical in vitro method for determining [Atot] and Ka of plasma. Application of the simplified strong ion model to CO2-tonometered horse plasma produced values for [Atot] (15.0 +/- 3.1 meq/l) and Ka (2.22 +/- 0.32 x 10(-7) eq/l) that were significantly different from the values commonly assumed for human plasma ([Atot] = 20.0 meq/l, Ka = 3.0 x 10(-7) eq/l). Moreover, application of the experimentally determined values for [Atot] and Ka to published data for the horse (known PCO2, strong ion difference, and plasma protein concentration) predicted plasma pH more accurately than the values for [Atot] and Ka commonly assumed for human plasma. Species-specific values for [Atot] and Ka should be experimentally determined when the simplified strong ion model (or strong ion model) is used to describe acid-base equilibria.

  7. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: < 1 year, n = 8; group 2: 1-4 years, n = 13 and group 3: 5-15 years, n = 15). A reference group of healthy adults (21-38 years, n = 22) was included in their comparisons and reflected specific differences between children and adults. In muscle the concentrations of 8 out of 19 amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P < 0.05). In plasma the concentrations of threonine, glutamine, valine, cysteine, methionine, leucine, lysine, tryptophane, arginine, BCAA, BAA and the essential amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  8. Pasteurized, monoclonal antibody factor VIII concentrate: establishing a new standard for purity and viral safety of plasma-derived concentrates.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J C

    2000-03-01

    A factor VIII concentrate (Monoclate-P) manufactured using a combination of pasteurization and immunoaffinity chromatography has been chosen to compare and contrast manufacturing aspects of plasma-derived factor VIII concentrates. Pasteurization is a virucidal method with a long safety record in clinical practice, while immuno-affinity chromatography selectively isolates and purifies the procoagulant protein of factor VIII, and partitions potential viral contaminants and nonessential proteins to the unbound fraction. The complete Monoclate-P production process reduces human immunodeficiency virus by > or = 10.5 log10, Sindbis (a model for hepatitis C virus) by > or = 6.5 log10, and murine encephalomyocarditis virus (a non-enveloped model virus) by 7.1 log10. The viral safety of Monoclate-P has been further demonstrated in clinical studies in patients not previously treated with blood or plasma-derived products. Additionally, the manufacture of Monoclate-P includes careful donor screening and plasma testing for antibodies to syphilis and human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses to enhance source plasma safety. Combined with donor selection and plasma testing, multiple viral reduction steps effectively eliminate both lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g. human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B and C) and non-lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g. hepatitis A). In addition, polymerase chain reaction-based nucleic acid detection tests for hepatitis B and C viruses and for human immunodeficiency virus-1 have been introduced as part of an investigational new drug mechanism.

  9. Pasteurized, monoclonal antibody factor VIII concentrate: establishing a new standard for purity and viral safety of plasma-derived concentrates.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J C

    2000-03-01

    A factor VIII concentrate (Monoclate-P) manufactured using a combination of pasteurization and immunoaffinity chromatography has been chosen to compare and contrast manufacturing aspects of plasma-derived factor VIII concentrates. Pasteurization is a virucidal method with a long safety record in clinical practice, while immuno-affinity chromatography selectively isolates and purifies the procoagulant protein of factor VIII, and partitions potential viral contaminants and nonessential proteins to the unbound fraction. The complete Monoclate-P production process reduces human immunodeficiency virus by > or = 10.5 log10, Sindbis (a model for hepatitis C virus) by > or = 6.5 log10, and murine encephalomyocarditis virus (a non-enveloped model virus) by 7.1 log10. The viral safety of Monoclate-P has been further demonstrated in clinical studies in patients not previously treated with blood or plasma-derived products. Additionally, the manufacture of Monoclate-P includes careful donor screening and plasma testing for antibodies to syphilis and human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses to enhance source plasma safety. Combined with donor selection and plasma testing, multiple viral reduction steps effectively eliminate both lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g. human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B and C) and non-lipid-enveloped viruses (e.g. hepatitis A). In addition, polymerase chain reaction-based nucleic acid detection tests for hepatitis B and C viruses and for human immunodeficiency virus-1 have been introduced as part of an investigational new drug mechanism. PMID:10759015

  10. Consumption of olive oil has opposite effects on plasma total cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Geelen, M J; Beynen, A C

    2000-05-01

    The hypothesis that olive-oil consumption alters plasma sphingomyelin concentrations and hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism was tested. Rats were fed on purified, high-cholesterol diets with either coconut fat or olive-oil (180 g/kg). In accordance with previous work, olive-oil v. coconut-fat consumption significantly elevated hepatic and total plasma cholesterol concentrations. During the course of the experiment, the concentration of plasma sphingomyelin rose in the coconut-fat group and remained constant in the olive-oil group. When compared with the coconut-fat-fed group, the plasma sphingomyelin levels were significantly lower in the olive-oil-fed group after 14 and 21 d of treatment. Dietary olive oil raised the amounts of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the VLDL density region, and this change was associated with a reduction in the cholesterol and sphingomyelin contents of the LDL and HDL density ranges. Olive-oil consumption reduced the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, while the activities of phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide ethanolaminephosphotransferase were left unchanged. Dietary olive oil also enhanced the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase, but not that of neutral sphingomyelinase. The present data indicate that dietary olive oil v. coconut fat has opposite effects on total plasma cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations. The lower plasma sphingomyelin levels observed in olive-oil-fed, as compared with coconut-fat-fed rats, may be explained by a simultaneous elevation and reduction in sphingomyelin catabolism and synthesis respectively, as based on the measured enzyme activities.

  11. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Baró, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; Núñez, M. C.; Jiménez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the values were expressed as relative percentages, cancer patients had significantly higher proportions of oleic acid and lower levels of linoleic acid than controls. With regard to lipid fractions, cancer patients had higher proportions of oleic acid in plasma phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and lower percentages of linoleic acid and its derivatives. On the other hand, alpha-linolenic acid was significantly lower in triglycerides from cancer patients and tended to be lower in phospholipids. Its derivatives also tended to be lower in phospholipids and triglycerides from cancer patients. Our findings suggest that colorectal cancer patients present abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles characterized by lower amounts of most saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives, especially members of the n-6 series, than their healthy age-matched counterparts. These changes are probably due to metabolic changes caused by the illness per se but not to malnutrition. PMID:9667678

  12. Effects of prolonged nutrient restriction on baseline and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Field, M E; Deaver, S E; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Rhoads, M L

    2013-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to measure both daily and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers during prolonged undernutrition. Following an acclimation period, Holstein heifers [n=10; 339.5 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW)] were fed ad libitum [well fed (WF); n=5] or restricted to 50% of ad libitum intake [underfed (UF); n=5) for 8 wk. Body condition scores (BCS) were recorded at the beginning and end of the treatment period, and weekly measurements of BW, plasma ghrelin, progesterone, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were obtained. Ovarian follicular and luteal structures were measured twice weekly via transrectal ultrasonography. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were also measured during a periprandial window bleed conducted at the end of the experiment. During the window bleed, samples were collected every 15 min between 0500 and 0900 h, with feed offered at 0700 h. Underfed heifers lost BW and BCS, whereas WF heifers gained weight and either increased or maintained BCS. Chronic underfeeding increased circulating ghrelin and NEFA concentrations. By wk 4 of the treatment period, circulating ghrelin concentrations of the UF heifers reached a plateau. Periprandial fluctuations in ghrelin concentrations were apparent as plasma ghrelin concentrations changed over time. Overall differences in periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations were primarily due to prefeeding effects of plane of nutrition. Plasma ghrelin concentrations and change in BCS were negatively correlated such that heifers that lost the most BCS had the highest concentrations of circulating ghrelin. Two of the 5 UF heifers became anestrus by wk 3 of the treatment period. Despite being of similar age, the heifers that became anestrus had lower BW and plasma ghrelin concentrations than the UF heifers that continued to ovulate. In the current experiment, long-term undernutrition elicited ghrelin responses similar to those reported for shorter durations of

  13. Optimized Preparation Method of Platelet-Concentrated Plasma and Noncoagulating Platelet-Derived Factor Concentrates: Maximization of Platelet Concentration and Removal of Fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Jun; Jona, Masahiro; Eto, Hitomi; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kato, Harunosuke; Suga, Hirotaka; Doi, Kentaro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been clinically used as an easily prepared growth factor cocktail that can promote wound healing, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. However, the therapeutic effects of PRP are still controversial, due partly to the lack of optimized and standardized preparation protocols. We used whole blood (WB) samples to optimize the preparation protocols for PRP, white blood cell-containing (W-PRP), platelet-concentrated plasma (PCP), and noncoagulating platelet-derived factor concentrate (PFC). PRP and W-PRP were most efficiently collected by 10 min centrifugation in a 15-mL conical tube at 230–270 g and 70 g, respectively. To prepare PCP, platelets were precipitated by centrifugation of PRP at >2300 g, 90% of supernatant plasma was removed, and the platelets were resuspended. For preparation of noncoagulating PFC, the supernatant was replaced with one-tenth volume of saline, followed by platelet activation with thrombin. Platelet (before activation) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB (after activation) concentrations in PCP were approximately 20 times greater than those in WB, whereas PFC contained a 20-times greater concentration of platelets before platelet activation and a 50-times greater concentration of PDGF-BB without formation of a fibrin gel after platelet activation than WB. Surprisingly, total PDGF-BB content in the PFC was twice that of activated WB, which suggested that a substantial portion of the PDGF-BB became trapped in the fibrin glue, and replacement of plasma with saline is crucial for maximization of platelet-derived factors. As an anticoagulant, ethylene di-amine tetra-acetic acid disodium inhibited platelet aggregation more efficiently than acid citrate dextrose solution, resulting in higher nonaggregated platelet yield and final PDGF-BB content. These results increase our understanding of how to optimize and standardize preparation of platelet-derived factors at maximum concentrations. PMID

  14. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity

    PubMed Central

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Aledo, Juan Carlos; Cabré, Rosanna; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity. PMID:24284984

  15. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Aledo, Juan Carlos; Cabré, Rosanna; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-11-28

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity.

  16. Protein and energy intake during weaning. III. Effects on plasma amino acids.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, I; Borulf, S; Abildskov, K; Heird, W; Räihä, N

    1988-01-01

    Preprandial plasma amino acid concentrations were measured at 5 and 6 months of age in 30 healthy term infants who were either breast-fed ad libitum or fed one of two different formulas (1.9 g of protein per 100 ml with a whey:casein ratio of 50:50; 2.9 g of protein per 100 ml with a whey:casein ratio of 20:80) ad libitum, plus the same supplementary food regimen. The mean plasma concentrations of total amino acids and especially total essential amino acids were higher in the formula-fed infants. Those fed formula also had plasma concentrations of methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, leucine, valine, threonine, aspartate, proline, lysine, tyrosine, histidine that exceeded plasma concentrations of breast-fed infants by 2 or more standard deviations. Concentrations of arginine, glutamic acid, glutamine, ornithine, serine, cystine did not differ and taurine was higher in the breast-fed infants. The data indicate that formulas in common use today during weaning (4-6 months) provide excessive protein intakes when compared to the breast-fed control infants. A lowering of protein concentration and a further manipulation of the whey:casein ratio is necessary if plasma amino acid patterns similar to those found in breast-fed infants is to be achieved with artificial feeding.

  17. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with non-diagnostic plasma very long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, C R; Allen, J T; Fensom, A H; Steinberg, S J; Wilson, R

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of plasma very long chain fatty acids is widely recognised as a sensitive screening test for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). This test has particular importance because of the highly variable clinical expression of X-ALD. In this affected family the progressive childhood form of X-ALD was accompanied by "non-diagnostic" concentrations of plasma very long chain fatty acids. The implications for diagnosis of X-ALD are discussed. PMID:8006665

  18. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and plasma concentrations of lipid peroxidation in premenopausal women123

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J; Rovner, Alisha J; Mumford, Sunni L; Yeung, Edwina; Browne, Richard W; Trevisan, Maurizio; Perkins, Neil J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2010-01-01

    Background: A Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. A possible mechanism is through a decrease in lipid peroxidation (LPO); however, evidence linking the Mediterranean diet with lower LPO in premenopausal women is sparse. Objective: We investigated whether adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with lower LPO concentrations in premenopausal women. Design: Two hundred fifty-nine healthy women aged 18–44 y were followed for ≤2 menstrual cycles. Plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2α), 9-hydroxyoctadecadieneoic acid (9-HODE), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured ≤8 times per cycle at visits scheduled by using fertility monitors. Diet was assessed ≤4 times per cycle by using 24-h dietary recalls. The alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED) (range: 0–9) was calculated on the basis of intake of vegetables, legumes, fruit, nuts, whole grains, red and processed meat, fish, and alcohol and the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat. Results: A 1-unit increase in aMED was associated with a 4.50% decrease in 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations (95% CI: −6.32%, −2.65%) and a 14.01% decrease in 9-HODE concentrations (95% CI: −17.88%, −9.96%) after adjustment for energy intake, age, race, body mass index, plasma ascorbic acid, and serum cholesterol. No significant association was observed between aMED and TBARS. A 1-unit increase in aMED was associated with a 1.39% increase (95% CI: 0.07%, 2.72%) in plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. Conclusions: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower LPO and higher ascorbic acid concentrations. These results confirm that decreased LPO is a plausible mechanism linking a Mediterranean diet to reduced cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:20943796

  19. Genetic strain and reproductive status affect endometrial fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Meier, S; Peterson, A J; Mitchell, M D; Littlejohn, M; Walker, C G; Roche, J R

    2009-08-01

    Poor reproductive performance limits cow longevity in seasonal, pasture-based dairy systems. Few differences in ovarian dynamics have been reported in different strains of Holstein-Friesian cows, implying that the uterine environment may be a key component determining reproductive success. To test the hypothesis that the uterine environment differs among genetic strains of the Holstein-Friesian cow, endometrial fatty acids (FA) were analyzed from New Zealand (NZ), and North American (NA) Holstein-Friesian cows. The effect of reproductive status was also investigated, with cows from both Holstein-Friesian strains slaughtered on either d 17 of the estrous cycle (termed cyclic) or d 17 of pregnancy (after embryo transfer; termed pregnant). Endometrial tissues were collected from 22 cows (NZ pregnant, n = 6; NZ cyclic, n = 4; NA pregnant, n = 6; NA cyclic, n = 6), and FA composition was analyzed. Daily plasma progesterone concentrations, milk production, milk FA composition, body weight, and body condition score were determined. Milk yield (4% fat-corrected milk) was similar for the NZ (28.5 kg/d) and NA (29.3 kg/d; SE 2.07 kg/d) cows, but NZ cows had a greater mean milk fat percentage. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were significantly greater in NZ cows. Plasma progesterone concentrations were similar in the pregnant and cyclic groups. Mean length of the trophoblast recovered from the pregnant cows (NZ: 20.8 +/- 2.84 cm; NA: 27.9 +/- 10.23 cm) was not affected by genetic strain. Endometrial tissues from NZ cows contained greater concentrations of C17:0, C20:3n-3, and total polyunsaturated FA. The endometria from pregnant cows contained greater concentrations of C17:0, C20:2, and C20:3n-6, and less C20:1, C20:2, C20:5n-3. The observed changes in endometrial FA between Holstein-Friesian cows of different genetic origins or reproductive states may reflect differences in endometrial function and may affect reproductive function.

  20. Quantitative determination of citric acid in seminal plasma by using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zufang; Chen, Xiwen; Li, Yongzeng; Chen, Jinhua; Lin, Juqiang; Wang, Jing; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Rong

    2013-07-01

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy was first used to study the linear relationship between Raman spectral intensities and citric acid concentrations in aqueous solution. By using the specific Raman band of 942 cm(-1), concentrations of citric acid ranging from 2 to 20 mg/mL were observed linearly (R(2) = 0.993), and the limit of detection was 1.0 mg/mL. Then, citric acid detection in clinical seminal plasma ultrafiltrate samples was performed, and the intensity of the Raman-specific peak demonstrates a good linear correlation (R(2) = 0.946) with citric acid concentrations determined by the enzymatic method. Our results showed that Raman spectroscopy has the potential of being applied to detect concentrations of citric acid in seminal plasma in clinic.

  1. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M; Valachovicová, M; Blazícek, P; Pauková, V

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic age-related free radical-induced diseases. Improved antioxidant status minimizes oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules. Diet-derived antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and related plant pigments are important in antioxidative defense and maintaining health. The results of long-term epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that protective vitamin C plasma concentration for minimum risk of free radical disease is higher than 50 micromol/l. Products of oxidative damage to DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines and pyrimidines), proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids, malondialdehyde) were estimated in a group of apparently healthy adult non-smoking population in dependence on different vitamin C plasma concentrations. Under conditions of protective plasma vitamin C concentrations (>50 micromol/l) significantly lower values of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage were found in comparison with the vitamin C-deficient group (<50 micromol/l). The inhibitory effect of higher fruit and vegetable consumption (leading to higher vitamin C intake and higher vitamin C plasma concentrations) on oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids is also expressed by an inverse significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and products of oxidative damage. The results suggest an important role of higher and frequent consumption of protective food (fruit, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and cereal grains) in prevention of free radical disease.

  2. Determining important regulatory relations of amino acids from dynamic network analysis of plasma amino acids.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Nahoko; Maki, Yukihiro; Nakatsui, Masahiko; Mori, Masato; Noguchi, Yasushi; Yoshida, Shintaro; Takahashi, Michio; Kondo, Nobuo; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the concentrations of plasma amino acids do not always follow the flow-based metabolic pathway network. We have previously shown that there is a control-based network structure among plasma amino acids besides the metabolic pathway map. Based on this network structure, in this study, we performed dynamic analysis using time-course data of the plasma samples of rats fed single essential amino acid deficient diet. Using S-system model (conceptual mathematical model represented by power-law formalism), we inferred the dynamic network structure which reproduces the actual time-courses within the error allowance of 13.17%. By performing sensitivity analysis, three of the most dominant relations in this network were selected; the control paths from leucine to valine, from methionine to threonine, and from leucine to isoleucine. This result is in good agreement with the biological knowledge regarding branched-chain amino acids, and suggests the biological importance of the effect from methionine to threonine.

  3. The seasonal fluctuation of plasma amino acids in aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Nagao, Kenji; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Bannai, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    Although there has been extensive research on plasma amino acid profiles of mammals, there is currently a lack of information on seasonal differences in the concentrations of plasma amino acids specifically in cetaceans. The present study examined the response of the plasma amino acids to seasonal changes in the culture environment after controlling for the effect of sex and age. Significant seasonal changes in plasma carnosine (P=0.012), cystine (P=0.0014), isoleucine (P=0.0042), methionine (P=0.002), ornithine (P=0.0096), and taurine (P=0.032) were observed. These amino acids were mainly related to capacity for exercise, ammonia detoxification, thermoregulation, and osmoregulation. We proposed that optimizing plasma amino acids levels by supplementation of amino acids should be of considerable benefit for aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins. This study constitutes a first step towards improving our understanding of the metabolism of aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins. We also revealed that the ratio of tryptophan to large neutral amino acids significantly declined (P=0.0076), suggesting reduction in serotonin synthesis in winter and autumn. Although further studies are needed, this finding implied that bottlenose dolphins could produce behavioral changes seasonally by the alteration of serotonin activity. To better understand the metabolic machinery for amino acids that facilitate the adaptation of marine mammals to their environments, it is essential to continue monitoring of and further investigations into relationships between plasma amino acids and specific environmental factors. PMID:22333514

  4. The seasonal fluctuation of plasma amino acids in aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Nagao, Kenji; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Bannai, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    Although there has been extensive research on plasma amino acid profiles of mammals, there is currently a lack of information on seasonal differences in the concentrations of plasma amino acids specifically in cetaceans. The present study examined the response of the plasma amino acids to seasonal changes in the culture environment after controlling for the effect of sex and age. Significant seasonal changes in plasma carnosine (P=0.012), cystine (P=0.0014), isoleucine (P=0.0042), methionine (P=0.002), ornithine (P=0.0096), and taurine (P=0.032) were observed. These amino acids were mainly related to capacity for exercise, ammonia detoxification, thermoregulation, and osmoregulation. We proposed that optimizing plasma amino acids levels by supplementation of amino acids should be of considerable benefit for aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins. This study constitutes a first step towards improving our understanding of the metabolism of aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins. We also revealed that the ratio of tryptophan to large neutral amino acids significantly declined (P=0.0076), suggesting reduction in serotonin synthesis in winter and autumn. Although further studies are needed, this finding implied that bottlenose dolphins could produce behavioral changes seasonally by the alteration of serotonin activity. To better understand the metabolic machinery for amino acids that facilitate the adaptation of marine mammals to their environments, it is essential to continue monitoring of and further investigations into relationships between plasma amino acids and specific environmental factors.

  5. Urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion and plasma oxalate concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, T M; Kasidas, G P; Murdoch, I; Rose, G A

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria in young children is hampered by the lack of a reliable reference range for urinary oxalate excretion, especially in infants. We present data on urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion in 137 normal children, on the plasma oxalate concentration in 33 normal children and 53 with chronic renal failure, and on amniotic fluid oxalate concentration in 63 uncomplicated pregnancies. The urinary oxalate:creatinine molar ratios were log normally distributed: mean (range) values were less than 1 year 0.061 (0.015-0.26), 1-5 years 0.036 (0.011-0.12), 5-12 years 0.030 (0.0059-0.15), and greater than 12 years 0.013 (0.0021-0.083). Geometric mean (range) plasma oxalate concentration in the normal children was 1.53 (0.78-3.02) mumols/l and was independent of age. The mean (SD) plasma oxalate: creatinine molar ratio in these normal children and 50 with chronic renal failure was 0.033 (0.013), and was independent of age and renal function. Mean (SD) amniotic fluid oxalate concentration was 19.0 (4.3) mumols/l. PMID:2031609

  6. Pathogen inactivation and removal methods for plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Klamroth, Robert; Gröner, Albrecht; Simon, Toby L

    2014-05-01

    Pathogen safety is crucial for plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates used in the treatment of bleeding disorders. Plasma, the starting material for these products, is collected by plasmapheresis (source plasma) or derived from whole blood donations (recovered plasma). The primary measures regarding pathogen safety are selection of healthy donors donating in centers with appropriate epidemiologic data for the main blood-transmissible viruses, screening donations for the absence of relevant infectious blood-borne viruses, and release of plasma pools for further processing only if they are nonreactive for serologic markers and nucleic acids for these viruses. Despite this testing, pathogen inactivation and/or removal during the manufacturing process of plasma-derived clotting factor concentrates is required to ensure prevention of transmission of infectious agents. Historically, hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus have posed the greatest threat to patients receiving plasma-derived therapy for treatment of hemophilia or von Willebrand disease. Over the past 30 years, dedicated virus inactivation and removal steps have been integrated into factor concentrate production processes, essentially eliminating transmission of these viruses. Manufacturing steps used in the purification of factor concentrates have also proved to be successful in reducing potential prion infectivity. In this review, current techniques for inactivation and removal of pathogens from factor concentrates are discussed. Ideally, production processes should involve a combination of complementary steps for pathogen inactivation and/or removal to ensure product safety. Finally, potential batch-to-batch contamination is avoided by stringent cleaning and sanitization methods as part of the manufacturing process.

  7. Plasma bevantolol concentration and heart rate in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Liu, X Q; Ye, X L; Zhu, H Q; Huang, S K

    1993-05-01

    Bevantolol (Bev, 5, 10 mg.kg-1) was injected i.v. to rabbits. A measure the lag time of heart rate (HR) response behind the changes in plasma Bev concentration (K(eo)), and the sensitivity of the site of action of Bev (EC50) were determined. The K(eo) were 0.03 +/- 0.02 and 0.029 +/- 0.009 min-1 and the EC50 were 0.2 +/- 0.1 and 0.27 +/- 0.14 microgram.ml-1 respectively for the 2 dosages. The peak changes in HR lagged behind the changes in plasma Bev concentration. There were no significant changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters between the dosages.

  8. Low plasma concentrations of adrenaline and physiological tremor in man.

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, I W; Macdonald, I A; Wharrad, H J; Birmingham, A T

    1986-01-01

    Finger tremor was measured in six normal subjects during intravenous infusions of adrenaline (10 ngkg-1min-1 and 50 ngkg-1min-1) resulting in venous plasma adrenaline concentrations within the physiological range (0.77 +/- 0.08 and 2.28 +/- 0.18 nmoll-1). Tremor amplitude significantly increased after 15 and 25 minutes infusion at the higher dose of adrenaline. The lower dose of adrenaline increased tremor in three of the six subjects. PMID:3701348

  9. Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Mi; Chung, Eun-Jung; Um, Young-Sook; Park, Taesun

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disorders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and selected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 +/-1.5 yrs) and matched controls. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Sigmaw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were significantly lower and the Sigmaomega-6/Sigmaomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Sigmaomega-3 and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Sigmaomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study. PMID:19329391

  10. Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Mi; Chung, Eun-Jung; Um, Young-Sook; Park, Taesun

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disorders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and selected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 +/-1.5 yrs) and matched controls. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Sigmaw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were significantly lower and the Sigmaomega-6/Sigmaomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Sigmaomega-3 and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Sigmaomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study.

  11. Plasma thyrotropin-releasing hormone concentrations in the rat. Effect of thyroid excess and deficiency and cold exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, C H; Utiger, R D

    1975-01-01

    To investigate the physiology of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) secretion from hypothalamus and brain, a method for measurement of peripheral plasma TRH concentrations in rats was developed. Blood was collected in heparin and dimercaptopropanol containing [3H]TRH to determine recovery. The plasma was extracted with methanol and the redissolved dried methanol extracts applied to anti-TRH Sepharose columns. These columns bound greater than 80% of 125I-TRH applied and had a capacity in excess of 20 ng TRH. TRH was eluted from the anti-TRH Sepharose with acetic acid and quantitated by radioimmunoassay of the lyophilized acetic acid eluate. Mean recovery of unlabeled TRH was 44.7+/-6.1% (SD) and mean recovery of [3H]TRH was 44.0+/-4.0%. Mean plasma TRH concentrations, corrected for recovery, in plasma pools from eight groups of normal male rats (four to seven pools/experiment, five to seven rats/pool) ranged from 7 to 30 pg/ml (mean, 16). In experiments in which rats were given 5, 10, 15, 0r 50 mug thyroxine daily for 1 wk or in thyroidectomized rats, mean plasma TRH concentrations did not differ significantly from those of control animals sacrificed at the same time. In each experiment, four to seven plasma pools, each from five to seven rats, were processed from both control and experimental groups. No changes in plasma TRH concentrations were found in rats exposed to cold (4degreeC) for 30, 60, and 90-180 min. Signigicant increases in plasma thyrotropin (TSH) concentrations were found in all cold-exposed animals. These results provide no evidence that thyroid hormone excess of deficiency affects TRH secretion. If TRH secretion is responsible for cold-induced increases in plasma TSH concentrations, the increase in TRH secretion is of insufficient magnitude to alter periperal plasma TRH concentrations. PMID:811690

  12. Circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum: an overview.

    PubMed

    Lo, Y M

    2001-09-01

    The recent interest in nucleic acids in plasma and serum has opened up numerous new areas of investigation and new possibilities for molecular diagnosis. In oncology, tumor-derived genetic changes, epigenetic alterations, and viral nucleic acids have been found in the plasma/serum of cancer patients. These findings have important implications for the detection, monitoring, and prognostication of many types of malignancies. In prenatal diagnosis, the discovery of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum has provided a noninvasive source of fetal genetic material for analysis. This development has important implications for the realization of noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and has provided new methods for the monitoring of pregnancy-associated disorders. Plasma DNA technology has also found recent applications in the fields of organ transplantation, posttrauma monitoring, and infectious agent detection. Future areas of study include circulating RNA in plasma and the elucidation of the biology of release, clearance, and possible functionality of plasma nucleic acids.

  13. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Volpe, Alessandro; Caramaschi, Paola; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95%) of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005). After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications. PMID:16420700

  14. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  15. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    Background In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Methods Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. Results For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Conclusions Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans. PMID:26356420

  16. Free amino acids in human blood plasma during space flights.

    PubMed

    Ushakov, A S; Vlasova, T F

    1976-10-01

    The present investigation presents results of studying free amino acids of peripheral plasma in cosmonauts who made space flights of different duration onboard the spacecraft Soyuz-12, Soyuz-16 and the orbital station Salyut-4. The study showed changes in the content of free amino acids which varied for different amino acids. Most pronounced changes were found in the content of glutamic and aspartic acids, sulfur-containing amino acids and arginine.

  17. Valine entry into rat brain after diet-induced changes in plasma amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Tews, J.K.; Greenwood, J.; Pratt, O.E.; Harper, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Passage of amino acids across the blood-brain barrier is assumed to be modified by amino acid composition of the blood. To gain a better understanding of the effects of protein intake on brain amino acid uptake, the authors examined associations among diet, plasma amino acid patterns, and the rate of entry of valine into the brain. Rats were fed diets containing 6, 18, or 50% casein before receiving one meal of a diet containing 0, 6, 18, or 50% casein. After 4-7 h, they were anesthetized and infused intravenously with (/sup 14/C)valine for 5 min before plasma and brain samples were taken for determination of radioactivity and content of individual amino acids. As protein content of the meal was increased from 0 to 50% casein, plasma and brain concentrations of valine and most other large neutral amino acid (LNAA) increased severalfold; also the ratio of (/sup 14/C)valine in brain to that in plasma decreased by >50%, and the rate of valine entry into the brain increased 3.5-fold. The increase in valine flux slowed as plasma levels of LNAA, competitors for valine transport, increased. The results were far more dependent on protein content of the final meal than on that of the adaptation diet; thus changes in protein intake, as reflected in altered plasma amino acid patterns, markedly altered valine entry into the brain.

  18. DICARBOXYLIC ACID CONCENTRATION TRENDS AND SAMPLING ARTIFACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dicarboxylic acids associated with airborne particulate matter were measured during a summer period in Philadelphia that included multiple air pollution episodes. Samples were collected for two ten hour periods each day using a high volume sampler with two quartz fiber filters in...

  19. Acid-base balance and plasma composition in the aestivating lungfish (Protopterus).

    PubMed

    DeLaney, R G; Lahiri, S; Hamilton, R; Fishman, P

    1977-01-01

    Upon entering into aestivation, Protopterus aethiopicus develops a respiratory acidosis. A slow compensatory increase in plasma bicarbonate suffices only to partially restore arterial pH toward normal. The cessation of water intake from the start of aestivation results in hemoconcentration and marked oliguria. The concentrations of most plasma constituents continue to increase progressively, and the electrolyte ratios change. The increase in urea concentration is disproportionately high for the degree of dehydration and constitutes an increasing fraction of total plasma osmolality. Acid-base and electrolyte balance do not reach a new equilibrium within 1 yr in the cocoon. PMID:13665

  20. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers.

    PubMed

    House, R A

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum. PMID:1403189

  1. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  2. Combination induction plasma tube and current concentrator for introducing a sample into a plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E.; Bieniewski, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    An induction plasma tube in combination with a current concentrator. The rent concentrator has a substantially cylindrical body having an open end and a partially closed end which defines an aperture. A first slot extends the longitudinal length of the cylindrical body and a second slot extends radially outward from the aperture. Together the first and second slots form a single L-shaped slot. The current concentrator is disposed within a volume bounded by an induction coil substantially along the axis thereof, and when power is applied to the induction coil a concentrated current is induced within the current concentrator aperture. The concentrator is moveable relative to the coil along the longitudinal axis of the coil to control the amount of current which is concentrated at the aperture.

  3. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides, such as americium, from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of 241Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and 241Am in plasma, the 241Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for 241Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose-response curves of DTPA for 241Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9 and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize 241Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg−1 intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen. PMID:23799506

  4. Nutritional status influences plasma fibrinogen concentration: evidence from the THUSA survey.

    PubMed

    James, S; Vorster, H H; Venter, C S; Kruger, H S; Nell, T A; Veldman, F J; Ubbink, J B

    2000-06-01

    Nutritional status and risk factors for chronic diseases, including plasma fibrinogen and its determinants, of Africans in the Northwest Province of South Africa, have been studied in a cross-sectional survey. A representative sample of 1854 "apparently healthy" African men and women volunteers aged 15 years and older was recruited from 37 randomly selected sites throughout the Province and stratified for level of urbanisation. Information was collected using validated and culture-sensitive questionnaires. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and all measurements were done with standardised methodology using appropriate equipment, procedures, and controls. Fibrinogen concentration was measured in citrated plasma with the method of Clauss, using the ACL200 automated system and the international fibrinogen standard. The results revealed a population with a high mean plasma fibrinogen (3.17+/-1.10 g/L for HIV-negative men and 3. 64+/-1.12 g/L for HIV-negative women). Factors known to influence plasma fibrinogen, such as age, gender, smoking habit, and physical activity, were also observed in this population. Young rural men and women had the lowest fibrinogen level. Nasal snuff taking and HIV infection did not influence fibrinogen concentration. Multivariate analyses revealed that lower plasma fibrinogen was associated with low to normal body mass index in women, and with dietary intakes compatible with prudent dietary guidelines in men and women (low intakes of animal protein; trans fatty acids and higher intakes of plant protein; dietary fibre, vitamin E, and iron, and a high dietary P/S ratio). Subjects in the higher quartiles of plasma fibrinogen had significantly lower iron, vitamin E, and vitamin B6 (women) status. Increases in fibrinogen were associated with significant increases in serum lipids. Both under- and overnutrition seem to be associated with high plasma fibrinogen. It is concluded that overall nutritional status, possibly in addition to specific

  5. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Francis, Sunday M; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-08-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy') is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its pro-social effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20IU or 40IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7pg/ml at approximately 90-120min, compared to 18.6pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40IU, but not 20IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0pg/ml, 30-60min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., 'High' and 'Like Drug'), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects.

  6. Plasma homocysteine concentration in children with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Merouani, A; Lambert, M; Delvin, E E; Genest, J; Robitaille, P; Rozen, R

    2001-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is commonly found in adult patients with end-stage renal disease. Major determinants of elevated plasma homocysteine levels in these patients include deficiencies in folate and vitamin B12, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype and renal function. Little information is available for children with chronic renal failure (CRF). The prevalence and the factors that affect plasma homocysteine concentration were determined in children. Twenty-nine children with various degrees of CRF (15 were dialyzed, 14 were not dialyzed) were compared with 57 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Homocysteine concentrations were higher in patients than controls (17.3 micromol/l vs 6.8 micromol/l, P<0.0001) and hyperhomocysteinemia (>95th percentile for controls: 14.0 micromol/l) was seen in 62.0% of patients and 5.2% of controls. Folate concentrations were lower in patients (9.9 nmol/l) than controls (13.5 nmol/l), P<0.01. Vitamin B12 was similar in patients (322 pmol/l) and controls (284 pmol/l). Dialyzed patients have a higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia than nondialyzed patients (87% vs 35%). Dialyzed patients with MTHFR mutation have higher plasma homocysteine (28.5 micromol/l) than nondialyzed patients with the mutation (10.7 micromol/l), P<0.002. In our study, differences between controls and patients in plasma homocysteine concentrations are observed when age is greater then 92 months, folate less than 21.6 nmol/l and vitamin B12 less than 522 pmol/l. Our study shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is common in children with CRF and is associated with low folate and normal vitamin B12 status, compared to normal children. Among the patients, the dialyzed patients with the MTHFR mutation are particularly at risk for hyperhomocysteinemia. Further studies are needed to investigate therapeutic interventions and the potential link with vascular complications in these patients. PMID:11605787

  7. Plasma leptin concentrations are increased in women with premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anim-Nyame, N; Domoney, C; Panay, N; Jones, J; Alaghband-Zadeh, J; Studd, J W

    2000-11-01

    Leptin is a metabolic regulator of the hypothalamic- pituitary-gonadal axis, and plays an important role in human reproduction. Its neuro-endocrine effects are mediated by interactions with receptors in the hypothalamus, where emotional drive is also controlled. We postulated that circulating leptin concentrations are increased in premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and that this may be associated with the psychological symptoms of the disease. We obtained fasting venous samples from 32 women with PMS and 28 women with asymptomatic menstrual cycles, matched for age, body mass index and menstrual cycle length. Leptin concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Leptin concentrations increased significantly during the luteal phases of the menstrual cycles of the control and PMS groups as compared with the follicular phase, having excluded the 11 women with PMS and six controls found to be anovulatory on the basis of mid-luteal plasma progesterone concentrations from the analysis. A greater increase was observed in women with PMS than the controls (P: = 0.00006 and 0.003 respectively). Although leptin concentrations in the follicular and luteal phases were higher in PMS than the controls, the difference was only statistically significant between the follicular phases (P: = 0.001). There was no clear relationship between leptin and oestradiol or progesterone in this study. These findings suggest that leptin may play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease, and requires further evaluation.

  8. Effect of acid concentration on closed-vessel microwave-assisted digestion of plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Geórgia C. L.; Gonzalez, Mário H.; Ferreira, Antônio G.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.

    2002-12-01

    The efficiency of microwave-assisted acid digestion of plants using different concentrations of nitric acid (2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 14 mol l -1) with hydrogen peroxide (30% v/v) was evaluated by measuring the residual carbon content (RCC) using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) with axial viewing. Certified reference materials were used for evaluating the accuracy attained when 2 mol l -1 HNO 3 was employed for digestion. Under all experimental conditions RCC values were always lower than 13% w/v, and even the highest concentration did not cause any interference with element recovery. It seems that the high pressure reached for closed-vessel operation improved the oxidative action of nitric acid due to consequent temperature increase, even when this reagent was not used at high concentrations. According to acid-base titration data, residual acid in the digestates varied from 1.2 to 4.0 mol l -1, depending on the acid concentration initially added. It can be concluded that for plant materials, microwave-assisted acid digestion can be carried out under mild conditions, which implies that digestates do not need extensive dilution before introduction by pneumatic nebulization to ICP-OES. An additional advantage is the lower amount of residue generated when working with less concentrated acid solutions.

  9. Influence of moderate alcohol intake on wakening plasma thiopental concentration.

    PubMed

    Loft, S; Jensen, V; Rørsgaard, S

    1983-06-01

    In an earlier study, an inverse correlation between thiopental-induced sleeping time and alcohol intake in the preceding week was demonstrated in women undergoing termination of pregnancy. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the apparent cross-tolerance, the relationship between alcohol consumption in the week preceding thiopental/nitrous oxide/oxygen anesthesia and wakening plasma thiopental concentration on one hand and sleeping time on the other was examined in 68 women scheduled for termination of pregnancy and in 37 women scheduled for diagnostic uterine dilatation and curettage. In terms of pure alcohol, the weekly intake (mean +/- s.d.) was 1.17 +/- 2.07 ml . kg-1 in the former and 1.49 +/- 1.70 ml . kg-1 in the latter group. A positive correlation between alcohol consumption and wakening plasma thiopental concentration was found in both groups, reaching statistical significance (P less than 0.05) in the group undergoing termination of pregnancy, but not in the other. The inverse correlation found earlier between alcohol intake and sleeping time was not reproduced significantly in any of the groups. The results indicate that moderate alcohol intake may induce cerebral tolerance to thiopental.

  10. Determination of Mycophenolic Acid in Plasma Samples Using the Terbium-Sensitized Luminescence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayanfar, A.; Ghavimi, H.; Zolali, E.; Jouyban, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this work were to provide an analytical method, for the quantitative determination of the mycophenolic acid (MFA) in plasma samples and its application to quantification of the MFA in rat plasma after oral administration. In order to remove the fluorescence interferences of the plasma, the samples were precipitated by acetonitrile in 1:8 ratio and then a few parameters were optimized and the fluorescence intensity measured at 545 nm using an excitation wavelength of 347 nm. Under the optimized concentration, the method provided a linear range between 1.0 and 10.0 mg/l with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. MFA was detected and the validation was performed according to the FDA guidelines. Linearity, accuracy, precision, and selectivity of the developed method were suitable for th determination of the MFA in plasma samples. The proposed analytical approach was applied to determine the MFA concentration in a rat plasma-time profile study.

  11. Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid onto polystyrene by cyclonic plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Jan; Lin, Chin-Ho; Huang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic atmospheric-pressure plasma is developed for chamberless deposition of poly(acrylic acid) film from argon/acrylic acid mixtures. The photoemission plasma species in atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization was identified by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES diagnosis data and deposition results indicated that in glow discharge, the CH and C2 species resulted from low-energy electron-impact dissociation that creates deposition species, but the strong CO emission lines are related to nondeposition species. The acrylic acid flow rate is seen as the key factor affecting the film growth. The film surface analysis results indicate that a smooth, continuous, and uniform surface of poly(acrylic acid) films can be formed at a relatively low plasma power input. This study reveals the potential of chamberless film growth at atmospheric pressure for large-area deposition of poly(acrylic acid) films.

  12. Evaluation of plasma inflammatory cytokine concentrations in racing sled dogs

    PubMed Central

    von Pfeil, Dirsko J. F.; Cummings, Bethany P.; Loftus, John P.; Levine, Corri B.; Mann, Sabine; Downey, Robert L.; Griffitts, Caroline; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    In human athletes significant changes in cytokine concentrations secondary to exercise have been observed. This prospective study evaluated the effect of a multi-day stage sled dog race on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Samples from 20 dogs were harvested prior to and on days 2 and 8 of an 8-day race. Exercise resulted in significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-8 as well as increases of MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations (P-value between 0.01 and < 0.0001 for all parameters). The proportion of values for IL-2 that were below the detection limit increased from 40% on day 0 to 75% on day 2 and decreased on day 8 to 40% (P = 0.04). Racing sled dogs show cytokine-concentration changes that are different from those in humans. PMID:26663920

  13. Measurement of plasma and tissue triiodothyronine concentration in the rat by radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Nejad, I; Bollinger, J; Mitnick, M A; Sullivan, P; Reichlin, S

    1975-03-01

    This paper reports a radioimmunoassay method for triiodothyronine (T3) and the application of this assay to the study of plasma and tissue T3 concentration in the rat. Several antisera formed to a T3-bovine fibrogen complex in guinea pigs and T3-thyroglobulin complex in rabbits are shown to have low or no cross reactivity with T4, monoiodotyrosine, diiodotyrosine, tetraiodothyroacetic acid (TETRAC) and reverse T3. Cross reactivity with T3 derivatives, triiodothyroacetic acid (TRIAC), and triiodothyropropionic (TRIPROP) was variable, some antisera differentiating moderately well and others not at all. An extraction method is described which removes approximately 85% of added 125I-T3 or unlabelled T3 from tissues and in the final step represents 57% of total tissue T3. Mean plasma T3 in 5 normal male rats was 58 plus or minus 6.0 ng/100 ml (SEM), in liver 769 plus or minus 56 ng/100 g, and kidney 627 plus or minus 39 ng/100 g. Tissue to plasma concentration gradients for liver and kidney were 13.3 and 10.8, respectively.

  14. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high–oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline PD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high–oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid–enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high–oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high–linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35–70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Results: Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P < 0.05). The characteristic decrease from baseline in plasma nonesterified fatty acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0–3 h, P < 0.05). HLS increased the augmentation index compared with the other test meals (P < 0.05), although the digital volume pulse–reflection index was not significantly different. Plasma 8-isoprostane F2α analysis revealed opposing effects of FO (increased) and AO (reduced) compared with the control (P < 0.05). No differences in nitric oxide metabolites were observed. Conclusions: These data show differential postprandial 8-isoprostane F2α responses to high-fat meals containing EPA + DHA–rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid–derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible

  15. Highly accurate boronimeter assay of concentrated boric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The Random-Walk Boronimeter has successfully been used as an on-line indicator of boric acid concentration in an operating commercial pressurized water reactor. The principle has been adapted for measurement of discrete samples to high accuracy and to concentrations up to 6000 ppm natural boron in light water. Boric acid concentration in an aqueous solution is a necessary measurement in many nuclear power plants, particularly those that use boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant as a reactivity control system. Other nuclear plants use a high-concentration boric acid solution as a backup shutdown system. Such a shutdown system depends on rapid injection of the solution and frequent surveillance of the fluid to ensure the presence of the neutron absorber. The two methods typically used to measure boric acid are the chemical and the physical methods. The chemical method uses titration to determine the ionic concentration of the BO[sub 3] ions and infers the boron concentration. The physical method uses the attenuation of neutrons by the solution and infers the boron concentration from the neutron absorption properties. This paper describes the Random-Walk Boronimeter configured to measure discrete samples to high accuracy and high concentration.

  16. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  17. Serum concentration of sialic acids in naturally occurring ovine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Abtahi Froushani, Seyyed Meysam; Arjmand, Jafar; Golabi, Mostafa

    2014-10-01

    This study is designated to assess the effect of the severity of Babesia ovis infection on sialic acid concentration in blood sera in naturally infected sheep. Infected animals (diseased group) comprised 38 Iranian fat-tailed sheep, about 1-3 years old, naturally infected with B. ovis, divided into four subgroups with respect to parasitemia rates (low 0.1-0.3 %, moderate 0.4-0.9 %, high 1-2.5 %, and very high >2.5 %). The parasitological diagnosis was confirmed using PCR analysis. As a control group, ten clinically healthy sheep reared under the same management and environmental conditions were also sampled. Hematological parameters and the concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA), and protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA) were measured in both groups. Compared to controls, sialic acid concentrations showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in infected sheep. Parasitemia rate was positively correlated with sialic acid concentrations. This study demonstrated that B. ovis infection induced marked and persistent elevations of serum sialic acid concentrations. It seems that increase of serum sialic acid concentrations during parasitemia alter receptor-ligand interactions, which are known to play important role in immune response. Furthermore, sialic acid would indirectly inhibit the action of leukocytes and consequently promote the evasion of the immune response and persistence of the parasite in the host. This factor could influence the parasite-host cell adhesion, but further detailed biochemical investigations are needed to precisely explain the exact role of sialic acid in invasion process of the parasite to the host cells.

  18. Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortman, John J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents pictorial analogies of several concepts relating to solutions for chemistry students. These include concentration of solution, strength of solution, supersaturated solution, and conjugate acid-base pairs. Among the examples are comparison of acid strength to percentage of strong soldiers or making supersaturated solution analogous to a…

  19. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  20. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  1. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase is concentrated in the head of sea urchin spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Gunaratne, Herath Jayantha; Neill, Anna T; Vacquier, Victor D

    2006-05-01

    Plasma membrane Ca2+ATPases (PMCAs) export Ca2+ from cells in a highly regulated manner, providing fine-tuning to the maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. There are few studies of PMCAs in spermatozoa, which is surprising considering the importance of this enzyme in all cell types. Here we describe the primary structure and localization of the PMCA of sea urchin spermatozoa (suPMCA). The suPMCA is 1,154 amino acids and has 56% identity and 76% similarity to all 4 human PMCA isoforms. The suPMCA shares the features of a typical PMCA, including domains for calmodulin binding, ATP binding, ATPase phosphorylation, and 10 putative transmembrane segments with two large cytoplasmic loops. Southern blots show that suPMCA is a single copy gene. Treatment of live sea urchin sperm with the PMCA inhibitor, 5-(-6)-carboxyeosin, results in elevations of intracellular Ca2+ and loss of flagellar motility. Immunoblotting and immunoflorescence show that suPMCA is concentrated in the sperm head plasma membrane. In previous work, we showed that a plasma membrane K+ dependent Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (suNCKX), which also keeps Ca2+ low in these cells, is concentrated in the sperm flagellum. Thus, the sperm head and flagellum localize different gene products, both functioning to keep intracellular Ca2+ low, while the sperm swims in seawater containing 10 mM Ca2+. PMID:16358326

  2. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    PubMed Central

    Kawasumi, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Koide, M.; Okada, Y.; Mori, N.; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T.

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses. PMID:26623382

  3. Concentrations of hormones and metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of dairy cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Laeger, T; Sauerwein, H; Tuchscherer, A; Bellmann, O; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B

    2013-05-01

    During early lactation, high-yielding dairy cows often show insufficient feed intake (FI) and, as a consequence, they enter into a negative energy balance associated with an altered pattern of plasma metabolites and hormones. These act as short- and long-term hunger or satiety signals in the brain and play an important role in the control of FI. Metabolites and hormones also occur in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which surrounds the hypothalamus and brainstem, 2 major centers of FI regulation. The CSF hormone and metabolite concentrations are mainly under control of the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, CSF hormone and metabolite concentrations differ from those in blood. However, the contribution of putative orexigenic and anorexigenic CSF signals possibly leading to insufficient FI of high-yielding dairy cows during early lactation has not been studied so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate associations existing between both plasma and CSF hormones and metabolites during the periparturient period. Ten multiparous German Holstein dairy cows were fed ad libitum and samples of CSF from the spinal cord and blood from the jugular vein were withdrawn before morning feeding on d -20, -10, +1, +10, +20, and +40 relative to calving. Feed intake started to decrease from d 5 before calving and increased thereafter. Glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids, urea (all enzymatic), lactate (colorimetric), amino acids (HPLC), osmolality (osmometer), ghrelin (RIA), leptin (ELISA), and resistin (Western immunoblot) were measured in both CSF and plasma, whereas free fatty acids (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and volatile fatty acids (gas chromatography-flame-ionization detector) were determined in plasma only. Whereas leptin concentrations decreased after calving in both plasma and CSF, ghrelin concentrations were not altered, and abundances of total resistin and its hexamers decreased only in plasma. Although plasma

  4. Plasma and red blood cell fatty acids in peroxisomal disorders.

    PubMed

    Moser, A B; Jones, D S; Raymond, G V; Moser, H W

    1999-02-01

    The demonstration of abnormal levels of fatty acids or plasmalogens in plasma or red blood cells is key to the diagnosis of peroxisomal disorders. We report the levels of 62 fatty acids and plasmalogens in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), Zellweger syndrome (ZS), neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD), and infantile Refsum disease (IRD), both at baseline and after dietary interventions. "Lorenzo's Oil" therapy in X-ALD normalizes the levels of saturated very long chain fatty acids in plasma, but leads to reduced levels of omega 6 and other omega 3 fatty acids, and requires monitoring and appropriate dietary supplements. Patients with ZS, NALD and IRD have reduced levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) which can be normalized by the oral administration of microencapsulated DHA and AA.

  5. Valproic acid: in vitro plasma protein binding and interaction with phenytoin.

    PubMed

    Cramer, J A; Mattson, R H

    1979-01-01

    Because valproic acid (VPA) is highly bound to plasma protein, several variables affecting binding will significantly alter the quantity of free drug which is pharmacologically active. Therefore, total VPA plasma concentrations do not reflect the therapeutic strength of the drug in tissue. We have performed equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration studies of VPA binding to plasma protein. The converging data in these in vitro studies indicate a clinically significant alteration in the percent of free VPA when total drug concentration exceeds 80 micrograms/ml. Saturation of drug binding sites probably occurs in this range. At 20--60 micrograms/ml VPA there is 5% free drug, with a significant increase to 8% free at 80 micrograms/ml; free drug increases to over 20% at 145 micrograms/ml total VPA. Human plasma, which is low in albumin, has twice the quantity of free VPA as normal plasma (10 versus 5% free). The clinical evidence of interaction between VPA and phenytoin is confirmed in vitro by the increase in the free fraction of both drugs. VPA binding decreases by 3--6%, while phenytoin binding decreases 5--6% as both drugs reach high plasma concentrations. When appropriate, laboratory reports should be available defining concentration of free drug in plasma for optimal interpretation of drug concetrations relative to clinical effects.

  6. Acute changes in plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma electrolyte concentrations following furosemide administration in patients with congestive heart failure--interrelationships and diuretic response.

    PubMed

    Mulder, H; Schopman, W; van der Lely, A J; Schopman, W

    1987-02-01

    We studied the effects of furosemide on plasma renin and plasma aldosterone in 8 patients with mild to moderate congestive heart failure. In particular, we tried to correlate these effects with changes in plasma electrolyte concentrations and with the diuretic response on furosemide. We concluded that the diuretic response in patients with congestive heart failure is not dependent on the initial serum renin nor on the initial serum aldosterone concentration. The diuretic response did not correlate either with the changes in serum renin and/or serum aldosterone concentration. Serum renin and serum aldosterone correlated mutually before and after intravenous furosemide. We confirmed the inverse correlation between serum sodium and serum renin. SeNa and SeK correlated at all times with serum aldosterone; SeCl correlated with serum aldosterone only before intravenous furosemide administration. Indirect evidence could be provided that in patients with congestive heart failure a decreased renal blood flow is present, using the urinary beta 2-microglobulin concentration. Aldosterone has again, indirectly, proved to be integrated in the renal magnesium handling. PMID:3549504

  7. Feeding oleamide to lactating Jersey cows. 2. Effects on nutrient digestibility, plasma fatty acids, and hormones.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, D D; Jenkins, T C

    2000-03-01

    Six lactating Jersey cows were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 14-d periods to evaluate different ratios of canola oil and oleamide on nutrient digestibility, plasma fatty acids, and plasma hormones. The control diet contained no added fat. All other diets contained 3.5% added fat consisting of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% as oleamide and the remainder as canola oil. Data were collected during the final 4 d of each period. Dry matter intake was reduced by the addition of canola oil to the diet, and further reduced by replacing canola oil with oleamide. Milk yield was not affected by diet but increasing oleamide proportion in the fat supplement caused linear increases in cis-C18:1 and linear decreases in C4 to C16 fatty acids in milk. Adding canola oil reduced total tract digestibilities of fiber and fatty acids, but had no effect on the digestibilities of dry matter or protein. Replacing canola oil with oleamide increased protein digestibility linearly, and increased digestibility of fiber (quartic relationship) and fatty acids (quadratic relationship). Oleic acid concentration in plasma increased by adding canola oil to the diet, and was further increased by replacing canola oil with oleamide. Diet had no effect on plasma concentrations of insulin or IGF-I. Oleamide fed to Jersey cows in this study was highly digestible and had no deleterious effects on total tract digestility of fiber or protein. Increasing oleic acid concentration in plasma lipids while maintaining a constant level of added fat in the ration had no effect on circulating concentrations of insulin or IGF-I in Jerseys.

  8. Concentrations of acidic antiinflammatory drugs in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Frey, H H; El-Sayed, M A

    1977-12-01

    In rats, the concentrations of the acidic antiinflammatory drugs salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, phenylbutazone, flufenamic acid and indomethacin in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa were determined 30 and 60 min after oral or subcutaneous administration. In another series of experiments, solutions of the drugs were introduced into the ligated stomach and the concentrations in the mucosa and in the contents of the stomach were determined after 60 min. The ratio between the concentrations in the musoca and those in serum or gastric contents were much lower than expected according to the distribution by passive non-ionic diffusion. This apparent discrepancy may be explained as a result of a drug-induced damage to the mucosal cell allowing free diffusion of ionized drug across the cell membrane. PMID:603322

  9. Antinociceptive efficacy and plasma concentrations of transdermal buprenorphine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Korbinian; Schuster, Tibor; Levionnois, Olivier; Matis, Ulrike; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2011-03-01

    To assess the antinociceptive efficacy of transdermal (TD) buprenorphine (B) in dogs, a prospective, positive-controlled experimental study was performed in 10 healthy Beagles. In an open label crossover design, the dogs initially received intravenous B (IVB, 0.02 mg kg(-1)) as a positive control, followed by TDB (52.5 μg h(-1)) 4 months later. Blood was collected at regular intervals for determination of the plasma concentrations of B ([B]) and its metabolite norbuprenorphine. The antinociceptive efficacy was assessed using thermal and mechanical models of nociception. The peak concentration [B] was 1.54 ng mL(-1) (±1.98) 60 h after TDB application, although three dogs had no measurable [B] after TDB. Maximum thermal threshold (TT) was 52.6 °C (±0.48) at 1h after IVB administration and 51.63 °C (±1.01) 72 h after TDB application. The significant increase in TT indicated that effective antinociception was achieved beyond 36 h after the application of TDB, lasting until patch removal. There was hysteresis between [B] and the antinociceptive effect. PMID:20206560

  10. Effects of aspartame and carbohydrate administration on human and rat plasma large neutral amino acid levels and rat brain amino acid and monoamine levels.

    PubMed

    Romano, M; Casacci, F; De Marchi, F; Pacei, T; Esteve, A; Lomuscio, G; Mennini, T; Salmona, M

    1989-01-01

    Thirty fasted human volunteers were given 0.83 and 8.3 mg aspartame/kg body weight alone, as part of a basal low carbohydrate meal (648 kcal, 10% carbohydrate) or as part of a high energy carbohydrate-rich meal (1290 kcal, 34% carbohydrate). Amino acid concentrations in plasma were determined before and 30, 60 and 180 min after the consumption of aspartame. Under these conditions, which mimic realistic aspartame consumption, aspartame had no significant effect on plasma concentration of any amino acid. In addition, the effect of aspartame alone or with carbohydrates on plasma and brain amino acid levels was studied in rats after acute or subacute (14 d) oral treatment. In subacute dosing experiments aspartame was included in the diet. Brain monoamine concentrations were also measured in the same animals. Plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids were modified under acute conditions. In contrast, after subacute treatment no significant differences in plasma or brain amino acid concentrations or in brain monoamine concentrations were observed.

  11. [Plasma amino acids profile of healthy pregnant adolescents in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Castejón, Haydée V; Argotte, María G; Gómez, Gisela; Bohorquez, Lissette; Urrieta, Jesús R

    2003-06-01

    One hundred female adolescents (13-18 y) were clinical and anthropometrically studied to select only those with adequate nutrition. Most adolescents belonged to IV socio-economic stratum families (worker class). Height, weight, age, body mass index and medial arm circumference were used as anthropometric parameters. After screening, only 41 non pregnant girls (control) and 42 pregnant girls with adequate nutrition were selected to analyze plasma amino acids. Fasting peripheral venous blood was drawn, and plasma amino acids were analyzed by HPLC. Amino acid concentrations were expressed as umol/L +/- SE. SAS/STAT program was used for statistical analysis. Amino acid values of control adolescent group were found in ranges reported by other investigators, with slight variations, mostly in diminution, presumably due to nutritional, metabolic or genetic conditions of people living in tropical regions. In pregnant healthy adolescents, distributed according to gestational age: < 32 weeks (n = 30) and > 32 weeks (n = 12), a diminution of total molar plasma amino acids was found, by comparing with control values. Ten amino acids (Pro, Gly, Gln, Arg, Ser, Orn, Tau, Leu, Thr and Val) appeared significantively diminished throughout gestation, being Gly. Gln and Arg most affected since earlier weeks. During the 2nd period. Thr and Val increased their grade of affectation; whereas some amino acids values (Orn, Pro and Tau) tended to recuperate. Several of affected amino acids are gluconegoenic, thus, they could be utilized to supply the energy required by the pregnant adolescent against her double stress: the fetus development and her own development. The plasma amino acid values reported in both, healthy non pregnant and pregnant adolescents, could be taken as regional referential profile of plasma amino acids in this poblational group for further research on adolescent and fetal--maternal malnutrition.

  12. Preliminary study to assay plasma amethocaine concentrations after topical application of a new local anaesthetic cream containing amethocaine.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, B; Tomlinson, A A; Faulder, G C

    1991-10-01

    Plasma concentrations of amethocaine were measured after topical application of amethocaine cream 2 g (5% w/w) to the dorsum of the right hand of 10 adult volunteers. The cream was applied for 240 min and plasma was assayed for amethocaine and its metabolite p-n-butylaminobenzoic acid at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 240 min in all 10 volunteers, and at 360 min in seven volunteers, by high pressure liquid chromatography. No amethocaine was detected in the plasma of seven volunteers. Plasma concentrations of amethocaine up to 0.20 mg litre-1 were observed in three volunteers. No significant side effects were seen and pain scores on insertion of a 16-gauge cannula were 0 in all subjects. We conclude that the absence of clinical toxicity in the 10 healthy volunteers was a reflection of slow absorption and tissue hydrolysis of amethocaine after topical dermal application.

  13. Dietary fat type and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin concentration in rats.

    PubMed

    Cha, M C; Jones, P J

    1998-08-01

    To investigate whether dietary fat source and energy restriction interactively influence plasma leptin levels and its association of leptin with insulin action, rats were fed diets containing either fish, safflower oil, or beef tallow (20% wt/wt) for 10 weeks. Groups of rats consumed each diet ad libitum or at 85% or 70% of ad libitum energy intake in a design that held fat intake constant. Graded levels of energy restriction caused body weight to decrease (P < 0.001) differently according to the dietary fat provided. Plasma leptin concentrations were 60% higher (P < 0.05) in the groups fed fish oil and safflower oil ad libitum compared with those in the beef tallow group, despite smaller perirenal fat mass and fat cell size in the fish oil-fed animals. Energy restriction resulted in a 62% decrease (P < 0.05) in leptin levels in fish oil- and safflower oil-fed rats, whereas no changes were observed in beef tallow-fed animals. Plasma insulin levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the fish oil group fed ad libitum compared with those in the two other diet groups. These data demonstrate a hyperleptinemic effect in animals consuming diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid, which can be normalized to the level of saturated fat consumption by mild energy restriction. Thus, dietary fatty acid composition, independent of adipose tissue mass, is an important determinant of circulating leptin level in diet-induced obesity.

  14. Polymerization of acrylic acid using atmospheric pressure DBD plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, M.; Bashir, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper polymerization of acrylic acid was performed using non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet technology. The goal of this study is to deposit organic functional coatings for biomedical applications using a low cost and rapid growth rate plasma jet technique. The monomer solution of acrylic acid was vaporized and then fed into the argon plasma for coating. The discharge was powered using a laboratory made power supply operating with sinusoidal voltage signals at a frequency of 10 kHz. The optical emission spectra were collected in order to get insight into the plasma chemistry during deposition process. The coatings were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and growth rates analysis. A high retention of carboxylic functional groups of the monomer was observed at the surface deposited using this low power technique.

  15. Association between plasma omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Véronique; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Godin, Gaston; Julien, Pierre; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been linked to reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between n-3 FA in plasma phospholipid (PL) levels and CVD risk factors. n-3 FA levels in plasma PL were determined using gas chromatography in 100 obese (body mass index (BMI), ≥30 kg·m(-2)) and 100 nonobese selected individuals from the Quebec City metropolitan area. The CVD risk factors analysed were BMI, blood pressure, plasma lipids levels, and fasting plasma glucose. Significantly higher levels of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were observed in obese subjects, whereas significantly higher levels of DHA were observed in nonobese subjects. For CVD risk factors, ALA levels were positively correlated with plasma triglyceride concentrations and negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure. None of the CVD risk factors studied was linked to EPA levels. In addition, DPA was negatively related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and positively correlated with the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio. DHA levels were negatively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and plasma triglyceride levels, whereas a positive association was observed with HDL-C levels. Total n-3 FA percentages were negatively correlated with BMI. In conclusion, higher DHA percentages in plasma PL are associated with a more favourable CVD risk profile, whereas higher DPA percentages in plasma PL are associated with a more deteriorated CVD risk profile.

  16. Simultaneous acetic acid separation and monosaccharide concentration by reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fanglei; Wang, Cunwen; Wei, Jiang

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of simultaneous acetic acid separation and sugar concentration in model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by reverse osmosis. The effects of operation parameters such as pH, temperature, pressure and feed concentration on the solute retentions were examined with a synthetic xylose–glucose–acetic acid model solution. Results showed that the monosaccharides were almost completely rejected at above 20 bar, while the acetic acid retention increased with the increase in pH and pressure, and decreased with the temperature increase. The maximum separation factors of acetic acid over xylose and glucose reached as high as 211.5 and 228.4 at pH 2.93 (the initial pH of model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates), 40 °C and 20 bar. Furthermore, the concentration and diafiltration process were employed at optimal operation conditions. Consequently, a high sugar concentration and a beneficially lower acetic acid concentration were simultaneously achieved by reverse osmosis.

  17. Arginines Plasma Concentration and Oxidative Stress in Mild to Moderate COPD

    PubMed Central

    Zinellu, Angelo; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Sotgia, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Bifulco, Fabiana; Mangoni, Arduino A; Pirina, Pietro; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in respiratory conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since oxidative stress has been shown to increase the activity of arginine methylating enzymes, hence increased ADMA synthesis, and to reduce ADMA degrading enzymes, hence increased ADMA concentrations, we assessed methylated arginines concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. Methods Plasma arginine, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and plasma proteins SH, PSH) and antioxidants (taurine and paraoxonase 1, PON1, activity) were measured in 43 COPD patients with mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Results TBARS significantly increased with COPD presence and severity (median 2.93 vs 3.18 vs 3.64 μmol/L, respectively in controls, mild and moderate group, p<0.0001 by ANOVA) whereas PSH decreased (6.69±1.15 vs 6.04±0.85 vs 5.33±0.96 μmol/gr prot, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). Increased ADMA/arginine ratio, primarily due to reduced arginine concentrations, was also observed with COPD presence and severity (median 0.0067 vs 0.0075 vs 0.0100, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only TBARS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.77; p = 0.0045) and ADMA/Arginine ratio (OR 1.72, 95% CI 2.27–13.05; p = 0.02) were independently associated with COPD severity. Conclusion COPD presence and severity are associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in arginine metabolism. The reduced arginine concentrations in COPD may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions increasing arginine availability. PMID:27479314

  18. Ingestion of a single serving of saury alters postprandial levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in healthy human adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saury oil contains considerable amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with long aliphatic tails (>18C atoms). Ingestion of saury oil reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome concomitant with increases in n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in plasma and organs of mice. We therefore evaluated changes in postprandial plasma fatty acid levels and plasma parameters in healthy human subjects after ingestion of a single meal of saury. Findings Five healthy human adults ingested 150 g of grilled saury. Blood was collected before the meal and at 2, 6, and 24 hr after the meal, and plasma was prepared. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and long-chain MUFA (C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined) increased significantly throughout the postprandial period compared with the pre-meal baseline. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration increased notably, and plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids decreased significantly and subsequently returned to the pre-meal levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that a single saury meal may alter the postprandial plasma levels of n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in healthy human subjects. PMID:22846384

  19. The behavior of fatty acids in the blood plasma of monkeys following exposure to short term stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailov, M. L.; Gnuechtel, U.; Nitschkoff, S.; Baumann, R.; Gnauck, G.

    1980-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to short term stresses (immobilization, jealousy) were found to develop hyperlipacidemia with a rise in concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in blood plasma, especially of oleic acid, and a relative decrease of saturated free fatty acids, chiefly of palmitinic acid. This finding was more pronounced under immobilization stress than in the jealousy situation. Meanwhile, the composition of triglycerides did not change essentially under the conditions used.

  20. Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiling in Patients with Different Levels of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Lundin, Ulrika; Gayrard, Nathalie; Mischak, Harald; Aparicio, Michel; Mourad, Georges; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Weinberger, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Patients with CKD display altered plasma amino acid profiles. This study estimated the association between the estimated GFR and urinary and plasma amino acid profiles in CKD patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Urine and plasma samples were taken from 52 patients with different stages of CKD, and plasma samples only were taken from 25 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Metabolic profiling was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after phenylisothiocyanate derivatization. Results Most plasma amino acid concentrations were decreased in hemodialysis patients, whereas proline, citrulline, asparagine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and hydroxykynurenine levels were increased (P<0.05). Both plasma levels and urinary excretion of citrulline were higher in the group of patients with advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3 versus CKD stages 4 and 5; in plasma: 35.9±16.3 versus 61.8±23.6 µmol/L, P<0.01; in urine: 1.0±1.2 versus 7.1±14.3 µmol/mol creatinine, P<0.001). Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were higher in advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3, 0.57±0.29; CKD stages 4 and 5, 1.02±0.48, P<0.001), whereas urinary excretion was lower (2.37±0.93 versus 1.51±1.43, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusting on estimated GFR, serum albumin, proteinuria, and other covariates revealed associations between diabetes and plasma citrulline (P=0.02) and between serum sodium and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (P=0.03). Plasma tyrosine to phenylalanine and valine to glycine ratios were lower in advanced CKD stages (P<0.01). Conclusion CKD patients have altered plasma and urinary amino acid profiles that are not corrected by dialysis. Depending on solutes, elevated plasma levels were associated with increased or decreased urinary excretion, depicting situations of uremic retention (asymmetric dimethylarginine) or systemic overproduction (citrulline). These results give some insight in

  1. Plasma Amino Acids Changes in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Guillermo M.; Reichenberger, Erin; Peterlin, B. Lee; Perreault, Marielle J.; Grothusen, John R.; Schwartzman, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a severe chronic pain condition that most often develops following trauma. Blood samples were collected from 220 individuals, 160 CRPS subjects, and 60 healthy pain-free controls. Plasma amino acid levels were compared and contrasted between groups. L-Aspartate, L-glutamate, and L-ornithine were significantly increased, whereas L-tryptophan and L-arginine were significantly decreased in CRPS subjects as compared to controls. In addition, the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio demonstrated a significant increase, whereas the global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR) was significantly decreased in the CRPS subjects. The CRPS subjects demonstrated a significant correlation between overall pain and the plasma levels of L-glutamate and the L-kynurenine to L-tryptophan ratio. CRPS subjects also showed a correlation between the decrease in plasma L-tryptophan and disease duration. This study shows that CRPS subjects exhibit significant changes in plasma levels of amino acids involved in glutamate receptor activation and in amino acids associated with immune function as compared to healthy pain-free controls. A better understanding of the role plasma amino acids play in the pathophysiology of CRPS may lead to novel treatments for this crippling condition. PMID:24303215

  2. Simultaneous determination of niacin, niacinamide and nicotinuric acid in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Pfuhl, P; Kärcher, U; Häring, N; Baumeister, A; Tawab, Mona Abdel; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive, specific, accurate, and reproducible HPLC/MS-method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of niacin (NA) and its main metabolites niacinamide (NAM) and nicotinuric acid (NUR) in human plasma using chinolin-3-carboxylic acid as an internal standard was developed and validated according to international guidelines for method validation. All analytes and the internal standard were separated from acidified plasma by solid phase extraction. Afterwards the extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC/MS in the positive electrospray ionization mode (ESI) and selected ion monitoring (SIM). The total run time was 7 min between injections. The assay had a lower limit of quantification of 50.0 ng/mL for each analyte using 1 mL of plasma. The calibration curves were linear in the measured range between 50.0 and 750 ng/mL plasma. The overall precision and accuracy for all concentrations of quality controls and standards was better than 15%. No indications were found for possible instabilities of niacin, niacinamide and nicotinuric acid in plasma at -20 degrees C, in the extraction solvent or after repeated thawing/freezing cycles. In stabilities were observed in whole blood and in plasma at room temperature. The recovery of the extraction method ranged from 86 to 89% for the three analytes.

  3. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), maternal plasma (170% and 250%, respectively; P < 0.0001), and infant plasma (180% and 330%, respectively; P < 0.05). Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668.

  4. Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of phenylalanine in rats and mice administered aspartame.

    PubMed

    Hjelle, J J; Dudley, R E; Marietta, M P; Sanders, P G; Dickie, B C; Brisson, J; Kotsonis, F N

    1992-01-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is an esterified, dipeptide sweetener that is rapidly and completely metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract to phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol. The pharmacokinetics of phenylalanine (PHE) and tyrosine (TYR) were examined following the administration of oral doses of aspartame (APM) to fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg) and CD-1 mice (0, 100, 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg). Peak plasma PHE/large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios were calculated. Maximal plasma PHE and TYR concentrations were observed within 1 h after dosing and returned to baseline within 4-8 h in both species regardless of the dose of APM. Mean PHE Cmaxs ranged from 73.6 to 1,161 nmol/ml in the rat, and from 78.6 to 1,967 nmol/ml in the mouse. TYR Cmaxs ranged from 91.6 to 502 nmol/ml and from 89.2 to 792 nmol/ml in the rat and mouse, respectively. AUCs and Cmaxs were linear with dose in both species. Peak plasma PHE/LNAA ratios ranged from 0.112 to 1.117 in rats and from 0.121 to 1.769 in mice. Comparison of these ratios with those observed previously in humans indicates that rodents require a 2-6 times higher dose of APM than humans to produce similar increases in plasma PHE/LNAA ratios.

  5. Monitoring of trifluoroacetic acid concentration in environmental waters in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianbo; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jinlong; Hu, Jianxin; Ye, Peng; Zeng, Zheng

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important and extremely meaningful to determine the concentration of TFA in the environmental water in China. This will create background reference for the effects of analyzing the extensive employment of the substitutes to CFCs in China. In this paper a set of analytical methods was described for use in monitoring of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) concentration of environmental waters including collecting, pre-treatment measures, preserving, concentrating and derivatization of samples from different kinds of environmental waters. The GC with electrical capture detector (ECD) and headspace auto sampler were used in the analysis. The lowest detection limit of the instrument is 0.0004 ng methyl trifluoroacetic acid (MTFA), and the lowest detected concentration with the method is 3.0 ng/ml TFA. TFA collected in various environmental water samples (including rainfall, inland surface water, ground water, and waste water) from nine provinces and autonomous regions in China have been determined by applying the analytical methods created and defined in this work. The results indicate that the concentrations of TFA in nine rainfalls and three snowfalls through the period from 2000 to 2001 ranged from 25 to 220 ng/l, the TFA concentration in the inland surface water samples ranged from 4.7 to 221 ng/l, the concentration of TFA in groundwater samples collected in Beijing was 10 ng/l, and the TFA concentration in coastal water samples ranged from 4.2 to 190.1 ng/l.

  6. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations.

  7. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions.

  8. Hair element concentrations in females in one acid and one alkaline area in southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosborg, Ingegerd; Nihlgård, Bengt; Gerhardsson, Lars

    2003-11-01

    Concentrations of 34 trace elements in hair have been determined in 47 females from an acid region in southern Sweden, who were compared with 43 females from an alkaline area. The concentrations of these elements in hair and drinking water were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The hair concentrations of boron and barium were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in hair samples from the acid region, the hair levels of calcium, strontium, molybdenum, iron, and selenium were significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the alkaline region. For some metals, e.g. calcium, lead, molybdenum, and strontium, there were positive correlations between the concentrations in hair and water (rs = 0.34-0.57; p < or = 0.001), indicating the importance of intake from minerals in water. The increased ratio of selenium/mercury concentrations in hair samples obtained in the alkaline district (p < 0.001) indicates that these subjects may have better protection against the toxic effects of mercury.

  9. Insulinotropic effect of high potassium concentration beyond plasma membrane depolarization.

    PubMed

    Belz, M; Willenborg, M; Görgler, N; Hamada, A; Schumacher, K; Rustenbeck, I

    2014-03-01

    The question whether K⁺ depolarization is an appropriate experimental substitute for the physiological nutrient-induced depolarization of the β-cell plasma membrane was investigated using primary mouse β-cells and islets. At basal glucose 40 mM K⁺ induced a massive monophasic response, whereas 15 mM K⁺ had only a minimal insulinotropic effect, even though the increase in the cytosolic Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i) was not inferior to that by 20 mM glucose. In voltage-clamp experiments, Ca²⁺ influx appeared as nifedipine-inhibitable inward action currents in the presence of sulfonylurea plus TEA to block compensatory outward K⁺ currents. Under these conditions, 15 mM K⁺ induced prolonged action currents and 40 mM K⁺ transformed the action current pattern into a continuous inward current. Correspondingly, 15 mM K⁺ led to an oscillatory increase and 40 mM K⁺ to a plateau of [Ca²⁺]i superimposed on the [Ca²⁺]i elevated by sulfonylurea plus TEA. Raising K⁺ to 15 or 40 mM in the presence of sulfonylurea (±TEA) led to a fast further increase of insulin secretion. This was reduced to basal levels by nifedipine or CoCl₂. The effects of 15 mM K⁺ on depolarization, action currents, and insulin secretion were mimicked by adding 35 mM Cs⁺ and those of 40 mM K⁺ by adding 35 mM Rb⁺, in parallel with their ability to substitute for K⁺ as permeant cation. In conclusion, the alkali metals K⁺, Rb⁺, or Cs⁺ concentration-dependently transform the pattern of Ca²⁺ influx into the β-cell and may thus generate stimuli of supraphysiological strength for insulin secretion.

  10. Amino acid supplementation decreases plasma and liver triglycerides in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bui, Quynh-Uyen T.; Tissier, Sandrine; Cree, Melanie G.; Rønsen, Ola; Morio, Beatrice; Ferrando, Arny A.; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Wolfe, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of AA supplementation on plasma, liver and muscle lipid concentrations and insulin sensitivity in elderly. Methods Twelve impaired glucose tolerant elderly (67.0 ± 5.6 (SD) years, 7 females, 5 males) ingested 11 g of essential AA + arginine twice a day for 16 weeks, after a 7 week control run in. Diet and activity were not otherwise modified. Plasma lipid concentrations and oral glucose tolerance were measured every 4th week, and tissue lipid concentrations (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) every 8th week. Results No changes in plasma lipids were observed during the control run-in. AA supplementation lowered plasma triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.048) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol (P < 0.001) concentrations. Plasma TG dropped ~20% from the initial value of 1.45 ± 0.18 (SE) mmol/l (128 ± 16 mg/dl), with greatest decrease in the subjects starting out with highest concentrations (r = −0.83). Similarly, liver fat content (liver TG/intralipid standard) decreased ~50% from the initial value of 0.34 ± 0.06 (P = 0.021; n = 9), with greatest decrease in the subjects that initially had highest values (r = −0.86). Intramuscular fat content and insulin sensitivity did not change. Conclusion Diet supplementation with AA lowers plasma TG, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol concentrations, and liver lipid content in impaired glucose tolerant elderly. AA supplementation may have a potential role in treatment of hypertriglyceridemia or hepatic steatosis. PMID:19041223

  11. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  12. Linkage between cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and high plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Freeman, D J; Grundy, S M; Levine, D M; Guerra, R; Cohen, J C

    1998-01-01

    Interindividual differences in plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels reflect both environmental variation and genetic polymorphism, but the specific genes involved and their relative contributions to the variance in LDL-C are not known. In this study we investigated the relationship between plasma LDL-C concentrations and three genes with pivotal roles in LDL metabolism: the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7). Analysis of 150 nuclear families indicated statistically significant linkage between plasma LDL-C concentrations and CYP7, but not LDLR or APOB. Further sibling pair analyses using individuals with high plasma LDL-C concentrations as probands indicated that the CYP7 locus was linked to high plasma LDL-C, but not to low plasma LDL-C concentrations. This finding was replicated in an independent sample. DNA sequencing revealed two linked polymorphisms in the 5' flanking region of CYP7. The allele defined by these polymorphisms was associated with increased plasma LDL-C concentrations, both in sibling pairs and in unrelated individuals. Taken together, these findings indicate that polymorphism in CYP7 contributes to heritable variation in plasma LDL-C concentrations. Common polymorphisms in LDLR and APOB account for little of the heritable variation in plasma LDL-C concentrations in the general population. PMID:9502769

  13. Autistic children exhibit distinct plasma amino acid profile.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Jain, Jamal Md Nurul; Prasad, Chintakindi Krishna; Naik, Usha; Akella, Radha Rama Devi

    2013-10-01

    In order to ascertain whether autistic children display characteristic metabolic signatures that are of diagnostic value, plasma amino acid analyses were carried out on a cohort of 138 autistic children and 138 normal controls using reverse-phase HPLC. Pre-column derivatization of amino acids with phenyl isothiocyanate forms phenyl thio-carbamate derivates that have a lamba(max) of 254 nm, enabling their detection using photodiode array. Autistic children showed elevated levels of glutamic acid (120 +/- 89 vs. 83 +/- 35 micromol/L) and asparagine (85 +/- 37 vs. 47 +/- 19 micromol/L); lower levels of phenylalanine (45 +/- 20 vs. 59 +/- 18 micromol/L), tryptophan (24 +/- 11 vs. 41 +/- 16 micromol/L), methionine (22 +/- 9 vs. 28 +/- 9 micromol/L) and histidine (45 +/- 21 vs. 58 +/- 15 micromol/L). A low molar ratio of (tryptophan/large neutral amino acids) x 100 was observed in autism (5.4 vs 9.2), indicating lesser availability of tryptophan for neurotransmitter serotonin synthesis. To conclude, elevated levels of excitatory amino acids (glutamate and asparagine), decreased essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine) and decreased precursors of neurotransmitters (tyrosine and tryptophan) are the distinct characteristics of plasma amino acid profile of autistic children. Thus, such metabolic signatures might be useful tools for early diagnosis of autism.

  14. Antioxidant-rich spice added to hamburger meat during cooking results in reduced meat, plasma, and urine malondialdehyde concentrations1234

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoping; Henning, Susanne M; Zhang, Yanjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Bowerman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emerging science has shown the effect of oxidation products and inflammation on atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. Cooking hamburger meat can promote the formation of malondialdehyde that can be absorbed after ingestion. Objective:We studied the effect of an antioxidant spice mixture on malondialdehyde formation while cooking hamburger meat and its effects on plasma and urinary malondialdehyde concentrations. Design: Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 2 kinds of burgers in a randomized order: one burger was seasoned with a spice blend, and one burger was not seasoned with the spice blend. The production of malondialdehyde in burgers and malondialdehyde concentrations in plasma and urine after ingestion were measured by HPLC. Results:Rosmarinic acid from oregano was monitored to assess the effect of cooking on spice antioxidant content. Forty percent (19 mg) of the added rosmarinic acid remained in the spiced burger (SB) after cooking. There was a 71% reduction in the malondialdehyde concentration (mean ± SD: 0.52 ± 0.02 μmol/250 g) in the meat of the SBs compared with the malondialdehyde concentration (1.79 ± 0.17 μmol/250 g) in the meat of the control burgers (CBs). The plasma malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly in the CB group as a change from baseline (P = 0.026). There was a significant time-trend difference (P = 0.013) between the 2 groups. Urinary malondialdehyde concentrations (μmol/g creatinine) decreased by 49% (P = 0.021) in subjects consuming the SBs compared with subjects consuming the CBs. Conclusions: The overall effect of adding the spice mixture to hamburger meat before cooking was a reduction in malondialdehyde concentrations in the meat, plasma, and urine after ingestion. Therefore, cooking hamburgers with a polyphenol-rich spice mixture can significantly decrease the concentration of malondialdehyde, which suggests potential health benefits for atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. This trial was registered at

  15. Stress-induced changes in corticosteroid metabolism. [plasma and urine concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacker, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    Because plasma and urine corticosteroid concentrations are influenced by several factors in addition to adrenal cortex secretion, the effect of stress on all of these factors was determined in order to interpret the plasma and urine concentrations. Progress on the investigation is reported.

  16. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 concentrations and risk of cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas in Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Sarah C; Hughes, Maria Celia; Green, Adèle C; van der Pols, Jolieke C

    2013-10-01

    Laboratory-based evidence suggests that omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may affect skin photocarcinogenesis, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. In 1,191 White Australian adults, we prospectively investigated associations between baseline plasma concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated on the basis of number of histologically confirmed tumors diagnosed during follow-up (1997-2007). Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentrations and omega-3/-6 ratio showed significant inverse associations with SCC tumors, comparing higher tertiles with the lowest, in age- and sex-adjusted models (Ptrend = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively) which weakened after adjustment for past sun exposure. Associations between EPA and SCC were stronger among participants with a history of skin cancer at baseline (n = 378; highest vs. lowest tertile: RR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.92; Ptrend = 0.01). Total omega-6 was inversely associated with BCC tumors in multivariate models (P = 0.04; highest vs. lowest tertile: RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.99), and more strongly in the subgroup with past skin cancer. Linoleic and linolenic acids were also inversely associated with BCC occurrence in this subgroup. When fatty acids were analyzed as continuous variables, however, there was no evidence of any linear or nonlinear associations. This study provides some support for reduced skin cancer risk with high plasma concentrations of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, but results depended on how fatty acid data were modeled. Further investigation of these associations in larger datasets is needed.

  17. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  18. Plasma and Intracellular Antiretroviral Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients under Short Cycles of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zehnacker, Laura; Abe, Emuri; Mathez, Dominique; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Leibowitch, Jacques; Azoulay, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Study of plasma and intracellular concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, nevirapine, and efavirenz was conducted on 48 patients under short cycles of antiretroviral therapy. Intracellular concentrations (IC) were still measurable for all drugs after 85 h or 110 h drug intake despite the absence of drug in plasma for atazanavir and lopinavir. A linear relationship between plasma and intracellular efavirenz was observed. Further studies to fully understand the impact of IC in the intermittent antiviral treatment are required. PMID:25431661

  19. Plasma phospholipid arachidonic acid and lignoceric acid are associated with the risk of cardioembolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Cho, Yoonsu; Do, Hyun Ju; Oh, Kyungmi; Seo, Woo-Keun; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-11-01

    Cardioembolic (CE) stroke is the most severe subtype of ischemic stroke with high recurrence and mortality. However, there is still little information on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) with CE stroke. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis whether the composition of plasma phospholipid FA is associated with the risk of CE stroke. The study subjects were collected from the Korea University Stroke Registry. Twenty-one subjects were selected as CE stroke group, and 39 age- and sex-matched subjects with non-CE stroke were selected as controls. Sociodemographic factors, clinical measurements, and plasma phospholipid FA compositions were compared between the groups. Logistic regression was used to obtain estimates of the associations between the relevant FAs and CE stroke. The result showed that the CE stroke group had higher levels of free FA and lower levels of triglycerides before and after adjustment (all P < .05). In the regression analysis, elaidic acid (18:1Tn9) and arachidonic acid (20:4n6) were positively related, but lignoceric acid (24:0) was negatively related to CE stroke in all constructed models (all P < .05). In conclusion, plasma phospholipid FA composition was associated with CE stroke risk in Korean population, with higher proportions of elaidic acid and arachidonic acid and lower proportion of lignoceric acid in CE stroke. PMID:26452419

  20. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  1. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  2. Discovery of XEN445: a potent and selective endothelial lipase inhibitor raises plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoyi; Dean, Richard; Jia, Qi; Zenova, Alla; Zhong, Jing; Grayson, Celene; Xie, Clark; Lindgren, Andrea; Samra, Pritpaul; Sojo, Luis; van Heek, Margaret; Lin, Linus; Percival, David; Fu, Jian-Min; Winther, Michael D; Zhang, Zaihui

    2013-12-15

    Endothelial lipase (EL) activity has been implicated in HDL metabolism and in atherosclerotic plaque development; inhibitors are proposed to be efficacious in the treatment of dyslipidemia related cardiovascular disease. We describe here the discovery of a novel class of anthranilic acids EL inhibitors. XEN445 (compound 13) was identified as a potent and selective EL inhibitor, that showed good ADME and PK properties, and demonstrated in vivo efficacy in raising plasma HDLc concentrations in mice. PMID:24211162

  3. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  4. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  5. Effect of folic acid supplementation on homocysteine concentration and association with training in handball players

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strenuous physical activity can alter the status of folic acid, a vitamin directly associated with homocysteine (Hcy); alterations in this nutrient are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Handball players are a population at risk for nutrient deficiency because of poor dietary habits. Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate nutritional status for macronutrients and folic acid in members of a high-performance handball team, and determine the effect of a nutritional intervention with folic acid supplementation and education. Design A total of 14 high-performance handball players were monitored by recording training time, training intensity (according to three levels of residual heart rate (RHR): <60%, 60%–80% and >80%), and subjective perceived exertion (RPE) during a 4-month training period. Nutritional, laboratory and physical activity variables were recorded at baseline (Week 0), after 2 months of dietary supplementation with 200 μg folic acid (50% of the recommended daily allowance) (Week 8) and after 2 months without supplementation (Week 16). We compared training load and analyzed changes in plasma concentrations of Hcy before and after the intervention. Results Bivariate analysis showed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy and folic acid concentrations (r = −0.84) at Week 8, reflecting a significant change in Hcy concentration (P < 0.05) as a result of hyperhomocysteinemia following the accumulation of high training loads. At Week 16 we observed a significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) between Hcy concentration and training time with an RHR <60%, indicating that aerobic exercise avoided abrupt changes in Hcy and may thus reduce the risk of cardiovascular accidents in high-performance athletes. Conclusion Integral monitoring and education are needed for practitioners of handball sports to record their folic acid status, a factor that directly affects Hcy metabolism. Folic acid

  6. Changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain associated with feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phuong V; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Domesticated chicks are precocial and therefore have relatively well-developed feeding behavior. The role of hypothalamic neuropeptides in food-intake regulation in chicks has been reported for decades. However, we hypothesized that nutrients and their metabolites in the brain may be involved in food intake in chicks because these animals exhibit a very frequent feeding pattern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the feeding behavior of chicks as well as the associated changes in free amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the chick brain. The feeding behavior of chicks was recorded continuously for 6 h. The next day, brain and blood samples were collected when the chicks either attempted to have food (hungry group) or turned food down (satiated group), in order to analyze the concentrations of the free amino acids and monoamines. We confirmed that the feeding behavior of neonatal chicks was characterized by short resting periods between very brief times spent on food intake. Several free amino acids in the mesencephalon were significantly lower in the satiated group than in the hungry group, while l-histidine and l-glutamine were significantly higher. Notably, there was no change in the free amino acid concentrations in other brain regions or plasma. As for monoamines, serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly lower in the mesencephalon of the hungry group compared with the satiated group, but 5 hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) was higher. In addition, serotonin and norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in the brain stem of the hungry chicks compared with the satiated group, but levels of 5-HIAA and homovanillic acid were lower. Levels of both dopamine and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, were significantly higher in the diencephalon and telencephalon of the chicks in the hungry group. In conclusion, the changes in the free amino acids and monoamines in the brain may have some role in the feeding behavior of

  7. Post-Bariatric Surgery Changes in Quinolinic and Xanthurenic Acid Concentrations Are Associated with Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Raverdy, Violeta; Verkindt, Hélène; Leloire, Audrey; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Yengo, Loïc; Allorge, Delphine; Froguel, Philippe; Pattou, François

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase of plasma kynurenine concentrations, potentially bioactive metabolites of tryptophan, was found in subjects with obesity, resulting from low-grade inflammation of the white adipose tissue. Bariatric surgery decreases low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and improves glucose control. Objective Our goal was to determine the concentrations of all kynurenine metabolites after bariatric surgery and whether they were correlated with glucose control improvement. Design Kynurenine metabolite concentrations, analysed by liquid or gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, circulating inflammatory markers, metabolic traits, and BMI were measured before and one year after bariatric surgery in 44 normoglycemic and 47 diabetic women with obesity. Associations between changes in kynurenine metabolites concentrations and in glucose control and metabolic traits were analysed between baseline and twelve months after surgery. Results Tryptophan and kynurenine metabolite concentrations were significantly decreased one year after bariatric surgery and were correlated with the decrease of the usCRP in both groups. Among all the kynurenine metabolites evaluated, only quinolinic acid and xanthurenic acid were significantly associated with glucose control improvement. The one year delta of quinolinic acid concentrations was negatively associated with the delta of fasting glucose (p = 0.019) and HbA1c (p = 0.014), whereas the delta of xanthurenic acid was positively associated with the delta of insulin sensitivity index (p = 0.0018). Conclusion Bariatric surgery has induced a global down-regulation of kynurenine metabolites, associated with weight loss. Our results suggest that, since kynurenine monoxygenase diverts the kynurenine pathway toward the synthesis of xanthurenic acid, its inhibition may also contribute to glucose homeostasis. PMID:27327770

  8. Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.

  9. EFFECT OF ε-AMINOCAPROIC ACID ON FIBRINOLYSIS IN PLASMA OF ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sarrah; Abou-Madi, Noha; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. Use in zoological medicine is rare and dose recommendations are anecdotal, but EACA may be a valuable therapeutic option for bleeding disorders in exotic species, including Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ). This study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to estimate the therapeutic plasma concentration of EACA in Asian elephants (61.5 μg/ml, 95% CI = 34.6-88.5 μg/ml). Substantial but incomplete inhibition of lysis was seen at relatively low concentrations of EACA (40 μg/ml). Asian elephants appear sensitive to EACA-mediated inhibition of hyperfibrinolysis. Doses published for domestic animals, targeting higher plasma concentrations, may be inappropriate in this species.

  10. EFFECT OF ε-AMINOCAPROIC ACID ON FIBRINOLYSIS IN PLASMA OF ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sarrah; Abou-Madi, Noha; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. Use in zoological medicine is rare and dose recommendations are anecdotal, but EACA may be a valuable therapeutic option for bleeding disorders in exotic species, including Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ). This study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to estimate the therapeutic plasma concentration of EACA in Asian elephants (61.5 μg/ml, 95% CI = 34.6-88.5 μg/ml). Substantial but incomplete inhibition of lysis was seen at relatively low concentrations of EACA (40 μg/ml). Asian elephants appear sensitive to EACA-mediated inhibition of hyperfibrinolysis. Doses published for domestic animals, targeting higher plasma concentrations, may be inappropriate in this species. PMID:27468009

  11. Effect of high-protein meal plus aspartame ingestion on plasma phenylalanine concentrations in obligate heterozygotes for phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Curtius, H C; Endres, W; Blau, N

    1994-04-01

    The effect of a protein-rich meal alone or in combination with 85 mumol/kg body weight aspartame (APM) on plasma phenylalanine and large neutral amino acids (LNAA) was evaluated in obligate heterozygotes for phenylketonuria (PKU) and normal subjects (controls). Thirteen PKU heterozygotes (seven women, six men) and 13 controls (five women, eight men) ingested a 12-noon meal providing approximately 303 mumol/kg Phe. In addition, 10 PKU heterozygotes (five women, five men) and 10 controls (five women, five men) ingested the same meal with 85 mumol/kg APM (providing 75 mumol/kg Phe). Plasma amino acids were analyzed at baseline (-4 and 0 hours) and at 1, 3, and 20 hours after the meal or meal plus APM. Compared with the meal alone, ingestion of the meal plus APM significantly increased plasma Phe concentrations in both controls and PKU heterozygotes. Mean plasma Phe values were higher for controls at 1 hour (95 +/- 7 mumol/L) and for PKU heterozygotes at 3 hours (153 +/- 21 mumol/L). After the addition of APM to the meal, the highest mean plasma Phe concentration was only slightly greater than the usual postprandial range for both controls and PKU heterozygotes. Ingestion of the meal did not increase the plasma Phe/LNAA ratio in either controls or PKU heterozygotes. Compared with baseline, the plasma Phe/LNAA ratio increased significantly 1 hour after combined ingestion of the meal plus APM in both groups (P = .020 and P = .008, respectively); however, the ratios were well below the range of Phe/LNAA values in individuals with mild hyperphenylalaninemia, who are clinically normal and do not require a Phe-restricted diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Plasma steroid concentrations change in response to sexual behavior in Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Orchinik, M; Licht, P; Crews, D

    1988-09-01

    Steroid hormone concentrations change in response to social or environmental stimuli in many vertebrates. To test this phenomenon in an amphibian, we examined plasma androgen (A) and corticosterone (B) concentrations in male marine toads (Bufo marinus), a tropical species exhibiting intermale competition, amplectic clasping of females, and bouts of breeding behavior following rains. When males clasped females for 0, 1, 2, or 3 hr, plasma A concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with hours spent in amplexus. In field-sampled males, plasma A concentrations were higher in amplexing males than in single males. Among single males those found closer to breeding ponds had higher A concentrations than those more distant. These data support the hypothesis that sexual stimuli enhance plasma A concentrations in this amphibian. In 3-hr experimental tests and field-sampled males, B concentrations were higher in amplexing than in single males. Unlike some amphibians, short-term elevations of B apparently are not associated with decreased reproductive function. However, as in other amphibians in which high B concentrations are associated with stress-induced inhibition of reproduction, after 48-72 hr in captivity male toads showed high B concentrations and low plasma androgen concentrations. The bursts of sexual activities exhibited by B. marinus following heavy rains were associated with no changes in A concentration and with increased B concentration. PMID:3139541

  13. Plasma Concentration of Parasite DNA as a Measure of Disease Severity in Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J.; Hendriksen, Ilse C. E.; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M. Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples. PMID:25344520

  14. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in free-ranging platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): response to capture and patterns in relation to reproduction.

    PubMed

    Handasyde, K A; McDonald, I R; Evans, B K

    2003-12-01

    Energy demands in the platypus are likely to increase in the breeding season, which occurs from winter to early spring. Glucocorticoids, which play a major role in energy mobilisation, were measured in consecutive blood samples from free-ranging adults at approximately monthly intervals throughout the year. Glucose and free fatty acids were also measured in some samples. Plasma concentrations of glucocorticoids rose significantly during the first 30 min after capture, accompanied by a rise in free fatty acids, but no corresponding increase in glucose concentrations. We observed a strong pattern in plasma glucocorticoids in samples collected within 15 min of capture (indicative of pre-disturbance concentrations) in different phases of the annual reproductive cycle, with significantly higher levels in both males and females in the breeding season compared to the non-breeding season. These data, and the decline in tail fat stores that occur towards the end of the mating period (around October), suggest that platypus experience high-energy demands during this phase of reproduction. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in females sampled during the lactation period (October-February) were relatively low, and similar to those in females sampled in the non-breeding, non-lactation period (March-June). The latter requires further investigation as results may have been influenced by sampling limitations. PMID:14667852

  15. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  16. Rapid lipid enrichment in omega3 fatty acids: plasma data.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2008-03-01

    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to normal subjects was recently reported to enrich within 60 min the phospholipid content of leucocytes and platelets in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present study, conducted in second generation omega3-depleted rats, aimed at investigating whether such a procedure may also increase within 60 min the phospholipid content of omega3 fatty acids in cells located outwards the bloodstream, in this case liver cells, and whether this coincides with correction of the perturbation in the liver triglyceride fatty acid content and profile otherwise prevailing in these rats. This first report deals mainly with the fatty acid pattern of plasma lipids in male omega3-depleted rats that were non-injected or injected with either the omega3-rich emulsion or a control medium-chain triglyceride:olive oil emulsion. The results provide information on the fate of the exogenous lipids present in the lipid emulsions and injected intravenously 60 min before sacrifice. Moreover, in the uninjected omega3-depleted rats the comparison between individual plasma and liver measurements indicated positive correlations in the fatty acid profile of phospholipids and triglycerides. PMID:18288383

  17. Characterization and reconstruction of historical London, England, acidic aerosol concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, K.; Thurston, G.D.

    1989-02-01

    Several past studies of the historical London air pollution record have reported an association between daily mortality and British Smoke levels. However, this pollution index does not give direct information on particulate mass or its chemical composition. A more specific particulate matter index, aerosol acidity, was measured at a site in central London, and daily data are available for the period 1963-1972. British smoke and SO/sub 2/ were also measured at the same site. Also, meteorological parameters were routinely measured at a nearby British Meteorological Office. Thus, daily fluctuation of the acidic aerosols was characterized in terms of other environmental parameters. Each of the other parameters analyzed seems necessary, but not sufficient to explain a high level of acidic aerosol. Overall, about half of the variance of log-transformed daily fluctuations of acidic aerosols can be explained by a combination of parameters including SO/sub 2/ and British smoke concentrations, temperature, ventilation by wind, and humidity. The rest of the variance cannot be explained by the parameters included in this analysis. Potential factors responsible for this unique variance would be variations in the availability of basic gases to cause neutralization and variation in the availability of catalytic metal salts. Because the acidic aerosol has a unique component of variation, it may be possible to distinguish health effects due to this specific pollutant from other available pollution indices or environmental factors.

  18. Characterization and reconstruction of historical London, England, acidic aerosol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Thurston, G D

    1989-02-01

    Several past studies of the historical London air pollution record have reported an association between daily mortality and British Smoke levels. However, this pollution index does not give direct information on particulate mass or its chemical composition. A more specific particulate matter index, aerosol acidity, was measured at a site in central London, and daily data are available for the period 1963-1972. British Smoke and SO2 were also measured at the same site. Also, meteorological parameters were routinely measured at a nearby British Meteorological Office. Thus, daily fluctuation of the acidic aerosols was characterized in terms of other environmental parameters. Each of the other parameters analyzed seems necessary, but not sufficient to explain a high level of acidic aerosol. Overall, about half of the variance of log-transformed daily fluctuations of acidic aerosols can be explained by a combination of parameters including SO2 and British Smoke concentrations, temperature, ventilation by wind, and humidity. The rest of the variance cannot be explained by the parameters included in this analysis. Potential factors responsible for this unique variance would be variations in the availability of basic gases to cause neutralization and variation in the availability of catalytic metal salts. Because the acidic aerosol has a unique component of variation, it may be possible to distinguish health effects due to this specific pollutant from other available pollution indices or environmental factors.

  19. High-Throughput Quantitative Lipidomics Analysis of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Christinat, Nicolas; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2016-07-01

    We present a high-throughput, nontargeted lipidomics approach using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of nonesterified fatty acids. We applied this method to screen a wide range of fatty acids from medium-chain to very long-chain (8 to 24 carbon atoms) in human plasma samples. The method enables us to chromatographically separate branched-chain species from their straight-chain isomers as well as separate biologically important ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. We used 51 fatty acid species to demonstrate the quantitative capability of this method with quantification limits in the nanomolar range; however, this method is not limited only to these fatty acid species. High-throughput sample preparation was developed and carried out on a robotic platform that allows extraction of 96 samples simultaneously within 3 h. This high-throughput platform was used to assess the influence of different types of human plasma collection and preparation on the nonesterified fatty acid profile of healthy donors. Use of the anticoagulants EDTA and heparin has been compared with simple clotting, and only limited changes have been detected in most nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. PMID:27185515

  20. Clinical overview of Omacor: a concentrated formulation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Bays, Harold

    2006-08-21

    Omacor (omega-3-acid ethyl esters; Reliant Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Liberty Corner, NJ) is a highly purified, prescription omega-3 fatty acid formulation with high concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (465 mg) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (375 mg) in each 1-g capsule, along with 4 mg (6 IU) of vitamin E. At a typical dose of 4 capsules/day, Omacor significantly lowers plasma triglyceride levels either as monotherapy or in combination with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) or fibrates. Omacor also modestly increases plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and has favorable effects on lipoprotein particle size and subclass distribution. Omacor is well tolerated, with few side effects other than mild gastrointestinal symptoms. Hyperglycemia, abnormal bleeding, elevations in muscle or liver enzymes, and/or abnormalities in kidney or nerve function have not been reported. Through its intensive purification process, Omacor has minimal "fishy" smell and taste, and it has not been reported to cause hypervitaminosis or illness due to exposure to environmental toxins. Omacor provides a safe, effective, well-tolerated approach to management of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:16919519

  1. Preliminary report on the short stature of Southeast Asian forest dwellers, the Manni, in southern Thailand: lack of an adolescent spurt in plasma IGF-I concentration.

    PubMed

    Ishida, T; Suzuki, J; Duangchan, P; Settheetham-Ishida, W

    1998-03-01

    Plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor type-I (IGF-I) was studied among the Mannis in Thailand to find a possible cause of their short stature. The Mannis are hunting and gathering indigenous tribal peoples living in Asian tropical rain forests. A total of 50 plasma specimens from three different Manni groups in southern Thailand were used in this study. The concentrations of acid-ethanol extract of plasma IGF-I were measured by radio-immunoassay. We found that (1) plasma concentration of IGF-I in the Mannis was low, (2) there was no adolescent spurt in IGF-I levels, and (3) the post adolescent plasma IGF-I level of the Manni was significantly lower than that of age-matched Japanese. Low IGF-I levels among the Mannis may account for their short stature.

  2. Blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate during experimental swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, R; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Jensen-Waern, M

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine blood concentrations of amino acids, glucose and lactate in association with experimental swine dysentery. Ten pigs (approximately 23kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Eight animals developed muco-haemorrhagic diarrhoea with impaired general appearance, changes in white blood cell counts and increased levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyolid A. Blood samples were taken before inoculation, during the incubation period, during clinical signs of dysentery and during recovery. Neither plasma glucose nor lactate concentrations changed during the course of swine dysentery, but the serum concentrations of gluconeogenic non-essential amino acids decreased during dysentery. This was mainly due to decreases in alanine, glutamine, serine and tyrosine. Lysine increased during dysentery and at the beginning of the recovery period, and leucine increased during recovery. Glutamine, alanine and tyrosine levels show negative correlations with the numbers of neutrophils and monocytes. In conclusion, swine dysentery altered the blood concentrations of amino acids, but not of glucose or lactate.

  3. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  4. Protein binding of prilocaine in human plasma: influence of concentration, pH and temperature.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, B; Biscoping, J; Sinning, E; Hempelmann, G

    1990-05-01

    Protein binding of prilocaine was investigated in vitro under various conditions of changing pH, temperature and total plasma concentration by means of HPLC with UV-detection and ultrafiltration. Whereas changes in temperature (25 degrees C-40 degrees C) and pH (pH 5-pH 10) influenced protein binding markedly, rising plasma concentrations up to 16 micrograms/ml did not affect plasma protein binding significantly. This may be a possible explanation for clinical evidence of low toxicity associated with the use of prilocaine. Discussions concerning protein binding of local anaesthetics should always be based on defined ambient conditions (pH, temperature, concentration).

  5. Three Patients Needing High Doses of Valproic Acid to Get Therapeutic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, James; McCollum, Betsy; Ognibene, Judy; Diaz, Francisco J.; de Leon, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) can autoinduce its own metabolism. Cases requiring VPA doses >4000 mg/day to obtain therapeutic plasma concentrations, such as these 3 cases, have never been published. Case 1 received VPA for seizures and schizophrenia and had >50 VPA concentrations in 4 years. A high dose of 5,250 mg/day of VPA concentrate was prescribed for years but this dose led to an intoxication when switched to the enterocoated divalproex sodium formulation, requiring a normal dose of 2000 mg/day. VPA metabolic capacity was significantly higher (t = −9.6; df = 6.3, p < 0.001) during the VPA concentrate therapy, possibly due to autoinduction in that formulation. Case 2 had VPA for schizoaffective psychosis with 10 VPA concentrations during an 8-week admission. To maintain a VPA level ≥50 μg/mL, VPA doses increased from 1500 to 4000 mg/day. Case 3 had tuberous sclerosis and epilepsy and was followed up for >4 years with 137 VPA concentrations. To maintain VPA concentrations ≥50 μg/mL, VPA doses increased from 3,375 to 10,500 mg/day. In Cases 2 and 3, the duration of admission and the VPA dose were strongly correlated (r around 0.90; p < 0.001) with almost no change after controlling for VPA concentrations, indicating progressive autoinduction that increased with time. PMID:26000191

  6. Plasma concentrations and cardiotoxic effects of desipramine and protriptyline in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bianchetti, G.; Bonaccorsi, Aurora; Chiodaroli, A.; Franco, R.; Garattini, S.; Gomeni, R.; Morselli, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    1 Desipramine and protriptyline were administered to anaesthetized rats by two consecutive intravenous infusions in order to obtain a peak level (first infusion) followed by lower steady state concentrations (second infusion) (Wagner, 1974). Theoretical plasma level time courses were confirmed experimentally. 2 Desipramine and protriptyline were measured in atria and ventricles. Increasing infusion rates led to proportional increases in plasma and atrial concentrations. The tissue/medium ratio ranged from 57 to 21 for desipramine and from 43 to 11 for protriptyline according to the time of determination during infusions. 3 Heart rate changes, deviation of the electrical axis of the heart and prolongation of atrioventricular conduction were recorded at fixed times during infusion. 4 Positive chronotropic effects were noted at plasma concentrations ranging from 0.035 to 0.1 μg/ml for desipramine and from 0.04 to 1.2 μg/ml for protriptyline. At higher plasma concentrations the positive chronotropic effect decreased and bradycardia developed. Both drugs induced right rotation of the electrical axis of the heart. Threshold plasma levels giving 40° rotation were 1.35 μg/ml (desipramine) and 1.75 μg/ml (protriptyline). Atrioventricular conduction was prolonged at threshold plasma concentrations of 2.2 μg/ml for desipramine and 3.6 μg/ml for protriptyline. 5 Desipramine is more cardiotoxic than protriptyline. This difference is discussed in relation to the plasma and heart concentration of the two drugs. PMID:884382

  7. Plasma and intestinal concentrations of GIP and GLP-1 (7-36) amide during suckling and after weaning in pigs.

    PubMed

    Knapper, J M; Morgan, L M; Fletcher, J M; Marks, V

    1995-11-01

    Plasma concentrations of glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1[7-36]amide) were measured after milk ingestion in 15-18 day old piglets and after weaning diet ingestion in 33 day old piglets weaned at 21 days. Intestinal concentrations of these two hormones were also measured in unsuckled piglets of less than 24 h of age, and piglets whose ages corresponded with those used for plasma measurements. Suckling piglets showed a moderate glycaemic and insulinaemic response to milk ingestion. Plasma GIP and GLP-1(7-36)amide levels were significantly elevated at 1 and 3-h post-prandially. Weaned piglets showed a much more marked glucose and insulin response to meal ingestion. Plasma GIP and GLP-1(7-36)amide levels were again significantly elevated at 1 and 3 h in these animals. The mean plasma GIP response was greater in the weaned animals compared with the suckling animals at the time points investigated. The plasma GLP-1(7-36)amide response in contrast was significantly greater at 1 h in the suckling animals. In comparison, GIP concentrations in acid ethanol extracts of the small intestine were significantly higher during suckling and GLP-1(7-36)amide concentrations significantly higher after weaning. The circulating levels of both hormones seen during suckling and after weaning were far higher than those previously reported in humans. We conclude that both milk ingestion and the weaning diet are capable of stimulating GIP and GLP-1(7-36)amide in piglets and suggest that the levels of both hormones seen in this study may be important in adipose tissue metabolism at this time.

  8. The T1405N Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase Polymorphism Does Not Affect Plasma Arginine Concentrations in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Moonen, Rob M. J.; Reyes, Iballa; Cavallaro, Giacomo; González-Luis, Gema; Bakker, Jaap A.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Background A C-to-A nucleotide transversion (T1405N) in the gene that encodes carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) has been associated with changes in plasma concentrations of L-arginine in term and near term infants but not in adults. In preterm infants homozygosity for the CPS1 Thr1405 variant (CC genotype) was associated with an increased risk of having necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Plasma L-arginine concentrations are decreased in preterm infants with NEC. Aim To examine the putative association between the CPS1 T1405N polymorphism and plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants. Methods Prospective multicenter cohort study. Plasma and DNA samples were collected from 128 preterm infants (<30 weeks) between 6 and 12 hours after birth. Plasma amino acid and CPS1 T1405N polymorphism analysis were performed. Results Distribution of genotypes did not differ between the preterm (CC∶CA∶AA = 55.5%∶33.6%∶10.9%, n = 128) and term infants (CC∶CA∶AA = 54.2%∶35.4%∶10.4%, n = 96). There was no association between the CPS1 genotype and plasma L-arginine or L-citrulline concentration, or the ornithine to citrulline ratio, which varies inversely with CPS1 activity. Also the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine were not significantly different among the three genotypes. Conclusions The present study in preterm infants did not confirm the earlier reported association between CPS1 genotype and L-arginine levels in term infants. PMID:20520828

  9. Relation between plasma and saliva concentrations of enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, and theophylline.

    PubMed

    Zhai, S; Wei, X; Parker, B M; Kunze, K L; Vestal, R E

    1996-12-01

    To assess the reliability of predicting plasma concentrations of enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, and theophylline from drug concentrations in saliva, six healthy volunteers received single oral doses of enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, and theophylline administered in combination on each of four separate study days, with different, doses separated by at least 5 days. Drug concentrations were determined by a newly developed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay, which could measure simultaneously all three drugs in plasma or saliva. Saliva data from the postabsorptive phase after drug administration were used to minimize the effects of variation in absorption. There were good correlations between saliva and plasma concentrations of enoxacin, ciprofloxacin, and theophylline (r = 0.91, 0.88, and 0.98, respectively). The mean (+/-SD) saliva-to-plasma (S/P) ratio for theophylline was 0.63 +/- 0.06 with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 7.9 +/- 2.7%. In contrast, the S/P ratios and CV values for enoxacin and ciprofloxacin were 0.72 +/- 0.21 and 28.9 +/- 11.1%, and 0.58 +/- 0.15 and 25.3 +/- 6.7%, respectively. Because of the large inter- and intraindividual variability, saliva concentrations of enoxacin and ciprofloxacin are not reliable for predicting plasma concentrations. However, saliva may be used reliably for predicting plasma concentrations of theophylline.

  10. Influence of n-6 versus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in diets low in saturated fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins and hemostatic factors.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Oakley, F R; Miller, G J; Mitropoulos, K A; Crook, D; Oliver, M F

    1997-12-01

    Modification of dietary fat composition may influence hemostatic variables, which are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). To address this question, we performed a controlled feeding study on 26 healthy male nonsmoking subjects with diets of differing fat composition. For the first 3 weeks, the subjects were given a diet calculated to supply 30% energy as total fat: 8% as monounsaturated, 4% as polyunsaturated, and 16% energy as saturated fatty acids, respectively (saturated diet). This was followed immediately by two diets taken in random order, each of 3-week duration and separated by an 8-week washout period on the subject's usual diet. Both diets were calculated to supply 30% of energy as fat: 14% monounsaturated, 6% as polyunsaturated, and 8% energy as saturated fatty acids. They both provided 5 g (approximately 1.7% energy) more of polyunsaturated fatty acids than the saturated fat diet; in one diet as long-chain n-3 fatty acids (n-3 diet) and in the other as linoleic acid (n-6 diet). Fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and hemostatic factors were measured on the final 3 days of each dietary period. In a subset of 9 subjects the postprandial responses to a test meal were studied on the penultimate day of each period, each meal having the fat composition of its parent diet. On the n-3 diet compared with the n-6 diet, plasma triglyceride, HDL3 cholesterol, apoprotein AII, and fibrinogen concentrations were lower and HDL2 cholesterol concentration was higher (P = .0001, P = .003, P = .0001, P = .004, and P = .001, respectively). On both the n-3 and n-6 diets compared with the saturated diet, fasting plasma total and LDL cholesterol, apoprotein B, beta-thromboglobulin concentrations, and platelet counts were lower (P < .0001, P < .0001, P < .001, P < .01, and P < .05 respectively) and plasma Lp(a) and von Willebrand factor concentrations were higher (P = .02 and P < .01, respectively). Fasting factor VII coagulant activity (VIIc) was

  11. High concentration of deuterium in palladium from plasma ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.; Lee, W.M. )

    1991-11-01

    Based on a theoretical calculation, a new scheme to increase deuterium density in palladium over its initial value is presented. This deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of plasma ion implantation. A cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with a diffusion-barrier material, is immersed in a deuterium plasma. The palladium rod is connected to a high-power modulator which provides a series of negative-voltage pulses. During these negative pulses, deuterium ions fall into the target, penetrate the diffusion barrier, and are implanted inside the palladium. For reasonable system parameters allowed by present technology, it is found from theoretical calculations that the saturation deuterium density after prolonged ion implantation can be several times the palladium atomic number density. Assuming an initial deuterium density, {ital n}{sub 0}=4{times}10{sup 22} cm{sup {minus}3}, it is also found that the deuterium density in palladium can triple its original value within a few days of the ion implantation for a reasonable target size. Because of the small diffusion coefficient in palladium, the incoming ions do not diffuse quickly inward, thereby accumulating near the target surface at the beginning of the implantation.

  12. Plasma and brain kinetics of large neutral amino acids and of striatum monoamines in rats given aspartame.

    PubMed

    Romano, M; Diomede, L; Guiso, G; Caccia, S; Perego, C; Salmona, M

    1990-05-01

    Two doses (250 and 1000 mg/kg body weight) of aspartame were administered orally to male rats, and plasma and brain phenylalanine and tyrosine kinetic profiles were studied. In both plasma and brain the maximum increase in phenylalanine and tyrosine levels was reached 60 min after treatment. The changes in brain levels of phenylalanine or tyrosine 0, 60, 120 or 180 min after treatment with 1000 mg AMP/kg were directly correlated with the ratio of the plasma concentration of phenylalanine or tyrosine to the overall plasma concentration of the other large neutral amino acids. The time course of monoamine and metabolite concentrations, in the corpora striatum of the brain, was studied after an oral dose of 500 mg phenylalanine/kg. No significant modifications of monoamine levels were found at any of the times studied, up to 5 hr after dosing.

  13. [Plasma prolactin concentration and the effect of metergoline in pseudopregnant Afghan hounds].

    PubMed

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; Kooistra, H S; Bevers, M M

    2000-02-01

    The effects of metergoline, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotinin) antagonist, on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and on the clinical symptoms of overt pseudopregnancy were studied. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone were determined in six Afghan hounds with signs of overt pseudopregnancy for 2-3 weeks and in three Afghan hounds that were not pseudopregnant at the time of blood sampling. In the overtly pseudopregnant bitches the plasma concentrations of prolactin before treatment (35.5 +/- 8.5 micrograms l-1) were significantly higher than the plasma concentrations of prolactin of the three bitches that were not pseudopregnant (6.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms l-1); the latter values were similar to those of non-psueodopregnant beagle bitches during the total luteal phase. The six pseudopregnant Afghan hounds were treated for 10 days with the antiserotoninergic drug metergoline. At 2 h after the onset of treatment with metergoline, the mean plasma concentration of prolactin had decreased to 10.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms l-1. The plasma concentrations of prolactin continued to decline to 5.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms l-1 at 4 h and to 1.0 +/- 0.1 microgram l-1 during treatment days 3-10. Signs of pseudopregnancy, such as swelling of the mammary glands and digging, decreased during the treatment period. The treatment was associated with mild behavioural side effects such as whimpering and aggressiveness. These side effects are probably not related to suppression of prolactin but are due to a direct effect on serotoninergic pathways in the brain. It is concluded that high plasma concentrations of prolactin are associated with the development and maintenance of pseudopregnancy. The serotonin antagonist metergoline strongly suppresses plasma concentration of prolactine in pseudopregnant dogs and decreases the clinical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  14. Plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and the effect of metergoline.

    PubMed

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; Kooistra, H S; Bevers, M M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of metergoline, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) antagonist, on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and on the clinical symptoms of overt pseudopregnancy were studied. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone were determined in six Afghan hounds with signs of overt pseudopregnancy for 2-3 weeks and in three Afghan hounds that were not pseudopregnant at the time of blood sampling. In the overtly pseudopregnant bitches the plasma concentrations of prolactin before treatment (35.5 +/- 8.5 micrograms l-1) were significantly higher than the plasma concentrations of prolactin of the three bitches that were not pseudopregnant (6.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms l-1); the latter values were similar to those of non-pseudopregnant beagle bitches during the total luteal phase. The six pseudopregnant Afghan hounds were treated for 10 days with the antiserotoninergic drug metergoline. At 2 h after the onset of treatment with metergoline, the mean plasma concentration of prolactin had decreased to 10.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms l-1. The plasma concentrations of prolactin continued to decline to 5.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms l-1 at 4 h and to 1.0 +/- 0.1 microgram l-1 during treatment days 3-10. Signs of pseudopregnancy, such as swelling of the mammary glands and digging, decreased during the treatment period. The treatment was associated with mild behavioural side effects such as whimpering and aggressiveness. These side effects are probably not related to suppression of prolactin but are due to a direct effect on serotoninergic pathways in the brain. It is concluded that high plasma concentrations of prolactin are associated with the development and maintenance of pseudopregnancy. The serotonin antagonist metergoline strongly suppresses plasma concentrations of prolactin in pseudopregnant dogs and decreases the clinical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  15. Temporal changes in plasma concentrations of hormones and metabolites in pasture-fed dairy cows during extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Marett, L C; Auldist, M J; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Blache, D; Macmillan, K L; Leury, B J

    2011-10-01

    This experiment measured variations in plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones and metabolites in cows undergoing extended lactations of up to 670 d at 2 planes of nutrition. Thirty-seven Holstein-Friesian cows that calved in late winter were selected for varying milk yield and then managed for a lactation of 670 d by delaying breeding until approximately 450 d in milk (DIM). Cows grazed fresh pasture supplemented with pasture silage or hay and crushed wheat or triticale grain. Dietary intake was reduced by approximately 1.8 kg (dry matter) grain/cow per day for 19 of the cows from 300 DIM until the end of lactation to assess the effect of restricted energy intake on the persistency of milk production. Samples of blood were collected monthly from each cow to measure plasma concentrations of selected hormones and metabolites. Dietary restriction beyond 300 DIM reduced yields of milk, protein, and fat, but did not alter the proportion of cows reaching the 670-d lactation target. Dietary restriction had no effect on cow BW or plasma concentrations of any hormones or metabolites. Overall, blood plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, leptin, and glucose were elevated from 301 to 600 DIM compared with 0 to 300 DIM, whereas concentrations of growth hormone and nonesterified fatty acids were lower after 300 DIM. Plasma concentrations of insulin and prolactin were unaffected by stage of lactation, but prolactin concentrations increased during summer. These changes were consistent with a decrease in milk yield and an increase in the partitioning of nutrients to body tissue gain, primarily adipose tissue, throughout the later stages of the extended lactation. Cows that continued milking beyond 600 DIM had increased plasma concentrations of growth hormone and decreased concentrations of glucose and leptin compared with cows that milked <600 DIM. These differences, coupled with reduced body weight gain, indicated an increased priority for nutrient

  16. Plasma amino acid profiles in healthy East Asian subpopulations living in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishikata, Natsumi; Kawai, Nobuhiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Miyano, Hiroshi; Mori, Maiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Profiles of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) have been utilized as biomarkers to detect various diseases. However, few studies have investigated whether ethnicity or specific subpopulations within East Asia influence PFAA concentrations. Methods A total of 95 healthy volunteers living in Japan, including 31 Japanese individuals, 36 Korean individuals and 28 Chinese individuals, were enrolled. Participants’ PFAA levels were measured by high‐performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and the effects of factors such as sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and subpopulation on PFAA profiles were analyzed. Results With the exception of glutamine and α‐aminobutyric acid, there were no significant differences among the three examined subpopulations with respect to either the means or the distributions of PFAA concentrations. A multiple regression analysis revealed that most of the PFAA concentrations were significantly related to sex. Ornithine concentrations, glutamate concentrations, and glutamine and α‐aminobutyric acid concentrations were significantly associated with age, BMI, and Chinese subpopulation, respectively. Conclusion The study results indicate that the contributions of subpopulation within East Asia to PFAA profiles are small, particularly relative to the contributions provided by sex. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:236–239, 2016. © 2015 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26407660

  17. Eskimo plasma constituents, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibit the release of atherogenic mitogens.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Willis, A L; Nguyen, N; Conner, D; Zahedi, S; Fulks, J

    1989-01-01

    Studies in man and laboratory animals suggest that omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid constituents of fish oils have antiatherosclerotic properties. We have studied the effects of several such polyunsaturated fatty acids for ability to modify the in vitro release of mitogens from human platelets. Such mitogens may produce the fibro-proliferative component of atherosclerotic plaques. Both 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3), major constituents of fish oils, inhibited adenosine diphosphate-induced aggregation of platelets and the accompanying release of mitogens. These effects are dose dependent. Linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3), the biosynthetic precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid, also inhibited platelet aggregation and mitogen release. Eicosapentaenoic acid also inhibited mitogen release from human monocyte-derived macrophages, which, in vivo, are an additional source of mitogens during atherogenesis. Potent inhibition of human platelet aggregation and mitogen release was also seen with dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid 20:3 omega 6), whose levels are reportedly elevated in Eskimos subsisting on marine diets. We conclude that diets that elevate plasma and/or tissue levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid precursor gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega 6) may exert antiatherosclerotic effects by inhibiting the release of mitogens from platelets and other cells.

  18. Plasma clozapine concentration coefficients of variation in a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisco J; de Leon, Jose; Josiassen, Richard C; Cooper, Thomas B; Simpson, George M

    2005-01-01

    Kurz et al. conducted the first study of the intra-individual variability of clozapine plasma concentrations but did not take into account the effect of smoking and co-medication. As patients were receiving varying doses, Kurz et al. standardized plasma levels by using a plasma level/dose/kg ratio. In 15 patients, the mean coefficient of variation (CV) was 53% (S.D. = 21). In this new study, plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were measured every 2 weeks in 47 patients randomized to 100, 300, or 600 mg/day for 16-week double-blind clozapine trials under controlled conditions (stable smoking, limited co-medication and absence of caffeinated beverages). For 100, 300 and 600 mg/day, the respective mean CVs for plasma clozapine concentrations were 23% (S.D. = 14), 19% (S.D.= 11) and 18% (S.D. = 8). For the combined concentrations of clozapine and norclozapine, the respective mean CVs were 20% (S.D. = 13), 16% (S.D. = 9) and 15% (S.D. = 7). Under 100 mg/day, the mean CV for clozapine concentrations was significantly higher for heavy smokers than non-heavy smokers (32%, S.D. = 3 vs. 19%, S.D. = 8) (p = 0.03). Studies of CVs in other environments are needed. Clozapine CVs may be important in order to understand the importance of variations around the therapeutic range and to interpret drug interactions above the usual noise of measuring plasma concentrations.

  19. [Plasma haptoglobin concentration in cattle with surgically corrected torsio uteri intrapartum].

    PubMed

    Schönfelder, Axel; Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Monika; Richter, Andreas; Sobiraj, Axel

    2006-01-01

    In 26 cows with surgically corrected torsio uteri intra partum, severity of disease, wound healing and secondary diseases were correlated with plasma haptoglobin concentration. The objective of the investigation was to determine, if an increased plasma haptoglobin concentration indicates the severity of disease respectively expected wound healing disorders or secondary diseases. The degree of severity of disease was determined by rectally diagnosed elasticity of the uterus before the surgery. In the present investigation, the severity of a uterine torsion intra partum could not be evaluated by determining the plasma haptoglobin concentration. In 9 of 11 days of investigation there was no significant difference in the plasma haptoglobin concentration of animals with an elastic uterus (animals with good prognosis) in contrast to cows with tight uterus (patients with poor prognosis) found. The significant differences on the 6th and 7th day post surgery are related to secondary diseases in patients with poor prognosis, which develop evidently earlier and form stronger. The correlation of all cows with--to those without secondary illnesses shows, that 10 days post surgery patients with secondary diseases have a significant higher plasma haptoglobin concentration (p < 0.05) compared to animals without secondary illnesses. No correlations existed between plasma haptoglobin concentration and wound healing in the examined cattle. A postoperatively increase of haptoglobin indicates a higher risk of secondary illnesses and complications.

  20. Monitoring imatinib plasma concentrations in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Darlize Hübner; Wagner, Sandrine Comparsi; dos Santos, Tamyris Vianna; Lizot, Lilian de Lima Feltraco; Antunes, Marina Venzon; Capra, Marcelo; Linden, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Imatinib has proved to be effective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, but plasma levels above 1,000 ng/mL must be achieved to optimize activity. Therapeutic drug monitoring of imatinib is useful for patients that do not present clinical response. There are several analytical methods to measure imatinib in biosamples, which are mainly based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric or diode array spectrophotometric detection. The former is preferred due to its lower cost and wider availability. The present manuscript presents a review of the clinical and analytical aspects of the therapeutic drug monitoring of imatinib in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. The review includes references published over the last 10 years. There is evidence that the monitoring of plasmatic levels of imatinib is an useful alternative, especially considering the wide pharmacokinetic variability of this drug. PMID:23049322

  1. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Andrew A.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A.; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  2. Bile acids modulate signaling by functional perturbation of plasma membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Maxwell, Kelsey N; Sezgin, Erdinc; Lu, Maryia; Liang, Hong; Hancock, John F; Dial, Elizabeth J; Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Levental, Ilya

    2013-12-13

    Eukaryotic cell membranes are organized into functional lipid and protein domains, the most widely studied being membrane rafts. Although rafts have been associated with numerous plasma membrane functions, the mechanisms by which these domains themselves are regulated remain undefined. Bile acids (BAs), whose primary function is the solubilization of dietary lipids for digestion and absorption, can affect cells by interacting directly with membranes. To investigate whether these interactions affected domain organization in biological membranes, we assayed the effects of BAs on biomimetic synthetic liposomes, isolated plasma membranes, and live cells. At cytotoxic concentrations, BAs dissolved synthetic and cell-derived membranes and disrupted live cell plasma membranes, implicating plasma membrane damage as the mechanism for BA cellular toxicity. At subtoxic concentrations, BAs dramatically stabilized domain separation in Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles without affecting protein partitioning between coexisting domains. Domain stabilization was the result of BA binding to and disordering the nonraft domain, thus promoting separation by enhancing domain immiscibility. Consistent with the physical changes observed in synthetic and isolated biological membranes, BAs reorganized intact cell membranes, as evaluated by the spatial distribution of membrane-anchored Ras isoforms. Nanoclustering of K-Ras, related to nonraft membrane domains, was enhanced in intact plasma membranes, whereas the organization of H-Ras was unaffected. BA-induced changes in Ras lateral segregation potentiated EGF-induced signaling through MAPK, confirming the ability of BAs to influence cell signal transduction by altering the physical properties of the plasma membrane. These observations suggest general, membrane-mediated mechanisms by which biological amphiphiles can produce their cellular effects.

  3. Determination of chicken and turkey plasma and serum protein concentrations by refractometry and the biuret method.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, C B; Latimer, K S; Kircher, I M; Brown, J

    1989-01-01

    Plasma and serum protein concentrations were determined in chickens and turkeys by refractometry (with human and veterinary refractometers) and by the biuret method. Chicken and turkey serum protein values were significantly lower than respective plasma protein values according to both methods. Refractometer readings for both plasma and serum correlated closely with the results of the biuret test (r2 = 0.72 to 0.97). These findings indicate that plasma and serum protein values may be determined accurately in chickens and turkeys with a handheld refractometer.

  4. Plasma amino acid and metabolite signatures tracking diabetes progression in the UCD-T2DM rat model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are observed in human insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, there has been some controversy with respect to the passive or causative nature of the BCAA phenotype. Using untargeted metabolomics, plasm...

  5. Isolation of human complex-forming glycoprotein, heterogeneous in charge (protein HC), and its IgA complex from plasma. Physiochemical and immunochemical properties, normal plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Grubb, A O; López, C; Tejler, L; Mendez, E

    1983-12-10

    Human complex-forming glycoprotein, heterogeneous in charge (protein HC) has previously been isolated from urine and immunochemically shown to be present in low and high molecular weight forms in blood plasma (Tejler, L., and Grubb, A. O. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 439, 82-94). In the present work, the major low and high molecular weight forms of the protein were isolated from plasma by immunosorption followed by gel chromatography. The plasma low molecular weight protein HC and the urinary protein had similar, if not identical, molecular weight, amino acid composition, NH2-terminal and carboxyl-terminal amino acid sequences and electrophoretic mobility. The low molecular weight plasma protein HC carried a yellow chromophore like the urinary protein, but its molar extinction coefficient at 280 nm was lower and its charge heterogeneity less pronounced than that of urinary protein HC. The plasma high molecular weight protein HC had a hydrodynamic volume which was greater than that of monomeric IgA but smaller than that of dimeric IgA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the isolated high molecular weight protein followed by electrophoretic blotting and immunochemical analysis demonstrated that the protein contained four polypeptide chains: two light immunoglobulin chains (Mr = 23,000), one IgA alpha-chain (Mr = 54,000), and one chain with Mr approximately 90,000 which carried both alpha-chain and protein HC antigenic determinants. Whether the protein HC X IgA complex is a functionally significant part of the humoral immune system cannot be decided without further experimentation, but the complex was found to be completely absent from the blood plasma of patients with a selective deficiency of IgA-secreting immunocytes. The isolated low and high molecular weight plasma protein HC components were used as standard proteins in the construction of a quantitative crossed immunoelectrophoretic assay for the simultaneous quantitation of the two

  6. Plasma Free Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid-binding Protein 4, and Mortality in Older Adults (From the Cardiovascular Health Study)

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Michael D.; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L.; Zieman, Susan J.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Ix, Joachim H.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Siscovick, David S.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Djousse, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are largely derived from adipose tissue. Elevated levels of FFA and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), a key cytoplasmic chaperone of fatty acids, have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes but limited data are available on the relation of these biomarkers with cardiovascular and total mortality. We studied 4,707 participants with a mean age of 75 years who had plasma FFA and FABP4 measured in 1992–1993 as part of the Cardiovascular Health Study, an observational cohort of community dwelling older adults. Over a median follow-up of 11.8 years, 3,555 participants died. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the association between FFA, FABP4, and mortality. In fully adjusted models, FFA were associated with dose-dependent significantly higher total mortality (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD): 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.18), but FABP4 levels were not (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.98–1.09). In a cause-specific mortality analysis, higher concentrations of FFA were associated with significantly higher risk of death due to cardiovascular disease, dementia, infection, and respiratory causes, but not cancer or trauma. We did not find evidence of an interaction between FFA and FABP4 (p=0.45), but FABP4 appeared to be associated with total mortality differentially among men and women (HR 1.17 (1.08–1.26) for men, HR 1.02 (0.96–1.07) for women, interaction p-value <0.001). In conclusion, in a cohort of community-dwelling older individuals, elevated plasma concentrations of FFA, but not FABP4, were associated with cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25073566

  7. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate

  8. Effects of gas atmospheres on poly(lactic acid) film in acrylic acid plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Fina, Alberto; Venturello, Alberto; Geobaldo, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Plasma polymerized acrylic acid (AA) coatings were deposited on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films in various gas atmospheres during the pre-treatment of PLA and the deposition of AA, respectively. Therefore, this work was twofold: the argon pretreated PLA films followed by a deposition in argon were investigated against the mixture of argon and oxygen pretreated ones under the same deposition conditions; the plasma deposition of AA operating in different atmospheres (argon, oxygen and nitrogen) was employed to modify the pretreated PLA in oxygen. Chemical and physical changes on the plasma-treated surfaces were examined using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis. The results showed that the discharge gas can have a significant influence on the chemical composition of the PLA surfaces: oxygen plasmas introduced oxygen-containing groups in company with surface etching in pretreatment and deposition, while argon discharges was able to achieve much better hydrophilic behavior and high retention ratio of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) coating before and after washing in water.

  9. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  10. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations and body mass in ground squirrels: seasonal variation and circannual organization.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Scott; Pelz, Kimberly M; Muecke, Eva-Maria; Holekamp, Kay E; Zucker, Irving

    2006-04-01

    We examined variation in plasma glucocorticoid concentrations of free-living Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) and captive golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) housed in constant environmental conditions. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were not significantly correlated with time held captive in traps prior to collection of blood samples in males or non-breeding females, but these variables were significantly correlated in breeding females during the pre-mating, lactation, and post-lactation periods. Among male S. beldingi, plasma corticosterone concentrations increased over the course of the active season, and were significantly higher in non-breeding than breeding individuals. Corticosterone concentrations also increased in non-breeding females throughout the active period. In breeding females, baseline (non-stress) corticosterone concentrations, determined from blood samples collected within 3 min of capture, increased during gestation and declined during lactation, whereas stress values of corticosterone, determined from blood samples collected within 4-11 min of capture, increased during gestation and then again during the period after young emerged from the natal burrow. Changes in plasma corticosterone concentrations of S. beldingi paralleled changes in body mass. Among S. lateralis, plasma concentrations of cortisol were elevated when males and females were in reproductive condition and lower in reproductively quiescent squirrels. The annual peak in plasma cortisol concentrations occurred just prior to increases in body mass associated with pre-hibernation fattening. Collectively, these results suggest that concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids fluctuate with circannual rhythmicity in conjunction with annual cycles of change in body mass and activity; within these circannual cycles glucocorticoid concentrations are influenced by stress and breeding status. PMID:16360155

  11. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations in the striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to intense handling stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wanshu

    1992-03-01

    The plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were determined in mature female striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to short term intense handling stress. The results indicated that plasma cortisol levels reached a peak 20 min after stress and declined gradually afterwards. The highest concentration of plasma glucose was observed 30 min after stress. The present study showed that the rise of plasma glucose was associated with the plasma cortisol levels.

  12. An investigation into possible xenobiotic-endobiotic inter-relationships involving the amino acid analogue drug, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and plasma amino acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Glyn B; Mitchell, Stephen C; Angulo, Santigo; Barbas, Coral

    2012-05-01

    The amino acid derivative, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, is an anti-oxidant agent extensively employed as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of human pulmonary conditions. A major biotransformation route of this drug, which displays considerable variation in capacity in man, involves the oxidation of the sulfide moiety to the inactive S-oxide metabolite. Previous observations have indicated that fasted plasma L-cysteine concentrations and fasted plasma L-cysteine/free inorganic sulfate ratios were correlated with the degree of sulfoxidation of this drug and that these particular parameters may be used as endobiotic biomarkers for this xenobiotic metabolism. It has been proposed also that the enzyme, cysteine dioxygenase, was responsible for the drug sulfoxidation. Further in this theme, the degree of S-oxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine in 100 human volunteers was investigated with respect to it potential correlation with fasted plasma amino acid concentrations. Extensive statistical analyses showed no significant associations or relationships between the degree of drug S-oxidation and fasted plasma amino acid concentrations, especially with respect to the sulfur-containing compounds, methionine, L-cysteine, L-cysteine sulfinic acid, taurine and free inorganic sulfate, also the derived ratios of L-cysteine/L-cysteine sulfinic acid and L-cysteine/free inorganic sulfate. It was concluded that plasma amino acid levels or derived ratios cannot be employed to predict the degree of S-oxidation of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (or vice versa) and that it is doubtful if the enzyme, cysteine dioxygenase, has any involvement in the metabolism of this drug.

  13. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( < 0.01) were observed on plasma vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( < 0.01), maximum plasma concentrations ( < 0.05), and all area under the curve parameters ( < 0.01) but a lower elimination rate constant ( < 0.01) than the oral treatment. Relative bioavailability of oral administration compared with injection administration was 55.26%. These results indicate that plasma status of 25OHD,α-tocopherol, and retinyl palmitate are differentially changed between types of

  14. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( < 0.01) were observed on plasma vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( < 0.01), maximum plasma concentrations ( < 0.05), and all area under the curve parameters ( < 0.01) but a lower elimination rate constant ( < 0.01) than the oral treatment. Relative bioavailability of oral administration compared with injection administration was 55.26%. These results indicate that plasma status of 25OHD,α-tocopherol, and retinyl palmitate are differentially changed between types of

  15. Concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Gessner, D K; Most, E; Schlegel, G; Kupczyk, K; Schwarz, F J; Eder, K

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) changes the concentrations of retinol and tocopherols in the milk of cows. To investigate this hypothesis, Holstein cows received daily from 3 weeks ante-partum to 14 weeks post-partum either 172 g of a CLA-free rumen-protected control fat (control group, n = 20) or the same amount of a rumen-protected CLA fat, supplying 4.3 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and 3.8 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA per d (CLA group, n = 20). Milk samples (collected at weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 of lactation) were analysed for retinol, α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Milk of cows supplemented with CLA had higher concentrations of retinol (+34%), α-tocopherol (+44%) and γ-tocopherol (+21%) than milk of control cows (p < 0.05). The daily output of these vitamins via milk was also greater in cows of the CLA group than in cows of the control group (+36, 50 and 24% for retinol, α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively, p < 0.05). In agreement with higher concentrations of tocopherols, concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, determined in milk of week 5, were lower in cows of the CLA group than in control cows, indicative of a lower susceptibility of milk lipids to peroxidation. Plasma concentrations of retinol and α-tocopherol, determined at 1 and 5 weeks post-partum, were not different between the two groups of cows. In conclusion, this study shows that supplementing dairy cows with a moderate amount of CLA causes an increase of the concentrations of vitamins A and E in the milk and results in an increased output of those vitamins via milk. These effects might be beneficial with respect to the nutritional value of dairy products and the susceptibility of milk fat to oxidative deterioration.

  16. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations.

  17. Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Georgianne L.; Hyman, Susan L.; Mooney, Robert A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma amino acid profiles of 10 children with autism on gluten and casein restricted diets and 26 on unrestricted diets were reviewed. There was a trend for the children on restricted diets to have an increased prevalence of essential amino acid deficiencies and lower plasma levels of essential acids. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  18. Identification of type-2 phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAPH-2) in neutrophil plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Boder, E; Taylor, G; Akard, L; Jansen, J; English, D

    1994-11-01

    Plasma membrane phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAPH) plays an important role in signal transduction by converting phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol. PAPH-2, a Mg(2+)-independent, detergent-dependent enzyme involved in cellular signal transduction, is reportedly absent from the plasma membranes of neutrophilic leukocytes, a cell that responds to metabolic stimulation with abundant phospholipase D-dependent diacylglycerol generation. The present study was designed to resolve this discrepancy, focusing on the influence of cellular disruption techniques, detergent availability and cation sensitivity on the apparent distribution of PAPH in neutrophil subcellular fractions. The results clearly indicate the presence of two distinct types of PAPH within the particulate and cytosolic fractions of disrupted cells. Unlike the cytosolic enzyme, the particulate enzymes was not potentiated by magnesium and was strongly detergent-dependent. The soluble and particulate enzymes displayed dissimilar pH profiles. Separation of neutrophil particulate material into fractions rich in plasma membranes, specific granules and azurophilic granules by high speed discontinuous density gradient centrifugation revealed that the majority of the particulate activity was confined to plasma membranes. This activity was not inhibited by pretreatment with n-ethyl-maleimide in concentrations as high as 25 mM. PAPH activity recovered in the cytosolic fraction of disrupted neutrophils was almost completely inhibited by 5.0 mM n-ethylmaleimide. We conclude that resting neutrophils possess n-ethylmaleimide-resistant PAPH (type 2) within their plasma membranes. This enzyme may markedly influence the kinetics of cell activation by metabolizing second messengers generated as a result of activation of plasma membrane phospholipase D.

  19. Amino Acid Derivatives as Palmitoylethanolamide Prodrugs: Synthesis, In Vitro Metabolism and In Vivo Plasma Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vacondio, Federica; Bassi, Michele; Silva, Claudia; Castelli, Riccardo; Carmi, Caterina; Scalvini, Laura; Lodola, Alessio; Vivo, Valentina; Flammini, Lisa; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco; Rivara, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has antinflammatory and antinociceptive properties widely exploited in veterinary and human medicine, despite its poor pharmacokinetics. Looking for prodrugs that could progressively release PEA to maintain effective plasma concentrations, we prepared carbonates, esters and carbamates at the hydroxyl group of PEA. Chemical stability (pH 7.4) and stability in rat plasma and liver homogenate were evaluated by in vitro assays. Carbonates and carbamates resulted too labile and too resistant in plasma, respectively. Ester derivatives, prepared by conjugating PEA with various amino acids, allowed to modulate the kinetics of PEA release in plasma and stability in liver homogenate. L-Val-PEA, with suitable PEA release in plasma, and D-Val-PEA, with high resistance to hepatic degradation, were orally administered to rats and plasma levels of prodrugs and PEA were measured at different time points. Both prodrugs showed significant release of PEA, but provided lower plasma concentrations than those obtained with equimolar doses of PEA. Amino-acid esters of PEA are a promising class to develop prodrugs, even if they need further chemical optimization.

  20. Propafenone poisoning--a case report with plasma propafenone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ovaska, Hanna; Ludman, Andrew; Spencer, Edgar P; Wood, David M; Jones, Alison L; Dargan, Paul I

    2010-03-01

    Propafenone is an anti-arrhythmic drug used in the management of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. It is metabolised through cytochrome P450 2D6 pathways; the major metabolites possess anti-arrhythmic activity. The cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 is coded by more than 70 alleles resulting in great genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6 isoenzymes, and up to 7% of Caucasian population are poor metabolisers. This case report describes a patient with severe overdose of propafenone who presented with coma, seizures and cardiotoxicity. The patient was managed with intravenous glucagon, hypertonic sodium bicarbonate, hypertonic saline and inotropic support. The propafenone and its 5-hydroxypropafenone (5-OHP) metabolite were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (no assay was available at the time to measure N-despropyl propafenone concentrations). Toxicological screen showed propafenone concentrations at a maximum of 1.26 mg/L at 9-10 h post-presentation, falling to 0.25 mg/L at 27-28 h post-presentation. No propafenone metabolite 5-OHP was detected in any sample analysed. No antidepressant or analgesic drugs were detected in toxicological screen. Propafenone overdose has been reported to be associated with features of severe cardiovascular and CNS toxicity. Aggressive treatment, meticulous monitoring and supportive care was associated with a good outcome in this case. PMID:20373066

  1. Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to plasma nutrient concentrations in women in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Frankenfeld, Cara L.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Shannon, Jackilen; Gao, Dao L.; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Chen, Chu; King, Irena B.; Thomas, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intake, using three classification schemes, as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations among Chinese women. Design Intakes were calculated from an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups, and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood drawn within one week of questionnaire completion. Setting Shanghai, China Subjects Participants (n=2031) were drawn from women who participated in a case-control study of diet and breast diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n=266,064) Results Fruit intake was significantly (p<0.05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate, and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol, and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intake and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview. Conclusions These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped provides different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes. PMID:21729475

  2. Plasma steroid concentrations and male phallus size in juvenile alligators from seven Florida lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; Crain, D.A.; Pickford, D.B.; Rooney, A.A.; Percival, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal and juvenile alligators from contaminated Lake Apopka in central Florida exhibit abnormal plasma sex steroid concentrations as well as morphological abnormalities of the gonad and phallus. This study addresses whether similar abnormalities occur in juvenile alligators inhabiting six other lakes in Florida. For analysis, animals were partitioned into two subsets, animals 40-79 cm total length (1-3 years old) and juveniles 80-130 cm total length (3-7 years old). Plasma testosterone (T) concentrations were lower in small males from lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Jessup than from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Similar differences were observed in the larger juveniles, with males from lakes Jessup, Apopka, and Okeechobee having lower plasma T concentrations than Lake Woodruff males. Plasma estradiol-17?? (E2) concentrations were significantly elevated in larger juvenile males from Lake Apopka compared to Lake Woodruff NWR. When compared to small juvenile females from Lake Woodruff NWR, females from lakes Griffin, Apopka, Orange, and Okeechobee had elevated plasma E2 concentrations. Phallus size was significantly smaller in males from lakes Griffin and Apopka when compared to males from Lake Woodruff NWR. An association existed between body size and phallus size on all lakes except Lake Apopka and between phallus size and plasma T concentration on all lakes except lakes Apopka and Orange. Multiple regression analysis, with body size and plasma T concentration as independent covariables, explained the majority of the variation in phallus size on all lakes. These data suggest that the differences in sex steroids and phallus size observed in alligators from Lake Apopka are not limited to that lake, nor to one with a history of a major pesticide spill. Further work examining the relationship of sex steroids and phallus size with specific biotic and abiotic factors, such as antiandrogenic or estrogenic contaminants, is needed.

  3. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS/MS for the measurement of flunixin plasma concentrations in beef cattle after intravenous and subcutaneous administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) with only simple preparation steps to determine flunixin plasma concentrations in healthy beef cattle was explored. Eight cattle (288 ± 22 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin free acid in a cross-over design by subcutaneo...

  4. Choline supplementation alters some amino acid concentrations with no change in homocysteine in children with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, Belal; Schall, Joan I; Maqbool, Asim; Mascarenhas, Maria; Bennett, Michael J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2016-05-01

    The present study determined the plasma amino acid status in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and pancreatic insufficiency (PI) in the modern medical and nutritional care setting and investigated the effect of choline supplementation on amino acid status. A total of 110 children aged 5 to 18 years with CF and PI were randomized to receive choline-enriched structured lipid (LYM-X-SORB) or placebo with similar energy and fat content. Plasma amino acids were measured at baseline and 3 and 12 months. We hypothesized that choline supplementation would result in lower plasma homocysteine concentrations in children with CF. At baseline, dietary protein intake was high and the amino acid profile was within laboratory reference ranges in most participants. Alanine and cysteine were elevated in 24% and 36% of participants, respectively. Children with baseline alanine above reference range had improved weight, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Low homocysteine was found in 62% of children 11 years and older. After 3 and 12 months, there was no effect of choline supplementation on methionine or homocysteine status. Compared with placebo, choline supplementation resulted in increased glycine and decreased threonine, histidine, valine, and total branch chained amino acids at 12 months. In conclusion, daily choline supplementation with LYM-X-SORB did not alter methionine-homocysteine metabolism but did result in alterations in other amino acids in children with CF and PI.

  5. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil. 2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds. 3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil. 4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  6. Seasonal variations in plasma testosterone concentrations in the male marsupial bandicoot Isoodon macrourus in captivity.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, R T; Johnston, G; Barnes, A

    1985-08-01

    Although bandicoots in Queensland mate throughout the year, the majority of births occur in late winter and spring. To ascertain whether this seasonality in mating is manifest in the male reproductive system; body weight, testes size, and plasma testosterone concentration were examined in eight bandicoots throughout the year. The size of the testes increased with age in all bandicoots and there was no evidence of seasonal variation. Plasma testosterone concentrations fluctuated from 0.1 to 70.0 ng/ml and a seasonal cycle was observed, with a nadir in concentrations in March and a peak in September. The peak in testosterone concentration coincided with the period of the year when the majority of births occurred. Subsequent statistical analysis suggested that the annual plasma testosterone profile correlated well with the rate of change of day length. PMID:4018558

  7. Evaluation of the serum fructosamine test to monitor plasma glucose concentration in the transition dairy cow.

    PubMed

    Sorondo, María L; Cirio, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    The usefulness of the serum fructosamine (Fser) to monitor the retrospective glucose concentrations in transitional dairy cows (n=17) was evaluated. In weekly blood samples (3 weeks before to 5 weeks after calving) concentrations of plasma glucose and serum fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB) and total proteins were determined. The observed Fser concentrations (271+/-55 mean value, range 152-423 mumol/l) were within the range reported in the literature, and showed a progressive and significant decrease after calving. Mean plasma glucose concentration was 60.6+/-5.0 (range 39.9-82.2) mg/dl increasing from week 3 before calving to the week of calving and then decreasing during the next 5 weeks of lactation. This decrease was coincident with inverse relationships between plasma glucose and milk yield (P=0.03) and serum beta OHB (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis performed between serum fructosamine and (a) plasma glucose concentration of the same sampling and (b) plasma glucose concentration of 1, 2 and 3 weeks preceding the sampling, did not show significant and systematizing positive correlations. Persistent hypoproteinaemias that could affect the fructosamine concentrations were not found: mean value and range of serum proteins was 6.3+/-1.0 and 4.8-7.8 g/dl, respectively, and no correlation was found between serum proteins and Fser (P=0.26). Results did not support the possibility of retrospective monitoring of the plasma glucose concentration by serum fructosamine in dairy cows in the transition period.

  8. Motility of liquid stored ram spermatozoa is altered by dilution rate independent of seminal plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Mata-Campuzano, M; Soleilhavoup, C; Tsikis, G; Martinez-Pastor, F; de Graaf, S P; Druart, X

    2015-11-01

    The fertility after use of liquid stored ram semen following cervical AI rapidly decreases if semen is stored beyond 12h. The dilution of seminal plasma is often cited as a key contributor to the diminished motility and fertility of ram spermatozoa subjected to liquid preservation. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of spermatozoa concentration (i.e. dilution rate) and percentage of seminal plasma on the motility and viability of liquid stored ram spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted to one of seven concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk and assessed for motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. In Experiment 2, semen was collected and washed to remove seminal plasma before re-dilution to 0.2-1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk containing 0%, 20% or 40% (final v/v ratio) seminal plasma and assessed for viability and motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. Whereas motility was not affected by spermatozoa concentration after 3h of storage, the proportion of progressive spermatozoa decreased after 24h of storage when spermatozoa concentration was greater than 1.0×10(9)spermatozoa/ml. The duration of preservation and the spermatozoa concentration affected spermatozoa motility but had no impact on spermatozoa viability. This negative effect of greater spermatozoa concentrations on motility was independent of the presence and the concentration of seminal plasma. The seminal plasma at both concentrations (20% and 40%) had a protective effect on spermatozoa motility after 24h of storage. These findings have the potential to improve the efficiency of cervical AI with liquid stored ram semen.

  9. Mechanochemical leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate by sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadabad, Farhad Khorramshahi; Hejazi, Sina; khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Babakhani, Abolfazl

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to introduce a new cost-effective methodology for increasing the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite concentrates at ambient temperature and pressure. Mechanical activation was employed during the leaching (mechanochemical leaching) of chalcopyrite concentrates in a sulfuric acid medium at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. High energy ball milling process was used during the leaching to provide the mechanochemical leaching condition, and atomic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to determine the leaching behavior of chalcopyrite. Moreover, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the chalcopyrite powder before and after leaching. The results demonstrated that mechanochemical leaching was effective; the extraction of copper increased significantly and continuously. Although the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite was very low at ambient temperature, the percentages of copper dissolved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3) after 20 h of mechanochemical leaching reached 28% and 33%, respectively. Given the efficiency of the developed method and the facts that it does not require the use of an autoclave and can be conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, it represents an economical and easy-to-use method for the leaching industry.

  10. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  11. Plasma clusterin concentration is associated with longitudinal brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Thambisetty, Madhav; An, Yang; Kinsey, Anna; Koka, Deepthi; Saleem, Muzamil; Güntert, Andreas; Kraut, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Davatzikos, Christos; Lovestone, Simon; Resnick, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic and proteomic studies demonstrate that clusterin/apolipoprotein-J is associated with risk, pathology, and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our main aim was to examine associations between plasma clusterin concentration and longitudinal changes in brain volume in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A secondary objective was to examine associations between peripheral concentration of clusterin and its concentration in the brain within regions that undergo neuropathological changes in AD. Non-demented individuals (N=139; mean baseline age 70.5 years) received annual volumetric MRI (912 MRI scans in total) over a mean six-year interval. Sixteen participants (92 MRI scans in total) were diagnosed during the course of the study with amnestic MCI. Clusterin concentration was assayed by ELISA in plasma samples collected within a year of the baseline MRI. Mixed effects regression models investigated whether plasma clusterin concentration was associated with rates of brain atrophy for control and MCI groups and whether these associations differed between groups. In a separate autopsy sample of individuals with AD (N=17) and healthy controls (N=4), we examined the association between antemortem clusterin concentration in plasma and postmortem levels in the superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus and cerebellum. The associations of plasma clusterin concentration with rates of change in brain volume were significantly different between MCI and control groups in several volumes including whole brain, ventricular CSF, temporal gray matter as well as parahippocampal, superior temporal and cingulate gyri. Within the MCI but not control group, higher baseline concentration of plasma clusterin was associated with slower rates of brain atrophy in these regions. In the combined autopsy sample of AD and control cases, representing a range of severity in AD pathology, we observed a significant association between clusterin concentration in the plasma and

  12. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that the ratio of the Brix reading to the grams of acid, expressed as anhydrous citric acid, per 100... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a)...

  13. Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Plasma of American Alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Bowden, John A.; Brunell, Arnold M.; Christie, Ian; Finnell, Brendan; Guillette, Matthew P.; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitate fourteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at twelve sites across the southeastern US. Of those fourteen PFAAs, nine were detected in 65% - 100% of the samples: PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTriA, PFTA, PFHxS, and PFOS. Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of four PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Kiawah Nature Conservancy both exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length (SVL) were observed in both sexes suggesting PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. This study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, reveals potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and provides and additional contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health.

  14. Impact of Whole-Blood Processing Conditions on Plasma and Serum Concentrations of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Wan; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shin, So-Youn

    2016-02-01

    Pre-analytical variations in plasma and serum samples can occur because of variability in whole-blood processing procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of delayed separation of whole blood on the plasma and serum concentrations of cytokines. The concentrations of 16 cytokines were measured in plasma and serum samples when the centrifugation of whole blood at room temperature was delayed for 4, 6, 24, or 48 h, and the values were compared with those observed after separation within 2 h of whole-blood collection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed for cytokines to determine whether cytokine levels in plasma and serum samples can be used to assess delayed separation of whole blood. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and MIP-1β increased significantly (>2-fold) when separation was delayed at room temperature for 24 h. The concentrations of 6 of these cytokines (all except serum IL-1β and IL-6) demonstrated high diagnostic performance (area under the ROC curve >0.8) for delayed separation of whole blood. Furthermore, these cytokine concentrations typically exhibited high sensitivity and specificity at each optimal cutoff point. Conversely, IL-17A was stable in both plasma and serum samples, even when whole-blood centrifugation was delayed at room temperature for 48 h. This study shows that certain cytokines (IL-1β, GM-CSF, sCD40L, IL-8, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) could be used for assessing the quality of plasma or serum samples. PMID:26808439

  15. Ferulic acid sugar esters are recovered in rat plasma and urine mainly as the sulfoglucuronide of ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhaohui; Egashira, Yukari; Sanada, Hiroo

    2003-05-01

    Ferulic acid sugar esters, the common form of ferulic acid (FA) in cereals, show a stronger antioxidant potential than FA in vitro. However, there is little information on their metabolism and excretion in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic derivatives of FA in the plasma, urine and feces of rats administered 70 micro mol/kg body of 5-O-feruloyl-L-arabinofuranose (FAA), feruloyl-arabinoxylan (FAXn) or the same molar amount of FA as a comparison. Administered FA and its sugar esters were recovered in rat plasma and urine in the form of free FA, FA-glucuronide, FA-sulfate and FA-sulfoglucuronide (FA-diconjugate with sulfate and glucuronide). The recovery of administered FA in urine was 72%, which was higher than that of administered FAA (54%) or FAXn (20%). Free FA and its derivatives were not recovered in rat feces after FA or FAA administration, but 20% of the administered FA moiety was recovered when FAXn was administered. Moreover, administered FA, in contrast to FA esters, was present in plasma in the free and conjugated forms at a higher concentration but for a shorter time. These results indicated that bioavailability of FA and its sugar esters is dependent on the absence or presence of the saccharide moiety and, in the latter case, its structure. This is the first study to show that FA-sulfoglucuronide is the main metabolite (60-70% of the total) in the plasma of rats administered FA or its sugar esters. Thus, the physiological functions of FA and its sugar esters found in vitro might require reconsideration in vivo. PMID:12730422

  16. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  17. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  18. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  19. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  20. Phenylbutyrate exerts adverse effects on liver regeneration and amino acid concentrations in partially hepatectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan; Vodenicarovova, Melita

    2016-06-01

    Phenylbutyrate is recommended in urea cycle disorders and liver injury to enhance nitrogen disposal by the urine. However, hypothetically there may be adverse responses to the use of phenylbutyrate in the treatment of liver disease because of its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and its stimulatory effect on branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine). We report the effects of phenylbutyrate on liver regeneration and amino acid levels in plasma of partially hepatectomized (PH) rats. Phenylbutyrate or saline was administered at 12-h intervals to PH or laparotomized rats. Phenylbutyrate delayed the onset of liver regeneration compared to the saline-treated controls, as indicated by lower hepatic DNA specific activities 18 and 24( ) h post-PH, decreased hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates 24 h post-PH and lowered the increases in liver weights and hepatic protein and DNA contents 48 h after PH. Hepatic DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of apoptosis) was higher in the phenylbutyrate-treated animals than in controls. Phenylbutyrate decreased the glutamine and BCAA concentrations and the ratio of the BCAA to aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine) in the blood plasma in both hepatectomized and laparotomized animals. In conclusion, the delayed onset of liver regeneration and the decrease in BCAA/AAA ratio in blood suggest that phenylbutyrate administration may be disastrous in subjects with acute hepatic injury and BCAA supplementation is needed when phenylbutyrate is used therapeutically. PMID:27381898

  1. Significance of nitric oxide concentration in plasma and uterine secretes with puerperal endometritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Li, DeJun; Liu, YunFeng; Li, YanFei; Lv, Ying; Pei, XiaoYing; Guo, DingZong

    2010-04-01

    Endometritis is an inflammation of the endometrial lining of the uterus without systemic signs, which is associated with chronic postpartum infection of the uterus with pathogenic bacteria. Nitric oxide (NO) is an inflammatory mediator that among other effects causes smooth muscle relaxation and mediated cytoimmunity and inflammation toxicity. To see if the nitric oxide concentration in plasma and uterine secrets is related with postpartum endometritis, NO concentrations in plasma and uterine secrets were measured in dairy cows with puerperal endometritis (clinical endometritis (n = 60) and subclinical endometritis (n = 58)). Cows with clinical or subclinical endometritis showed higher concentrations of NO in both plasma and uterine secrets when compared with normal cows and the highest concentrations of NO in plasma and uterine secrets were found in dairy cows with clinical endometritis. Expression level of NOS2 mRNA in endometrial biopsies from cows with puerperal endometritis was also higher and the highest expression of NOS2 mRNA was found in cows with clinical endometritis. The results showed that concentrations of NO in plasma and uterine fluid are related with the degree of endometritis which may be useful to diagnose the endometritis in dairy cows. PMID:20414720

  2. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes

    PubMed Central

    Dukić, Lora; Šimundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Materials and methods: Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Results: Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = −0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Conclusion: Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration. PMID:24627723

  3. Plasma aldosterone and sweat sodium concentrations after exercise and heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. R.; Convertino, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between plasma aldosterone levels and sweat sodium excretion after chronic exercise and heat acclimation was investigated, using subjects exercised, at 40 C and 45 percent humidity, for 2 h/day on ten consecutive days at 45 percent of their maximal oxygen uptake. The data indicate that, following heat acclimation, plasma aldosterone concentrations decrease, and that the eccrine gland responsiveness to aldosterone, as represented by sweat sodium reabsorption, may be augmented through exercise and heat acclimation.

  4. The impact of the concentration of drug binding plasma proteins on drug distribution according to Øie-Tozer's model.

    PubMed

    Svennebring, Andreas Mats

    2016-01-01

    1. New equations have been developed from an updated version of Øie-Tozer's model expressing how the free concentration and volume of distribution change in relation to changes in the concentration of drug binding plasma proteins. This updated model accommodates more than one drug binding plasma protein to contribute to the plasma protein binding. 2. Demonstrations of the model show that variability in the concentration of one plasma protein has considerably less impact on the free drug concentration and volume of distribution if other plasma proteins contribute to binding, than if they don't.

  5. Tryptophan fortification of adapted formula increases plasma tryptophan concentrations to levels not different from those found in breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Fazzolari-Nesci, A; Domianello, D; Sotera, V; Räihä, N C

    1992-05-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated significantly lower plasma total tryptophan concentrations in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants. We have measured preprandial plasma amino acid concentrations in infants breast-fed or fed a formula with a protein concentration of 1.57 g/dl and with a whey/casein ratio of 60:40 or a formula with a protein concentration of 1.37 g/dl and a whey/casein ratio of 40:60 and fortified with 10 mg/dl (15 mg/100 kcal) of tryptophan. Healthy term infants (10 per group) were either breast-fed from birth or randomly assigned to one of the two study formulas. At 4 and 12 weeks of age, anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were obtained. During the study period of 12 weeks, all infants showed normal growth (weight, length, and head circumference) and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids phenylalanine, threonine, valine, and lysine were significantly lower in the breast-fed group than in both formula-fed groups. For tyrosine, methionine, leucine, histidine, isoleucine, and arginine, no significant differences could be found between the feeding groups. Concentration of total plasma tryptophan was significantly higher in the breast-fed group than in the group fed the tryptophan-unfortified formula, but no statistically significant difference could be found between the plasma tryptophan concentration in the breast-fed group versus the group fed the tryptophan-fortified formula. The results indicate that tryptophan fortification of adapted formula is necessary to achieve plasma total tryptophan concentrations similar to those found in breast-fed infants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1517950

  6. Determining Concentrations and Temperatures in Semiconductor Manufacturing Plasmas via Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2016-06-01

    Plasmas used in the manufacturing processes of semiconductors are similar in pressure and temperature to plasmas used in studying the spectroscopy of astrophysical species. Likewise, the developed technology in submillimeter absorption spectroscopy can be used for the study of industrial plasmas and for monitoring manufacturing processes. An advantage of submillimeter absorption spectroscopy is that it can be used to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species without the need for intrusive probes. A continuous wave, 500 - 750 GHz absorption spectrometer was developed for the purpose of being used as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. An important part of this work was the optical design to match the geometry of existing plasma reactors in the manufacturing industry. A software fitting routine was developed to simultaneously fit for the background and absorption signal, solving for concentration, rotational temperature, and translational temperature. Examples of measurements made on inductively coupled plasmas will be demonstrated. We would like to thank the Texas Analog Center of Excellence/Semiconductor Research Corporation (TxACE/SRC) and Applied Materials for their support of this work.

  7. Diet-related reference values for plasma amino acids in newborns measured by reversed-phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Scott, P H; Sandham, S; Balmer, S E; Wharton, B A

    1990-11-01

    We have measured by reversed-phase HPLC concentrations of amino acids in plasma in groups of 80 normal appropriate-weight term babies fed from birth either a casein formula (WhiteCap SMA, n = 26), a whey formula (Gold Cap SMA, n = 26), or breast milk (n = 28). They were studied from day 11 to week 15 postpartum. The trend was towards an increase in amino acid concentrations in plasma with age, more marked in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants. Reference values were derived for each group. Both formula-fed groups showed several differences from the breast-fed group. Detailed examination indicated that tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine concentrations were increased in the casein-fed group greater than 20% of the time, but only threonine was similarly increased in the whey-fed group. Other amino acids, different ones for each formula group, were increased less frequently. There were no consistent correlations with any aspect of infant growth. Appropriate reference values are important for interpreting amino acid concentrations in plasma from newborns and for evaluating the effects of any future dietary modifications to infant formulas. HPLC analysis provides a suitable highly sensitive method for undertaking such studies.

  8. Effects of Acute Supramaximal Cycle Exercise on Plasma FFA Concentration in Obese Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aims of the present study are 1) to evaluate the free fatty acid (FFA) profile and 2) to determine the relative anaerobic and aerobic contributions to total energy consumption during repeated supramaximal cycling bouts (SCE) in adolescent boys with different body weight statuses. Materials and Methods Normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB) adolescent boys (n =15 per group) completed a SCE sessions consisted of 6 x 6s maximal sprints with 2 min of passive rest between each repetition. Plasma FFA levels were determined at rest, immediately after a 10 min warm-up, and immediately at the end of SCE. The anaerobic and aerobic contributions (%) were measured via repeated SCE bouts. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index. Results The FFA concentrations measured immediately after SCE were higher in the OB group than in the OW and NW (p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively) groups. Moreover, the anaerobic contributions to SCE were significantly lower in obese adolescents (p<0.01) and decreased significantly during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th repetitions. The FFA levels were significantly associated with the HOMA-IR index and aerobic contribution among adolescent boys (r=0.83 and r=0.91, respectively, p<0.01). Conclusion In contrast to the NW and OW groups, there is an increase in lipid mobilization and sift to aerobic energy metabolism during SCE in the OB group. PMID:26076464

  9. Feeding infant piglets formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as triacylglycerols or phospholipids influences the distribution of these fatty acids in plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-04-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their fatty acid composition, the chemical form of the fatty acid esters [triacylglycerols (TG) or phospholipids (PL)] and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of plasma, plasma lipoproteins, liver and jejunum in infant piglets. Thirty pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 4 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and fatty acid composition of plasma and lipoproteins, as well as lipid composition of liver and intestinal mucosa. The arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in HDL-PL were significantly higher in piglets fed the E-PL diet than in those fed the TF-TG diet. Opposite results were found in the LDL-PL diet. No significant differences were found between groups in TG or cholesterol concentrations of plasma or lipoproteins. Arachidonic acid in plasma PL and cholesteryl esters was significantly higher in the E-PL group than in the TF-TG group. The chemical form in which LCP esters are present in different dietary sources influences their distribution in plasma lipoproteins. This may be important for infant nutrition and suggests that not all LCP sources may be biologically equivalent. PMID:11285334

  10. Effects of differently composed feeds and physical stress on plasma gastrin concentration in horses.

    PubMed

    Sandin, A; Girma, K; Sjöholm, B; Lindholm, A; Nilsson, G

    1998-01-01

    Plasma gastrin concentrations were determined in 6 Standardbreds (4 geldings and 2 mares) after 3 different meals consisting of unlimited amounts of hay (8-9 kg per horse), a restricted amount of hay (0.6 kg/100 kg body-weight) and grain (0.2 kg/100 kg body-weight) in combination or of grain alone (0.2 kg/100 kg body-weight). In another series of experiments the possible role of gastrin as a stress hormone was investigated. Plasma gastrin and cortisol concentrations were determined during fasting and compared with concentrations during hay feeding. In addition, gastrin and cortisol concentrations were determined before, during and after 2 kinds of physical exercise on a treadmill. Meal stimulation significantly increased the plasma gastrin concentration, irrespective of the meal composition. An immediate and large increase in plasma gastrin concentration was found when voluminous meals were given, whereas a small meal evoked a later onset of gastrin release, suggesting that gastric distention plays an important role in inducing gastrin release during a meal. Meals consisting of grain seem to evoke a slower onset and then a more prolonged gastrin response than a hay meal, possibly due to different emptying rates of the stomach. Nervous excitation may play a minor role in the activation of gastrin release in horses. No experimental support was obtained for the idea that gastrin acts as a stress hormone in the horse.

  11. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  12. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction.

    PubMed

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J; Girard, Frederic C; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (∼60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  13. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (˜60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  14. Effects of dietary energy and protein density on plasma concentrations of leptin and metabolic hormones in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Chelikani, P K; Ambrose, D J; Keisler, D H; Kennelly, J J

    2009-04-01

    The hormonal and metabolic signals that communicate the level of body energy reserves to the reproductive-mammary axis remain undefined in dairy cattle; consequently, our hypothesis was that leptin may fulfill this role. Our objectives were to determine the effects of diets differing in energy and protein density on dry matter intake (DMI), growth traits [body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), back-fat (BF) thickness], and temporal changes in plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in dairy heifers during the pre- and postpubertal periods. In period 1, heifers were randomly allotted (n = 10/diet) at 103 kg of BW to diets for a predicted average daily gain of 1.10 (high, H), 0.80 (medium, M), or 0.50 kg/d (low, L). Five heifers in each of the H and L groups were further studied during period 2, either at 12 mo of age (HA, LA) or at 330 kg of BW (HW, LW). The data provide evidence that 1) DMI (18%), BW (17%), and BF (5%) together explained 40% of the variation in plasma leptin concentrations (r(2) = 0.396); 2) unlike the acute postprandial increase in plasma insulin as a result of increased nutrient density (H 1.42 +/- 0.09, M 1.02 +/- 0.09, L 0.68 +/- 0.11 ng/mL), plasma leptin concentrations did not respond acutely with a distinct postprandial profile; 3) although plasma leptin concentrations increased with age, leptin at puberty did not differ among treatment groups (H 5.63 +/- 2.48, M 4.28 +/- 0.55, L 4.12 +/- 0.72 ng/mL) and there was no evidence of an abrupt transition in prepubertal plasma leptin concentrations; 4) plasma leptin concentrations may not be a critical trigger for puberty in rapidly growing heifers, but are apparently essential for puberty in heifers with normal or restricted growth rates; and 5) plasma concentrations of insulin (H 0.59 +/- 0.07, M 0.43 +/- 0.09, L 0.30 +/- 0.09 ng/mL), IGF-1 (H 151.08 +/- 16.47, L 82.51 +/- 17.47 ng

  15. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.

  16. Plasma gonadotrophins, prolactin and corticosterone concentrations in male mice exposed to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Rattner, B A; Macmillan, B T; Michael, S D; Altland, P D

    1980-11-01

    Groups of sexually-naive male NFR/N mice were maintained at sea level or exposed to simulated altitudes of 18 000 ft (5486 m) or 22 000 ft (6705 m) for 1, 3, 7, 14 or 28 days. Plasma LH concentrations were slightly but not significantly depressed after 1 day of hypoxia. Plasma FSH values were reduced (P < 0.05) after 1, 7, 14 and 28 days of exposure to 22 000 ft when compared to the values in the other groups. Prolactin concentrations fluctuated considerably, but were not uniformly affected by high altitude exposure. Exposure to 18 000 ft resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone concentration (P < 0.05) for 3 days, which was followed by a decline to control group values, whereas at 22 000 ft corticosterone levels remained elevated. These findings indicate that plasma LH values are transiently reduced during the initial 24 h of exposure to high altitude and that plasma FSH concentrations are depressed in a sustained manner during severe hypoxia.

  17. Plasma fatty acids in chronic kidney disease: nervonic acid predicts mortality.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Gregory C; Carrero, Juan J; Heimbürger, Olof; Barany, Peter; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Although the value of red blood cell fatty acids (FAs) in estimating risk for acute coronary syndrome in the general population is evident, the value of FAs in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Here, we provide a pilot analysis in a spectrum of CKD patients. Plasma samples were obtained from 20 incident dialysis patients (CKD stage 5), matched with samples from 10 CKD stage 3-4 patients, and 10 control subjects. Whole plasma FAs were measured using gas chromatography. Whereas neither linoleic acid nor arachidonate acid were altered in CKD, metabolic intermediates of arachidonate synthesis (γ-linolenate and dihomo γ-linolenate) were reduced in CKD. Demming (orthogonal) correlation of FA abundance with estimated GFR identified several saturated and unsaturated FAs in addition to the intermediates; again, neither linoleate nor arachidonate were related. Follow-up data within the CKD stage 5 patients revealed that nervonic acid, a component of membrane sphingolipids and phosphatidylethanolamines, was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality; the age-adjusted relative risk for a 0.15% change is 2.1 (1.4, 3.7; 95% CI; P = .0008). These findings support the exploration of FAs in larger studies for validation of the role FAs in cardiovascular risk and mortality in CKD.

  18. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P < 0.05). However, a greater percentage of EPA was found in the umbilical cord plasma of the adults (P < 0.05). DHA in the plasma of the adolescent mothers correlated positively to birth weight and head circumference. Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways. PMID:23153394

  19. Plasma concentrations of cortisol in cows with hypocalcaemia in relation to their responses to treatment with calcium.

    PubMed

    Waage, S; Sjaastad, O V; Blom, A K

    1984-03-01

    The mean plasma concentration of cortisol at the time of the first treatment for hypocalcaemia at calving was significantly higher in 17 cows which did not recover, than in 53 cows which recovered. Healthy periparturient cows had significantly lower cortisol levels than cows with hypocalcaemia. There was a negative correlation between plasma cortisol and plasma calcium at the time of the first treatment. After adjustment for differences in plasma calcium there was no significant difference between cortisol concentrations in healthy cows and paretic cows which recovered. Plasma cortisol was positively correlated with both packed cell volume (PCV) and serum creatine kinase (CK). At first treatment cows which did not recover had higher levels of PCV and serum CK than cows which recovered, and the difference between the mean plasma cortisol concentrations of these two groups was related to differences in plasma calcium, PCV and serum CK. Plasma cortisol concentrations remained high in cases of protracted paresis.

  20. [Method for recovering and concentrating lactic acid during interval training].

    PubMed

    Faye, J; Arabi, F; Faye, B; Seck, D; Cisse, F; Martineaud, J P; Thiam, A

    1996-01-01

    Sixteen athletes were divided into 2 equal groups, A and B. Then, they were put through a series of repetitive trial exercises consisting in a sequence of 400 m races run to a sub-maximum speed (75% of maximum speed) and with pauses of a length of time equal to race time, and repeated to exhaustion, i.e., inability to keep up required speed. Recuperation in between races varied: Group A was completely passive, motionless; Group B was still going, albeit rather slowly. The parameters measured included blood concentration of lactic acid at rest and on completion of exercise and overall distance covered. At rest, there was a significant difference of lactatemia between the two groups. During the exercise, the distance run by Group B was longer (by 187.5 m) that that covered by Group A, though the difference was not significant (0.05 < P < 0.10), but his lactatemia was significantly much lower (P < 0.05). On average, the race speed and the time for recuperation which were alternatively measured were just the same for the two groups. PMID:9827091

  1. Decreased expression of adipose CD36 and FATP1 are associated with increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The northern elephant seal undergoes a 2-3 month post-weaning fast during which it depends primarily on the oxidation of fatty acids to meet its energetic demands. The concentration of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) increases and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in late-fasted...

  2. Steady-state plasma concentration of donepezil enantiomers and its stereoselective metabolism and transport in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lili, Wan; Cheng, Guo; Zhiyong, Zhou; Qi, Yu; Yan, Li; Dan, Li; Xueli, Zheng; Yuan, Zhong

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the differences in the plasma concentration of two enantiomers of donepezil in Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and investigate in vitro stereoselective metabolism and transport. Donepezil enantiomers were separated and determined by LC-MS/MS using D5-donepezil as an internal standard on a Sepax Chiralomix SB-5 column. In vitro stereoselective metabolism and transport of donepezil were investigated in human liver microsomes and MDCKII-MDR1 cell monolayer. Pre-dose (Css-min) plasma concentrations were determined in 52 patients. The mean plasma level of (R)-donepezil was 14.94 ng/ml and that of (S)-donepezil was 23.37 ng/ml. One patient's plasma concentration of (R)-donepezil was higher than (S)-donepezil and the ratio is 1.51. The mean plasma levels of (S)-donepezil were found to be higher than those of (R)-donepezil in 51 patients and the ratio of plasma (R)- to (S)-donepezil varies from 0.34 to 0.85. In the in vitro microsomal system, (R)-donepezil degraded faster than (S)-donepezil. V(max) of (R)-donepezil was significantly higher than (S)-donepezil. The P-gp inhibition experiment shown that the P(app) of the two enantiomers was higher than 200 and the efflux ratios were 1.11 and 0.99. The results of the P-gp inhibition identification experiment showed IC50 values of 35.5 and 20.4 μM, respectively, for the two enantiomers. The results indicate that donepezil exhibits stereoselective hepatic metabolism that may explain the differences in the steady-state plasma concentrations observed. Neither (R)- nor (S)-donepezil was a P-gp substance and the two enantiomers are highly permeable through the blood-brain barrier.

  3. Release of endothelial cell lipoprotein lipase by plasma lipoproteins and free fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, U.; Witte, L.D.; Goldberg, I.J.

    1989-03-15

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) bound to the lumenal surface of vascular endothelial cells is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Studies were performed to investigate whether human plasma lipoproteins and/or free fatty acids would release LPL which was bound to endothelial cells. Purified bovine milk LPL was incubated with cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells resulting in the association of enzyme activity with the cells. When the cells were then incubated with media containing chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), a concentration-dependent decrease in the cell-associated LPL enzymatic activity was observed. In contrast, incubation with media containing low density lipoproteins or high density lipoproteins produced a much smaller decrease in the cell-associated enzymatic activity. The addition of increasing molar ratios of oleic acid:bovine serum albumin to the media also reduced enzyme activity associated with the endothelial cells. To determine whether the decrease in LPL activity was due to release of the enzyme from the cells or inactivation of the enzyme, studies were performed utilizing radioiodinated bovine LPL. Radiolabeled LPL protein was released from endothelial cells by chylomicrons, VLDL, and by free fatty acids (i.e. oleic acid bound to bovine serum albumin). The release of radiolabeled LPL by VLDL correlated with the generation of free fatty acids from the hydrolysis of VLDL triglyceride by LPL bound to the cells. Inhibition of LPL enzymatic activity by use of a specific monoclonal antibody, reduced the extent of release of /sup 125/I-LPL from the endothelial cells by the added VLDL. These results demonstrated that LPL enzymatic activity and protein were removed from endothelial cells by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and oleic acid.

  4. Laminaria japonica increases plasma exposure of glycyrrhetinic acid following oral administration of Liquorice extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Man; Jiang, Shu-Wen; Chen, Yang; Zhong, Ze-Yu; Wang, Zhong-Jian; Zhang, Mian; Li, Ying; Xu, Ping; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Laminaria japonica (Laminaria) on pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) following oral administration of Liquorice extract in rats. Following oral administrations of single-dose and multi-dose Liquorice extract and Liquorice-Laminaria extract, respectively, plasma samples were obtained at various times and the concentrations of GA, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin were measured by LC-MS. The effects of Laminaria extract on pharmacokinetics of GA were also investigated, following single-dose and multidose of glycyrrhizic acid (GL). The effects of Laminaria extract on intestinal absorption of GA and GL were studied using the in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model. The metabolism of GL to GA in the contents of small and large intestines was also studied. The results showed Liquorice-Laminaria extract markedly increased the plasma concentration of GA, accompanied by a shorter Tmax. Similar alteration was observed following multidose administration. However, pharmacokinetics of neither liquiritigenin nor isoliquiritigenin was affected by Laminaria. Similarly, Laminaria markedly increased concentration and decreased Tmax of GA following oral GL were observed. The data from the intestinal perfusion model showed that Laminaria markedly increased GL absorption in duodenum and jejunum, but did not affect the intestinal absorption of GA. It was found that Laminaria enhanced the metabolism of GL to GA in large intestine. In conclusion, Laminaria increased plasma exposures of GA following oral administration of liquorice or GL, which partly resulted from increased intestinal absorption of GL and metabolism of GL to GA in large intestine.

  5. Using the HEMOCLOT direct thrombin inhibitor assay to determine plasma concentrations of dabigatran.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Joachim; Feuring, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the suitability of an accurate, sensitive, standardized, chronometric blood coagulation test to determine the anticoagulation activity of dabigatran and to quantify concentrations of dabigatran in plasma. Dabigatran was spiked at increasing concentrations in pooled citrated normal human plasma to measure diluted thrombin time with the HEMOCLOT THROMBIN INHIBITOR assay. Calibration curve linearity, inter-assay and intra-assay precision, and assay accuracy were investigated. Dabigatran stability in plasma and the feasibility of lyophilized dabigatran standards for assay calibration were assessed. Data are presented as back-calculated plasma concentrations of dabigatran using regression analysis. Dabigatran's calibration curve for thrombin clotting time was linear over the concentration range 0-4000  nmol/l (0-1886  ng/ml). The R was 0.99. Total assay imprecision for dabigatran was 4.7-12.0% coefficient of variation, with 1.2-3.1% for intra-run imprecision, 4.0-10.0% for inter-run precision and 0.3-8.3% for between-day imprecision. Assay accuracy was determined at three dabigatran concentrations; deviation from sample target concentrations ranged from -20.7% (100  nmol/l; 47.15  ng/ml) to 5.6% (1500  nmol/l; 707.3  ng/ml). Assay robustness was determined by analysing identical dabigatran samples in two independent laboratories. The mean bias of dabigatran coagulation times between laboratories was 6.6%. The HEMOCLOT Thrombin Inhibitors assay is suitable for determining the anticoagulant activity and calculating plasma concentrations of dabigatran using simple and widely available chronometric coagulation devices. The use of this rapid, established, standardized and calibrated assay should provide accurate and consistent results when assessing the anticoagulant activity of dabigatran. PMID:22227958

  6. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    PubMed

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants.

  7. Relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, inflammatory chemokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in adults.

    PubMed

    Aquilante, Christina L; Kosmiski, Lisa A; Knutsen, Shannon D; Zineh, Issam

    2008-04-01

    Recent data suggest that resistin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has a putative role in inflammatory processes and metabolic derangements. In vitro data suggest that resistin stimulates the production of inflammatory chemokines, yet the relationship in vivo is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between plasma resistin concentrations, plasma inflammatory chemokine aged concentrations (ie, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1] and epithelial neutrophil activator 78 [ENA-78]), and components of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma samples were obtained from nondiabetic subjects (N = 123) aged 18 to 55 years without known CVD or CVD risk equivalents. The presence of the metabolic syndrome was assessed using consensus guidelines. Fasting plasma resistin, MCP-1, ENA-78, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were analyzed. The study population consisted of 67.5% women and 68.3% Caucasians (mean age = 44 +/- 7 years and mean body mass index = 33.3 +/- 6 kg/m(2)). The metabolic syndrome was present in 46.3% of study participants. Resistin concentrations were significantly correlated with white blood cell count (r = 0.326, P < .001), hs-CRP concentrations (r = 0.293, P = .005), MCP-1 concentrations (r = 0.251, P = .005), body mass index (r = 0.193, P = .033), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.182, P = .044). Resistin concentrations were 1.21 times higher in subjects with the metabolic syndrome compared with those without the metabolic syndrome (P = .003). In stepwise regression analysis, white blood cell count (P < .001) and MCP-1 concentrations (P = .002) were significantly associated with resistin concentrations, independent of hs-CRP, sex, body mass index, presence of the metabolic syndrome, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data from our cross-sectional study demonstrate that plasma resistin concentrations

  8. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  9. Plasma ghrelin concentrations change with physiological state in a sciurid hibernator (Spermophilus lateralis).

    PubMed

    Healy, Jessica E; Ostrom, Cara E; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Florant, Gregory L

    2010-04-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone which has profound effects on food intake and lipogenesis in mammals. In all mammals studied thus far, plasma ghrelin concentrations are increased before a meal and decrease immediately following a meal; ghrelin levels increase with fasting. The golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (also known as Callospermophilus lateralis (see Helgen et al., 2009) is a diurnal hibernator which has a robust annual cycle of body mass gain and loss that is primarily controlled by food intake. We hypothesized that in spring, summer, and autumn, the endogenous ghrelin concentrations of hibernators would be similar to those of non-hibernators, but that during the winter hibernation season, plasma ghrelin concentrations would be low or undetectable. We found that peripherally injected ghrelin significantly increased food intake in June. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly increased through 5 days of fasting during a short-term fast in summer. Over a 24h period, ghrelin concentrations increased at night and decreased during the day with drops corresponding to times when squirrels were eating. In January, ghrelin concentrations are low but measurable even while animals are at low body temperature (Tb). This is the first report of ghrelin concentrations in a non-photoperiodic hibernator. We suggest that ghrelin may be important for the regulation of food intake and the body mass cycle in mammals that hibernate.

  10. Plasma ghrelin concentrations change with physiological state in a sciurid hibernator (Spermophilus lateralis).

    PubMed

    Healy, Jessica E; Ostrom, Cara E; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Florant, Gregory L

    2010-04-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone which has profound effects on food intake and lipogenesis in mammals. In all mammals studied thus far, plasma ghrelin concentrations are increased before a meal and decrease immediately following a meal; ghrelin levels increase with fasting. The golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (also known as Callospermophilus lateralis (see Helgen et al., 2009) is a diurnal hibernator which has a robust annual cycle of body mass gain and loss that is primarily controlled by food intake. We hypothesized that in spring, summer, and autumn, the endogenous ghrelin concentrations of hibernators would be similar to those of non-hibernators, but that during the winter hibernation season, plasma ghrelin concentrations would be low or undetectable. We found that peripherally injected ghrelin significantly increased food intake in June. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly increased through 5 days of fasting during a short-term fast in summer. Over a 24h period, ghrelin concentrations increased at night and decreased during the day with drops corresponding to times when squirrels were eating. In January, ghrelin concentrations are low but measurable even while animals are at low body temperature (Tb). This is the first report of ghrelin concentrations in a non-photoperiodic hibernator. We suggest that ghrelin may be important for the regulation of food intake and the body mass cycle in mammals that hibernate. PMID:20005230

  11. Development of SPME method for concomitant sample preparation of rocuronium bromide and tranexamic acid in plasma.

    PubMed

    Gorynski, Krzysztof; Bojko, Barbara; Kluger, Michael; Jerath, Angela; Wąsowicz, Marcin; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    A high-throughput method using solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS/MS) for determination of tranexamic acid and rocuronium bromide in human plasma was developed and validated. Standard analytical approaches employ acidification of the sample due to the instability of rocuronium bromide in collected plasma samples. However, acidification affects the binding equilibrium of the drug and consequently no information on the free/bound concentration can be obtained. Contrary to these protocols, the proposed method requires minimum sample handling and no ion pairing and/or derivatization procedure. A weak cation exchange coating was chosen as the best extracting phase for selected drugs, guaranteed a good recovery, minimum carry-over, reusability and reproducibility. SPME procedure met all Food and Drug Administration acceptance criteria for bioanalytical assays at three concentration levels, for both selected drugs. Post-extraction addition experiments showed that matrix effect was less than ±3%. Here, a weak cation exchange thin-film solid-phase microextraction (WCX TF-SPME) approach is presented, offering effective cleanup procedure and full quantitation of the drugs in plasma, undoubtedly one the most challenging matrices with regards to its complexity. In addition, the 96-well plate format of WCX TF-SPME system provides considerable advantages, such as high throughput analysis for up to 96 samples in 35min (22s/sample), requirement of small amounts of plasma samples (0.8mL), and a simple sample preparation protocol, all of which shows a promise for possible on-site application in hospitals to monitor concentrations of the drugs in close to real time. PMID:24525565

  12. Somatostatin prevents the postoperative increases in plasma amino acid clearance and urea synthesis after elective cholecystectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Heindorff, H; Billesbølle, P; Pedersen, S L; Hansen, R; Vilstrup, H

    1995-01-01

    The importance of glucagon on postoperative changes in hepatic amino-nitrogen conversion were investigated in six patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy for uncomplicated gall stones. Patients were given infusions of somatostatin (bolus of 6 micrograms/kg followed by continuous infusion of 6 micrograms/kg/h) from induction of anaesthesia to the end of investigation, the first postoperative day (30 hours). Controls were 16 patients undergoing the same procedures omitting the somatostatin infusion. In all patients blood concentration and plasma clearance of total alpha-amino-nitrogen, and amino acid stimulated rate of urea synthesis were measured. Elective cholecystectomy decreased blood alpha-amino-nitrogen concentration from mean (SEM) 2.9 (0.2) to 2.4 (0.1) mmol/l (p < 0.05), increased the clearance of total alpha-amino-nitrogen from 5.2 (0.3) to 6.6 (0.3) ml/s (p < 0.05), and increased the rate of amino acid stimulated urea synthesis from 27 (1) to 37 (2) mumol/s (p < 0.05) pointing to increased hepatic removal of amino-nitrogen at expense of plasma amino-nitrogen. Infusion of somatostatin prevented increase of glucagon for 24 hours after surgery, and prevented the negative changes in postoperative nitrogen homeostasis resulting from the postoperative changes in hepatic nitrogen conversion, suggesting glucagon as mediator. The exact mechanism remains in doubt, however, because of the multiple effects of somatostatin. PMID:7797129

  13. Effect of the bile-acid sequestrant colestipol on postprandial serum bile-acid concentration: evaluation by bioluminescent enzymic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, S S; Wayne, M L; Smith, R B; Wright, C E; Andreadis, N A; Hofmann, A F

    1989-02-01

    Chronic ingestion of bile-acid sequestrants has been shown to decrease the serum cholesterol concentration and coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients. To develop improved sequestrants, a rapid, convenient method for testing the bile-acid binding efficacy of sequestrants is needed. Serum bile-acid concentrations could be used to detect bile-acid binding by an administered sequestrant, since the serum bile-acid concentration is determined largely by the rate of intestinal absorption in healthy individuals. To test this, serum bile-acid concentrations were measured at frequent intervals over 24 h in five otherwise healthy hypercholesterolaemic subjects during the ingestion of three standard meals, with or without the addition of 5 g colestipol granules administered 30 min before each meal. Total serum bile-acid concentration was measured with a previously reported bioluminescent enzymic assay, that uses a 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an oxido-reductase, and a bacterial luciferase co-immobilized on to Sepharose beads. Bile acids in 1 ml of serum were isolated by solid-phase extraction chromatography with reversed-phase C18 cartridges. Colestipol lowered the postprandial elevation of serum bile acids by one half, with a subsequent decrease in the cumulative area under the curve. The data suggest that measurement of serum bile-acid concentrations by bioluminescence is a rapid, simple way to document the efficacy of bile-acid sequestrants.

  14. Chemical modification of amino acids by atmospheric-pressure cold plasma in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Eisuke; Kitamura, Tsuyoshi; Kuwabara, Junpei; Ikawa, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shunsuke; Shiraki, Kentaro; Kawasaki, Hideya; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Kitano, Katsuhisa

    2014-07-01

    Plasma medicine is an attractive new research area, but the principles of plasma modification of biomolecules in aqueous solution remain elusive. In this study, we investigated the chemical effects of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma on 20 naturally occurring amino acids in aqueous solution. High-resolution mass spectrometry revealed that chemical modifications of 14 amino acids were observed after plasma treatment: (i) hydroxylation and nitration of aromatic rings in tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan; (ii) sulfonation and disulfide linkage formation of thiol groups in cysteine; (iii) sulfoxidation of methionine and (iv) amidation and ring-opening of five-membered rings in histidine and proline. A competitive reaction experiment using 20 amino acids demonstrated that sulfur-containing and aromatic amino acids were preferentially decreased by the plasma treatment. These data provide fundamental information for elucidating the mechanism of protein inactivation for biomedical plasma applications.

  15. Rock climbing: observations on heart rate and plasma catecholamine concentrations and the influence of oxprenolol.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, E. S.; Taggart, P.; Carruthers, M.

    1978-01-01

    Observations are presented on the electrocardiogram and plasma catecholamine concentrations of 11 healthy men monitored during two rock climbing ascents. A placebo was administered prior to the first climb and an oral dose of the beta blocking agent oxprenolol ("Trasicor") prior to the second. Mean heart rates were 166 (+/- 20.4 SD) and 120 (+/- 10.2) respectively. Median plasma adrenaline concentrations were 0.05 microgram/1 and 0.33 microgram/1 before and after the climbs following the placebo. No significant difference was observed in the adrenaline concentrations before and after climbing following oxprenolol, or of noradrenaline concentrations on either occasion. These results are interpreted as suggesting that this popular sport represents more an anxiety-type of psychological stress than a physical stress and as such is likely to increase moral fibre rather than muscle fibre. PMID:719320

  16. Plasma concentrations of vitamin E in six species of bustard (Gruiformes: Otididae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan J; Dawodu, Adekunle; Patel, Mahendra; Bailey, Thomas A; Silvanose, Christudas

    2002-04-01

    Vitamin E (measured as alpha-tocopherol) and cholesterol concentrations were determined in plasma samples collected from 86 clinically healthy captive adult bustards of six species and 23 captive juveniles (6-12 mo old) of two of these species. Adult houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) had higher plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations than juveniles (adult: mean +/- SE, 11.07 +/- 0.41 micrograms/ml, n = 32; juvenile: 6.33 +/- 0.48, n = 12) and higher alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (adult: 6.09 +/- 0.44, n = 12; juvenile: 2.94 +/- 0.22, n = 11). No age difference was evident for kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations (adult: 4.43 +/- 0.42, n = 21; juvenile: 4.46 +/- 0.26, n = 11) or alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (adult: 3.67 +/- 0.44, n = 20; juvenile: 3.71 +/- 0.36, n = 11). Adult houbara bustards had significantly higher (P < 0.01) alpha-tocopherol concentrations compared with adult rufous-crested (Eupodotis ruficrista; 6.64 +/- 0.33, n = 19) and white-bellied (Eupodotis senegalensis; 7.75 +/- 0.81, n = 8) bustards, but similar alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (rufous-crested: 5.56 +/- 0.32, n = 18; white-bellied: 5.83 +/- 0.43, n = 8). Juvenile houbara bustards had higher plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations than juvenile kori bustards but similar alpha-tocopherol:cholesterol ratios. Adult houbara bustard plasma alpha-tocopherol levels and alpha-tocopherol:cholesterol ratios did not differ significantly between sexes. The vitamin E status of adult bustards appeared to be influenced by environmental conditions that varied due to species-specific husbandry regimens, but no clear relationship was seen with dietary vitamin E levels. Juvenile bustards did not have higher vitamin E levels than adults, despite being maintained on four-fold dietary vitamin E concentrations and in similar environmental conditions. This paper presents the first published data for plasma vitamin E concentrations in bustards. The

  17. Plasma concentrations of vitamin E in six species of bustard (Gruiformes: Otididae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan J; Dawodu, Adekunle; Patel, Mahendra; Bailey, Thomas A; Silvanose, Christudas

    2002-04-01

    Vitamin E (measured as alpha-tocopherol) and cholesterol concentrations were determined in plasma samples collected from 86 clinically healthy captive adult bustards of six species and 23 captive juveniles (6-12 mo old) of two of these species. Adult houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) had higher plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations than juveniles (adult: mean +/- SE, 11.07 +/- 0.41 micrograms/ml, n = 32; juvenile: 6.33 +/- 0.48, n = 12) and higher alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (adult: 6.09 +/- 0.44, n = 12; juvenile: 2.94 +/- 0.22, n = 11). No age difference was evident for kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations (adult: 4.43 +/- 0.42, n = 21; juvenile: 4.46 +/- 0.26, n = 11) or alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (adult: 3.67 +/- 0.44, n = 20; juvenile: 3.71 +/- 0.36, n = 11). Adult houbara bustards had significantly higher (P < 0.01) alpha-tocopherol concentrations compared with adult rufous-crested (Eupodotis ruficrista; 6.64 +/- 0.33, n = 19) and white-bellied (Eupodotis senegalensis; 7.75 +/- 0.81, n = 8) bustards, but similar alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (rufous-crested: 5.56 +/- 0.32, n = 18; white-bellied: 5.83 +/- 0.43, n = 8). Juvenile houbara bustards had higher plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations than juvenile kori bustards but similar alpha-tocopherol:cholesterol ratios. Adult houbara bustard plasma alpha-tocopherol levels and alpha-tocopherol:cholesterol ratios did not differ significantly between sexes. The vitamin E status of adult bustards appeared to be influenced by environmental conditions that varied due to species-specific husbandry regimens, but no clear relationship was seen with dietary vitamin E levels. Juvenile bustards did not have higher vitamin E levels than adults, despite being maintained on four-fold dietary vitamin E concentrations and in similar environmental conditions. This paper presents the first published data for plasma vitamin E concentrations in bustards. The

  18. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino acid ratio in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Burns, T S; Stargel, W W; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N; Hurwitz, A

    1991-01-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) consumption has been postulated to increase brain phenylalanine levels by increasing the molar ratio of the plasma phenylalanine concentration to the sum of the plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids (Phe/LNAA). Dietary manipulations with carbohydrate or protein can also produce changes in the Phe/LNAA value. To compare the effects of aspartame and carbohydrate on Phe/LNAA, beverages sweetened with aspartame, sucrose, and aspartame plus sucrose, and unsweetened beverage were ingested by 8 healthy, fasted subjects in a randomized, four-way crossover design. The beverages were sweetened with an amount of aspartame (500 mg) and/or sucrose (100 g) approximately equivalent to that used to sweeten 1 liter of soft drink. The baseline-corrected plasma Phe/LNAA values did not differ significantly following ingestion of aspartame or sucrose. Following aspartame alone, the high mean ratio increased 26% over baseline 1 h after ingestion. Following sucrose alone, the high mean ratio increased 19% at 2.5 h. Sucrose increased the Phe/LNAA value due to an insulin-mediated decrease in the plasma LNAA, while aspartame increased the ratio by increasing the plasma Phe concentration. These findings indicate that similar increases in plasma Phe/LNAA occur when healthy, fasting subjects ingest amounts of equivalent sweetness of sucrose or aspartame.

  19. Effects of prepartum fat supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, adropin, insulin, and leptin in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Rizaldy C; Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fat supplementation during the periparturient period is one strategy to increase energy intake and attenuate the degree of negative energy balance during early lactation; however, little is known of the underlying hormonal and metabolic adaptations. We evaluated the effects of prepartum fat supplementation on energy-balance parameters and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), adropin, insulin, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows. Twenty-four pregnant dairy cows were randomized to diets containing either rolled canola or sunflower seed at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed supplementation, during the last 5 wk of gestation and then assigned to a common lactation diet postpartum. Blood samples were collected at -2, +2, and +14 h relative to feeding, at 2 wk after the initiation of the diets, and at 2 wk postpartum. Dietary canola and sunflower supplementation alone did not affect energy balance, body weight, and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, insulin, leptin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid; however, canola decreased and sunflower tended to decrease dry matter intake. We also observed that the physiological stage had a significant, but divergent, effect on circulating hormones and metabolite concentrations. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were greater postpartum than prepartum, whereas glucose, insulin, leptin, body weight, and energy balance were greater prepartum than postpartum. Furthermore, the interaction of treatment and stage was significant for leptin and adropin, and tended toward significance for PYY and insulin; only insulin exhibited an apparent postprandial increase. Postpartum PYY concentrations exhibited a strong negative correlation with body weight, suggesting that PYY may be associated with body weight regulation during

  20. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactivity: reaction conditions and the role of iron, antioxidants and lipid peroxy radicals on the quantitation of plasma lipid peroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C.R.; van Rij, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of Fe/sup 3 +/, lipid peroxy radicals and the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene on the 2-thiobarbituric (TBA) acid quantitation of plasma lipid peroxides were investigated. Whole plasma and plasma fractions prepared by trichloroacetic acid (TCA) protein precipitation and lipid extraction, demonstrated markedly differing TBA reactivities in the presence or absence of added Fe/sup 3 +/. Examination of the spectral profiles of the TBA reacted whole plasma and TCA precipitated fractions demonstrated the presence of interfering compounds which gave rise to an artifactual increase in lipid peroxide concentrations. In contrast the TBA reacted lipid extracts had low levels of interfering compounds that could be removed by our previously described high pressure liquid chromatographic method. Further characterization of the TBA reactivity of the lipid extract showed that Fe/sup 3 +/ at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM was necessary for the quantitative decomposition of the lipid peroxides to the TBA reactive product malondialdehyde (MDA). However the presence of Fe/sup 3 +/ resulted in further peroxidation of any unsaturated lipids present.

  1. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  2. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry. PMID:25212133

  3. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  4. Plasma free amino acid kinetics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a bolus injection of 15N-labeled amino acids.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jacob William; Yanke, Dan; Mirza, Jeff; Ballantyne, James Stuart

    2011-02-01

    To gain insight into the metabolic design of the amino acid carrier systems in fish, we injected a bolus of (15)N amino acids into the dorsal aorta in mature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The plasma kinetic parameters including concentration, pool size, rate of disappearance (R(d)), half-life and turnover rate were determined for 15 amino acids. When corrected for metabolic rate, the R(d) values obtained for trout for most amino acids were largely comparable to human values, with the exception of glutamine (which was lower) and threonine (which was higher). R(d) values ranged from 0.9 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (lysine) to 22.1 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (threonine) with most values falling between 2 and 6 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1). There was a significant correlation between R(d) and the molar proportion of amino acids in rainbow trout whole body protein hydrolysate. Other kinetic parameters did not correlate significantly with whole body amino acid composition. This indicates that an important design feature of the plasma-free amino acids system involves proportional delivery of amino acids to tissues for protein synthesis.

  5. Alleviative effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on acute heat stress-induced thermal panting and the level of plasma nonesterified fatty acids in hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Y

    2012-01-01

    1. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of α-lipoic acid on hypothyroidism-induced negative growth performance and whether α-lipoic acid alleviates acute heat stress in relation to hypothyroid status. 2. Female broiler chickens (14 d-old) were fed diets supplemented with α-lipoic acid (100 mg/kg) and an antithyroid substance, propylthiouracil (200 mg/kg), for 20 d under thermoneutral conditions (25°C). At 42 d of age, chickens were exposed to a high ambient temperature (36°C, 60% RH) for 4 h. 3. Under the thermoneutral condition, propylthiouracil administration decreased feed efficiency and concomitantly increased adipose tissue and thyroid gland weights. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and triacylglycerol were also increased by propylthiouracil administration. However, α-lipoic acid supplementation did not affect the hypothyroidism-induced effects. 4. In hypothyroid chickens, the rise in respiratory rate induced by heat exposure was greatly inhibited by α-lipoic acid administration at 1 h, but this effect had disappeared at 4 h. In addition, a similar inhibitory effect on the concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids was subsequently observed at 4 h. 5. Therefore, the present study suggested that α-lipoic acid alleviates acute heat stress if chickens are in a hypothyroid status.

  6. Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma123

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry Ann; Galanko, Joseph; Sha, Wei; Stephenson, Brigitte; Vick, Julie; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Choline is essential for infant nutrition, and breast milk is a rich source of this nutrient. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) change dietary requirements for choline intake. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether total choline intake and/or SNPs influence concentrations of choline and its metabolites in human breast milk and plasma. Design: We gave a total of 103 pregnant women supplemental choline or a placebo from 18 wk gestation to 45 d postpartum and genotyped the women for 370 common SNPs. At 45 d postpartum, we measured choline metabolite concentrations in breast milk and plasma and assessed the dietary intake of choline by using a 3-d food record. Results: On average, lactating women in our study ate two-thirds of the recommended intake for choline (Adequate Intake = 550 mg choline/d). Dietary choline intake (no supplement) correlated with breast-milk phosphatidylcholine and plasma choline concentrations. A supplement further increased breast-milk choline, betaine, and phosphocholine concentrations and increased plasma choline and betaine concentrations. We identified 5 SNPs in MTHFR that altered the slope of the intake–metabolite concentration relations, and we identified 2 SNPs in PEMT that shifted these curves upward. Individuals who shared sets of common SNPs were outliers in plots of intake–metabolite concentration curves; we suggest that these SNPs should be further investigated to determine how they alter choline metabolism. Conclusion: Total intake of choline and genotype can influence the concentrations of choline and its metabolites in the breast milk and blood of lactating women and thereby affect the amount of choline available to the developing infant. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00678925. PMID:20534746

  7. Analysis of apolipoprotein A5, C3 and plasma triglyceride concentrations in genetically engineered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Afzal, Veena; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2004-03-11

    To address the relationship between the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed or completely lacked both genes. We report both lines display normal triglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Together, these data support that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

  8. Blood pressure, plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentrations in vegans and omnivore controls.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T A; Key, T J

    1987-06-01

    Blood pressure, plasma renin activity and the concentrations of aldosterone and cholesterol in plasma and sodium and potassium in urine (48-h collections) and nutrient intakes were determined in 22 vegans (11 male and 11 female) and omnivore controls matched for age, sex and body build. The vegan diets contained less protein, sodium, calcium and sulphur but more carbohydrate, potassium and fibre than the diets of their controls. The mean urinary potassium sodium ratio was 1.13 in the vegans compared with 0.64 in the omnivores. Plasma renin and cholesterol concentrations were lower in the male but not female vegans compared with their respective controls. Blood pressures of the vegan subjects were inside the normal range but they tended to have higher mean diastolic blood pressures than their controls.

  9. Plasma oxytocin concentrations during late pregnancy and parturition in the dog.

    PubMed

    Klarenbeek, M; Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S; Mol, J A; M M Bevers; Taverne, M A M

    2007-11-01

    While oxytocin is widely used in the treatment of dystocia in dogs, there is little information about its secretion before and during normal unassisted whelping. We therefore measured plasma oxytocin concentrations during late pregnancy and the expulsive stage of parturition. Blood samples were collected from eight dogs at 3-min intervals during a 42-min period between the 2nd and 14th day before whelping and during parturition after the birth of 1-3 pups. The litters consisted of 5-15 pups and the progression of the expulsive stage was linear and nearly parallel in the eight bitches. The overall mean (+/-S.D.) plasma oxytocin concentration during late pregnancy was 3.6+/-2.1pg/ml. Mean values in individual dogs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4 pg/ml, but the intra-animal variation was rather small. During the expulsive stage the overall mean (+/-S.D.) plasma oxytocin concentration was 12.9+/-13.9 pg/ml, with mean values in individual dogs ranging from 3.5 to 46 pg/ml. The mean area under the oxytocin curve for parturient dogs was significantly higher (P<0.05) than for pregnant dogs. During the expulsive stage, the peak plasma oxytocin level in individual dogs ranged between 10 and 117 pg/ml. In six of the eight dogs a pup was born during blood collection and in five of these animals the plasma oxytocin concentration increased temporarily during periods of abdominal straining and expulsion. However, straining efforts and expulsion were not consistently associated with a rise in the circulating oxytocin level. It is concluded that in the dog plasma oxytocin levels are higher and more variable during the expulsive stage of parturition than during late pregnancy. Interrelationships between the secretion pattern of oxytocin, the level of uterine contractility, and the progress of fetal expulsion in dogs need further exploration.

  10. Simultaneous determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in human plasma by isocratic high-pressure liquid chromatography with post-column hydrolysis and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Hobl, Eva-Luise; Jilma, Bernd; Ebner, Josef; Schmid, Rainer W

    2013-06-01

    A selective, sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method with post-column hydrolysis and fluorescence detection was developed for the simultaneous quantification of acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolite salicylic acid in human plasma. Following the addition of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid as internal standard and simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile, the analytes were separated on a ProntoSIL 120 C18 ace-EPS column (150 × 2 mm, 3 µm) protected by a C8 guard column (5 µm). The mobile phase, 10 mm formic acid in water (pH 2.9) and acetonitrile (70:30, v/v), was used at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. After on-line post-column hydrolysis of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to salicylic acid (SA) by addition of alkaline solution, the analytes were measured at 290 nm (λex ) and 400 nm (λem ). The method was linear in the concentration ranges between 0.05 and 20 ng/μL for both ASA and SA with a lower limit of quantification of 25 pg/μL for SA and 50 pg/μL for ASA. The limit of detection was 15 pg/μL for SA and 32.5 pg/μL for ASA. The analysis of ASA and SA can be carried out within 8 min; therefore this method is suitable for measuring plasma concentrations of salicylates in clinical routine.

  11. Overestimation of canine albumin concentration with the bromcresol green method in heparinized plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Stokol, Tracy; Tarrant, Jacqueline M.; Scarlett, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    Albumin concentrations are routinely measured in dogs with bromcresol green (BCG)-binding assays on automated chemistry analyzers. Several variables affect this assay, including the length of reaction time, sample type, and lack of specificity of BCG for albumin. We observed that albumin concentrations measured with BCG appeared higher in heparinized plasma samples in sick dogs. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of anticoagulant and assay procedure on BCG albumin concentrations in clinically ill dogs. We hypothesized that albumin concentrations would be overestimated in heparinized plasma compared with serum because of the combination of heparin and fibrinogen. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the overestimation would be influenced by assay parameters. Blood was collected from 32 clinically ill dogs into tubes containing heparin, citrate, or no anticoagulant. Citrate was chosen to assess the effect of fibrinogen in the absence of heparin. Albumin concentration was measured in all 3 sample types from each dog using 2 different BCG procedures on an automated chemistry analyzer. The BCG procedures (standard and modified) differed in the wavelengths used for absorbance readings (standard, 600/700; modified, 570/505) and the time point at which absorbance was measured (standard, 100 seconds; modified, 40 seconds). In addition, the modified method incorporated a sample blank. Globulin fractions, fibrinogen concentration, and indices of lipemia, hemolysis, and icterus were evaluated for their contribution to the overestimation of albumin concentration in heparinized plasma compared with serum samples. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher (P plasma (mean +/- SE, 3.8 +/- 0.1 g/dL) than in serum (3.6 +/- 0.2 g/dL) or citrated plasma (3.2 +/- 0.1 g/dL). Overestimation was evident only with the standard BCG procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that fibrinogen was largely responsible for the higher

  12. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m2) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30–40, 40–50 and >50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations in plasma of pregnant women from Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Stasinska, Ania; Heyworth, Jane; Reid, Alison; Callan, Anna; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Trong Duong, Phi; Van Ho, Quoc; Hinwood, Andrea

    2014-09-15

    PBDEs are a class of brominated flame retardants applied to consumer goods to reduce their flammability. These compounds are lipophilic, persistent and bioaccumulate through the food web. PBDEs have been detected in human blood, adipose tissue and breast milk. There are a small number of studies reporting concentrations of PBDEs in Australian populations. These indicate that concentrations are higher than in studies reporting concentrations from Europe but lower than those from Northern America. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of PBDEs in the plasma of pregnant women participating in the Australian Maternal Exposure to Toxic Substances (AMETS) study in Western Australia. The samples comprised 164 pregnant women, aged 18 years and over, who were non-smokers and not occupationally exposed to persistent substances. Participants provided blood samples at 38 weeks gestation and these were analysed for five PBDE congeners. Maternal health and birth outcomes data were also obtained. The median for sum PBDE concentrations in plasma was 53.9 pg g(-1) (range 13.2 to 1390 pg g(-1)ww). Concentrations were adjusted for the estimated plasma lipid content. The concentrations of Σ5PBDE ranged from 2.44 to 258 ng g(-1) lipid with a median of 9.97 ng g(-1) lipid. BDE-47 was the dominant congener (median 21.4 pg g(-1), range <4.95 to 1030 pg g(-1)) followed by BDE-153 (median 12.2 pg g(-1), range <2.94 to 353 pg g(-1)). There were no significant associations between maternal, housing or dietary factors and concentrations of PBDEs in this study. Maternal PBDE concentrations were not associated with infant birth weight. This study builds upon previous Australian research and shows that concentrations in this sample of Western Australian women were higher than in parts of Europe. PMID:24973935

  14. Determining diabetes prevalence: a rational basis for the use of fasting plasma glucose concentrations?

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Zimmet, P Z; Alberti, K G

    1990-08-01

    The World Health Organization and the National Diabetes Data Group each recommend a diagnostic cut-off point for diabetes of 7.8 mmol l-1 for fasting plasma glucose concentrations as part of the diagnostic criteria for epidemiological studies. However, this cut-off has been shown to be insensitive compared with a screening test based on 2-h plasma glucose levels. In thirteen Pacific populations, from four ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Melanesian, Micronesian, and Polynesian), we have examined whether a different cut-off point for fasting plasma glucose would be more accurate for obtaining an estimate of the prevalence of diabetes when compared with 2-h levels. A fasting plasma glucose diagnostic cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 gave an estimate of prevalence not significantly different from that based on the 2-h plasma glucose in 12 of the 13 populations (mean difference 0.27, range -1.51 to +2.44,%). On the other hand, when a cut-off of 7.8 mmol l-1 for fasting plasma glucose was used, the resulting prevalence over-estimated the 2-h glucose prevalence in all populations (mean difference 1.91, range 0.14-5.80,%). Thus for Pacific populations, a fasting plasma glucose cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 provides estimates of prevalence that are equivalent to those based on 2-h plasma glucose levels. In epidemiological studies designed to estimate diabetes prevalence, we recommend use of a fasting plasma glucose cut-off of 7.0 mmol l-1 in preference to a detection level of 7.8 mmol l-1, if glucose loading is not possible.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Evaluation of Optimum Dietary Threonine Requirement by Plasma Free Threonine and Ammonia Concentrations in Surgically Modified Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyeonho; Park, Gunjun; Ok, Imho; Katya, Kumar; Heung, Silas; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary threonine requirement by measuring the plasma free threonine and ammonia concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation. A total of 70 fish (average initial weight 506±8.2 g) were randomly distributed into each of the 14 net cages (5 fish/cage). After 48 hours (h) of feed deprivation, each group was intubated at 1% body weight with one of the seven L-amino acid based diets containing graded levels of threonine (0.42%, 0.72%, 0.92%, 1.12%, 1.32%, 1.52%, or 1.82% of diet, dry matter basis). Blood samples were taken at 0, 5, and 24 h after intubation. Post-prandial plasma free threonine concentrations (PPthr) of fish 5 h after intubation with diets containing 1.32% or more threonine were significantly higher than those of fish intubated with diets containing 1.12% or less threonine (p<0.05). Post-absorptive free threonine concentrations (PAthr) after 24 h of intubation of the fish with diets containing 0.92% or more threonine were significantly higher than those of fish intubated with diets containing 0.72% or less threonine. Post-prandial plasma ammonia concentrations (PPA, 5 h after intubation) were not significantly different among fish intubated with diets containing 1.12% or less threonine, except the PPA of fish intubated with diet containing 0.42% threonine. Broken-line model analyses of PPthr, PAthr, and PPA indicated that the dietary threonine requirement of rainbow trout should be between 0.95% (2.71) and 1.07% (3.06) of diet (% of dietary protein on a dry matter basis). PMID:25656187

  16. Plasma ghrelin concentrations change with physiological state in a sciurid hibernator (Spermophilus lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Jessica E.; Ostrom, Cara E.; Wilkerson, Gregory K.; Florant, Gregory L.

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone which has profound effects on food intake and lipogenesis in mammals. In all mammals studied thus far, plasma ghrelin concentrations are increased before a meal and decrease immediately following a meal; ghrelin levels increase with fasting. The golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (also known as Callospermophilus lateralis (see Helgen et al., 2009)) is a diurnal hibernator which has a robust annual cycle of body mass gain and loss that is primarily controlled by food intake. We hypothesized that in spring, summer, and autumn, the endogenous ghrelin concentrations of hibernators would be similar to those of non-hibernators, but that during the winter hibernation season, plasma ghrelin concentrations would be low or undetectable. We found that peripherally injected ghrelin significantly increased food intake in June. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly increased through 5 days of fasting during a short-term fast in summer. Over a 24 hour period, ghrelin concentrations increased at night and decreased during the day with drops corresponding to times when squirrels were eating. In January, ghrelin concentrations are low but measurable even while animals are at low body temperature (Tb). The reason for the persistence of ghrelin in plasma at this time is unclear, but circulating ghrelin in hibernators may be involved with the control of sleep in these animals. This is the first report of ghrelin concentrations in a non-photoperiodic hibernator. We suggest that ghrelin may be important for the regulation of food intake and the body mass cycle in mammals that hibernate. PMID:20005230

  17. Casein and whey exert different effects on plasma amino acid profiles, gastrointestinal hormone secretion and appetite.

    PubMed

    Hall, W L; Millward, D J; Long, S J; Morgan, L M

    2003-02-01

    Protein, generally agreed to be the most satiating macronutrient, may differ in its effects on appetite depending on the protein source and variation in digestion and absorption. We investigated the effects of two milk protein types, casein and whey, on food intake and subjective ratings of hunger and fullness, and on postprandial metabolite and gastrointestinal hormone responses. Two studies were undertaken. The first study showed that energy intake from a buffet meal ad libitum was significantly less 90 min after a 1700 kJ liquid preload containing 48 g whey, compared with an equivalent casein preload (P<0.05). In the second study, the same whey preload led to a 28 % increase in postprandial plasma amino acid concentrations over 3 h compared with casein (incremental area under the curve (iAUC), P<0.05). Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) was increased by 60 % (iAUC, P<0.005), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 by 65 % (iAUC, P<0.05) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide by 36 % (iAUC, P<0.01) following the whey preload compared with the casein. Gastric emptying was influenced by protein type as evidenced by differing plasma paracetamol profiles with the two preloads. Greater subjective satiety followed the whey test meal (P<0.05). These results implicate post-absorptive increases in plasma amino acids together with both CCK and GLP-1 as potential mediators of the increased satiety response to whey and emphasise the importance of considering the impact of protein type on the appetite response to a mixed meal.

  18. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  19. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  20. Comparison of the concentration-effect relationship of a local antiinflammatory agent and oral acetylsalicylic acid: the value of local application.

    PubMed

    Poisson, M; Ralambosoa, C; Blehaut, H; Astoin, J

    1985-01-01

    Using a pharmacological model, the comparison between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), administered orally, and a solution combining two salicylate derivatives (ethyl 5-methoxy-salicylate and 3-phenyl-propyl-salicylate), applied locally, demonstrated the value of the local application. Indeed, the pharmacological activity was highly significant and directly related to the tissue concentration of salicyl ions, which was higher after local application of the solution than after oral administration of ASA. The local solution also resulted in a lower plasma concentration of salicylate ions, allowing high plasma salicylate concentrations to be avoided. PMID:4074414

  1. Real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitor measurements.

    PubMed

    de Pereda, Diego; Romero-Vivo, Sergio; Ricarte, Beatriz; Rossetti, Paolo; Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco Javier; Bondia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitors can measure interstitial glucose concentration in real time for closed-loop glucose control systems, known as artificial pancreas. These control systems use an insulin feedback to maintain plasma glucose concentration within a narrow and safe range, and thus to avoid health complications. As it is not possible to measure plasma insulin concentration in real time, insulin models have been used in literature to estimate them. Nevertheless, the significant inter- and intra-patient variability of insulin absorption jeopardizes the accuracy of these estimations. In order to reduce these limitations, our objective is to perform a real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Hovorka's glucose-insulin model has been incorporated in an extended Kalman filter in which different selected time-variant model parameters have been considered as extended states. The observability of the original Hovorka's model and of several extended models has been evaluated by their Lie derivatives. We have evaluated this methodology with an in-silico study with 100 patients with Type 1 diabetes during 25 h. Furthermore, it has been also validated using clinical data from 12 insulin pump patients with Type 1 diabetes who underwent four mixed meal studies. Real-time insulin estimations have been compared to plasma insulin measurements to assess performance showing the validity of the methodology here used in comparison with that formerly used for insulin models. Hence, real-time estimations for plasma insulin concentration based on subcutaneous glucose monitoring can be beneficial for increasing the efficiency of control algorithms for the artificial pancreas. PMID:26343364

  2. Ipecac-induced emesis and reduction of plasma concentrations of drugs following accidental overdose in children.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Y; Mitchell, A A; McGuigan, M A; Lovejoy, F H

    1987-09-01

    Syrup of ipecac is widely used following accidental drug overdosage in children. Proof of its efficacy, however, in reducing the risk of poisoning is limited. We prospectively studied the effect of early v late induction of emesis by ipecac in 50 children younger than 5 years of age with accidental acetaminophen poisoning. The mean estimated ingested dose was 165 mg/kg, and all patients vomited within 15 to 255 (mean 78) minutes postingestion. Although the predicted four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentration was 97 +/- 4 micrograms/mL (mean +/- SEM, calculated on the basis of the estimated ingested dose), the measured four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentration was 34 +/- 5 micrograms/mL (P less than .01). To assess the efficacy of early v late ipecac-induced emesis, we used the ratio of measured to predicted four-hour acetaminophen plasma concentration. The ratio of the measured to predicted four-hour level increased as the delay in time to vomiting increased (r = .60, P less than .001). Ipecac syrup was administered more promptly when available in the home than when obtained from a pharmacy or a medical facility (26 +/- 8 v 83 +/- 13 minutes postingestion, respectively; P less than .001) and vomiting occurred earlier (49 +/- 9 v 103 +/- 12 minutes postingestion; P less than .01). Although the mean estimated doses ingested were greater in patients who received ipecac syrup at home, their four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentrations were lower. These data suggest that prompt administration of ipecac syrup results in a greater reduction in plasma acetaminophen concentrations in potentially toxic overdosages in children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2888073

  3. Plasma concentrations of organohalogenated pollutants in predatory bird nestlings: associations to growth rate and dietary tracers.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bårdsen, Bård J; Herzke, Dorte; Johnsen, Trond V; Eulaers, Igor; Ballesteros, Manuel; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Covaci, Adrian; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Eens, Marcel; Sonne, Christian; Halley, Duncan; Moum, Truls; Nøst, Therese Haugdal; Erikstad, Kjell E; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2013-11-01

    The extent to which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with different physicochemical properties originated from the food (dietary input) was assessed in raptor nestlings. Lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, 1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and protein-bound perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured repeatedly in blood plasma of individual goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings, 1 to 3 wk after hatching and near fledging. Maternally derived POPs dilute as nestlings grow (growth dilution), and increasing plasma concentrations would indicate dietary input. First, plasma concentrations given no dietary input were estimated, and concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB, and notably PFOS were significantly higher than predicted from a growth-dilution scenario (approximately 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold higher; p < 0.001). In contrast, PCB 153 declined in both species, although concentrations were still higher than predicted in white-tailed eagle nestlings (p < 0.05). Second, the relationships between plasma POP concentrations and trophic position (δ(15) N) and dietary carbon source (δ(13) C) were analyzed, controlling for growth rate. Both δ(15) N and δ(13) C (measured in body feathers) were significantly associated to the accumulation of most POPs, except PFOS. In conclusion, pollutant data acquired in plasma of nestling raptors should be interpreted and further investigated in the light of individual feeding ecology, and the use of raptor nestlings as sentinels for POP monitoring could be optimized by correcting for different factors such as body condition, brood size, and age.

  4. Plasma concentrations of organohalogenated pollutants in predatory bird nestlings: associations to growth rate and dietary tracers.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bårdsen, Bård J; Herzke, Dorte; Johnsen, Trond V; Eulaers, Igor; Ballesteros, Manuel; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Covaci, Adrian; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Eens, Marcel; Sonne, Christian; Halley, Duncan; Moum, Truls; Nøst, Therese Haugdal; Erikstad, Kjell E; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2013-11-01

    The extent to which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with different physicochemical properties originated from the food (dietary input) was assessed in raptor nestlings. Lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, 1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and protein-bound perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured repeatedly in blood plasma of individual goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings, 1 to 3 wk after hatching and near fledging. Maternally derived POPs dilute as nestlings grow (growth dilution), and increasing plasma concentrations would indicate dietary input. First, plasma concentrations given no dietary input were estimated, and concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB, and notably PFOS were significantly higher than predicted from a growth-dilution scenario (approximately 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold higher; p < 0.001). In contrast, PCB 153 declined in both species, although concentrations were still higher than predicted in white-tailed eagle nestlings (p < 0.05). Second, the relationships between plasma POP concentrations and trophic position (δ(15) N) and dietary carbon source (δ(13) C) were analyzed, controlling for growth rate. Both δ(15) N and δ(13) C (measured in body feathers) were significantly associated to the accumulation of most POPs, except PFOS. In conclusion, pollutant data acquired in plasma of nestling raptors should be interpreted and further investigated in the light of individual feeding ecology, and the use of raptor nestlings as sentinels for POP monitoring could be optimized by correcting for different factors such as body condition, brood size, and age. PMID:23861300

  5. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo. PMID:26281604

  6. Red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase activities and selenium concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Zachara, Bronisław A; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Zbróg, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The metabolism of oxygen in aerobic organisms leads to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These entities are able to oxidize almost all classes of macromolecules, including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The physiological level of ROS is usually regulated by antioxidant defense mechanisms. There are at least three groups of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases, catalases and glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Pxs) which neutralize ROS. The trace elements (copper, zinc and selenium) bound to the active sites of the above listed enzymes play an important role in the antioxidant defense system. In mammals, a major function of selenium (Se) and Se-dependent GSH-Pxs is to protect cells from oxidative stress. Selenium concentrations and GSH-Px activities are altered in blood components of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The Se level is frequently lower than in healthy subjects and the concentration very often decreases gradually with advancing stage of the disease. Studies on red cell GSH-Px activity in CKD patients reported its values significantly lower, significantly higher and lower or higher, but not significantly as compared with healthy subjects. On the other hand, all authors who studied plasma GSH-Px activity have shown significantly lower values than in healthy subjects. The degree of the reduction decreases gradually with the progression of the disease. High inverse correlations were seen between plasma GSH-Px activity and creatinine level. A gradual decrease in plasma GSH-Px activity in CKD patients is due to the fact that this enzyme is synthesized predominantly in the kidney and thus the impairment of this organ is the cause of the enzyme's lower activity. Se supplementation to CKD patients has a slightly positive effect in the incipient stage of the disease, but usually no effect was observed in end-stage CKD. Presently, kidney transplantation is the only treatment that may restore plasma Se level and GSH-Px activity in patients

  7. An energy-efficient process for decomposing perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctane sulfonic acids using dc plasmas generated within gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, K.; Sasaki, K.; Hayashi, R.

    2011-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are environmentally harmful and persistent substances. Their decomposition was investigated using dc plasmas generated within small gas bubbles in a solution. The plasma characteristics including discharge voltage, voltage drop in the liquid, plasma shape and the emission spectrum were examined with different gases. The decomposition rate and energy efficiency were evaluated by measuring the concentration of fluoride and sulfate ions released from PFOA/PFOS molecules. The concentration of fluoride ions and energy efficiency in the treatment of a PFOS solution were 17.7 mg l-1 (54.8% of the initial amount of fluorine atoms) and 26 mg kWh-1, respectively, after 240 min of operation. The addition of scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons showed little effect on the decomposition. The decomposition processes were analyzed with an assumption that positive species reacted with PFOA/PFOS molecules at the boundary of the plasma-solution surface. This type of plasma showed a much higher decomposition energy efficiency compared with energy efficiencies reported in other studies.

  8. Cytosolic Concentration of Ca2+ Regulates the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, T.; Nishimura, M.; Shimazaki, Ki.

    1995-08-01

    Opening of the stomata is driven by the light-activated plasma membrane proton pumping ATPase, although the activation and inactivation mechanism of the enzyme is not known. In this study, we show that the H+-ATPase in guard cells is reversibly inhibited by Ca2+ at physiological concentrations. Isolated microsomal membranes of guard cell protoplasts from fava bean exhibited vanadate-sensitive, ATP-dependent proton pumping. The activity was inhibited almost completely by 1 [mu]M Ca2+ with a half-inhibitory concentration at 0.3 [mu]M and was restored immediately by the addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid, a calcium chelating reagent. Similar reversible inhibition by Ca2+ was shown by the generation of electrical potential in the membranes. Activity of ATP hydrolysis was inhibited similarly by Ca2+ in the same membrane preparations. The addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid and EGTA, Ca2+ chelators, to epidermal peels of fava bean induced stomatal opening in the dark, and the opening was suppressed by vanadate. This suggests that the lowered cytosolic Ca2+ activated the proton pump in vivo and that the activated pump elicited stomatal opening. Inhibition of H+-ATPase by Ca2+ may depolarize the membrane potential and could be a key step in the process of stomatal closing through activation of the anion channels. Furthermore, similar inhibition of the proton pumping and ATP hydrolysis by Ca2+ was found in isolated plasma membranes of mesophyll cells of fava bean. These results suggest that Ca2+ regulates the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases in higher plant cells, thereby modulating stomatal movement and other cellular processes in plants.

  9. Cytosolic Concentration of Ca2+ Regulates the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, T.; Nishimura, M.; Shimazaki, Ki.

    1995-08-01

    Opening of the stomata is driven by the light-activated plasma membrane proton pumping ATPase, although the activation and inactivation mechanism of the enzyme is not known. In this study, we show that the H+-ATPase in guard cells is reversibly inhibited by Ca2+ at physiological concentrations. Isolated microsomal membranes of guard cell protoplasts from fava bean exhibited vanadate-sensitive, ATP-dependent proton pumping. The activity was inhibited almost completely by 1 [mu]M Ca2+ with a half-inhibitory concentration at 0.3 [mu]M and was restored immediately by the addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid, a calcium chelating reagent. Similar reversible inhibition by Ca2+ was shown by the generation of electrical potential in the membranes. Activity of ATP hydrolysis was inhibited similarly by Ca2+ in the same membrane preparations. The addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid and EGTA, Ca2+ chelators, to epidermal peels of fava bean induced stomatal opening in the dark, and the opening was suppressed by vanadate. This suggests that the lowered cytosolic Ca2+ activated the proton pump in vivo and that the activated pump elicited stomatal opening. Inhibition of H+-ATPase by Ca2+ may depolarize the membrane potential and could be a key step in the process of stomatal closing through activation of the anion channels. Furthermore, similar inhibition of the proton pumping and ATP hydrolysis by Ca2+ was found in isolated plasma membranes of mesophyll cells of fava bean. These results suggest that Ca2+ regulates the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases in higher plant cells, thereby modulating stomatal movement and other cellular processes in plants. PMID:12242406

  10. Plasma BDNF Concentration, Val66Met Genetic Variant, and Depression-Related Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Martin, Bronwen; Ansari, David; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maudsley, Stuart; Mattson, Mark P.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and BDNF plasma and serum levels have been associated with depression, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In a relatively large community sample, drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we examine whether BDNF plasma concentration is associated with the Val66Met functional polymorphism of the BDNF gene (n = 335) and with depression-related personality traits assessed with the NEO-PI-R (n = 391). Plasma concentration of BDNF was not associated with the Val66Met variant in either men or women. However, in men, but not in women, BDNF plasma level was associated with personality traits linked to depression. Contrary to the notion that low BDNF is associated with negative outcomes, we found lower plasma levels in men who score lower on depression and vulnerability to stress (two facets of Neuroticism) and higher on Conscientiousness and Extraversion. These findings challenge the prevailing hypothesis that lower peripheral levels of BDNF are a marker of depression. PMID:20345896

  11. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. Methods and results After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from “Tor Vergata” University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector. The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Most plasma and erythrocyte PUFA were also reduced significantly in HD patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that many classes of PUFAs are lacking in HD patients, due to the removal of nutrients during the dialysis and to persistent malnutrition. A dietary treatment addressed to increase plasma ω-3 PUFAs and to optimize ω-6/ω-3 ratio may exert a protective action and reduce the risk of CVD in HD patient. PMID:24655786

  12. Free radical generation and concentration in a plasma polymer: the effect of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Ershov, Sergey; Khelifa, Farid; Lemaur, Vincent; Cornil, Jérôme; Cossement, Damien; Habibi, Youssef; Dubois, Philippe; Snyders, Rony

    2014-08-13

    Plasma polymer films (PPF) have increasing applications in many fields due to the unique combination of properties of this class of materials. Among notable features arising from the specifics of plasma polymerization synthesis, a high surface reactivity can be advantageously used when exploited carefully. It is related to the presence of free radicals generated during the deposition process through manifold molecular bond scissions in the energetic plasma environment. In ambient atmosphere, these radicals undergo autoxidation reactions resulting in undesired polymer aging. However, when the reactivity of surface radicals is preserved and they are put in direct contact with a chemical group of interest, a specific surface functionalization or grafting of polymeric chains can be achieved. Therefore, the control of the surface free radical density of a plasma polymer is crucially important for a successful grafting. The present investigation focuses on the influence of the hydrocarbon precursor type, aromatic vs aliphatic, on the generation and concentration of free radicals on the surface of the PPF. Benzene and cyclohexane were chosen as model precursors. First, in situ FTIR analysis of the plasma phase supplemented by density functional theory calculations allowed the main fragmentation routes of precursor molecules in the discharge to be identified as a function of energy input. Using nitric oxide (NO) chemical labeling in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, a quantitative evaluation of concentration of surface free radicals as a function of input power has been assessed for both precursors. Different evolutions of the surface free radical density for the benzene- and cyclohexane-based PPF, namely, a continuous increase versus stabilization to a plateau, are attributed to different plasma polymerization mechanisms and resulting structures as illustrated by PPF characterization findings. The control of surface free radical density can be

  13. Simultaneous determination of multiple amino acids in plasma in critical illness by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; McNeil, Yvette R; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing recognition that the host response to critical illness includes derangement of multiple amino acid pathways, including amino acids (AAs) central to metabolism and immune, endothelial and neurological function. To characterise concentration changes of these plasma amino acid we report the development and validation of a method for the quantification of AAs in small volumes of plasma (50μL) using HPLC with simultaneous UV and fluorescence (FL) detection. Protein precipitation and pre-column derivatization with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) is followed by reversed phase HPLC separation. Calibration curves were built with norleucine as an internal standard. Thirty-three (including the 20 proteinogenic) AAs, were selected as standards and their corresponding concentrations in the plasma of healthy human controls and patients with severe falciparum malaria were quantified. This method enables the detection of perturbations in arginine metabolism, aromatic amino acid pathways, methionine transsulfuration and transmethylation pathways and other metabolic pathways.

  14. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix. PMID:27333959

  15. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix.

  16. [The concentration of free lidocaine in arterial, central venous and peripheral vein plasma following intravenous injection].

    PubMed

    Nolte, H; al Saydali, B; Weissenberg, W

    1990-03-01

    Ten intensive care patients and five healthy volunteers each received a bolus injection of lidocaine HCl (100 mg, 2%) over an injection period of 5 s. After 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 25 min arterial, central venous and peripheral venous blood samples were collected. In four of the volunteers, arterial and central venous samples were also taken about 10 s after the end of injection. The fluorescence polarization method by means of the Abbott-TDx system was used, and plasma concentrations of lidocaine were determined. The measurements showed that lidocaine levels in central venous plasma 10 s after the end of administration were higher than those in arterial plasma. By 30 s after administration the opposite situation had developed, so that arterial concentrations were higher than those in central venous plasma. This relation did not change throughout the study, though the two levels became closer, as is shown by the ratios (Table 3, Fig. 2). Concentrations in peripheral venous plasma increased more slowly but remained far below those in arterial and central venous plasma, at least for the first 8 min. After 15 min lidocaine levels were almost the same in all three samples. During the entire study there were no ECG changes, and neither heart rate nor blood pressure showed any significant deviation from the values obtained at the beginning. The volunteers had minor toxic manifestations, such as dizziness, tinnitus and a metallic taste in the mouth; one person had a sensation of pressure in his chest, which improved following oxygen administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia.

  18. Oral green tea catechins transiently lower plasma glucose concentrations in female db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Wein, Silvia; Schrader, Eva; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried

    2013-04-01

    Polyphenols, including green tea catechins, are secondary plant compounds often discussed in the context of health-promoting potential. Evidence for such effects is mainly derived from epidemiological and cell culture studies. The aim of the present study was to investigate antidiabetic, antiadipogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects at nonpharmacological doses in an obese diabetic mouse model that exerts early relevant clinical signs of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Female db/db mice received a flavonoid-poor diet either without additive, with rosiglitazone (RSG, 0.02 g/kg diet), or with green tea extract (low-dose green tea extract [LGTE] and high-dose green tea extract [HGTE], 0.1 and 1 g/kg diet). Food and water were freely available. The body weight was monitored weekly. Blood was sampled (12-h fasted) from the tail vein on day 28 and analyzed for glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1). Blood glucose was also analyzed on day 14. Furthermore, sICAM-1 release was investigated in tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated EAhy926 cells. After 14 days, fasting glycemia was improved by RSG or HGTE supplementation compared to controls. However, at the end of the study (day 28), only RSG exhibited glucose-lowering effects and induced plasma adiponectin concentrations, paralleled by higher body weight gain and reduced periuterine fat pads compared to controls. However, only GTE treatment reduced sICAM-1 release in vitro and in vivo. Nonpharmacological HGTE supplementation in db/db mice caused (1) no adiponectin-inducing or antiadipogenic effects, (2) reduced sICAM-1 release, thereby potentially exerting anti-inflammatory effects in the progressive diabetic state, and (3) a transient improvement in glycemia. PMID:23514230

  19. Glucose ameliorates the metabolic profile and mitochondrial function of platelet concentrates during storage in autologous plasma

    PubMed Central

    Amorini, Angela M.; Tuttobene, Michele; Tomasello, Flora M.; Biazzo, Filomena; Gullotta, Stefano; De Pinto, Vito; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Tavazzi, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background It is essential that the quality of platelet metabolism and function remains high during storage in order to ensure the clinical effectiveness of a platelet transfusion. New storage conditions and additives are constantly evaluated in order to achieve this. Using glucose as a substrate is controversial because of its potential connection with increased lactate production and decreased pH, both parameters triggering the platelet lesion during storage. Materials and methods In this study, we analysed the morphological status and metabolic profile of platelets stored for various periods in autologous plasma enriched with increasing glucose concentrations (13.75, 27.5 and 55 mM). After 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, high energy phosphates (ATP, GTP, ADP, AMP), oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid), lactate, pH, mitochondrial function, cell lysis and morphology, were evaluated. Results The data showed a significant dose-dependent improvement of the different parameters in platelets stored with increasing glucose, compared to what detected in controls. Interestingly, this phenomenon was more marked at the highest level of glucose tested and in the period of time generally used for platelet transfusion (0–6 days). Conclusion These results indicate that the addition of glucose during platelet storage ameliorates, in a dose-dependent manner, the biochemical parameters related to energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. Since there was no correspondence between glucose addition, lactate increase and pH decrease in our experiments, it is conceivable that platelet derangement during storage is not directly caused by glucose through an increase of anaerobic glycolysis, but rather to a loss of mitochondrial functions caused by reduced substrate availability. PMID:22682337

  20. Noninvasive Measurement of Plasma Triglycerides and Free Fatty Acids from Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Oliver, Stacy R; Flores, Rebecca L; Ngo, Jerry; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Midyett, Jason; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

    2012-01-01

    Background Although altered metabolism has long been known to affect human breath, generating clinically usable metabolic tests from exhaled compounds has proven challenging. If developed, a breath-based lipid test would greatly simplify management of diabetes and serious pathological conditions (e.g., obesity, familial hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease), in which systemic lipid levels are a critical risk factor for onset and development of future cardiovascular events. Methods We, therefore, induced controlled fluctuations of plasma lipids (insulin-induced lipid suppression or intravenous infusion of Intralipid) during 4-h in vivo experiments on 23 healthy volunteers (12 males/11 females, 28.0 ± 0.3 years) to find correlations between exhaled volatile organic compounds and plasma lipids. In each subject, plasma triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations were both directly measured and calculated via individualized prediction equations based on the multiple linear regression analysis of a cluster of 4 gases. In the lipid infusion protocol, we also generated common prediction equations using a maximum of 10 gases. Results This analysis yielded strong correlations between measured and predicted values during both lipid suppression (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.90 for FFA) and lipid infusion (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.94 for FFA) studies. In our most accurate common prediction model, measured and predicted TG and FFA values also displayed very strong statistical agreement (r = 0.86 and r = 0.81, respectively). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring plasma lipids through breath analysis. Optimization of this technology may ultimately lead to the development of portable breath analyzers for plasma lipids, replacing blood-based bioassays. PMID:22401327

  1. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO. PMID:27216557

  2. Concentration variations of amino acids in mammalian fossils: effects of diagenesis and the implications for amino acid racemization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, B.; Rutter, N.W.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed amino acid analysis of bones, teeth, and antler from several mammal species have shown that concentrations of several amino acids can be related to three factors: type of material analyzed, diagenetic alteration of the material, and relative age of the fossil. Concentrations of several amino acids are significantly different in enamel compared to those of dentine or cement. This can be used to check that no contamination of one material by another has occurred, which is critical for using the data for amino acid dating, since all three materials have different racemization rates for some acids. With increased in growth of secondary minerals, generally reduced amino acid concentrations are observed. Interacid ratios and concentrations vary significantly the norms expected for the type of material with increasing degrees of alteration. These effects can be linked to abnormal racemization ratios observed in the same samples. Therefore, abnormal concentrations and/or interacid ratios can be used to detect samples in which the D/L amino acid ratios otherwise appear normal, thereby insuring better accuracy of amino acid racemization analysis. For unaltered fossils, with increasing sample age regardless the type of material, some amino acids steadily degrade, while others actually increase in concentration initially due to their generation as by-products of decay. Preliminary studies indicate that this progressive alteration can used to complement racemization data for determining relative stratigraphic sequences.

  3. Plasma concentrations of bupivacaine after combined spinal epidural anaesthesia in infants and neonates.

    PubMed

    Frawley, G; Ragg, P; Hack, H

    2000-01-01

    The unbound and bound plasma concentration of bupivacaine in 50 infants less than 55 weeks postconceptual age was determined following combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia (csea). Plasma concentrations were determined at 15-min intervals up to 60 min postspinal anaesthesia. Maximum plasma bupivacaine levels were recorded between 45 and 60 min post CseA. Total plasma concentrations above a toxic threshold level of 4 microg.ml(-1) were recorded in 4% of patients and above 2.5 microg.ml(-1) in 10% of patients. Unbound bupivacaine levels were greater than a presumed toxic level of 0.25 microg.ml(-1) in 16% of cases and above 0.3 microg. ml(-1) in 14% of cases. A wide range of protein binding was measured (varying from 53.8-98.2%) and could not be correlated with standard indicators of local anaesthetic binding. Two neonates had brief apnoeas in the immediate perioperative phase but no adverse cardiac or central nervous system events attributable to the performance of Csea were demonstrated.

  4. Plasma concentrations of carbohydrates and sugar alcohols in term newborns after milk feeding.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura D; Cavalli, Claudio; Harwood, Jeri E F; Casadei, Annachiara; Teng, Cecilia C; Traggiai, Cristina; Serra, Giovanni; Bevilacqua, Giulio; Battaglia, Frederick C

    2008-08-01

    Nonglucose carbohydrates such as galactose, mannose, and inositol play a clinically important role in fetal and neonatal nutrition, though little is known about their metabolism in the neonate. The aim of this study was to determine whether postprandial changes in plasma carbohydrate and sugar alcohol concentrations are affected by clinical variables such as postnatal age (PNA), milk type, feeding volume, or feeding duration in term newborns. Neonates (n = 26) taking intermittent enteral feedings were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (immediately before the start of a feeding) and at 2-3 subsequent time points up to 110 min. Postprandial rise was only observed for plasma glucose concentrations [Glu] and plasma galactose concentrations [Gal] and clinical variables did not predict this change. Despite equimolar delivery in milk, the median of [Glu] rise minus [Gal] rise from baseline to second postprandial plasma sample was 674 microM (-38, 3333 microM; p < 0.0001), reflecting efficient hepatic first-pass metabolism of galactose. A significant PNA effect on [Gal] was observed such that for each day PNA there was an 18% decrease in [Gal] (p = 0.03). [Gal] are a function of PNA, suggesting maintenance of a significant ductus venosus shunt in term infants.

  5. Diagnostics of PF-1000 Facility Operation and Plasma Concentration on the Basis of Spectral Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Scholz, M.; Tsarenko, A. V.

    2006-01-15

    The paper concerns the monitoring of high-current pulse discharges and the determination of the plasma concentration within the dense magnetized plasma by means of optical spectroscopy methods. In experiments with the large PF-1000 facility operated at IPPLM in Warsaw, Poland, attention was paid to the determination of the operational mode and electron concentration under different experimental conditions. To measure the visible radiation (VR) the use was made of the MECHELLE registered 900-spectrometer equipped with the CCD readout. The VR emission, observed at 65 deg. to the z-axis, originated from a part of the electrode surfaces, the collapsing current-sheath layer and the dense plasma pinch-region (40-50 mm from the electrode ends). Considerable differences were found in the optical spectra recorded for so-called 'good shots' and for cases of some failures. Estimates of the electron concentration, which were performed with different spectroscopic techniques, showed that it ranged from 5.56x1018 cm-3 to 4.8x1019 cm-3, depending on experimental conditions. The correlation of the fusion-neutron yield and the plasma density was proved.

  6. Correlation between heart disorders and concentrations of directly measured atrial natriuretic peptide in plasma.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, L; Szekeres, T; Hartter, E; Schweighofer, F; Gassner, A; Laczkovic, A

    1989-03-01

    We used new commercially available direct radioimmunoassay to measure human atrial natriuretic peptide (h-ANP) in plasma from 48 individuals who were being evaluated for left and right ventricular function. For 13 healthy individuals with normal ventricular function these concentrations ranged up to 54 ng/L. Measurements of h-ANP clearly differentiated between normal subjects, patients with coronary artery disease, and patients who had undergone orthotopic heart transplantation (ANOVA P less than 0.0001, significant differences between all groups)--all showing normal ventricular function at rest. There was a strong negative correlation (r = -0.64, P less than 0.001) between left ventricular ejection fraction and h-ANP concentrations in plasma of patients with proven coronary artery disease, patients with cardiomyopathy, and healthy individuals. Results by the present method and methods involving extraction of the sample correlated well. Evidently the direct assay of h-ANP in plasma yields information that could be used to help evaluate heart disorders and other pathophysiological conditions causing increased h-ANP concentrations in plasma.

  7. Subspecies differences in early fetal development and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, P M; Waters, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Elzo, M A; Johnson, S E; Rae, D O; Yelich, J V; Ealy, A D

    2013-08-01

    Inclusion of Bos indicus genetics improves production traits of cattle maintained in hot climates. Limited information exists detailing pregnancy-specific events as influenced by variable amounts of Bos indicus genetics. Three experiments were completed to examine the effect of Bos taurus and Bos indicus genotypes on fetal size and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations. In all experiments, cows were bred by AI after synchronization of ovulation. Fetal measurements were completed by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma PAG concentrations were quantified from plasma harvested the day of each fetal measurement. In Exp. 1, fetal size and plasma PAG concentrations were measured at d 53 of pregnancy in cows composed of various fractions of Angus and Brahman (n = 9 to 21 cows/group). Fetus size was greater in cows containing >80% Angus genetics compared with cows containing <80% Angus influence (3.40 ± 0.28 vs. 2.86 ± 0.28 cm crown-rump length; P < 0.01). Plasma PAG concentrations were reduced (P < 0.01) in cows containing >80% Angus genetics when compared with their contemporaries (6.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL vs. 9.4 ± 1.5 ng/mL). In Exp. 2, fetal measurements and plasma PAG concentrations were determined at d 35 and 62 of pregnancy in Angus and Brangus cows. Breed did not affect fetus size at d 35, but Angus cows contained larger fetuses than Brangus cows at d 62 [3.0 ± 0.03 vs. 2.8 ± 0.03 cm crown-nose length (CNL; P > 0.01)]. Plasma PAG concentrations were not different between breed at d 35 and 62 (P > 0.1). In Exp. 3, fetal measurements and plasma samples were collected at d 33/34, 40/41, 47/48, and 54/55 post-AI in Angus and Brangus cows. Fetus size was not different (P > 0.05) between genotypes on d 33/34, 40/41, and 47/48. Angus fetuses were larger than Brangus fetuses at d 54/55 (2.1 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.03 cm CNL; P = 0.001). Plasma PAG concentrations were less in Angus than Brangus cows at each time point (average 4.9 ± 0.9 vs. 8.2 ± 0

  8. Lopinavir Plasma Concentrations and Virological Outcome with Lopinavir-Ritonavir Monotherapy in HIV-1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Valderas, Rosa; Sánchez-Rivas, Elena; Lluch, Amparo; Gutierrez-Valencia, Alicia; Torres-Cornejo, Almudena; BenMarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J.; Viciana, Pompeyo

    2013-01-01

    There is significant intra- and intersubject variability in lopinavir (LPV) plasma concentrations after standard dosing; thus, this prospective study was conducted to determine whether low plasma LPV concentrations could be associated with virological outcome throughout lopinavir-ritonavir maintenance monotherapy (mtLPVr) in the clinical practice setting. If this hypothesis would be confirmed, LPV drug monitoring could improve the efficacy of mtLPVr regimens. Patients with previous virological failure (VF) on protease inhibitor-based regimens were also included if the genotypic resistance tests showed no major resistance mutation associated with reduced susceptibility to lopinavir-ritonavir. VF was defined as 2 consecutive determinations of HIV RNA levels of >200 copies/ml. Efficacy was analyzed by per-protocol analysis. Plasma LPV trough concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography using a UV detector. A total of 127 patients were included (22% with previous failure on protease inhibitors). After 96 weeks, the efficacy rate was 82.3% (95% confidence interval [CI95], 75.3 to 89.3%). Virological efficacy was independent of LPV plasma concentrations even when LPVr was given once daily. An adherence of <90% (HR, 4.4 [CI95, 1.78 to 10.8; P = 0.001]) and the presence of blips in the preceding 12 months (HR, 3.06 [CI95, 1.17 to 8.01; P = 0.022]) were the only variables independently associated with time to VF. These findings suggest that the LPV concentrations achieved with the standard doses of LPVr are sufficient to maintain virological control during monotherapy and that measurement of LPV concentrations is not useful for predicting virological outcome. Tight control of viral replication in the previous months and strict adherence throughout the mtLPVr regimen could improve the virological efficacy of this maintenance regimen. PMID:23716055

  9. Plasma concentrations of posaconazole administered via nasogastric tube in patients in a surgical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Störzinger, Dominic; Borghorst, Stephan; Hofer, Stefan; Busch, Cornelius J; Lichtenstern, Christoph; Hempel, Georg; Weigand, Markus A; Hoppe-Tichy, Torsten

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal surgery may affect intestinal absorption and the resulting levels of posaconazole in the blood. We measured plasma posaconazole levels in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients and tried to develop a predictive population pharmacokinetics model. A total of 270 samples from 15 patients receiving posaconazole via nasogastric tube were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SICU patients showed lower plasma drug concentrations, a higher apparent clearance, and a higher volume of distribution than those in hematology patients, possibly due to poor absorption.

  10. A genome-wide association study of n-3 and n-6 plasma fatty acids in a Singaporean Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Ke, Tingjing; Burger, Ayala; Chang, Xuling; Low, Hui Qi; Guan, Weihua; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; Tai, E Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; van Dam, Rob M; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a major impact on human health. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic loci that are associated with plasma levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in primarily subjects of European ancestry. However, the relevance of these findings has not been evaluated extensively in other ethnic groups. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate for genetic loci associated with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and to validate the role of recently identified index loci using data from a Singaporean Chinese population. Using a GWAS approach, we evaluated associations with plasma concentrations of three n-3 PUFAs [alphalinolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid], four n-6 PUFAs [linoleic acid (LA), gammalinolenic acid, dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid], and estimates of delta-5 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase activities among the participants (N = 1361) of the Singaporean Chinese Health Study. Our results reveal robust genome-wide associations (p value <5 × 10(-8)) with ALA, all four n-6 PUFAs, and delta-6 desaturase activity at the FADS1/FADS2 locus. We further replicated the associations between common index variants at the NTAN1/PDXDC1 locus and n-6 PUFAs LA and DGLA, and between the JMJD1C locus and n-6 PUFA LA (p value between 0.0490 and 9.88 × 10(-4)). These associations were independent of dietary intake of PUFAs. In aggregate, we show that genetic loci that influence plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are shared across different ethnic groups. PMID:26584805

  11. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    PubMed

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  12. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P < 0·05). BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P < 0·001). BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance. PMID:27313851

  13. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase and phospholipdase A activities in plasma membranes from fusing muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kent, C; Vagelos, P R

    1976-06-17

    Plasma membrane from fusing embryonic muscle cells were assayed for phospholipase A activity to determine if this enzyme plays a role in cell fusion. The membranes were assayed under a variety of conditions with phosphatidylcholine as the substrate and no phospholipase A activity was found. The plasma membranes did contain a phosphatidic acid phosphatase which was optimally active in the presence of Triton X-100 and glycerol. The enzyme activity was constant from pH 5.2 to 7.0, and did not require divalent cations. Over 97% of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity was in the particulate fraction. The subcellular distribution of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase was the same as the distributions of the plasma membrane markers, (Na+ + k+)-ATPase and the acetylcholine receptor, which indicates that this phosphatase is located exclusively in the plasma membranes. There was no detectable difference in the phosphatidic acid phosphatase activities of plasma membranes from fusing and non-fusing cells.

  14. Perfluoroalkyl contaminants in plasma of five sea turtle species: comparisons in concentration and potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M; Ngai, Lily; Braun McNeill, Joanne; Wood, Lawrence D; Stewart, Kelly R; O'Connell, Steven G; Kucklick, John R

    2012-06-01

    The authors compared blood plasma concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl contaminants (PFCs) in five sea turtle species with differing trophic levels. Wild sea turtles were blood sampled from the southeastern region of the United States, and plasma was analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mean concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), the predominant PFC, increased with trophic level from herbivorous greens (2.41 ng/g), jellyfish-eating leatherbacks (3.95 ng/g), omnivorous loggerheads (6.47 ng/g), to crab-eating Kemp's ridleys (15.7 ng/g). However, spongivorous hawksbills had surprisingly high concentrations of PFOS (11.9 ng/g) and other PFCs based on their trophic level. These baseline concentrations of biomagnifying PFCs demonstrate interesting species and geographical differences. The measured PFOS concentrations were compared with concentrations known to cause toxic effects in laboratory animals, and estimated margins of safety (EMOS) were calculated. Small EMOS (<100), suggestive of potential risk of adverse health effects, were observed for all five sea turtle species for immunosuppression. Estimated margins of safety less than 100 were also observed for liver, thyroid, and neurobehavorial effects for the more highly exposed species. These baseline concentrations and the preliminary EMOS exercise provide a better understanding of the potential health risks of PFCs for conservation managers to protect these threatened and endangered species.

  15. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation. PMID:27377748

  16. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  17. Validation of an HPLC-MS-MS assay for determination of morellic acid in rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Daqing

    2015-01-01

    A selective and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) was developed for the quantification of morellic acid in rat plasma. HPLC was performed using a Capcell MG C18 (50 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 µm) column, and isocratic elution with water-acetonitrile (20:80, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Sample preparation of analyte and internal standard (gambogic acid) involved liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate-isopropanol (1:1, v/v) from 50 µL plasma. The precursor → production transitions for analyte and IS were m/z 559.4 → 471.3, and m/z 627.3 → 583.3, respectively, and were monitored on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in negative ion scan mode. The method was validated across the dynamic concentration range of 20-7,500 ng/mL for morellic acid, with a fast run time of 6.0 min. The analytical method measured concentrations of morellic acid with accuracy (% bias) of ≤6.4% and precision (% RSD) of ≤14.0%. Morellic acid was stable during the battery of stability studies. Finally, the applicability of this assay has been successfully demonstrated in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in Sprague-Dawley rats. This method will therefore be useful for further preclinical and clinical pharmacokinetic studies of morellic acid. PMID:26071609

  18. Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence of predictive power of various fatty acids on the risk of metabolic syndrome was scanty. We evaluated the role of various fatty acids, including saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, transfat, n-6 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for the risk of the metabolic syndrome in Taiwan. Results A nested case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control subjects. For saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and transfat, the higher the concentration the higher the risk for metabolic syndrome: participants in the highest quintile had a 2.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.97) higher risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the participants in higher EPA quintiles were less likely to have the risk of metabolic syndrome (adjusted risk, 0.46 [0.34 to 0.61] for the fifth quintile). Participants in the highest risk group (low EPA and high transfat) had a 2.36-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.03), compared with those in the lowest risk group (high EPA and low transfat). For prediction power, the area under ROC curves increased from 0.926 in the baseline model to 0.928 after adding fatty acids. The net reclassification improvement for metabolic syndrome risk was substantial for saturated fat (2.1%, P = 0.05). Conclusions Plasma fatty acid components improved the prediction of the metabolic syndrome risk in Taiwan. PMID:21333029

  19. Apolipoprotein E4 allele is associated with substantial changes in the plasma lipids and hyaluronic acid content in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Stachowska, E; Maciejewska, D; Ossowski, P; Drozd, A; Ryterska, K; Banaszczak, M; Milkiewicz, M; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, J; Slebioda, M; Milkiewicz, P; Jelen, H

    2013-12-01

    Fat may affect progression of liver damage in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study we characterize the state of lipid metabolism in 22 patients with NAFLD and different Apo-E variants. Total concentration of plasma total fatty acids was quantified by gas chromatography, while their derivatives by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC ESI MS/MS). The ratio of plasma saturated fatty acid to monounsaturated fatty acid increased, whereas the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was reduced in Apo-E4 carriers. Simultaneously, the levels of individual plasma linoleic, arachidonic, and alpha linolenic acids significantly increased in subjects with the Apo-E4 allele. The 15-lipoxygenase metabolite, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, was significantly higher in Apo-E3 carriers (p<0.006). 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid was significantly elevated in Apo-E4 carriers (p<0.009). A significant difference in hyaluronic acid concentration (p<0.0016) as well as predicted advanced fibrosis (using the BARD scoring system) was found in Apo-E4 carriers (p<0.01). We suggest that a distinct mechanism of fibrosis between Apo E alleles. In Apo-E4 carriers, an elevation in 5-oxo-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid synthesis and fatty acid dysfunction may induce fibrosis, while an inflammatory process may be the main cause of fibrosis in Apo-E3 carriers.

  20. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Qingxu; Zhong, Chu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  1. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3−-N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  2. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Qingxu; Zhong, Chu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  3. Influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by pulsed discharge plasma inside bubble in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of sodium carbonate on the decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubbles in water was investigated experimentally. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of sodium carbonate additive, the pH increased owing to the decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the percentage of conversion of formic acid increased with increasing pH because the reaction rate of ozone with formic acid increased with increasing pH. In the case of argon injection, the percentage of conversion was not affected by the pH owing to the high rate loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  4. Determination of Eicosapentaenoic, Docosahexaenoic, and Arachidonic Acids in Human Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Akira; Watanabe, Mizuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kusu, Fumiyo; Hakamata, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) system was developed for the simultaneous determination of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) in human plasma. In the present HPLC-ECD system, EPA, DHA, and AA were separated using a reverse-phase C30 column and detected based on the voltammetric reduction of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone (DBBQ). Chromatographic peak areas were proportional to the concentration of EPA, DHA, and AA from 0.75 μM to 0.1 mM (r > 0.998). The concentrations of EPA, DHA, and AA in plasma from healthy human subjects after overnight fasting were determined, and the ratio of EPA to AA was obtained by the present HPLC-ECD method, which required 40 μL of human plasma and a simple procedure of sample preparation using diethyl ether extraction. Moreover, changes in EPA, DHA, and AA concentrations in a human subject were monitored before and after fish oil supplement administration by the present HPLC-ECD system. PMID:27682409

  5. Simultaneous liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantification of cefixime and clavulanic acid in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Dubala, Anil; Nagarajan, Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan; Vimal, Chandran Sathish; George, Renjith

    2015-01-01

    A simple and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the simultaneous quantification of cefixime (CX) and clavulanic acid (CA) in human plasma. Analytes and internal standard were extracted from human plasma by a solid phase extraction technique using a Sam prep (3 mL, 100 mg) extraction cartridge. The extracted samples were chromatographed on a reverse phase C18 column using a mixture of methanol : acetonitrile : 2 mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.5) (25 : 25 : 50, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Quantification of the analytes were carried out using single quadrupole LC-APCI-MS through selected ion monitoring at m/z 452 and 198, respectively, for CX and CA. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-10.0 and 0.1-10.0 μg/mL, respectively, for CX and CA. The mean plasma extraction recoveries of the CX and CA were found to be 95.20-96.27% and 94.67-95.58%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetics of CX and CA after oral administration of single dosage CX/CA (200/125 mg) pill to the humans (n = 12).

  6. Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L.; Ix, Joachim H.; Zieman, Susan J.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Siscovick, David S.; Sotoodehnia, Nona

    2013-01-01

    Although fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) may increase risk of diabetes and exert negative cardiac inotropy, it is unknown whether plasma concentrations of FABP4 are associated with incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). We prospectively analyzed data on 4,560 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study. FABP4 was measured at baseline using ELISA, and SCD events were adjudicated through review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards to estimate effect measures. During a median followup of 11.8 years, 146 SCD cases occurred. In a multivariable model adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and metabolic factors, relative risk of SCD associated with each higher standard deviation (SD) of plasma FABP4 was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95–1.38), P = 0.15. In a secondary analysis stratified by prevalent diabetes status, FABP4 was associated with higher risk of SCD in nondiabetic participants, (RR per SD higher FABP4: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.07–1.65), P = 0.009) but not in diabetic participants (RR per SD higher FABP4: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62–1.27), P = 0.50), P for diabetes-FABP4 interaction 0.049. In summary, a single measure of plasma FABP4 obtained later in life was not associated with the risk of SCD in older adults overall. Confirmation of our post-hoc results in nondiabetic people in other studies is warranted. PMID:24455402

  7. Relationship between gamma-hydroxybutyrate plasma concentrations and its electroencephalographic effects in the rat.

    PubMed

    Van Sassenbroeck, D K; De Paepe, P; Belpaire, F M; Rosseel, M T; Martens, P; Boon, P A; Buylaert, W A

    2001-12-01

    In view of the potential interest in an objective parameter for the depth of coma in intoxications with the recreational drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), we have studied the relationship between the plasma concentrations and the electroencephalographic (EEG) changes induced by GHB in the rat. Fifteen rats randomly received either 150 (n = 3), 200 (n = 6) or 300 mg kg(-1) (n = 6) GHB over 5 min, followed by a supramaximal dose of 450 mg kg(-1) over 5 min at the end of the experiment. Plasma concentrations were determined with HPLC. The EEG was continuously recorded and the amplitude in the 15.5-30 Hz frequency band was quantified using aperiodic analysis. The plasma concentration-time profiles were fitted to a two-compartment model with Michaelis-Menten elimination. The pharmacokinetic parameters Vmax, Km and the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) proved to be independent of the dose and the mean pooled values were Vmax 2068 +/- 140 microg min(-1) kg(-1), Km 58 +/- 16 microg mL(-1) and Vd 476 +/- 12 mL kg(-1). The EEG amplitude in the 15.5-30 Hz frequency band displayed a monophasic inhibition and the effect-plasma concentration curve showed hysteresis. This hysteresis between EEG effect and plasma concentrations was minimized by simultaneous calculation of hypothetical effect-site concentrations and fitting the effect vs effect-site concentration curve to a sigmoid inhibitory Emax model. The descriptors of this Emax model (Emax, EC50, k(e,0), gamma and E0) were independent of the dose with an equilibration half-life t1/2k(e,0) of 5.6 +/- 0.3 min (mean value of the pooled results of the 5-min treatment groups). To investigate the origin of this hysteresis, a dose of 600 mg kg(-1) GHB was infused over either 45 or 60 min each in three animals. The hysteresis was much less pronounced with 45 min than with 5 min and was absent with 60-min infusions. This indicated that the hysteresis was due to a distribution delay between the central compartment and the effect site

  8. A Novel Multivariate Index for Pancreatic Cancer Detection Based On the Plasma Free Amino Acid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Fukutake, Nobuyasu; Ueno, Makoto; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Shimada, Kazuaki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Ito, Toshifumi; Yamakado, Minoru; Ono, Nobukazu; Imaizumi, Akira; Kikuchi, Shinya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of pancreatic cancer (PC) continues to increase in the world, while most patients are diagnosed with advanced stages and survive <12 months. This poor prognosis is attributable to difficulty of early detection. Here we developed and evaluated a multivariate index composed of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) for early detection of PC. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in multi-institutions in Japan. Fasting plasma samples from PC patients (n = 360), chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients (n = 28), and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 8372) without apparent cancers who were undergoing comprehensive medical examinations were collected. Concentrations of 19 PFAAs were measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We generated an index consisting of the following six PFAAs: serine, asparagine, isoleucine, alanine, histidine, and tryptophan as variables for discrimination in a training set (120 PC and matching 600 HC) and evaluation in a validation set (240 PC, 28 CP, and 7772 HC). Results Several amino acid concentrations in plasma were significantly altered in PC. Plasma tryptophan and histidine concentrations in PC were particularly low, while serine was particularly higher than that of HC. The area under curve (AUC) based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the resulting index to discriminate PC from HC were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86–0.93] in the training set. In the validation set, AUCs based on ROC curve analysis of the PFAA index were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84–0.89) for all PC patients versus HC subjects, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.75–0.86) for PC patients from stage IIA to IIB versus HC subjects, and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.80–0.93) for all PC patients versus CP patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that the PFAA profile of PC was significantly different from that of HC. The PFAA index is a promising biomarker for screening and diagnosis of PC. PMID:26133769

  9. Functionalizing multi-walled carbon nanotubes using ECR plasma and a mild nitric acid treatment.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wen-Shou; Tseng, Chyuan-Yow; Kuo, Cheng-Tzu

    2009-12-01

    In the present work, a two-step process combining electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and 0.25 M nitric acid treatments is utilized to functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). In the process, high density and high incident energy hydrogen and oxygen cations generated by using ECR plasma system are used to bombard the MWCNTs for 5 min to break C-C bonds, creating free radical defects on the nanotube surface; the treated nanotubes are subsequently sonicated in the mild acid for 2 h, forming functional groups at the defects. Several characterization techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, are utilized to systematically evaluate the effect of the method. The results show that the MWCNTs treated by the presented method can contain a high concentration of oxygen-containing functional groups on the nanotube surface with the added advantage of high thermal stability and minimal destructive effects to the material structure. PMID:19908694

  10. Determination of plasma-free fatty acid kinetics with tracers: Methodologic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, J.M.; Jensen, M.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) are an important source of energy for a variety of tissues. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the measurement of FFA kinetics in vivo, using radiolabeled or stable isotopic tracers. Standard techniques for measurement of FFA-specific activity are relatively imprecise and have limited sensitivity. The authors have developed a method for determination of the concentration and specific activity of individual plasma FFA that is precise (coefficient of variation less than 2%) and sensitive (detection limit in the high femptomolar to low picomolar range). Using this method, one can measure the kinetics of three or more long-chain fatty acids simultaneously. Its sensitivity is a particular advantage if one wishes to measure low rates of FFA turnover such as are encountered during hyperinsulinemia. It has been suggested that, for optimal accuracy in the determination of substrate kinetics, the tracer should be administered in the left ventricle and mixed venous blood samples should be obtained from the right heart. They have conducted experiments in dogs which demonstrate that peripheral tracer infusion and more conventional arterial (or arterialized venous) sampling actually provide more accurate estimates of FFA turnover; this is fortunate, since intracardiac infusion and sampling are not practical for human studies. 39 references.

  11. Perfluorinated alkyl acids in the plasma of South African crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Christie, Ian; Reiner, Jessica L; Bowden, John A; Botha, Hannes; Cantu, Theresa M; Govender, Danny; Guillette, Matthew P; Lowers, Russell H; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Pienaar, Danie; Smit, Willem J; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are environmental contaminants that have been used in many products for over 50 years. Interest and concern has grown since 2000 on the widespread presence of PFAAs, when it was discovered that PFAAs were present in wildlife samples around the northern hemisphere. Since then, several studies have reported PFAAs in wildlife from many locations, including the remote regions of Antarctica and the Arctic. Although there are a multitude of studies, few have reported PFAA concentrations in reptiles and wildlife in the Southern Hemisphere. This study investigated the presence of PFAAs in the plasma of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa. Crocodiles were captured from five sites in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and plasma samples examined for PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most frequent PFAA detected; with median values of 13.5 ng/g wet mass in crocodiles. In addition to PFOS, long chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids were also detected. Correlations between total length and PFAA load were investigated, as were differences in PFAA accumulation between sexes. No correlations were seen between crocodile size, nor were there sex-related differences. Spatial differences were examined and significant differences were observed in samples collected from the different sites (p < 0.05). Flag Boshielo Dam had the highest PFOS measurements, with a median concentration of 50.3 ng/g wet mass, when compared to the other sites (median concentrations at other sites below 14.0 ng/g wet mass). This suggests a point source of PFOS in this area.

  12. Perfluorinated alkyl acids in the plasma of South African crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Christie, Ian; Reiner, Jessica L; Bowden, John A; Botha, Hannes; Cantu, Theresa M; Govender, Danny; Guillette, Matthew P; Lowers, Russell H; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Pienaar, Danie; Smit, Willem J; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are environmental contaminants that have been used in many products for over 50 years. Interest and concern has grown since 2000 on the widespread presence of PFAAs, when it was discovered that PFAAs were present in wildlife samples around the northern hemisphere. Since then, several studies have reported PFAAs in wildlife from many locations, including the remote regions of Antarctica and the Arctic. Although there are a multitude of studies, few have reported PFAA concentrations in reptiles and wildlife in the Southern Hemisphere. This study investigated the presence of PFAAs in the plasma of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa. Crocodiles were captured from five sites in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and plasma samples examined for PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most frequent PFAA detected; with median values of 13.5 ng/g wet mass in crocodiles. In addition to PFOS, long chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids were also detected. Correlations between total length and PFAA load were investigated, as were differences in PFAA accumulation between sexes. No correlations were seen between crocodile size, nor were there sex-related differences. Spatial differences were examined and significant differences were observed in samples collected from the different sites (p < 0.05). Flag Boshielo Dam had the highest PFOS measurements, with a median concentration of 50.3 ng/g wet mass, when compared to the other sites (median concentrations at other sites below 14.0 ng/g wet mass). This suggests a point source of PFOS in this area. PMID:27038902

  13. Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentrations in Adults without Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Martin-Borras, Carme; de-la-Cal-dela-Fuente, Aventina; Sauras-Llera, Ines; Sanchez-Perez, Alvaro; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Methods A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women). Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs)/hour/week) and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days. Results Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute) and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week). Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = −0.100; p<0.001) and METs/hour/week (r = −0.162; p<0.001). In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week) respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile), maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = −0.03; p = 0.046 and β = −0.06; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders. PMID:24498413

  14. Determination of neutral carbon concentration in electron cyclotron resonance generated plasma discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, A. B.; Lindner, P.; Stirn, R.; Schumacher, U.

    2007-12-15

    Carbon containing plasmas play an important role not only in plasma technology but also in thermonuclear fusion research. In order to understand and control the processes taking place in the plasma, the knowledge of the carbon ground state density is of major importance. It can be determined by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Detailed measurements were performed in the past to determine the silicon ground state density by means of spectroscopy of the self-absorbed spectral lines of the silicon ground state multiplet at 251 nm. The same procedure was applied for the determination of the carbon concentration, for which the carbon multiplet at 165 nm was analyzed and compared to a simulated spectrum. The ground state density was determined by two independent methods.

  15. Plasma gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations in forestry workers exposed to lindane.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, L; Gillanders, E M; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Plasma gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) and three urinary trichlorophenols were measured in forestry workers who were engaged in planting seedlings treated with gamma-HCH. These two procedures were assessed as potential biological monitoring methods and the data were compared with reported clinical symptoms. The measurement of plasma gamma-HCH was considered to be a feasible and valid monitoring method for use in routine practice and is a useful indicator of gamma-HCH absorption. The data were used to illustrate the need to be vigilant about personal hygiene and the efficacy of protective clothing. Plasma gamma-HCH