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Sample records for acid plasma concentrations

  1. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    PubMed

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p < 0,001), tyrosine (38/67 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and histidine (74/91 micromol/l, p < 0.01) and lower lysine concentrations (175/151 micromol/l, p < 0.05), which seems to point to a stress situation of these dogs. The nitrogen metabolism is impaired in the urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity. PMID:15803756

  2. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  3. Plasma amino acid concentrations in 36 dogs with histologically confirmed superficial necrolytic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Outerbridge, Catherine A; Marks, Stanley L; Rogers, Quinton R

    2002-08-01

    Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured in 36 dogs diagnosed with superficial necrolytic dermatitis (SND) via skin biopsy. The median age of the dogs was 10 years, and 27 out of 36 (75%) were male. Twenty-two out of 36 (61%) of the dogs were accounted for by six breeds; West Highland white terriers (six), Shetland sheepdogs (five), cocker spaniels (four), Scottish terriers (three), Lhasa apsos (two) and Border collies (two). The mean concentration (+/- standard deviation) was calculated for each measured plasma amino acid and compared to previously documented concentrations of plasma amino acids measured in dogs with acute and chronic hepatitis. The ratio of branched chain amino acids to aromatic amino acids in the dogs with SND was 2.6, slightly lower than that in normal dogs. The mean plasma amino acid concentrations for dogs with SND were significantly lower than for dogs with acute and chronic hepatitis. A metabolic hepatopathy in which there is increased hepatic catabolism of amino acids is hypothesized to explain the hypoaminoacidaemia seen in SND. PMID:12174180

  4. Forced swimming and imipramine modify plasma and brain amino acid concentrations in mice.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsuro; Yamane, Haruka; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus in mice. Forced swimming caused cerebral cortex concentrations of L-glutamine, L-alanine, and taurine to be increased, while imipramine treatment caused decreased concentrations of L-glutamate, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, and L-ornithine. In the hypothalamus, forced swimming decreased the concentration of L-serine while imipramine treatment caused increased concentration of beta-alanine. Forced swimming caused increased plasma concentration of taurine, while concentrations of L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamine and beta-alanine were decreased. Imipramine treatment caused increased plasma concentration of all amino acid, except for L-aspartate and taurine. In conclusion, forced swimming and imipramine treatment modify central and peripheral amino acid metabolism. These results may aid in the identification of amino acids that have antidepressant-like effects, or may help to refine the dosages of antidepressant drugs. PMID:19010319

  5. Changes in plasma kynurenic acid concentration in septic shock patients undergoing continuous veno-venous haemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Dabrowski, Wojciech; Kocki, Tomasz; Pilat, Jacek; Parada-Turska, Jolanta; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-02-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is one of the end products of tryptophan metabolism. The aim of this study was to analyse plasma KYNA concentration in septic shock patients (SSP) with acute kidney injury (AKI) undergoing continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH). Changes in KYNA content were compared to alterations in the levels of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein and lactate. Adult SSP with AKI were examined. Measurements were conducted at seven time points: before beginning CVVH and at 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the beginning of CVVH. Based on clinical outcomes, the data were analysed separately for survivors and non-survivors. Twenty-seven patients were studied. CVVH was associated with reduced plasma KYNA concentration only in survivors. Plasma KYNA concentration correlated with the levels of lactate and PCT only in survivors. (1) CVVH reduced plasma KYNA concentration only in survivors; (2) lack of this reduction may predict fatal outcomes in SSP. PMID:24043287

  6. Comprehensive Profiling of Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Young Healthy Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; Clarke, Shannon E.; Nielsen, Daiva E.; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Mutch, David M.; Ma, David W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating fatty acids (FA) are associated with a multitude of chronic diseases. However, a major gap in establishing such relationships is the lack of accepted fatty acid reference ranges representing healthy individuals. Data on validated FA reference ranges would provide a better understanding of study baseline measures and aid in the evaluation and interpretation of pharmaceutical or dietary interventions. Reference ranges for plasma FA levels have been reported in a few small studies and on a limited number of FA. Therefore, we determined the average and percentiles of a broad set of 61 FA (C14 - C24:1) from plasma total lipids from an ethnically diverse population of healthy young Canadian males and females (Total n = 826). Plasma concentrations of some of the major FA ranged from 0.3 to 4.1 mmol/L for palmitic acid, 0.1 to 1.0 mmol/L for stearic acid, 0.03 to 3.2 mmol/L for oleic acid, 0.2 to 5.0 mmol/L for linoleic acid (LA), 12.0 to 186.9 μmol/L for α-linolenic acid, and 7.2 to 237.5 μmol/L for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Males had significantly higher plasma concentrations of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and lower concentrations of palmitoleic acid, LA and DHA than females. Comparison of FA concentrations between Caucasians, East Asians and South Asians revealed that South Asians had significantly lower levels of palmitoleic acid (p < 0.01) and oleic acid (p = 0.01) while East Asians had lower levels of GLA (p = 0.02) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (p = 0.03). Overall, these data provide a comprehensive set of quantitative values that profiles a small cohort of Canadians which highlights the utility of establishing validated FA reference ranges that may be used to understand how deficient, suboptimal, or excess amounts of a given FA may be associated with chronic disease. PMID:25675440

  7. Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Predict Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Bartels, Michael; Becker, Susen; Scholz, Markus; Thiery, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background The liver plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. In former studies, a ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (Fischer’s ratio) revealed associations with hepatic encephalopathy. Furthermore, low concentrations of branched-chain amino acids were linked to sarcopenia in literature. Encephalopathy and sarcopenia are known to dramatically worsen the prognosis. Aim of this study was to investigate a complex panel of plasma amino acids in the context of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. Methods 166 patients evaluated for orthotopic liver transplantation were included. 19 amino acids were measured from citrated plasma samples using mass spectrometry. We performed survival analysis for plasma amino acid constellations and examined the relationship to established mortality predictors. Results 33/166 (19.9%) patients died during follow-up. Lower values of valine (p<0.001), Fischer’s ratio (p<0.001) and valine to phenylalanine ratio (p<0.001) and higher values of phenylalanine (p<0.05) and tyrosine (p<0.05) were significantly associated with mortality. When divided in three groups, the tertiles discriminated cumulative survival for valine (p = 0.016), phenylalanine (p = 0.024) and in particular for valine to phenylalanine ratio (p = 0.003) and Fischer’s ratio (p = 0.005). Parameters were also significantly correlated with MELD and MELD-Na score. Conclusions Amino acids in plasma are valuable biomarkers to determine increased risk of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. In particular, valine concentrations and constellations composed of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were strongly associated with prognosis. Due to their pathophysiological importance, the identified amino acids could be used to examine individual dietary recommendations to serve as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27410482

  8. Pharmacokinetics and plasma concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid after intravenous, rectal, and intragastric administration to horses.

    PubMed

    Broome, Ted A; Brown, Murray P; Gronwall, Ronald R; Casey, Matthew F; Meritt, Kelly A

    2003-10-01

    Six healthy adult horses (5 mares and 1 stallion) were given a single dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 20 mg/kg of body weight, by intravenous (IV), rectal, and intragastric (IG) routes. Serial blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture over a 36-h period, and plasma ASA and salicylic acid (SA) concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After IV administration, the mean elimination rate constant of ASA (+/- the standard error of the mean) was 1.32 +/- 0.09 h(-1), the mean elimination half-life was 0.53 +/- 0.04 h, the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) was 2555 +/- 98 microg x min/mL, the plasma clearance was 472 +/- 18.9 mL/h/kg, and the volume of distribution at steady state was 0.22 +/- 0.01 L/kg. After rectal administration, the plasma concentration of ASA peaked at 5.05 +/- 0.80 microg/mL at 0.33 h, then decreased to undetectable levels by 4 h; the plasma concentration of SA peaked at 17.39 +/- 5.46 microg/mL at 2 h, then decreased to 1.92 +/- 0.25 microg/mL by 36 h. After rectal administration, the AUC for ASA was 439.4 +/- 94.55 microg x min/mL and the bioavailability was 0.17 +/- 0.037. After IG administration, the plasma concentration of ASA peaked at 1.26 +/- 0.10 microg/mL at 0.67 h, then declined to 0.37 +/- 0.37 microg/mL by 36 h; the plasma concentration of SA peaked at 23.90 +/- 4.94 microg/mL at 4 h and decreased to 0.85 +/- 0.31 microg/mL by 36 h. After IG administration, the AUC for ASA was 146.70 +/- 24.90 microg x min/mL and the bioavailability was 0.059 +/- 0.013. Administration of a single rectal dose of ASA of 20 mg/kg to horses results in higher peak plasma ASA concentrations and greater bioavailability than the same dose given IG. Plasma ASA concentrations after rectal administration should be sufficient to inhibit platelet thromboxane production, and doses lower than those suggested for IG administration may be adequate. PMID:14620867

  9. Plasma free fatty acid metabolism during storage of platelet concentrates for transfusion.

    PubMed

    Cesar, J; DiMinno, G; Alam, I; Silver, M; Murphy, S

    1987-01-01

    New containers allow storage of platelet concentrates (PC) at 22 degrees C for up to 7 days, during which glycolytic and oxidative metabolism is vigorous. Recent evidence suggests that 85 percent of adenosine triphosphate regeneration is based on oxidative metabolism and that substrates other than glucose may be used. Because platelets can oxidize free fatty acids (FFA) as a possible source of energy during storage, the authors studied their availability, distribution, and turnover. Plasma FFA concentration was unchanged after 1 day of PC storage but significantly increased on Days 3, 5, and 7. Platelet-free plasma (PFP) stored under the same conditions as PC demonstrated a progressive increase in FFA, suggesting that some of the FFA accumulating in PC were derived from plasma rather than platelets. Indeed, during PC storage, plasma triglycerides decreased significantly, suggesting that they are a possible source of the increased levels of FFA found on Day 3 and thereafter. Thus, PC have a plasma FFA pool available continuously for oxidation during storage. Studies with radiolabeled palmitate suggested that FFA oxidation by platelets occurs during storage. The current findings show that plasma FFA could be a significant substrate for oxidative metabolism during storage of PC and that the oxidized FFA are replenished at least in part from plasma. These results may allow platelet storage to be improved, particularly in synthetic media. PMID:3629676

  10. Effects of squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma free amino acid concentrations in young women.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Akita, Keiichi; Inaguma, Asami; Watanabe, Satoko; Bajotto, Gustavo; Sato, Juichi

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in plasma free amino acid concentrations induced by squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young, untrained female subjects. In the morning on the exercise session day, participants ingested drinks containing either BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine=1:2.3:1.2) or dextrin (placebo) at 0.1 g/kg body weight 15 min before a squat exercise session, which consisted of 7 sets of 20 squats, with 3 min intervals between sets. In the placebo trial, plasma BCAA concentrations were decreased subsequent to exercise, whereas they were significantly increased in the BCAA trial until 2 h after exercise. Marked changes in other free amino acids in response to squat exercise and BCAA supplementation were observed. In particular, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids were temporarily decreased in the BCAA trial, being significantly lower than those in the placebo trial. These results suggest that BCAA intake before exercise affects methionine and aromatic amino acid metabolism. PMID:19602839

  11. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    PubMed

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma concentration of adipic acid was significantly higher by 101.6% one year after total gastrectomy procedure in the patients when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.01). Plasma concentration of silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid

  12. Phytanic acid: measurement of plasma concentrations by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and associations with diet and other plasma fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Allen, Naomi E; Grace, Philip B; Ginn, Annette; Travis, Ruth C; Roddam, Andrew W; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that a diet rich in animal foods may be associated with an increased risk of several cancers, including cancers of the prostate, colorectum and breast, but the possible mechanism is unclear. It is hypothesised that phytanic acid, a C20 branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in foods from ruminant animals, may be involved in early cancer development because it has been shown to up regulate activity of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, an enzyme commonly found to be over-expressed in tumour cells compared with normal tissue. However, little is known about the distribution of plasma phytanic acid concentrations or its dietary determinants in the general population. The primary aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine circulating phytanic acid concentrations among ninety-six meat-eating, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan women, aged 20-69 years, recruited into the Oxford component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Meat-eaters had, on average, a 6.7-fold higher geometric mean plasma phytanic acid concentration than the vegans (5.77 v. 0.86 micromol/l; P < 0.0001) and a 47 % higher mean concentration than the vegetarians (5.77 v. 3.93 micromol/l; P = 0.016). The strongest determinant of plasma phytanic acid concentration appeared to be dairy fat intake (r 0.68; P < 0.0001); phytanic acid levels were not associated with age or other lifestyle factors. These data show that a diet high in fat from dairy products is associated with increased plasma phytanic acid concentration, which may play a role in cancer development. PMID:17868488

  13. Effects of branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma concentrations of free amino acids, insulin, and energy substrates in young men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Sato, Juichi; Bajotto, Gustavo; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in the concentrations of plasma free amino acids, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), and urea nitrogen induced by branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young men. Overnight-fasted subjects ingested drinks containing 1 or 5 g of a BCAA mixture (weight ratio of 1 : 2.3 : 1.2 for isoleucine : leucine : valine), and blood was intermittently collected for 3 h after ingestion. Ingestion of the BCAA mixture resulted in significant increases in the plasma concentrations of individual BCAAs, corresponding to the amounts of amino acids ingested. On the other hand, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids tended to decrease in the trial with 5 g BCAAs, suggesting that BCAA ingestion affects the metabolism of these amino acids. The ingestion of BCAAs temporarily increased plasma insulin levels and affected plasma concentrations of FFAs, but had almost no effect on glucose or urea nitrogen. PMID:21512300

  14. Circadian rhythm in plasma concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Hoes, M J; Vree, T B; Guelen, P J

    1981-08-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was orally administered to six alcoholics at 09.00 and 23.00 h. The plasma concentrations of GHB show a clear circadian pattern, the area under the curve in the daytime experiments being 61% of that in the night experiments. The significance of alcohol dehydrogenase, the catabolic enzyme of GHB, for the difference is discussed. It is concluded that, although the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in alcoholics is quantitatively disturbed, it remains subject to physiologic circadian activation. PMID:7341501

  15. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of bile acid concentrations in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaoqiang; Han, Yi; Neuvonen, Mikko; Laitila, Jouko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Niemi, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    We report a sensitive and robust method to determine cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and their taurine- and glycine-conjugate concentrations in human plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Activated charcoal was utilized to prepare bile acid-free plasma, which served as the biological matrix for the preparation of standard and quality control samples. Plasma sample preparation involved solid-phase extraction. A total of 16 bile acids and 5 internal standards were separated on a reverse column by gradient elution and detected by tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. The calibration curve was linear for all the bile acids over a range of 0.005-5micromol/L. The extraction recoveries for all the analytes fell in the range of 88-101%. Intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation were all below 10%. A stability test showed that all the bile acids were stable in plasma for at least 6h at room temperature, at least three freeze-thaw cycles, in the -70 degrees C or -20 degrees C freezer for 2 months, and also in the reconstitution solution at 8 degrees C for 48h. Comparison of the matrix effect of bile acid-free plasma with that of real plasma indicated that the charcoal purification procedure did not affect the properties of charcoal-purified plasma as calibration matrix. This method has been used to determine the bile acid concentrations in more than 300 plasma samples from healthy individuals. In conclusion, this method is suitable for the simultaneous quantification of individual bile acids in human plasma. PMID:19945922

  16. Effects of Eimeria acervulina infection severity on growth performance, apparent ileal amino acid digestibility, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein in broilers.

    PubMed

    Rochell, S J; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids, and plasma concentrations of amino acids, carotenoids, and α1-acid glycoprotein, an acute-phase protein, in broilers inoculated with graded doses of E. acervulina oocysts. Ross 308 male broilers (400 total) were housed in battery cages from 1 to 21 d post-hatch and received common corn-soybean meal-based diets throughout the experiment. At 9 d post-hatch, birds were individually weighed and allotted to 4 treatment groups with 10 replicate cages of 10 birds per cage. At 15 d post-hatch, all birds were inoculated with 1 mL of distilled water that contained 0, 2.5 × 10(5), 5.0 × 10(5), or 1.0 × 10(6) sporulated E. acervulina oocysts. At 21 d, birds were euthanized for collection of blood and ileal digesta. Body weight gain and feed efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina dose. With the exception of Trp and Gly, AID values decreased (P < 0.05) linearly or quadratically for all amino acids by an average of 2.6 percentage units for birds inoculated with 1.0 × 10(6) oocysts compared with uninfected birds. Infection with E. acervulina caused a quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma carotenoid concentrations. Plasma concentrations of Arg and Tyr decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing E. acervulina inoculation dose and plasma Gln and Asn decreased quadratically (P < 0.01). Linear increases (P < 0.05) were observed for plasma Lys, Leu, Ile, Val, Pro, and Orn as E. acervulina inoculation dose increased. Plasma α1-acid glycoprotein of broilers was not influenced (P > 0.05) by E. acervulina infection. In conclusion, E. acervulina challenge adversely impacted growth performance, plasma carotenoids, and AID of amino acids in a dose-dependent manner. However, plasma amino acid responses to graded E. acervulina inoculation doses varied considerably among amino acids. Thus, these results indicated that alterations

  17. Elevated anthranilic acid plasma concentrations in type 1 but not type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory; van der Hart, Marieke; Summergrad, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data suggested involvement of tryptophan (Trp) – kynurenine (Kyn) pathway (TKP) in mechanisms of autoimmune, type 1 (T1D), and metabolic, type 2 (T2D), diabetes. However, clinical evaluations of TKP metabolites were limited to T2D. We assessed Trp, Kyn and TKP metabolites: anthranilic (AA), kynurenic (KYNA) and xanthurenic (XA) acids, in plasma samples of fifteen T1D, thirty T2D patients and twenty eight non-diabetic subjects by HPLC-mass spectrometry. Trp concentrations were higher in T1D than in T2D and controls while Kyn concentrations were not changed suggesting down-regulation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a rate-limiting enzyme of TKP, in T1D. AA concentrations were 2.3-fold higher in T1D than in T2D and in controls. KYNA and XA concentrations were higher in T1D than in controls, and in previously reported T2D. AA elevation might be a specific feature of T1D. TKP shift towards AA formation in T1D may result from riboflavin deficiency, that increases AA in rats and baboons, and is highly associated with T1D but not T2D. AA augments autoimmune-induced apoptosis of pancreatic cells (PC) by increasing formation of antibodies to PC auto-antigen. Marked increase of AA was reported in rheumatoid arthritis, another autoimmune disorder. Trp, an essential amino acid for humans, is synthesized from AA by diabetogenic intestinal microbiome. AA down-regulates IDO by inhibition of Trp entry into cells. Resulting elevation of Trp attenuates Trp depletion-induced protection of PC against autoimmunity. Further studies of TKP might offer new tools for prevention and treatment of T1D and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:26523229

  18. Intravenous lipid and amino acids briskly increase plasma glucose concentrations in small premature infants.

    PubMed

    Savich, R D; Finley, S L; Ogata, E S

    1988-07-01

    We determined the glycemic response to intravenous lipid infusion alone, lipid with amino acids, or amino acids alone in 15 very small premature infants receiving constant glucose infusion during early life. Infants who received lipid or lipid and amino acids demonstrated significant increases in glucose compared with infants who received amino acids. The combination of lipid and amino acids resulted in an earlier increase than lipid alone. Although plasma insulin did not change in all three groups, infants who received amino acids alone demonstrated an appropriate increase in glucagon. These data suggest that lipid infusion, a commonly used means of providing nutrition to premature infants, may cause significant disturbances in glucoregulation, particularly when administered with amino acids. PMID:3132930

  19. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas their concentrations in muscle were unaltered. Simultaneously, tyrosine and phenylalanine levels rose 38 and 50% (P < 0.05) in the plasma and 66 and 46% (P < 0.05) in muscle, respectively. After the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P < 0.05), as was the combined concentrations of muscle tyrosine and phenylalanine with plasma creatine kinase (R (2) = 0.55, P < 0.05). Following 28-h of recovery, plasma and muscle levels of amino acids had either returned to their initial levels or were elevated. In conclusion, ultra-endurance exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  20. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  1. Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kabasakal Cetin, Arzu; Dasgin, Halil; Gülec, Atila; Onbasilar, İlyas; Akyol, Asli

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring’s plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring’s plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development. PMID:26633475

  2. Relationships between circulating plasma concentrations and duodenal flows of essential amino acids in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Patton, R A; Hristov, A N; Parys, C; Lapierre, H

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to better define essential AA (EAA) requirements in lactating dairy cows through examination of the relationship between plasma essential AA concentration (p[EAA]) and predicted duodenal flow of essential AA (EAAduo). Our hypothesis was that at a given level of milk protein output, p[EAA] would remain steady in response to increasing EAAduo until the EAA requirement was met, at which point p[EAA] would increase rapidly in response to greater duodenal flow of EAA until p[EAA] reached a plateau as other body processes degraded excess EAA to avoid toxicity. Thus, the requirement of each EAA would be fulfilled when p[EAA] increased rapidly. To investigate this hypothesis, we compiled a literature database that included 102 studies with 420 treatment means that reported p[EAA], dietary nutrient content, body weight, and milk production. A second database was produced to validate relationships developed in the first database and included 32 studies with 98 treatment means. All relationships were evaluated as regression equations with study as a random factor. Breed, days in milk, body weight, and milk protein production had no effect on the plasma concentration of any EAA. Other than metabolizable protein supply, nutritional content of the rations did not affect p[EAA]. Only p[Arg] was affected by parity, with primiparous cows having higher concentrations of Arg than older cows. No break points in the relationship between p[EAA] versus EAAduo were detected as either steep increases or plateaus. Plasma Arg, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val concentrations were best associated with their respective EAAduo as quadratic equations, whereas His, Leu, Met, and Phe were associated only linearly. Adding a quadratic term improved the adjusted R(2) or decreased the root mean square error marginally (<2.0%). Thus, we conclude that the main effect of EAAduo on p[EAA] is linear. Abomasal or duodenal infusions of Met, Lys, His, Lys+Met, and casein revealed that Met

  3. Effect of strength training session on plasma amino acid concentration following oral ingestion of leucine, BCAAs or glutamine in men.

    PubMed

    Mero, Antti; Leikas, Anne; Knuutinen, Juha; Hulmi, Juha J; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2009-01-01

    We examined the acute effects of a 1-h strength training session (STS) on plasma amino acid concentration following orally ingestion of leucine, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) or glutamine in nine physically active men who participated in double-blinded and randomised experiments. The subjects took placebo, leucine, BCAAs, or glutamine capsules (50 mg/kg) in either rest (REST) or STS condition. Blood samples were taken before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the beginning of the treatment and they were assayed for plasma amino acids with HPLC. Following both leucine and BCAA ingestion the peak concentration of leucine was similar at rest (524 +/- 46 and 530 +/- 29 nmol/ml, respectively) and similar after STS (398 +/- 43 and 387 +/- 46 nmol/ml, respectively) but the rest and STS concentrations differed from each other (P < 0.01-0.001). The modelled polynomial data for the leucine treatment showed that the peak concentration of leucine occurred at 67 min at rest and at 90 min in STS (difference between REST and STS: P = 0.012). For the BCAA treatment the polynomial data showed that the peak concentration of leucine occurred at 72 min at rest and at 78 min in STS (P = 0.067). The peak concentration of glutamine was similar in both rest and STS condition and occurred at 60 min at rest and at 57 min in STS. In conclusion, 1-h of STS slows the increase in the peak concentration of plasma leucine similarly after oral ingestion of leucine or BCAAs but after oral ingestion of glutamine it has no slowing effect on glutamine concentration. PMID:19015870

  4. Investigation of low levels of plasma valproic acid concentration following simultaneous administration of sodium valproate and rizatriptan benzoate.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Nobuo; Hobara, Norio; Kameya, Hiromasa; Ohshiro, Susumu; Hobara, Narumi; Sakanashi, Matao

    2007-03-01

    Drug interaction between rizatriptan benzoate, an anti-migraine agent, and sodium valproate (VPA-Na), an anticonvulsant, was studied in rats. When rizatriptan benzoate was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na oral administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters, such as plasma valproic acid (VPA) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to 3 h (AUC(0-3)), were significantly decreased compared with those in the control group. However, when rizatriptan benzoate was administered intraperitoneally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these parameters were not changed. In addition, when benzoic acid was administered orally immediately after VPA-Na orally, these were significantly lower compared with the control values. Therefore, it might be possible that VPA transport by monocarboxylate transporter was competitively inhibited by rizatriptan benzoate and thus absorption of VPA was decreased. PMID:17331341

  5. [Plasma homocysteine concentration and its relationship with the development of preeclampsia. Effect of prenatal administration of folic acid].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Marisol; Fernández, Gerardo; Diez-Ewald, Maria; Torres, Enrique; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Fernández, Nelson; Narváez, Janeth; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis

    2005-06-01

    The increase of plasmatic homocysteine (Hc) in pregnant women, who later develop preeclampsia/eclampsia, the cause of this increment and its pathogenic role in toxemia of pregnancy, are still controversial. The objectives of the present research were to determine the plasmatic He concentrations during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and the effect of folic acid administration on these values, and in the prevention of preeclampsia. Ninety six pregnant women of low economic background were studied on the first prenatal consultation: 27 women in the first trimester of pregnancy and 59 in the second. After 8 hours of fasting, venous blood was extracted and each patient was provided with 1 mg folic acid tablets and instructed to ingest one tablet daily, and to come back to the laboratory after three months. Plasma homocysteine and serum folic acid were determined for each patient before and after the folic acid treatment, by using the IMX system (Abbott Lab) and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Basal homocysteine concentrations were 4.0 +/- 2.1 micromol/L and 4.8 +/- 2.1 micromol/L in the first and second trimesters respectively, with no significant modifications after three months of folic acid. Although the degree of desertion from the study was high, it was possible to determine the evolution of 65 pregnancies. Ten of them developed preeclampsia (15.4%). No significant differences were found in Hc concentrations, or the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia in the different stages of pregnancy, between women with normal gestation and those who developed preeclampsia. The small sample size of these groups, preclude any valid conclusion, however the results do not suggest that Hc concentration or folic acid administration influence the development of toxemia of pregnancy. PMID:16001750

  6. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with Type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TransFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining, with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). We sought to determine whether plasma 18-carbon TFA a...

  7. Acculturation and plasma fatty acid concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may...

  8. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P < .001) in the krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P < .05) in the menhaden oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P < .006). No significant differences for other safety variables were noted, including adverse events. In conclusion, 4 weeks of krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters. PMID:19854375

  9. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of

  10. Effects of acid type and concentration on the determination of 34 elements by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hee, S.S.Q.; Macdonald, T.J.; Boyle, J.R.

    1985-06-01

    A mixed acid consisting of 11.6% HCl/2.8% HNO/sub 3/ proved superior to 2 to 10% HCl, HNO/sub 3/, and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone in chemical compatibility and storage characteristics for simultaneous inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) determination of 33 elements admixed up to concentrations of 100 ..mu..g/mL each. A 2% aqua regia solution appeared to be adequate below 10..mu..g/mL of all these admixed elements plus silver. Use of the mixed acid generally also allowed for more reproducible interelemental k factors. Less sensitive elements and elements whose lines were in the vacuum ultraviolet were not as reproducible. A two-point standardization procedure was adequate, and k factor values agreed within 10% only over a specific concentration range. A practical procedure to define the range of determination was developed using the 11.6% HCl/2.8% HNO/sub 3/ acid solvent. 24 references, 11 tables.

  11. LC-MS/MS for the simultaneous analysis of arachidonic acid and 32 related metabolites in human plasma: Basal plasma concentrations and aspirin-induced changes of eicosanoids.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Dhananjay D; Kim, Kwon-Bok; Oh, Kyung-Suk; Abdalla, Nagi; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Bae, Soo Kyung; Shon, Ji-Hong; Kim, Ho-Sook; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Shin, Jae Gook

    2012-12-12

    Eicosanoids play an important role in various biological responses and can be used as biomarkers for specific diseases. Therefore, we developed a highly selective, sensitive, and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method to measure arachidonic acid and its 32 metabolites in human plasma. Sample preparation involved solid phase extraction, which efficiently removed sources of interference present in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed using a Luna C(8)-column with 0.5mM ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile as the mobile phase under gradient conditions. Detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization interface in negative ion mode. The matrix did not affect the reproducibility and reliability of the assay. All analytes showed good linearity over the investigated concentration range (r>0.997). The validated lower limit of quantitation for the analytes ranged from 10 to 400pg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision (RDS%) over the concentration ranges for all eicosanoids were within 16.8%, and accuracy ranged between 88.1 and 108.2%. This assay was suitable for the determination of basal plasma levels of eicosanoids and the evaluation of effect of aspirin on eicosanoid plasma levels in healthy subjects. PMID:23217314

  12. Plasma concentrations of benzodiazepines.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, A J; Hailey, D M; Lader, M H

    1977-01-01

    1. Twenty anxious patients were treated with medazepam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, amylobarbitone and placebo, each given in flexible dosage for 2-4 weeks. 2. At the end of each treatment, a series of clinical, physiological and behavioural variables were measured and plasma samples were taken for estimation of the appropriate drug and metabolite concentrations. 3. Nordiazepam was shown to be an important metabolite of both medazepam and diazepam: the ratio of medazepam to noradiazepam was 0.14 and the ratio of diazepam to nordiazepam following diazepam administration was 0.72. 4. No significant correlations were found between the plasma concentrations of any of the treatments and the clinical ratings or behavioural measures. 5. Some relationship was shown between levels of medazepam and its physiological effects. PMID:14659

  13. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Andrew M.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Bierau, Jörgen; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2) ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen) in an upright seated position (control) and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion). Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05), which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA) response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05). Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05). Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease. PMID:27089362

  14. New method for GC/FID and GC-C-IRMS analysis of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Kangani, Cyrous O; Kelley, David E; Delany, James P

    2008-09-15

    A simple, direct and accurate method for the determination of concentration and enrichment of free fatty acids (FFAs) in human plasma was developed. The validation and comparison to a conventional method are reported. Three amide derivatives, dimethyl, diethyl and pyrrolidide, were investigated in order to achieve optimal resolution of the individual fatty acids. This method involves the use of dimethylamine/Deoxo-Fluor to derivatize plasma free fatty acids to their dimethylamides. This derivatization method is very mild and efficient, and is selective only towards FFAs so that no separation from a total lipid extract is required. The direct method gave lower concentrations for palmitic acid and stearic acid and increased concentrations for oleic acid and linoleic acid in plasma as compared to methyl ester derivative after thin-layer chromatography. The [(13)C]palmitate isotope enrichment measured using direct method was significantly higher than that observed with the BF(3)/MeOH-TLC method. The present method provided accurate and precise measures of concentration as well as enrichment when analyzed with gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry. PMID:18757250

  15. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Amanda; Lindinger, Michael I

    2007-01-01

    Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate) has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA) administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1) 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial); or 2) a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial). Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse. PMID:18096070

  16. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  17. Differential effects of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia on the plasma branched-chain and non-branched-chain amino acid concentrations in humans.

    PubMed

    De Feo, P; Perriello, G; Santeusanio, F; Brunetti, P; Bolli, G; Haymond, M W

    1992-01-01

    In order to determine plasma amino acid concentrations during a prolonged but moderate insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, six healthy volunteers received a constant subcutaneous insulin infusion (15 mU.m-2.min-1) over a 12 hour period. The plasma glucose concentrations decreased from 4.72 +/- 0.11 to 2.83 +/- 0.07 mM at 600 minutes and then remained stable over the last 120 minutes. Plasma counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, epinephrine, growth hormone and cortisol) increased significantly between 120 and 180 minutes. The plasma concentration of all the amino acids paralleled the decrease in plasma glucose. The branched chain amino acids decreased to a greater extent in the first part of the study (0-360 min) in comparison to the essential non-branched chain aminoacids (p < 0.01), then increased significantly with a peak at 600 minutes (p < 0.05 vs 360 min) despite stable hyperinsulinaemia. These results suggests that during prolonged but moderate hypoglycaemia the counterregulatory hormones are able to antagonize partially the effects of insulin on protein metabolism, analogous to their well-known anti-insulin effects on glucose and fatty acid metabolism. PMID:1459315

  18. Plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids are differentially associated with hop bone mineral density and hip fracture in older adults: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may influence bone health. Our objective was to examine associations between plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) PUFA concentrations and hip measures: 1) femoral neck bone mineral density (FN-BMD) (n=765); 2) 4-y change in FN-BMD (n=556); and 3) hip fracture risk (n=76...

  19. Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined changes in plasma amino acid concentration in late-gestating (beginning 58 ± 1.02 d prior to calving), primiparous, winter-grazing range heifers receiving wheat middling based supplement without (CON) or with rumen-protected methionine (MET) to provide 15 g DL- MET each day. Pl...

  20. MAT1A variants modulate the effect of dietary fatty acids on plasma homocysteine concentrations and DNA damage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with decreased plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1A) is an enzyme involved in formation of form S-adenosylmethionine during methionine metabolism. The objectiv...

  1. Value of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status in the differential diagnosis of hyperpara-thyroidism from other causes of hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wills, M. R.

    1971-01-01

    A study is reported of the estimation of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status in the differentiation of primary hyperparathyroidism from all other causes of hypercalcaemia. In the two groups of patients studied, all of whom had hypercalcaemia, there was complete separation between the two groups on the basis of plasma chloride concentration and acid-base status. In 16 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism the increase in plasma chloride concentration and associated metabolic acidosis could have been accounted for by the known renal tubular effects of parathyroid hormone. In 13 patients with hypercalcaemia due to various other causes the decrease in plasma chloride concentration and associated metabolic alkalosis could be accounted for either by the known effects of an excess of calcium-ion on the renal tubules, or perhaps by suppression of endogenous parathyroid hormone secretion. In patients with hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia of `pseudohyperparathyroidism' associated with non-endocrine tumours it is postulated that the low plasma chloride concentrations and metabolic alkalosis found in these patients were due either to a differing biological activity of the parathyroid-hormone-like polypeptide secreted by the tumour cells, or possibly to simultaneous secretion by these cells of an ACTH-like polypeptide. PMID:5573436

  2. [Plasma and tissue concentrations of biphenylacetic acid following 1 week oral fenbufen medication and topical administration of Felbinac gel on the knee joint].

    PubMed

    Bolten, W; Salzmann, G; Goldmann, R; Miehlke, K

    1989-01-01

    In an randomised study 30 patients were treated during one week before undergoing an elective surgery of the knee joint with 1 or 2 g respectively of 3% Felbinac gel (biphenylacetic acid gel) or oral 300 mg Fenbufen thrice daily. Biphenylacetic acid (BPAA) is the therapeutically active metabolite of the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug Fenbufen. Plasma concentrations were measured before, during therapy and at the time of the operation. During the surgery of the knee joint specimens of synovial fluid and -membrane, of cartilage, muscle and tendons as well as of the skin and the subcutaneous fatty tissue were obtained and the BPAA concentrations measured. There was a large variance of the obtained values in all groups. It seems that mainly methodical problems are responsible for this. At the time of surgery, the plasma concentrations following oral administration were with 10,080 ng/ml 20 to 50 times higher than those after topical administration. The tissue concentrations reached 1/8 to 1/2 of the plasma concentrations. The relation of tissue concentrations to plasma concentrations of BPAA was smaller in patients treated with oral administration than in patients treated with topical administration. Therefore a partial direct penetration of Felbinac into the deeper tissue compartments can be assumed. There was no significant difference in plasma-, synovial- or tissue concentrations between the two groups treated with the topical administration. The tissue concentrations were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than those after oral administration. Only in the skin the concentrations were with 9160 respectively 3830 ng/g higher than those obtained after oral application (2110 ng/g). PMID:2696292

  3. Efficacy of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and plasma homocysteine concentration in coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    YI, XIN; ZHOU, YANLI; JIANG, DINGSHENG; LI, XIAOYAN; GUO, YI; JIANG, XUEJUN

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct an updated meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to estimate the effect of folic acid supplementation on endothelial function and the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). An extensive search of PubMed was conducted to identify RCTs that compared folic acid with placebo therapy. The mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used as a measure of the correlation between folic acid supplementation and endothelial function/plasma homocysteine concentration. Of the 377 patients included in this analysis, 191 patients underwent folic acid supplementation and 186 individuals underwent placebo treatment. Compared with the use of a placebo, folic acid supplementation alone exhibited significant efficacy on increasing flow-mediated dilation (FMD; MD, 57.72 μm; 95% CI, 50.14–65.31; P<0.05) and lowering the concentration of plasma homocysteine (MD, −3.66 μmol/l; 95% CI, −5.44–−1.87; P<0.05; I2, 87%). There was no significant change in the response to end diastolic diameter, glyceryl-trinitrate diameter, heart rate, baseline and peak hyperemic flow and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between the folic acid and placebo groups (P>0.05). Therefore, the meta-analysis indicated that 5 mg folic acid daily supplementation for >4 weeks significantly improved FMD and lowered the concentration of plasma homocysteine in patients with CAD. However, more RCTs are required in order to confirm these observations. PMID:24940394

  4. Aspartame ingestion with and without carbohydrate in phenylketonuric and normal subjects: effect on plasma concentrations of amino acids, glucose, and insulin.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Novak, L C; Stegink, L D; Brummel, M C; Persoon, T J; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E; Krause, W L

    1990-04-01

    Seven subjects homozygous for phenylketonuria (PKU) and seven normal subjects were administered four beverage regimens after an overnight fast: unsweetened beverage, beverage providing carbohydrate (CHO), beverage providing aspartame (APM), and beverage providing APM plus CHO. The APM dose (200 mg) was the amount provided in 12 oz of diet beverage; the CHO was partially hydrolyzed starch (60 g). Plasma amino acid concentrations were determined after dosing and the molar plasma phenylalanine (Phe) to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratio calculated. APM administration without CHO did not increase plasma Phe concentrations over baseline values in either normal or PKU subjects (5.48 +/- 0.85 and 150 +/- 23.0 mumols/dL, respectively). Similarly, the Phe/LNAA did not increase significantly. Ingestion of beverage providing APM and CHO did not significantly increase plasma Phe concentrations over baseline values in either normal or PKU subjects. However, ingestion of beverage providing CHO (with or without APM) significantly decreased plasma levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine 1.5 to 4 hours after dosing in both normal and PKU subjects, thereby increasing the Phe/LNAA ratio significantly. These data indicate that changes noted in Phe/LNAA values after ingestion of beverage providing APM plus CHO were due to CHO. The plasma insulin response to beverage providing CHO (with or without APM) was significantly higher in PKU subjects than in normals. PMID:2182973

  5. High concentrations of plasma n3 fatty acids are associated with decreased risk for late age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Merle, Bénédicte M J; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Malet, Florence; Féart, Catherine; Le Goff, Mélanie; Peuchant, Evelyne; Letenneur, Luc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Colin, Joseph; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Delcourt, Cécile

    2013-04-01

    High dietary intakes of n3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and fish have been consistently associated with a decreased risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We assessed the associations of late AMD with plasma n3 PUFA, a nutritional biomarker of n3 PUFA status. The Antioxydants Lipides Essentiels Nutrition et Maladies Occulaires (Alienor) Study is a prospective, population-based study on nutrition and age-related eye diseases performed in 963 residents of Bordeaux (France) aged ≥73 y. Participants had a first eye examination in 2006-2008 and were followed for 31 mo on average. Plasma fatty acids were measured by GC from fasting blood samples collected in 1999-2001. AMD was graded from non-mydriatic color retinal photographs at all examinations and spectral domain optical coherence tomography at follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender, smoking, education, physical activity, plasma HDL-cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, CFH Y402H, apoE4, and ARMS2 A69S polymorphisms, and follow-up time, high plasma total n3 PUFA was associated with a reduced risk for late AMD [OR = 0.62 for 1-SD increase (95% CI: 0.44-0.88); P = 0.008]. Associations were similar for plasma 18:3n3 [OR = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.43-0.88); P = 0.008] and n3 long-chain PUFA [OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.92); P = 0.01]. This study gives further support to the potential role of n3 PUFAs in the prevention of late AMD and highlights the necessity of randomized clinical trials to determine more accurately the value of n3 PUFAs as a means of reducing AMD incidence. PMID:23406618

  6. Further studies on the use of allopurinol to reduce plasma uric acid concentrations in the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) hyperuricaemic model.

    PubMed

    Poffers, J; Lumeij, J T; Timmermans-Sprang, E P M; Redig, P T

    2002-12-01

    The present paper reports the effects of allopurinol in a raptor hyperuricaemic model. The study was performed as a follow-up to previous experiments wherein allopurinol was used in doses of 100 and 50 mg/kg, and was proved to be toxic at these higher dose rates. To investigate whether 25 mg/kg (semel in die) s.i.d. allopurinol is a safe and effective dose in Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) to reduce plasma uric acid concentrations, experimental studies were performed using the physiologically occurring postprandial hyperuricaemia. Preprandial and postprandial plasma concentrations of xanthine, hypoxanthine, allopurinol, oxypurinol and uric acid were established by high-performance liquid chromatography at various time intervals after receiving allopurinol (25 mg/kg SID) or placebo. No significant differences were observed between the experimental and the control group. These results indicate that this dose is safe to administer; however, this dose failed to cause a significant effect on plasma uric acid concentrations. Because of the low therapeutic ratio of allopurinol in Red-tailed Hawks, follow-up studies have concentrated on an alternative for the treatment of hyperuricaemia, namely urate oxidase. PMID:12593739

  7. Plasma Concentrations of Endocannabinoids and Related Primary Fatty Acid Amides in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hauer, Daniela; Schelling, Gustav; Gola, Hannah; Campolongo, Patrizia; Morath, Julia; Roozendaal, Benno; Hamuni, Gilava; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Atsak, Piray; Vogeser, Michael; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Background Endocannabinoids (ECs) and related N-acyl-ethanolamides (NAEs) play important roles in stress response regulation, anxiety and traumatic memories. In view of the evidence that circulating EC levels are elevated under acute mild stressful conditions in humans, we hypothesized that individuals with traumatic stress exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder characterized by the inappropriate persistence and uncontrolled retrieval of traumatic memories, show measurable alterations in plasma EC and NAE concentrations. Methods We determined plasma concentrations of the ECs anandamide (ANA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and the NAEs palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), stearoylethanolamine (SEA), and N-oleoyldopamine (OLDA) by HPLC-MS-MS in patients with PTSD (n = 10), trauma-exposed individuals without evidence of PTSD (n = 9) and in healthy control subjects (n = 29). PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria by administering the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), which also assesses traumatic events. Results Individuals with PTSD showed significantly higher plasma concentrations of ANA (0.48±0.11 vs. 0.36±0.14 ng/ml, p = 0.01), 2-AG (8.93±3.20 vs. 6.26±2.10 ng/ml, p<0.01), OEA (5.90±2.10 vs. 3.88±1.85 ng/ml, p<0.01), SEA (2.70±3.37 vs. 0.83±0.47, ng/ml, p<0.05) and significantly lower plasma levels of OLDA (0.12±0.05 vs. 0.45±0.59 ng/ml, p<0.05) than healthy controls. Moreover, PTSD patients had higher 2-AG plasma levels (8.93±3.20 vs. 6.01±1.32 ng/ml, p = 0.03) and also higher plasma concentrations of PEA (4.06±1.87 vs. 2.63±1.34 ng/ml, p<0.05) than trauma-exposed individuals without evidence of PTSD. CAPS scores in trauma-exposed individuals with and without PTSD (n = 19) correlated positively with PEA (r = 0.55, p = 0.02) and negatively with OLDA plasma levels (r = −0.68, p<0.01). CAPS subscores for intrusions (r = −0.65, p<0

  8. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    PubMed Central

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  9. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults--Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study.

    PubMed

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  10. Alteration in the plasma concentration of a DAAO inhibitor, 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid, in the ketamine-treated rats and the influence on the pharmacokinetics of plasma D-tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Naomi; Iizuka, Hideaki; Ishii, Kana; Yoshihara, Shunsuke; Ichiba, Hideaki; Fukushima, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    A determination method for 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid (MPC), an inhibitor of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), in rat plasma was developed by using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The structural isomer of MPC, 3-methylpyrazole-4-carboxylic acid, was used as an internal standard, and the intra- and inter-day accuracies and precisions were satisfactory for the determination of plasma MPC.Next, the LC-MS method was applied to determine the plasma MPC concentration in ketamine (Ket)-treated rats after intraperitoneal administration of MPC (5.0 or 50 mg·kg(-1)). The C(max) value of plasma MPC concentration in the Ket-treated rats was significantly higher than that in the control group when a high dose of MPC (50 mg·kg(-1)) was administered. In addition, it was found that plasma D-tryptophan (D-Trp) concentration in Ket-treated rats administered D-Trp was not significantly increased by MPC, suggesting that the DAAO-inhibitory effect of MPC is attenuated in Ket-treated rats. PMID:22156410

  11. Changes in amino acid concentration in plasma and type I and type II fibres during resistance exercise and recovery in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Blomstrand, Eva; Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta

    2009-10-01

    Eight male subjects performed leg press exercise, 4 x 10 repetitions at 80% of their maximum. Venous blood samples were taken before, during exercise and repeatedly during 2 h of recovery. From four subjects, biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle prior to, immediately after and following one and 2 h of recovery. Samples were freeze-dried, individual muscle fibres were dissected out and identified as type I or type II. Resistance exercise led to pronounced reductions in the glutamate concentration in both type I (32%) and type II fibres (70%). Alanine concentration was elevated 60-75% in both fibre types and 29% in plasma. Glutamine concentration remained unchanged after exercise; although 2 h later the concentrations in both types of fibres were reduced 30-35%. Two hours after exercise, the plasma levels of glutamate and six of the essential amino acids, including the branched-chain amino acids were reduced 5-30%. The data suggest that glutamate acts as an important intermediate in muscle energy metabolism during resistance exercise, especially in type II fibres. PMID:18931969

  12. Diurnal Variations of Mouse Plasma and Hepatic Bile Acid Concentrations as well as Expression of Biosynthetic Enzymes and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Guo, Grace L.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diurnal fluctuation of bile acid (BA) concentrations in the enterohepatic system of mammals has been known for a long time. Recently, BAs have been recognized as signaling molecules beyond their well-established roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homeostasis. Methods and Results The current study depicted diurnal variations of individual BAs detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) in serum and livers collected from C57BL/6 mice fed a regular chow or a chow containing cholestyramine (resin). Circadian rhythms of mRNA of vital BA-related nuclear receptors, enzymes, and transporters in livers and ilea were determined in control- and resin-fed mice, as well as in farnesoid X receptor (FXR) null mice. The circadian profiles of BAs showed enhanced bacterial dehydroxylation during the fasting phase and efficient hepatic reconjugation of BAs in the fed phase. The resin removed more than 90% of BAs with β-hydroxy groups, such as muricholic acids and ursodeoxycholic acid, from serum and livers, but did not exert as significant influence on CA and CDCA in both compartments. Both resin-fed and FXR-null mouse models indicate that BAs regulate their own biosynthesis through the FXR-regulated ileal fibroblast growth factor 15. BA flux also influences the daily mRNA levels of multiple BA transporters. Conclusion BA concentration and composition exhibit circadian variations in mouse liver and serum, which influences the circadian rhythms of BA metabolizing genes in liver and ileum. The diurnal variations of BAs appear to serve as a signal that coordinates daily nutrient metabolism in mammals. PMID:21346810

  13. A High-Fat Diet Enriched with Low Omega-6 to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Reduced Fat Cellularity and Plasma Leptin Concentration in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tekeleselassie, A. W.; Goh, Y. M.; Rajion, M. A.; Motshakeri, M.; Ebrahimi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of dietary fatty acids on the accretion pattern of major fat pads, inguinal fat cellularity, and their relation with plasma leptin concentration. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups and received the following diets for 22 weeks: (1) standard rat chow diet (CTRL), (2) CTRL + 10% (w/w) butter (HFAR), (3) CTRL + 3.33% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 6.67% (w/w) soybean oil (MFAR), and (4) CTRL + 6.67% (w/w) menhaden fish oil + 3.33% (w/w) soybean oil (LFAR). Inguinal fat cellularity and plasma leptin concentration were measured in this study. Results for inguinal fat cellularity showed that the mean adipocyte number for the MFAR (9.2 ∗ 105 ± 3.6) and LFAR (8.5 ∗ 105 ± 5.1) groups was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the rest, while the mean adipocyte diameter of HFAR group was larger (P < 0.05) (46.2 ± 2.8) than the rest. The plasma leptin concentration in the HFAR group was higher (P < 0.05) (3.22 ± 0.32 ng/mL), than the other groups. The higher inguinal fat cellularity clearly indicated the ability of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and butter supplemented diets to induce hyperplasia and hypertrophy of fat cells, respectively, which caused adipocyte remodeling due to hyperleptinemia. PMID:24294136

  14. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the expression of genes involved in the endocannabinoid system in the bovine endometrium and increases plasma progesterone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Abolghasemi, A; Dirandeh, E; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Shohreh, B

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids are derived from phospholipids and reduce fertility by interfering with implantation. Identification of changes in the expression of genes of the endocannabinoid system as a result of dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is critical to the advancement of our understanding of the nutritional regulation of uterine function. An experiment was conducted on transition cows to evaluate the expression of key endocannabinoid genes in bovine endometrium in response to dietary supplementation with CLA. A total of 16 cows were randomly assigned to two treatments: (1) control (75 g/day palm oil) and (2) CLA (75 g/day CLA) from 21 days prepartum to Day 42 postpartum. Cows underwent uterine biopsy on days 21 and 42 postpartum. The abundance of mRNA encoding endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2), N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), N-acylethanolamine acid amidase (NAAA), and monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) was measured by real-time PCR. Results reported that relative levels of mRNA encoding CNR2 and NAPEPLD were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with control cows between Days 21 and 42 postpartum. Relative levels of mRNA coding for NAAA and MGLL were not different (P > 0.05) in the same situation. Mean plasma progesterone concentrations were higher in CLA-fed cows compared with control cows at Day 42 postpartum (3.51 and 1.42 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, we suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with CLA are the result of a decrease in relative gene expression of the endocannabinoid receptor (CNR2) and enzymes that synthesize fatty acid amides (NAPEPLD) and of an increase in the expression of PTGS2 that in turn can oxidate endocannabinoids and consequently resulted in increased plasma progesterone concentrations during early lactation. PMID:27262886

  15. [Plasma- and tissue concentrations following intramuscular administration of etofenamat. Pharmacokinetics of etofenamat and flufenamic acid in plasma, synovium, and tissues of patients with chronic polyarthritis after administration of an oily solution of etofenamat].

    PubMed

    Köhler, G; Tressel, W; Dell, H D; Doersing, M; Fischer, W; Kamp, R; Langer, M; Richter, B; Wirzbach, E

    1992-12-01

    Studies on Plasma and Tissue Concentrations of Etofenamate following Intramuscular Application/Pharmacokinetics of etofenamate and flutenamic acid in plasma, synovia and tissues of patients with chronic polyarthritis after application of oily etofenamat solution Pharmacokinetics of etofenamate (ETO, CAS 30544-47-9; Rheumon i.m.) and flufenamic acid (FLU, CAS 530-78-9) were investigated in plasma, synovial fluid, and tissues after single intramuscular application of etofenamate to patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 62 patients with indicated operative procedure in the knee-joint received a single dose of etofenamate dissolved in oil before operation. At definite times between 1.5 and 48 h post injectionem samples from 6 patients of each time group were collected. Samples of plasma, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, muscle, bone, hyaline cartilage, and fat tissue and in some cases meniscus cartilage were taken. Concentrations of ETO and its active metabolite, FLU, were determined by HPTLC. In all tissues investigated, concentration/time courses of ETO and FLU were observed. ETO and FLU were measured first in all matrices 1.5 h at the latest 3 h post injectionem. Pharmacokinetics in tissues follows that in plasma. Rate-limiting step is the liberation of drug from the oil depot. For a long period pharmacokinetics of ETO and FLU is mainly determined by the constant liberation from the oil depot (zero order kinetics of liberation). Zero order kinetics is deduced from the linear ascent of the cumulated AUC (in percent) vs. time plot. It is directly related to the liberation of drug from the galenical formulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1288513

  16. Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J A; Rinaldi, S; Scalbert, A; Ferrari, P; Achaintre, D; Gunter, M J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J; Travis, R C

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Subjects/Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30–49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing. Results: In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of −13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters). Conclusions: Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes. PMID:26395436

  17. Acid-base parameters and steroid concentrations in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of lactating dairy cows with spontaneous and synchronized oestrus or follicular cyst.

    PubMed

    Hussein, H A; Boryczko, Z; Bostedt, H

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to compare the acid-base balance and steroid concentrations between follicular fluids (FF) of pre-ovulatory follicles derived from a spontaneous oestrus (SO), synchronized or induced oestrus (IO) and follicular cysts (CYS) and between FF and blood in dairy cows. Forty-two dairy cows were included in this study. The animals were allocated to three groups: SO (n = 23); IO (n = 11) using GnRH at day 0 and day 9 and PGF2 α at day 7; and animals with CYS (n = 10). The follicular fluids (FF) were aspirated from the cyst/pre-ovulatory follicles (∅ ≥ 15 mm) after SO and after second GnRH dose in IO by transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up technique. Blood samples (BL) were collected in heparinized vacutainer tubes. The oxygen tension (pO2) in FF of IO was higher (p < 0.05) than in SO and CYS groups. There were negative correlations (p < 0.001, r = -0.89) between FF and blood pO2. The carbon dioxide tension (pCO2) and lactate level in FF of CYS group were higher (p < 0.05) than in SO and IO groups. There were negative correlations (p < 0.01, r = -0.73) between blood and FF pO2. Oestradiol-17β concentration in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of the SO group was higher (p < 0.001) than in IO and CYS groups. Progesterone concentration in pre-ovulatory follicles and plasma of the SO and IO groups was lower (p < 0.01) than in CYS group. Plasma androstenedione concentration in SO and IO groups was higher (p < 0.05) than in CYS group. In conclusion, acid-base parameters, E2 and P4 levels in the follicular fluid of both IO and CYS groups were deviated greatly from the physiological level (disturbances of intrafollicular/intracystic environment), which may affect the quality of both the oocyte and the granulosa cells. PMID:23581396

  18. Effect of a sustained reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentration on insulin signalling and inflammation in skeletal muscle from human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hanyu; Tantiwong, Puntip; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Mohan, Sumathy; Espinoza, Sara; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Dubé, John J; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Reducing plasma FFA concentration in obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanism by which FFA reduction improves insulin sensitivity in human subjects is not fully understood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological FFA reduction enhances insulin action by reducing local (muscle) inflammation, leading to improved insulin signalling. Insulin-stimulated total glucose disposal (TGD), plasma FFA species, muscle insulin signalling, IκBα protein, c-Jun phosphorylation, inflammatory gene (toll-like receptor 4 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1) expression, and ceramide and diacylglycerol (DAG) content were measured in muscle from a group of obese and T2DM subjects before and after administration of the antilipolytic drug acipimox for 7 days, and the results were compared to lean individuals. We found that obese and T2DM subjects had elevated saturated and unsaturated FFAs in plasma, and acipimox reduced all FFA species. Acipimox-induced reductions in plasma FFAs improved TGD and insulin signalling in obese and T2DM subjects. Acipimox increased IκBα protein (an indication of decreased IκB kinase–nuclear factor κB signalling) in both obese and T2DM subjects, but did not affect c-Jun phosphorylation in any group. Acipimox also decreased inflammatory gene expression, although this reduction only occurred in T2DM subjects. Ceramide and DAG content did not change. To summarize, pharmacological FFA reduction improves insulin signalling in muscle from insulin-resistant subjects. This beneficial effect on insulin action could be related to a decrease in local inflammation. Notably, the improvements in insulin action were more pronounced in T2DM, indicating that these subjects are more susceptible to the toxic effect of FFAs. PMID:23529132

  19. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency. PMID:22585822

  20. Intravaginal administration of lactic acid bacteria modulated the incidence of purulent vaginal discharges, plasma haptoglobin concentrations, and milk production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ametaj, B N; Iqbal, S; Selami, F; Odhiambo, J F; Wang, Y; Gänzle, M G; Dunn, S M; Zebeli, Q

    2014-04-01

    This investigation studied the effects of intravaginal administration of a mixture of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the incidence of purulent vaginal discharges (PVD), plasma haptoglobin concentrations, and milk production in dairy cows. A total of 82 pregnant primiparous and multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in this study. Half of the cows received intravaginally 1mL of LAB at 10(10)-10(12)cfu/mL and the other half 1mL of reconstituted skim milk (i.e., carrier) (controls). Administration of LAB was conducted once per wk during 2 and 1wk before the expected day of calving and at 1, 2, 3, and 4wk postpartum. Data demonstrated that intravaginal administration of LAB decreased the occurrence of PVD at 3wk postpartum (P<0.05). Concentrations of plasma haptoglobin, an acute phase protein often associated with uterine infections, was lower in cows treated with the LAB mixture at 2wk (P<0.001) and 3wk (P<0.05) postpartum. Treatment with LAB did not improve overall pregnancy rate, but the treated multiparous cows produced more milk than their control counterparts (P<0.05), whereas no difference was observed in primiparous cows regarding milk yield (P>0.05). Overall, this is the first study demonstrating that intravaginal LAB administration lowers the incidence of PVD and enhances milk production in dairy cows. Further research is warranted to evaluate the effects of LAB on reproductive performance in a larger cohort of cows. PMID:24612560

  1. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  2. Effect of preduodenal lipase inhibition in suckling rats on dietary octanoic acid (C8:0) gastric absorption and plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration.

    PubMed

    Lemarié, F; Cavalier, J-F; Garcia, C; Boissel, F; Point, V; Catheline, D; Legrand, P; Carrière, F; Rioux, V

    2016-09-01

    Part of medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) coming from dietary triglycerides (TGs) can be directly absorbed through the gastric mucosa after the action of preduodenal lipase (lingual lipase in the rat). MCFA gastric absorption, particularly that of octanoic acid (C8:0), may have a physiological importance in the octanoylation of ghrelin, the orexigenic gastric peptide acting as an endogenous ligand of the hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a). However, the amount of C8:0 absorbed in the stomach and its metabolic fate still haven't been clearly characterized. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize and quantify the importance of preduodenal lipase activity on the release and gastric absorption of dietary C8:0 and on the subsequent ghrelin octanoylation in the stomach mucosa. Fifteen days old rats received fat emulsions containing triolein or [1,1,1-(13)C]-Tri-C8:0 and a specific inhibitor of preduodenal lipase, 5-(2-(benzyloxy)ethoxy)-3-(3-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one or BemPPOX. The fate of the (13)C-C8:0 was followed in rat tissues after 30 and 120min of digestion and octanoylated ghrelin was measured in the plasma. This work (1) demonstrates that part of C8:0 coming from Tri-C8:0 is directly absorbed at the gastric level, (2) allows the estimation of C8:0 gastric absorption level (1.3% of the (13)C-C8:0 in sn-3 position after 30min of digestion), as well as (3) the contribution of rat lingual lipase to total lipolysis and to duodenal absorption of dietary FAs (at least 30%), (4) shows no short-term effect of dietary Tri-C8:0 consumption and subsequent increase of C8:0 gastric tissue content on plasma octanoylated ghrelin concentration. PMID:27317984

  3. Plasma concentrations of voriconazole in falcons.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, V; Demiraj, F; Di Somma, A; Bailey, T; Ungemach, F R; Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E

    2007-08-25

    Doses of 12.5 mg voriconazole/kg bodyweight administered every 12 hours by crop gavage to six falcons for 14 days provided peak plasma concentrations of more than 1 microg/ml, but the trough concentrations were lower and sometimes undetectable. Administering the same doses incorporated into meat that was fed to one falcon for seven days and to three falcons for up to 91 days provided similar plasma concentrations. PMID:17720963

  4. An Invert U-Shaped Curve: Relationship Between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in a Large Health Check-Up Population in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibo; Zha, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Mengxue; Guo, Rui; Wen, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are some published studies focus on the invert U-shaped relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum uric acid (UA), while the threshold value and gender differences of this relationship were still obscure. We aimed to explore the dose–response relation between FPG level and serum UA concentration by conducted this epidemiological research in a large health check-up population in China. A total of 237,703 people were collected from January 2011 to July 2014 in our cross-sectional study; 100,348 subjects age 18 to 89 years and without known diabetes were included for the current analysis. One-way analysis of variance, generalized additive models, and 2-piecewise linear regression model were used. The mean concentration of UA with FPG of <6.1, 6.1 to 6.9, and ≥7.0 mmol/L was 240.9, 260.2, and 259.6 μmol/L in women and 349.0, 360.8, and 331.0 μmol/L in men. An invert U-shape with a threshold FPG of 7.5 (women)/6.5 (men) mmol/L was observed in the regression curve of FPG and UA, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted regression coefficients were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 3.4, P < 0.001) for FPG < 7.5 mmol/L, −3.2 (95% CI: −5.0 to −1.3, P < 0.001) for FPG ≥ 7.5 mmol/L in women; while 0.8 (95% CI: −0.4 to 2.0, P = 0.19) for FPG < 6.5 mmol/L, −7.1 (95% CI: −8.0 to −6.1, P < 0.001) for FPG ≥ 6.5 mmol/L in men. Furthermore, the interaction between different FPG level and sex was significant (P < 0.05). An invert U-shape with a threshold of FPG was existed for serum UA level in Chinese adults age 18 to 89 years without known diabetes, and significant gender differences were found. Future researches should pay more attention to this relationship. PMID:27100447

  5. An Invert U-Shaped Curve: Relationship Between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in a Large Health Check-Up Population in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibo; Zha, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Yu; Liu, Mengxue; Guo, Rui; Wen, Yufeng

    2016-04-01

    There are some published studies focus on the invert U-shaped relationship between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and serum uric acid (UA), while the threshold value and gender differences of this relationship were still obscure. We aimed to explore the dose-response relation between FPG level and serum UA concentration by conducted this epidemiological research in a large health check-up population in China.A total of 237,703 people were collected from January 2011 to July 2014 in our cross-sectional study; 100,348 subjects age 18 to 89 years and without known diabetes were included for the current analysis. One-way analysis of variance, generalized additive models, and 2-piecewise linear regression model were used.The mean concentration of UA with FPG of <6.1, 6.1 to 6.9, and ≥7.0 mmol/L was 240.9, 260.2, and 259.6 μmol/L in women and 349.0, 360.8, and 331.0 μmol/L in men. An invert U-shape with a threshold FPG of 7.5 (women)/6.5 (men) mmol/L was observed in the regression curve of FPG and UA, even after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted regression coefficients were 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 3.4, P < 0.001) for FPG < 7.5 mmol/L, -3.2 (95% CI: -5.0 to -1.3, P < 0.001) for FPG ≥ 7.5 mmol/L in women; while 0.8 (95% CI: -0.4 to 2.0, P = 0.19) for FPG < 6.5 mmol/L, -7.1 (95% CI: -8.0 to -6.1, P < 0.001) for FPG ≥ 6.5 mmol/L in men. Furthermore, the interaction between different FPG level and sex was significant (P < 0.05).An invert U-shape with a threshold of FPG was existed for serum UA level in Chinese adults age 18 to 89 years without known diabetes, and significant gender differences were found. Future researches should pay more attention to this relationship. PMID:27100447

  6. Plasma concentrations of PGFM and uterine and ovarian responses in early lactation dairy cows fed omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Dirandeh, E; Towhidi, A; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Hashemi, F Adib; Ganjkhanlou, M; Zeinoaldini, S; Roodbari, A Rezaei; Saberifar, T; Petit, H V

    2013-07-15

    A total of 120 dairy cows were assigned randomly to three diets to determine the effects of omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation on uterine diseases, ovarian responses, and blood concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, and PGFM in lactating Holstein dairy cows. Diets contained either protected palm oil (C), extruded linseed (L), or roasted whole soybeans (S), and they were fed from calving to Day 70 postpartum. Estrous cycles were synchronized and ovarian follicular development was monitored daily for an entire cycle. There were no differences among diets in the incidence of lameness, mastitis, or metritis, but the incidence of clinical endometritis was lower (P < 0.05) in cows fed S (0%) compared with cows fed C (28.2%) and L (20.5%). Uterine involution in cows fed S occurred 3.77 and 2.78 days earlier, respectively, than in those fed C and L. The PGFM response 60 minutes after an oxytocin challenge was highest for cows fed S and lowest for cows fed L. Mean plasma progesterone concentration on Day 15 of the synchronized cycle was higher in cows fed S (14.5 ng/mL) and L (15.0 ng/mL) than in those fed C (12.0 ng/mL). The ovulatory follicle on Day 21 of the estrous cycle (estrous = Day 0) was larger in cows fed S (16.1 ± 0.9 mm) and L (15.7 ± 0.7 mm) compared with cows fed C (13.2 ± 0.87 mm; P = 0.02) but there were no significant differences between cows fed diets S and L. The mean number of small and medium follicles and diameter of subordinate follicle were similar among diets. In conclusion, feeding a source of omega-6 FA can be a strategy to improve uterine health after calving, although a source of omega-3 FA such as L should be fed after uterine involution to decrease PGF2α secretion. PMID:23628364

  7. Fasting Plasma Insulin Concentrations Are Associated With Changes in Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthesis and Partitioning Prior to Changes in Liver Fat Content in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Pramfalk, Camilla; Pavlides, Michael; Banerjee, Rajarshi; McNeil, Catriona A; Neubauer, Stefan; Karpe, Fredrik; Hodson, Leanne

    2016-07-01

    Resistance to the action of insulin affects fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver, and triglyceride export from the liver. To understand the metabolic consequences of hepatic fatty acid synthesis, partitioning, oxidation, and net liver fat content in the fasted and postprandial states, we used stable-isotope tracer methodologies to study healthy men and women with varying degrees of insulin resistance before and after consumption of a mixed meal. Subjects were classified as being normoinsulinemic (NI) (fasting plasma insulin <11.2 mU/L, n = 18) or hyperinsulinemic (HI) (fasting plasma insulin >11.2 mU/L, n = 19). Liver fat content was similar between HI and NI individuals, despite HI subjects having marginally more visceral fat. However, de novo lipogenesis was higher and fatty acid oxidation was lower in HI individuals compared with NI subjects. These data suggest that metabolic pathways promoting fat accumulation are enhanced in HI but, paradoxically, without any significant effect on liver fat content when observed in healthy people. This is likely to be explained by increased triglyceride secretion as observed by hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27207513

  8. Vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids independently attenuate plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and prostaglandin E3 in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-challenged growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Kim, J C; Mullan, B P; Pluske, J R; Kim, I H

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that vitamin E (Vit E) and omega-3 fatty acids will additively attenuate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2 in immune system–stimulated growing–finishing pigs. A total of 80 mixed sex pigs weighing 50.7 ± 0.76 kg (mean ± SE) were blocked and stratified based on sex and BW to a 2 × 2 factorial design with the respective factors being 1) without and with 300 IU Vit E and 2) without and with 25% replacement of tallow to linseed oil as a source of n-3 fatty acids. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicate pens with 5 pigs (3 barrows and 2 gilts) per pen. All pigs were challenged with an intramuscular injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; O111:B4) twice weekly over the 6-wk experiment. After LPS challenge, pigs fed a diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids had fewer (P < 0.05) white blood cells and tended to show both a reduced (P < 0.10) proportion of lymphocytes and IgG concentration compared with pigs fed a diet without any supplements. Supplementation of n-3 fatty acids reduced (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05) serum concentrations of cortisol and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), respectively. The serum concentration of PGE2 was decreased (P < 0.05) with supplementation of both Vit E and n-3 fatty acids; however, the extent of the reduction was greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed an n-3 fatty acid–supplemented diet. However, there were no additive effects of the combined supplementation of Vit E and n-3 fatty acids on serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and PGE2. The results suggest that n-3 fatty acids independently attenuate production of TNF-α and PGE2 in immune system–stimulated growing–finishing pigs. PMID:26115279

  9. Plasma, urinary, and erythrocyte concentrations of guanidino compounds in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, A; Takahashi, Y; Mizokuchi, M; Shimada, N; Koide, H

    1999-09-01

    Guanidino compounds are among the most likely candidates for uremic toxins. We determined the plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary concentration of guanidino compounds in 30 hemodialysis patients and 15 patients with chronic renal failure who had not undergone hemodialysis. Guanidino compounds were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma levels of taurocyamine, guanidinosuccinic acid, alpha-N-acetyl-L-arginine, creatine, guanidinobutyric acid, guanidine, and methylguanidine were significantly increased in patients with chronic renal failure with or without hemodialysis. In contrast, plasma guanidinoacetic acid concentrations were significantly decreased. Erythrocyte concentrations of creatinine, guanidinosuccinic acid, guanidine and methylguanidine were also markedly elevated. No correlation was observed between plasma creatinine concentration and erythrocyte concentration of guanidinosuccinic acid or methylguanidine. However, there was a significant correlation between plasma and erythrocyte methylguanidine, and between plasma and erythrocyte guanidinosuccinic acid. PMID:10516995

  10. Plasma lipid concentrations during episodic occupational stress.

    PubMed

    McCann, B S; Benjamin, G A; Wilkinson, C W; Retzlaff, B M; Russo, J; Knopp, R H

    1999-01-01

    The possibility that stress affects plasma lipid concentrations has been the subject of recent investigation, but the findings are equivocal in nonlaboratory settings. To determine whether psychological stress contributes to variability in plasma lipid concentrations and concomitant changes in health behaviors, the effect of increased work load on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins was examined in 173 lawyers. Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein concentrations were studied during periods of high work load (corresponding to impending tax deadlines) and during periods of usual work load. Self-reports of stress, work load, and time pressure, and cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured to verify that impending deadlines were associated with increased stress levels. Health behaviors which may affect plasma lipoprotein concentrations, including dietary intake and exercise, were also examined. High work load was accompanied by increases in self-reported work load among lawyers most directly affected by the impending deadlines. Plasma apolipoprotein B and triglycerides increased during periods of high work load (M = 1.9 mg/dL, SD = 10.1 and M = 5.3, SD = 34.4, respectively). No changes in dietary intake and exercise were observed. Psychological stress (high work load) is associated with potentially atherogenic changes in plasma lipid concentrations. While the lipoprotein effect of this short-term work stress is small, the effects of longer-term stress on multiple rise factors including triglycerides and apolipoprotein B could have significance for the development of coronary artery disease. PMID:10499130

  11. Decreased plasma motilin concentrations in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, N D; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Borberg, C; Gillmer, M D

    1982-01-01

    Plasma motilin concentrations were measured in 37 women during the second and third trimester of pregnancy and one week after delivery. The mean plasma motilin concentrations, both fasting and after a glucose load and a mixed meal, were significantly (p less than 0.001) reduced during pregnancy, returning to the normal range one week post partum. Pregnancy appears to have a profound inhibitory effect on plasma motilin, and this may in part be responsible for the gastrointestinal hypomotility associated with pregnancy. PMID:6814598

  12. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Helling, Gunnel; Wahlin, Staffan; Smedberg, Marie; Pettersson, Linn; Tjäder, Inga; Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Wernerman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations. Methods Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40), acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20), acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20), and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20). Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion. Results All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100), severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong. Conclusion Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure. PMID:26938452

  13. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans. Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations. Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  14. Plasma Efavirenz Concentrations Are Associated With Lipid and Glucose Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sinxadi, Phumla Zuleika; McIlleron, Helen Margaret; Dave, Joel Alex; Smith, Peter John; Levitt, Naomi Sharlene; Haas, David William; Maartens, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with dyslipidemia and dysglycemia, risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the pathogenesis is not well understood. We characterized relationships between plasma efavirenz concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans.Participants on efavirenz-based ART were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed after an overnight fast, and plasma drawn for mid-dosing interval efavirenz, fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations.Among 106 participants (77 women), median age was 38 years, median CD4 + T-cell count was 322 cells/μL, median duration on ART was 18 months, and median (interquartile range) efavirenz concentration was 2.23 (1.66 to 4.10) μg/mL. On multivariable analyses (adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and ART duration) doubling of efavirenz concentrations resulted in mean changes in mmol/L (95%CI) of: total cholesterol (0.40 [0.22 to 0.59]), LDL cholesterol (0.19 [0.04 to 0.30]), HDL cholesterol (0.14 [0.07 to 0.20]), triglycerides (0.17 [0.03 to 0.33]), fasting glucose (0.18 [0.03 to 0.33]), and 2-h glucose concentrations (0.33 [0.08 to 0.60]). Among 57 participants with CYP2B6 genotype data, associations between slow metabolizer genotypes and metabolic profiles were generally consistent with those for measured efavirenz concentrations.Higher plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with higher plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. This may have implications for long-term cardiovascular complications of efavirenz-based ART, particularly among populations with high prevalence of CYP2B6 slow metabolizer genotypes. PMID:26765416

  15. Plasma amino-acid patterns in liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M Y; Marshall, A W; Milsom, J P; Sherlock, S

    1982-01-01

    Plasma amino-acid concentrations were measured in 167 patients with liver disease of varying aetiology and severity, all free of encephalopathy, and the results compared with those in 57 control subjects matched for age and sex. In the four groups of patients with chronic liver disease (26 patients with chronic active hepatitis, 23 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 11 with cryptogenic cirrhosis, and 48 with alcoholic hepatitis +/- cirrhosis) plasma concentrations of methionine were significantly increased, while concentrations of the three branched chain amino-acids were significantly reduced. In the first three groups of patients plasma concentrations of aspartate, serine, and one or both of the aromatic amino-acids tyrosine and phenylalanine were also significantly increased, while in the patients with alcoholic hepatitis +/- cirrhosis plasma concentrations of glycine, alanine, and phenylalanine were significantly reduced. In the three groups of patients with minimal, potentially reversible liver disease (31 patients with alcoholic fatty liver, 10 with viral hepatitis, and 18 with biliary disease) plasma concentrations of proline and the three branched chain amino-acids were significantly reduced. Patients with alcoholic fatty liver also showed significantly reduced plasma phenylalanine values. Most changes in plasma amino-acid concentrations in patients with chronic liver disease may be explained on the basis of impaired hepatic function, portal-systemic shunting of blood, and hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglucagonaemia. The changes in patients with minimal liver disease are less easily explained. PMID:7076013

  16. Association between circulating ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and plasma cytokine concentrations in young adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with the development of numerous chronic diseases. Circulating ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may help reduce concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines through their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. These micronutrients may act synergistically, and they may have different anti-inflammatory effects, but previous studies have assessed the link between each of these micronutrients and inflammation in isolation without controlling for the other micronutrients. Our objective was to examine the association between circulating concentrations of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and 25(OH) D and a panel of pro-inflammatory cytokines in an ethnically diverse population of young adults. Methods Participants (n = 1,007) from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study provided fasting blood samples for biomarker measurements and were subsequently categorized into tertiles for each micronutrient based on their circulating concentrations. We conducted Pearson’s correlation analyses across all micronutrients and cytokines. The associations between individual micronutrients and cytokines were examined using analysis of covariance with age, sex, waist circumference, ethnicity, physical activity, season of blood collection, total cholesterol, hormonal contraceptive use among women, and the other two micronutrients as covariates. Results We observed weak micronutrient-cytokine correlations, moderate correlations between certain cytokines, and strong correlations between specific cytokines, particularly interleukin 1- receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-bb). After full covariate adjustment, circulating α-tocopherol was inversely associated with IFN-γ and regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES). We observed an unexpected positive association between ascorbic acid and IFN-γ. 25(OH

  17. Mechanisms by which saturated triacylglycerols elevate the plasma low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in hamsters. Differential effects of fatty acid chain length.

    PubMed Central

    Woollett, L A; Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1989-01-01

    These studies were designed to elucidate how shorter (MCT) and longer (HCO) chain-length saturated triacylglycerols and cholesterol interact to alter steady-state plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. When either MCT or HCO was fed in the absence of cholesterol, there was little effect on receptor-dependent LDL transport but a 36-43% increase in LDL-cholesterol production. Cholesterol feeding in the absence of triacylglycerol led to significant suppression of receptor-dependent LDL transport and a 26-31% increase in LDL-cholesterol production. However, when the longer chain-length saturated triacylglycerol was fed together with cholesterol there was a marked increase in the suppression of receptor-dependent LDL transport and an 82% increase in production rate. Together, these two alterations accounted for the observed eightfold increase in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration. In contrast, feeding the shorter chain-length saturated triacylglycerol with cholesterol actually enhanced receptor-dependent LDL transport while also causing a smaller increase (52%) in the LDL-cholesterol production rate. As a result of these two opposing events, MCT feeding had essentially no net effect on plasma LDL-cholesterol levels beyond that induced by cholesterol feeding alone. PMID:2738148

  18. Ethosuximide plasma concentrations: influence of age and associated concomitant therapy.

    PubMed

    Battino, D; Cusi, C; Franceschetti, S; Moise, A; Spina, S; Avanzini, G

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between oral dose and plasma concentration of ethosuximide was evaluated retrospectively in 198 epileptic patients aged 2.5 to 34 years. Age appears to be a major factor in determining the ethosuximide plasma level/dose (L/D) ratio. Children younger than 10 years had men L/D ratios significantly lower (p less than 0.0003) than adolescents (10 to 15 years of age) and adults (16 to 34 years of age). Associated antiepileptic therapy reduced the ethosuximide L/D ratio: mean ethosuximide L/D ratios were significantly lower in patients also taking primidone (p less than 0.0005) or valproic acid (p less than 0.02). The correlation between the dose of ethosuximide administered and the plasma concentration was significant in the 3 age groups considered (p less than 0.0004), but the wide scattering of individual plasma concentrations makes it impossible to predict what plasma concentration of ethosuximide will be obtained after a given dose. For this reason, routine monitoring of ethosuximide plasma concentrations still appears to be necessary, especially in children and patients on polytherapy. PMID:6802548

  19. Plasma glutamine concentration in spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Rogeri, P S; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2005-09-23

    Glutamine, a non-essential amino acid, is the most important source of energy for macrophages and lymphocytes. Reduction in its plasma concentration is related with loss of immune function, as leukocyte proliferation and cytokine production. It is well known that glutamine is largely produced by the skeletal muscle which is severely compromised as a consequence of the paralysis due to the damage of the spinal cord. In spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, infections, such as pneumonia and sepsis in general, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In comparison with the control group, a 54% decrease in plasma glutamine concentration was observed as well as a decrease in the production of TNF and IL-1 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultivated for 48 h in SCI patients. Therefore, we propose that a decrease in plasma glutamine concentration is an important contributor to the immunosuppression seen in SCI patients. PMID:16024049

  20. Effect of intermittent blood volume fluctuation of light resistance exercise after ingestion of the high-protein snacks on plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yushi; Numao, Shigeharu; Miyauchi, Ryoko; Suzuki, Masashige

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated exercise patterns resulting in the more efficient promotion of amino acid utilization. High-protein snacks (HPS; 15 g protein, 18 g sugar) were ingested by 8 young adult subjects 3 h after the basal meal ingestion. Sixty minutes after the HPS ingestion, the subjects performed arm flex/extend exercises for 15 min. The difference between 2 exercise patterns was compared. Pattern 1: High-number long-interval (HL) arm flex/extend (3+3 s) exercise; the HL group performed 9 sets of 15 exercises with a 10 s interval between sets. Pattern 2: Low-number short-interval (LS) arm flex/extend (3+3 s) exercise; the LS group performed 27 sets of 5 exercises with a 3-4 s interval between sets (135 exercises during 15 min, respectively). The plasma branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations were measured before the HPS ingestion, before the exercise, and 60 and 90 min after the HPS ingestion. The plasma BCAA concentrations increased significantly after the HPS ingestion. In the HL group, BCAA concentration increased consistently during the period and 60 to 90 min after the HPS ingestion. During the same period in the LS group the BCAA concentration stopped increasing. After HPS ingestion, a significantly greater suppressive effect on plasma BCAA concentration was seen in the LS group compared to the HL group. Results confirmed that the intermittent blood volume fluctuation in muscle tissue during the exercise pattern performed by the LS group had an effect on the utilization of nutritional components (BCAA, glucose) from the blood, and showed the possibility that the group where the blood volume in the muscle tissue increased/lowered with higher frequency was a more effective exercise pattern for nutrient utilization. PMID:20924148

  1. Plasma concentrations of coffee polyphenols and plasma biomarkers of diabetes risk in healthy Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A H; Tan, L 'B; Hiramatsu, N; Ishisaka, A; Alfonso, H; Tanaka, A; Uemura, N; Fujiwara, Y; Takechi, R

    2016-01-01

    Coffee consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. This anti-diabetic effect of coffee may be attributed to its high content in polyphenols especially caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. However, the association between plasma coffee polyphenols and diabetic risks has never been investigated in the literature. In this study, fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38–73 (mean 52, s.d. 8) years recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma coffee polyphenols were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Diabetes biomarkers in the plasma/serum samples were analysed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The results showed that plasma chlorogenic acid exhibited negative associations with fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, whereas plasma total coffee polyphenol and plasma caffeic acid were weakly associated with these biomarkers. Our preliminary data support previous findings that coffee polyphenols have anti-diabetic effects but further replications with large samples of both genders are recommended. PMID:27270110

  2. Postnatal changes of plasma amino acids in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Flynn, N E; Knabe, D A; Mallick, B K; Wu, G

    2000-09-01

    Amino acids, ammonia, urea, orotate, and nitrate plus nitrite (stable oxidation products of nitric oxide) were determined in plasma of 1- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained from pigs at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 d of age for analysis of plasma amino acids and metabolites by HPLC and enzymatic methods. Plasma concentrations of arginine and its immediate precursors (citrulline and ornithine) decreased (P < 0.01) progressively (20 to 41%) with increasing age from 3 to 14 d. Plasma concentrations of glutamine declined (P < 0.01) progressively (10 to 31%) during the 1st wk of life. Plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, threonine, and alanine decreased (P < 0.01) (5 to 12%) in 14- and 21-d-old pigs, compared with 1- and 3-d-old pigs. There were no postnatal changes (P > 0.05) in plasma concentrations of other amino acids. Plasma concentrations of ammonia increased (P < 0.01) by 18 and 46%, whereas those of nitrate plus nitrite decreased (P < 0.01) by 16 and 29%, in 7- and 14-d-old pigs, respectively, compared with 1- to 3-d-old pigs. Because arginine plays a crucial role in ammonia detoxification via the hepatic urea cycle and is the physiological substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, our results of the decreased plasma concentrations of arginine and nitrate plus nitrite, as well as the increased plasma ammonia concentration, indicate a hitherto unrecognized deficiency of arginine in 7- to 21-d-old suckling pigs. Arginine is an essential amino acid for piglets and has a great potential to enhance neonatal growth; therefore, further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism responsible for arginine deficiency in sow-reared piglets and to identify hormonal and metabolic means for improving neonatal arginine nutrition and growth. PMID:10985412

  3. Decrease in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentration and increase in pyridoxal concentration in rat plasma by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine administration.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Teruki; Johno, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Mika; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji

    2015-07-01

    Food poisoning from Ginkgo biloba seeds can cause epilepsy because of a decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the brain. We previously demonstrated that 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) is responsible for this observed toxicity of G biloba seeds; however, the mechanism for the decrease in GABA and plasma concentration profile of MPN has not been clarified. Our hypothesis is that MPN induces a decrease in vitamin B6 concentrations, resulting in a decrease in GABA concentration. This study aimed to characterize the plasma concentration profile of MPN and intrinsic vitamin B6 concentrations (pyridoxal [PL], PL-5'-phosphate [PLP], and 4-pyridoxic acid) using a rat model. Plasma concentrations of B6 vitamers after intravenous MPN administration (5 mg/kg) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The half-life of MPN (0.91 ± 0.05 hours) was shorter in rats than the previously reported value in humans. We found a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of PLP, an active form of vitamin B6, after MPN administration. We also observed an increase in plasma PL and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations; the increase in PL concentration may be caused by either metabolism of MPN to PL or by MPN-mediated inhibition of PL kinase. The present study is the first in vivo study showing relatively rapid elimination of MPN in rats and a decrease in plasma PLP concentration caused by MPN. PMID:26092494

  4. Do plasma melatonin concentrations decline with age?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Daniels, J. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Klerman, E. B.; Shanahan, T. L.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Numerous reports that secretion of the putative sleep-promoting hormone melatonin declines with age have led to suggestions that melatonin replacement therapy be used to treat sleep problems in older patients. We sought to reassess whether the endogenous circadian rhythm of plasma melatonin concentration changes with age in healthy drug-free adults. METHODS: We analyzed the amplitude of plasma melatonin profiles during a constant routine in 34 healthy drug-free older subjects (20 women and 14 men, aged 65 to 81 years) and compared them with 98 healthy drug-free young men (aged 18 to 30 years). RESULTS: We could detect no significant difference between a healthy and drug-free group of older men and women as compared to one of young men in the endogenous circadian amplitude of the plasma melatonin rhythm, as described by mean 24-hour average melatonin concentration (70 pmol/liter vs 73 pmol/liter, P = 0.97), or the duration (9.3 hours vs 9.1 hours, P = 0.43), mean (162 pmol/liter vs 161 pmol/liter, P = 0.63), or integrated area (85,800 pmol x min/liter vs 86,700 pmol x min/liter, P = 0.66) of the nocturnal peak of plasma melatonin. CONCLUSION: These results do not support the hypothesis that reduction of plasma melatonin concentration is a general characteristic of healthy aging. Should melatonin replacement therapy or melatonin supplementation prove to be clinically useful, we recommend that an assessment of endogenous melatonin be carried out before such treatment is used in older patients.

  5. Hyperammonemia Associated with Valproic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Alvariza, Silvana; Magallanes, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid, a branched short-chain fatty acid, has numerous action mechanisms which turn it into a broad spectrum anticonvulsant drug and make its use possible in some other pathologies such as bipolar disorder. It is extensively metabolized in liver, representing β-oxidation in the mitochondria one of its main metabolic route (40%). Carnitine is responsible for its entry into the mitochondria as any other fatty acid. Long-term high-dose VPA therapy or acute VPA overdose induces carnitine depletion, resulting in high levels of ammonia in blood. As a high correlation between salivary valproic acid levels and plasma ultrafiltrate levels was found in humans, saliva becomes a promising monitoring fluid in order to study valproic acid pharmacokinetics and its toxic effect. Extended-release (twice daily) formulations of valproic acid or carnitine supplementation are the proposed two therapeutic strategies in order to reverse hyperammonemia. PMID:24868521

  6. Effect of extruded linseeds alone or in combination with fish oil on intake, milk production, plasma metabolite concentrations and milk fatty acid composition in lactating goats.

    PubMed

    Bernard, L; Leroux, C; Rouel, J; Delavaud, C; Shingfield, K J; Chilliard, Y

    2015-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits for long-term human health, there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for lowering medium-chain saturated fatty acids (FA) and increasing specific unsaturated FA in ruminant milk. Dietary supplements of extruded linseeds (EL), fish oil (FO) or a mixture of EL and FO increase cis-9,trans-11 CLA and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated FA in bovine milk. Supplements of FO cause milk fat depression in lactating cows, but information for dairy goats is limited. A total of 14 Alpine goats were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square with 28-days experimental periods to examine the effects of EL alone or in combination with FO on animal performance, milk fat synthesis and milk FA composition. Treatments comprised diets based on natural grassland hay supplemented with no additional oil (control), 530 of EL or 340 g/day of EL and 39 g/day of FO (ELFO). Compared with the control, ELFO tended (P=0.08) to lower milk fat yield, whereas EL increased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (15% and 10%, respectively). Relative to EL, ELFO decreased (P<0.01) milk fat content and yield (19% and 17%, respectively). Relative to the control and ELFO, EL decreased (P<0.05) milk 10:0 to 16:0 and odd- and branched-chain FA content and increased 18:0, cis-18:1, trans-13 18:1 (and their corresponding ∆-9 (desaturase products), trans-12,cis-14 CLA, cis-13,trans-15 CLA, cis-12,trans-14 CLA and trans-11,cis-13 CLA and 18:3n-3 concentrations. ELFO was more effective for enriching (P<0.05) milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 18:1 concentrations (up to 5.4- and 7.1-fold compared with the control) than EL (up to 1.7- and 2.5-fold increases). Furthermore, ELFO resulted in a substantial increase in milk trans-10 18:1 concentration (5.4% total FA), with considerable variation between individual animals. Relative to the control and EL, milk fat responses to ELFO were characterized by increases (P<0.05) in milk trans-16:1 (Δ9 to 11), trans-18:1 (Δ6

  7. Diffusion of sulfuric acid in concentrated solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Umino, S.; Newman, J. )

    1993-08-01

    Aqueous sulfuric acid is an economically important chemical reagent. It is one of the largest volume chemical commodities, finding uses in fertilizer production, petroleum refining, extraction of metals from their ores, production of inorganic pigments, pickling of iron and steel, synthesis of surface-active agents, and as a reactant in the lead-acid storage battery. The restricted diffusion method was used to measure the differential diffusion coefficient of sulfuric acid in water at 25 C for the concentration range from 0.3 to 7.5 molar. The concentration gradients of diffusing species were observed by Rayleigh interferometry. Experimental transport data are analyzed with concentrated solution theory of electrolytes in order to elucidate macroscopic transport characteristics of sulfuric acid in terms of specific binary interactions in solution. Results indicate that the transport properties of sulfuric acid are determined by the hydrogen ion-water molecule.

  8. Plasma prolactin concentrations in lead exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Govoni, S; Battaini, F; Fernicola, C; Castelletti, L; Trabucchi, M

    1987-01-01

    Plasma Prolactin (Prl) Zinc protoporphyrin (Zpp) and blood lead concentrations (PbB) were measured in 76 exposed male workers. All of them were employed in small (not more than 30 persons) pewter factories and were randomly selected from those regularly controlled by the National Health Service, Occupational Health Unit of Brescia (USSL 41). Although all plasma Prl values were within the normal range, the mean value of the subgroup having Zpp and PbB higher than 40 micrograms/dl was significantly higher (+47%) than that observed in the group of workers having Zpp and PbB less than 40 micrograms/dl. The data indicate the possibility of a lead-induced Prl secretion dysfunction, probably mediated by a decrease in dopaminergic inhibitory control. PMID:3598878

  9. DICARBOXYLIC ACID CONCENTRATION TRENDS AND SAMPLING ARTIFACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a slide presentation on results of dicarboxylic acid concentration trends and sampling artifacts to be presented at the 2006 International Aerosol Conference sponsored by the American Association for Aerosol Research in St. Paul, Minnesota on September 10-...

  10. Plasma homocysteine concentration changes after renal transplantation in children.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Aicha; Delvin, Edgar E; Genest, Jacques; Rozen, Rima; Lambert, Marie

    2002-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is found in children as well as in 80% of adult patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in plasma homocysteine concentrations after renal transplantation (RT). Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate concentrations were prospectively measured in six patients at three points, before and post transplantation (6 months, 4 years), and compared with controls using standardized scores (Z score) for each of these parameters. Folic acid supplementation was introduced after the evaluation at 6 months. Patients had elevated median plasma homocysteine Z scores during dialysis (4.12). When assessed at 6 months and 4 years, median plasma homocysteine Z scores were, respectively, 2.35 and 0.29. Median folate Z scores were 1.89 during dialysis, -0.26 at 6 months, and 3.26 at 4 years post RT. Median vitamin B(12) Z score was 2.12 during dialysis, 0.58 at 6 months, and -0.07 at 4 years post RT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) improved after RT, with median GFR of 84.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at 6 months. This stabilized to a value of 70.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at 4 years. When comparing values before and after RT at 6 months, changes were observed only for GFR ( P<0.03) and vitamin B(12) ( P<0.05). There were no changes in plasma homocysteine, folate, and serum albumin. At 4 years, a significant decrease in plasma homocysteine was observed ( P<0.05) with increased GFR ( P<0.03). No significant changes were observed in plasma albumin, folate, and vitamin B(12) concentrations. In conclusion, elevated plasma homocysteine in children during dialysis persists after RT despite a significant improvement in renal function. However, normalization was attained when patients were supplemented with folic acid. Further controlled studies are required to evaluate the determinants and treatment of elevated plasma homocysteine in pediatric transplant patients. PMID:12172766

  11. All-trans-retinoic Acid Promotes Trafficking of Human Concentrative Nucleoside Transporter-3 (hCNT3) to the Plasma Membrane by a TGF-β1-mediated Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Calotti, Paula; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2010-01-01

    Human concentrative nucleoside transporter-3 (hCNT3) is a sodium-coupled nucleoside transporter that exhibits high affinity and broad substrate selectivity, making it the most suitable candidate for mediating the uptake and cytotoxic action of most nucleoside-derived drugs. The drug of this class most commonly used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the pro-apoptotic nucleoside analog fludarabine (Flu), which enters CLL cells primarily through human equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENTs). Although CLL cells lack hCNT3 activity, they do express this transporter protein, which is located mostly in the cytosol. The aim of our study was to identify agents and mechanisms capable of promoting hCNT3 trafficking to the plasma membrane. Here, we report that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), currently used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), increases hCNT3-related activity through a mechanism that involves trafficking of pre-existing hCNT3 proteins to the plasma membrane. This effect is mediated by the autocrine action of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, which is transcriptionally activated by ATRA in a p38-dependent manner. TGF-β1 acts through activation of ERK1/2 and the small GTPase RhoA to promote plasma membrane trafficking of the hCNT3 protein. PMID:20172853

  12. INDOOR CONCENTRATION MODELING OF AEROSOL STRONG ACIDITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model for estimating indoor concentrations of acid aerosol was applied to data collected during the summer of 1989, in a densely populated location in New Jersey. he model, from a study of a semi-rural community in Pennsylvania, was used to estimate indoor concentrations of aer...

  13. Prolonged haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations after decanoate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Chang, W H; Lin, S K; Juang, D J; Chen, L C; Yang, C H; Hu, W H; Chien, C P; Lam, Y W; Jann, M W

    1993-03-01

    Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations were measured in twelve schizophrenic patients upon cessation of haloperidol decanoate (HLD) treatment. Each patient received HLD 100 mg every 4 weeks for five injections. After the fifth injection, HLD was discontinued. Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations were obtained prior to cessation and at weeks 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 post-injection. Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations were assayed by HPLC. Both haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations were detectable 13 weeks post HLD discontinuation. Maximal haloperidol plasma concentrations were observed at one week post cessation and gradually declined. The mean elimination half-life for haloperidol was 27.4 +/- 8.6 days (range 19.0-47.0 days). Reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations declined very slowly. Our results show that both haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations can remain for extended time periods after HLD is discontinued. PMID:8461270

  14. Indoor concentration modeling of aerosol strong acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenka, M.; Waldman, J.; Suh, H.; Koutrakis, P.

    1993-01-01

    A model for estimating indoor concentrations of acid aerosol was applied to data collected during the summer of 1989, in a densely populated location in New Jersey. The model, from a study of a semi-rural community in Pennsylvania, was used to estimate indoor concentrations of aerosol strong acidity (H+) at an elderly care residence in suburban New Jersey. The purpose of the present work is to assess the applicability of the model for predicting H+ exposures in a suburban environment and to evaluate the models performance for daytime and nighttime periods. Indoor and outdoor samples were taken at an elderly care home between June 20 and July 30, 1989. The indoor and outdoor monitoring schedule collected two 12-h samples per day. Samples were taken with the Indoor Denuder Sampler (IDS). Samples were analyzed for indoor and outdoor concentrations of aerosol strong acidity (H+), ammonia (NH3), and anion determination. The model generally underestimated the indoor H+ concentration. Slight improvement was seen in the model estimate of H+ for the nighttime period (7:00 pm to 7:00 am, local time). The model applied to the site in New Jersey did not predict the indoor H+ concentrations as well as it did for the experiment from which it was developed.

  15. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9491192

  16. Increased plasma serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid concentrations are associated with impaired systolic and late diastolic forward flows during cardiac cycle and elevated resistive index at popliteal artery and renal insufficiency in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Jun; Suzuki, Eiji; Tajima, Yoshitaka; Takami, Kazuhisa; Horikawa, Yukio; Takeda, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Although lower extremity arterial disease is frequently accompanied by diabetes mellitus, the association of circulating biomarkers with flow components during the cardiac cycle in lower-leg arteries has yet to be fully elucidated. We enrolled 165 type 2 diabetic patients with normal ankle-brachial index (ABI 1.0-1.4), comprising 106 normoalbuminuric and 59 microalbuminuric patients, and 40 age-matched nondiabetic subjects consecutively admitted to our hospital. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level and plasma von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF) and vasoconstrictor serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were measured. An automatic device was used to measure ABI and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Flow components during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume, and resistive index at popliteal artery were evaluated using gated magnetic resonance imaging. Although estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), early diastolic flow reversal, heart rate, and ABI were similar between the groups, diabetic patients had higher log hsCRP (p<0.001), VWF (p<0.001), 5-HIAA (p=0.002), resistive index (p<0.001) and baPWV (p<0.001) and lower systolic (p=0.026) and late diastolic (p<0.001) forward flows and total flow volume (p<0.001) than nondiabetic subjects. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that 5-HIAA in microalbuminuric patients showed higher associations with systolic and late diastolic forward flows during the cardiac cycle, total flow volume and resistive index at popliteal artery, and eGFR compared to normoalbuminuric patients. In microalbuminuric patients, 5-HIAA was a significant independent determinant among these factors. Thus, increased plasma 5-HIAA levels are involved in the pathogenesis of impaired blood flow in lower extremities and renal insufficiency in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. PMID:26567921

  17. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  18. Phenolic acids from wheat show different absorption profiles in plasma: a model experiment with catheterized pigs.

    PubMed

    Nørskov, Natalja P; Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Fomsgaard, Inge S; Laursen, Bente B; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2013-09-18

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study the absorption of phenolic acids. The difference between the artery and the vein for all phenolic acids was small, indicating that the release of phenolic acids in the large intestine was not sufficient to create a porto-arterial concentration difference. Although, the porto-arterial difference was small, their concentrations in the plasma and the absorption profiles differed between cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives. Cinnamic acids derivatives such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid had maximum plasma concentration of 82 ± 20 and 200 ± 7 nM, respectively, and their absorption profiles differed depending on the diet consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (<30 nM) and in the diets. The exception was p-hydroxybenzoic acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism. It was concluded that plant phenolic acids undergo extensive interconversion in the colon and that their absorption profiles reflected their low bioavailability in the plant matrix. PMID:23971623

  19. Effects of hemorrhagic hypotension on tyrosine concentrations in rat spinal cord and plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Roberts, C. H.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Tyrosine is the precursor for catecholamine neurotransmitters. When catecholamine-containing neurons are physiologically active (as sympathoadrenal cells are in hypotension), tyrosine administration increases catecholamine synthesis and release. Since hypotension can alter plasma amino acid composition, the effects of an acute hypotensive insult on tyrosine concentrations in plasma and spinal cord were examined. Rats were cannulated and bled until the systolic blood pressure was 50 mmHg, or were kept normotensive for 1 h. Tyrosine and other large neutral amino acids (LNAA) known to compete with tyrosine for brain uptake were assayed in plasma and spinal cord. The rate at which intra-arterial (H-3)tyrosine disappeared from the plasma was also estimated in hemorrhaged and control rats. In plasma of hemorrhaged animals, both the tyrosine concentration and the tyrosine/LNAA ratio was elevated; moreover, the disappearance of (H-3)tyrosine was slowed. Tyrosine concentrations also increased in spinal cords of hemorrhaged-hypotensive rats when compared to normotensive controls. Changes in plasma amino acid patterns may thus influence spinal cord concentrations of amino acid precursors for neurotransmitters during the stress of hemorrhagic shock.

  20. LC/ESI-MS/MS method for determination of salivary eicosapentaenoic acid concentration to arachidonic acid concentration ratio.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Tomaru, Koki; Matsumoto, Nagisa; Watanabe, Shui; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method for determination of the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration to arachidonic acid (AA) concentration ratio in human saliva has been developed. The EPA/AA ratio in serum or plasma is widely recognized as a useful indicator in identifying the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. The salivary EPA/AA ratio is expected to be a convenient alternative to the serum or plasma EPA/AA ratio, because saliva offers the advantages of easy and noninvasive sampling. The saliva was deproteinized with acetonitrile, purified using an Oasis HLB cartridge, and derivatized with 1-[(4-dimethylaminophenyl)carbonyl]piperazine (DAPPZ). The derivatized EPA and AA were subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS, and the EPA/AA ratio was determined using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The DAPPZ-derivatization increased the ESI sensitivity by 100- and 300-fold for EPA and AA, respectively, and enabled the detection of trace fatty acids in saliva using a 200 μL sample. The assay reproducibility was satisfactory (relative standard deviation, <5.0%). The method was successfully applied to the measurement of the salivary EPA/AA ratios of healthy Japanese subjects and their changes owing to the supplementation of EPA. PMID:25620210

  1. Recovery of boric acid from evaporator concentrates

    SciTech Connect

    Chrubasik, A.; Hennecke, A.; Chechelnitzky, G.M.; Kremnev, V.A.; Sinjawski, P.N.; Tevestchenko, L.J.

    1995-12-31

    The process is based on such characteristic properties of boric acid and borates as: solubility depending on pH-value; and high ion-exchange resin capacity for borates and its regeneration by means of ammonia solution. On the basis of laboratory investigations a pilot plant BOR 100 was built 1993. The operation of the pilot plant started at the beginning of 1994. After the functional test and start up in the first half year 1994 the treatment of few batches of original evaporator concentrates was performed.

  2. Doxycycline plasma concentrations in macaws fed a medicate corn diet.

    PubMed

    Prus, S E; Clubb, S L; Flammer, K

    1992-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the doxycycline plasma concentrations attained by feeding a medicated corn diet to large psittacine birds. Doxycycline is the preferred drug for the treatment of chlamydiosis in psittacine birds. Healthy macaws were fed a 0.1% doxycycline-medicated corn diet for 45 days, and plasma doxycycline concentrations were determined by microbiological assay on treatment days 3, 15, 30, and 45. Plasma doxycycline concentrations exceeded 1 microgram/ml in 87% of the samples assayed. As blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, a doxycycline-medicated corn diet may be efficacious in the treatment of chlamydiosis in large psittacine birds. PMID:1627120

  3. Intracellular accumulation of boceprevir according to plasma concentrations and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Jessica; Allegra, Sarah; De Nicolò, Amedeo; Boglione, Lucio; Fatiguso, Giovanna; Abdi, Adnan Mohamed; Cariti, Giuseppe; Di Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Boceprevir (BOC) is a directly-acting antiviral agent for the treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection. It is a mixture of two stereoisomers, the inactive R and the active S isomers. No data have previously been published on BOC intracellular accumulation. In this study, BOC isomer concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma were determined. The influence of various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on plasma and intracellular drug exposure at Week 4 of triple therapy were also evaluated. Plasma and intracellular BOC concentrations were determined at the end of the dosing interval (C(trough)) using a UPLC-MS/MS validated method. Allelic discrimination was performed through real-time PCR. Median plasma concentrations were 65.97 ng/mL for the S isomer and 36.31 ng/mL for the R isomer; the median S/R plasma concentration ratio was 1.66. The median PBMC concentration was 2285.88 ng/mL for the S isomer; the R isomer was undetectable within PBMCs. The median S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio was 28.59. A significant positive correlation was found between plasma and PBMC S isomer concentrations. ABCB1 1236, SLC28A2 124 and IL28B rs12979860 SNPs were associated with the S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio. In regression models, S isomer plasma levels and FokI polymorphism were able to predict S isomer intracellular exposure, whereas SNPs in AKR1, BCRP1 and SLC28A2 predicted the S isomer PBMC/plasma concentration ratio. No similar data regarding BOC pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics have been published previously. This study adds a novel and useful overview of the pharmacological properties of this drug. PMID:25836019

  4. Kinetics of plasma potassium concentrations during exhausting exercise in trained and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Marcos, E; Ribas, J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the time course of changes in plasma potassium concentration during high intensity exercise and recovery in trained and untrained men. The subjects performed two exercise protocols, an incremental test and a sprint, on a cycle ergometer. A polyethylene catheter was inserted into the antecubital vein to obtain blood samples for the analysis of plasma electrolyte concentrations and acid-base parameters, during and after exercise. During both tests, venous plasma sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations increased in all the subjects, although the largest relative increase was detected in potassium concentration--35% and 31% over rest in the progressive test and 61% and 37.7% in the sprint test, for cyclists and controls, respectively. After exercise plasma potassium concentration decreased exponentially to below resting values. There was a linear correlation between the amount of potassium accumulated in plasma during exercise and the amount eliminated from plasma when the exercise ceased. We found that, although plasma potassium accumulation occurred in both forms of exercise in the trained and nontrained subjects, the time constant of potassium decrease following exercise was shorter in the trained subjects. Thus, the trained subjects exhibited a better capacity to recover to resting concentrations of plasma potassium. We propose that the extracellular potassium accumulation acts as a negative feedback signal for sarcolemma excitability depending on the muscle metabolic rate. PMID:7588690

  5. Plasma Concentrations of Hepcidin in Anemic Zimbabwean Infants

    PubMed Central

    Mupfudze, Tatenda G.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.; Rukobo, Sandra; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Prendergast, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Anemia in infancy is a global public health problem. We evaluated the relative contributions of iron deficiency and inflammation to infant anemia. Methods We measured plasma hepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein (CRP) by ELISA on archived plasma from 289 HIV-unexposed anemic or non-anemic Zimbabwean infants at ages 3mo, 6mo and 12mo. Among anemic infants, we determined the proportion with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of inflammation (AI). We undertook regression analyses of plasma hepcidin and anemia status, adjusting for sex, age and birthweight. Results Anemic infants at 3mo were more stunted and had higher CRP (median 0.45 vs 0.21mg/L; P = 0.037) and hepcidin (median 14.7 vs 9.7ng/mL; P = 0.022) than non-anemic infants, but similar levels of ferritin and sTfR; 11% infants had IDA and 15% had AI. Anemic infants at 6mo had higher hepcidin (median 7.9 vs 4.5ng/mL; P = 0.016) and CRP (median 2.33 vs 0.32mg/L; P<0.001), but lower ferritin (median 13.2 vs 25.1μg/L; P<0.001) than non-anemic infants; 56% infants had IDA and 12% had AI. Anemic infants at 12mo had lower ferritin (median 3.2 vs 22.2μg/L; P<0.001) and hepcidin (median 0.9 vs 1.9ng/mL; P = 0.019), but similar CRP levels; 48% infants had IDA and 8% had AI. Comparing anemic with non-anemic infants, plasma hepcidin was 568% higher, 405% higher and 64% lower at 3mo, 6mo and 12mo, respectively, after adjusting for sex and birthweight (all p<0.01). Plasma hepcidin declined significantly with age among anemic but not non-anemic infants. Girls had 61% higher hepcidin than boys, after adjusting for age, anemia and birthweight (p<0.001). Conclusion Anemia is driven partly by inflammation early in infancy, and by iron deficiency later in infancy, with plasma hepcidin concentrations reflecting the relative contribution of each. However, there is need to better characterize the drivers of hepcidin during infancy in developing

  6. The effects of short intensive exercise on plasma free amino acids in standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; van den Hoven, R; Zickl, M; Spona, J; Zentek, J

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of short intense exercise on plasma amino acid concentrations in trotters and to test the repeatability of plasma amino acids concentration in samples obtained on two independent days under field conditions. Plasma amino acid concentrations were analysed in blood samples of 36 standardbred trotters before and after intense exercise over a distance of 2000 m. Sampling was repeated in 20 horses after 35 days. Exercise intensity was estimated from post-exercise lactate levels. Horses were divided in two groups according to a cut-off lactate concentration at 15 mmol/l. The plasma concentrations of alanine, aspartate, glutamate, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and taurine increased and arginine, asparagine, citrulline, glutamine, glycine, histidine, methionine, serine, tryptophan and 3-methylhistidine decreased after exercise. Ornithine, threonine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and valine concentrations remained constant. Higher intensity of exercise significantly decreased tryptophan and increased taurine concentrations. Sampling day had a significant effect on the absolute pre- and post-exercise amino acid concentrations. Exercise had a significant influence on the concentrations of most plasma amino acids in trotters. These changes could reflect shifts between the free amino acid compartments, but there were also some indications for muscle catabolism. The amino acid supply of sporting horses could be of specific significance for maintaining muscle integrity and for the improvement of post-exercise recovery of competition horses. PMID:19320929

  7. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  8. Partition functions and concentrations in plasmas out of thermal equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Andre, P.

    1995-06-01

    Taking into account the disequilibrium between the temperatures (electronic, rotational, vibrational, translational) in a nitrogen-plasma out of thermal equilibrium, different partition function and chemical potential calculation method are described and applied. From the variation of the temperature hypotheses, their influence on the plasma concentration is shown.

  9. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  10. Acid glycosaminoglycans in plasma. I. Determination.

    PubMed

    Friman, C; Juvani, M

    1977-01-01

    Plasma glycosaminoglycans (GAG) were isolated from 10 ml of plasma by a modification of the method of Calatroni et al. (3). DE-52 anion-exchange cellulose was used in the isolation of the fraction operationally defined as free GAG. Chondroitin sulphate and heparin added to plasma were quantitatively recovered in this fraction. After proteolysis with papain the fraction operationally defined as bound GAG was isolated using anion-exchange resin AG 1 X 2. GAG were measured as hexuronate with the m-hydroxydiphenyl method of Blumenkrantz and Asboe-Hansen (7) which was superior to various modifications of the carbazole/borate carbazole procedures. In 15 healthy females and in 15 healthy males the concentrations of the free GAG (mean +/- S.D., expressed as microgram per 10 ml of plasma) were: 12.2 +/- 2.8 and 16.8 +/- 3.8 (P less than 0.001); of the bound GAG 40.4 +/- 7.7, and 40.2 +/- 11.6; and of the total GAG 52.7 +/- 9.0 and 57.0 +/- 10.4, respectively. With the isolation procedures used, plasma GAG were obtained in sufficient quantity for their electrophoretic characterization. Assay of plasma GAG can be performed with satisfactory accuracy and precision within two days by the present method. In clinical chemistry its application to the study of proteoglycan and GAG metabolism in various diseases may prove valuable. PMID:897589

  11. Plasma von Willebrand factor concentration and thyroid function in dogs.

    PubMed

    Avgeris, S; Lothrop, C D; McDonald, T P

    1990-03-15

    Plasma von Willebrand factor antigen concentration was determined in 15 dogs with suspected hypothyroidism, in 1 dog with hyperthyroidism, and in 14 euthyroid dogs. The mean +/- SEM von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration in hypothyroid dogs (47.1% +/- 12.6%) was significantly decreased (P less than 0.0005), compared with that in euthyroid dogs (94.7 +/- 5.6%). Four hypothyroid dogs were given thyroxine for 1 month and all 4 had an increase in von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration. The plasma von Willebrand factor:antigen concentration was 200% in the hyperthyroid dog. Seemingly, reduced concentrations of plasma von Willebrand factor:antigen can be found in dogs in association with congenital von Willebrand disease or with von Willebrand disease acquired through hypothyroidism. PMID:2107158

  12. Changes in plasma leptin concentration during different types of exercises performed by horses.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, W

    2014-09-01

    Leptin is a tissue-derivative adipokine that regulates appetite, food intake and energy expenditure. It is still not clear how exercise affects plasma leptin concentration in horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise intensity and duration on plasma leptin levels in working horses. A total of 38 horses were prospectively included in the study and grouped according to the type of exercise they performed: dressage (six stallions, group D), jumping (12 stallions, group J), race (12 Thoroughbred horses, six stallions and six mares, group R) and harness (10 light draft stallions, group H). Blood samples were taken both before and after routine exercise (immediately after the exercise, 30 min and 24 h after). Blood lactic acid (LA) and plasma concentration of leptin, cortisol, uric acid, triacylglycerols, glycerol and free fatty acids were determined. Immediately after exercise, group R had the highest level of LA, whereas groups D and J had the lowest levels. A significant increase in plasma leptin concentration was stated only in group H in samples taken immediately after the end of the exercise period and 30 min after the exercise period, as compared with the values obtained at rest. A significant increase in plasma cortisol concentration was found immediately after the end of the exercise period in groups R and H. Leptin exercise-to-rest ratio was significantly correlated with cortisol exercise-to-rest ratio (r=0.64; P<0.001). The increase in plasma leptin concentration in exercised horses was related to the increased plasma cortisol concentration and took place only during long-lasting exercise, which was not intensive. PMID:25130711

  13. Plasma concentrations of endothelin in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Predel, H.G.; Meyer-Lehnert, H.; Baecker, A.; Stelkens, H.; Kramer, H.J. )

    1990-01-01

    We measured circulating concentrations of endothelin in healthy subjects and in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity. Endothelin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay after extraction of plasma using Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges in healthy subjects, in patients with diabetes mellitus type I, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and in non-dialyzed patients with stable chronic renal failure. Plasma concentrations were similar in healthy controls, in diabetics and in hypertensive patients averaging 5.0{plus minus}0.6 pg/ml, 4.7{plus minus}0.2 pg/ml and 6.5{plus minus}1.0 pg/ml, respectively. In contrast, plasma concentrations of endothelin were markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure averaging 16.6{plus minus}2.9 pg/ml. No correlations were observed between serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 124 to 850 {mu}mol/l or blood pressure and plasma concentrations of endothelin. Bicycle ergometric exercise in six healthy subjects and an acute modest i.v. saline load of 1,000 ml of 0.45% NaCl administered within 60 min in six patients with mild essential hypertension did not affect plasma concentrations of endothelin.

  14. Low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and outcome in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, A; Rennie, J; Baker, B A; Morley, R

    1988-01-01

    A major association has been found between low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations in preterm neonates and their later developmental outcome. Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was measured longitudinally in 280 preterm infants below 1850 g birth weight. Babies whose lowest recorded concentration was less than 0.3 nmol/l had, at 18 months' corrected age, 8.3 and 7.4 point disadvantages in Bayley mental and motor scales and a 8.6 point disadvantage on the academic scale of Developmental Profile II, even after adjusting for a range of antenatal and neonatal factors known to influence later development. Low concentrations of triiodothyronine were strongly associated with infant mortality, but not after adjusting for the presence of respiratory illness. There was no association between plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and somatic growth up to 18 months, and no association with necrotising enterocolitis or later cerebral palsy. Data on postnatal changes in plasma triiodothyronine concentrations are presented for reference purposes. While cited reference ranges for plasma triiodothyronine concentration appear suitable for well infants above 1500 g birth weight, smaller or ill babies often have very low values for many weeks. Our data are relevant to the debate on endocrine 'replacement' treatment in premature babies. PMID:2461683

  15. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  16. Plasma atropine concentrations via intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration.

    PubMed

    Prete, M R; Hannan, C J; Burkle, F M

    1987-03-01

    To date, there have been limited studies on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous atropine and no pharmacokinetic studies on the endotracheal or intraosseous administration of atropine. This study examines the time to peak plasma concentration of atropine following intravenous, endotracheal, and intraosseous administration in anesthetized monkeys using a triple crossover design. Plasma atropine was assayed by a radioreceptor method. The time to peak plasma concentration of atropine was shortest with intravenous administration; and longest with endotracheal administration. The mean plasma concentration of atropine was significantly higher in intravenous administrations than in endotracheal administrations at 0.75 and 2 minutes; compared to that noted in intraosseous administrations, the concentration was significantly higher only at 0.75 minutes. The mean plasma concentration of atropine administered intraosseously was significantly higher than that of endotracheal administrations at 5 minutes and was greater than that of intravenous and endotracheal administrations for the samples collected from 5 to 30 minutes. The endotracheal and intraosseous routes provide alternatives to the intravenous administration of atropine when intravenous access is limited or not available. PMID:3828010

  17. Supplemental silicon increases plasma and milk silicon concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Lang, K J; Nielsen, B D; Waite, K L; Hill, G M; Orth, M W

    2001-10-01

    The primary objective of this research was to determine the effect of supplemental dietary silicon (Si) on plasma and milk Si concentrations of lactating mares and the subsequent effect on plasma Si concentrations in nursing foals. Additionally, the role of Si on altering biochemical markers of bone turnover was investigated, because supplemental Si may be advantageous in enhancing bone health. Twelve Arabian mare/foal units were pair-matched by foaling date and randomly assigned to two groups, Si-supplemented (Supplemented) or control (Control). Blood and milk samples were taken on d 0, 15, 30, and 45, d 0 being the 1st d after parturition. Plasma and milk (or colostrum) Si concentrations were determined and serum was analyzed for osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal pyridinoline cross-linked telopeptide region of type I collagen, and pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline crosslinks. All Supplemented mares had higher (P < 0.01) plasma Si concentrations than Control by d 30, and Supplemented mares' milk had higher (P < 0.01) Si concentrations on d 45 than Control mares' milk. By d 45, foals of Supplemented mares had higher (P < 0.01) plasma Si concentrations than foals of Control mares. Supplemental Si did not influence (P > 0.36) bone metabolism in foals; however, trends (P < 0.10) for altered bone metabolism were observed in postpartum mares. Results indicate that supplemental Si increases plasma and milk Si concentrations. Further research is required to determine whether Si has a role in altering serum biochemical markers of bone and collagen activity. PMID:11721842

  18. Fish oils lower rat plasma and hepatic, but not immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.

    PubMed

    Alexander, D W; McGuire, S O; Cassity, N A; Fritsche, K L

    1995-10-01

    These studies were designed to measure the impact of different fish oil sources of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on the alpha-tocopherol content of rat immune cells. In the first experiment, rats were fed diets containing either lard, corn oil, menhaden fish oil or cod liver oil. In the second study, sardine fish oil replaced corn oil. Dietary fat source did not significantly influence body weights or the yield of immune cells in either study. In both studies, plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed rats than in rats fed lard. In the first study, immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentrations followed those observed in the plasma and liver. These concentrations closely paralleled the amount of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate added to diets and not the total vitamin E present, which was the same for all treatment groups. However, in the second study, alpha-tocopherol concentration of immune cells was not significantly different among rats fed lard, menhaden fish oil, and sardine fish oil. In that study both the amount and form of vitamin E were carefully balanced across dietary treatment groups. In conclusion, despite having similar amounts of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, two out of three fish oils tested did not lower immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration even in the face of significantly reduced plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations. PMID:7562101

  19. Watermelon consumption increases plasma arginine concentrations in adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is a good source of citrulline, an amino acid that can be converted to arginine in the human body. Arginine helps in cardiovascular and immune health. No studies have been conducted to evaluate plasma arginine response in humans following consumption of citrulline from natural plant so...

  20. Genetic and Clinical Factors Affecting Plasma Clozapine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Edman, Gunnar; Bertilsson, Leif; Hukic, Dzana Sudic; Lavebratt, Catharina; Eriksson, Sven V.; Ösby, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess (1) the variance of plasma clozapine levels; (2) the relative importance of sex, smoking habits, weight, age, and specific genetic variants of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 (UGT1A4), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) on plasma levels of clozapine; and (3) the relation between plasma clozapine levels, fasting glucose levels, and waist circumference. Method: There were 113 patients on clozapine treatment recruited from psychosis outpatient clinics in Stockholm County, Sweden. Patients had genotype testing for single nucleotide polymorphisms: 2 in MDR1, 3 in CYP1A2, and 1 in UGT1A4. Multiple and logistic regression were used to analyze the relations. Results: There was a wide variation in plasma concentrations of clozapine (mean = 1,615 nmol/L, SD = 1,354 nmol/L), with 37% of the samples within therapeutic range (1,100–2,100 nmol/L). Smokers had significantly lower plasma clozapine concentrations than nonsmokers (P ≤ .03). There was a significant association between the rs762551 A allele of CYP1A2 and lower plasma clozapine concentration (P ≤ .05). Increased fasting glucose level was 3.7-fold more frequent in CC and CA genotypes than AA genotype (odds ratio = 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10–0.72). There was no significant relation between higher fasting glucose levels, larger waist circumference, and higher clozapine levels. Conclusions: It is difficult to predict plasma clozapine concentration, even when known individual and genetic factors are considered. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended in patients who are treated with clozapine. PMID:26137357

  1. Acid retardation method in analysis of strongly acidic solutions by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Seregina, I F; Perevoznik, O A; Bolshov, M A

    2016-10-01

    Acid retardation on the sorbents as a technique for reduction of the acidity of the solutions prior to their analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was proposed and investigated. The proposed scheme provides substantial separation of the analytes and nitric acid, which allows direct introduction of the eluates in plasma without dilution. Two sorbents were examined - AV-17 anion-exchange resin and the Stirosorb 584 sorbent. Sorption and desorption of 38 elements on these sorbents were investigated. The efficiencies of the REEs' sorption on the anion-exchange and neutral sorbents were compared. The higher efficiency of the REEs and HNO3 separation was revealed for the neutral Stirosorb 584 sorbent. It was also found that most elements come out quantitatively of the column filled with the AV-17 resin after pumping 2-4mL of the solution. Wherein, the concentration of nitric acid decreased by 20 times. The anomalous behaviour of Ag, Pb, Th and U on the AV-17 resin was found. These analytes were eluted only after pumping 4 column volumes of deionized water. Na, K, Fe, Al and Li in concentrations within (50-1000mgL(-1)) range did not affect the recovery of REEs. The potential of ARM technique was demonstrate by the analysis of puriss. HNO3 and silverware. ARM enables to avoid dilution of highly acidic solutions prior to their introduction in ICP-MS. PMID:27474322

  2. Optimized Preparation Method of Platelet-Concentrated Plasma and Noncoagulating Platelet-Derived Factor Concentrates: Maximization of Platelet Concentration and Removal of Fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Araki, Jun; Jona, Masahiro; Eto, Hitomi; Aoi, Noriyuki; Kato, Harunosuke; Suga, Hirotaka; Doi, Kentaro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been clinically used as an easily prepared growth factor cocktail that can promote wound healing, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. However, the therapeutic effects of PRP are still controversial, due partly to the lack of optimized and standardized preparation protocols. We used whole blood (WB) samples to optimize the preparation protocols for PRP, white blood cell-containing (W-PRP), platelet-concentrated plasma (PCP), and noncoagulating platelet-derived factor concentrate (PFC). PRP and W-PRP were most efficiently collected by 10 min centrifugation in a 15-mL conical tube at 230–270 g and 70 g, respectively. To prepare PCP, platelets were precipitated by centrifugation of PRP at >2300 g, 90% of supernatant plasma was removed, and the platelets were resuspended. For preparation of noncoagulating PFC, the supernatant was replaced with one-tenth volume of saline, followed by platelet activation with thrombin. Platelet (before activation) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB (after activation) concentrations in PCP were approximately 20 times greater than those in WB, whereas PFC contained a 20-times greater concentration of platelets before platelet activation and a 50-times greater concentration of PDGF-BB without formation of a fibrin gel after platelet activation than WB. Surprisingly, total PDGF-BB content in the PFC was twice that of activated WB, which suggested that a substantial portion of the PDGF-BB became trapped in the fibrin glue, and replacement of plasma with saline is crucial for maximization of platelet-derived factors. As an anticoagulant, ethylene di-amine tetra-acetic acid disodium inhibited platelet aggregation more efficiently than acid citrate dextrose solution, resulting in higher nonaggregated platelet yield and final PDGF-BB content. These results increase our understanding of how to optimize and standardize preparation of platelet-derived factors at maximum concentrations. PMID

  3. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy with non-diagnostic plasma very long chain fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, C R; Allen, J T; Fensom, A H; Steinberg, S J; Wilson, R

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of plasma very long chain fatty acids is widely recognised as a sensitive screening test for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). This test has particular importance because of the highly variable clinical expression of X-ALD. In this affected family the progressive childhood form of X-ALD was accompanied by "non-diagnostic" concentrations of plasma very long chain fatty acids. The implications for diagnosis of X-ALD are discussed. PMID:8006665

  4. Decreased plasma isoleucine concentrations after upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Dejong, C H; Meijerink, W J; van Berlo, C L; Deutz, N E; Soeters, P B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A decrease in arterial isoleucine values after intragastric blood administration in pigs has been observed. This contrasted with increased values of most other amino acids, ammonia, and urea. After an isonitrogenous control meal in these pigs all amino acids including isoleucine increased, and urea increased to a lesser extent, suggesting a relation between the arterial isoleucine decrease and uraemia after gastrointestinal haemorrhage. METHODS: To extend these findings to humans, plasma amino acids were determined after gastrointestinal haemorrhage in patients with peptic ulcers (n = 9) or oesophageal varices induced by liver cirrhosis (n = 4) and compared with preoperative patients (n = 106). RESULTS: After gastrointestinal haemorrhage, isoleucine decreased in all patients by more than 60% and normalised within 48 hours. Most other amino acids increased and also normalised within 48 hours. Uraemia occurred in both groups, hyperammonaemia was seen in patients with liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm previous findings in animals and healthy volunteers that plasma isoleucine decreases after simulated upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. This supports the hypothesis that the absence of isoleucine in blood protein causes decreased plasma isoleucine values after gastrointestinal haemorrhage, and may be a contributory factor to uraemia and hyperammonaemia in patients with normal and impaired liver function, respectively. Intravenous isoleucine administration after gastrointestinal haemorrhage could be beneficial and will be the subject of further research. PMID:8881800

  5. Effect of sex and gonadal hormones on rat plasma lipids during the development of an essential fatty acid deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, R. L.; Ostwald, Rosemarie; Bouchard, Pauline; Shannon, Angela

    1966-01-01

    1. Male, female and castrated rats treated with oestradiol (30μg./week) or testosterone (2mg./week) were given an essential fatty acid-deficient diet containing 10% of hydrogenated coconut oil for 9 weeks. The concentrations and fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids, cholesteryl esters and triglycerides were determined. 2. Between the second and third weeks of the deficiency, concentrations of plasma cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides decreased, then remained relatively constant. There were no significant differences between males and females, but oestradiol caused a significant rise in plasma phospholipids and triglycerides as compared with testosterone-treated animals. 3. During the first 2 weeks of the deficiency, linoleic acid in the plasma lipids of all groups decreased to low concentrations and changed very little thereafter. 4. Female rats maintained higher percentages and concentrations of arachidonic acid and stearic acid in plasma phospholipids and arachidonic acid in cholesteryl esters than did males. Males had higher proportions of eicosatrienoic acid and oleic acid. There was no sex difference in the fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides. 5. Oestradiol-treated rats had concentrations of cholesteryl and phospholipid arachidonate comparable with those of female rats and higher than the testosterone-treated group. Eicosatrienoic acid in the oestradiol–treated rats was high and resembled that of the male rats, apparently because of the higher concentration of plasma phospho lipids in this group. 6. Supplementation of the essential fatty acid-deficient rats with linoleate restored plasma cholesteryl and phospholipid linoleate and arachidonate nearly to normal concentrations in a single day. The increase in arachidonic acid in these fractions was accompanied by a similar quantitative decrease in eicosatrienoic acid. 7. These sex differences appear to be related to the smaller size of the female rat and to a more direct

  6. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity

    PubMed Central

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Aledo, Juan Carlos; Cabré, Rosanna; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity. PMID:24284984

  7. Effects of prolonged nutrient restriction on baseline and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Field, M E; Deaver, S E; Rhoads, R P; Collier, R J; Rhoads, M L

    2013-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to measure both daily and periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations of postpubertal Holstein heifers during prolonged undernutrition. Following an acclimation period, Holstein heifers [n=10; 339.5 ± 8.6 kg of body weight (BW)] were fed ad libitum [well fed (WF); n=5] or restricted to 50% of ad libitum intake [underfed (UF); n=5) for 8 wk. Body condition scores (BCS) were recorded at the beginning and end of the treatment period, and weekly measurements of BW, plasma ghrelin, progesterone, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were obtained. Ovarian follicular and luteal structures were measured twice weekly via transrectal ultrasonography. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were also measured during a periprandial window bleed conducted at the end of the experiment. During the window bleed, samples were collected every 15 min between 0500 and 0900 h, with feed offered at 0700 h. Underfed heifers lost BW and BCS, whereas WF heifers gained weight and either increased or maintained BCS. Chronic underfeeding increased circulating ghrelin and NEFA concentrations. By wk 4 of the treatment period, circulating ghrelin concentrations of the UF heifers reached a plateau. Periprandial fluctuations in ghrelin concentrations were apparent as plasma ghrelin concentrations changed over time. Overall differences in periprandial plasma ghrelin concentrations were primarily due to prefeeding effects of plane of nutrition. Plasma ghrelin concentrations and change in BCS were negatively correlated such that heifers that lost the most BCS had the highest concentrations of circulating ghrelin. Two of the 5 UF heifers became anestrus by wk 3 of the treatment period. Despite being of similar age, the heifers that became anestrus had lower BW and plasma ghrelin concentrations than the UF heifers that continued to ovulate. In the current experiment, long-term undernutrition elicited ghrelin responses similar to those reported for shorter durations of

  8. Plasma drug concentrations and physiological measures in 'dance party' participants.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Rodney J; Keane, Michael; Felgate, Peter; McCann, Una D; Callaghan, Paul D; White, Jason M

    2006-02-01

    The increasing use of (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the setting of large dance parties ('raves') and clubs has been the source of some concern, because of potential acute adverse events, and because animal studies suggest that MDMA has the potential to damage brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons. However, it is not yet known whether MDMA, as used in the setting of dance parties, leads to plasma levels of MDMA that are associated with toxicity to 5-HT neurons in animals. The present study sought to address this question. Plasma MDMA concentrations, vital signs, and a variety of blood and urine measures were obtained prior to, and hours after, individuals attended a dance party. After the dance party, subjects were without clinical complaints, had measurable amounts of residual MDMA in plasma, and nearly half of the subjects also tested positive for methamphetamine, another amphetamine analog that has been shown to have 5-HT neurotoxic potential in animals. Plasma concentrations of MDMA did not correlate with self-reported use of 'ecstasy' and, in some subjects, overlapped with those that have been associated with 5-HT neurotoxicity in non-human primates. Additional subjects were likely to have had similar concentrations while at the dance party, when one considers the reported time of drug ingestion and the plasma half-life of MDMA in humans. Hematological and biochemical analyses were generally unremarkable. Moderate increases in blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature were observed in the subjects with the highest MDMA plasma concentrations. These findings are consistent with epidemiological findings that most people who use MDMA at dance parties do not develop serious clinical complications, and suggest that some of these individuals may be at risk for developing MDMA-induced toxicity to brain serotonin neurons. PMID:16192986

  9. Blood plasma concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals in Hong Kong populations.

    PubMed

    Wan, H T; Leung, P Y; Zhao, Y G; Wei, X; Wong, M H; Wong, Chris K C

    2013-10-15

    In this study we report the human plasma concentrations of some common endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the Hong Kong population. We have analyzed 153 plasma samples for the contaminants by methods involving labeled standards spiked into the samples. Quantification was performed using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for bisphenol-A (BPA) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and gas chromatography mass spectrometry methods for phthalates. We found BPA, several types of PFCs and phthalates in over 90% of the plasma samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC, followed by perfluroroctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). Eight out of ten phthalates were detected, with bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as the most abundant, followed by bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate (DMEP) and dioctyl phthalate (DnOP). The levels of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were significantly higher in the male plasma samples (p<0.05), while the mean plasma levels of DEHP and n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were significantly higher in the young age group (p<0.02). The presence of the selected EDCs in human blood plasma indicates common exposure routes among different population cohorts. Although the plasma levels of the EDCs were comparable to other countries, regular monitoring of human blood EDC contamination levels is necessary to provide a time-trend database for the estimation of exposure risk and to formulate appropriate public health policy. PMID:23411151

  10. DICARBOXYLIC ACID CONCENTRATION TRENDS AND SAMPLING ARTIFACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dicarboxylic acids associated with airborne particulate matter were measured during a summer period in Philadelphia that included multiple air pollution episodes. Samples were collected for two ten hour periods each day using a high volume sampler with two quartz fiber filters in...

  11. The seasonal fluctuation of plasma amino acids in aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Kazuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki; Nagao, Kenji; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Bannai, Makoto

    2012-07-01

    Although there has been extensive research on plasma amino acid profiles of mammals, there is currently a lack of information on seasonal differences in the concentrations of plasma amino acids specifically in cetaceans. The present study examined the response of the plasma amino acids to seasonal changes in the culture environment after controlling for the effect of sex and age. Significant seasonal changes in plasma carnosine (P=0.012), cystine (P=0.0014), isoleucine (P=0.0042), methionine (P=0.002), ornithine (P=0.0096), and taurine (P=0.032) were observed. These amino acids were mainly related to capacity for exercise, ammonia detoxification, thermoregulation, and osmoregulation. We proposed that optimizing plasma amino acids levels by supplementation of amino acids should be of considerable benefit for aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins. This study constitutes a first step towards improving our understanding of the metabolism of aquarium-maintained bottlenose dolphins. We also revealed that the ratio of tryptophan to large neutral amino acids significantly declined (P=0.0076), suggesting reduction in serotonin synthesis in winter and autumn. Although further studies are needed, this finding implied that bottlenose dolphins could produce behavioral changes seasonally by the alteration of serotonin activity. To better understand the metabolic machinery for amino acids that facilitate the adaptation of marine mammals to their environments, it is essential to continue monitoring of and further investigations into relationships between plasma amino acids and specific environmental factors. PMID:22333514

  12. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Feldman, B F; Thomson, D B; O'Neill, S

    1985-05-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations were significantly (P less than 0.001) below the reference range in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) secondary to nonlymphomatous neoplasia, acute necrotizing pancreatitis, sepsis, chronic active hepatitis, and heat stroke. There was no statistical evidence of a group effect. Decrease in fibronectin concentration was associated with severe DIC, although no attempt was made to correlate fibronectin concentration with prognosis. These findings parallel those reported for severely ill human beings with diseases associated with DIC. They exemplify the potential of spontaneous diseases in animals as models for the study of human disease. PMID:4003893

  13. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    Background In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Methods Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. Results For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Conclusions Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans. PMID:26356420

  14. Glycosaminoglycan concentrations in horse plasma and serum. Differences with other animal species and identification of affecting factors.

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, A M; Vinci, R; Panzera, M; Ferlazzo, A; Calatroni, A

    1991-01-01

    1. The measured values of acid glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration in plasma or in serum show significant differences between trained and untrained horses and among sedentary horses and other animal species (cattle, rabbit, sheep). 2. Diurnal variations in serum GAG levels are reported (cattle), and changes in plasma GAG concentrations after road transport (horses) and in late pregnancy (mares, cows), while sex, age and breed do not affect them. PMID:1782758

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial plasma lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the concentrations of different subclasses of VLDL, LDL and HDL particles, and their mean diameters in fasting and postprandial plasma has not been studied. Objective: To determine the effects of DHA supplementation on the concentrations of a...

  16. Drug concentrations in post-mortem femoral blood compared with therapeutic concentrations in plasma

    PubMed Central

    Launiainen, Terhi; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic drug concentrations measured in plasma are of limited value as reference intervals for interpretation in post-mortem (PM) toxicology. In this study, drug concentration distributions were studied in PM femoral venous blood from 57 903 Finnish autopsy cases representing all causes of death during an 11-year period. Cause-of-death information was obtained from death certificates issued by forensic pathologists. Median, mean, and upper percentile (90th, 95th, 97.5th) concentrations were calculated for 129 drugs. To illustrate how PM median concentrations relate to established therapeutic ranges in plasma, a PM blood/plasma relationship was calculated for each drug. Males represented 75% of the subjects and showed a lower median age (55 yrs) than females (59 yrs). In 43% of these cases, blood alcohol concentration was higher than 0.2‰, and the median was 1.8‰. Sixty-one (47%) of the 129 drugs showed a PM blood/plasma relationship of 1. For 22 drugs (17%), the relationship was <1, and for 46 drugs (35%), the relationship was >1. No marked correlation was found between the PM blood/plasma relationship and the volume of distribution (Vd). For 36 drugs, more than 10% of cases were fatal poisonings attributed to this drug as the main finding. These drug concentration distributions based on a large database provide a helpful reference not only to forensic toxicologists and pathologists but also to clinical pharmacologists in charge of interpreting drug concentrations in PM cases. © 2013 The Authors. Drug Testing and Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23881890

  17. Solubility series of methanofullerenes in concentrated sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biglova, Yu. N.; Kolesov, S. V.; Biglova, R. Z.; Kraikin, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    A spectroscopic study of the dissolution of C60 and its monosubstituted derivatives methanofullerenes in 98% sulfuric acid revealed that methanofullerenes dissolved in sulfuric acid much better than the starting C60. A solubility series of functionalized fullerenes was obtained, which did not change during the extraction of methanofullerenes with sulfuric acid from benzene solutions. An effective methods was developed for separating methanofullerenes, which is based on the difference between the solubilities of the starting and functionalized fullerenes in concentrated sulfuric acid.

  18. The significance of plasma phytanic acid levels in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Britton, T C; Gibberd, F B; Clemens, M E; Billimoria, J D; Sidey, M C

    1989-01-01

    The presence of phytanic acid in tissues and plasma has been considered diagnostic of heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis (Refsum's disease), but recently slightly raised plasma phytanic acid levels have been reported in other conditions. Forty two normal people were found to have a phytanic acid level of 0-33 mumol/l. Fourteen patients with heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had a plasma phytanic acid level before treatment of 992-6400 mumol/l. Five patients with retinitis pigmentosa but not heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis had plasma levels of 38-192 mumol/l. It was concluded that some patients with retinitis pigmentosa without heredopathia atactica polyneuritiformis but a raised plasma phytanic acid may represent a group of patients with a disease or diseases as yet uncharacterised apart from the retinal condition. PMID:2475586

  19. Nicotinic acid modulates intracellular calcium concentration and disassembles the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    LI, JIEJING; LI, YANXI; ZHANG, PENGHUI; NIU, HUA; SHI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA), a member of the vitamin B family, is well known for its functions in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis due to decreasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In recent years, the major side effect of NA, cutaneous flushing, has also attracted extensive attention. However, the effects of NA in other aspects of physiology or cell biology have remained elusive. The present study provided evidence that high concentrations of NA were able to first reduce and later elevate intracellular [Ca2+] in the NIH3T3 cell line. The reduction of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was achieved within the initial 10 sec, and was preceded by a gradual elevation of intracellular [Ca2+]. Notably, marked accumulation of opaque materials in the perinuclear region was observed in NIH3T3 cells treated with 70 mM NA. Further analysis revealed that treatment with 70 mM NA for 1 h disassembled the microtubule and F-actin cytoskeleton systems and resulted in β-tubulin degradation in an ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent manner. These data indicated that high concentrations of NA disrupted cytoskeleton structures, which may have contributed to minus end (nucleus region) to plus end (cell membrane region)-directed transport processes and resulted in the deposition of material in the perinuclear region. Artificially increasing [Ca2+] adding CaCl2 to the culture media effected the disassembly of F-actin, while it had no apparent effect on microtubules. These results suggested that the disruption of the cytoskeleton systems was not entirely due to the NA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]. Finally, microinjection of NA into xenopus embryos blocked the transport of melanosomes to the peripheral cellular area. In conclusion, the present study indicated that NA disassembles F-actin and microtubule systems, thereby blocking cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport. PMID:25241762

  20. Nicotinic acid modulates intracellular calcium concentration and disassembles the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiejing; Li, Yanxi; Zhang, Penghui; Niu, Hua; Shi, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA), a member of the vitamin B family, is well known for its functions in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis due to decreasing plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In recent years, the major side effect of NA, cutaneous flushing, has also attracted extensive attention. However, the effects of NA in other aspects of physiology or cell biology have remained elusive. The present study provided evidence that high concentrations of NA were able to first reduce and later elevate intracellular [Ca2+] in the NIH3T3 cell line. The reduction of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was achieved within the initial 10 sec, and was preceded by a gradual elevation of intracellular [Ca2+]. Notably, marked accumulation of opaque materials in the perinuclear region was observed in NIH3T3 cells treated with 70 mM NA. Further analysis revealed that treatment with 70 mM NA for 1 h disassembled the microtubule and F‑actin cytoskeleton systems and resulted in β‑tubulin degradation in an ubiquitin‑proteasome-dependent manner. These data indicated that high concentrations of NA disrupted cytoskeleton structures, which may have contributed to minus end (nucleus region) to plus end (cell membrane region)-directed transport processes and resulted in the deposition of material in the perinuclear region. Artificially increasing [Ca2+] adding CaCl2 to the culture media effected the disassembly of F‑actin, while it had no apparent effect on microtubules. These results suggested that the disruption of the cytoskeleton systems was not entirely due to the NA-induced elevation of [Ca2+]. Finally, microinjection of NA into xenopus embryos blocked the transport of melanosomes to the peripheral cellular area. In conclusion, the present study indicated that NA disassembles F‑actin and microtubule systems, thereby blocking cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport. PMID:25241762

  1. Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin and atrial and brain natriuretic peptides in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    HU, WEI; SHI, LEI; ZHOU, PANG-HU; ZHANG, XIAO-BIN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate any changes in the plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin (ADM), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in patients with adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC). The plasma concentrations of the three peptides were measured in 45 healthy control individuals and 90 untreated patients with PC, who consisted of 20 normotensive patients, 30 borderline hypertensive patients and 40 hypertensive patients. After 4 weeks of effective antihypertensive therapy for hypertensive PC patients, the concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP were measured again, and laparoscopic adrenalectomy was then performed for all PC patients with values that were measured 2 weeks later. The plasma concentrations of the three peptides were significantly increased in the borderline hypertensive and hypertensive patients compared with the concentrations in control individuals and normotensive patients. In addition, there were significant differences between the levels of ADM, ANP and BNP in the borderline and hypertensive groups. The plasma ADM concentration was not associated with the blood urea nitrogen levels, serum creatinine levels or glomerular filtration rate, but was correlated with the serum epinephrine, serum norepinephrine and urine vanillylmandelic acid levels. In addition, the ADM concentration was associated with the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass index and plasma concentrations of ANP and BNP in the hypertensive patients with PC. After 4 weeks of antihypertensive treatment, the values of the three peptides in the hypertensive patients with PC were not significantly changed. As expected, the values in borderline and hypertensive groups were significantly decreased 2 weeks subsequent to surgery, whereas there were no significant changes in the normotensive group. ADM may participate, along with ANP and BNP, in the mechanisms that counteract further elevation

  2. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid concentration and plasma free concentration as a surrogate measurement for brain free concentration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingrong; Smith, Bill J; Chen, Cuiping; Callegari, Ernesto; Becker, Stacey L; Chen, Xi; Cianfrogna, Julie; Doran, Angela C; Doran, Shawn D; Gibbs, John P; Hosea, Natilie; Liu, Jianhua; Nelson, Frederick R; Szewc, Mark A; Van Deusen, Jeffrey

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drug concentration and plasma unbound concentration (C(u,plasma)) to predict brain unbound concentration (C(u,brain)). The concentration-time profiles in CSF, plasma, and brain of seven model compounds were determined after subcutaneous administration in rats. The C(u,brain) was estimated from the product of total brain concentrations and unbound fractions, which were determined using brain tissue slice and brain homogenate methods. For theobromine, theophylline, caffeine, fluoxetine, and propranolol, which represent rapid brain penetration compounds with a simple diffusion mechanism, the ratios of the area under the curve of C(u,brain)/C(CSF) and C(u,brain)/C(u,plasma) were 0.27 to 1.5 and 0.29 to 2.1, respectively, using the brain slice method, and were 0.27 to 2.9 and 0.36 to 3.9, respectively, using the brain homogenate method. A P-glycoprotein substrate, CP-141938 (methoxy-3-[(2-phenyl-piperadinyl-3-amino)-methyl]-phenyl-N-methyl-methane-sulfonamide), had C(u,brain)/C(CSF) and C(u,brain)/C(u,plasma) ratios of 0.57 and 0.066, using the brain slice method, and 1.1 and 0.13, using the brain homogenate method, respectively. The slow brain-penetrating compound, N[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl-]sarcosine, had C(u,brain)/C(CSF) and C(u,brain)/C(u,plasma) ratios of 0.94 and 0.12 using the brain slice method and 0.15 and 0.018 using the brain homogenate method, respectively. Therefore, for quick brain penetration with simple diffusion mechanism compounds, C(CSF) and C(u,plasma) represent C(u,brain) equally well; for efflux substrates or slow brain penetration compounds, C(CSF) appears to be equivalent to or more accurate than C(u,plasma) to represent C(u,brain). Thus, we hypothesize that C(CSF) is equivalent to or better than C(u,plasma) to predict C(u,brain). This hypothesis is supported by the literature data. PMID:16760229

  3. Modulation of plasma melatonin concentrations by changes in posture.

    PubMed

    Nathan, P J; Jeyaseelan, A S; Burrows, G D; Norman, T R

    1998-05-01

    Posture change from a lying position to a standing position results in a decrease in plasma volume, which leads to an increase in plasma constituents, especially that of proteins and blood constituents bound to them. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological effects of postural changes on plasma nocturnal melatonin concentrations in healthy human volunteers. The study was divided into four stages. During stage one, subjects were seated from 21.00 hr to 01.00 hr. In stage two, subjects were lying at ground level from 21.00 hr to 01.00 hr. In stage three, subjects were is a sitting position from 2100 hr to 2300 hr and then in a standing position from 23.00 hr to 24.00 hr, and back to the sitting position from 24.00 hr to 01.00 hr. In the final stage, subjects were in a lying position from 21.00 hr to 23.00 hr and then in a standing position from 23.00 hr to 24.00 hr and back to the lying position from 24.00 hr to 01.00 hr. AUC analysis showed significant differences between sitting and lying positions (t=2.84; P<0.05; df=5), with higher melatonin levels associated with the sitting position (mean difference in peak concentration of 17.1 pg/ml). Furthermore a change in posture from the lying to the standing position produced a statistically significant increase in melatonin concentrations (final stage) (t=-3.37; P<0.05; df=5) (mean difference in peak concentration of 28.5 pg/ml). No differences were found with a change in posture from a sitting to a standing position. The hemoconcentration and hemodilution associated with posture changes may play a role in altering plasma protein bound hormones such as melatonin. PMID:9572531

  4. Ocular acid burn due to 20% concentrated salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Shazly, Tarek A

    2011-03-01

    This is a case report of severe conjunctival and corneal epithelial defects resulting from accidental exposure to salicylic acid that was mistakenly used instead of artificial tears (eye drops). The patient was treated with tobramycin 0.3%-dexamethasone 1% 3 times a day, cyclopentolate 1% twice a day, and artificial tears 6 times a day and underwent daily examinations until the corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects resolved. The corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects slowly resolved over 14 days. Visual acuity improved to its preinjury level of 20/40 in the affected eye. No residual corneal scarring was evident. Slowly resolving corneal and conjunctival epithelial defects can occur from direct contact with salicylic acid; therefore, this medication should be packaged and labeled differently from eye drops. PMID:20954793

  5. Valine entry into rat brain after diet-induced changes in plasma amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Tews, J.K.; Greenwood, J.; Pratt, O.E.; Harper, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Passage of amino acids across the blood-brain barrier is assumed to be modified by amino acid composition of the blood. To gain a better understanding of the effects of protein intake on brain amino acid uptake, the authors examined associations among diet, plasma amino acid patterns, and the rate of entry of valine into the brain. Rats were fed diets containing 6, 18, or 50% casein before receiving one meal of a diet containing 0, 6, 18, or 50% casein. After 4-7 h, they were anesthetized and infused intravenously with (/sup 14/C)valine for 5 min before plasma and brain samples were taken for determination of radioactivity and content of individual amino acids. As protein content of the meal was increased from 0 to 50% casein, plasma and brain concentrations of valine and most other large neutral amino acid (LNAA) increased severalfold; also the ratio of (/sup 14/C)valine in brain to that in plasma decreased by >50%, and the rate of valine entry into the brain increased 3.5-fold. The increase in valine flux slowed as plasma levels of LNAA, competitors for valine transport, increased. The results were far more dependent on protein content of the final meal than on that of the adaptation diet; thus changes in protein intake, as reflected in altered plasma amino acid patterns, markedly altered valine entry into the brain.

  6. Highly accurate boronimeter assay of concentrated boric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, R.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The Random-Walk Boronimeter has successfully been used as an on-line indicator of boric acid concentration in an operating commercial pressurized water reactor. The principle has been adapted for measurement of discrete samples to high accuracy and to concentrations up to 6000 ppm natural boron in light water. Boric acid concentration in an aqueous solution is a necessary measurement in many nuclear power plants, particularly those that use boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant as a reactivity control system. Other nuclear plants use a high-concentration boric acid solution as a backup shutdown system. Such a shutdown system depends on rapid injection of the solution and frequent surveillance of the fluid to ensure the presence of the neutron absorber. The two methods typically used to measure boric acid are the chemical and the physical methods. The chemical method uses titration to determine the ionic concentration of the BO[sub 3] ions and infers the boron concentration. The physical method uses the attenuation of neutrons by the solution and infers the boron concentration from the neutron absorption properties. This paper describes the Random-Walk Boronimeter configured to measure discrete samples to high accuracy and high concentration.

  7. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  8. Catecholamines and free fatty acids in plasma of patients undergoing cardiac operations with hypothermia and bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, J; Huttunen, P; Nuutinen, L; Pekkarinen, A

    1978-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and free fatty acids were measured at different stages of cardiac operations in which hypothermia and bypass were used. The rise of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and free fatty acid concentrations in plasma is consistent with the concept that these are important compounds in stress situations such as hypothermia and surgical operations. There is a more marked release of adrenaline and it may be a more specific hormone in response to hypothermia and bypass than is noradrenaline in man. PMID:711903

  9. Acid-base balance and plasma composition in the aestivating lungfish (Protopterus).

    PubMed

    DeLaney, R G; Lahiri, S; Hamilton, R; Fishman, P

    1977-01-01

    Upon entering into aestivation, Protopterus aethiopicus develops a respiratory acidosis. A slow compensatory increase in plasma bicarbonate suffices only to partially restore arterial pH toward normal. The cessation of water intake from the start of aestivation results in hemoconcentration and marked oliguria. The concentrations of most plasma constituents continue to increase progressively, and the electrolyte ratios change. The increase in urea concentration is disproportionately high for the degree of dehydration and constitutes an increasing fraction of total plasma osmolality. Acid-base and electrolyte balance do not reach a new equilibrium within 1 yr in the cocoon. PMID:13665

  10. Pulsed and continuous wave acrylic acid radio frequency plasma deposits: plasma and surface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Voronin, Sergey A; Zelzer, Mischa; Fotea, Catalin; Alexander, Morgan R; Bradley, James W

    2007-04-01

    Plasma polymers have been formed from acrylic acid using a pulsed power source. An on-pulse duration of 100 micros was used with a range of discharge off-times between 0 (continuous wave) and 20,000 micros. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used in combination with trifluoroethanol (TFE) derivatization to quantify the surface concentration of the carboxylic acid functionality in the deposit. Retention of this functionality from the monomer varied from 2% to 65%. When input power was expressed as the time-averaged energy per monomer molecule, E(mean), the deposit chemistry achieved could be described using a single relationship for all deposition conditions. Deposition rates were monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance, which revealed a range from 20 to 200 microg m(-2) s(-1), and these fell as COOH functional retention increased. The flow rate was found to be the major determinant of the deposition rate, rather than being uniquely defined by E(mean), connected to the rate at which fresh monomer enters the system in the monomer deficient regime. The neutral species were collected in a time-averaged manner. As the energy delivered per molecule in the system (E(mean)) decreased, the amount of intact monomer increased, with the average neutral mass approaching 72 amu as E(mean) tends to zero. No neutral oligomeric species were detected. Langmuir probes have been used to determine the temporal evolution of the density and temperature of the electrons in the plasma and the plasma potential adjacent to the depositing film. It has been found that even 500 micros into the afterglow period that ionic densities are still significant, 5-10% of the on-time density, and that ion accelerating sheath potentials fall from 40 V in the on-time to a few volts in the off-time. We have made the first detailed, time- and energy-resolved mass spectrometry measurements in depositing acrylic acid plasma. These have allowed us to identify and quantify the positive ion

  11. Weight loss is associated with plasma free amino acid alterations in subjects with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tochikubo, O; Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Yoshida, H; Kageyama, N; Miyano, H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide, especially in Asian populations. Early detection and effective intervention are vital. Plasma free amino acid profile is a potential biomarker for the early detection for lifestyle-related diseases. However, little is known about whether the altered plasma free amino acid profiles in subjects with metabolic syndrome are related to the effectiveness of dietary and exercise interventions. Methods: Eighty-five Japanese subjects who fulfilled the Japanese diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome were enrolled in a 3-month diet and exercise intervention. The plasma free amino acid concentrations and metabolic variables were measured, and the relationships between plasma free amino acid profiles, metabolic variables and the extent of body weight reduction were investigated. Those who lost more than 3% of body weight were compared with those who lost less than 3%. Results: Baseline levels of most amino acids in the subset that went on to lose <3% body weight were markedly lower compared with the counterpart, although both groups showed similar proportional pattern of plasma amino acid profiles. The weight loss induced by the diet and exercise intervention normalized plasma free amino acid profiles. For those with a high degree of weight loss, those changes were also associated with improvement in blood pressure, triglyceride and hemoglobin A1c levels. Conclusions: These data suggest that among Japanese adults meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome, baseline plasma free amino acid profiles may differ in ways that predict who will be more vs less beneficially responsive to a standard diet and exercise program. Plasma free amino acid profiles may also be useful as markers for monitoring the risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases and measuring improvement in physiological states. PMID:26926588

  12. Pictorial Analogies XI: Concentrations and Acidity of Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortman, John J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents pictorial analogies of several concepts relating to solutions for chemistry students. These include concentration of solution, strength of solution, supersaturated solution, and conjugate acid-base pairs. Among the examples are comparison of acid strength to percentage of strong soldiers or making supersaturated solution analogous to a…

  13. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Volpe, Alessandro; Caramaschi, Paola; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2006-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95%) of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005). After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications. PMID:16420700

  14. Organic acids enhanced decoloration of azo dye in gas phase surface discharge plasma system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-01-25

    A gas phase surface discharge plasma combined with organic acids system was developed to enhance active species mass transfer and dye-containing wastewater treatment efficacy, with Acid Orange II (AO7) as the model pollutant. The effects of discharge voltage and various organic acid additives (acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid) on AO7 decoloration efficiency were evaluated. The experimental results showed that an AO7 decoloration efficiency of approximately 69.0% was obtained within 4 min of discharge plasma treatment without organic acid addition, which was improved to 82.8%, 83.5% and 88.6% within the same treatment time with the addition of acetic acid, lactic acid and nonoic acid, respectively. The enhancement effects on AO7 decoloration efficiency could be attributed to the decrease in aqueous surface tension, improvement in bubble distribution and shape, and increase in ozone equivalent concentration. The AO7 wastewater was biodegradable after discharge plasma treatment with the addition of organic acid. AO7 decomposition intermediates were analyzed by UV-vis spectrometry and GC-MS; 2-naphthol, 1,4-benzoquinone, phthalic anhydride, coumarin, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 2-formyl-benzoic acid were detected. A possible pathway for AO7 decomposition in this system was proposed. PMID:26444488

  15. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  16. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am

    PubMed Central

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides, such as americium, from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of 241Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and 241Am in plasma, the 241Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for 241Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose-response curves of DTPA for 241Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9 and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize 241Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg−1 intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen. PMID:23799506

  17. Nutritional status influences plasma fibrinogen concentration: evidence from the THUSA survey.

    PubMed

    James, S; Vorster, H H; Venter, C S; Kruger, H S; Nell, T A; Veldman, F J; Ubbink, J B

    2000-06-01

    Nutritional status and risk factors for chronic diseases, including plasma fibrinogen and its determinants, of Africans in the Northwest Province of South Africa, have been studied in a cross-sectional survey. A representative sample of 1854 "apparently healthy" African men and women volunteers aged 15 years and older was recruited from 37 randomly selected sites throughout the Province and stratified for level of urbanisation. Information was collected using validated and culture-sensitive questionnaires. Fasting blood samples were drawn, and all measurements were done with standardised methodology using appropriate equipment, procedures, and controls. Fibrinogen concentration was measured in citrated plasma with the method of Clauss, using the ACL200 automated system and the international fibrinogen standard. The results revealed a population with a high mean plasma fibrinogen (3.17+/-1.10 g/L for HIV-negative men and 3. 64+/-1.12 g/L for HIV-negative women). Factors known to influence plasma fibrinogen, such as age, gender, smoking habit, and physical activity, were also observed in this population. Young rural men and women had the lowest fibrinogen level. Nasal snuff taking and HIV infection did not influence fibrinogen concentration. Multivariate analyses revealed that lower plasma fibrinogen was associated with low to normal body mass index in women, and with dietary intakes compatible with prudent dietary guidelines in men and women (low intakes of animal protein; trans fatty acids and higher intakes of plant protein; dietary fibre, vitamin E, and iron, and a high dietary P/S ratio). Subjects in the higher quartiles of plasma fibrinogen had significantly lower iron, vitamin E, and vitamin B6 (women) status. Increases in fibrinogen were associated with significant increases in serum lipids. Both under- and overnutrition seem to be associated with high plasma fibrinogen. It is concluded that overall nutritional status, possibly in addition to specific

  18. Combination induction plasma tube and current concentrator for introducing a sample into a plasma

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E.; Bieniewski, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    An induction plasma tube in combination with a current concentrator. The rent concentrator has a substantially cylindrical body having an open end and a partially closed end which defines an aperture. A first slot extends the longitudinal length of the cylindrical body and a second slot extends radially outward from the aperture. Together the first and second slots form a single L-shaped slot. The current concentrator is disposed within a volume bounded by an induction coil substantially along the axis thereof, and when power is applied to the induction coil a concentrated current is induced within the current concentrator aperture. The concentrator is moveable relative to the coil along the longitudinal axis of the coil to control the amount of current which is concentrated at the aperture.

  19. Total and free valproic acid: plasma level/dose ratio in monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abadín, J A; Durán, J A; Sánchez, A; Serrano, J S

    1991-04-01

    Free plasma level/dose ratio of valproic acid (L/D-F) can be more effective than total plasma level/dose ratio (L/D-T) in adjusting dosage regimens. The influence of age, dose, and plasma concentration have been studied on L/D-T and L/D-F ratios. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios from 67 outpatients under long-term monotherapy were obtained. Analytical data was carried out by fluorescent polarized immunoassay. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios do not vary according to age. L/D-T and L/D-F ratios decreased while the dosage increased; both ratios increased with an increase in total plasma level of valproic acid. Significant differences were found between L/D-T and L/D-F ratios. Dose and interindividual variations are the factors which most influence L/D ratios of valproic acid. PMID:2051846

  20. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Francis, Sunday M.; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ‘ecstasy’) is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its prosocial effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20 IU or 40 IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5 mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7 pg/ml at approximately 90–120 minutes, compared to 18.6 pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40 IU, but not 20 IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0 pg/ml, 30–60 min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., ‘High’ and ‘Like Drug’), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects. PMID:24882155

  1. Plasma amino and keto acids in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Langer, K; Fröhling, P T; Diederich, J; Brandl, M; Lindenau, K; Fekl, W

    1988-01-01

    During both early and late stages of chronic renal insufficiency the response of BCKA to the disease state, as indicated by plasma levels, differs from that of BCAA. Val is the only BCAA whose concentration changes under the conditions of our study, and this only during the more advanced stages of disease. In contrast, all three BCKA declined, KIVA and KICA even in mild renal failure, showing that already during the early stages of the disease these BCKA levels are decreased. BCKA are more sensitive parameters than the corresponding amino acids with regard to the metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of this disease. Modern analytical methods allow more exact and reliable knowledge of these indicators and thus a better understanding of biochemical mechanisms, possibly resulting in better therapy. PMID:3168462

  2. Concentrations of acidic antiinflammatory drugs in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Frey, H H; El-Sayed, M A

    1977-12-01

    In rats, the concentrations of the acidic antiinflammatory drugs salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, phenylbutazone, flufenamic acid and indomethacin in the glandular portion of the gastric mucosa were determined 30 and 60 min after oral or subcutaneous administration. In another series of experiments, solutions of the drugs were introduced into the ligated stomach and the concentrations in the mucosa and in the contents of the stomach were determined after 60 min. The ratio between the concentrations in the musoca and those in serum or gastric contents were much lower than expected according to the distribution by passive non-ionic diffusion. This apparent discrepancy may be explained as a result of a drug-induced damage to the mucosal cell allowing free diffusion of ionized drug across the cell membrane. PMID:603322

  3. Plasma homocysteine concentration in children with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Merouani, A; Lambert, M; Delvin, E E; Genest, J; Robitaille, P; Rozen, R

    2001-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is commonly found in adult patients with end-stage renal disease. Major determinants of elevated plasma homocysteine levels in these patients include deficiencies in folate and vitamin B12, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype and renal function. Little information is available for children with chronic renal failure (CRF). The prevalence and the factors that affect plasma homocysteine concentration were determined in children. Twenty-nine children with various degrees of CRF (15 were dialyzed, 14 were not dialyzed) were compared with 57 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Homocysteine concentrations were higher in patients than controls (17.3 micromol/l vs 6.8 micromol/l, P<0.0001) and hyperhomocysteinemia (>95th percentile for controls: 14.0 micromol/l) was seen in 62.0% of patients and 5.2% of controls. Folate concentrations were lower in patients (9.9 nmol/l) than controls (13.5 nmol/l), P<0.01. Vitamin B12 was similar in patients (322 pmol/l) and controls (284 pmol/l). Dialyzed patients have a higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia than nondialyzed patients (87% vs 35%). Dialyzed patients with MTHFR mutation have higher plasma homocysteine (28.5 micromol/l) than nondialyzed patients with the mutation (10.7 micromol/l), P<0.002. In our study, differences between controls and patients in plasma homocysteine concentrations are observed when age is greater then 92 months, folate less than 21.6 nmol/l and vitamin B12 less than 522 pmol/l. Our study shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is common in children with CRF and is associated with low folate and normal vitamin B12 status, compared to normal children. Among the patients, the dialyzed patients with the MTHFR mutation are particularly at risk for hyperhomocysteinemia. Further studies are needed to investigate therapeutic interventions and the potential link with vascular complications in these patients. PMID:11605787

  4. Concentration-Effect Relationships for the Drug of Abuse γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, Melanie A.; Roiko, Samuel A.; Morse, Bridget L.

    2010-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous neurotransmitter that is abused because of its sedative/hypnotic and euphoric effects. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the concentration-effect relationships of GHB in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain (whole and discrete brain regions), and brain frontal cortex extracellular fluid. This information is crucial for future studies to evaluate effects of therapeutic interventions on the toxicodynamics of GHB. GHB (200–1000 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to rats, and plasma and frontal cortex microdialysate samples were collected for up to 6 h after the dose, or plasma, CSF, and brain (whole, frontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus) concentrations were determined at the offset of its sedative/hypnotic effect [return to righting reflex (RRR)]. GHB-induced changes in the brain neurotransmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were also determined. GHB, GABA, and glutamate concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. GHB-induced sleep time significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner (20-fold increase from 200 to 1000 mg/kg). GHB concentrations in plasma (300–400 μg/ml), whole brain (70 μg/g), discrete brain regions (80–100 μg/g), and brain microdialysate (29–39 μg/ml) correlated with RRR. In contrast, CSF GHB and GABA and glutamate concentrations in discrete brain regions exhibited no relationship with RRR. Our results suggest that GHB-induced sedative/hypnotic effects are mediated directly by GHB and that at high GHB doses, GABA formation from GHB may not contribute to the observed sedative/hypnotic effect. These results support the use of a clinical GHB detoxification strategy aimed at decreasing plasma and brain GHB concentrations after GHB overdoses. PMID:20215411

  5. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high–oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline PD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high–oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid–enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. Design: We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high–oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high–linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35–70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Results: Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P < 0.05). The characteristic decrease from baseline in plasma nonesterified fatty acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0–3 h, P < 0.05). HLS increased the augmentation index compared with the other test meals (P < 0.05), although the digital volume pulse–reflection index was not significantly different. Plasma 8-isoprostane F2α analysis revealed opposing effects of FO (increased) and AO (reduced) compared with the control (P < 0.05). No differences in nitric oxide metabolites were observed. Conclusions: These data show differential postprandial 8-isoprostane F2α responses to high-fat meals containing EPA + DHA–rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid–derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible

  6. Determination of Mycophenolic Acid in Plasma Samples Using the Terbium-Sensitized Luminescence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayanfar, A.; Ghavimi, H.; Zolali, E.; Jouyban, A.

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this work were to provide an analytical method, for the quantitative determination of the mycophenolic acid (MFA) in plasma samples and its application to quantification of the MFA in rat plasma after oral administration. In order to remove the fluorescence interferences of the plasma, the samples were precipitated by acetonitrile in 1:8 ratio and then a few parameters were optimized and the fluorescence intensity measured at 545 nm using an excitation wavelength of 347 nm. Under the optimized concentration, the method provided a linear range between 1.0 and 10.0 mg/l with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. MFA was detected and the validation was performed according to the FDA guidelines. Linearity, accuracy, precision, and selectivity of the developed method were suitable for th determination of the MFA in plasma samples. The proposed analytical approach was applied to determine the MFA concentration in a rat plasma-time profile study.

  7. Approaches to modeling of plasmas containing impurity at arbitrary concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar, Mikhail Z.

    2016-02-01

    A new approximate method to modeling of two-ion-species plasmas with arbitrary concentration of impurity is developed. It based on the usage of equations for the electron density and the ratio of the ion species densities as new dependent variables. In contrast to motion equations for the ion mass velocities used normally, those for the new variables have a singularity at the Debye sheath only, as in the case of a one species plasma. Computations for the most critical situations of weak and intermediate friction between species due to Coulomb collisions reproduce nearly perfectly the results got by solving the original equations, however within a calculation time reduced by a factor of 102-103. In the case of strong friction, where ions’ velocities are very close each other, the normal procedure does not converge at all, but the new one, being precise in this limit, operates very reliably. Calculations are done for conditions typical in the linear device PSI-2, with deuterium plasmas seeded by neon impurity. For fixed electron and ion temperatures a critical density of impurity atoms is found, at which the electron density grows without limits. Such a catastrophic behavior does not occur if the electron and ion heat balances are taken into account to calculate the temperature profiles self-consistently.

  8. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    2013-01-01

    Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter) have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens) and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments. PMID:24204364

  9. No endogenous circadian rhythm in resting plasma Hsp72 concentration in humans

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Matthew B.

    2008-01-01

    Extra-cellular (e) heat shock protein (Hsp)72 has been shown to be elevated in a number of clinical conditions and has been proposed as a potential diagnostic marker. From a methodological and diagnostic perspective, it is important to investigate if concentrations of eHsp72 fluctuate throughout the day; hence, the purpose of the study was to measure resting concentrations of plasma eHsp72 throughout a 24-h period. Blood samples were taken every hour from 1200–2100 hours and from 0700–1200 hours the following day from seven healthy recreationally active males. Participants remained in the laboratory throughout the trial, performed light sedentary activities and were provided with standardised meals and fluids. Physical activity was quantified throughout by the use of an accelerometer. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were analysed for eHsp72 concentration using a commercially available high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (intra-assay coefficient of variation = 1.4%). One-way repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that measures of physiological stress such as heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure remained stable throughout the trial and subjects remained sedentary throughout (mean activity energy expenditure above resting metabolic rate—35.7 ± 10.0 kcal∙h−1). Plasma Hsp72 concentration did not fluctuate significantly throughout the day and showed no apparent endogenous circadian rhythm in absolute (P = 0.367) or plasma volume change corrected data (P = 0.380). Individual coefficients of variation ranged from 3.8–7.7% (mean 5.4%). Mean Hsp72 concentration across all subjects and time points was 1.49 ± 0.08 ng∙ml−1. These data show that in a rested state, plasma eHsp72 concentration shows no apparent endogenous circadian rhythm. PMID:18839337

  10. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-01-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC. PMID:26424242

  11. The effect of acute haemorrhage in the dog and man on plasma-renin concentration

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. J.; Davies, D. L.; Lever, A. F.; Robertson, J. I. S.; Verniory, A.

    1966-01-01

    1. The effect of acute haemorrhage on the plasma renin concentration was studied in the dog and man. 2. Plasma-renin concentration was regularly increased after the larger bleeds; after the smaller haemorrhages plasma-renin concentration remained unchanged. 3. The results are discussed in relation to current hypotheses concerning the control of renin and aldosterone secretion. PMID:4287431

  12. Plasma phylloquinone concentrations increase following acupoint injection for primary dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Maria T.; Wade, Christine M.; Booth, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic benefits of acupoint injection of vitamin K in Spleen-6 for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea have been observed in limited clinical settings. However, menadione, the form of vitamin K most studied for treating dysmenorrhea, is not routinely used in clinical practice in North America. As part of a larger clinical trial among women with primary dysmenorrhea aged 18 to 25 years old, we conducted a sub-study to test the plasma concentration of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). We collected blood samples of four women prior to and 24-48 hours following acupoint injection of phylloquinone in Spleen-6. Despite rapid turnover of phylloquinone observed in prior studies, we found that plasma phylloquinone concentrations significantly increased from pre-injection to one to two days after injection. Interestingly, higher phylloquinone was correlated with less pain intensity among women with dysmenorrhea. Additional research is needed on the association between vitamin K and menstrual pain, including the role of vitamin K deficiency in inflammation and pain, and the possible mechanisms of acupoint injection of vitamin K for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24929459

  13. Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid onto polystyrene by cyclonic plasma at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yi-Jan; Lin, Chin-Ho; Huang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The cyclonic atmospheric-pressure plasma is developed for chamberless deposition of poly(acrylic acid) film from argon/acrylic acid mixtures. The photoemission plasma species in atmospheric-pressure plasma polymerization was identified by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The OES diagnosis data and deposition results indicated that in glow discharge, the CH and C2 species resulted from low-energy electron-impact dissociation that creates deposition species, but the strong CO emission lines are related to nondeposition species. The acrylic acid flow rate is seen as the key factor affecting the film growth. The film surface analysis results indicate that a smooth, continuous, and uniform surface of poly(acrylic acid) films can be formed at a relatively low plasma power input. This study reveals the potential of chamberless film growth at atmospheric pressure for large-area deposition of poly(acrylic acid) films.

  14. Effects of dynamic exercise on plasma arachidonic acid epoxides and diols in human volunteers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolites of the cytochrome P450 pathway may contribute to vasodilation of the vasculature of skeletal muscle during exercise. We determined effects of exercise intensity and duration on plasma concentrations of specific metabolites in the epoxyeicosatrienoic acid family. This allowed us to dete...

  15. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1) and very high (100–200 g·L−1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

  16. Evaluation of plasma inflammatory cytokine concentrations in racing sled dogs.

    PubMed

    von Pfeil, Dirsko J F; Cummings, Bethany P; Loftus, John P; Levine, Corri B; Mann, Sabine; Downey, Robert L; Griffitts, Caroline; Wakshlag, Joseph J

    2015-12-01

    In human athletes significant changes in cytokine concentrations secondary to exercise have been observed. This prospective study evaluated the effect of a multi-day stage sled dog race on plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Samples from 20 dogs were harvested prior to and on days 2 and 8 of an 8-day race. Exercise resulted in significantly decreased TNF-α and IL-8 as well as increases of MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations (P-value between 0.01 and < 0.0001 for all parameters). The proportion of values for IL-2 that were below the detection limit increased from 40% on day 0 to 75% on day 2 and decreased on day 8 to 40% (P = 0.04). Racing sled dogs show cytokine-concentration changes that are different from those in humans. PMID:26663920

  17. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study of Plasma Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the InCHIANTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Toshiko; Shen, Jian; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; Ordovas, Jose M.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Singleton, Andrew; Bandinelli, Stefania; Cherubini, Antonio; Arnett, Donna; Tsai, Michael Y.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a role in many physiological processes, including energy production, modulation of inflammation, and maintenance of cell membrane integrity. High plasma PUFA concentrations have been shown to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease and mortality. To identify genetic contributors of plasma PUFA concentrations, we conducted a genome-wide association study of plasma levels of six omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in 1,075 participants in the InCHIANTI study on aging. The strongest evidence for association was observed in a region of chromosome 11 that encodes three fatty acid desaturases (FADS1, FADS2, FADS3). The SNP with the most significant association was rs174537 near FADS1 in the analysis of arachidonic acid (AA; p = 5.95×10−46). Minor allele homozygotes had lower AA compared to the major allele homozygotes and rs174537 accounted for 18.6% of the additive variance in AA concentrations. This SNP was also associated with levels of eicosadienoic acid (EDA; p = 6.78×10−9) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA; p = 1.07×10−14). Participants carrying the allele associated with higher AA, EDA, and EPA also had higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and total cholesterol levels. Outside the FADS gene cluster, the strongest region of association mapped to chromosome 6 in the region encoding an elongase of very long fatty acids 2 (ELOVL2). In this region, association was observed with EPA (rs953413; p = 1.1×10−6). The effects of rs174537 were confirmed in an independent sample of 1,076 subjects participating in the GOLDN study. The ELOVL2 SNP was associated with docosapentanoic and DHA but not with EPA in GOLDN. These findings show that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes in the metabolism of PUFA contribute to plasma concentrations of fatty acids. PMID:19148276

  19. Reactivity of the cadmium ion in concentrated phosphoric acid solutions.

    PubMed

    De Gyves, J; Gonzales, J; Louis, C; Bessiere, J

    1989-07-01

    The solvation transfer coefficients which characterize the changes of ion reactivity with phosphoric acid concentration have been calculated for cadmium from the constants of the successive chloride complexes, and for silver and diethyldithiophosphate from potentiometric measurements. They evidence the strong desolvation of the cadmium species in concentrated phosphoric acid media, causing a remarkable increase of its reactivity. They allow the results of liquid-liquid extraction, precipitation and flotation reactions to be correctly interpreted and their changes to be foreseen when the reagents are modified. PMID:18964794

  20. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health.

    PubMed

    Olthof, M R; Verhoef, P

    2005-02-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in homocysteine remethylation, but effects on homocysteine have been less thoroughly investigated. Betaine in high doses (6 g/d and higher) is used as homocysteine-lowering therapy for people with hyperhomocysteinemia due to inborn errors in the homocysteine metabolism. Betaine intake from foods is estimated at 0.5-2 g/d. Betaine can also be synthesized endogenously from its precursor choline. Studies in healthy volunteers with plasma homocysteine concentrations in the normal range show that betaine supplementation lowers plasma fasting homocysteine dose-dependently to up to 20% for a dose of 6 g/d of betaine. Moreover, betaine acutely reduces the increase in homocysteine after methionine loading by up to 50%, whereas folic acid has no effect. Betaine doses in the range of dietary intake also lower homocysteine. This implies that betaine can be an important food component that attenuates homocysteine rises after meals. If homocysteine plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease, a diet rich in betaine or choline might benefit cardiovascular health through its homocysteine-lowering effects. However betaine and choline may adversely affect serum lipid concentrations, which can of course increase risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the potential beneficial health effects of betaine and choline outweigh the possible adverse effects on serum lipids is as yet unclear. PMID:15720203

  1. Plasma retinoids concentration in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from rice agroecosystems, Santa Fe province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Teglia, Carla M; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C

    2015-09-01

    Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis of vertebrates: Alteration in endogenous retinoids concentration is linked with teratogenic effects. Retinol (ROH), retinoid acid (RA), and isoform 13-Cis-retinoic acid (13-Cis-RA), in plasma of a native adults frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from a rice field (RF) and a forest (reference site; RS) were measured. ROH did not vary between treatment sites. RA and 13-Cis-RA activities were higher (93.7±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 131.7±11.4 μg mL(-1), respectively) in individuals collected from RF than in those from RS (65.5±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 92.2±10.2 μg mL(-1), respectively). The ratios retinoic acid-retinol (RA/ROH) and 13-Cis-RA/ROH revealed significantly higher values in RF than in RS. RA and 13-Cis-RA concentrations in plasma on wild amphibian's species such as L. chaquensis would be suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure in field monitoring. Finally, the mechanism of alteration in retinoid metabolites alteration should be further explored both in larvae and adult, considering that the potential exposition and uptake contaminants vary between the double lives of these vertebrates. PMID:25880706

  2. UVC Irradiation for Pathogen Reduction of Platelet Concentrates and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Seltsam, Axel; Müller, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    Besides the current efforts devoted to microbial risk reduction, pathogen inactivation technologies promise reduction of the residual risk of known and emerging infectious agents. A novel pathogen reduction process for platelets, the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets system, has been developed and is under clinical evaluation for its efficacy and safety. In addition, proof of principle has been shown for UVC treatment of plasma units. The pathogen reduction process is based on application of UVC light of a specific wavelength (254 nm) combined with intense agitation of the blood units to ensure a uniform treatment of all blood compartments. Due to the different absorption characteristics of nucleic acids and proteins, UVC irradiation mainly affects the nucleic acid of pathogens and leukocytes while proteins are largely preserved. UVC treatment significantly reduces the infectivity of platelet units contaminated by disease-causing viruses and bacteria. In addition, it inactivates residual white blood cells in the blood components while preserving platelet function and coagulation factors. Since no photoactive compound needs to be added to the blood units, photoreagent-related adverse events are excluded. Because of its simple and rapid procedure without the need to change the established blood component preparation procedures, UVC-based pathogen inactivation could easily be implemented in existing blood banking procedures. PMID:21779205

  3. Concentration-Purification of Uranium from an Acid Leaching Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guettaf, H.; Becis, A.; Ferhat, K.; Hanou, K.; Bouchiha, D.; Yakoubi, K.; Ferrad, F.

    2009-11-01

    Chemical processes for the elaboration of uranium concentrate from uranium ore have been studied. This process is composed of successive units operations: crushing, milling, acid conventional leaching, filtration-washing, purification-concentration by ion exchange resins and uranium precipitation. The acid leaching operating conditions allow us to obtain a recovery uranium rate of 93%. The uranium concentration of the pregnant solution is approximately of 1.2 g/l. This value justifies the use of ion exchange resins to the concentration-purification of our pregnant solution. We have noticed that the pregnant solution contains a relatively high phosphate concentration which causes a premature uranium precipitation at pH=1.8. This pH value is in general, considered optimal to obtain the highest amount of fixed uranium by the anionic resin. To avoid the precipitation of uranium, the pH=1.5 has been fixed. We have obtained at this condition a good adsorption capacity. A 75% uranium concentrate have been elaborated, but the filtration of this concentrate has been very difficult. We have also noticed an excessive sulphate concentration. In order to improve this process, we have tested nitrates as eluant at different operating conditions.

  4. Ophthalmic timolol: plasma concentration and systemic cardiopulmonary effects.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, T; Lehtimäki, T; Mäenpää, J; Ropo, A; Uusitalo, H; Kähönen, M

    2007-01-01

    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist currently used mainly as an ocular preparation for the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Despite the topical administration, ophthalmic timolol causes systemic adrenergic beta-blocking because of absorption from the eye into the systemic circulation. Gel formulations of ophthalmic timolol have been developed to reduce systemic absorption and adverse effects in comparison with conventional aqueous solution formulations. Timolol is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme (CYP2D6). The changes in heart rate (HR) are the most striking effects of the systematically absorbed fraction of ophthalmic timolol, with 0.5 % aqueous formulations presenting larger effects than 0.1 % hydrogel formulations, especially during exercise. Plasma levels of ophthalmic timolol correlate with the changes in HR. Neither 0.5 % aqueous nor 0.1 % hydrogel formulations of timolol have exerted noteworthy effects on systolic (SAP) or diastolic (DAP) arterial pressures, probably because of a compensatory increase in systemic vascular resistance due to the attenuation of HR. Ophthalmic timolol does not exert remarkable effects on pulmonary parameter peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in non-asthmatic patients. CYP2D6 activity is clearly associated with the pharmacokinetic parameters, particularly when 0.5 % aqueous solution of timolol is used: peak plasma concentration, elimination half-life and area-under-the-curve are highest in CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Finally, since there is a correlation between the plasma level of timolol and several haemodynamic effects - especially HR in the state of elevated beta-adrenergic tonus - the CYP2D6 poor metabolizers may be more prone to bradycardia during treatment with (aqueous) ophthalmic timolol. PMID:17366003

  5. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    PubMed Central

    Kawasumi, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Koide, M.; Okada, Y.; Mori, N.; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T.

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses. PMID:26623382

  6. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses.

    PubMed

    Kawasumi, K; Yamamoto, M; Koide, M; Okada, Y; Mori, N; Yamamoto, I; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL(-1) vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL(-1), Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses. PMID:26623382

  7. Copper toxicity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on plasma membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Avery, S V; Howlett, N G; Radice, S

    1996-01-01

    One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cu2+ toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Whereas cells grown under standard conditions contained only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, considerable incorporation of the diunsaturated fatty acid linoleate (18:2) (to more than 65% of the total fatty acids) was observed in both whole-cell homogenates and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from cells grown in linoleate-supplemented medium. Linoleate enrichment had no discernible effect on the growth of S. cerevisiae. However, linoleate-enriched cells were markedly more susceptible to copper-induced plasma membrane permeabilization. Thus, after addition of Cu(NO3)2, rates of cellular K+ release (loss of membrane integrity) were at least twofold higher from linoleate-supplemented cells than from unsupplemented cells; this difference increased with reductions in the Cu2+ concentration supplied. Levels of cellular Cu accumulation were also higher in linoleate-supplemented cells. These results were correlated with a very marked dependence of whole-cell Cu2+ toxicity on cellular fatty acid unsaturation. For example, within 10 min of exposure to 5 microM Cu2+, only 3% of linoleate-enriched cells remained viable (capable of colony formation). In contrast, 100% viability was maintained in cells previously grown in the absence of a fatty acid supplement. Cells displaying intermediate levels of linoleate incorporation showed intermediate Cu2+ sensitivity, while cells enriched with the triunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3) were most sensitive to Cu2+. These results demonstrate for the first time that changes

  8. [Plasma amino acids profile of healthy pregnant adolescents in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Castejón, Haydée V; Argotte, María G; Gómez, Gisela; Bohorquez, Lissette; Urrieta, Jesús R

    2003-06-01

    One hundred female adolescents (13-18 y) were clinical and anthropometrically studied to select only those with adequate nutrition. Most adolescents belonged to IV socio-economic stratum families (worker class). Height, weight, age, body mass index and medial arm circumference were used as anthropometric parameters. After screening, only 41 non pregnant girls (control) and 42 pregnant girls with adequate nutrition were selected to analyze plasma amino acids. Fasting peripheral venous blood was drawn, and plasma amino acids were analyzed by HPLC. Amino acid concentrations were expressed as umol/L +/- SE. SAS/STAT program was used for statistical analysis. Amino acid values of control adolescent group were found in ranges reported by other investigators, with slight variations, mostly in diminution, presumably due to nutritional, metabolic or genetic conditions of people living in tropical regions. In pregnant healthy adolescents, distributed according to gestational age: < 32 weeks (n = 30) and > 32 weeks (n = 12), a diminution of total molar plasma amino acids was found, by comparing with control values. Ten amino acids (Pro, Gly, Gln, Arg, Ser, Orn, Tau, Leu, Thr and Val) appeared significantively diminished throughout gestation, being Gly. Gln and Arg most affected since earlier weeks. During the 2nd period. Thr and Val increased their grade of affectation; whereas some amino acids values (Orn, Pro and Tau) tended to recuperate. Several of affected amino acids are gluconegoenic, thus, they could be utilized to supply the energy required by the pregnant adolescent against her double stress: the fetus development and her own development. The plasma amino acid values reported in both, healthy non pregnant and pregnant adolescents, could be taken as regional referential profile of plasma amino acids in this poblational group for further research on adolescent and fetal--maternal malnutrition. PMID:14528605

  9. ELEVATED METHYLMALOIC ACID CONCENTRATIONS ARE COMMON AMONG ELDERLY AMERICANS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To describe serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations of elderly Americans and examine relations between serum MMA and other factors, we used surplus sera collected from elderly (n=1,145) and young-adult (n=1,026) participants in Phase 2 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Sur...

  10. Body mass index, gestational weight gain and fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gishti, Olta; Felix, Janine F; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Gaillard, Romy

    2015-11-01

    Obesity during pregnancy may be correlated with an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes. We examined the associations of prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with plasma fatty acid concentrations in mid-pregnancy. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5636 women. We obtained prepregnancy body mass index and maximum weight gain during pregnancy by questionnaires. We measured concentrations of saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) at a median gestational age of 20.5 (95% range 17.1-24.9) weeks. We used multivariate linear regression models. As compared to normal weight women, obese women had higher total SFA concentrations [difference: 0.10 standard deviation (SD) (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0, 0.19)] and lower total n-3 PUFA concentrations [difference: - 0.11 SD (95% CI - 0.20, - 0.02)]. As compared to women with sufficient gestational weight gain, those with excessive gestational weight gain had higher SFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.25)], MUFA concentrations [difference: 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.08, 0.24)] and n-6 PUFA concentrations [difference: 0.12 SD (95% CI 0.04, 0.21)]. These results were not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with an adverse fatty acids profile. Further studies are needed to assess causality and direction of the observed associations. PMID:26666541

  11. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Dane, Adrie D; Strassburg, Katrin; Vreeken, Rob J; Newman, John W; Salem, Norman; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n = 8 per group) from days 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained incremental ARA or incremental DHA levels as follows (% fatty acid, ARA/DHA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D1) 0.66/0.33; and (D2) 0.67/0.62, resulting in incremental intake (g/kg BW/day) of ARA: 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.03, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.82 ± 0.05 at constant DHA intake (0.82 ± 0.05), or incremental intake of DHA: 0.27 ± 0.02, 0.49 ± 0.03, and 0.81 ± 0.05 at constant ARA intake (0.54 ± 0.04). Plasma oxylipin concentrations and free plasma PUFA levels were determined at day 28 using LC-MS/MS. Incremental dietary ARA intake dose-dependently increased plasma ARA levels. In parallel, ARA intake dose-dependently increased ARA-derived diols 5,6- and 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DiHETrE) and linoleic acid-derived 12,13-dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (DiHOME), downstream metabolites of cytochrome P450 expoxygenase (CYP). The ARA epoxide products from CYP are important in vascular homeostatic maintenance. Incremental DHA intake increased plasma DHA and most markedly raised the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) metabolite 17,18-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DiHETE) and the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (DiHDPE). In conclusion, increasing ARA and DHA intake dose-dependently influenced endogenous n-6 and n-3 oxylipin plasma concentrations in growing piglets, although the biological relevance of these findings remains to be determined. PMID:23543770

  12. Plasma amino acid and metabolite signatures tracking diabetes progression in the UCD-T2DM rat model.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Brian D; Graham, James L; Stanhope, Kimber L; Fiehn, Oliver; Havel, Peter J; Adams, Sean H

    2016-06-01

    Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are observed in human insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, there has been some controversy with respect to the passive or causative nature of the BCAA phenotype. Using untargeted metabolomics, plasma BCAA and other metabolites were assessed in lean control Sprague-Dawley rats (LC) and temporally during diabetes development in the UCD-T2DM rat model, i.e., prediabetic (PD) and 2 wk (D2W), 3 mo (D3M), and 6 mo (D6M) post-onset of diabetes. Plasma leucine, isoleucine, and valine concentrations were elevated only in D6M rats compared with D2W rats (by 28, 29, and 30%, respectively). This was in contrast to decreased plasma concentrations of several other amino acids in D3M and/or D6M relative to LC rats (Ala, Arg, Glu, Gln, Met, Ser, Thr, and Trp). BCAAs were positively correlated with fasting glucose and negatively correlated with plasma insulin, total body weight, total adipose tissue weight, and gastrocnemius muscle weight in the D3M and D6M groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that D3M and D6M UCD-T2DM rats had lower concentrations of amino acids, amino acid derivatives, 1,5-anhydroglucitol, and conduritol-β-opoxide and higher concentrations of uronic acids, pantothenic acids, aconitate, benzoic acid, lactate, and monopalmitin-2-glyceride relative to PD and D2W UCD-T2DM rats. The UCD-T2DM rat does not display elevated plasma BCAA concentrations until 6 mo post-onset of diabetes. With the acknowledgement that this is a rodent model of T2DM, the results indicate that elevated plasma BCAA concentrations are not necessary or sufficient to elicit an insulin resistance or T2DM onset. PMID:27094034

  13. The behavior of fatty acids in the blood plasma of monkeys following exposure to short term stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michailov, M. L.; Gnuechtel, U.; Nitschkoff, S.; Baumann, R.; Gnauck, G.

    1980-01-01

    Monkeys exposed to short term stresses (immobilization, jealousy) were found to develop hyperlipacidemia with a rise in concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in blood plasma, especially of oleic acid, and a relative decrease of saturated free fatty acids, chiefly of palmitinic acid. This finding was more pronounced under immobilization stress than in the jealousy situation. Meanwhile, the composition of triglycerides did not change essentially under the conditions used.

  14. The determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using an HPLC with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Kanďár, Roman; Drábková, Petra; Hampl, Radek

    2011-09-15

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the potential causes for infertility in men. Ascorbic acid and uric acid play important role in protection of spermatozoa against free radicals. A method for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma using HPLC with UV detection and investigation their clinical significance as antioxidants protecting male germ cells against oxidative damage are described. Semen samples were obtained from consecutive male partners of couples presenting for a fertility evaluation. After liquefaction, the samples were centrifuged and the supernatants were diluted with dithiothreitol solution and after a filtration injected onto an analytical column. For the separation, a reverse-phase column MAG 1, 250 mm × 4.6 mm, Labiospher PSI 100 C18, 5 μm, was used. The mixture of ethanol and 25 mmol/L sodium dihydrogenphosphate (2.5:97.5, v/v), pH 4.70 was used as a mobile phase. Analytical performance of this method is satisfactory for both ascorbic acid and uric acid: the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 10%. Quantitative recoveries from spiked seminal plasma were between 92.1 and 102.1%. We have found no significant differences in both ascorbic acid and uric acid concentration between the smokers and non-smokers (351.0 ± 237.9 μmol/L and 323.7 ± 99.5 μmol/L vs. 444.8 ± 245.5 μmol/L and 316.6 ± 108.9 μmol/L, p>0.05). This assay is a simple and reproducible HPLC method for the simultaneous measurement of ascorbic acid and uric acid in human seminal plasma. PMID:21871848

  15. Ingestion of a single serving of saury alters postprandial levels of plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and long-chain monounsaturated fatty acids in healthy human adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saury oil contains considerable amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) with long aliphatic tails (>18C atoms). Ingestion of saury oil reduces the risk of developing metabolic syndrome concomitant with increases in n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in plasma and organs of mice. We therefore evaluated changes in postprandial plasma fatty acid levels and plasma parameters in healthy human subjects after ingestion of a single meal of saury. Findings Five healthy human adults ingested 150 g of grilled saury. Blood was collected before the meal and at 2, 6, and 24 hr after the meal, and plasma was prepared. Plasma levels of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and long-chain MUFA (C20:1 and C22:1 isomers combined) increased significantly throughout the postprandial period compared with the pre-meal baseline. Postprandial plasma insulin concentration increased notably, and plasma levels of glucose and free fatty acids decreased significantly and subsequently returned to the pre-meal levels. Conclusions Our study suggests that a single saury meal may alter the postprandial plasma levels of n-3 PUFA and long-chain MUFA in healthy human subjects. PMID:22846384

  16. Comparison of CO2 and oxygen DC submerged thermal plasmas for decomposition of carboxylic acid in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safa, S.; Hekmat-Ardakan, A.; Soucy, G.

    2014-11-01

    The feasibility of the carboxylic acid decomposition with two different direct current (DC) thermal plasma torches was investigated. An oxygen DC submerged thermal plasma torch and a newly designed submerged DC plasma torch operating with a mixture of carbon dioxide and methane (CO2/CH4) were used. Sebacic acid was selected as a representative of pollutants in the most wastewater produced by chemical process industries. The effect of different operational conditions including treatment time, the reactor pressure as well as the role of oxidizing agents such as (H2O2) were investigated on the decomposition rate of sebacic acid. Concentration of sebacic acid was quantified by Ion Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (IC/MS). The oxygen plasma showed higher decomposition rate in basic medium. Adding H2O2 into aqueous solution enhanced the sebacic acid decomposition rate with the CO2/CH4 plasma up to the same decomposition rate of the oxygen plasma. Increasing the pressure also increased the decomposition rate for both plasmas with an increase twice higher for the CO2/CH4 plasma than that of the oxygen plasma. This work therefore presents the conditions in which these plasmas can provide the same decomposition rate for contaminants in aqueous solution.

  17. Antinociceptive efficacy and plasma concentrations of transdermal buprenorphine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Korbinian; Schuster, Tibor; Levionnois, Olivier; Matis, Ulrike; Bergadano, Alessandra

    2011-03-01

    To assess the antinociceptive efficacy of transdermal (TD) buprenorphine (B) in dogs, a prospective, positive-controlled experimental study was performed in 10 healthy Beagles. In an open label crossover design, the dogs initially received intravenous B (IVB, 0.02 mg kg(-1)) as a positive control, followed by TDB (52.5 μg h(-1)) 4 months later. Blood was collected at regular intervals for determination of the plasma concentrations of B ([B]) and its metabolite norbuprenorphine. The antinociceptive efficacy was assessed using thermal and mechanical models of nociception. The peak concentration [B] was 1.54 ng mL(-1) (±1.98) 60 h after TDB application, although three dogs had no measurable [B] after TDB. Maximum thermal threshold (TT) was 52.6 °C (±0.48) at 1h after IVB administration and 51.63 °C (±1.01) 72 h after TDB application. The significant increase in TT indicated that effective antinociception was achieved beyond 36 h after the application of TDB, lasting until patch removal. There was hysteresis between [B] and the antinociceptive effect. PMID:20206560

  18. Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in pre-hyperuricaemic males: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2016-03-14

    Elevated plasma uric acid concentration is a risk factor for gout, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in high levels in onions, tea and apples, inhibits xanthine oxidoreductase in vitro, the final step in intracellular uric acid production, indicating that quercetin might be able to lower blood uric acid in humans. We determined the effects of 4 weeks of oral supplementation of quercetin on plasma uric acid, blood pressure and fasting glucose. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial recruited twenty-two healthy males (19-60 years) with baseline plasma uric acid concentration in the higher, but still considered healthy, range (339 (SD 51) µmol/l). The intervention included one tablet containing 500 mg quercetin daily for 4 weeks, compared with placebo, with a 4-week washout period between treatments. The primary outcome was change in concentrations of plasma uric acid after 2 and 4 weeks; secondary outcome measures were changes in fasting plasma glucose, 24-h urinary excretion of uric acid and resting blood pressure. After quercetin treatment, plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly lowered by -26·5 µmol/l (95% CI, -7·6, -45·5; P=0·008), without affecting fasting glucose, urinary excretion of uric acid or blood pressure. Daily supplementation of 500 mg quercetin, containing the bioavailable amount of quercetin as present in approximately 100 g red onions, for 4 weeks, significantly reduces elevated plasma uric acid concentrations in healthy males. PMID:26785820

  19. Solid Dose Form of Metformin with Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid Does Not Improve Metformin Plasma Availability

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Jeffrey H.; Johnson, William D.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid on pharmacokinetics of metformin. Pharmacokinetic profiles of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid when delivered separately or together in solid dose form were investigated and compared to determine whether the solid dose resulted in an altered metforminpharmacokinetics when given with or without food. Methods A single-center, open-label, repeated dose study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metformin when administered in solid dose form with ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid compared to co-administration with icosapent ethyl, an ester of eicosapentaenoic acid and ethyl alcohol used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia with metformin hydrochloride. Non-compartmental PK methods were used to compare area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) between patients randomized to either the ester or separate medications group under both fasting and fed conditions. Results Using these two PK parameters, results showed that metformin availability was higher under fasting conditions when delivered separately from icosapent ethyl. There were no group differences in the fed condition. Conclusions The solid dose form of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid did not improve the pharmacokinetics of metformin in terms of plasma availability, suggesting that little is to be gained over the separate administration of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid and metformin hydrochloride. PMID:26893954

  20. Temporal variations in plasma vitamin K and lipid concentrations and clotting factor activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Kamali, F; Edwards, C; Wood, P; Wynne, H A; Kesteven, P

    2001-11-01

    There is no information available on temporal variability in plasma vitamin K concentrations and its relationship to coagulation processes. We investigated the possible existence of temporal changes in plasma vitamin K and lipid concentrations and activity of clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X and relationships between these variables. Plasma vitamin K and lipid concentrations and clotting factor activity were measured at four-hour intervals for 28 hours in a group of healthy volunteers. Temporal variations existed in plasma vitamin K concentrations, with a mean maximum at 22:00 hr and a mean minimum (32% of the maximum) at 10:00 hr. Plasma triglycerol concentrations mirrored the changes in vitamin K concentrations. Mean factor VII activity was positively correlated with mean total plasma cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.714; P < 0.0001) and with mean plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations (r = 0.461; P < 0.0001). No distinct correlations were found between plasma vitamin K concentrations and either high density lipoprotein (HDL) or LDL cholesterol concentrations, or between triglycerol, HDL, or LDL cholesterol concentrations and functional activity of factors II, IX, and X. Plasma vitamin K concentrations did not correlate with the functional activity of any of the clotting factors. The presence of a correlation between plasma cholesterol concentrations and factor VII activity for blood samples collected at four-hour intervals suggests that plasma cholesterol concentrations may have a more acute effect on factor VII activity. Temporal variations in plasma vitamin K concentrations indicate that a single time point measurement may be an inappropriate method of establishing vitamin K status in an individual. PMID:11754396

  1. Plasma concentration of itraconazole in patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies: the effect of famotidine on the absorption of itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Y; Kami, M; Matsuyama, T; Mitani, K; Chiba, S; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

    1998-03-01

    Fungal infection is a serious complication in immunocompromised patients, especially those with neutropenia. Itraconazole (ITZ) is expected to be an effective prophylactic agent for fungal infection because it has more activity against Aspergillus species than fluconazole and it is less toxic than amphotericin-B. However, ITZ is available only as an oral capsule, the absorption of which is thought to depend on the presence of acid in the stomach. In this study, the effect of famotidine, an H2-blocker, on the absorption of ITZ was investigated. Patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematological malignancies were enrolled. To minimize the effect of famotidine, the time of ITZ intake was different from that of famotidine intake. The plasma concentrations of ITZ with or without taking famotidine were determined just before and 4 h after ITZ intake. Mean trough and peak concentrations of ITZ without famotidine were 332 ng/ml and 476 ng/ml, respectively. When famotidine was co-administered, the concentrations decreased to 204 ng/ml and 315 ng/ml, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between trough concentrations in the presence and absence of famotidine (p = 0.008). There was also a clear tendency toward higher peak concentrations in the plasma concentrations with famotidine (p = 0.06). These findings suggest that famotidine decreases the plasma concentration of ITZ in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Close monitoring of the plasma concentration of ITZ and dose adjustment are required for efficient prophylaxis. PMID:9821410

  2. Arginines Plasma Concentration and Oxidative Stress in Mild to Moderate COPD

    PubMed Central

    Zinellu, Angelo; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Sotgia, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Bifulco, Fabiana; Mangoni, Arduino A; Pirina, Pietro; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in respiratory conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since oxidative stress has been shown to increase the activity of arginine methylating enzymes, hence increased ADMA synthesis, and to reduce ADMA degrading enzymes, hence increased ADMA concentrations, we assessed methylated arginines concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. Methods Plasma arginine, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and plasma proteins SH, PSH) and antioxidants (taurine and paraoxonase 1, PON1, activity) were measured in 43 COPD patients with mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Results TBARS significantly increased with COPD presence and severity (median 2.93 vs 3.18 vs 3.64 μmol/L, respectively in controls, mild and moderate group, p<0.0001 by ANOVA) whereas PSH decreased (6.69±1.15 vs 6.04±0.85 vs 5.33±0.96 μmol/gr prot, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). Increased ADMA/arginine ratio, primarily due to reduced arginine concentrations, was also observed with COPD presence and severity (median 0.0067 vs 0.0075 vs 0.0100, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only TBARS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.77; p = 0.0045) and ADMA/Arginine ratio (OR 1.72, 95% CI 2.27–13.05; p = 0.02) were independently associated with COPD severity. Conclusion COPD presence and severity are associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in arginine metabolism. The reduced arginine concentrations in COPD may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions increasing arginine availability. PMID:27479314

  3. Dietary supplementation with cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid affects concentrations of amino acids in tissues of young pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Kim, Sung Woo; Li, Xilong; Datta, Sujay; Pond, Wilson G.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important nutrients for neural development of infants. However, little is known about the effect of cholesterol or DHA on concentrations of amino acids (AA) in neonatal tissues. This study was conducted with the piglet (an established model for studying human infant nutrition) to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with the lipids may modulate AA availability in tissues. Sixteen newborn pigs were nursed by sows for 24 h and then assigned to one of four treatment groups, representing supplementation with 0.0% (control), 0.2% cholesterol, 0.2% DHA, or cholesterol plus DHA to the basal milk-formula. All piglets were euthanized at 49 days of age. In brain, cholesterol supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) concentrations of glutamate, serine, glutamine, threonine, β-alanine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, and γ-aminobutyrate but increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of glycine and lysine, whereas DHA supplementation similarly affected (P < 0.05) concentrations of the same AA (except for isoleucine and lysine) and taurine. In addition, concentrations of most AA in liver, muscle and plasma were substantially altered by dietary supplementation of cholesterol and DHA in a tissue-dependent manner. Further, DHA reduced concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle, as well as ammonia in both plasma and brain. The results reveal that cholesterol and DHA can regulate AA metabolism and availability in various tissues of piglets. These novel findings have important implications for designing the next generation of infant formula to optimize neonatal growth and development. PMID:18972185

  4. Plasma-depleted platelet concentrates prepared with a new washing solution.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Shibata, K; Kora, S

    1993-01-01

    In certain clinical situations, complete removal of the plasma proteins from the platelet concentrates (PCs) is necessary by washing prior to transfusion. A simple electrolyte solution with a pH of 6.5 was developed for washing PCs. The platelet-rich plasma collected with acid-citrate-dextrose solution by apheresis in a 0.6-liter polyolefin bag was centrifuged. After removal of the supernatant plasma from pelleted platelet buttons, 200 ml of a washing solution consisting of 90 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 3 mM MgCl2, 17 mM NaH2PO4, 8 mM Na2HPO4, 23 mM Na acetate, 17 mM Na3 citrate, 23.5 mM glucose, 2 mM adenine, 0.1% dextran, and 28.8 mM maltose (pH 6.5) was added to the pelleted platelet button. Steam sterilization of the solution was carried out under nitrogen to avoid caramelization of glucose. After resuspension of the pelleted platelet button with a washing solution and a second centrifugation, Seto additive solution (Seto sol, pH 7.4) was introduced into the bag to resuspend the platelet buttons for storage for 3 days at 22 degrees C. All of these procedures were completed within 3 h using a sterile docking device. In washed PCs, 99.1% of the plasma was removed and platelet recovery was 96%. The washed PCs were compared for 3 days with plasma-poor PCs consisting of 11% plasma and 89% Seto solution. There were no significant differences in percent hypotonic shock response, aggregation, energy metabolism, and morphology of platelets between the two groups during 3 days, except for significant swelling of 3-day-old platelets in washed PCs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8447117

  5. Electrodialysis synthesis of concentrated solutions of perrhenic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palant, A. A.; Bryukvin, V. A.; Levin, A. M.; Reshetova, O. V.

    2011-03-01

    The presented results demonstrate the possibility of electrodialysis production of concentrated solutions of perrhenic acid (HReO4 concentration >400 g/l). KReO4 is used as a precursor. The investigations are performed in a three-chamber electrodialysis cell in a continuous mode. The optimal processing parameters are as follows: the current is 3-5 A, the voltage is 30-40 V, and the anode chamber temperature is 20-25°C. Grade AR-0 ammonium perrhenate is precipitated from the obtained HReO4 solution.

  6. Post-Bariatric Surgery Changes in Quinolinic and Xanthurenic Acid Concentrations Are Associated with Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pigeyre, Marie; Caiazzo, Robert; Raverdy, Violeta; Verkindt, Hélène; Leloire, Audrey; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Yengo, Loïc; Allorge, Delphine; Froguel, Philippe; Pattou, François

    2016-01-01

    Background An increase of plasma kynurenine concentrations, potentially bioactive metabolites of tryptophan, was found in subjects with obesity, resulting from low-grade inflammation of the white adipose tissue. Bariatric surgery decreases low-grade inflammation associated with obesity and improves glucose control. Objective Our goal was to determine the concentrations of all kynurenine metabolites after bariatric surgery and whether they were correlated with glucose control improvement. Design Kynurenine metabolite concentrations, analysed by liquid or gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, circulating inflammatory markers, metabolic traits, and BMI were measured before and one year after bariatric surgery in 44 normoglycemic and 47 diabetic women with obesity. Associations between changes in kynurenine metabolites concentrations and in glucose control and metabolic traits were analysed between baseline and twelve months after surgery. Results Tryptophan and kynurenine metabolite concentrations were significantly decreased one year after bariatric surgery and were correlated with the decrease of the usCRP in both groups. Among all the kynurenine metabolites evaluated, only quinolinic acid and xanthurenic acid were significantly associated with glucose control improvement. The one year delta of quinolinic acid concentrations was negatively associated with the delta of fasting glucose (p = 0.019) and HbA1c (p = 0.014), whereas the delta of xanthurenic acid was positively associated with the delta of insulin sensitivity index (p = 0.0018). Conclusion Bariatric surgery has induced a global down-regulation of kynurenine metabolites, associated with weight loss. Our results suggest that, since kynurenine monoxygenase diverts the kynurenine pathway toward the synthesis of xanthurenic acid, its inhibition may also contribute to glucose homeostasis. PMID:27327770

  7. Antioxidant plasma concentration and supplementation in carotid intima media thickness.

    PubMed

    Riccioni, Graziano; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2008-06-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases represent a major problem in Western countries. Oxidative stress, an important condition of increased amounts of reactive oxygen species, is now recognized to be a prominent feature of many acute and chronic diseases, and even of the normal aging process. Carotid intima media thickness is an important marker of atherosclerosis that correlates with established coronary heart disease. Changes in carotid intima media thickness, measured by B-mode high-resolution carotid ultrasonography, represent an important and early step in carotid plaque formation and progression and are the most common currently used marker to evaluate the progression of atherosclerotic processes. Several therapeutic strategies have been adopted to slow the early atherosclerotic process in asymptomatic subjects in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. An additional step to slow the atherosclerotic process may include interventions to decrease newly emerging coronary risk factors, such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Consuming a diet rich in fruits and vegetables will provide antioxidant vitamins, and carotenoids, which are believed to inhibit tissue damage derived from oxidative processes and may slow the progression of early atherosclerosis, modify the increase in carotid intima media thickness and, consequently, reduce cardiovascular events. This review synthesizes the published literature regarding antioxidant vitamins plasma concentration and supplementation and carotid intima media thickness. PMID:18510488

  8. Oxygen plasma surface modification enhances immobilization of simvastatin acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Masao; Hayakawa, Tohru; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Inoue, Takashi; Oda, Yutaka; Shimono, Masaki; Ide, Takaharu; Tanaka, Teruo

    2006-02-01

    Simvastatin acid (SVA) has been reported to stimulate bone formation with increased expression of BMP-2. Therefore, immobilization of SVA onto dental implants is expected to promote osteogenesis at the bone tissue/implant interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immobilization behavior of SVA onto titanium (Ti), O(2)-plasma treated titanium (Ti + O(2)), thin-film coatings of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), and O(2)-plasma treated HMDSO (HMDSO + O(2)) by using the quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) technique. HMDSO surfaces were activated by the introduction of an OH group and/or O(2)-functional groups by O(2)-plasma treatment. In contrast, titanium surfaces showed no appreciable compositional changes by O(2)-plasma treatment. The QCM-D technique enabled evaluation even at the adsorption behavior of a substance with a low molecular weight such as simvastatin. The largest amount of SVA was adsorbed on O(2)-plasma treated HMDSO surfaces compared to untreated titanium, HMDSO-coated titanium, and O(2)-plasma treated titanium. These findings suggested that the adsorption of SVA was enhanced on more hydrophilic surfaces concomitant with the presence of an OH group and/or O(2)-functional group resulting from the O(2)-plasma treatment, and that an organic film of HMDSO followed by O(2)-plasma treatment is a promising method for the adsorption of SVA in dental implant systems. PMID:16543663

  9. Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions. PMID:26721276

  10. Plasma phospholipids, non-esterified plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxylipids are associated with BMI.

    PubMed

    Pickens, C Austin; Sordillo, Lorraine M; Comstock, Sarah S; Harris, William S; Hortos, Kari; Kovan, Bruce; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2015-04-01

    The obese lipid profile is associated with increased free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Currently, little is known about the plasma lipid species associated with obesity. In this study, we compared plasma lipid fatty acid (FA) profiles as a function of BMI. Profiling phospholipid (PL) FAs and their respective oxylipids could predict which obese individuals are more likely to suffer from diseases associated with chronic inflammation or oxidative stress. We investigated the relationship between BMI and plasma PL (PPL) FA composition in 126 men using a quantitative gas chromatography analysis. BMI was inversely associated with both PPL nervonic and linoleic acid (LA) but was positively associated with both dihomo-γ-linolenic and palmitoleic acid. Compared to lean individuals, obese participants were more likely to have ω-6 FAs, except arachidonic acid and LA, incorporated into PPLs. Obese participants were less likely to have EPA and DHA incorporated into PPLs compared to lean participants. Non-esterified plasma PUFA and oxylipid analysis showed ω-6 oxylipids were more abundant in the obese plasma pool. These ω-6 oxylipids are associated with increased angiogenesis (i.e. epoxyeicosatrienoates), reactive oxygen species (i.e. 9-hydroxyeicosatetraenoate), and inflammation resolution (i.e. Lipoxin A4). In summary, BMI is directly associated with specific PPL FA and increased ω-6 oxylipids. PMID:25559239

  11. Overview of circulating nucleic acids in plasma/serum.

    PubMed

    Butt, Asif N; Swaminathan, R

    2008-08-01

    The existence of circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum (CNAPS) was first described almost six decades ago. However, the prognostic and diagnostic utility of this circulating DNA/RNA has only really begun to be appreciated in the last decade. Earlier studies concentrated mainly on investigations concerned with fetal medicine and oncology, and significant progress was made in both specialities. More recently the field of enquiry has extended further, and attention has turned to other pathologic states, including trauma, sepsis, myocardial infarction, stroke, transplantation, diabetes mellitus, and hematologic disorders. In some of these studies, mitochondrial as well as genomic DNA and tissue-specific mRNA have been analyzed, either quantitatively or qualitatively or both, and have been shown to be modified in the presence of disease. While there is tremendous potential for CNAPS as a clinical modality, many of the emerging studies seem to be confined to a few dedicated labs. Therefore, additional independent studies are necessary in some cases in order to show reproducibility, which will further consolidate the field. Despite this shortcoming, and with the evidently increasing number of applications for CNAPS, it is highly likely that routine testing, as described, will become reality within the next 5 to 10 years. PMID:18837954

  12. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  13. Plasma fatty acid profile in multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Czepiel, Jacek; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Paśko, Paweł; Czapkiewicz, Anna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Perucki, William; Butrym, Aleksandra; Castillo, Jorge J; Skotnicki, Aleksander B

    2015-04-01

    New membrane formation in the proliferating tumor cells consequently results in hypermetabolism of fatty acids (FA), as seen in many cancer patients, including multiple myeloma (MM). The FA composition of plasma reflects both endogenous synthesis as well as the dietary supply of these compounds. Additionally, obesity is a risk factor for the development of MM. The aim of this study was to compare the FA composition of plasma in 60 MM patients and 60 healthy controls. We noted significant differences in the FA profile of plasma from patients with MM when compared to the control group. Increased levels of saturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in MM patients suggest that there may be increased endogenous synthesis of these fatty acids, likely due to increased expression of desaturase and elongase. Furthermore, cluster analysis showed differences in the distribution of FA in plasma from MM patients compared to controls. Dietary fat and a deranged endogenous FA metabolism may contribute to cancer-associated inflammation through an abnormal arachidonic acid metabolism, caused by pro-inflammatory derivatives. Our study supports further research on the biochemistry of lipids in patients with MM. PMID:25666255

  14. Relationship between trough plasma and epithelial lining fluid concentrations of voriconazole in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Heng, Siow-Chin; Snell, Gregory I; Levvey, Bronwyn; Keating, Dominic; Westall, Glen P; Williams, Trevor J; Whitford, Helen; Nation, Roger L; Slavin, Monica A; Morrissey, Orla; Kong, David C M

    2013-09-01

    Trough (predose) voriconazole concentrations in plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of lung transplant recipients receiving oral voriconazole preemptive treatment were determined. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) ELF/plasma ratio was 12.5 ± 6.3. A strong positive linear relationship was noted between trough plasma and ELF voriconazole concentrations (r(2) = 0.87), suggesting the feasibility of using trough plasma voriconazole concentration as a surrogate to estimate the corresponding concentration in ELF of lung transplant recipients. PMID:23817382

  15. Plasma protoporphyrin IX following administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid as a potential tumor marker

    PubMed Central

    OTA, URARA; FUKUHARA, HIDEO; ISHIZUKA, MASAHIRO; ABE, FUMINORI; KAWADA, CHIAKI; TAMURA, KENJI; TANAKA, TOHRU; INOUE, KEIJI; OGURA, SHUN-ICHIRO; SHUIN, TARO

    2015-01-01

    Exogenously administered 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which specifically accumulates in cancer cells and emits red fluorescence by blue light irradiation. These phenomena are applied for the intraoperative diagnosis of cancer. Based on the fact that accumulated PpIX in cancer cells is exported extracellularly via the ATP-binding cassette transporter G2, we hypothesized that the measurement of plasma PpIX concentrations could be applied as a tumor marker for cancer screening. In the present study, the use of plasma samples from bladder cancer patients were evaluated as a tumor marker. ALA, 1.0 g, was orally administered to bladder cancer patients and healthy adults. The plasma concentration of PpIX was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography system. The plasma PpIX concentration following ALA administration was significantly higher in bladder cancer patients than that in the healthy adults, suggesting the effectiveness of plasma PpIX analysis following ALA administration for cancer screening. Additionally, 4 h after ALA administration, plasma PpIX showed high sensitivity (94.4%) and high specificity (80.0%). PMID:26171183

  16. Mediation of beta-endorphin by isoferulic acid to lower plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, I-Min; Chen, Wang-Chuan; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the mechanism(s) by which isoferulic acid lowers plasma glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). In STZ-diabetic rats, isoferulic acid dose dependently lowered plasma glucose concentrations and increased plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER). Both of these effects of isoferulic acid were abolished by pretreatment of rats with tamsulosin or 2-[2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl]aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane hydrochloride (WB 4101) at doses sufficient to block alpha1-adrenoceptors. Also, isoferulic acid enhanced BER release from isolated rat adrenal medulla in a concentration-dependent manner that could be abolished by treatment with alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists. Moreover, bilateral adrenalectomy in STZ-diabetic rats eliminated the activities of isoferulic acid, including the plasma glucose-lowering effect and the plasma BER-elevating effect. Naloxone and naloxonazine inhibited the plasma glucose-lowering activity of isoferulic acid at doses sufficient to block opioid mu-receptors. In contrast with the effect in wild-type diabetic mice, isoferulic acid failed to lower plasma glucose levels in opioid mu-receptor knockout diabetic mice. Treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with isoferulic acid three times in 1 day resulted in an increase in the expression of the glucose transporter subtype 4 form in soleus muscle. This effect was blocked by alpha1-adrenoceptor or opioid mu-receptor antagonists. The reduction of elevated mRNA or protein level of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase was also impeded in the same groups of STZ-diabetic rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that isoferulic acid may activate alpha1-adrenoceptors to enhance the secretion of beta-endorphin, which can stimulate the opioid mu-receptors to increase glucose use or/and reduce hepatic gluconeogenesis, resulting in a decrease of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:12975496

  17. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  18. Relationship between plasma free fatty acid, intramyocellular triglycerides and long-chain acylcarnitines in resting humans

    PubMed Central

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are trafficked directly to intramyocellular long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) rather than transiting intramyocellular triglycerides (imTG) on the way to resting muscle fatty acid oxidation. Overnight fasted adults (n= 61) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0830 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) labelling plasma NEFA, imTG, imLCAC and im-non-esterified FA (imNEFA). Two muscle biopsies (0830 and 1400 h) were performed following 6 h, overlapping, sequential palmitate/oleate tracer infusions. Enrichment of plasma palmitate was ∼15 times greater than enrichment of imTG, imNEFA-palmitate and im-palmitoyl-carnitine. Fatty acid enrichment in LCAC was correlated with imTG and imNEFA; there was a significant correlation between imTG concentrations and imLCAC concentrations in women (r= 0.51, P= 0.005), but not men (r= 0.30, P= 0.11). We estimated that ∼11% of NEFA were stored in imTG. imTG NEFA storage was correlated only with NEFA concentrations (r= 0.52, P= 0.004) in women and with (r= 0.45, P= 0.02) in men. At rest, plasma NEFA are trafficked largely to imTG before they enter LCAC oxidative pools; thus, imTG are an important, central pool that regulates the delivery of fatty acids to the intracellular environment. Factors relating to plasma NEFA storage into imTG differ in men and women. PMID:19858228

  19. Effect of antacid and ascorbic acid on serum salicylate concentration.

    PubMed

    Hansten, P D; Hayton, W L

    1980-01-01

    To determine the effect of antacid or ascorbic acid administration on plateau serum salicylate concentrations, nine healthy subjects were given each of the following treatments by balanced block design: choline salicylate (equivalent to 3.76 or 5.62 Gm/day of aspirin); choline salicylate plus magnesium-aluminum hydroxide (120 ml/day); or choline salicylate plus ascorbic acid (3 Gm/day). In subjects developing a control serum salicylate level above 10 mg/dl, antacid administration produced a decrease in serum salicylate level (mean 19.8 mg/dl vs. 15.8 mg/dl) (P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid administration was not associated with a significant change in serum salicylate. The reduction in serum salicylate following antacid appears to be due to antacid-induced alkalinization of the urine with resultant increase in renal salicylate clearance. Antacid administration should be considered a potential cause of altered serum salicylate concentration in patients receiving large doses of salicylate. PMID:7400368

  20. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  1. Association between insulin resistance and plasma amino acid profile in non-diabetic Japanese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Chizumi; Kondo, Masumi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shibata, Takeo; Nagai, Yoko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Oroguchi, Takashige; Ishii, Naoaki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine; and the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, has been observed in obesity-related insulin resistance. However, there have been few studies on Asians, who are generally less obese and less insulin-resistant than Caucasian or African-Americans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma amino acid concentration in non-diabetic Japanese participants. Materials and Methods A total of 94 healthy men and women were enrolled, and plasma amino acid concentration was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after overnight fasting. The associations between HOMA-IR and 20 amino acid concentrations, and anthropometric and clinical parameters of lifestyle-related diseases were evaluated. Results The mean age and body mass index were 40.1 ± 9.6 years and 22.7 ± 3.9, respectively. Significantly positive correlations were observed between HOMA-IR and valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and total BCAA concentration. Compared with the HOMA-IR ≤ 1.6 group, the HOMA-IR > 1.6 group showed significantly exacerbated anthropometric and clinical parameters, and significantly elevated levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and BCAA. Conclusions The present study shows that the insulin resistance-related change in amino acid profile is also observed in non-diabetic Japanese subjects. These amino acids include BCAAs (valine, isoleucine and leucine) and aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in agreement with previous studies carried out using different ethnic groups with different degrees of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26221519

  2. Hypohomocysteinemic effect of cysteine is associated with increased plasma cysteine concentration in rats fed diets low in protein and methionine levels.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yoshiko; Ohuchi, Seiya; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2009-02-01

    Rats were fed diets with and without 0.5% L-cysteine supplement for 14 d or shorter periods to clarify the mechanism by which dietary cysteine elicits its hypohomocysteinemic effect. Cysteine supplementation significantly decreased plasma homocysteine concentration with an increase in plasma cysteine concentration in rats fed 10% casein diet (10C) or 15% soybean protein diet (15S) but not in rats fed 25% casein diet (25C) or 25% soybean protein diet. Cysteine supplementation also significantly suppressed hyperhomocysteinemia induced by choline-deprived 10C with an increase in plasma cysteine concentration but not that induced by 25C+0.65% methionine or 25C+0.4% guanidinoacetic acid. Hepatic S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and homocysteine concentrations were significantly decreased by cysteine supplementation of 15S. These decreases in plasma homocysteine concentration and hepatic SAM and homocysteine concentrations due to cysteine supplementation disappeared when 15S was fortified with 0.3% methionine. The plasma homocysteine concentration significantly decreased with an increase in plasma cysteine concentration only 1 d after diet change from 15S to cysteine-supplemented 15S, while hepatic cystathionine beta-synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase activities were not altered. Unlike cysteine, cysteic acid and 2-mercaptoethylamine did not decrease plasma homocysteine concentration. These results indicate that cysteine markedly decreases plasma homocysteine concentration only when added to diets low in both protein and methionine levels and suggest that increased plasma cysteine concentration and decreased flow of methionine toward homocysteine formation, but not alteration of homocysteine-metabolizing enzyme activities, are associated with the hypohomocysteinemic effect of cysteine. PMID:19352065

  3. Variability of plasma phenobarbitone concentration in Asian children in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S

    1984-01-01

    In a study with 113 Asian children in which phenobarbitone was used as the sole antiepileptic drug in 75 children, including Chinese, Malays, and Indians, the mean phenobarbitone dosage required to produce a plasma level of 15 micrograms/ml was 5.2 mg/kg/day. While the mean plasma level/dose ratio varied, the differences between the three ethnic groups were not statistically significant. Also of little difference were the ratios between the male and female groups. For those patients with poor seizure control, however, the mean plasma level/dose ratio was significantly lower than in those whose seizures were controlled. Using additional anticonvulsant drugs concurrently with phenobarbitone in 40 children raised the mean plasma level/dose ratios significantly in each ethnic group. Further, the greater age level in those given additional antiepileptic drugs might have contributed slightly to a higher mean plasma level/dose ratio. PMID:6740737

  4. Three Patients Needing High Doses of Valproic Acid to Get Therapeutic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, James; McCollum, Betsy; Ognibene, Judy; Diaz, Francisco J.; de Leon, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) can autoinduce its own metabolism. Cases requiring VPA doses >4000 mg/day to obtain therapeutic plasma concentrations, such as these 3 cases, have never been published. Case 1 received VPA for seizures and schizophrenia and had >50 VPA concentrations in 4 years. A high dose of 5,250 mg/day of VPA concentrate was prescribed for years but this dose led to an intoxication when switched to the enterocoated divalproex sodium formulation, requiring a normal dose of 2000 mg/day. VPA metabolic capacity was significantly higher (t = −9.6; df = 6.3, p < 0.001) during the VPA concentrate therapy, possibly due to autoinduction in that formulation. Case 2 had VPA for schizoaffective psychosis with 10 VPA concentrations during an 8-week admission. To maintain a VPA level ≥50 μg/mL, VPA doses increased from 1500 to 4000 mg/day. Case 3 had tuberous sclerosis and epilepsy and was followed up for >4 years with 137 VPA concentrations. To maintain VPA concentrations ≥50 μg/mL, VPA doses increased from 3,375 to 10,500 mg/day. In Cases 2 and 3, the duration of admission and the VPA dose were strongly correlated (r around 0.90; p < 0.001) with almost no change after controlling for VPA concentrations, indicating progressive autoinduction that increased with time. PMID:26000191

  5. Relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and plasma neuroactive steroids in alcoholism, depression and controls.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, L R G; Makino, K K; Mehta, N; Virkkunen, M; Kim, H Y; Hibbeln, J R

    2006-01-01

    Deficiency in the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with increased corticotropin releasing hormone and may contribute to hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) hyperactivity. Elevated levels of the neuroactive steroids, allopregnanolone (3alpha,5alpha-THP) and 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) appear to counter-regulate HPA hyperactivity. Plasma essential fatty acids and neurosteroids were assessed among 18 male healthy controls and among 34 male psychiatric patients with DSM-III alcoholism, depression, or both. Among all subjects, lower plasma DHA was correlated with higher plasma THDOC (r = -0.3, P < 0.05) and dihydroprogesterone (DHP) (r = -0.52, P < 0.05). Among psychiatric patients lower DHA was correlated with higher DHP (r = -0.60, P < 0.01), and among healthy controls lower plasma DHA was correlated with higher THDOC (r = -0.83, P < 0.01) and higher isopregnanolone (3beta,5alpha-THP) (r = -0.55, P < 0.05). In this pilot observational study, lower long-chain omega-3 essential fatty acid status was associated with higher neuroactive steroid concentrations, possibly indicating increased feedback inhibition of the HPA axis. PMID:16959481

  6. Plasma Copper and Zinc Concentration in Individuals with Autism Correlate with Selected Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Anthony J.; Bazin, Andrea P.; Bigega, Richard; Carlson, Robert S.; Cole, Martin G.; Contreras, Dilenia C.; Galvin, Matthew B.; Gaydorus, Sayde S.; Holik, Sierra D.; Jenkins, Gavin P.; Jones, Brandon M.; Languell, Penelope A.; Lyman, Padraic J.; March, Kareem P.; Meuer, Katie A.; Peterson, Serena R.; Piedmonte, Matthew T.; Quinn, Michael G.; Smaranda, Nicole C.; Steves, Patrick L.; Taylor, Heather P.; Waddingham, Teagan E.; Warren, Janine S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess plasma zinc and copper concentration in individuals with autism and correlate these levels with symptom severity. Subjects and methods: Plasma from 102 autistic individuals, and 18 neurotypical controls, were tested for plasma zinc and copper using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Copper and zinc levels and Cu/Zn were analyzed for possible correlation with severity of 19 symptoms. Results: Autistic individuals had elevated plasma levels of copper and Cu/Zn and lower, but not significantly lower, plasma Zn compared to neurotypical controls. There was a correlation between Cu/Zn and expressive language, receptive language, focus attention, hyperactivity, fine motor skills, gross motor skills and Tip Toeing. There was a negative correlation between plasma zinc concentration and hyperactivity, and fine motor skills severity. Discussion: These results suggest an association between plasma Cu/Zn and severity of symptoms associated with autism. PMID:23882147

  7. Discovery of XEN445: a potent and selective endothelial lipase inhibitor raises plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shaoyi; Dean, Richard; Jia, Qi; Zenova, Alla; Zhong, Jing; Grayson, Celene; Xie, Clark; Lindgren, Andrea; Samra, Pritpaul; Sojo, Luis; van Heek, Margaret; Lin, Linus; Percival, David; Fu, Jian-Min; Winther, Michael D; Zhang, Zaihui

    2013-12-15

    Endothelial lipase (EL) activity has been implicated in HDL metabolism and in atherosclerotic plaque development; inhibitors are proposed to be efficacious in the treatment of dyslipidemia related cardiovascular disease. We describe here the discovery of a novel class of anthranilic acids EL inhibitors. XEN445 (compound 13) was identified as a potent and selective EL inhibitor, that showed good ADME and PK properties, and demonstrated in vivo efficacy in raising plasma HDLc concentrations in mice. PMID:24211162

  8. Caffeic acid as active principle from the fruit of Xanthium strumarium to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, F L; Chen, Y C; Cheng, J T

    2000-04-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of caffeic acid, one of the phenolic compounds contained in the fruit of Xanthium strumarium, was investigated. After an intravenous injection of caffeic acid into diabetic rats of both streptozotocin-induced and insulin-resistant models, a dose-dependent decrease of plasma glucose was observed. However, a similar effect was not produced in normal rats. An insulin-independent action of caffeic acid can thus be considered. Otherwise, this compound reduced the elevation of plasma glucose level in insulin-resistant rats receiving a glucose challenge test. Also, glucose uptake into the isolated adipocytes was raised by caffeic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. Increase of glucose utilization by caffeic acid seems to be responsible for the lowering of plasma glucose. PMID:10821047

  9. Feto-maternal plasma phenylalanine concentration gradient from 19 weeks gestation to term.

    PubMed

    Schoonheyt, W E; Clarke, J T; Hanley, W B; Johnson, J M; Lehotay, D C

    1994-03-01

    Plasma phenylalanine concentrations in fetal blood, obtained by cordocentesis, were compared with simultaneous peripheral venous plasma phenylalanine levels in mothers. The feto-maternal phenylalanine concentration ratio showed a gradual decrease from 19 weeks of gestation to term with an overall ratio of 1.35 +/- 0.42 (mean +/- S.D., n = 14). PMID:8088005

  10. Response of plasma fatty acid profiles to changes in dietary n-3 fatty acids and its correlation with erythrocyte fatty acid profiles in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, K; Bachmann, L; Dobeleit, G; Fuhrmann, H

    2013-12-01

    An elevated level of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) in tissue membranes has a positive influence on the progression and treatment of many diseases. Therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 FA is recommended in some diseases. Even though n-3 FA are absorbed readily from the diet, their incorporation into tissues may be compromised in diseased animals. In a clinical setting, it is desirable to monitor the success of dietary intervention. Plasma FA as well as erythrocyte membrane (EM) FA can be used to monitor dietary FA intake. This study compares FA from EM and plasma with regard to their reaction time and reliability for monitoring dietary changes of tissue FA profiles in dogs. Thirty dogs were divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks. The control group (CONT) was fed a commercial standard diet low in n-3 FA. One group received the standard diet and 85 mg/kg body weight of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrate (ADD). The third group was fed a commercial dog food containing fish oil (FO), which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EM and plasma FA profiles were analysed by GC separately. Data on EM FA were published recently. n-3 FA in plasma reached the new level after 2 weeks (8 weeks in EM). Dietary differences between DHA and EPA are obvious after 1 week already. The concomitant decrease in plasma n-6 FA differed between ADD and FO. In general, the correlation of n-6 FA between plasma and EM was low. We therefore conclude that analysis of plasma FA is sufficient for monitoring a diet-induced increase in tissue n-3 FA in dogs. However, EM FA should be analysed if the effect of dietary intervention on tissue n-6 FA is important. PMID:23279610

  11. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  12. High-Throughput Quantitative Lipidomics Analysis of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Christinat, Nicolas; Morin-Rivron, Delphine; Masoodi, Mojgan

    2016-07-01

    We present a high-throughput, nontargeted lipidomics approach using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis of nonesterified fatty acids. We applied this method to screen a wide range of fatty acids from medium-chain to very long-chain (8 to 24 carbon atoms) in human plasma samples. The method enables us to chromatographically separate branched-chain species from their straight-chain isomers as well as separate biologically important ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. We used 51 fatty acid species to demonstrate the quantitative capability of this method with quantification limits in the nanomolar range; however, this method is not limited only to these fatty acid species. High-throughput sample preparation was developed and carried out on a robotic platform that allows extraction of 96 samples simultaneously within 3 h. This high-throughput platform was used to assess the influence of different types of human plasma collection and preparation on the nonesterified fatty acid profile of healthy donors. Use of the anticoagulants EDTA and heparin has been compared with simple clotting, and only limited changes have been detected in most nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. PMID:27185515

  13. Lp(a) glycoprotein phenotypes. Inheritance and relation to Lp(a)-lipoprotein concentrations in plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Utermann, G; Menzel, H J; Kraft, H G; Duba, H C; Kemmler, H G; Seitz, C

    1987-01-01

    The Lp(a) lipoprotein represents a quantitative genetic trait. It contains two different polypeptide chains, the Lp(a) glycoprotein and apo B-100. We have demonstrated the Lp(a) glycoprotein directly in human sera by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions after immunoblotting using anti-Lp(a) serum and have observed inter- and intraindividual size heterogeneity of the glycoprotein with apparent molecular weights ranging from approximately 400,000-700,000 D. According to their relative mobilities compared with apo B-100 Lp(a) patterns were categorized into phenotypes F (faster than apo B-100), B (similar to apo B-100), S1, S2, S3, and S4 (all slower than apo B-100), and into the respective double-band phenotypes. Results from neuraminidase treatment of isolated Lp(a) glycoprotein indicate that the phenotypic differences do not reside in the sialic acid moiety of the glycoprotein. Family studies are compatible with the concept that Lp(a) glycoprotein phenotypes are controlled by a series of autosomal alleles (Lp[a]F, Lp[a]B, Lp[a]S1, Lp[a]S2, Lp[a]S3, Lp[a]S4, and Lp[a]0) at a single locus. Comparison of Lp(a) plasma concentrations in different phenotypes revealed a highly significant association of phenotype with concentration. Phenotypes B, S1, and S2 are associated with high and phenotypes S3 and S4 with low Lp(a) concentrations. This suggests that the same gene locus is involved in determining Lp(a) glycoprotein phenotypes and Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations in plasma and is the first indication for structural differences underlying the quantitative genetic Lp(a)-trait. Images PMID:2956279

  14. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  15. Plasma-chemical waste treatment of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    The research to date has shown that a H{sub 2}S waste-treatment process based on plasma-chemical dissociation technology is compatible with refinery and high-carbon-oxide acid-gas streams. The minor amounts of impurities produced in the plasma-chemical reactor should be treatable by an internal catalytic reduction step. Furthermore, the plasma-chemical technology appears to be more efficient and more economical than the current technology. The principal key to achieving high conversions with relatively low energies of dissociation is the concept of the high-velocity, cyclonic-flow pattern in the plasma reaction zone coupled with the recycling of unconverted hydrogen sulfide. Future work will include testing the effects of components that might be carried over to the plasma reactor by ``upset`` conditions in the amine purification system of a plant and testing the plasma-chemical process on other industrial wastes streams that contain potentially valuable chemical reagents. The strategy for the commercialization of this technology is to form a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the Institute of Hydrogen Energy and Plasma Technology of the Russian Scientific Center/Kurchatov Institute and with an American start-up company to develop an ``American`` version of the process and to build a commercial-scale demonstration unit in the United States. The timetable proposed would involve building a ``field test`` facility which would test the plasma-chemical reactor and sulfur recovery unit operations on an industrial hydrogen sulfide waste s at a scale large enough to obtain the energy and material balance data required for a final analysis of the commercial potential of this technology. The field test would then be followed by construction of a commercial demonstration unit in two to three years. The commercial demonstration unit would be a fully integrated plant consisting of one commercial-scale module.

  16. Rapid lipid enrichment in omega3 fatty acids: plasma data.

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Yvon A; Peltier, Sebastien; Portois, Laurence; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2008-03-01

    The bolus intravenous injection of a novel medium-chain triglyceride:fish oil emulsion to normal subjects was recently reported to enrich within 60 min the phospholipid content of leucocytes and platelets in long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids. The present study, conducted in second generation omega3-depleted rats, aimed at investigating whether such a procedure may also increase within 60 min the phospholipid content of omega3 fatty acids in cells located outwards the bloodstream, in this case liver cells, and whether this coincides with correction of the perturbation in the liver triglyceride fatty acid content and profile otherwise prevailing in these rats. This first report deals mainly with the fatty acid pattern of plasma lipids in male omega3-depleted rats that were non-injected or injected with either the omega3-rich emulsion or a control medium-chain triglyceride:olive oil emulsion. The results provide information on the fate of the exogenous lipids present in the lipid emulsions and injected intravenously 60 min before sacrifice. Moreover, in the uninjected omega3-depleted rats the comparison between individual plasma and liver measurements indicated positive correlations in the fatty acid profile of phospholipids and triglycerides. PMID:18288383

  17. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in free-ranging platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): response to capture and patterns in relation to reproduction.

    PubMed

    Handasyde, K A; McDonald, I R; Evans, B K

    2003-12-01

    Energy demands in the platypus are likely to increase in the breeding season, which occurs from winter to early spring. Glucocorticoids, which play a major role in energy mobilisation, were measured in consecutive blood samples from free-ranging adults at approximately monthly intervals throughout the year. Glucose and free fatty acids were also measured in some samples. Plasma concentrations of glucocorticoids rose significantly during the first 30 min after capture, accompanied by a rise in free fatty acids, but no corresponding increase in glucose concentrations. We observed a strong pattern in plasma glucocorticoids in samples collected within 15 min of capture (indicative of pre-disturbance concentrations) in different phases of the annual reproductive cycle, with significantly higher levels in both males and females in the breeding season compared to the non-breeding season. These data, and the decline in tail fat stores that occur towards the end of the mating period (around October), suggest that platypus experience high-energy demands during this phase of reproduction. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in females sampled during the lactation period (October-February) were relatively low, and similar to those in females sampled in the non-breeding, non-lactation period (March-June). The latter requires further investigation as results may have been influenced by sampling limitations. PMID:14667852

  18. A clinicobiochemical study of tryptophan and other plasma and urinary amino acids in the family with Hartnup disease.

    PubMed

    Milovanović, Dragoslav D

    2003-01-01

    Two cases of Hartnup disease were diagnosed in a five member family. A changeable polymorph and severe clinical features of a 16 year old girl was described. Total plasma amino acids value was significantly decreased in the girl compared to the sum of plasma amino acids value in the brother, mother, father and to the summed maximal values of normal range. Intermediate aminoaciduria was also found with atypical amino acids pattern. Total plasma amino acids concentration was significantly reduced (27.20%) in the mother, while no significant decrease in the son (1.83%) and father (7.51%) were found compared to the summed maximal values of normal range. In the clinicaly healthy father, 38 years of age, a gross aminoaciduria with atypical pattern of amino acids was also found. Urinary amino acids concentration in the son and his mother were rather normal, although low concentration of eight amino acids was found in the mother's urine. Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid level was reduced in the girl. PMID:15206746

  19. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  20. Plasma lactate concentration as a prognostic biomarker in dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Erin; Raw, Cameron; Hughes, Dez

    2014-09-01

    Initial and serial plasma lactate concentrations can be used to guide decision making in individual dogs with GDV but care is necessary in phrasing conversations with owners. Published data suggests that survival is more likely and the chance of complications less in dogs with an initial plasma lactate of <4 mmol/L. An initial lactate >6 mmol/L makes gastric necrosis and greater expense more likely. However, because of the overlap between groups and the good overall survival rates, exploratory laparotomy should always be recommended irrespective of the plasma lactate concentration. Falls in plasma lactate of greater than ~40% after fluid resuscitation are likely to indicate better survival. If the initial plasma lactate concentration is moderately to severely increased (5->10 mmol/L) and a sustained increase in plasma lactate occurs after fluid resuscitation, the cause should be aggressively pursued. Many dogs with persistent hyperlactatemia over 24-48 hours do not survive. PMID:25496924

  1. Dietary arachidonic acid dose-dependently increases the arachidonic acid concentration in human milk.

    PubMed

    Weseler, Antje R; Dirix, Chantal E H; Bruins, Maaike J; Hornstra, Gerard

    2008-11-01

    Lactation hampers normalization of the maternal arachidonic acid (AA) status, which is reduced after pregnancy and can further decline by the presently recommended increased consumption of (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA]. This may be unfavorable for breast-fed infants, because they also require an optimum supply of (n-6) LCPUFA. We therefore investigated the LCPUFA responses in nursing mothers upon increased consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA. In a parallel, double-blind, controlled trial, lactating women received for 8 wk no extra LCPUFA (control group, n = 8), 200 (low AA group, n = 9), or 400 (high AA group, n = 8) mg/d AA in combination with (n-3) LCPUFA [320 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 80 mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid, and 80 mg/d other (n-3) fatty acids], or this dose of (n-3) LCPUFA alone [DHA + eicosapentaenoic acid group, n = 8]. Relative concentrations of AA, DHA, and sums of (n-6) and (n-3) LCPUFA were measured in milk total lipids (TL) and erythrocyte phospholipids (PL) after 2 and 8 wk and changes were compared by ANCOVA. The combined consumption of AA and (n-3) LCPUFA caused dose-dependent elevations of AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations in milk TL and did not significantly affect the DHA and total (n-3) LCPUFA increases caused by (n-3) LCPUFA supplementation only. This latter treatment did not significantly affect breast milk AA and total (n-6) LCPUFA concentrations. AA and DHA concentrations in milk TL and their changes were strongly and positively correlated with their corresponding values in erythrocyte PL (r(2) = 0.27-0.50; P concentration of their milk TL. PMID:18936218

  2. Plasma steroid concentrations change in response to sexual behavior in Bufo marinus.

    PubMed

    Orchinik, M; Licht, P; Crews, D

    1988-09-01

    Steroid hormone concentrations change in response to social or environmental stimuli in many vertebrates. To test this phenomenon in an amphibian, we examined plasma androgen (A) and corticosterone (B) concentrations in male marine toads (Bufo marinus), a tropical species exhibiting intermale competition, amplectic clasping of females, and bouts of breeding behavior following rains. When males clasped females for 0, 1, 2, or 3 hr, plasma A concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with hours spent in amplexus. In field-sampled males, plasma A concentrations were higher in amplexing males than in single males. Among single males those found closer to breeding ponds had higher A concentrations than those more distant. These data support the hypothesis that sexual stimuli enhance plasma A concentrations in this amphibian. In 3-hr experimental tests and field-sampled males, B concentrations were higher in amplexing than in single males. Unlike some amphibians, short-term elevations of B apparently are not associated with decreased reproductive function. However, as in other amphibians in which high B concentrations are associated with stress-induced inhibition of reproduction, after 48-72 hr in captivity male toads showed high B concentrations and low plasma androgen concentrations. The bursts of sexual activities exhibited by B. marinus following heavy rains were associated with no changes in A concentration and with increased B concentration. PMID:3139541

  3. Vitamin B-6 intakes and plasma B-6 vitamer concentrations of men and women, 19-50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Driskell, J A; Giraud, D W; Mitmesser, S H

    2000-09-01

    The vitamin B-6 intakes and plasma B-6 vitamer levels of healthy nonsupplemented men and women, 19-24 and 25-50 years, were compared. The subjects did not take nutrient supplements or medications or use tobacco products. Subjects were grouped as follows: eight, 19-24 y men; nine, 25-50 y men; 11, 19-24 y women; and 13, 25-50 y women. The estimated vitamin B-6 intakes, obtained via 24-h recalls followed by 2-d food records, of the two groups of men were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the two groups of women. Thirty-five percent of the women reported consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin B-6. The four gender: age groups had similar B-6 vitamer concentrations of plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, 4-pyridoxic acid, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate. Males 25-50 y had significantly higher (P < 0.05) plasma pyridoxal concentrations than the two groups of females. All subjects had pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentrations indicative of vitamin B-6 adequacy. Generally the plasma B-6 vitamer concentrations of these men and women, 19-24 and 25-50 years of age, all having adequate vitamin B-6 status, were similar. PMID:11068702

  4. Plasma Concentration of Parasite DNA as a Measure of Disease Severity in Falciparum Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J.; Hendriksen, Ilse C. E.; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M. Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples. PMID:25344520

  5. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  6. Comparative changes in plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise, bedrest and + Gz acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.

  7. Plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin and natriuretic peptides in patients with essential hypertension

    PubMed Central

    HU, WEI; ZHOU, PANG-HU; ZHANG, XIAO-BIN; XU, CHANG-GENG; WANG, WEI

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess any changes in the plasma concentrations of adrenomedullin (ADM) and atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP and BNP, respectively), and to investigate their pathophysiological roles in patients with essential hypertension (EH). The plasma ADM, ANP and BNP concentrations were measured in 64 patients with untreated EH and 35 normotensive control subjects. After 4 weeks of effective antihypertensive therapy with oral drugs for the hypertensive patients, the plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP in the hypertensive patients were measured again. The plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP were significantly higher in the hypertensive patients than those in the control subjects, and the concentrations increased with the clinical stage. Furthermore, the hypertensive patients exhibited increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and decreased glomerular filtration rates (GFRs) compared with the control subjects. The plasma ADM concentration was not only correlated with BUN, Scr and the GFR, but was also associated with the MAP and the plasma levels of ANP and BNP. Following effective antihypertensive therapy with oral medication for 4 weeks, the plasma concentrations of ADM, ANP and BNP were significantly, but not sharply, decreased. In conclusion, ADM, along with ANP and BNP, may be involved in the mechanisms acting against a further increase in blood pressure and may be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertensive patients. PMID:26136912

  8. Using plasma acute-phase protein concentrations to interpret nutritional biomarkers in apparently healthy HIV-1-seropositive Kenyan adults.

    PubMed

    Thurnham, David I; Mburu, Anne S W; Mwaniki, David L; Muniu, Erastus M; Alumasa, Fred; de Wagt, Arjan

    2008-07-01

    Inflammation influences the assessment of nutritional status. For example, inflammation reduces plasma retinol concentrations and vitamin A deficiency is overestimated. Conversely inflammation increases plasma ferritin concentrations and Fe deficiency is underestimated. Blood samples were obtained from 163 free-living HIV-1-infected adults, not on continuous medication, anti-retroviral drugs or micronutrients, not unwell and who had not reached WHO stage IV of HIV/AIDS. We used four markers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), alpha1-antichymotrypsin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate but mainly CRP and AGP were used to separate the subjects into four groups: 'healthy' where both CRP and AGP were normal; 'incubation phase' where CRP was elevated; 'early convalescence' where AGP and CRP were elevated and 'late convalescence' where only AGP was elevated. Correction factors were calculated to remove the influence of inflammation from each biomarker and group where inflammation was present and the data are shown before and after recalculation. The correction increased median plasma retinol concentrations of the whole group from 1.16 to 1.33 micromol/l, comparable with values (mean 1.29 micromol/l) in HIV-negative Kenyan women. Median ferritin concentrations fell by about 50% in both sexes and the number of women with plasma ferritin concentrations < or = 12 microg/l increased from eleven to twenty. The correction also increased plasma carotenoids and Hb but not alpha-tocopherol concentrations. We suggest that the method described to remove the influence of inflammation from nutritional biomarkers should be generally applicable in apparently healthy people and prevents discarding valuable data because of mild inflammation. The method does now need to be tested in other populations. PMID:18177514

  9. Isolation and partial characterization of a fatty acid binding protein in rat liver plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Stremmel, W; Strohmeyer, G; Borchard, F; Kochwa, S; Berk, P D

    1985-01-01

    When [14C]oleate-bovine serum albumin complexes were incubated in vitro with rat liver plasma membranes (LPM), specific, saturable binding of oleate to the membranes was observed. Maximal heat-sensitive (i.e., specific) binding was 3.2 nmol/mg of membrane protein. Oleate-agarose affinity chromatography of Triton X-100-solubilized LPM was used to isolate a single 40-kDa protein with high affinity for oleate. On gel filtration, the protein comigrated with various fatty acids but not with [14C]bilirubin, [35S]sulfobromophthalein, [14C]taurocholate, [14C]phosphatidylcholine, or [14C]cholesteryloleate. A rabbit antibody to this membrane fatty acid-binding protein gave a single precipitin line with the antigen but no reactivity with concentrated cytosolic proteins, LPM bilirubin/sulfobromophthalein-binding protein, or rat albumin or other rat plasma proteins. The antibody selectively inhibited heat-sensitive binding of [14C]oleate to LPM. Immunofluorescence studies localized the antigen in liver-cell plasma membranes as well as in other major sites of fatty acid transport. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that this protein may act as a receptor in a hepatocellular uptake mechanism for fatty acids. Images PMID:3881757

  10. Dose-response effect of elevated plasma free fatty acid on insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Belfort, Renata; Mandarino, Lawrence; Kashyap, Sangeeta; Wirfel, Kelly; Pratipanawatr, Thongchai; Berria, Rachele; Defronzo, Ralph A; Cusi, Kenneth

    2005-06-01

    The dose-response relationship between elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels and impaired insulin-mediated glucose disposal and insulin signaling was examined in 21 lean, healthy, normal glucose-tolerant subjects. Following a 4-h saline or Liposyn infusion at 30 (n = 9), 60 (n = 6), and 90 (n = 6) ml/h, subjects received a 2-h euglycemic insulin (40 mU . m(-2) . min(-1)) clamp. Basal plasma FFA concentration ( approximately 440 micromol/l) was increased to 695, 1,251, and 1,688 micromol/l after 4 h of Liposyn infusion and resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (R(d)) by 22, 30, and 34%, respectively (all P < 0.05 vs. saline control). At the lowest lipid infusion rate (30 ml/h), insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1, and Akt serine phosphorylation were all significantly impaired (P < 0.05-0.01). The highest lipid infusion rate (90 ml/h) caused a further significant reduction in all insulin signaling events compared with the low-dose lipid infusion (P < 0.05-0.01) whereas the 60-ml/h lipid infusion caused an intermediate reduction in insulin signaling. However, about two-thirds of the maximal inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal already occurred at the rather modest increase in plasma FFA induced by the low-dose (30-ml/h) lipid infusion. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was inversely correlated with both the plasma FFA concentration after 4 h of lipid infusion (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and the plasma FFA level during the last 30 min of the insulin clamp (r = -0.54, P < 0.001). PI 3-kinase activity associated with IRS-1 correlated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = 0.45, P < 0.01) and inversely with both the plasma FFA concentration after 4 h of lipid infusion (r = -0.39, P = 0.01) and during the last 30 min of the insulin clamp (r = -0.43, P < 0.01). In summary, in skeletal muscle of lean

  11. [Determination of protocatechuic acid in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Xiong, Zhili; Yang, Chunjuan; Liu, Man; Li, Famei

    2007-03-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative determination of protocatechuic acid in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). With added p-hydroxybenzoic acid as internal standard, the plasma samples were extracted with a solvent mixture of methanol and acetonitrile ( 1: 5, v/v). The analyte was determined by HPLC with a Diamondsil C18 column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (adjusted to pH 2.5 with H3PO4, 9: 91, v/v) at a flow rate of 1. 2 mL/min. The UV detection wavelength was 260 nm. The assay exhibited a good linearity in the concentration range from 0. 050 to 3. 20 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0. 997 8. The limit of quantification was 0. 050 mg/L. The relative standard deviations of intra-day and inter-day determination were both less than 7. 0% and the accuracy ranged from - 1. 4% to 2. 6%. The extraction recoveries of protocatechuic acid from rat plasma samples at three concentration levels were 83. 4%, 87. 3%, and 91. 1%, respectively. The developed method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study. The main pharmacokinetic parameters in rats after a single oral dose of 10 mL/kg body weight were as follows: Cmax of (3. 16 +0. 03) microg/mL, tmax of (0. 50 +/- 0. 00) h, AU0-->t of (39. 9 +/- 5. 9) microg x mL(-1) x h, AUC-->infinity of (54. 8 +/- 8. 1) microg x mL(-1) x h and t1/2 of (3. 87 +/- 0. 25) h. The method was proved to be simple, sensitive and accurate, thus suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of protocatechuic acid in rat plasma. PMID:17580687

  12. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    PubMed Central

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24971025

  13. Mechanochemical leaching of chalcopyrite concentrate by sulfuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadabad, Farhad Khorramshahi; Hejazi, Sina; khaki, Jalil Vahdati; Babakhani, Abolfazl

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to introduce a new cost-effective methodology for increasing the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite concentrates at ambient temperature and pressure. Mechanical activation was employed during the leaching (mechanochemical leaching) of chalcopyrite concentrates in a sulfuric acid medium at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. High energy ball milling process was used during the leaching to provide the mechanochemical leaching condition, and atomic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to determine the leaching behavior of chalcopyrite. Moreover, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the chalcopyrite powder before and after leaching. The results demonstrated that mechanochemical leaching was effective; the extraction of copper increased significantly and continuously. Although the leaching efficiency of chalcopyrite was very low at ambient temperature, the percentages of copper dissolved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3) after 20 h of mechanochemical leaching reached 28% and 33%, respectively. Given the efficiency of the developed method and the facts that it does not require the use of an autoclave and can be conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, it represents an economical and easy-to-use method for the leaching industry.

  14. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  15. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  16. Plasma concentrations after high-dose (45 mg.kg-1) rectal acetaminophen in children.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, C J; McCormack, J P; Reichert, C C; Marsland, C P

    1995-11-01

    Although the recommended dose of rectal acetaminophen (25-30 mg.kg-1) is twice that for oral administration (10-15 mg.kg-1), the literature justifies the use of a higher dose when acetaminophen is administered via the rectal route. We measured venous plasma acetaminophen concentrations resulting from 45 mg.kg-1 of rectal acetaminophen in ten ASA 1, 15 kg paediatric patients undergoing minor surgery with a standardized anaesthetic. After induction of anaesthesia, a single 650 mg suppository (Abenol, SmithKline Beecham Pharma Inc.) was administered rectally. Plasma was sampled at t = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min in the first five patients and at t = 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 420 min in the subsequent five. Acetaminophen plasma concentrations were determined using a TDxFLx fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, Toronto, Ontario). The maximum plasma concentration was 88 +/- 39 mumol.L-1 (13 +/- 6 micrograms.ml-1) and the time of peak plasma concentration was 198 +/- 70 min (mean +/- SD). At 420 min, the mean plasma concentration was 46 +/- 18 mumol.L-1 (7.0 +/- 0.9 micrograms.ml-1). No plasma concentrations associated with toxicity (> 800 mumol.L-1) were identified. A 45 mg.kg-1 rectal dose of acetaminophen resulted in peak plasma concentrations comparable with those resulting from 10-15 mg.kg-1 of oral acetaminophen at three hours after suppository insertion. It is concluded that the delayed and erratic absorption of acetaminophen after rectal administration leads to unpredictable plasma concentrations. Rectal acetaminophen will not be consistently effective for providing rapid onset of analgesia in children. PMID:8590508

  17. Unexpectedly high indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations associated with nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Amedro, Damien; Afif, Charbel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Schoemacker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Wortham, Henri

    2013-08-13

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 10(4)-10(5) molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅10(6) molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air. PMID:23898188

  18. Unexpectedly high indoor hydroxyl radical concentrations associated with nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Alvarez, Elena; Amedro, Damien; Afif, Charbel; Gligorovski, Sasho; Schoemaecker, Coralie; Fittschen, Christa; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Wortham, Henri

    2013-01-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) radical is the most important oxidant in the atmosphere since it controls its self-oxidizing capacity. The main sources of OH radicals are the photolysis of ozone and the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO). Due to the attenuation of solar radiation in the indoor environment, the possibility of OH formation through photolytic pathways indoors has been ignored up to now. In the indoor air, the ozonolysis of alkenes has been suggested as an alternative route of OH formation. Models and indirect measurements performed up to now according to this hypothesis suggest concentrations of OH radicals on the order of 104–105 molecules per cubic centimeter. Here, we present direct measurements of significant amounts of OH radicals of up to 1.8⋅106 molecules per cubic centimeter during an experimental campaign carried out in a school classroom in Marseille. This concentration is on the same order of magnitude of outdoor OH levels in the urban scenario. We also show that photolysis of HONO is an important source of OH radicals indoors under certain conditions (i.e., direct solar irradiation inside the room). Additionally, the OH concentrations were found to follow a linear dependence with the product J(HONO)⋅[HONO]. This was also supported by using a simple quasiphotostationary state model on the OH radical budget. These findings force a change in our understanding of indoor air quality because the reactivity linked to OH would involve formation of secondary species through chemical reactions that are potentially more hazardous than the primary pollutants in the indoor air. PMID:23898188

  19. Changes in the plasma concentration of immunoreactive arginine vasotocin during oviposition in the domestic fowl.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K; Goto, K; Yoshioka, T; Terao, T; Koga, O

    1984-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of immunoreactive arginine vasotocin (AVT) were measured during oviposition and shortly before ovulation of the first egg (Cl) of a clutch. Immunoreactive AVT was determined on bentonite extracts of 0.5 ml plasma samples using the method of Rosenbloom and Fisher (1974). The R-70 antiserum used to measure AVT cross reacted with arginine vasopressin (AVP), however the fowl pituitary does not synthesise AVP. Over a period of 10 to 90 min before oviposition the plasma AVT concentration was about 20 pg/ml; during oviposition it increased four-fold. Measurements made at frequent intervals showed that plasma AVT concentration increased 5 to 6 min before oviposition, reached a peak during oviposition itself and decreased rapidly in the following 5 to 6 min. The surge in plasma AVT occurred on average 48 min before Cl ovulation. PMID:6518411

  20. Plasma amino acid and metabolite signatures tracking diabetes progression in the UCD-T2DM rat model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevations of plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are observed in human insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, there has been some controversy with respect to the passive or causative nature of the BCAA phenotype. Using untargeted metabolomics, plasm...

  1. A Common Polymorphism in HIBCH Influences Methylmalonic Acid Concentrations in Blood Independently of Cobalamin.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Anne M; Pangilinan, Faith; Mills, James L; Shane, Barry; O'Neill, Mary B; McGaughey, David M; Velkova, Aneliya; Abaan, Hatice Ozel; Ueland, Per M; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Cunningham, Conal; Casey, Miriam; Cropp, Cheryl D; Kim, Yoonhee; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Wilson, Alexander F; Brody, Lawrence C

    2016-05-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a by-product of propionic acid metabolism through the vitamin B12 (cobalamin)-dependent enzyme methylmalonyl CoA mutase. Elevated MMA concentrations are a hallmark of several inborn errors of metabolism and indicators of cobalamin deficiency in older persons. In a genome-wide analysis of 2,210 healthy young Irish adults (median age 22 years) we identified a strong association of plasma MMA with SNPs in 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH, p = 8.42 × 10(-89)) and acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3 (ACSF3, p = 3.48 × 10(-19)). These loci accounted for 12% of the variance in MMA concentration. The most strongly associated SNP (HIBCH rs291466; c:2T>C) causes a missense change of the initiator methionine codon (minor-allele frequency = 0.43) to threonine. Surprisingly, the resulting variant, p.Met1?, is associated with increased expression of HIBCH mRNA and encoded protein. These homozygotes had, on average, 46% higher MMA concentrations than methionine-encoding homozygotes in young adults with generally low MMA concentrations (0.17 [0.14-0.21] μmol/L; median [25(th)-75(th) quartile]). The association between MMA levels and HIBCH rs291466 was highly significant in a replication cohort of 1,481 older individuals (median age 79 years) with elevated plasma MMA concentrations (0.34 [0.24-0.51] μmol/L; p = 4.0 × 10(-26)). In a longitudinal study of 185 pregnant women and their newborns, the association of this SNP remained significant across the gestational trimesters and in newborns. HIBCH is unique to valine catabolism. Studies evaluating flux through the valine catabolic pathway in humans should account for these variants. Furthermore, this SNP could help resolve equivocal clinical tests where plasma MMA values have been used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. PMID:27132595

  2. The Overnight Effect of Dietary Energy Balance on Postprandial Plasma Free Amino Acid (PFAA) Profiles in Japanese Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40–61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion. PMID:23667542

  3. A Plasma Membrane Association Module in Yeast Amino Acid Transporters.

    PubMed

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert

    2016-07-29

    Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in silico analyses and mutational studies we found that the C-terminal sequences of Gap1, Bap2, Hip1, Tat1, Tat2, Mmp1, Sam3, Agp1, and Gnp1 are about 50 residues long, associate with the PM, and have features that discriminate them from the termini of organellar amino acid transporters. We show that this sequence (named PMasseq) contains an amphipathic α-helix and the FWC signature, which is palmitoylated by palmitoyltransferase Pfa4. Variations of PMasseq, found in different AAPs, lead to different mobilities and localization patterns, whereas the disruption of the sequence has an adverse effect on cell viability. We propose that PMasseq modulates the function and localization of AAPs along the PM. PMasseq is one of the most complex protein signals for plasma membrane association across species and can be used as a delivery vehicle for the PM. PMID:27226538

  4. Phenylbutyrate exerts adverse effects on liver regeneration and amino acid concentrations in partially hepatectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan; Vodenicarovova, Melita

    2016-06-01

    Phenylbutyrate is recommended in urea cycle disorders and liver injury to enhance nitrogen disposal by the urine. However, hypothetically there may be adverse responses to the use of phenylbutyrate in the treatment of liver disease because of its role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor and its stimulatory effect on branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine and isoleucine). We report the effects of phenylbutyrate on liver regeneration and amino acid levels in plasma of partially hepatectomized (PH) rats. Phenylbutyrate or saline was administered at 12-h intervals to PH or laparotomized rats. Phenylbutyrate delayed the onset of liver regeneration compared to the saline-treated controls, as indicated by lower hepatic DNA specific activities 18 and 24( ) h post-PH, decreased hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates 24 h post-PH and lowered the increases in liver weights and hepatic protein and DNA contents 48 h after PH. Hepatic DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of apoptosis) was higher in the phenylbutyrate-treated animals than in controls. Phenylbutyrate decreased the glutamine and BCAA concentrations and the ratio of the BCAA to aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine) in the blood plasma in both hepatectomized and laparotomized animals. In conclusion, the delayed onset of liver regeneration and the decrease in BCAA/AAA ratio in blood suggest that phenylbutyrate administration may be disastrous in subjects with acute hepatic injury and BCAA supplementation is needed when phenylbutyrate is used therapeutically. PMID:27381898

  5. Simultaneous analysis of low plasma levels of deuterium-labeled saturated and unsaturated fatty acids as t-butyldimethylsilyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, H.; Emken, E.M.; Marai, L.; Kuksis, A.

    1986-03-01

    A sensitive and accurate method for detection and quantitation of deuterated fatty acids in the presence of large amounts of unlabeled fatty acids is described using mass fragmentography in combination with the preparation of tertiarybutyldimethylsilyl esters (t-BDMS). The method has been applied to determination of deuterated stearic, oleic, elaidic and linoleic acids in human plasma lipoproteins following duodenal perfusion with a micellar mixture of acids. Over a concentration range of 10-1000 ng/ml, the average coefficient of variation for the linoleate was 3% and for the oleate (elaidate) ester was 2%.

  6. Plasma IL-5 concentration and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Angela; McLeod, Olga; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Gertow, Karl; Sennblad, Bengt; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Deleskog, Anna; Persson, Jonas; Leander, Karin; Gigante, Bruna; Kauhanen, Jussi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Smit, Andries J.; Mannarino, Elmo; Giral, Philippe; Gustafsson, Sven; Söderberg, Stefan; Öhrvik, John; Humphries, Steve E.; Tremoli, Elena; de Faire, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genetic variants robustly associated with coronary artery disease were reported in the vicinity of the interleukin (IL)-5 locus, and animal studies suggested a protective role for IL-5 in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we set this work to explore IL-5 as a plasma biomarker for early subclinical atherosclerosis, as determined by measures of baseline severity and change over time of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). Methods We used biobank and databases of IMPROVE, a large European prospective cohort study of high-risk individuals (n = 3534) free of clinically overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, in whom composite and segment-specific measures of cIMT were recorded at baseline and after 15 and 30 months. IL-5 was measured with an immunoassay in plasma samples taken at baseline. Results IL-5 levels were lower in women than in men, lower in the South than in North of Europe, and showed positive correlations with most established risk factors. IL-5 showed significant inverse relationships with cIMT change over time in the common carotid segment in women, but no significant relationships to baseline cIMT in either men or women. Conclusions Our results suggest that IL-5 may be part of protective mechanisms operating in early atherosclerosis, at least in women. However, the relationships are weak and whereas IL-5 has been proposed as a potential molecular target to treat allergies, it is difficult to envisage such a scenario in coronary artery disease. PMID:25587992

  7. Astaxanthin lowers plasma TAG concentrations and increases hepatic antioxidant gene expression in diet-induced obesity mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue; Pham, Tho X; Wegner, Casey J; Kim, Bohkyung; Ku, Chai Siah; Park, Young-Ki; Lee, Ji-Young

    2014-12-14

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is significantly associated with hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress. We have previously reported that astaxanthin (ASTX), a xanthophyll carotenoid, lowers plasma total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in apoE knockout mice. To investigate whether ASTX supplementation can prevent the development of NAFLD in obesity, male C57BL/6J mice (n 8 per group) were fed a high-fat diet (35%, w/w) supplemented with 0, 0.003, 0.01 or 0.03% of ASTX (w/w) for 12 weeks. The 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant decrease in plasma TAG concentrations, suggesting that ASTX at a 0.03% supplementation dosage exerts a hypotriacylglycerolaemic effect. Although there was an increase in the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and diglyceride acyltransferase 2, the mRNA levels of acyl-CoA oxidase 1, a critical enzyme in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, exhibited an increase in the 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group. There was a decrease in plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) concentrations in the 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group. There was a significant increase in the hepatic mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and its downstream genes, which are critical for endogenous antioxidant mechanism, in the 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in the mRNA abundance of IL-6 in the primary splenocytes isolated from the 0.03% ASTX-supplemented group upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation when compared with that in the splenocytes isolated from the control group. In conclusion, ASTX supplementation lowered the plasma concentrations of TAG, ALT and AST, increased the hepatic expression of endogenous antioxidant genes, and rendered splenocytes less sensitive to LPS stimulation. Therefore, ASTX may prevent obesity-associated metabolic disturbances and inflammation. PMID:25328157

  8. Biphasic response of plasma endothelin-1 concentration to exhausting submaximal exercise in man.

    PubMed

    Richter, E A; Emmeluth, C; Bie, P; Helge, J; Kiens, B

    1994-07-01

    The concentration of endothelin-1 in forearm venous plasma was measured in 10 healthy men at rest and during ergometer bicycling at 65% of maximal aerobic capacity until exhaustion (96 +/- 10 min, mean +/- SE). A control group of 10 comparable subjects rested for 2 h. Mean plasma endothelin-1 concentration at rest was 2.0 +/- 0.2 pg ml-1, n = 20. The concentration decreased significantly by 21% during the first 30 min of exercise, whereupon it increased so that the concentration after 60 min of exercise was no different from resting values. The change in endothelin concentration could not be explained by changes in plasma volume. Unspecific effects of catheterization or time could also not explain the change in endothelin-1, since in the 10 control subjects who did not exercise, plasma endothelin-1 did not change significantly over 120 min. It is concluded that the concentration of endothelin-1 in forearm venous plasma changes in a biphasic manner during prolonged exhaustive bicycle exercise in man. An initial decrease in concentration is followed by an increase restoring the concentration to resting values after 60 min exercise. PMID:7955935

  9. Plasma secretin concentration in anaesthetized pigs after intraduodenal glucose, fat, aminoacids, or meals with various pH.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrug, J; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    The concentration of immunoreactive secretin in portal blood and the secretion from the exocrine pancreas were measured during intraduodenal infusion of isotonic or hypertonic saline, isotonic or hypertonic glucose, aminoacids, fat emulsion, or 0.1 mol X 1(-1) hydrochloric acid in 7 anaesthetized pigs. None of these substances, except hydrochloric acid, had any effect on plasma secretin concentration and pancreatic flow rate and bicarbonate output. Plasma secretin concentration rose significantly from 5.6 +/- 2.7 pmol X 1(-1) (mean +/- S.E.M.) to a peak value of 201.2 +/- 80.5 pmol X 1(-1) 15 min after infusion of hydrochloric acid. Pancreatic flow rate and bicarbonate output increased from 0.51 +/- 0.19 ml X h-1 (mean +/- S.E.M.) to 9.85 +/- 2.33 ml X h-1 and from 52 +/- 11 micronmol X h-1 to 1.004 +/- 290 micronmol X h-1, respectively. During intraduodenal introduction of meals with pH adjusted from 1.0 to 7.0 in 4 pigs amylase was secreted at all pH levels. However, only when pH of the meal was 1.0, resulting in an intraduodenal pH from 1.0 to 1.7 during the stimulation, was a significant increase in plasma secretin concentration and pancreatic flow rate observed from 5.5 +/- 2.8 pmol X 1(-1) (mean +/- S.E.M.) to 115.0 +/- 51.2 pmol X 1(-1) and from 0.20 +/- 0.08 ml X h-1 to 6.25 +/- 2.57 ml X h-1, respectively. PMID:17153

  10. Metabolic fate of fatty acids involved in ruminal biohydrogenation in sheep fed concentrate or herbage with or without tannins.

    PubMed

    Vasta, V; Mele, M; Serra, A; Scerra, M; Luciano, G; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2009-08-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of herbage or concentrate feeding and dietary tannin supplementation on fatty acid metabolism and composition in sheep ruminal fluid, plasma, and intramuscular fat. Twenty-eight male lambs were divided into 2 equal groups at 45 d of age and kept in individual pens. One group was given exclusively fresh herbage (vetch), and the other group was fed a concentrate-based diet. Within each treatment, one-half of the lambs received supplementation of quebracho powder, providing 4.0% of dietary DM as tannins. Before slaughter, blood samples were collected. The animals were slaughtered at 105 d of age, and ruminal contents and LM were collected. Blood plasma, ruminal fluid, and LM fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Tannin supplementation reduced (P < 0.05) the concentration of stearic acid (-49%) and increased the concentration of vaccenic acid (+97%) in ruminal fluid from concentrate-fed lambs. Within concentrate- and herbage-based diets, tannin supplementation reduced the accumulation of SFA in blood (P < 0.05) compared with lambs fed the tannin-free diets. When tannins were included in the concentrate, the LM contained 2-fold greater concentrations of rumenic acid compared with the LM of the lambs fed the tannin-free concentrate (0.96 vs. 0.46% of total extracted fatty acids, respectively; P < 0.05). The concentration of PUFA was greater (P < 0.05) and SFA (P < 0.01) less in the LM from lambs fed the tannin-containing diets as compared with the animals receiving the tannin-free diets. These results confirm, in vivo, that tannins reduce ruminal biohydrogenation, as previously reported in vitro. This implies that tannin supplementation could be a useful strategy to increase the rumenic acid and PUFA content and to reduce the SFA in ruminant meats. However, the correct dietary concentration of tannins should be carefully chosen to avoid negative effects on DMI and animal

  11. Plasma free amino acid profiles of canine mammary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kazuo; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between plasma free amino acid (PFAA) levels and the clinical stages of mammary gland tumors (MGT) in dogs. PFAA levels in canines with malignant mammary tumors were decreased compared to those of healthy animals. The levels of aspartate and ornithine, in the dogs with tumor metastasis were significantly decreased when compared to those of dogs that did not have metastases. Results of this study indicate that PFAA levels could be a risk factor or biomarker for canine MGT metastasis. PMID:23271187

  12. Plasma clozapine concentration coefficients of variation in a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Francisco J; de Leon, Jose; Josiassen, Richard C; Cooper, Thomas B; Simpson, George M

    2005-01-01

    Kurz et al. conducted the first study of the intra-individual variability of clozapine plasma concentrations but did not take into account the effect of smoking and co-medication. As patients were receiving varying doses, Kurz et al. standardized plasma levels by using a plasma level/dose/kg ratio. In 15 patients, the mean coefficient of variation (CV) was 53% (S.D. = 21). In this new study, plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were measured every 2 weeks in 47 patients randomized to 100, 300, or 600 mg/day for 16-week double-blind clozapine trials under controlled conditions (stable smoking, limited co-medication and absence of caffeinated beverages). For 100, 300 and 600 mg/day, the respective mean CVs for plasma clozapine concentrations were 23% (S.D. = 14), 19% (S.D.= 11) and 18% (S.D. = 8). For the combined concentrations of clozapine and norclozapine, the respective mean CVs were 20% (S.D. = 13), 16% (S.D. = 9) and 15% (S.D. = 7). Under 100 mg/day, the mean CV for clozapine concentrations was significantly higher for heavy smokers than non-heavy smokers (32%, S.D. = 3 vs. 19%, S.D. = 8) (p = 0.03). Studies of CVs in other environments are needed. Clozapine CVs may be important in order to understand the importance of variations around the therapeutic range and to interpret drug interactions above the usual noise of measuring plasma concentrations. PMID:15560958

  13. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Andrew A.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A.; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L.; Havel, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P < 0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  14. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Jungbluth, Pascal; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Thelen, Simon; Wild, Michael; Sager, Martin; Windolf, Joachim; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2014-01-01

    In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of all growth factors tested was observed in the PRP in comparison to the corresponding plasma or serum. Five of the plasma samples examined contained detectable levels of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) whereas eleven of the plasma or serum samples contained minimal amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) respectively. On the other hand variable concentrations of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in all plasma samples. In contrast, all PRP samples contained significantly increased amounts of growth factors. The level of BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-β1, VEGF and PDGF-bb increased by 17.6, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 103.3 fold, in comparison to the corresponding non-enriched preparations. Moreover significant positive correlations were found between platelet count and the concentrations of BMP-2 (r=0.62, p<0.001), TGF-β1 (r=0.85, p<0.001), VEGF (r=0.46, p<0.01) and PDGF-bb (r=0.9, p<0.001). Our results demonstrate that selected growth factors are present in the platelet-rich plasma of minipigs which might thus serve as a source of autologous growth factors. PMID:26504722

  15. Plasma Circulating Nucleic Acids Levels Increase According to the Morbidity of Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Bernardo S.; Vitorino, Barbara L. F.; Coelho, Helena C.; Menezes-Neto, Armando; Santos, Marina L. S.; Campos, Fernanda M. F.; Brito, Cristiana F.; Fontes, Cor J.; Lacerda, Marcus V.; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Given the increasing evidence of Plasmodium vivax infections associated with severe and fatal disease, the identification of sensitive and reliable markers for vivax severity is crucial to improve patient care. Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been increasingly recognized as powerful diagnostic and prognostic tools for various inflammatory diseases and tumors as their plasma concentrations increase according to malignancy. Given the marked inflammatory status of P. vivax infection, we investigated here the usefulness of CNAs as biomarkers for malaria morbidity. Methods and Findings CNAs levels in plasma from twenty-one acute P. vivax malaria patients from the Brazilian Amazon and 14 malaria non-exposed healthy donors were quantified by two different methodologies: amplification of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) genomic sequence by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR), and the fluorometric dsDNA quantification by Pico Green. CNAs levels were significantly increased in plasma from P. vivax patients as compared to healthy donors (p<0.0001). Importantly, plasma CNAs levels were strongly associated with vivax morbidity (p<0.0001), including a drop in platelet counts (p = 0.0021). These findings were further sustained when we assessed CNAS levels in plasma samples from 14 additional P. vivax patients of a different endemic area in Brazil, in which CNAS levels strongly correlated with thrombocytopenia (p = 0.0072). We further show that plasma CNAs levels decrease and reach physiological levels after antimalarial treatment. Although we found both host and parasite specific genomic sequences circulating in plasma, only host CNAs clearly reflected the clinical spectrum of P. vivax malaria. Conclusions Here, we provide the first evidence of increased plasma CNAs levels in malaria patients and reveal their potential as sensitive biomarkers for vivax malaria morbidity. PMID:21611202

  16. Monitoring imatinib plasma concentrations in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Darlize Hübner; Wagner, Sandrine Comparsi; dos Santos, Tamyris Vianna; Lizot, Lilian de Lima Feltraco; Antunes, Marina Venzon; Capra, Marcelo; Linden, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Imatinib has proved to be effective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, but plasma levels above 1,000 ng/mL must be achieved to optimize activity. Therapeutic drug monitoring of imatinib is useful for patients that do not present clinical response. There are several analytical methods to measure imatinib in biosamples, which are mainly based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric or diode array spectrophotometric detection. The former is preferred due to its lower cost and wider availability. The present manuscript presents a review of the clinical and analytical aspects of the therapeutic drug monitoring of imatinib in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. The review includes references published over the last 10 years. There is evidence that the monitoring of plasmatic levels of imatinib is an useful alternative, especially considering the wide pharmacokinetic variability of this drug. PMID:23049322

  17. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    PubMed

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. PMID:25666363

  18. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting ApoAV is a potent triglyceride modulator despite its low concentration. Together, these data indicate

  19. Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Georgianne L.; Hyman, Susan L.; Mooney, Robert A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma amino acid profiles of 10 children with autism on gluten and casein restricted diets and 26 on unrestricted diets were reviewed. There was a trend for the children on restricted diets to have an increased prevalence of essential amino acid deficiencies and lower plasma levels of essential acids. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of the plasma production of ferroniobium from a loparite concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, A. A.; Kirpichev, D. E.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Tsvetkov, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of pyrometallurgical processing of a loparite concentrate at a temperature of 2000-4000 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa is thermodynamically studied using the TERRA software package. It is found that the niobium concentration in the concentrate almost doubles during plasma heating as a result of thermal decomposition and the precipitation of rare-earth metals into a gas phase. Crude niobium can be extracted from the thermally decomposed concentrate by carbothermic or aluminothermic reduction. After plasma-arc vacuum refining, crude niobium can be used for making commercial ferroniobium. The calculated energy consumed for the plasma production of ferroniobium from the loparite concentrate by carbothermic or aluminothermic reduction under adiabatic conditions is 46.6 or 79.0 GJ/(t ferroniobium), respectively. The energy consumption can even be increased severalfold, and the implementation of the process remains economically efficient at the existing market price of ferroniobium.

  1. Respiratory alkalosis does not alter NOx concentrations in human plasma and erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, T; Kubota, K; Himeno, M; Matsubara, T; Hori, T; Ozaki, K; Yamozoe, M; Aizawa, Y; Yoshida, J; Nishio, M

    2001-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that NOx (NO and NO, metabolites of NO) accumulates in red blood cells (RBC) in response to changes in PCO(2) and bicarbonate (HCO) concentration in blood, we examined the effect of changes in PCO(2) and HCO induced by hyperventilation in healthy adults on partitioning of NOx in whole blood. NOx in hemolysate was measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography-Griess system equipped with a C(18) reverse phase column to trap hemoglobin, which enables determination of whole blood NOx concentration and calculation of NOx concentration in RBC with high accuracy and reproducibility. NOx concentration in RBC was lower than that in plasma, and equilibrium between plasma and RBC was achieved rapidly after addition of NO. Changes in PCO(2) and HCO by hyperventilation failed to influence NOx concentrations in both plasma and RBC. Plasma NOx concentrations correlated with whole blood NOx and RBC NOx concentrations. Our results indicate that changes in PCO(2) or HCO induced by hyperventilation do not influence NOx compartmentalization in plasma and RBC. PMID:11709445

  2. Pelargonic acid weed control: Concentrations, adjuvants, and application timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants, animals, and foods. Pelargonic acid has potential as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide for organic crop production. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Lane, OK, Atoka County) to determine the ...

  3. Amino Acid Derivatives as Palmitoylethanolamide Prodrugs: Synthesis, In Vitro Metabolism and In Vivo Plasma Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vacondio, Federica; Bassi, Michele; Silva, Claudia; Castelli, Riccardo; Carmi, Caterina; Scalvini, Laura; Lodola, Alessio; Vivo, Valentina; Flammini, Lisa; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Mor, Marco; Rivara, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) has antinflammatory and antinociceptive properties widely exploited in veterinary and human medicine, despite its poor pharmacokinetics. Looking for prodrugs that could progressively release PEA to maintain effective plasma concentrations, we prepared carbonates, esters and carbamates at the hydroxyl group of PEA. Chemical stability (pH 7.4) and stability in rat plasma and liver homogenate were evaluated by in vitro assays. Carbonates and carbamates resulted too labile and too resistant in plasma, respectively. Ester derivatives, prepared by conjugating PEA with various amino acids, allowed to modulate the kinetics of PEA release in plasma and stability in liver homogenate. L-Val-PEA, with suitable PEA release in plasma, and D-Val-PEA, with high resistance to hepatic degradation, were orally administered to rats and plasma levels of prodrugs and PEA were measured at different time points. Both prodrugs showed significant release of PEA, but provided lower plasma concentrations than those obtained with equimolar doses of PEA. Amino-acid esters of PEA are a promising class to develop prodrugs, even if they need further chemical optimization. PMID:26053855

  4. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Bacus, Sarah; Blackwell, Kimberly; Smith, Deborah A.; Glenn, Kelli; Cartee, Leanne; Harris, Jennifer; Kimbrough, Carie L.; Gittelman, Mark; Avisar, Eli; Beitsch, Peter; Koch, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER) in human tumors. Experimental Design Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID) with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD) or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor. Results In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL) for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers. Conclusion Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor

  5. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS/MS for the measurement of flunixin plasma concentrations in beef cattle after intravenous and subcutaneous administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) with only simple preparation steps to determine flunixin plasma concentrations in healthy beef cattle was explored. Eight cattle (288 ± 22 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin free acid in a cross-over design by subcutaneo...

  6. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  7. Cysteine and glutathione concentrations in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after treatment with N-acetylcysteine.

    PubMed Central

    Bridgeman, M. M.; Marsden, M.; MacNee, W.; Flenley, D. C.; Ryle, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (600 mg/day) was given to patients by mouth for five days before bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage to determine whether N-acetylcysteine could increase the concentrations of the antioxidant reduced glutathione in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed 1-3 hours (group 2, n = 9) and 16-20 hours (group 3, n = 10) after the last dose of N-acetylcysteine and the values were compared with those in a control group receiving no N-acetylcysteine (group 1, n = 8). N-acetylcysteine was not detected in plasma or lavage fluid. Plasma concentrations of cysteine, the main metabolite of N-acetylcysteine and a precursor of reduced glutathione, were greater in the groups receiving treatment (groups 2 and 3) than in group 1. Cysteine concentrations in lavage fluid were similar in the three groups. Concentrations of reduced glutathione were greater in both plasma and lavage fluid in group 2 than in group 1. These data suggest that N-acetylcysteine given by mouth is rapidly deacetylated to cysteine, with resulting increases in the concentrations of cysteine in plasma and of reduced glutathione in plasma and the airways, which thus temporarily increase the antioxidant capacity of the lung. Images PMID:1871695

  8. Determining the sulfuric acid fog concentration in coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zin'kovskaya, S.I.; Okhrimenko, E.L.; Sobko, L.V.

    1982-11-06

    A volumetric method for the analysis of sulfuric acid aerosols at levels of acid greater (25-40 g/m/sup 3/) than those (1 g/m/sup 3/) analyzable by current methods is described. Coke oven gas after acid scrubbing and electrofiltration is passed through a Schott filter (pressure drop 100 mm Hg), the sulfuric acid aerosol being condensed on the filter which is washed with water and the washings filtered with NaOH (0.01 N after electrofilter, 1.0 N after the acid towers) to methyl orange end point. The error is +/- 2%.

  9. Various concentrations of erucic acid in mustard oil and mustard.

    PubMed

    Wendlinger, Christine; Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2014-06-15

    Erucic acid is a typical constituent of mustard or rape. Foodstuff with a high content of erucic acid is considered undesirable for human consumption because it has been linked to myocardial lipidosis and heart lesions in laboratory rats. As a result, several countries have restricted its presence in oils and fats. In this study, the erucic acid content in several mustard oils and prepared mustard samples from Germany and Australia was determined. Seven of nine mustard oil samples exceeded the permitted maximum levels established for erucic acid (range: 0.3-50.8%, limit: 5%). The erucic acid content in mustard samples (n=15) varied from 14% to 33% in the lipids. Two servings (i.e. 20 g) of the mustards with the highest erucic acid content already surpassed the tolerable daily intake established by Food Standards Australia New Zealand. However, a careful selection of mustard cultivars could lower the nutritional intake of erucic acid. PMID:24491745

  10. Phosphoserine phosphatase activity is elevated and correlates negatively with plasma d-serine concentration in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Yuji; Sekine, Masae; Fujii, Kumiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Aoki, Akiko; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Homma, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2016-03-30

    The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. D-3serine and glycine are endogenous l-serine-derived NMDAR co-agonists. We hypothesized that the l-serine synthesis pathway could be involved in schizophrenia. We measured the activity of phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP), a rate-limiting enzyme in l-serine synthesis, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 49 normal control subjects. Plasma amino acid (l-serine, d-serine, glycine, glutamine, and glutamate) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral blood mRNA expression levels of PHGDH, PSAT1, PSP, and SR, determined by quantitative real-time PCR were compared between patients and controls. PSP activity was higher in patients than in controls, especially in male patients. In male patients, the plasma l-serine concentration was higher than that in controls. In patients, PSP activity was negatively correlated with plasma d-serine and glycine levels. Furthermore, PSP activity was positively correlated with plasma l-serine concentration. These results were statistically significant only in male patients. PSP, PSAT1, and PHGDH mRNA levels were lower in patients than in controls, except when the PHGDH expression level was compared with ACTB expression. In summary, we found the l-serine synthesis system to be altered in patients with schizophrenia, especially in male patients. PMID:26804975

  11. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( < 0.01) were observed on plasma vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( < 0.01), maximum plasma concentrations ( < 0.05), and all area under the curve parameters ( < 0.01) but a lower elimination rate constant ( < 0.01) than the oral treatment. Relative bioavailability of oral administration compared with injection administration was 55.26%. These results indicate that plasma status of 25OHD,α-tocopherol, and retinyl palmitate are differentially changed between types of

  12. Plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations in the striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to intense handling stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wanshu

    1992-03-01

    The plasma cortisol and glucose concentrations were determined in mature female striped mullet ( Mugil cephalus L.) subjected to short term intense handling stress. The results indicated that plasma cortisol levels reached a peak 20 min after stress and declined gradually afterwards. The highest concentration of plasma glucose was observed 30 min after stress. The present study showed that the rise of plasma glucose was associated with the plasma cortisol levels.

  13. Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids in Plasma of American Alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangma, Jacqueline T.; Bowden, John A.; Brunell, Arnold M.; Christie, Ian; Finnell, Brendan; Guillette, Matthew P.; Jones, Martin; Lowers, Russell H.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reiner, Jessica L.; Wilkinson, Philip M.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitate fourteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at twelve sites across the southeastern US. Of those fourteen PFAAs, nine were detected in 65% - 100% of the samples: PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTriA, PFTA, PFHxS, and PFOS. Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of four PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge and Kiawah Nature Conservancy both exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length (SVL) were observed in both sexes suggesting PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. This study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, reveals potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and provides and additional contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health.

  14. Unexpected depletion of plasma arachidonate and total protein in cats fed a low arachidonic acid diet due to peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, Amy; Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Bigley, Karen; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    An opportunity to investigate a low-arachidonic acid (AA) feline diet possibly related to elevated peroxide value (PV) during storage on plasma phospholipid (PL) and reproductive tissue fatty acid (FA) profiles presented itself in the present study. Cats (nine animals per group) had been fed one of three dry extruded, complete and balanced diets for 300 d before spaying. The diets contained adequate AA (0.3 g/kg), similar concentration of antioxidants and were stored at ambient temperature, but differed in FA composition. The diets were designated as follows: diet A (high linoleic acid), diet B (high γ-linolenic acid) and diet C (adequate linoleic acid). Diet samples that were obtained the week before spaying revealed an elevated PV of diet A v. diets B and C (135 v. 5.80 and 2.12 meq/kg fat, respectively). Records revealed decreased food consumption of diet A cats beginning at 240 d but without weight loss; thus an opportunity presented to investigate diet PV effects. Total plasma protein and PL-AA concentrations in group A were significantly decreased at 140 and 300 d. Uterine and ovarian tissues collected at surgery revealed modest decrements of AA. Diet A was below minimum standards at 0.015 % (minimum 0.02 %), probably due to oxidation. The time at which diet A became unacceptable may have occurred between 60 and 140 d because plasma PL-AA was within our normal colony range (approximately 4-7 % relative) after 56 d of feeding. High-linoleic acid-containing diets may be more likely to be oxidised requiring additional antioxidants. The findings suggest that reduced plasma protein in combination with plasma AA concentrations may serve as biomarkers of diet peroxidation in cats before feed refusal, weight loss or tissue depletion. PMID:22005409

  15. Circadian and postprandial variation in plasma citrulline concentration in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Julien M; Giron, Celine; Concordet, Didier; Dossin, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate circadian and postprandial variations in plasma citrulline concentration in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 8 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected from dogs after 12 hours of food withholding (0 hours; 8:00 am) and then every 2 hours for 12 hours (until 8:00 pm) and again at 24 hours (8:00 am the next day). The same protocol was repeated, with the only difference being that a meal was given immediately after the 0-hour sample collection point. Plasma citrulline concentration was measured by ion exchange chromatography. RESULTS No significant difference in plasma citrulline concentration was identified among measurement points when food was withheld. Mean ± SD plasma citrulline concentration at 4 hours (72.2 ± 12.7 μmol/L) and 24 hours (56.1 ± 12.5 μmol/L) after dogs were fed was significantly different from that at 0 hours (64.4 ± 12.7 μmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma citrulline concentration had no circadian variation in unfed dogs but increased significantly in fed dogs 4 hours after a meal. Therefore, food should be withheld from dogs for 8 to 12 hours before blood sample collection for measurement of citrulline concentration. PMID:26919600

  16. Identifying plasma glycerol concentration associated with urinary glycerol excretion in trained humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jeff L; Harmon, Molly E; Robergs, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Glycerol has been used as a means to legitimately hyperhydrate the body in an attempt to offset the deleterious effects of dehydration. It has the potential to mask blood doping practices and as a result has been added to the WADA prohibited substance list. The purpose of this study was to identify the plasma glycerol concentration coinciding with urinary glycerol excretion. Twelve healthy, trained male subjects completed five separate trials under resting conditions. For each trial, subjects consumed a different glycerol dose (0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, or 0.20 g glycerol/kg LBM) of a 5% glycerol solution in order to determine at what plasma glycerol concentration an increase in urine glycerol concentration becomes apparent. Based on regression analysis, plasma glycerol concentrations > 0.327 ± 0.190 mmol/L and a glycerol dose > 0.032 ± 0.010 g glycerol/kg LBM would be associated with urinary glycerol excretion. There were significant linear relationships between peak plasma glycerol concentration and time to reach peak plasma glycerol concentration to the ingested glycerol doses. Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the effect of urinary glycerol excretion on legitimate hyperhydration regimens as well as suggesting that it is possible to detect surreptitious use of glycerol as a masking agent through urinary analysis. PMID:22080901

  17. INFLUENCE OF GENDER, SEX HORMONES AND TEMPERATURE ON PLASMA IGF-I CONCENTRATIONS IN SUNSHINE BASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in male and female sunshine bass were determined in March, early April and late April in outdoor ponds at a commercial farm. Growth and IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass fed with estrogen, testosterone, methyl testosterone or a control ...

  18. Plasma steroid concentrations and male phallus size in juvenile alligators from seven Florida lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J., Jr.; Woodward, A.R.; Crain, D.A.; Pickford, D.B.; Rooney, A.A.; Percival, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal and juvenile alligators from contaminated Lake Apopka in central Florida exhibit abnormal plasma sex steroid concentrations as well as morphological abnormalities of the gonad and phallus. This study addresses whether similar abnormalities occur in juvenile alligators inhabiting six other lakes in Florida. For analysis, animals were partitioned into two subsets, animals 40-79 cm total length (1-3 years old) and juveniles 80-130 cm total length (3-7 years old). Plasma testosterone (T) concentrations were lower in small males from lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Jessup than from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Similar differences were observed in the larger juveniles, with males from lakes Jessup, Apopka, and Okeechobee having lower plasma T concentrations than Lake Woodruff males. Plasma estradiol-17?? (E2) concentrations were significantly elevated in larger juvenile males from Lake Apopka compared to Lake Woodruff NWR. When compared to small juvenile females from Lake Woodruff NWR, females from lakes Griffin, Apopka, Orange, and Okeechobee had elevated plasma E2 concentrations. Phallus size was significantly smaller in males from lakes Griffin and Apopka when compared to males from Lake Woodruff NWR. An association existed between body size and phallus size on all lakes except Lake Apopka and between phallus size and plasma T concentration on all lakes except lakes Apopka and Orange. Multiple regression analysis, with body size and plasma T concentration as independent covariables, explained the majority of the variation in phallus size on all lakes. These data suggest that the differences in sex steroids and phallus size observed in alligators from Lake Apopka are not limited to that lake, nor to one with a history of a major pesticide spill. Further work examining the relationship of sex steroids and phallus size with specific biotic and abiotic factors, such as antiandrogenic or estrogenic contaminants, is needed.

  19. Amiodarone concentrations in plasma and fat tissue during chronic treatment and related toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente-Lafuente, Carmelo; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Leenhardt, Antoine; Mouly, Stéphane; Extramiana, Fabrice; Caulin, Charles; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To determine if amiodarone, highly lipophilic, accumulates in excess with respect to dose in fat tissue during long-term administration, and study if plasma and fat tissue concentrations are correlated with adverse effects. METHODS Trough concentrations of amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone were measured simultaneously in plasma and fat tissue, in 30 consecutive patients treated with amiodarone for 3 months to 12 years. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained by needle aspiration from lumbar and abdominal areas. Concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS Plasma levels of amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone were significantly correlated with daily maintenance doses (R = 0.52, P = 0.003). Amiodarone concentrations in fat tissue were four to 226 times (mean 55) higher than in plasma, and well correlated with plasma levels (R = 0.68, P < 0.001). Concentrations of amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone in adipose tissue did not significantly increase with higher total cumulated doses or longer treatment duration. Nine of 12 patients who had received amiodarone for ≥2 years developed clinically important adverse effects, predominantly hypothyroidism (n = 6), compared with two of 18 patients treated for less time (relative risk 6.75; 95% confidence interval 1.8, 26). The incidence of those adverse effects was not significantly associated with amiodarone concentrations, whether in plasma or in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of excessive or unexpected accumulation of amiodarone in fat tissue on long-term administration. Late amiodarone adverse effects, particularly hypothyroidism, are associated with longer exposure times, but do not seem to be explained by higher concentrations in plasma or in fat tissue. PMID:19552745

  20. Fruit and vegetable intakes in relation to plasma nutrient concentrations in women in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Frankenfeld, Cara L.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Shannon, Jackilen; Gao, Dao L.; Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Chen, Chu; King, Irena B.; Thomas, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of fruit and vegetable intake, using three classification schemes, as it relates to plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations among Chinese women. Design Intakes were calculated from an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Fruits and vegetables, botanical groups, and high-nutrient groups were evaluated. These three classification schemes were compared with plasma carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations from blood drawn within one week of questionnaire completion. Setting Shanghai, China Subjects Participants (n=2031) were drawn from women who participated in a case-control study of diet and breast diseases nested within a randomized trial of breast self-examination among textile workers (n=266,064) Results Fruit intake was significantly (p<0.05) and positively associated with plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, β-carotene, retinyl palmitate, and vitamin C. Fruit intake was inversely associated with γ-tocopherol and lutein+zeaxanthin concentrations. Vegetable consumption was significantly and positively associated with γ-tocopherol, and β-cryptoxanthin concentrations. Each botanical and high-nutrient group was also significantly associated with particular plasma nutrient concentrations. Fruit and vegetable intake and most plasma nutrient concentrations were significantly associated with season of interview. Conclusions These results suggest that the manner in which fruits and vegetables are grouped provides different plasma nutrient exposure information, which may be an important consideration when testing and generating hypotheses regarding disease risk in relation to diet. Interview season should be considered when evaluating associations of reported intake and plasma nutrients with disease outcomes. PMID:21729475

  1. The plasma dilution factor: predicting how concentrations in plasma and serum are affected by blood volume variations and blood loss.

    PubMed

    Flordal, A

    1995-10-01

    To determine the effects of therapeutic interventions on plasma protein concentrations, it is often desirable to rule out nonspecific effects of hemodilution. Because red cells are restricted to the vascular space, the hematocrit (Hct) is a convenient marker. At the bedside--and even in scientific reports--a simple ratio of Hcts (obtained before and after the change in plasma volume) is often used to "correct" the value of interest. This is incorrect, and it may introduce a sizeable error. A new method, the plasma dilution factor (PDF), has been mathematically deduced. It accounts for the influence of any blood loss, plasma osmolality changes, and blood volume variations on plasma and serum concentrations. In an in vitro experiment, blood loss and osmolality and blood volume changes were simulated through the withdrawal of various volumes of blood, which were replaced with smaller, identical, or larger volumes of hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic solutions. The PDF accurately predicted changes in concentrations of albumin, fibrinogen, and antithrombin III. In contrast, the Hct ratio significantly underestimated the effects of dilution. Von Willebrand factor concentrations after hemodilution through dextran infusion in volunteers were the same as predicted by the PDF. In patients undergoing orthopedic surgery who were also given dextran, the postdilution von Willebrand factor concentrations were higher than predicted by the PDF. The Hct gave a false impression of a decrease in the volunteers that was not explained by hemodilution, and it failed to detect the von Willebrand factor response to trauma in the surgical patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7561443

  2. Zinc and magnesium concentrations in plasma and red blood cells in patients on digitalis medication

    SciTech Connect

    Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Vetter, H.; Zidek, W.; Wessels, F.

    1981-06-01

    Determinations of zinc, sodium, potassium and magnesium in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) were performed in 31 controls and 63 patients treated with digitalis. In digitalized patients Na and Zn concentrations in RBC were significantly increased, whereas the intraerythrocyte Mg concentration was only slightly elevated. Plasma concentrations of all investigated electrolytes as well as of Zn remained within the normal range. There was a close relationship between the increase of Na and Zn content in RBC indicating alterations in transmembrane transport mechanisms induced by digitalis therapy.

  3. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil. 2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds. 3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil. 4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  4. Diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam concentrations in saliva, plasma and CSF.

    PubMed Central

    Hallstrom, C; Lader, M H

    1980-01-01

    1 Salivary and plasma diazepam and nordiazepam concentrations were measured in 51 paired samples from four experimental situations. In seven of the patients CSF samples were estimated. 2 Correlation of 0.89 (P less than 0.001) was observed between salivary and plasma diazepam and 0.81 (P less than 0.001) between salivary and plasma nordiazepam. 3 Mean salivary diazepam was 1.6% (+/- 0.3%) of the plasma diazepam. It was found to vary markedly in an acute dosage study. Mean salivary nordiazepam was 2.9% (+/- 1%) of the plasma measure and was dependent on salivary flow rate. 4 CSF diazepam was in equilibrium with unbound plasma diazepam and salivary diazepam. 5 Mean protein binding of diazepam in vitro was 99.3% with no variations as a function of concentration. 6 The results suggest salivary diazepam and nordiazepam measures to be of value in epidemiological studies. However, they do not predict accurately the plasma total or unbound drug concentration from a salivary sample in an individual. PMID:6769453

  5. Seasonal variations in plasma testosterone concentrations in the male marsupial bandicoot Isoodon macrourus in captivity.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, R T; Johnston, G; Barnes, A

    1985-08-01

    Although bandicoots in Queensland mate throughout the year, the majority of births occur in late winter and spring. To ascertain whether this seasonality in mating is manifest in the male reproductive system; body weight, testes size, and plasma testosterone concentration were examined in eight bandicoots throughout the year. The size of the testes increased with age in all bandicoots and there was no evidence of seasonal variation. Plasma testosterone concentrations fluctuated from 0.1 to 70.0 ng/ml and a seasonal cycle was observed, with a nadir in concentrations in March and a peak in September. The peak in testosterone concentration coincided with the period of the year when the majority of births occurred. Subsequent statistical analysis suggested that the annual plasma testosterone profile correlated well with the rate of change of day length. PMID:4018558

  6. Feeding infant piglets formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as triacylglycerols or phospholipids influences the distribution of these fatty acids in plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    PubMed

    Amate, L; Gil, A; Ramírez, M

    2001-04-01

    Several sources of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP) are currently available for infant formula supplementation. These oils differ in their fatty acid composition, the chemical form of the fatty acid esters [triacylglycerols (TG) or phospholipids (PL)] and presence of other lipid components. These differences may affect LCP absorption, distribution and metabolic fate after ingestion. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different chemical forms of dietary LCP on the composition of plasma, plasma lipoproteins, liver and jejunum in infant piglets. Thirty pigs (5 d old) were bottle-fed different diets for 4 wk: a control diet (C), a diet containing LCP as TG from tuna and fungal oils (TF-TG) or a diet containing LCP as PL from egg yolk (E-PL). We measured lipid and fatty acid composition of plasma and lipoproteins, as well as lipid composition of liver and intestinal mucosa. The arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids in HDL-PL were significantly higher in piglets fed the E-PL diet than in those fed the TF-TG diet. Opposite results were found in the LDL-PL diet. No significant differences were found between groups in TG or cholesterol concentrations of plasma or lipoproteins. Arachidonic acid in plasma PL and cholesteryl esters was significantly higher in the E-PL group than in the TF-TG group. The chemical form in which LCP esters are present in different dietary sources influences their distribution in plasma lipoproteins. This may be important for infant nutrition and suggests that not all LCP sources may be biologically equivalent. PMID:11285334

  7. Quantitative determination of perfluorooctanoic acid in serum and plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, John M; Connolly, Paul D; Decker, Emily R; Kennedy, S Mark; Ellefson, Mark E; Reagen, William K; Szostek, Bogdan

    2005-05-25

    A selective and sensitive method for analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human serum and plasma, utilizing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), has been developed and thoroughly validated to satisfy strict FDA guidelines for bioanalytical methods. A simple, automated sample preparation procedure, involving extraction of the target analyte with acetonitrile on protein precipitation media in a 96-well plate format was developed, allowing efficient handling of large numbers of samples. The proposed method uses the calibration standards prepared in a surrogate matrix (rabbit serum or plasma) and (13)C-labeled PFOA as the internal standard to account for matrix effects, instrument drift, and extraction efficiency. Human serum and plasma could not be used for matrix matching of calibration standards as endogenous levels of PFOA observed in the control human serum and plasma significantly exceeded the targeted lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of the method. Precision and accuracy of the method were demonstrated by analysis of rabbit serum and plasma control samples fortified at 0.5, 5, and 40 ng/mL PFOA and human serum and plasma fortified at 1.0, 5.0, 40 ng/mL PFOA. The LLOQ of 0.5 ng/mL PFOA was experimentally demonstrated for rabbit and human serum and plasma. Within-day precision and accuracy, short-term stability, freeze-thaw stability, equivalence of response between PFOA and APFO (the ammonium salt of PFOA), and dilution of concentrated samples were also investigated. The results of the validation experiments comply with the precision and accuracy limits defined by the FDA guidance document: "Guidance for Industry, Bioanalytical Method Validation", May 2001. PMID:15833298

  8. Association between plasma zinc concentration and zinc kinetic parameters in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Egger, Norman G; Ramanujam, V M Sadagopa; Alcock, Nancy W; Dayal, Hari H; Penland, James G; Sandstead, Harold H

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure relationships between plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations and Zn kinetic parameters and to measure relationships of Zn status with taste acuity, food frequency, and hair Zn in humans. The subjects were 33 premenopausal women not taking oral contraceptives and dietary supplements containing iron and Zn. Main outcomes were plasma Zn concentrations, Zn kinetic parameters based on the three-compartment mammillary model using 67Zn as a tracer, electrical taste detection thresholds, and food frequencies. Lower plasma Zn was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with smaller sizes of the central and the lesser peripheral Zn pools, faster disappearance of tracer from plasma, and higher transfer rate constants from the lesser peripheral pool to the central pool and from the central pool to the greater peripheral pool. The break points in the plasma Zn-Zn kinetics relationship were found between 9.94 and 11.5 micromol/l plasma Zn. Smaller size of the lesser peripheral pool was associated with lower frequency of beef consumption and higher frequency of bran breakfast cereal consumption. Hypozincemic women with plasma Zn <10.7 micromol/l or 700 ng/ml had decreased thresholds of electrical stimulation for gustatory nerves. Our results based on Zn kinetics support the conventional cutoff value of plasma Zn (10.7 micromol/l or 700 ng/ml) between normal and low Zn status. PMID:12865259

  9. Liver-to-plasma vaniprevir (MK-7009) concentration ratios in HCV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Wright, D Hamish; Caro, Luzelena; Cerra, Michael; Panorchan, Paul; Du, Lihong; Anderson, Melanie; Potthoff, Andrej; Nachbar, Robert B; Wagner, John; Manns, Michael P; Talal, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Background Some drugs that are actively taken up into the liver exhibit greater than dose proportional increases in plasma exposure, although human liver-to-plasma concentration ratios have rarely been evaluated. Understanding these relationships has implications for drug concentrations at the target site for certain classes of compounds, such as direct-acting antivirals, targeted towards HCV. Methods Treatment-experienced, chronic HCV non-cirrhotic patients (n=3) received vaniprevir (600 mg or 300 mg twice daily) on days 1–3 and (600 mg or 300 mg single dose) on day 4. Core needle biopsy was performed at 6 or 12 h post-dose on day 4. Blood samples were collected pre-dose on days 1 and 4, and for 24 h post-dose on day 4. The primary study objective was the hepatic concentration of vaniprevir at 6 and 12 h post-dose. Results Vaniprevir plasma pharmacokinetic parameters increased in a greater than dose-proportional manner between the 300 mg and 600 mg doses, with approximately fivefold increases in AUC0–12 and Cmax associated with a twofold increase in dose (AUC0–12, 10.6 µM/h to 59.5 µM/h; Cmax, 2.60 µM to 13.5 µM). In the 300 mg and 600 mg dose groups, mean liver concentrations of vaniprevir were 84.6 µM and 169 µM at 6 h post-dose, and 29.4 µM and 53.7 µM at 12 h post-dose. Liver concentrations were higher than plasma with liver-to-plasma concentration ratios of approximately 20–280. Conclusions These data confirm higher vaniprevir concentrations in human liver compared with plasma and demonstrate that measurement of human liver drug concentration using needle biopsy is feasible. PMID:25849338

  10. Characteristic Metabolism of Free Amino Acids in Cetacean Plasma: Cluster Analysis and Comparison with Mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyaji, Kazuki; Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Asakawa, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru; Ohtsu, Dai; Terasawa, Fumio; Ito, Shu; Iwao, Hajime; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2010-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the ancestors of cetaceans first lived in terrestrial environments prior to adapting to aquatic environments. Whereas anatomical and morphological adaptations to aquatic environments have been well studied, few studies have focused on physiological changes. We focused on plasma amino acid concentrations (aminograms) since they show distinct patterns under various physiological conditions. Plasma and urine aminograms were obtained from bottlenose dolphins, pacific white-sided dolphins, Risso's dolphins, false-killer whales and C57BL/6J and ICR mice. Hierarchical cluster analyses were employed to uncover a multitude of amino acid relationships among different species, which can help us understand the complex interrelations comprising metabolic adaptations. The cetacean aminograms formed a cluster that was markedly distinguishable from the mouse cluster, indicating that cetaceans and terrestrial mammals have quite different metabolic machinery for amino acids. Levels of carnosine and 3-methylhistidine, both of which are antioxidants, were substantially higher in cetaceans. Urea was markedly elevated in cetaceans, whereas the level of urea cycle-related amino acids was lower. Because diving mammals must cope with high rates of reactive oxygen species generation due to alterations in apnea/reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion processes, high concentrations of antioxidative amino acids are advantageous. Moreover, shifting the set point of urea cycle may be an adaption used for body water conservation in the hyperosmotic sea water environment, because urea functions as a major blood osmolyte. Furthermore, since dolphins are kept in many aquariums for observation, the evaluation of these aminograms may provide useful diagnostic indices for the assessment of cetacean health in artificial environments in the future. PMID:21072195

  11. Conformational changes of bovine plasma albumin prior to the salting-out of protein in concentrated salt solution.

    PubMed

    Sogami, M; Inouye, H; Nagaoka, S; Era, S

    1982-09-01

    By working at very low protein concentration (ca. 0.003%), it is possible to measure tryptophyl fluorescence intensity at 350 nm (F350) of bovine plasma albumin (BPA) as a function of pH under precipitating conditions (acidic concentrated salt solutions). Under such conditions, distinct changes in F350 were seen before the starting of precipitation of BPA and no further changes in F350 over the precipitating pH range. Comparison of pH-profiles monitored by F350 with those by solubility in the presence of various salts at various concentrations indicated that the change of solubility is observed after definite changes in conformation of the protein. PMID:7129758

  12. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  13. Influence of Bleaching on Flavor of 34% Whey Protein Concentrate and Residual Benzoic Acid Concentration in Dried Whey Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations...

  14. Endurance exercise increases skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferases and plasma kynurenic acid in humans.

    PubMed

    Schlittler, Maja; Goiny, Michel; Agudelo, Leandro Z; Venckunas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Ruas, Jorge L; Erhardt, Sophie; Westerblad, Håkan; Andersson, Daniel C

    2016-05-15

    Physical exercise has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients with depressive disorder. Recent animal studies show that exercise protects from depression by increased skeletal muscle kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) expression which shifts the kynurenine metabolism away from the neurotoxic kynurenine (KYN) to the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA). In the present study, we investigated the effect of exercise on kynurenine metabolism in humans. KAT gene and protein expression was increased in the muscles of endurance-trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. Endurance exercise caused an increase in plasma KYNA within the first hour after exercise. In contrast, a bout of high-intensity eccentric exercise did not lead to increased plasma KYNA concentration. Our results show that regular endurance exercise causes adaptations in kynurenine metabolism which can have implications for exercise recommendations for patients with depressive disorder. PMID:27030575

  15. Impact of Whole-Blood Processing Conditions on Plasma and Serum Concentrations of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Wan; Han, Bok-Ghee; Shin, So-Youn

    2016-02-01

    Pre-analytical variations in plasma and serum samples can occur because of variability in whole-blood processing procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of delayed separation of whole blood on the plasma and serum concentrations of cytokines. The concentrations of 16 cytokines were measured in plasma and serum samples when the centrifugation of whole blood at room temperature was delayed for 4, 6, 24, or 48 h, and the values were compared with those observed after separation within 2 h of whole-blood collection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was also performed for cytokines to determine whether cytokine levels in plasma and serum samples can be used to assess delayed separation of whole blood. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and MIP-1β increased significantly (>2-fold) when separation was delayed at room temperature for 24 h. The concentrations of 6 of these cytokines (all except serum IL-1β and IL-6) demonstrated high diagnostic performance (area under the ROC curve >0.8) for delayed separation of whole blood. Furthermore, these cytokine concentrations typically exhibited high sensitivity and specificity at each optimal cutoff point. Conversely, IL-17A was stable in both plasma and serum samples, even when whole-blood centrifugation was delayed at room temperature for 48 h. This study shows that certain cytokines (IL-1β, GM-CSF, sCD40L, IL-8, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) could be used for assessing the quality of plasma or serum samples. PMID:26808439

  16. Simultaneous determination of lipoic acid (LA) and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abad; Iqbal, Zafar; Watson, David G; Khan, Amirzada; Khan, Inamullah; Muhammad, Naveed; Muhammad, Salar; Nasib, Hashmat Ara; Iqbal, Naveed; Faiz-Ur-Rehman; Kashif, Muhammad

    2011-06-15

    A fast, simple, and a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography linked with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) method for the assessment of lipoic acid (LA) and dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in plasma was developed using naproxen sodium as an internal standard (IS) and validated according to standard guidelines. Extraction of both analytes and IS from plasma (250 μl) was carried out with a single step liquid-liquid extraction applying dichloromethane. The separated organic layer was dried under stream of nitrogen at 40°C and the residue was reconstituted with the mobile phase. Complete separation of both compounds and IS at 30°C on Discovery HS C18 RP column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was achieved in 9 min using acetonitrile: 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 2.4 adjusted with phosphoric acid) (52:48, v/v) as a mobile phase pumped at flow rate of 1.5 ml min(-1) using electrochemical detector in DC mode at the detector potential of 1.0 V. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for lipoic acid were 500 pg/ml and 3 ng/ml, and for dihydrolipoic acid were 3 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml, respectively. The absolute recoveries of lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid determined on three nominal concentrations were in the range of 93.40-97.06, and 93.00-97.10, respectively. Similarly coefficient of variations (% CV) for both intra-day and inter-day were between 0.829 and 3.097% for lipoic acid and between 1.620 and 5.681% for dihydrolipoic acid, respectively. This validated method was applied for the analysis of lipoic acid/dihydrolipoic acid in the plasma of human volunteers and will be used for the quantification of these compounds in patients with oxidative stress induced pathologies. PMID:21550862

  17. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (˜60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  18. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes

    PubMed Central

    Dukić, Lora; Šimundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Materials and methods: Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Results: Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = −0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Conclusion: Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration. PMID:24627723

  19. Decreased expression of adipose CD36 and FATP1 are associated with increased plasma nonesterified fatty acids during prolonged fasting in northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The northern elephant seal undergoes a 2-3 month post-weaning fast during which it depends primarily on the oxidation of fatty acids to meet its energetic demands. The concentration of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) increases and is associated with the development of insulin resistance in late-fasted...

  20. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P < 0.05). However, a greater percentage of EPA was found in the umbilical cord plasma of the adults (P < 0.05). DHA in the plasma of the adolescent mothers correlated positively to birth weight and head circumference. Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways. PMID:23153394

  1. Comparative plasma pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium and ceftiofur crystalline-free acid in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Woodrow, J S; Caldwell, M; Cox, S; Hines, M; Credille, B C

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the plasma pharmacokinetic profile of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) and ceftiofur sodium in neonatal calves between 4 and 6 days of age. In one group (n = 7), a single dose of CCFA was administered subcutaneously (SQ) at the base of the ear at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg of body weight. In a second group (n = 7), a single dose of ceftiofur sodium was administered SQ in the neck at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight. Concentrations of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (DCA) in plasma were determined by HPLC. Median time to maximum DCA concentration was 12 h (range 12-48 h) for CCFA and 1 h (range 1-2 h) for ceftiofur sodium. Median maximum plasma DCA concentration was significantly higher for calves given ceftiofur sodium (5.62 μg/mL; range 4.10-6.91 μg/mL) than for calves given CCFA (3.23 μg/mL; range 2.15-4.13 μg/mL). AUC0-∞ and Vd/F were significantly greater for calves given CCFA than for calves given ceftiofur sodium. The median terminal half-life of DCA in plasma was significantly longer for calves given CCFA (60.6 h; range 43.5-83.4 h) than for calves given ceftiofur sodium (18.1 h; range 16.7-39.7 h). Cl/F was not significantly different between groups. The duration of time median plasma DCA concentrations remained above 2.0 μg/mL was significantly longer in calves that received CCFA (84.6 h; range 48-103 h) as compared to calves that received ceftiofur sodium (21.7 h; range 12.6-33.6 h). Based on the results of this study, CCFA administered SQ at a dose of 6.6 mg/kg in neonatal calves provided plasma concentrations above the therapeutic target of 2 μg/mL for at least 3 days following a single dose. It is important to note that the use of ceftiofur-containing products is restricted by the FDA and the use of CCFA in veal calves is strictly prohibited. PMID:26542633

  2. Effects of Acute Supramaximal Cycle Exercise on Plasma FFA Concentration in Obese Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aims of the present study are 1) to evaluate the free fatty acid (FFA) profile and 2) to determine the relative anaerobic and aerobic contributions to total energy consumption during repeated supramaximal cycling bouts (SCE) in adolescent boys with different body weight statuses. Materials and Methods Normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (OB) adolescent boys (n =15 per group) completed a SCE sessions consisted of 6 x 6s maximal sprints with 2 min of passive rest between each repetition. Plasma FFA levels were determined at rest, immediately after a 10 min warm-up, and immediately at the end of SCE. The anaerobic and aerobic contributions (%) were measured via repeated SCE bouts. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) index. Results The FFA concentrations measured immediately after SCE were higher in the OB group than in the OW and NW (p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively) groups. Moreover, the anaerobic contributions to SCE were significantly lower in obese adolescents (p<0.01) and decreased significantly during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th repetitions. The FFA levels were significantly associated with the HOMA-IR index and aerobic contribution among adolescent boys (r=0.83 and r=0.91, respectively, p<0.01). Conclusion In contrast to the NW and OW groups, there is an increase in lipid mobilization and sift to aerobic energy metabolism during SCE in the OB group. PMID:26076464

  3. Effects of clinically occurring chronic lameness in sheep on the concentrations of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline.

    PubMed

    Ley, S J; Livingston, A; Waterman, A E

    1992-07-01

    Plasma adrenaline (AD) and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in blood samples from control and lame sheep. The lame sheep suffered from naturally occurring foot rot and showed behavioural characteristics normally associated with chronic pain. The lame sheep were scored both for impairment of gait and pathology of the foot and divided into mild and severely affected groups. Both the mildly and severely lame group showed a significant increase in plasma AD and plasma NA which tended to persist even after clinical resolution of the condition. The measurement of plasma AD and NA may provide information which can be used to assess animals experiencing chronic pain, when taken in conjunction with other parameters, such as nociceptive thresholds and plasma hormone levels. PMID:1410809

  4. Plasma aldosterone and sweat sodium concentrations after exercise and heat acclimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, C. R.; Convertino, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between plasma aldosterone levels and sweat sodium excretion after chronic exercise and heat acclimation was investigated, using subjects exercised, at 40 C and 45 percent humidity, for 2 h/day on ten consecutive days at 45 percent of their maximal oxygen uptake. The data indicate that, following heat acclimation, plasma aldosterone concentrations decrease, and that the eccrine gland responsiveness to aldosterone, as represented by sweat sodium reabsorption, may be augmented through exercise and heat acclimation.

  5. Release of endothelial cell lipoprotein lipase by plasma lipoproteins and free fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, U.; Witte, L.D.; Goldberg, I.J.

    1989-03-15

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) bound to the lumenal surface of vascular endothelial cells is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Studies were performed to investigate whether human plasma lipoproteins and/or free fatty acids would release LPL which was bound to endothelial cells. Purified bovine milk LPL was incubated with cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells resulting in the association of enzyme activity with the cells. When the cells were then incubated with media containing chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), a concentration-dependent decrease in the cell-associated LPL enzymatic activity was observed. In contrast, incubation with media containing low density lipoproteins or high density lipoproteins produced a much smaller decrease in the cell-associated enzymatic activity. The addition of increasing molar ratios of oleic acid:bovine serum albumin to the media also reduced enzyme activity associated with the endothelial cells. To determine whether the decrease in LPL activity was due to release of the enzyme from the cells or inactivation of the enzyme, studies were performed utilizing radioiodinated bovine LPL. Radiolabeled LPL protein was released from endothelial cells by chylomicrons, VLDL, and by free fatty acids (i.e. oleic acid bound to bovine serum albumin). The release of radiolabeled LPL by VLDL correlated with the generation of free fatty acids from the hydrolysis of VLDL triglyceride by LPL bound to the cells. Inhibition of LPL enzymatic activity by use of a specific monoclonal antibody, reduced the extent of release of /sup 125/I-LPL from the endothelial cells by the added VLDL. These results demonstrated that LPL enzymatic activity and protein were removed from endothelial cells by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and oleic acid.

  6. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochuang; Ma, Qingxu; Zhong, Chu; Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3--N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  7. Elevational Variation in Soil Amino Acid and Inorganic Nitrogen Concentrations in Taibai Mountain, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin; Zhu, Lianfeng; Zhang, Junhua; Jin, Qianyu; Wu, Lianghuan

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important sources of soil organic nitrogen (N), which is essential for plant nutrition, but detailed information about which amino acids predominant and whether amino acid composition varies with elevation is lacking. In this study, we hypothesized that the concentrations of amino acids in soil would increase and their composition would vary along the elevational gradient of Taibai Mountain, as plant-derived organic matter accumulated and N mineralization and microbial immobilization of amino acids slowed with reduced soil temperature. Results showed that the concentrations of soil extractable total N, extractable organic N and amino acids significantly increased with elevation due to the accumulation of soil organic matter and the greater N content. Soil extractable organic N concentration was significantly greater than that of the extractable inorganic N (NO3−-N + NH4+-N). On average, soil adsorbed amino acid concentration was approximately 5-fold greater than that of the free amino acids, which indicates that adsorbed amino acids extracted with the strong salt solution likely represent a potential source for the replenishment of free amino acids. We found no appreciable evidence to suggest that amino acids with simple molecular structure were dominant at low elevations, whereas amino acids with high molecular weight and complex aromatic structure dominated the high elevations. Across the elevational gradient, the amino acid pool was dominated by alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, histidine, serine and threonine. These seven amino acids accounted for approximately 68.9% of the total hydrolyzable amino acid pool. The proportions of isoleucine, tyrosine and methionine varied with elevation, while soil major amino acid composition (including alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine and valine) did not vary appreciably with elevation (p>0.10). The compositional similarity of many

  8. Comparison of the concentration-effect relationship of a local antiinflammatory agent and oral acetylsalicylic acid: the value of local application.

    PubMed

    Poisson, M; Ralambosoa, C; Blehaut, H; Astoin, J

    1985-01-01

    Using a pharmacological model, the comparison between acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), administered orally, and a solution combining two salicylate derivatives (ethyl 5-methoxy-salicylate and 3-phenyl-propyl-salicylate), applied locally, demonstrated the value of the local application. Indeed, the pharmacological activity was highly significant and directly related to the tissue concentration of salicyl ions, which was higher after local application of the solution than after oral administration of ASA. The local solution also resulted in a lower plasma concentration of salicylate ions, allowing high plasma salicylate concentrations to be avoided. PMID:4074414

  9. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health. PMID:26946249

  10. Leptin concentration in plasma and in milk during the interpartum period in the mare.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, U; Macchi, E; Romano, G; Motta, M; Accornero, P; Baratta, M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate on plasma profiles of leptin and estradiol 17beta during the interpartum period and leptin concentrations in the milk and in the colostrum during the period from parturition to the successive delivery in mare. Leptin plasma concentration varied from 5.1+/-2.3 ng/ml after the first parturition (week 0) to 3.0+/-0.7 at week 21 (p<0.05), then it increased to maximal level at week 49 (6.9+/-1.0 ng/ml, p<0.05). Leptin concentration in the colostrum and in the milk has been significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in plasma samples at week 1 (milk 8.8+/-2.3 versus plasma 5.2+/-0.6 ng/ml) and between week 12 and 17. This difference may be explained with a local leptin production at mammary level and supports a role of leptin in the mammary gland and/or in foal intestine. Estradiol 17beta increased from week 15 (17.9+/-2.3 pg/ml) up to 487.9+/-67.7 pg/ml at week 43. Plasma estradiol 17beta rise anticipated by 4 weeks plasma leptin increase and it does not seem to be positively correlated to leptin secretion. PMID:16524675

  11. Changes in Plasma Adiponectin Concentrations in Patients With Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong; Bai, Xuefan; Lian, Jianqi; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Pingzhong; Jiang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective is to observe the changes in plasma adiponectin (APN) and its predictive capacity for disease severity and prognosis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). One hundred and five patients who were treated at our center between October 2011 and December 2012 were randomly enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into a mild-type group, a moderate-type group, a severe-type group, and a critical-type group according to the HFRS criteria for clinical classification. Ninety-three plasma samples from the patients in the acute stage and 78 samples from the patients in the convalescent stage were obtained, and 28 samples from healthy subjects were obtained as controls. The concentrations of APN were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of white blood cells, platelets, hematocrit, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and uric acid in the samples were routinely tested. The levels of APN among the different types were compared; the correlation between APN and the laboratory parameters was analyzed. The predictive effectiveness for prognosis of APN and the laboratory parameters as mentioned above were evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The levels of APN in the mild- and moderate-type patients in the acute stage were significantly higher than the severe-type and control (P < 0.05) and decreased with the severity of the disease, while there were no obvious difference among severe-, critical-type and control groups. The levels of APN in patients in the convalescent stage were higher than the control group (P < 0.05), and the APN levels of the critical-type group were higher compared with the mild-type groups (P < 0.05). Adiponectin was negatively correlated with white blood cells and hematocrit and positively correlated with platelets, albumin, and uric acid (P < 0.001). Adiponectin showed no statistical significance for predicting prognosis, with the

  12. Metal concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma from patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roos, Per M; Vesterberg, Olof; Syversen, Tore; Flaten, Trond Peder; Nordberg, Monica

    2013-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder of motor neurons. The cause of this degeneration is unknown, and different causal hypotheses include genetic, viral, traumatic and environmental mechanisms. In this study, we have analyzed metal concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood plasma in a well-defined cohort (n = 17) of ALS patients diagnosed with quantitative electromyography. Metal analyses were performed with high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Statistically significant higher concentrations of manganese, aluminium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, zinc, lead, vanadium and uranium were found in ALS CSF compared to control CSF. We also report higher concentrations of these metals in ALS CSF than in ALS blood plasma, which indicate mechanisms of accumulation, e.g. inward directed transport. A pattern of multiple toxic metals is seen in ALS CSF. The results support the hypothesis that metals with neurotoxic effects are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:23225075

  13. Plasma free amino acid profiling of esophageal cancer using high-performance liquid chromatography spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hong; Hasim, Ayshamgul; Mamtimin, Batur; Kong, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Sheyhidin, Ilyar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To perform plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiling of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients at different pathological stages and healthy subjects. METHODS: Plasma samples from ESCC patients (n = 51) and healthy control adults (n = 60) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ESCC patients included moderate/poorly-differentiation (n = 24), lymph node metastasis (n = 17) and clinical stage > Ib2 (n = 36). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the PFAA metabolic patterns enabled discrimination between ESCC patients and controls, and the Student t test was applied to assess significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the two groups. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the PFAA profiles between controls and ESCC patients. Compared with healthy controls, the levels of Asp, Glu, Gly, His, Thr, Tau, Ala, Met, Ile, Leu, and Phe were decreased in ESCC patients, but Cys was increased. There exists a strong correlation between PFAA profiles and clinicopathological characteristics in ESCC patients. The levels of many PFAAs (i.e., Glu, Asp, Ser, Gly, Tau, Ala, Tyr, Val, Ile, and Leu) were related to pathological grading, lymph node metastasis, and ESCC clinical stage. Very good discrimination between ESCC patients and control subjects was achieved by multivariate modeling of plasma profiles. CONCLUSION: HPLC-based plasma profiling analysis was shown to be an effective approach to differentiate between ESCC patients and controls. PFAA profiles may have potential value for screening or diagnosing ESCC. PMID:25024622

  14. Size at birth and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Fall, C H; Pandit, A N; Law, C M; Yajnik, C S; Clark, P M; Breier, B; Osmond, C; Shiell, A W; Gluckman, P D; Barker, D J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that reduced fetal growth leads to altered plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in childhood. DESIGN--A follow up study of 4 year old children whose birth weights were recorded, and of 7 year old children whose weight, length, head circumference, and placental weight were measured at birth. SETTING--Pune, India, and Salisbury, England. SUBJECTS--200 children born during October 1987 to April 1989 in the King Edward Memorial Hospital, Pune, weighing over 2.0 kg at birth and not requiring special care, and 244 children born during July 1984 to February 1985 in the Salisbury Health District and still living there. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Plasma IGF-1 concentrations. RESULTS--In both groups of children, and consistent with findings in other studies, plasma IGF-1 concentrations were higher in taller and heavier children, and higher in girls than boys. Allowing for sex and current size, concentrations were inversely related to birth weight (Pune p = 0.002; Salisbury p = 0.003). Thus at any level of weight or height, children of lower birth weight had higher IGF-1 concentrations. The highest concentrations were in children who were below average birth weight and above average weight or height when studied. Systolic blood pressures were higher in children with higher IGF-1 concentrations (Pune p = 0.01; Salisbury p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS--Children of lower birth weight develop higher circulating concentrations of IGF-1 than expected for their height and weight. This is consistent with the hypothesis that under-nutrition in utero leads to reprogramming of the IGF-1 axis. The increase of plasma IGF-1 concentrations in low birthweight children may also be linked to postnatal catch-up growth. High IGF-1 concentrations may be one of the mechanisms linking reduced fetal growth and high blood pressure in later life. PMID:7492190

  15. [Study on compatibility of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma based on pharmacokinetics of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-ying; Zhang, Hong; Dong, Yu; Ren, Wei-guang; Chen, Heng-wen

    2015-04-01

    A study was made on the pharmacokinetic regularity of effective components salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (SMRR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma(CR) in rats, so as to discuss the compatibility mechanism of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Chuanxiong Rhizoma. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and intravenously injected with 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B for the single SMRR extracts group, 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the single CR extracts group and 50 mg x kg(-1) salvianolic acid B + 0.5 mg x kg(-1) ferulic acid for the SMRR and CR combination group. The blood samples were collected at different time points and purified by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. With chloramphenicol as internal standard (IS), UPLC was adopted to determine concentrations of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid. The pharmacokinetic parameters of salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid were calculated with WinNonlin 6.2 software and analyzed by SPSS 19.0 statistical software. The UPLC analysis method was adopted to determine salvianolic acid B and ferulic acid in rat plasma, including linear equation, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery. The established sample processing and analysis methods were stable and reliable, with significant differences in major pharmacokinetic parameters, e.g., area under the curve (AUC), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (t(1/2)). According to the experimental results, the combined application of SMRR and CR can significantly impact the pharmacokinetic process of their effective components in rats and promote the wide distribution, shorten the action time and prolong the in vivo action time of salvianolic acid B and increase the blood drug concentration and accelerate the clearance of ferulic acid in vivo. PMID:26281604

  16. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    PubMed

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. PMID:25271888

  17. [The influence of hormonal contraceptives in the spectrum of free plasma amino acids].

    PubMed

    Klinger, G; Gruhn, K

    1978-01-01

    The plasma concentrations (p.c.'s) of various amino acids were measured in 10 women, 18-28 years of age, 5 of whom used the combination preparation Gravistat and 5 of whom used the depot preparation Deposiston for 2 cycles. Blood samples were taken during a control cycle immediately proceeding and during the 2 cycles of contraceptive use. Diet and other factors were controlled as carefully as possible. No effect on plasma lysin levels was observed. Statistically significant increases for histidin levels were observed in the 1st cycle of contraceptive use, and for arginin in the 2nd cycle. The p.c. of cystin decreased significantly during Gravistat use. Deposiston use caused a continual increase in the p.c.'s of threonin and serin. Gravistat use caused a decrease in the p.c. of threonin during the first cycle of use, followed by a marked increase during the 2nd cycle of use. A marked increase in the p.c. of serin was observed after the first cycle of Gravistat use. Valin, leucin, and isoleucin levels decreased during the use of both preparations (with the exception of isoleucin levels during Gravistat use), but all remained within normal levels. The p.c.'s of tyrosin and glutamic acid decreased during contraceptive use, while the phenylalamine concentration increased. The p.c.'s of prolin and glycin decreased during contraceptive use, while the concentration of alanin increased. These findings indicate a highly selective effect of hormonal contraceptive use on the p.c.'s of amino acids. PMID:729470

  18. Effect of dichloroacetate on plasma lactic acid in exercising dogs.

    PubMed

    Merrill, G F; Zambraski, E J; Grassl, S M

    1980-03-01

    Dichloroacetate sodium (DCA) has been shown to reduce circulating levels of lactic acid (LA) under a variety of experimental and clinical conditions. We have examined the effect of DCA on the lactacidemia of exercise in treadmill-exercised dogs. One group of animals (n = 8) was tested at light, moderate, and heavy exercise work loads. Plasma LA, 19 +/- 2mg/dl at rest, increased to 26 +/- 4, 38 +/- 5, and 52 +/- 6 mg/dl during the three workloads, respectively. In the same animals, when identical treadmill tests were conducted after DCA (100 mg/kg, iv), the rise in LA was significantly attenuated. Lactic acid values were 11 +/- 2 mg/dl at rest after DCA and 15 +/- 2, 20 +/- 4, and 23 +/- 3 mg/dl for the light, moderate, and heavy workloads, respectively. Another group of dogs (n = 6) performed prolonged moderate exercise. Under untreated conditions, LA increased from 24 +/- 1 mg/dl at rest, to 41 +/- 6 mg/dl at 10 min, and 50 +/- 5 mg/dl at 50 min. During repeat tests, DCA was given at 12 min when LA was 30 +/- 6 mg/dl. At 50 min, LA was 18 +/- 3 mg/dl or 60% lower than that observed during the untreated run. Because DCA has been shown to increase pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme activity, these data suggest that this enzyme may be an important factor in LA metabolism during exercise. PMID:7372512

  19. Effects of prepartum fat supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, adropin, insulin, and leptin in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Rizaldy C; Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fat supplementation during the periparturient period is one strategy to increase energy intake and attenuate the degree of negative energy balance during early lactation; however, little is known of the underlying hormonal and metabolic adaptations. We evaluated the effects of prepartum fat supplementation on energy-balance parameters and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), adropin, insulin, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows. Twenty-four pregnant dairy cows were randomized to diets containing either rolled canola or sunflower seed at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed supplementation, during the last 5 wk of gestation and then assigned to a common lactation diet postpartum. Blood samples were collected at -2, +2, and +14 h relative to feeding, at 2 wk after the initiation of the diets, and at 2 wk postpartum. Dietary canola and sunflower supplementation alone did not affect energy balance, body weight, and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, insulin, leptin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid; however, canola decreased and sunflower tended to decrease dry matter intake. We also observed that the physiological stage had a significant, but divergent, effect on circulating hormones and metabolite concentrations. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were greater postpartum than prepartum, whereas glucose, insulin, leptin, body weight, and energy balance were greater prepartum than postpartum. Furthermore, the interaction of treatment and stage was significant for leptin and adropin, and tended toward significance for PYY and insulin; only insulin exhibited an apparent postprandial increase. Postpartum PYY concentrations exhibited a strong negative correlation with body weight, suggesting that PYY may be associated with body weight regulation during

  20. Intake of whole grains and vegetables determines the plasma enterolactone concentration of Danish women.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Nina F; Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Anja; Tetens, Inge; Christensen, Jane; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), which is produced from dietary plant-lignan precursors by the intestinal microflora, may protect against breast cancer and other hormone-dependent cancers. This cross-sectional study examined which variables related to diet and lifestyle were associated with high plasma concentrations of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women. Plasma ENL was measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in 857 Danish women aged 50-64 y who participated in a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ, and background information on lifestyle was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple analyses of covariance were completed in two steps. The median plasma ENL concentration was 27 nmol/L (range 0-455 nmol/L). In covariance analyses, positive associations were found between consumption of cereals, vegetables, and beverages and plasma ENL concentration. When analyzing subgroups of these food groups, the associations were confined to whole-grain products, cabbage, leafy vegetables, and coffee. For fat and the nondietary variables, negative associations between BMI, smoking, and frequency of bowel movements and plasma ENL concentration were observed. These data show that foods high in ENL precursors are associated with high concentrations of ENL. Furthermore, smoking, frequent bowel movements, and consumption of fat seems to have a negative affect on the ENL concentration. In conclusion, whole grains and vegetables are the most important dietary providers of plant lignans for the concentration of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women, and if ENL is found to protect against cancer or heart disease, the intake of whole grains and vegetables should be increased. PMID:15465768

  1. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino acid ratio in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Burns, T S; Stargel, W W; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N; Hurwitz, A

    1991-01-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) consumption has been postulated to increase brain phenylalanine levels by increasing the molar ratio of the plasma phenylalanine concentration to the sum of the plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids (Phe/LNAA). Dietary manipulations with carbohydrate or protein can also produce changes in the Phe/LNAA value. To compare the effects of aspartame and carbohydrate on Phe/LNAA, beverages sweetened with aspartame, sucrose, and aspartame plus sucrose, and unsweetened beverage were ingested by 8 healthy, fasted subjects in a randomized, four-way crossover design. The beverages were sweetened with an amount of aspartame (500 mg) and/or sucrose (100 g) approximately equivalent to that used to sweeten 1 liter of soft drink. The baseline-corrected plasma Phe/LNAA values did not differ significantly following ingestion of aspartame or sucrose. Following aspartame alone, the high mean ratio increased 26% over baseline 1 h after ingestion. Following sucrose alone, the high mean ratio increased 19% at 2.5 h. Sucrose increased the Phe/LNAA value due to an insulin-mediated decrease in the plasma LNAA, while aspartame increased the ratio by increasing the plasma Phe concentration. These findings indicate that similar increases in plasma Phe/LNAA occur when healthy, fasting subjects ingest amounts of equivalent sweetness of sucrose or aspartame. PMID:1771173

  2. Plasma cortisol concentrations and perceived anxiety in response to on-sight rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Draper, N; Dickson, T; Fryer, S; Blackwell, G; Winter, D; Scarrott, C; Ellis, G

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggested plasma cortisol concentrations in response to rock climbing have a cubic relationship with state anxiety and self-confidence. This research, however, was conducted in a situation where the climbers had previously climbed the route. The purpose of our study was to examine this relationship in response to on-sight climbing. Nineteen (13 male, 6 female) intermediate climbers volunteered to attend anthropometric and baseline testing sessions, prior to an on-sight ascent (lead climb or top-rope) of the test climb (grade 19 Ewbank/6a sport/5.10b YDS). Data recorded included state anxiety, self-confidence and cortisol concentrations prior to completing the climb. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in state anxiety, self-confidence and plasma cortisol concentration regardless of the style of ascent (lead climb or top-rope) in an on-sight sport climbing context. Regression analysis indicated there was a significant linear relationship between plasma cortisol concentrations and self-confidence (r= - 0.52, R2=0.267, p=0.024), cognitive (r=0.5, R2=0.253, p=0.028), and somatic anxieties (r=0.46, R2=0.210, p=0.049). In an on-sight condition the relationships between plasma cortisol concentrations with anxiety (cognitive and somatic) and self-confidence were linear. PMID:21984397

  3. What is the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in blood and plasma?

    PubMed

    Forman, Henry Jay; Bernardo, Angelito; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2016-08-01

    The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in blood and plasma is a measurement that has often been made, but the absolute values remain unsettled due the great variability of results actually published in the literature. As in every tissue, the concentration of H2O2 in blood and plasma is determined by the dynamics of its production versus its removal. The major sources of H2O2 in cells will only be briefly described as they are already well documented, The production of H2O2 in red blood cells will be described as it is less well known. But, the concentration of H2O2 within cells is more problematic. Intracellular H2O2 concentration has been estimated based on the kinetics of production and elimination, while its determination is technically difficult. Furthermore, compartmentalization and gradients result in its quantitation only as an average. The sources of extracellular H2O2, particularly in plasma, will also be described briefly. The major question addressed here however, is the actual concentration of H2O2 in plasma, which has been studied extensively, but still remains controversial. PMID:27173735

  4. Plasma concentrations after oral or intramuscular vitamin K1 in neonates.

    PubMed Central

    McNinch, A W; Upton, C; Samuels, M; Shearer, M J; McCarthy, P; Tripp, J H; L'E Orme, R

    1985-01-01

    One hundred and seven healthy, breast fed infants received 1 mg vitamin K1 either at birth (orally or intramuscularly) or with the first feed (orally). Venous blood samples collected in the next 24 hours were assayed for plasma vitamin K1. In babies given the vitamin orally at birth, the peak median concentration (73 ng/ml) occurred at four hours. By 24 hours median plasma concentrations had fallen to 23 ng/ml and 35 ng/ml in the groups fed vitamin K1 at birth or with the first feed, respectively; this difference was not, however, significant. Plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection exceeded those in the oral groups at all comparable times, with a peak median concentration of 1781 ng/ml at 12 hours falling to 444 ng/ml at 24 hours. Since median plasma vitamin K1 concentrations 24 hours after oral administration were some 100 times and 1000 times greater than previously estimated adult and newborn values respectively, this study supports giving vitamin K1 orally at birth to well, mature babies to protect against early haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Further studies are needed to determine the optimum dose for protection over subsequent weeks. PMID:4051538

  5. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m2) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30–40, 40–50 and >50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  6. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. PMID:23635368

  7. Biomass, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition of marine Nannochloropsis gaditana cultured in desalination concentrate.

    PubMed

    Matos, Ângelo Paggi; Feller, Rafael; Moecke, Elisa Helena Siegel; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

    2015-12-01

    In this study the feasibility of growing marine Nannochloropsis gaditana in desalination concentrate (DC) was explored and the influence of the DC concentration on the biomass growth, lipid productivities and fatty acids composition was assessed. The reuse of the medium with the optimum DC concentration in successive algal cultivation cycles and the additional of a carbon source to the optimized medium were also evaluated. On varying the DC concentration, the maximum biomass concentration (0.96gL(-1)) and lipid content (12.6%) were obtained for N. gaditana in the medium with the optimum DC concentration (75%). Over the course of the reuse of the optimum DC medium, three cultivation cycles were performed, observing that the biomass productivity is directly correlated to lipid productivity. Palmitic acid was the major fatty acid found in N. gaditana cells. The saturated fatty acids content of the algae enhanced significantly on increasing the DC concentration. PMID:26318921

  8. Effect of biotin and pantothenic acid on performance and concentrations of avidin-binding substances in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gonzalo; Brown, Alston N; Teets, Christy L

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that pantothenic acid reduces the absorption of biotin in lactating dairy cows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the plausible interaction between biotin and pantothenic acid on production performance and concentration of avidin-binding substances (ABS), an indicator of biotin concentration, in blood and milk of lactating dairy cows. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diet sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Cows were housed in a freestall barn and fed once daily (0730 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). Treatments consisted of a control diet that contained no B-vitamins, a biotin diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin per kilogram of dry matter (DM), a pantothenic acid diet that contained 21 mg of pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM, and a biotin plus pantothenic acid diet that contained 0.87 mg of biotin and 21 mg of calcium pantothenic acid per kilogram of DM. Four different concentrates were prepared in a commercial feed mill. These concentrates were mixed with corn silage and grass hay and delivered ad libitum as a total mixed ration. Biotin supplementation did not affect DM intake, milk yield, or milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk-urea-nitrogen concentrations. Fat, protein, and lactose yields were not affected by treatments. The fat-to-protein ratio was <1 and similar among all treatments. Biotin supplementation did not increase the concentration of ABS in plasma. The supplementation of pantothenic acid did not affect the concentration of ABS in plasma when either supplemented alone or in combination with biotin. Biotin supplementation increased the concentration of ABS in milk relative to control. Contrary to our hypothesis, the supplementation of pantothenic acid did not decrease the concentration of ABS in milk relative to the control. When cows were supplemented with both biotin and pantothenic acid, the

  9. Plasma copolymer surfaces of acrylic acid/1,7 octadiene: surface characterisation and the attachment of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Daw, R; Candan, S; Beck, A J; Devlin, A J; Brook, I M; MacNeil, S; Dawson, R A; Short, R D

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was: (a) to examine the effect of plasma-gas composition on plasma polymer oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio, functional group composition and stability in water, and then (b) to examine cell attachment to surfaces containing different concentrations of O/C and functional groups. Oxygen-functionalised surfaces were deposited by means of the plasma copolymerisation of acrylic acid/1,7-octadiene. The use of a diluent hydrocarbon allowed the deposition of surfaces with a range of O/C concentrations. Plasma copolymer surfaces were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Changes in functional group composition with % acrylic acid monomer and the non-dispersive and dispersive parts of the surface energy of these plasma copolymers were measured. The solubility of the plasma copolymers was assessed by means of XPS. The degree of attachment of ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells to plasma copolymer surfaces deemed to be 'stable' in aqueous medium was measured. Tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) was included as a control. Attachment was found to be greatest to the plasma copolymer surface with an O/C of 0.11. This surface had a carboxylic acid concentration of ca. 3%. Attachment did not correlate with increased surface wettability (i.e. the non-dispersive component of the surface energy). PMID:9856582

  10. Summary and implications of reported amino acid concentrations in the Murchison meteorite

    SciTech Connect

    Shock, E.L.; Schulte, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    A study of literature reports of the concentrations of amino acids in extracts from the Murchison meteorite shows that many of the concentration ratios are constant. There are two possible interpretations of these ratios. One is that they are controlled by the pathways through which the amino acids formed, from which it follows that the amino acids are distributed in the same proportions throughout the meteorite. The other interpretation is that the ratios result from the analytical procedures used to extract the amino acids from the meteorite. These methods rely heavily on high-temperature (100{degree}C) aqueous extraction and subsequent high-temperature acid hydrolysis. A correlation was observed in the present study between the relative concentrations of several amino acids in the meteorite extracts and their relative aqueous solubilities at 100{degree}C. The extract solutions are dilute, and far from the saturation limits, but these correlations suggest that the sampling procedure affects directly the reported concentrations for these amino acids. If the extraction process does not bias the results, and all extractable amino acids are removed from meteorite samples, then the properties of amino acids which control both their solubilities and their concentrations in the meteorite need to be established. The possibility of sampling bias needs to be tested experimentally before concluding that extraction is complete, and that the constant relative abundances indicate that the relative concentrations of amino acids are homogeneous in the meteorite.

  11. PROTOTYPE CONCENTRATION MONITOR FOR ESTIMATING ACIDIC DRY DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dry deposition contributes significantly to the acidification of the ecosystem. However, difficulties in measuring dry deposition of reactive gases and fine particles make routine direct monitoring impractical. An alternate approach is to use the 'concentration monitoring' method...

  12. A rapid UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of oleanolic acid in rat plasma and liver tissue: application to plasma and liver pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Xue; Chu, Chao-Sen; Zhu, Jia-Yu; Yang, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Hu, Yu-Tao; Yang, Xing-Hao

    2016-04-01

    A reliable high-throughput ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for oleanolic acid (OA) determination in rat plasma and liver tissue using glycyrrhetic acid as the internal standard (IS). Plasma and liver homogenate samples were prepared using solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using an isocratic mobile phase system. The detection was performed by multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization interface. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) > 0.9997) within the tested concentration ranges. The lower limit of quantification for plasma and liver tissue was ≤0.75 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy deviations were within ±15% in plasma and liver tissue. The mean extraction recoveries ranged from 80.8 to 87.0%. In addition, the carryover, matrix effect, stability and robustness involved in the method were also validated. The method was successfully applied to the plasma and hepatic pharmacokinetics of OA after oral administration to rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26234772

  13. Valproic acid: brain and plasma levels of the drug and its metabolites, anticonvulsant effects and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Nau, H; Löscher, W

    1982-03-01

    The slow onset and carry-over effect of valproic acid (VPA) therapy observed in some clinical as well as experimental animal studies have been examined by parallel pharmacokinetic and pharmacological investigations in a mouse model. VPA was rapidly transferred into brain and was cleared from that tissue with rates which exceeded plasma clearance rates. Of several VPA metabolites present in plasma, only one could be found in the brain: 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid. This metabolite was cleared from plasma and from brain slower than the parent drug. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were increased within 15 min after VPA injection and remained significantly elevated for at least 8 h. A similar time course was found in regard to the increase of the electroconvulsive threshold (maximal seizures) induced by VPA administration. The activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase rose parallel to the elevation of brain GABA levels, whereas the activity of GABA aminotransferase was not affected. Whereas the rapid onset of the effect on electroconvulsive threshold and on GABA metabolism can be explained by the rapid entrance of VPA into brain, the carry-over effects observed correlated with the kinetics of the metabolite 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid better than with those of VPA due to the persistence of this metabolite in brain. PMID:6801254

  14. Effect of domperidone supplementation of fescue-fed heifers on plasma and follicular fluid fatty acid composition and oocyte quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, K L; King, S S

    2009-07-01

    This study continues a series of investigations evaluating fescue endotoxin exposure in beef heifer production. The objectives were to evaluate fatty acid compositions in plasma and follicular fluid, and to assess oocyte quality from cattle fed fescue diets. The ability of domperidone, a dopamine antagonist, to mitigate these variables was also assessed. Thirty heifers were divided into 3 treatment groups (n = 10/group) and administered treatment regimens for 24 d, at which time blood samples were collected. The treatment regimens were a diet with endophyte-free fescue (EF), a diet with endophyte-infected fescue (EI), or EI supplemented with daily subcutaneous injections of domperidone (0.44 mg/kg of BW; EID). Three heifers/group were administered treatments for an additional 10 d, at which time their luteal phase ovarian follicular fluid and oocytes were collected. Plasma and follicular fluid samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid concentrations. Oocytes were matured in vitro to assess quality. In addition, abattoir oocytes were cultured in plasma from treated heifers. In plasma, arachidonic acid was less (P < 0.001) in EF-fed compared with EI-fed heifers. Decreased (P < 0.05) total n-6 fatty acid concentration was observed in EF-fed compared with EI-fed heifers. Similarly, the EF-containing diets decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid and C22:5n-3 (P < 0.05) compared with EI-containing diets. Domperidone supplementation increased (P < 0.05) C18:2 cis-9, trans-11, C17:1n-7, and several C18:1 isomers compared with the diet with EI and no supplementation. No differences between fescue endophyte groups were detected in any of the fatty acid concentrations analyzed in follicular fluid from small follicles. In follicular fluid from large follicles, C18:4n-3 and C22:6n-3 concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in EI-fed compared with EF-fed heifers. Oocytes cultured in serum (control) or plasma from EF-, EI-, or EID-fed cattle did not differ

  15. Low plasma selenium concentrations in critically ill children: the interaction effect between inflammation and selenium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low plasma selenium concentrations are frequent in critically ill patients. However, whether this is due to systemic inflammation, a deficient nutritional state or both is still not clear. We aimed to determine the factors associated with low plasma selenium in critically ill children while considering the inflammatory response and nutritional status. Method A prospective study was conducted in 173 children (median age 34 months) with systemic inflammatory response who had plasma selenium concentrations assessed 48 hours after admission and on the 5th day of ICU stay. The normal reference range was 0.58 μmol/L to 1.6 μmol/L. The outcome variable was ‘low plasma selenium’, which was defined as plasma selenium values below the distribution median during this period. The main explanatory variables were age, malnutrition, sepsis, C-reactive protein (CRP), and clinical severity scores. The data were analyzed using a Binomial Generalized Estimating Equations model, which includes the correlation between admission and 5th day responses. Results Malnutrition and CRP were associated with low plasma selenium. The interaction effect between these two variables was significant. When CRP values were less than or equal to 40 mg/L, malnutrition was associated with low plasma selenium levels (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39 to 7.63, P = 0.007; OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.26 to 7.06, P = 0.013; OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.17, P = 0.049, for CRP = 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, respectively). This effect decreased as CRP concentrations increased and there was loose significance when CRP values were >40 mg/L. Similarly, the effect of CRP on low plasma selenium was significant for well-nourished patients (OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.22, P <0.001) but not for the malnourished (OR = 1.03; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.08, P = 0.16). Conclusions There is a significant interaction between the magnitude of the inflammatory

  16. Relationships between insulin secretion, insulin action, and fasting plasma glucose concentration in nondiabetic and noninsulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Bogardus, C; Lillioja, S; Howard, B V; Reaven, G; Mott, D

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between insulin secretion, insulin action, and fasting plasma glucose concentration (FPG) were examined in 34 southwest American Indians (19 nondiabetics, 15 noninsulin-dependent diabetics) who had a broad range of FPG (88-310 mg/100 ml). Fasting, glucose-stimulated, and meal-stimulated plasma insulin concentrations were negatively correlated with FPG in diabetics but not in nondiabetics. In contrast, fasting and glucose-stimulated plasma C-peptide concentrations did not decrease with increasing FPG in either group and 24-h urinary C-peptide excretion during a diet of mixed composition was positively correlated with FPG for all subjects (r = 0.36, P less than 0.05). Fasting free fatty acid (FFA) was correlated with FPG in nondiabetics (r = 0.49, P less than 0.05) and diabetics (r = 0.77, P less than 0.001). Fasting FFA was also correlated with the isotopically determined endogenous glucose production rate in the diabetics (r = 0.54, P less than 0.05). Endogenous glucose production was strongly correlated with FPG in the diabetics (r = 0.90, P less than 0.0001), but not in the nondiabetics. Indirect calorimetry showed that FPG was also negatively correlated with basal glucose oxidation rates (r = -0.61, P less than 0.001), but positively with lipid oxidation (r = 0.74, P less than 0.001) in the diabetics. Insulin action was measured as total insulin-mediated glucose disposal, glucose oxidation, and storage rates, using the euglycemic clamp with simultaneous indirect calorimetry at plasma insulin concentrations of 135 +/- 5 and 1738 +/- 59 microU/ml. These parameters of insulin action were significantly, negatively correlated with FPG in the nondiabetics at both insulin concentrations, but not in the diabetics although all the diabetics had markedly decreased insulin action. We conclude that decreased insulin action is present in the noninsulin-dependent diabetics in this population and marked hyperglycemia occurs with the addition of decreased

  17. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in patients with valvular heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ralph A; Lee, Mildred; Gabriel, Ruvin; Van Pelt, Niels; Newby, David E; Kerr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations predict prognosis in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), but it is unclear whether this directly relates to disease severity. We assessed the relationship between BNP and echocardiographic measures of disease severity in patients with VHD. Methods Plasma BNP concentrations were measured in patients with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function and isolated VHD (mitral regurgitation (MR), n=33; aortic regurgitation (AR), n=39; aortic stenosis (AS), n=34; mitral stenosis (MS), n=30), and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n=39) immediately prior to exercise stress echocardiography. Results Compared with controls, patients with VHD had elevated plasma BNP concentrations (MR median 35 (IQR 23–52), AR 34 (22–45), AS 31 (22–60), MS 58 (34–90); controls 24 (16–33) pg/mL; p<0.01 for all). LV end diastolic volume index varied by valve lesion; (MR (mean 77±14), AR (91±28), AS (50±17), MS (43±11), controls (52±13) mL/m2; p<0.0001). There were no associations between LV volume and BNP. Left atrial (LA) area index varied (MR (18±4 cm2/m2), AR (12±2), AS (11±3), MS (19±6), controls (11±2); p<0.0001), but correlated with plasma BNP concentrations: MR (r=0.42, p=0.02), MS (r=0.86, p<0.0001), AR (r=0.53, p=0.001), AS (r=0.52, p=0.002). Higher plasma BNP concentrations were associated with increased pulmonary artery pressure and reduced exercise capacity. Despite adverse cardiac remodelling, 81 (60%) patients had a BNP concentration within the normal range. Conclusions Despite LV remodelling, plasma BNP concentrations are often normal in patients with VHD. Conversely, mild elevations of BNP occur with LA dilatation in the presence of normal LV. Plasma BNP concentrations should be interpreted with caution when assessing patients with VHD. PMID:27175283

  18. Plasma concentrations of vitamin E in six species of bustard (Gruiformes: Otididae).

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan J; Dawodu, Adekunle; Patel, Mahendra; Bailey, Thomas A; Silvanose, Christudas

    2002-04-01

    Vitamin E (measured as alpha-tocopherol) and cholesterol concentrations were determined in plasma samples collected from 86 clinically healthy captive adult bustards of six species and 23 captive juveniles (6-12 mo old) of two of these species. Adult houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) had higher plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations than juveniles (adult: mean +/- SE, 11.07 +/- 0.41 micrograms/ml, n = 32; juvenile: 6.33 +/- 0.48, n = 12) and higher alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (adult: 6.09 +/- 0.44, n = 12; juvenile: 2.94 +/- 0.22, n = 11). No age difference was evident for kori bustard (Ardeotis kori) plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations (adult: 4.43 +/- 0.42, n = 21; juvenile: 4.46 +/- 0.26, n = 11) or alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (adult: 3.67 +/- 0.44, n = 20; juvenile: 3.71 +/- 0.36, n = 11). Adult houbara bustards had significantly higher (P < 0.01) alpha-tocopherol concentrations compared with adult rufous-crested (Eupodotis ruficrista; 6.64 +/- 0.33, n = 19) and white-bellied (Eupodotis senegalensis; 7.75 +/- 0.81, n = 8) bustards, but similar alpha-tocopherol: cholesterol ratios (rufous-crested: 5.56 +/- 0.32, n = 18; white-bellied: 5.83 +/- 0.43, n = 8). Juvenile houbara bustards had higher plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations than juvenile kori bustards but similar alpha-tocopherol:cholesterol ratios. Adult houbara bustard plasma alpha-tocopherol levels and alpha-tocopherol:cholesterol ratios did not differ significantly between sexes. The vitamin E status of adult bustards appeared to be influenced by environmental conditions that varied due to species-specific husbandry regimens, but no clear relationship was seen with dietary vitamin E levels. Juvenile bustards did not have higher vitamin E levels than adults, despite being maintained on four-fold dietary vitamin E concentrations and in similar environmental conditions. This paper presents the first published data for plasma vitamin E concentrations in bustards. The

  19. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  20. Choline intake and genetic polymorphisms influence choline metabolite concentrations in human breast milk and plasma123

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Leslie M; da Costa, Kerry Ann; Galanko, Joseph; Sha, Wei; Stephenson, Brigitte; Vick, Julie; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Background: Choline is essential for infant nutrition, and breast milk is a rich source of this nutrient. Common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) change dietary requirements for choline intake. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether total choline intake and/or SNPs influence concentrations of choline and its metabolites in human breast milk and plasma. Design: We gave a total of 103 pregnant women supplemental choline or a placebo from 18 wk gestation to 45 d postpartum and genotyped the women for 370 common SNPs. At 45 d postpartum, we measured choline metabolite concentrations in breast milk and plasma and assessed the dietary intake of choline by using a 3-d food record. Results: On average, lactating women in our study ate two-thirds of the recommended intake for choline (Adequate Intake = 550 mg choline/d). Dietary choline intake (no supplement) correlated with breast-milk phosphatidylcholine and plasma choline concentrations. A supplement further increased breast-milk choline, betaine, and phosphocholine concentrations and increased plasma choline and betaine concentrations. We identified 5 SNPs in MTHFR that altered the slope of the intake–metabolite concentration relations, and we identified 2 SNPs in PEMT that shifted these curves upward. Individuals who shared sets of common SNPs were outliers in plots of intake–metabolite concentration curves; we suggest that these SNPs should be further investigated to determine how they alter choline metabolism. Conclusion: Total intake of choline and genotype can influence the concentrations of choline and its metabolites in the breast milk and blood of lactating women and thereby affect the amount of choline available to the developing infant. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00678925. PMID:20534746

  1. Analysis of apolipoprotein A5, C3 and plasma triglyceride concentrations in genetically engineered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baroukh, Nadine; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Afzal, Veena; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2004-03-11

    To address the relationship between the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed or completely lacked both genes. We report both lines display normal triglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Together, these data support that APOA5 and APOC3 independently influence plasma triglyceride concentrations but in an opposing manner.

  2. Concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, and tocopherol in plasma, in response to ingestion of a meal.

    PubMed

    Brown, E D; Rose, A; Craft, N; Seidel, K E; Smith, J C

    1989-02-01

    Field studies and epidemiological surveys may necessitate obtaining a blood sample from a nonfasted subject for nutritional assessments. We measured the effect of a standardized test meal, eaten after an overnight fast, on the concentrations of seven carotenoid fractions, retinol, and tocopherol in plasma of eight healthy adults. The 790-calorie test meal did not alter the measured concentrations. We conclude that blood sampled up to 4 h after breakfast can be validly used for these measurements. PMID:2914382

  3. Using Conductivity Measurements to Determine the Identities and Concentrations of Unknown Acids: An Inquiry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, K. Christopher; Garza, Ariana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a student designed experiment using titrations involving conductivity measurements to identify unknown acids as being either HCl or H[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4], and to determine the concentrations of the acids, thereby improving the utility of standard acid-base titrations. Using an inquiry context, students gain experience…

  4. The proton concentration in the vicinity of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokar, R. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Bagenal, F.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of lightning-generated whistlers conducted with the aid of the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument during the March, 1979 encounter of Jupiter have been employed in numerous studies involving Jupiters's inner magnetosphere. In an investigation carried out by Tokar et al. (1982), the Voyager whistler observations were combined with heavy ion charged particle measurements in the Io torus to determine the light ion charge concentration along the whistler propagation paths. In the investigation, simple models were used for the plasma distribution along the propagation paths. In the present study, an improved model is used for the plasma distribution in the inner magnetosphere. The adopted model treats a plasma in diffusive equilibrium under the action of gravitational, centrifugal, and ambipolar electric field forces.

  5. Development of xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production at high acetic acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, D.V.; Whelan, D.R.; Panchal, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Mutants resistant to comparatively high levels of acetic acid were isolated from the xylose-fermenting yeasts Candida shehatae and Pichia Stipitis by adapting these cultures to increasing concentrations of acetic acid grown in shake-flask cultures. These mutants were tested for their ability to ferment xylose in presence of high acetic acid concentrations, in acid hydrolysates of wood, and in hardwood spent sulfite liquor, and compared with their wild-type counterparts and between themselves. The P. stipitis mutant exhibited faster fermentation times, better tolerance to acid hydrolysates, and tolerance to lower pH.

  6. An energy-efficient process for decomposing perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctane sulfonic acids using dc plasmas generated within gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, K.; Sasaki, K.; Hayashi, R.

    2011-06-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are environmentally harmful and persistent substances. Their decomposition was investigated using dc plasmas generated within small gas bubbles in a solution. The plasma characteristics including discharge voltage, voltage drop in the liquid, plasma shape and the emission spectrum were examined with different gases. The decomposition rate and energy efficiency were evaluated by measuring the concentration of fluoride and sulfate ions released from PFOA/PFOS molecules. The concentration of fluoride ions and energy efficiency in the treatment of a PFOS solution were 17.7 mg l-1 (54.8% of the initial amount of fluorine atoms) and 26 mg kWh-1, respectively, after 240 min of operation. The addition of scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electrons showed little effect on the decomposition. The decomposition processes were analyzed with an assumption that positive species reacted with PFOA/PFOS molecules at the boundary of the plasma-solution surface. This type of plasma showed a much higher decomposition energy efficiency compared with energy efficiencies reported in other studies.

  7. Evaluation of Optimum Dietary Threonine Requirement by Plasma Free Threonine and Ammonia Concentrations in Surgically Modified Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyeonho; Park, Gunjun; Ok, Imho; Katya, Kumar; Heung, Silas; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary threonine requirement by measuring the plasma free threonine and ammonia concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation. A total of 70 fish (average initial weight 506±8.2 g) were randomly distributed into each of the 14 net cages (5 fish/cage). After 48 hours (h) of feed deprivation, each group was intubated at 1% body weight with one of the seven L-amino acid based diets containing graded levels of threonine (0.42%, 0.72%, 0.92%, 1.12%, 1.32%, 1.52%, or 1.82% of diet, dry matter basis). Blood samples were taken at 0, 5, and 24 h after intubation. Post-prandial plasma free threonine concentrations (PPthr) of fish 5 h after intubation with diets containing 1.32% or more threonine were significantly higher than those of fish intubated with diets containing 1.12% or less threonine (p<0.05). Post-absorptive free threonine concentrations (PAthr) after 24 h of intubation of the fish with diets containing 0.92% or more threonine were significantly higher than those of fish intubated with diets containing 0.72% or less threonine. Post-prandial plasma ammonia concentrations (PPA, 5 h after intubation) were not significantly different among fish intubated with diets containing 1.12% or less threonine, except the PPA of fish intubated with diet containing 0.42% threonine. Broken-line model analyses of PPthr, PAthr, and PPA indicated that the dietary threonine requirement of rainbow trout should be between 0.95% (2.71) and 1.07% (3.06) of diet (% of dietary protein on a dry matter basis). PMID:25656187

  8. Paracetamol interaction with oral contraceptive steroids: increased plasma concentrations of ethinyloestradiol.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, S M; Back, D J; Stevenson, P J; Grimmer, S F; Orme, M L

    1987-01-01

    The effect of a single dose of paracetamol (1 g) on plasma concentrations of the oral contraceptive steroids ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and levonorgestrel (LNG) has been studied in six healthy female volunteers. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) of EE2 was significantly increased following paracetamol administration by 22% (control 2221 +/- 291; following paracetamol, 2702 +/- 452 pg ml-1 h; mean +/- s.d.; P less than or equal to 0.05). The greatest effect was evident in the time period 0-3 h. There was a significant decrease in the AUC of EE2-sulphate after paracetamol (7736 +/- 3791 pg ml-1 h) compared with control (13161 +/- 4535 pg ml-1 h; P less than or equal to 0.05). Plasma concentrations of LNG were unaltered by concurrent paracetamol administration. We conclude that the administration of a single 1 g dose of paracetamol causes an increase in plasma concentrations of EE2 as a result of a reduction in the sulphation of the steroid. This interaction may be of clinical significance in women on oral contraceptive steroids who regularly take paracetamol. PMID:3111513

  9. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  10. DIET QUALITY SCORES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF MARKERS OF INFLAMMATION AND ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the mechanisms linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We assessed the association between several diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Diet-quality scores on the Healthy Eating Index (H...

  11. Changes in plasma gonadotrophin and prolactin concentrations following castration of the pony stallion.

    PubMed

    Collingsworth, M G; Fuller, Z; Cox, J E; Argo, C M

    2001-03-15

    Concentrations of gonadotrophins and prolactin were recorded in pony stallions castrated during the early breeding season, to examine the regulatory role of the gonad at a time when testosterone has been postulated to exert positive feedback on LH secretion. Further, gonadotrophin concentrations in geldings are reported to return to values within the normal range of the entire stallion. In an attempt to characterize this species-specific reversal, the gonadotrophin concentrations of 6 male ponies castrated on 25 March were monitored for 4 months, and 4 stallions were used to generate control data. Blood samples were collected daily, from 3 d before to 10 d after castration (Day 0), and weekly thereafter until Day 122. The pituitary response to castration was immediate. Castration resulted in a previously unreported, dramatic (13-fold) but transient (3 d) surge in circulating concentrations of LH. Concentrations of LH and FSH increased in a logarithmically scaled (LH, R2 = 0.77; FSH, R2 = 0.93) manner over the subsequent 5 wk, during which temporal changes in concentrations of both hormones were strongly correlated (R2 = 0.97). The ratio of plasma gonadotrophin concentrations was consistent throughout (LH:FSH, 1.43 +/- 0.04). Maximal concentrations of LH (20.58 +/- 1.97 ng/mL, Day 34.8 +/- 3.2) were attained approximately 2 wk before the peak in FSH (16.99 +/- 1.97 ng/mL, Day 49.7 +/- 3.0). Plasma gonadotrophin concentrations exceeded those of entire stallions throughout the study. The equine testes inhibited LH secretion during the early breeding season, and no chronic decrease in plasma gonadotrophin concentrations was recorded. However, the LH surge evident for 3 d immediately afer castration, may be related to the dynamic seasonal interaction between gonadal steroids and the regulation of pituitary gonadotrophin release. PMID:11322243

  12. Decrease in the plasma von Willebrand factor concentration following glucose ingestion: the role of insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    von Känel, R; Nelesen, R A; Le, D T; Ziegler, M G; Dimsdale, J E

    2001-12-01

    Elevated plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) concentration is thought to be associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular events in the insulin resistance syndrome. We examined the effects of oral glucose challenge and accompanying metabolic and hemodynamic changes on vWF levels with respect to insulin sensitivity. Forty normotensive and hypertensive subjects (mean age +/- SD, 40 +/- 5 years) underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma vWF antigen, glucose, insulin, catecholamines, and hemodynamics were measured at rest, and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after glucose intake. Insulin sensitivity was determined by the insulin sensitivity index (ISI(0,120)). Resting plasma vWF concentration was associated with screening systolic blood pressure (BP) (r =.43, P =.005). There were time effects for all variables of interest. While vWF antigen (P =.044), epinephrine (P =.003), and diastolic BP (P =.001) decreased after glucose challenge, norepinephrine (P =.009), systolic BP (P =.022), and heart rate (P <.001) increased. Decline in vWF (area under the curve) was associated with decrease in epinephrine (r =.46, P =.004) and with screening systolic BP (r =.45, P =.004). However, neither resting plasma vWF levels nor vWF decrease following glucose ingestion were significantly associated with the ISI(0,120.) The plasma vWF concentration decreases following glucose ingestion. While mechanisms underlying this phenomenon may relate to sympathetic nervous system function, they seem not related to insulin sensitivity. Endothelial dysfunction such as caused by hypertension rather than metabolic dysregulation per se may underlie the elevated plasma vWF concentration found with insulin resistance. PMID:11735092

  13. A genome-wide association study of n-3 and n-6 plasma fatty acids in a Singaporean Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Dorajoo, Rajkumar; Sun, Ye; Han, Yi; Ke, Tingjing; Burger, Ayala; Chang, Xuling; Low, Hui Qi; Guan, Weihua; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; Tai, E Shyong; Liu, Jianjun; van Dam, Rob M; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Friedlander, Yechiel

    2015-11-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a major impact on human health. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genetic loci that are associated with plasma levels of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in primarily subjects of European ancestry. However, the relevance of these findings has not been evaluated extensively in other ethnic groups. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate for genetic loci associated with n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and to validate the role of recently identified index loci using data from a Singaporean Chinese population. Using a GWAS approach, we evaluated associations with plasma concentrations of three n-3 PUFAs [alphalinolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid], four n-6 PUFAs [linoleic acid (LA), gammalinolenic acid, dihomogammalinolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid], and estimates of delta-5 desaturase and delta-6 desaturase activities among the participants (N = 1361) of the Singaporean Chinese Health Study. Our results reveal robust genome-wide associations (p value <5 × 10(-8)) with ALA, all four n-6 PUFAs, and delta-6 desaturase activity at the FADS1/FADS2 locus. We further replicated the associations between common index variants at the NTAN1/PDXDC1 locus and n-6 PUFAs LA and DGLA, and between the JMJD1C locus and n-6 PUFA LA (p value between 0.0490 and 9.88 × 10(-4)). These associations were independent of dietary intake of PUFAs. In aggregate, we show that genetic loci that influence plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are shared across different ethnic groups. PMID:26584805

  14. Water administration of medium-chain fatty acid caprylic acid produced variable efficacy against cecal Campylobacter jejuni concentrations in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, and poultry is considered a primary source of Campylobacter infections. Caprylic acid, an eight-carbon fatty acid, has been shown in previous studies to reduce enteric cecal Campylobacter concentrations in poultry when administere...

  15. Influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by pulsed discharge plasma inside bubble in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of sodium carbonate on the decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubbles in water was investigated experimentally. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of sodium carbonate additive, the pH increased owing to the decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the percentage of conversion of formic acid increased with increasing pH because the reaction rate of ozone with formic acid increased with increasing pH. In the case of argon injection, the percentage of conversion was not affected by the pH owing to the high rate loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  16. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    PubMed

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P < 0·05). BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P < 0·001). BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance. PMID:27313851

  17. Practical considerations in the concentration and recovery of spent nitration acids

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.M.

    1995-12-01

    Most organic nitrations employ sulphuric acid or oleum in the nitration acid. Even in rare nitric acid only nitrations, sulphuric acid is used as the dehydrating agent to produce 99% nitric acid. The used sulphuric acid is discharged in a diluted form contaminated with organic components and nitric/nitrous species. Pressures are emloyed to reconcentrate and reprocess such spent acids. Acid recovery and concentration is expensive. This paper discusses some of the aspects which must be considered when contemplating acid recovery. In the current industrial climate, acid recovery and recycle should be regarded as an integral part of a nitration process development rather than an afterthought. Case histories will be given in which such considerations influenced the course of the development of the nitration process itself. Emphasis will be placed on the importance of well planned bench and pilot scale test programmes.

  18. Cytosolic Concentration of Ca2+ Regulates the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase in Guard Cells of Fava Bean.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, T.; Nishimura, M.; Shimazaki, Ki.

    1995-08-01

    Opening of the stomata is driven by the light-activated plasma membrane proton pumping ATPase, although the activation and inactivation mechanism of the enzyme is not known. In this study, we show that the H+-ATPase in guard cells is reversibly inhibited by Ca2+ at physiological concentrations. Isolated microsomal membranes of guard cell protoplasts from fava bean exhibited vanadate-sensitive, ATP-dependent proton pumping. The activity was inhibited almost completely by 1 [mu]M Ca2+ with a half-inhibitory concentration at 0.3 [mu]M and was restored immediately by the addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid, a calcium chelating reagent. Similar reversible inhibition by Ca2+ was shown by the generation of electrical potential in the membranes. Activity of ATP hydrolysis was inhibited similarly by Ca2+ in the same membrane preparations. The addition of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane N,N,N[prime],N[prime]-tetraacetic acid and EGTA, Ca2+ chelators, to epidermal peels of fava bean induced stomatal opening in the dark, and the opening was suppressed by vanadate. This suggests that the lowered cytosolic Ca2+ activated the proton pump in vivo and that the activated pump elicited stomatal opening. Inhibition of H+-ATPase by Ca2+ may depolarize the membrane potential and could be a key step in the process of stomatal closing through activation of the anion channels. Furthermore, similar inhibition of the proton pumping and ATP hydrolysis by Ca2+ was found in isolated plasma membranes of mesophyll cells of fava bean. These results suggest that Ca2+ regulates the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases in higher plant cells, thereby modulating stomatal movement and other cellular processes in plants. PMID:12242406

  19. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO. PMID:27216557

  20. Plasma ghrelin concentrations change with physiological state in a sciurid hibernator (Spermophilus lateralis)

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Jessica E.; Ostrom, Cara E.; Wilkerson, Gregory K.; Florant, Gregory L.

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone which has profound effects on food intake and lipogenesis in mammals. In all mammals studied thus far, plasma ghrelin concentrations are increased before a meal and decrease immediately following a meal; ghrelin levels increase with fasting. The golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (also known as Callospermophilus lateralis (see Helgen et al., 2009)) is a diurnal hibernator which has a robust annual cycle of body mass gain and loss that is primarily controlled by food intake. We hypothesized that in spring, summer, and autumn, the endogenous ghrelin concentrations of hibernators would be similar to those of non-hibernators, but that during the winter hibernation season, plasma ghrelin concentrations would be low or undetectable. We found that peripherally injected ghrelin significantly increased food intake in June. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly increased through 5 days of fasting during a short-term fast in summer. Over a 24 hour period, ghrelin concentrations increased at night and decreased during the day with drops corresponding to times when squirrels were eating. In January, ghrelin concentrations are low but measurable even while animals are at low body temperature (Tb). The reason for the persistence of ghrelin in plasma at this time is unclear, but circulating ghrelin in hibernators may be involved with the control of sleep in these animals. This is the first report of ghrelin concentrations in a non-photoperiodic hibernator. We suggest that ghrelin may be important for the regulation of food intake and the body mass cycle in mammals that hibernate. PMID:20005230

  1. Increase in plasma leptin and Lep mRNA concentrations by food intake is dependent on insulin.

    PubMed

    Patel, B K; Koenig, J I; Kaplan, L M; Hooi, S C

    1998-05-01

    Obese (Lep) gene expression and leptin secretion are regulated by changes in food intake. However, the mechanism by which leptin concentrations are altered by fasting and feeding is unclear. Since these changes occur in parallel with changes in plasma insulin, it is possible that the changes observed are mediated by insulin. To test this hypothesis, we studied the role of insulin in the regulation of Lep gene expression in epididymal fat and leptin secretion during feeding. As shown previously, fasted animals showed significant reductions in Lep mRNA, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin concentrations. Conversely, feeding increased plasma insulin, Lep mRNA, and plasma leptin. In streptozotocin (STZ)-treated animals, plasma insulin concentrations were low. This was associated with low Lep mRNA and plasma leptin concentrations. Changes in food intake, whether fasting or feeding, did not significantly alter plasma insulin levels in STZ-treated animals. Under these circumstances, Lep mRNA and plasma leptin concentrations also remained low. Our results demonstrate that the decrease in Lep mRNA and plasma leptin during fasting and the increase with feeding are dependent on changes in the plasma insulin concentration. PMID:9591754

  2. Ipecac-induced emesis and reduction of plasma concentrations of drugs following accidental overdose in children.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Y; Mitchell, A A; McGuigan, M A; Lovejoy, F H

    1987-09-01

    Syrup of ipecac is widely used following accidental drug overdosage in children. Proof of its efficacy, however, in reducing the risk of poisoning is limited. We prospectively studied the effect of early v late induction of emesis by ipecac in 50 children younger than 5 years of age with accidental acetaminophen poisoning. The mean estimated ingested dose was 165 mg/kg, and all patients vomited within 15 to 255 (mean 78) minutes postingestion. Although the predicted four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentration was 97 +/- 4 micrograms/mL (mean +/- SEM, calculated on the basis of the estimated ingested dose), the measured four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentration was 34 +/- 5 micrograms/mL (P less than .01). To assess the efficacy of early v late ipecac-induced emesis, we used the ratio of measured to predicted four-hour acetaminophen plasma concentration. The ratio of the measured to predicted four-hour level increased as the delay in time to vomiting increased (r = .60, P less than .001). Ipecac syrup was administered more promptly when available in the home than when obtained from a pharmacy or a medical facility (26 +/- 8 v 83 +/- 13 minutes postingestion, respectively; P less than .001) and vomiting occurred earlier (49 +/- 9 v 103 +/- 12 minutes postingestion; P less than .01). Although the mean estimated doses ingested were greater in patients who received ipecac syrup at home, their four-hour plasma acetaminophen concentrations were lower. These data suggest that prompt administration of ipecac syrup results in a greater reduction in plasma acetaminophen concentrations in potentially toxic overdosages in children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2888073

  3. Effects of CYP3A4 polymorphisms on the plasma concentration of voriconazole.

    PubMed

    He, H-R; Sun, J-Y; Ren, X-D; Wang, T-T; Zhai, Y-J; Chen, S-Y; Dong, Y-L; Lu, J

    2015-04-01

    Voriconazole is frequently utilized for the prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections (IFIs), and is extensively metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. The impact of activity of the genes encoding CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole cannot be ignored because, second to CYP2C19, they are the most important enzymes involved in voriconazole metabolism. The influence of genetic polymorphisms in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 on the plasma concentrations of voriconazole was evaluated in the present study. The study cohort comprised 158 patients with IFIs in whom 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY RS1000 system, and voriconazole plasma concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 40, 91, and 27 patients presented with low (<1 mg/L), normal (1-4 mg/L), and high (>4 mg/L) plasma voriconazole concentrations, respectively. Correlation analysis between polymorphisms and the plasma voriconazole concentration revealed an association between the presence of the rs4646437 T allele and a higher plasma voriconazole concentration [p = 0.033, odds ratio (OR) = 2.832, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.086-7.384]. This study has identified a new SNP related to the metabolism of voriconazole, potentially providing novel insight into the influence of CYP3A4 on the pharmacokinetics of this antifungal agent. PMID:25515945

  4. Real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitor measurements.

    PubMed

    de Pereda, Diego; Romero-Vivo, Sergio; Ricarte, Beatriz; Rossetti, Paolo; Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco Javier; Bondia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitors can measure interstitial glucose concentration in real time for closed-loop glucose control systems, known as artificial pancreas. These control systems use an insulin feedback to maintain plasma glucose concentration within a narrow and safe range, and thus to avoid health complications. As it is not possible to measure plasma insulin concentration in real time, insulin models have been used in literature to estimate them. Nevertheless, the significant inter- and intra-patient variability of insulin absorption jeopardizes the accuracy of these estimations. In order to reduce these limitations, our objective is to perform a real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Hovorka's glucose-insulin model has been incorporated in an extended Kalman filter in which different selected time-variant model parameters have been considered as extended states. The observability of the original Hovorka's model and of several extended models has been evaluated by their Lie derivatives. We have evaluated this methodology with an in-silico study with 100 patients with Type 1 diabetes during 25 h. Furthermore, it has been also validated using clinical data from 12 insulin pump patients with Type 1 diabetes who underwent four mixed meal studies. Real-time insulin estimations have been compared to plasma insulin measurements to assess performance showing the validity of the methodology here used in comparison with that formerly used for insulin models. Hence, real-time estimations for plasma insulin concentration based on subcutaneous glucose monitoring can be beneficial for increasing the efficiency of control algorithms for the artificial pancreas. PMID:26343364

  5. Low plasma selenium concentration is associated with elevated risk to neoplastic polyps of the colon

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.C.; Hixson, L.G.; Sampliner, R.E. ); Combs, G.F. Jr. )

    1991-03-11

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship of selenium (Se) status and polyps incidence in a sequential series of 100 patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopies at the Tucson VA Hospital. Se was measured in plasma samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry with Zeeman background correction using a reduced palladium matrix modified. The activities of the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) were measured using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as substrate in all plasma samples and in colonic mucosal biopsies obtained from some patients. The mean plasma Se concentration of patients without polyps was 134 ng/ml. Mean plasma Se levels of patients with only diminutive or large polyps were 127 ng/ml and 125 ng/ml; while patients with polyps of both sizes had a mean plasma Se level of 121 ng/ml. Patients with no reported history of cancer, neoplastic polyps or prior colonoscopy, showed an inverse association of plasma Se level and risk of benign colonic neoplasms. The age-adjusted odds ratio for neoplastic polyps was 3.8 for patients with plasma Se levels below vs. above the median value. This association was stronger for patients under 68 yrs of age than for older patients. Activities of SeGSHpx in plasma or colonic mucosa were not related to plasma Se level; however, smokers showed greater SeGSHpx activities than non-smokers. This study is the first to detect an association of Se status and risk to neoplastic polyps of the colon.

  6. Noninvasive Measurement of Plasma Triglycerides and Free Fatty Acids from Exhaled Breath

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Timothy Do Chau; Oliver, Stacy R; Flores, Rebecca L; Ngo, Jerry; Meinardi, Simone; Carlson, Matthew K; Midyett, Jason; Rowland, F Sherwood; Blake, Donald R; Galassetti, Pietro Renato

    2012-01-01

    Background Although altered metabolism has long been known to affect human breath, generating clinically usable metabolic tests from exhaled compounds has proven challenging. If developed, a breath-based lipid test would greatly simplify management of diabetes and serious pathological conditions (e.g., obesity, familial hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease), in which systemic lipid levels are a critical risk factor for onset and development of future cardiovascular events. Methods We, therefore, induced controlled fluctuations of plasma lipids (insulin-induced lipid suppression or intravenous infusion of Intralipid) during 4-h in vivo experiments on 23 healthy volunteers (12 males/11 females, 28.0 ± 0.3 years) to find correlations between exhaled volatile organic compounds and plasma lipids. In each subject, plasma triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) concentrations were both directly measured and calculated via individualized prediction equations based on the multiple linear regression analysis of a cluster of 4 gases. In the lipid infusion protocol, we also generated common prediction equations using a maximum of 10 gases. Results This analysis yielded strong correlations between measured and predicted values during both lipid suppression (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.90 for FFA) and lipid infusion (r = 0.97 for TG; r = 0.94 for FFA) studies. In our most accurate common prediction model, measured and predicted TG and FFA values also displayed very strong statistical agreement (r = 0.86 and r = 0.81, respectively). Conclusions Our results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring plasma lipids through breath analysis. Optimization of this technology may ultimately lead to the development of portable breath analyzers for plasma lipids, replacing blood-based bioassays. PMID:22401327

  7. INTERCOMPARISON OF ATMOSPHERIC NITRIC ACID MEASUREMENTS AT ELEVATED AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several methods for measurement of ambient HNO3 were compared over a 9-day period during the Carbonaceous Species Methods Comparison Study at Glendora, CA, in August 1986. ourly averaged HNO3 concentrations were in the range 0.5-25 ppbv, with hourly maxima each day in excess of 1...

  8. Oxytocin plasma concentrations in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: correlation with autistic symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Taurines, Regina; Schwenck, Christina; Lyttwin, Benjamin; Schecklmann, Martin; Jans, Thomas; Reefschläger, Lennart; Geissler, Julia; Gerlach, Manfred; Romanos, Marcel

    2014-09-01

    Findings from research in animal models and humans have shown a clear role for the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) on complex social behaviors. This is also true in the context of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies on peripheral OT concentrations in children and young adults have reported conflicting results with the initial studies presenting mainly decreased OT plasma levels in ASD compared to healthy controls. Our study therefore aimed to further investigate changes in peripheral OT concentrations as a potential surrogate for the effects observed in the central nervous system (CNS) in ASD. OT plasma concentrations were assessed in 19 male children and adolescents with ASD, all with an IQ > 70 (age 10.7 ± 3.8 years), 17 healthy male children (age 13.6 ± 2.1 years) and 19 young male patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a clinical control group (age 10.4 ± 1.9 years) using a validated radioimmunoassay. Analysis of covariance revealed significant group differences in OT plasma concentrations (F(2, 48) = 9.574, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.285; plasma concentrations ASD 19.61 ± 7.12 pg/ml, ADHD 8.05 ± 5.49 pg/ml, healthy controls 14.43 ± 9.64 pg/ml). Post hoc analyses showed significantly higher concentrations in children with ASD compared to ADHD (p < 0.001). After Bonferroni correction, there was no significant difference in ASD in comparison with healthy controls (p = 0.132). A significant strong correlation between plasma OT and autistic symptomatology, assessed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, was observed in the ASD group (p = 0.013, r = 0.603). Patients with ADHD differed from healthy control children by significantly decreased OT concentrations (p = 0.014). No significant influences of the covariates age, IQ, medication and comorbidity could be seen. Our preliminary results point to a correlation of OT plasma concentrations with autistic symptom load in children with ASD and a modulation of the OT system also in

  9. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix. PMID:27333959

  10. Adipocyte-specific deficiency of angiotensinogen decreases plasma angiotensinogen concentration and systolic blood pressure in mice.

    PubMed

    Yiannikouris, Frederique; Karounos, Michael; Charnigo, Richard; English, Victoria L; Rateri, Debra L; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A

    2012-01-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that overexpression of angiotensinogen (AGT) in adipose tissue increased blood pressure. However, the contribution of endogenous AGT in adipocytes to the systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure control is undefined. To define a role of adipocyte-derived AGT, mice with loxP sites flanking exon 2 of the AGT gene (Agt(fl/fl)) were bred to transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of an adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 promoter (aP2) promoter to generate mice with adipocyte AGT deficiency (Agt(aP2)). AGT mRNA abundance in adipose tissue and AGT secretion from adipocytes were reduced markedly in adipose tissues of Agt(aP2) mice. To determine the contribution of adipocyte-derived AGT to the systemic RAS and blood pressure control, mice were fed normal laboratory diet for 2 or 12 mo. In males and females of each genotype, body weight and fat mass increased with age. However, there was no effect of adipocyte AGT deficiency on body weight, fat mass, or adipocyte size. At 2 and 12 mo of age, mice with deficiency of AGT in adipocytes had reduced plasma concentrations of AGT (by 24-28%) compared with controls. Moreover, mice lacking AGT in adipocytes exhibited reduced systolic blood pressures compared with controls (Agt(fl/fl), 117 ± 2; Agt(aP2), 110 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that adipocyte-derived AGT contributes to the systemic RAS and blood pressure control. PMID:22071160

  11. Plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in mares treated with gondotropin-releasing hormone and estradiol.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M C; Ginther, O J

    1975-11-01

    Three experiments were performed to study the luteinizing hormone (LH) and ovulatory responses to various doses and methods of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in estrous pony mares and the influence of estradiol-17beta (E2-17beta) on LH response to GnRH treatment. In experiment 1, single injections of synthetic GnRH were subcutaneously given to 5 groups of estrous (day 2) mares (3 mares/group) on a body weight basis as follows: group A--isotonic saline solution; group B--GnRH, 0.14 mug/kg; group C--GnRH, 0.28 mug/kg; group D--KGnRH, 0.59 mug/kg; and group E--GnRH, 2.37 mug/kg. Significant increase of plasma LH concentration lasting for approximately 2 hours occurred only in mares of group E given the largest dose of GnRH (2.37 mug/kg). Plasma LH concentration increase at 1 hour after treatment approached significane (P less than 0.10) in mares of group D given the next smaller dose. In experiment 2, GnRH (2.37 mug/kg) was intravenously infused for 24 hours to a group of 6 mares (group F); 6 other mares (group G) were given saline solution infusion. Mean plasma LH concentration was increased at 3 hours, continued to increase until 6 hours, and remained at approximately the 6-hour concentration throughout the period of GnRH infusion. In the 3rd experiment, 3 groups of mares (4 mares/group) were subcutaneously given the following treatments on days 2 and 3 of estrus, respectively: group H--corn oil and saline solution; group I--corn oil and GnRH, 0.59 mug/kg; and group J--estradiol-17beta, 0.5 mg, and GnRH, 0.59 mug/kg. Plasma LH response was not seen in group H mares given corn oil and saline solution. Mean plasma LH concentration at 1 hour after administration of GnRH approached significance (P less than 0.10) in group I mares given corn oil and GnRH. For the mares in group J given E2-17beta and GnRH, E2-17beta pretreatment increased plasma LH after 24 horus; significnat increases of plasma LH concentration were seen from 1 to 6 hours after

  12. Low plasma concentrations of diet-derived antioxidants in association with microalbuminuria in Indigenous Australian populations.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Kevin; O'Dea, Kerin; Su, Qing; Jenkins, Alicia J; Best, James D

    2003-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is a risk factor for renal and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidant stress may contribute to vascular disease risk by promoting damage to renal and vascular tissues. This study examined the associations of plasma levels of diet-derived antioxidants with albuminuria in Australian population groups at high risk of renal and cardiovascular disease. Data on microalbuminuria and diet-derived plasma antioxidants were drawn from results of cross-sectional community-based risk factor surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (n =698, 15 years and older). Prevalence of microalbuminuria ranged from 17-21%. After adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, smoking status, plasma lipids and blood pressure, microalbuminuria was associated with significantly lower plasma concentrations of lycopene (-29%; P <0.001), beta-carotene (-22%; P <0.001), alpha-carotene (-22%; P <0.001) and cryptoxanthin (-17%; P <0.001) compared with normalbuminuric persons. Significant associations of microalbuminuria with plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, retinol, lutein plus zeaxanthin and homocysteine were absent. The data are consistent with a protective effect of diets rich in carotenoids on vascular endothelium and/or renal tissues, and support the need for interventions to address affordable food supplies and dietary quality among Indigenous Australians. PMID:12826019

  13. Plasma BDNF Concentration, Val66Met Genetic Variant, and Depression-Related Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Martin, Bronwen; Ansari, David; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maudsley, Stuart; Mattson, Mark P.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and BDNF plasma and serum levels have been associated with depression, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In a relatively large community sample, drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we examine whether BDNF plasma concentration is associated with the Val66Met functional polymorphism of the BDNF gene (n = 335) and with depression-related personality traits assessed with the NEO-PI-R (n = 391). Plasma concentration of BDNF was not associated with the Val66Met variant in either men or women. However, in men, but not in women, BDNF plasma level was associated with personality traits linked to depression. Contrary to the notion that low BDNF is associated with negative outcomes, we found lower plasma levels in men who score lower on depression and vulnerability to stress (two facets of Neuroticism) and higher on Conscientiousness and Extraversion. These findings challenge the prevailing hypothesis that lower peripheral levels of BDNF are a marker of depression. PMID:20345896

  14. Perfluorinated alkyl acids in the plasma of South African crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    PubMed

    Christie, Ian; Reiner, Jessica L; Bowden, John A; Botha, Hannes; Cantu, Theresa M; Govender, Danny; Guillette, Matthew P; Lowers, Russell H; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Pienaar, Danie; Smit, Willem J; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) are environmental contaminants that have been used in many products for over 50 years. Interest and concern has grown since 2000 on the widespread presence of PFAAs, when it was discovered that PFAAs were present in wildlife samples around the northern hemisphere. Since then, several studies have reported PFAAs in wildlife from many locations, including the remote regions of Antarctica and the Arctic. Although there are a multitude of studies, few have reported PFAA concentrations in reptiles and wildlife in the Southern Hemisphere. This study investigated the presence of PFAAs in the plasma of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa. Crocodiles were captured from five sites in and around the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and plasma samples examined for PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most frequent PFAA detected; with median values of 13.5 ng/g wet mass in crocodiles. In addition to PFOS, long chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids were also detected. Correlations between total length and PFAA load were investigated, as were differences in PFAA accumulation between sexes. No correlations were seen between crocodile size, nor were there sex-related differences. Spatial differences were examined and significant differences were observed in samples collected from the different sites (p < 0.05). Flag Boshielo Dam had the highest PFOS measurements, with a median concentration of 50.3 ng/g wet mass, when compared to the other sites (median concentrations at other sites below 14.0 ng/g wet mass). This suggests a point source of PFOS in this area. PMID:27038902

  15. Plasma protein(s) yields met-enkephalin-related peptides in near-micromolar concentrations when treated with pepsin.

    PubMed

    Singer, E A; Mitra, S P; Carraway, R E

    1986-10-01

    Treatment of animal and human plasmas with pepsin yielded large quantities of immunoreactive methionine5-enkephalin (i-met-ENK). The concentrations measured after pepsin treatment were 0.1-0.5 microM, about 1000 times the normal circulating level of i-met-ENK (0.03-0.3 nM). The reaction was shown to be time and pH dependent and to involve the action of pepsin on a protein(s) of about 65,000 mol wt. Pepsin-generated i-met-ENK from rat plasma gave three major peaks during reverse phase HPLC, one of which (approximately 25% of the total) coeluted with methionine5-enkephalin sulfoxide and also completed in a radioreceptor assay for opiate-related substances. In addition, this material produced met-ENK-like effects on vascular permeability in rat skin and inhibited electrically induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig ileum in a naloxone-sensitive manner. The plasma substrate(s) that yielded i-met-ENK was distinguished from adrenal proenkephalins, since partially purified plasma substrate(s) did not liberate i-met-ENK upon digestion with trypsin and carboxypeptidase B. Although it is possible that these peptides differ from met-ENK in amino acid sequence, the results presented here suggest that met-ENK-related substances might be formed physiologically by the action of a pepsin-related processing enzyme(s) on plasma substrate(s). Such a mechanism would be analogous to that used in the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:3093194

  16. Determination of plasma-free fatty acid kinetics with tracers: Methodologic considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, J.M.; Jensen, M.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Plasma-free fatty acids (FFA) are an important source of energy for a variety of tissues. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the measurement of FFA kinetics in vivo, using radiolabeled or stable isotopic tracers. Standard techniques for measurement of FFA-specific activity are relatively imprecise and have limited sensitivity. The authors have developed a method for determination of the concentration and specific activity of individual plasma FFA that is precise (coefficient of variation less than 2%) and sensitive (detection limit in the high femptomolar to low picomolar range). Using this method, one can measure the kinetics of three or more long-chain fatty acids simultaneously. Its sensitivity is a particular advantage if one wishes to measure low rates of FFA turnover such as are encountered during hyperinsulinemia. It has been suggested that, for optimal accuracy in the determination of substrate kinetics, the tracer should be administered in the left ventricle and mixed venous blood samples should be obtained from the right heart. They have conducted experiments in dogs which demonstrate that peripheral tracer infusion and more conventional arterial (or arterialized venous) sampling actually provide more accurate estimates of FFA turnover; this is fortunate, since intracardiac infusion and sampling are not practical for human studies. 39 references.

  17. Low Plasma N-3 Fatty Acids and Dementia in Older Persons: The InCHIANTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Cherubini, Antonio; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Martin, Antonio; Lauretani, Fulvio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Bartali, Benedetta; Corsi, Annamaria; Bandinelli, Stefania; Mattson, Mark P.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background N-3 fatty acids (FA) have an important role in brain development and function. However, there is conflicting evidence concerning the relationship between n-3 FA and dementia in older persons. Methods In the Invecchiare in Chianti (InCHIANTI) study, we measured plasma FA by gas chromatography in 935 community-dwelling older persons randomly extracted from the population of two towns near Florence, Italy. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Mini-Mental Status Examination. Participants who scored ≤26 underwent a detailed clinical and neuropsychological evaluation. The diagnosis of dementia was based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Revision (DSM-III-R) criteria. The population was divided in three groups: persons with normal cognitive function, persons with cognitive impairment not demented, and persons with dementia. Results After adjustment for age, gender, education, body mass index, weight loss, smoking status, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, daily intake of alcohol, FA and total energy, cardiovascular disease, depression and other FA levels, participants with dementia had significantly lower n-3 FA levels (2.9% vs 3.2%; p < .05), particularly alpha-linolenic acid levels (0.34% vs 0.39%; p < .05), than did participants with normal cognitive function. Conclusions Dementia is associated with low plasma n-3 FA relative concentrations. The possibility that higher n-3 FA intake is associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment should be further investigated in prospective studies. PMID:17921425

  18. Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Laminated Glass Treated by Acid Etching Combined with Cold Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xibao; Lu, Jinshan; Luo, Junming; Zhang, Jianjun; Ou, Junfei; Xu, Haitao

    2014-10-01

    To overcome the problem of interlaminar delamination of thermoplastic polyurethane laminated glass, silicate glass was etched with hydrofluoric acid and thermoplastic polyurethane was then treated with cold plasma. Compared with the untreated samples, the interlaminar shear strength of acid etching samples, cold plasma-treated samples and acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples increased by 97%, 84% and 341%, respectively. Acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples exhibited a higher flexural strength and strain as compared with the untreated samples. The impact energy of acid etching samples, cold plasma-treated samples and acid etching combined with cold plasma-treated samples increased by 8.7%, 8.1% and 11.6%, respectively, in comparison with the untreated samples. FT-IR analysis showed that a large number of -C=O, -CO-N and -CO-O-C- groups appeared on the surface of cold plasma-treated thermoplastic polyurethane, which resulted in the formation of hydrogen bonds. SEM results showed that some pittings formed on the surface of the silicate glass treated by acid etching, which resulted in the formation of a three-dimensional interface structure between the silicate glass and polyurethane. Hydrogen bonds combined with the three-dimensional interface between silicate glass and polyurethanes co-improved the mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethanes laminated glass.

  19. Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Maziarz, Marlena; Biggs, Mary L.; Ix, Joachim H.; Zieman, Susan J.; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Tracy, Russell P.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Siscovick, David S.; Sotoodehnia, Nona

    2013-01-01

    Although fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) may increase risk of diabetes and exert negative cardiac inotropy, it is unknown whether plasma concentrations of FABP4 are associated with incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). We prospectively analyzed data on 4,560 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study. FABP4 was measured at baseline using ELISA, and SCD events were adjudicated through review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards to estimate effect measures. During a median followup of 11.8 years, 146 SCD cases occurred. In a multivariable model adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and metabolic factors, relative risk of SCD associated with each higher standard deviation (SD) of plasma FABP4 was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.95–1.38), P = 0.15. In a secondary analysis stratified by prevalent diabetes status, FABP4 was associated with higher risk of SCD in nondiabetic participants, (RR per SD higher FABP4: 1.33 (95% CI: 1.07–1.65), P = 0.009) but not in diabetic participants (RR per SD higher FABP4: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62–1.27), P = 0.50), P for diabetes-FABP4 interaction 0.049. In summary, a single measure of plasma FABP4 obtained later in life was not associated with the risk of SCD in older adults overall. Confirmation of our post-hoc results in nondiabetic people in other studies is warranted. PMID:24455402

  20. Simultaneous liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry quantification of cefixime and clavulanic acid in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Dubala, Anil; Nagarajan, Janaki Sankarachari Krishnan; Vimal, Chandran Sathish; George, Renjith

    2015-01-01

    A simple and specific liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) assay method has been developed and fully validated for the simultaneous quantification of cefixime (CX) and clavulanic acid (CA) in human plasma. Analytes and internal standard were extracted from human plasma by a solid phase extraction technique using a Sam prep (3 mL, 100 mg) extraction cartridge. The extracted samples were chromatographed on a reverse phase C18 column using a mixture of methanol : acetonitrile : 2 mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.5) (25 : 25 : 50, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Quantification of the analytes were carried out using single quadrupole LC-APCI-MS through selected ion monitoring at m/z 452 and 198, respectively, for CX and CA. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.05-10.0 and 0.1-10.0 μg/mL, respectively, for CX and CA. The mean plasma extraction recoveries of the CX and CA were found to be 95.20-96.27% and 94.67-95.58%, respectively. The method was successfully applied for the determination of pharmacokinetics of CX and CA after oral administration of single dosage CX/CA (200/125 mg) pill to the humans (n = 12). PMID:25209681

  1. Impact of Dry Solids and Bile Acid Concentrations on Bile Acid Binding Capacity of Extruded Oat Cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded breakfast cereals (EBC), processed from two oat lines, N979-5-2-4 (N979) and ‘Jim’, with beta-glucan concentrations of 8.7 and 4.9%, respectively, were used to determine the impact of dry solids (DS) and bile acid (BA) concentrations on in vitro BA binding efficiency. A full fractional fact...

  2. A Novel Multivariate Index for Pancreatic Cancer Detection Based On the Plasma Free Amino Acid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Fukutake, Nobuyasu; Ueno, Makoto; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Shimada, Kazuaki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Ito, Toshifumi; Yamakado, Minoru; Ono, Nobukazu; Imaizumi, Akira; Kikuchi, Shinya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of pancreatic cancer (PC) continues to increase in the world, while most patients are diagnosed with advanced stages and survive <12 months. This poor prognosis is attributable to difficulty of early detection. Here we developed and evaluated a multivariate index composed of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) for early detection of PC. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in multi-institutions in Japan. Fasting plasma samples from PC patients (n = 360), chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients (n = 28), and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 8372) without apparent cancers who were undergoing comprehensive medical examinations were collected. Concentrations of 19 PFAAs were measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We generated an index consisting of the following six PFAAs: serine, asparagine, isoleucine, alanine, histidine, and tryptophan as variables for discrimination in a training set (120 PC and matching 600 HC) and evaluation in a validation set (240 PC, 28 CP, and 7772 HC). Results Several amino acid concentrations in plasma were significantly altered in PC. Plasma tryptophan and histidine concentrations in PC were particularly low, while serine was particularly higher than that of HC. The area under curve (AUC) based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the resulting index to discriminate PC from HC were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86–0.93] in the training set. In the validation set, AUCs based on ROC curve analysis of the PFAA index were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84–0.89) for all PC patients versus HC subjects, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.75–0.86) for PC patients from stage IIA to IIB versus HC subjects, and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.80–0.93) for all PC patients versus CP patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that the PFAA profile of PC was significantly different from that of HC. The PFAA index is a promising biomarker for screening and diagnosis of PC. PMID:26133769

  3. Optical detection of concentrations for mixed acid: HF and HNO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Gumin; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2009-02-01

    Mixed acid, which consist of HF and HNO3, is used as a good etchant for silicon dioxide in the wet etching and pickling process of stainless steel. The optical detection of concentration for such mixed acids is crucial to optimize and cut costs in the manufacturing process. Optical detection in the IR regime has been utilized to measure the concentration of the mixed acid for HF and HNO3, because that has several strong absorption peaks, which is contributed by vibrational mode of each acid molecular in this spectrum. In this research, we observed the concentrations of mixed acid to consist of HF and HNO3, as we measured the absorption intensity of OH- stretch and NO3 - stretch band by optical spectroscopy. The concentration range of HF over 1.5-3 wt% and that of HNO3 over 2-10 wt% were studied in room temperature.

  4. Diagnostics of PF-1000 Facility Operation and Plasma Concentration on the Basis of Spectral Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Scholz, M.; Tsarenko, A. V.

    2006-01-15

    The paper concerns the monitoring of high-current pulse discharges and the determination of the plasma concentration within the dense magnetized plasma by means of optical spectroscopy methods. In experiments with the large PF-1000 facility operated at IPPLM in Warsaw, Poland, attention was paid to the determination of the operational mode and electron concentration under different experimental conditions. To measure the visible radiation (VR) the use was made of the MECHELLE registered 900-spectrometer equipped with the CCD readout. The VR emission, observed at 65 deg. to the z-axis, originated from a part of the electrode surfaces, the collapsing current-sheath layer and the dense plasma pinch-region (40-50 mm from the electrode ends). Considerable differences were found in the optical spectra recorded for so-called 'good shots' and for cases of some failures. Estimates of the electron concentration, which were performed with different spectroscopic techniques, showed that it ranged from 5.56x1018 cm-3 to 4.8x1019 cm-3, depending on experimental conditions. The correlation of the fusion-neutron yield and the plasma density was proved.

  5. Subspecies differences in early fetal development and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in cattle.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, P M; Waters, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Elzo, M A; Johnson, S E; Rae, D O; Yelich, J V; Ealy, A D

    2013-08-01

    Inclusion of Bos indicus genetics improves production traits of cattle maintained in hot climates. Limited information exists detailing pregnancy-specific events as influenced by variable amounts of Bos indicus genetics. Three experiments were completed to examine the effect of Bos taurus and Bos indicus genotypes on fetal size and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations. In all experiments, cows were bred by AI after synchronization of ovulation. Fetal measurements were completed by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma PAG concentrations were quantified from plasma harvested the day of each fetal measurement. In Exp. 1, fetal size and plasma PAG concentrations were measured at d 53 of pregnancy in cows composed of various fractions of Angus and Brahman (n = 9 to 21 cows/group). Fetus size was greater in cows containing >80% Angus genetics compared with cows containing <80% Angus influence (3.40 ± 0.28 vs. 2.86 ± 0.28 cm crown-rump length; P < 0.01). Plasma PAG concentrations were reduced (P < 0.01) in cows containing >80% Angus genetics when compared with their contemporaries (6.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL vs. 9.4 ± 1.5 ng/mL). In Exp. 2, fetal measurements and plasma PAG concentrations were determined at d 35 and 62 of pregnancy in Angus and Brangus cows. Breed did not affect fetus size at d 35, but Angus cows contained larger fetuses than Brangus cows at d 62 [3.0 ± 0.03 vs. 2.8 ± 0.03 cm crown-nose length (CNL; P > 0.01)]. Plasma PAG concentrations were not different between breed at d 35 and 62 (P > 0.1). In Exp. 3, fetal measurements and plasma samples were collected at d 33/34, 40/41, 47/48, and 54/55 post-AI in Angus and Brangus cows. Fetus size was not different (P > 0.05) between genotypes on d 33/34, 40/41, and 47/48. Angus fetuses were larger than Brangus fetuses at d 54/55 (2.1 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.03 cm CNL; P = 0.001). Plasma PAG concentrations were less in Angus than Brangus cows at each time point (average 4.9 ± 0.9 vs. 8.2 ± 0

  6. Effect of degree of hydrolysis of whey protein on in vivo plasma amino acid appearance in humans.

    PubMed

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, Stine Klejs; Storm, Adam C; Klitgaard, Søren; Jørgensen, Henry; Bibby, Bo M; Serena, Anja; Vissing, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein is generally found to be faster digested and to promote faster and higher increases in plasma amino acid concentrations during the immediate ~60 min following protein ingestion compared to casein. The aim of the present study was to compare three different whey protein hydrolysates with varying degrees of hydrolysis (DH, % cleaved peptide bonds) to evaluate if the degree of whey protein hydrolysis influences the rate of amino acid plasma appearance in humans. A casein protein was included as reference. The three differentially hydrolysed whey proteins investigated were: High degree of hydrolysis (DH, DH = 48 %), Medium DH (DH = 27 %), and Low DH (DH = 23 %). The casein protein was intact. Additionally, since manufacturing of protein products may render some amino acids unavailable for utilisation in the body the digestibility and the biological value of all four protein fractions were evaluated in a rat study. A two-compartment model for the description of the postprandial plasma amino acid kinetics was applied to investigate the rate of postprandial total amino acid plasma appearance of the four protein products. The plasma amino acid appearance rates of the three whey protein hydrolysates (WPH) were all significantly higher than for the casein protein, however, the degree of hydrolysis of the WPH products did not influence plasma total amino acid appearance rate (estimates of DH and 95 % confidence intervals [CI] (mol L(-1) min(-1)): High DH 0.0585 [0.0454, 0.0754], Medium DH 0.0594 [0.0495, 0.0768], Low DH 0.0560 [0.0429, 0.0732], Casein 0.0194 [0.0129, 0.0291]). The four protein products were all highly digestible, while the biological value decreased with increasing degree of hydrolysis. In conclusion, the current study does not provide evidence that the degree of whey protein hydrolysis is a strong determinant for plasma amino acid appearance rate within the studied range of hydrolysis and protein dose. PMID:27065230

  7. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  8. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation. PMID:27377748

  9. Effect of nitric acid concentrations on synthesis and stability of maghemite nanoparticles suspension.

    PubMed

    Nurdin, Irwan; Johan, Mohd Rafie; Yaacob, Iskandar Idris; Ang, Bee Chin

    2014-01-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical coprecipitation method at different nitric acid concentrations as an oxidizing agent. Characterization of all samples performed by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential. The XRD patterns confirmed that the particles were maghemite. The crystallite size of all samples decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TEM observation showed that the particles have spherical morphology with narrow particle size distribution. The particles showed superparamagnetic behavior with decreased magnetization values at the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TGA measurement showed that the stability temperature decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. DLS measurement showed that the hydrodynamic particle sizes decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. Zeta potential values show a decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. The increasing concentration of nitric acid in synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles produced smaller size particles, lower magnetization, better thermal stability, and more stable maghemite nanoparticles suspension. PMID:24963510

  10. Effect of Nitric Acid Concentrations on Synthesis and Stability of Maghemite Nanoparticles Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Iskandar Idris

    2014-01-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical coprecipitation method at different nitric acid concentrations as an oxidizing agent. Characterization of all samples performed by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and zeta potential. The XRD patterns confirmed that the particles were maghemite. The crystallite size of all samples decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TEM observation showed that the particles have spherical morphology with narrow particle size distribution. The particles showed superparamagnetic behavior with decreased magnetization values at the increasing concentration of nitric acid. TGA measurement showed that the stability temperature decreases with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. DLS measurement showed that the hydrodynamic particle sizes decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. Zeta potential values show a decrease with the increasing concentration of nitric acid. The increasing concentration of nitric acid in synthesis of maghemite nanoparticles produced smaller size particles, lower magnetization, better thermal stability, and more stable maghemite nanoparticles suspension. PMID:24963510

  11. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings. PMID:25087500

  12. Perfluoroalkyl substances and lipid concentrations in plasma during pregnancy among women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Starling, Anne P.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Whitworth, Kristina W.; Richardson, David B.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Daniels, Julie L.; Haug, Line Småstuen; Eggesbø, Merete; Becher, Georg; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wilson, Ralph E.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Baird, Donna D.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are widespread and persistent environmental pollutants. Previous studies, primarily among non-pregnant individuals, suggest positive associations between PFAS levels and certain blood lipids. If there is a causal link between PFAS concentrations and elevated lipids during pregnancy, this may suggest a mechanism by which PFAS exposure leads to certain adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 891 pregnant women enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBa) Cohort Study in 2003–2004. Non-fasting plasma samples were obtained at mid-pregnancy and analyzed for nineteen PFASs. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured in plasma. Linear regression was used to quantify associations between each PFAS exposure and each lipid outcome. A multiple PFAS model was also fitted. Results Seven PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of samples. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) concentration was associated with total cholesterol, which increased 4.2 mg/dL per interquartile shift (95% CI=0.8, 7.7) in adjusted models. Five of the seven PFASs studied were positively associated with HDL cholesterol, and all seven had elevated HDL associated with the highest quartile of exposure. Perfluoroundecanoic acid showed the strongest association with HDL: HDL increased 3.7 mg/dL per interquartile shift (95% CI=2.5, 4.9). Conclusion Plasma concentrations of PFASs were positively associated with HDL cholesterol, and PFOS was positively associated with total cholesterol in this sample of pregnant Norwegian women. While elevated HDL is not an adverse outcome per se, elevated total cholesterol associated with PFASs during pregnancy could be of concern if causal. PMID:24189199

  13. Cationic RAFT polymerization using ppm concentrations of organic acid.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Mineto; Satoh, Kotaro; Kamigaito, Masami

    2015-02-01

    A metal-free, cationic, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization was proposed and realized. A series of thiocarbonylthio compounds were used in the presence of a small amount of triflic acid for isobutyl vinyl ether to give polymers with controlled molecular weight of up to 1×10(5) and narrow molecular-weight distributions (Mw /Mn <1.1). This "living" or controlled cationic polymerization is applicable to various electron-rich monomers including vinyl ethers, p-methoxystyrene, and even p-hydroxystyrene that possesses an unprotected phenol group. A transformation from cationic to radical RAFT polymerization enables the synthesis of block copolymers between cationically and radically polymerizable monomers, such as vinyl ether and vinyl acetate or methyl acrylate. PMID:25511364

  14. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  15. Plasma and skeletal muscle amino acids following severe burn injury in patients and experimental animals.

    PubMed Central

    Stinnett, J D; Alexander, J W; Watanabe, C; MacMillan, B G; Fischer, J E; Morris, M J; Trocki, O; Miskell, P; Edwards, L; James, H

    1982-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes sequential changes in plasma and skeletal muscle free amino acids following severe burn injury. Plasma free amino acids were determined in children (n = 9) with burns averaging 60% total body surface area and were compared with laboratory beagles (n = 44) which received a flame burn totaling 30% of their body surface area. In addition, needle biopsy specimens were obtained from the semitendonosus muscle in the animals to determine free intracellular amino acids. In both patients and animals the amount of total free amino acids in plasma fell following burn, suggesting relative protein deficiency. This drop was primarily due to a 47% drop in nonessential amino acids. However, plasma phenylalanine was consistently higher than normal following burn, and was strongly associated with death and weight loss in both animals and patients, especially when analyzed as a ratio with tyrosine. This finding suggested excessive catabolism, hepatic dysfunction, or both. Plasma levels of several amino acids correlated significantly with weight loss. Alterations in muscle free amino acids generally were similar to plasma amino acids. Exceptions were muscle alanine and glycine which strongly correlated with weight loss. However, the determination of muscle free amino acid profiles did not yield clinically useful information not available from plasma profiles. Plasma levels of liver enzymes suggested progressive hepatic dysfunction. These studies show that the laboratory beagle is a good model for studying the metabolic alterations of amino acids that accompany burn injury, since they mimic humans in many parameters which appear to be most useful with respect to clinical evaluation. PMID:7055386

  16. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  17. Interactions of valproic acid with carbamazepine and its metabolites' concentrations, concentrations ratios, and level/dose ratios in epileptic children.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Delgado, M R; Browne, R H

    1995-02-01

    In two groups of epileptic children receiving carbamazepine (CBZ) therapy with or without valproic acid (VPA) comedication, we investigate the drug interactions of VPA on serum CBZ and its metabolites' concentrations, concentration ratios, and level/dose ratios. Serum total and free CBZ-10, 11-epoxide (CBZ-E) concentrations are significantly increased in patients taking CBZ plus VPA, together with higher CBZ-E/CBZ concentration ratios and CBZ-E level/dose ratios. These results reflect the accumulation of CBZ-E. The decreased concentration ratios of trans-10, 11-dihydroxy-10, 11-dihydro-CBZ (CBZ-H)/CBZ-E observed in patients taking CBZ plus VPA suggest an inhibition in the biotransformation from CBZ-E to CBZ-H. Significant negative correlations are found between serum VPA level and CBZ-H/CBZ-E concentration ratios, indicating that the inhibition of CBZ-E hydrolysis by VPA may depend on the concentration of VPA (total or free CBZ-H/CBZ-E concentration ratio = [formula: see text], respectively). VPA concentration also shows significant positive correlations with CBZ-E and CBZ level/dose ratios. Patients taking CBZ plus VPA have significant higher free fractions of CBZ and CBZ-E than do patients on CBZ alone, suggesting a protein-binding displacement by VPA. PMID:8665529

  18. Uracil misincorporation into DNA of leukocytes of young women with positive folate balance depends on plasma vitamin B12 concentrations and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kapiszewska, Maria; Kalemba, Malgorzata; Wojciech, Urszula; Milewicz, Tomasz

    2005-08-01

    Changes in the folate and vitamin B12 status in the body influence the extent of uracil misincorporation (UrMis) into DNA, which is one of the biomarkers of genomic stability and, thus, portends a risk of cancer. In our study, the level of UrMis into DNA was evaluated by the comet assay (using the specific DNA repair enzyme, uracil DNA glycosylase) in leukocytes from blood donated by healthy young women with positive folate balance achieved by 4 weeks of folic acid supplementation (400 microg/day). The nutritional status was evaluated on the basis of nine food diaries recorded by the subjects during two winter months. The data were computerized, and the intake of nutrients and micronutrients was estimated using the DIETA 2 program (Food and Nutrition Institute, Warsaw, Poland) linked to recently updated Polish food tables. The plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentration, as well as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, were evaluated to determine their influence on the level of UrMis into DNA. The mean value of B12 intake for all subjects reached 100% of the Polish recommended dietary allowances (RDA), whereas the mean value of folate intake, before folate supplementation, was 50%, suggesting moderate deficiency. Folic acid supplementation brought the folate intake way above the RDA, and plasma folate concentration in each individual was above the deficient range (mean value 14.67 ng/ml). The UrMis did not correlate with the plasma folate concentration, but the level of UrMis was significantly lower in subjects with plasma vitamin B12 concentration above 400 pg/ml (P=.02) only after folic acid supplementation. The concentration of folate in plasma correlated (Pconcentration of folate in plasma was significantly lower in subjects with the MTHFR 677 (CT+TT) polymorphism, which was accompanied by a

  19. Dose-response of five bile acids on serum and liver bile Acid concentrations and hepatotoxicty in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Peizhen; Zhang, Youcai; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2011-10-01

    Feeding bile acids (BAs) to rodents has been used to study BA signaling and toxicity in vivo. However, little is known about the effect of feeding BAs on the concentrations of BAs in serum and liver as well as the dose of the fed BAs that causes liver toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the relative hepatotoxicity of individual BAs by feeding mice cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, or 3% in their diet for 7 days. The data demonstrate that (1) the ability of the fed BAs to produce hepatotoxicity is UDCAconcentration of each BA in the feed that causes hepatotoxicity in mice is CA and CDCA at 0.3%, DCA at 0.1%, and LCA at 0.03%; (3) BA feeding results in a dose-dependent increase in the total serum BA concentrations but had little effect on liver total BA concentrations; (4) hepatotoxicity of the fed BAs does not simply depend on the concentration or hydrophobicity of total BAs in the liver; and (5) liver BA-conjugation enzymes are saturated by feeding UDCA at concentrations higher than 0.3%. In conclusion, the findings of the present study provide guidance for choosing the feeding concentrations of BAs in mice and will aid in interpreting BA hepatotoxicity as well as BA-mediated gene regulation. PMID:21747115

  20. Pre-dose plasma concentration monitoring of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Streicher, Caroline; Djabarouti, Sarah; Xuereb, Fabien; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Legeron, Rachel; Bouchet, Stéphane; Greib, Carine; Breilh, Dominique; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Viallard, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Aim To date, neither the benefit of mycophenolic acid (MPA) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), the prodrug of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), nor the optimal monitoring technique have been established in autoimmune diseases. This study was undertaken to confirm, in a cohort of new patients, the plasma MPA thresholds previously published in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or vasculitis. Methods MPA areas under the concentration–time curves between 0 and 12 h, 12 h trough concentrations and pre-dose concentrations (C0) were determined for 23 patients with SLE and 21 with systemic vasculitis. The relationship between patients' pharmacokinetic (PK) variables and their clinical outcomes during follow-up were analyzed. Results In both autoimmune diseases, at PK assessment, median MPA C0 for patients with uncontrolled disease was significantly lower than that of patients with stable disease or in remission, 1.6 mg l–1 (IQR 0.9–2.1 mg l–1) vs. 2.95 mg l–1 (IQR 1.38–3.73 mg l–1) for SLE (P = 0.048) and 1.55 mg l–1 (IQR 0.98–2.18 mg l–1) vs. 3 mg l–1 (IQR 2.2–4.4 mg l–1) for vasculitis (P = 0.016). According to our receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, a C0 threshold of 2.5–3 mg l–1 was best able to discriminate a flare (SLE: 88% sensitivity, 80% specificity; vasculitis: 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity). Patients with C0 ≥ 2.5–3 mg l–1 at inclusion had better clinical outcomes during the 12 months following PK assessment. Conclusion Provided that the benefit of TDM in patients with autoimmune diseases could be confirmed by randomized, controlled trials, it might be based on the C0 measured approximately 12 h post-dose. PMID:25041114

  1. Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus with plasma organochlorine compound concentrations.

    PubMed

    Eden, Paul R; Meek, Edward C; Wills, Robert W; Olsen, Eric V; Crow, J Allen; Chambers, Janice E

    2016-03-01

    The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with obesity, age, and sedentary lifestyle, but exposure to some organochlorine (OC) compounds has also been recently implicated. The hypothesis tested is that higher concentrations of bioaccumulative OC compounds are associated with T2DM. Plasma samples were obtained from a cross-section of adult male and female Caucasians and African Americans, either with or without T2DM from two US Air Force medical facilities. A method of extracting OC compounds from human plasma using solid phase extraction was developed, and three OC compounds [p,p'-DDE (DDE), trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane] were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that increasing body mass index (BMI) was associated with T2DM in Caucasians but not in African Americans, and African Americans were more likely to have T2DM than Caucasians with decreasing odds ratios as BMI increased. An association between T2DM and increasing plasma DDE (adjusted for age, base, race, and BMI) was observed. Increasing DDE concentrations were associated with T2DM in older individuals and those with lower BMIs. Thus, in this study sample there was a higher risk of T2DM with increasing DDE concentrations in older people of normal weight and relatively lower risk associated with increasing DDE concentrations in those who are overweight or obese. PMID:25335866

  2. Clinically achievable plasma deferoxamine concentrations are therapeutic in a rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Merali, S; Chin, K; Del Angel, L; Grady, R W; Armstrong, M; Clarkson, A B

    1995-01-01

    The iron-chelating drug deferoxamine (DFO) has been shown to be active in animal models of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), with effective daily intraperitoneal bolus dosages being 400 and 1,000 mg of DFO mesylate kg of body weight-1 in mouse and rat models, respectively. Continuous infusion produced a moderately improved response in a rat model. The data reported here demonstrate that the response achieved by continuous infusion of 195 and 335 mg of DFO mesylate kg-1 day-1 in the rat model is associated with mean concentrations in plasma of 1.3 and 2.5 micrograms of DFO ml-1 and mean concentrations in lung tissue of 4.9 and 6.0 micrograms of DFO g of lung tissue-1, respectively. Since current clinical use of DFO mesylate for the treatment of iron overload produces higher concentrations in the plasma of patients, DFO may prove to be a useful anti-PCP treatment. The 2.4- to 3.8-fold higher DFO concentration observed in lung tissue compared with that observed in plasma may be important in the response of PCP to DFO. PMID:8540710

  3. Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentrations in Adults without Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Martin-Borras, Carme; de-la-Cal-dela-Fuente, Aventina; Sauras-Llera, Ines; Sanchez-Perez, Alvaro; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Methods A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women). Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs)/hour/week) and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days. Results Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute) and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week). Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = −0.100; p<0.001) and METs/hour/week (r = −0.162; p<0.001). In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week) respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile), maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = −0.03; p = 0.046 and β = −0.06; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders. PMID:24498413

  4. Onset of clinical effects and plasma concentration of fluvoxamine in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Shinya; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takei, Noriyoshi; Mori, Norio; Kawakami, Junichi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Shizuo; Namiki, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Hisakuni

    2010-01-01

    It is widely accepted that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) require 2 to 4 weeks of administration before improvements in emotional symptoms of depression are seen. We evaluated whether early monitoring of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD) scores in patients treated with the SSRI fluvoxamine could predict antidepressant response, and also assessed the relationship between the onset of clinical response following the start of fluvoxamine administration and its plasma concentration. Twelve depressed patients (baseline HAMD score ≥15) received an initial dose of fluvoxamine (50 mg/d) followed by an optimized maintenance dose according to their clinical symptoms after 7 d. HAMD scores and plasma drug concentrations were determined at 7 and 28 d after the first administration. There were 7 responders and 5 non-responders on day 28, as evaluated by HAMD scores. The HAMD score for the responders was significantly lower than that for the non-responders on day 7 (mean±S.D., 11.6±6.1 vs. 26.6±6.5, p=0.006). Thus, the reduction in HAMD score on day 7 was clearly divided between responders and non-responders. On day 28, the plasma concentration of fluvoxamine in responders was lower than that in non-responders (14.2±10.5 ng/ml vs. 44.2±28.1 ng/ml, p=0.051). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis conducted on day 28 revealed an upper concentration threshold of 28.2 ng/ml (p=0.042), with none in the responder group above that level. Our results suggest that HAMD score after the first week of treatment with fluvoxamine and the upper threshold of plasma drug concentration could predict whether a patient is a non-responder. PMID:21139240

  5. Determination of neutral carbon concentration in electron cyclotron resonance generated plasma discharges.

    PubMed

    Ene, A B; Lindner, P; Stirn, R; Schumacher, U

    2007-12-01

    Carbon containing plasmas play an important role not only in plasma technology but also in thermonuclear fusion research. In order to understand and control the processes taking place in the plasma, the knowledge of the carbon ground state density is of major importance. It can be determined by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Detailed measurements were performed in the past to determine the silicon ground state density by means of spectroscopy of the self-absorbed spectral lines of the silicon ground state multiplet at 251 nm. The same procedure was applied for the determination of the carbon concentration, for which the carbon multiplet at 165 nm was analyzed and compared to a simulated spectrum. The ground state density was determined by two independent methods. PMID:18163723

  6. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  7. Forearm mineral content in normal men: relationship to weight, height and plasma testosterone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    McElduff, A.; Wilkinson, M.; Ward, P.; Posen, S.

    1988-01-01

    We measured forearm bone mineral content by single photon absorptiometry together with height, weight and the plasma concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone and sex steroid binding globulin in 66 normal Caucasian males aged 29-46 years. Multiple regression analysis suggests that bone mineral content in either the dominant or the nondominant arm is correlated with weight and sex steroid binding globulin (p less than 0.05 for both parameters). The partial negative correlation of bone mineral content (corrected for weight and sex steroid binding globulin) with plasma testosterone failed to reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The parsimonious regression equation which best explained the bone mineral content measurements in the nondominant forearm in these men was bone mineral content = 29.1-0.374 (plasma testosterone) + 0.383 (weight) + 0.220 (sex steroid binding globulin) with an R2 value of 29.7%. A similar equation was generated for the dominant arm.

  8. Determination of neutral carbon concentration in electron cyclotron resonance generated plasma discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Ene, A. B.; Lindner, P.; Stirn, R.; Schumacher, U.

    2007-12-15

    Carbon containing plasmas play an important role not only in plasma technology but also in thermonuclear fusion research. In order to understand and control the processes taking place in the plasma, the knowledge of the carbon ground state density is of major importance. It can be determined by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Detailed measurements were performed in the past to determine the silicon ground state density by means of spectroscopy of the self-absorbed spectral lines of the silicon ground state multiplet at 251 nm. The same procedure was applied for the determination of the carbon concentration, for which the carbon multiplet at 165 nm was analyzed and compared to a simulated spectrum. The ground state density was determined by two independent methods.

  9. Productivity of concentrated hyaluronic acid using a Maxblend fermentor.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, S; Nagatsuru, M; Shibutani, M; Yamamoto, S; Hasebe, S

    1999-01-01

    Application of the Maxblend impeller to the fermentative production of hyaluronic acid (HA) was investigated. A 2-m3-scale fermentor fitted with this impeller (MBF) was used and the main fermentation was started with 85% of the nominal volume containing the pre-culture broth and medium. The kinetic characteristics of the MBF were compared with those of a conventional-type fermentor fitted with a turbine blade (TBN). The HA production yield in the MBF was over 20% higher than that in the TBN under the operating conditions of a high aeration rate and low vessel pressure since the broth viscosity increased. The apparent viscosity of the broth at the end of the cultivation rose to about 70 Pa.s. The molecular weight of the HA produced was independent of the agitation speed within the investigated range, and no significant difference was observed between the viscosity-average molecular weights of the HA obtained in the two types of fermentor, each having an estimated value of 4.3 x 10(6) under the same agitation power. PMID:16232576

  10. Relationship between adipic acid concentration and the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Puig-Alcaraz, Carmen; Fuentes-Albero, Milagros; Cauli, Omar

    2016-08-30

    Dicarboxylic acids are an important source of information about metabolism and potential physiopathological alterations in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We measured the concentration between dicarboxylic adipic and suberic acids in children with an ASD and typically-developing (TD) children and analyzed any relationships between the severity of the core symptoms of ASDs and other clinical features (drugs, supplements, drugs, or diet). The core symptoms of autism were evaluated using the DSM-IV criteria, and adipic acid and suberic acid were measured in urine samples. Overall, no increase in the concentration of adipic acid in children with ASDs compared to TD children, however when considering vitamin B supplementation in ASD there were significantly increased level of urinary adipic acid in children with an ASD not taking vitamin B supplementation compared to supplemented children or to TD children. No significant difference were observed in suberic acid. Interestingly, the increase in adipic acid concentration was significantly and indirectly correlated with the severity of the deficit in socialization and communication skills in children with an ASD. Therefore, therapeutic treatments aimed at decreasing adipic acid concentration might not be beneficial for treating the core symptoms of ASDs. PMID:27259135

  11. Haloperidol plasma concentration in Japanese psychiatric subjects with gene duplication of CYP2D6

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuma, Tohru; Shibata, Nobuto; Matsubara, Yoichiro; Arai, Heii

    2003-01-01

    Aims The cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene duplication/multiduplication producing an increase in enzyme activity, and the common Japanese mutation, CYP2D6*10A producing a decrease of enzyme activity were screened in a large number of Japanese psychiatric subjects (n = 111) in order to investigate whether these mutated alleles affected the plasma concentration of haloperidol. Methods Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was performed to identify the CYP2D6*10A and CYP2D6*2 genotypes in subjects who had been taking haloperidol. For the screening of duplicated active CYP2D6 gene, allele-specific long PCR was performed. Plasma concentration of haloperidol was measured by the enzyme immunoassay, and expressed as ‘plasma concentration dose ratio’ to normalize individual differences. Results The plasma concentration–dose ratio showed large interindividual differences of approximately 18-fold. PCR-RFLP methods revealed that 29 (26.1%), 10 (9.0%), 39 (35.1%), 0 (0%), seven (6.3%) and 26 (23.4%) cases possessed the CYP2D6 genotypes *1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*10A, *2/*2, *2/*10A and *10 A/*10A, respectively. Six cases (5.4%) had duplicated CYP2D6 genes. There were no significant differences of plasma concentration–dose ratio between the groups classified by CYP2D6*10A and *2 genotypes (Kruskal–Wallis test; P = 0.37), even in those cases whose daily doses were lower than 20 mg (n = 90, P = 0.91). Subjects having duplicated genes (n = 6) did not show significant differences of plasma concentration–dose ratio by comparison with subjects who had no duplicated genes (Mann–Whitney U-test; P = 0.80). Conclusions Gene duplication, and the common Japanese mutation CYP2D6*10A on CYP2D6 gene are not likely to be the main modulatory factors of plasma concentration of haloperidol in Japanese psychiatric subjects. PMID:12919180

  12. Whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics from plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in the free-living rat.

    PubMed

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    Whole body docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is considered to be very low, however, the daily synthesis-secretion of DHA may be sufficient to supply the adult brain. The current study aims to assess whether whole body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics are different when comparing plasma ALA versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) as the precursor. Male Long Evans rats (n=6) were fed a 2% ALA in total fat diet for eight weeks, followed by surgery to implant a catheter into each of the jugular vein and carotid artery and 3h of steady-state infusion with a known amount of (2)H-ALA and (13)C-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n3). Blood samples were collected at thirty-minute intervals and plasma enrichment of (2)H- and (13)C EPA, n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3) and DHA were determined for assessment of synthesis-secretion kinetic parameters. Results indicate a 13-fold higher synthesis-secretion coefficient for DHA from EPA as compared to ALA. However, after correcting for the 6.6 fold higher endogenous plasma ALA concentration, no significant differences in daily synthesis-secretion (nmol/day) of DHA (97.6±28.2 and 172±62), DPAn-3 (853±279 and 1139±484) or EPA (1587±592 and 1628±366) were observed from plasma unesterified ALA and EPA sources, respectively. These results suggest that typical diets which are significantly higher in ALA compared to EPA yield similar daily DHA synthesis-secretion despite a significantly higher synthesis-secretion coefficient from EPA. PMID:27263420

  13. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  14. Fatty acid ethyl ester-synthesizing activity of lipoprotein lipase from rat postheparin plasma.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, T; Okuda, H

    1994-02-25

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) was obtained from rat postheparin plasma by chromatographies on heparin-Sepharose and hydroxyapatite. The enzyme was associated with fatty acid ethyl ester synthase (FAEE synthase) as judged by their co-elution profiles and identical profiles of inhibition by diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Only one polypeptide of molecular weight 57,000 in purified LPL fraction was labeled by affinity labeling with [3H]-diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The FAEE synthase activity of LPL was not affected by addition of apolipoprotein C-II. Digestion of the enzyme with trypsin resulted in almost complete loss of the triolein-hydrolyzing activity without change in FAEE synthase activity. The tributyrin-hydrolyzing activity of LPL was also not affected by addition of apolipoprotein C-II or trypsin digestion. On addition at progressively higher concentrations, bovine serum albumin increased FAEE synthesis to a maximum at 2 mg/ml and at higher concentrations inhibited its activity. On incubation of purified LPL with chylomicrons in an ethanol/water mixture, FAEE was formed in the presence of a high concentration of bovine serum albumin. The specific activity of FAEE synthesis from chylomicrons was about 65 times that from oleic acid. Triolein/gum arabic emulsion was used for identification of reaction products. We propose the following mechanism of FAEE formation from chylomicrons by LPL. The enzyme attacks chylomicrons forming an acyl-enzyme intermediate, and during the deacylation process, ethanol binds to fatty acids as an acceptor. These results suggest that LPL contributes to nonoxidative ethanol metabolism (FAEE formation) through degradation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins such as chylomicrons. PMID:8119932

  15. Continuous intragastric delivery of fenoldopam: relationship between plasma concentration and effects on renal function.

    PubMed Central

    Ziemniak, J A; Boppana, V K; Cyronak, M J; Beck, T R; Familiar, R G; Dubb, J W; Allison, N L; Stote, R M

    1988-01-01

    1. The pharmacodynamics of the dopamine DA1 agonist fenoldopam were examined in six healthy male volunteers after constant intragastric infusions of fenoldopam at dosages of 0, 10, 25, 50 and 75 mg h-1 for 6 h. 2. Hourly p-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance was used to assess fenoldopam induced renal plasma flow changes. Marked dose-related increases in renal plasma flow were noted with a maximal increase of 65% over baseline values of 711 ml min-1 being seen at the 75 mg h-1 rate. No changes in sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate were observed. 3. Mean steady-state fenoldopam plasma concentrations were related to mean PAH clearance based on an Emax model (r = 0.996) with an Emax of 1350 ml min-1 and an EC50 of 6.2 ng ml-1. 4. Mean steady-state plasma concentrations of fenoldopam-7-sulphate and fenoldopam-8-sulphate failed to increase with dose but were linearly correlated to mean PAH changes (r = 0.998, r = 0.981 respectively). 5. These results support the concept of extending fenoldopam's duration of action through the development of an oral sustained delivery system. PMID:2896014

  16. Plasma concentrations of transsulfuration pathway products during nasoenteral and intravenous hyperalimentation of malnourished patients.

    PubMed

    Chawla, R K; Berry, C J; Kutner, M H; Rudman, D

    1985-10-01

    We have monitored the plasma concentrations of products of the transsulfuration pathway in 11 undernourished noncirrhotic patients, and in 10 cachectic cirrhotic subjects, before and during nasoenteral nutrition with Vivonex (Norwich-Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Norwich, NY) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with FreAmine III (American McGaw, Irvine, CA). In the cirrhotic cases eating a mixed diet, levels of taurine, cysteine, plasma glutathione, and free choline were subnormal. During nasoenteral hyperalimentation, methionine was elevated while cysteine, glutathione, and free choline levels remained depressed. During TPN, levels of taurine, cysteine, protein-bound cysteine, glutathione, free choline, and phosphatidyl choline were depressed and methionine was elevated. In the noncirrhotic cases eating a mixed diet, only the free choline concentration was low. During nasoenteral hyperalimentation, the plasma levels of both free choline and total carnitine were depressed. During TPN, plasma levels of cystine, protein-bound cysteine, total carnitine, free choline, and phosphatidyl choline were subnormal. These data suggest that biosynthesis of several products of the transsulfuration pathway may be inadequate in both cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients during TPN with FreAmine III. PMID:3931450

  17. Limited Impact of 2 g/day Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (Omacor®) on Plasma Lipids and Inflammatory Markers in Patients Awaiting Carotid Endarterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yusof, Hayati M.; Cawood, Abbie L.; Ding, Ren; Williams, Jennifer A.; Napper, Frances L.; Shearman, Clifford P.; Grimble, Robert F.; Payne, Simon P.K.; Calder, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of prescription omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ethyl esters (Omacor®) on blood pressure, plasma lipids, and inflammatory marker concentrations in patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy. Patients awaiting carotid endarterectomy (n = 121) were randomised to Omacor® or olive oil as placebo (2 g/day) until surgery (median 21 days). Blood pressure, plasma lipids, and plasma inflammatory markers were determined. There were significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and in plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 concentrations, in both groups. The extent of triglyceride lowering was greater with Omacor® (25%) compared with placebo (9%). Soluble E-selectin concentration was significantly decreased in the Omacor® group but increased in the placebo group. At the end of the supplementation period there were no differences in blood pressure or in plasma lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations between the two groups. It is concluded that Omacor® given at 2 g/day for an average of 21 days to patients with advanced carotid atherosclerosis lowers triglycerides and soluble E-selectin concentrations, but has limited broad impact on the plasma lipid profile or on inflammatory markers. This may be because the duration of intervention was too short or the dose of n-3 fatty acids was too low. PMID:24065166

  18. Decreased plasma albumin concentration results in increased volume of distribution and decreased elimination of midazolam in intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Vree, T B; Shimoda, M; Driessen, J J; Guelen, P J; Janssen, T J; Termond, E F; van Dalen, R; Hafkenscheid, J C; Dirksen, M S

    1989-11-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of 16 patients in the intensive care unit, sedated with midazolam, were evaluated. A large variation was observed in the plasma concentration of midazolam and between the plasma concentration of midazolam and its metabolite 1-hydroxymethylmidazolam glucuronide. The plasma albumin concentration governs the volume of distribution of midazolam. Decreased plasma albumin concentration (25 gm/L) results in an increased volume of distribution and a decreased elimination rate of midazolam. The observed plasma concentration ratio between the parent drug and its metabolite 1-hydroxymethylmidazolam glucuronide is governed by the variables of protein binding, the metabolic rate of midazolam, and the renal clearance of the glucuronide metabolite itself (which can be considered as a measure of the kidney function of the patient). PMID:2582710

  19. Effect of memantine on plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and phenytoin in rats: A controlled experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Bonary, Amir Reza Karami; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Tamizi, Elnaz; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Samini, Morteza

    2009-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients, especially those with Alzheimer's disease, may be prescribed memantine and an antiepileptic drug concurrently. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the interaction of memantine with phenobarbital (an enzyme inducer) and chloramphenicol (an enzyme inhibitor) on plasma concentrations of carbamazepine (CBZ), CBZ-10,11-epoxide (CBZE), and phenytoin in an experimental model. Methods: Eight groups of rats (200–230 g) were treated for 14 days each. In groups 1 and 2, phenobarbital 50 mg/kg was administered daily as an enzyme inducer 60 minutes before CBZ 50 mg/kg or phenytoin 30 mg/kg administration, respectively. In groups 3 and 4, chloramphenicol 300 mg/kg was administered daily as an enzyme inhibitor 60 minutes before CBZ or phenytoin administration, respectively. In groups 5 and 6, memantine 20 mg/kg was administered daily 60 minutes before CBZ or phenytoin, respectively. In group 7, CBZ alone was administered daily; in group 8, phenytoin alone was administered daily. Two hours after the last intragastric gavage, animals were anesthetized with ether and 2 mL of blood was drawn from the heart into a syringe containing EDTA. A validated method developed in this study was used for simultaneous determination of CBZ, CBZE, and phenytoin concentrations in rat plasma. Results: The study comprised 8 groups of 9 male adult Wistar rats each. Compared with groups 7 and 8, concurrent use of CBZ or phenytoin with phenobarbital (groups 1 and 2) was associated with significantly lower mean (SEM) plasma concentrations of CBZ (3.45 [0.16] vs 2.20 [0.21] μg/mL; P < 0.001) and phenytoin (3.68 [0.09] vs 1.63 [0.15] μg/mL; P < 0.001) and a significantly higher plasma CBZE concentration (9.85 [0.29] vs 11.18 [0.29] μg/mL; P < 0.05). Concurrent use of CBZ or phenytoin with chloramphenicol (groups 3 and 4) was associated with significantly higher plasma concentrations of CBZ (4.81 [0.17] μg/mL; P < 0.001) and phenytoin (6.24 [0.22] μg/mL; P < 0

  20. Plasma and urine diketopiperazine concentrations in normal adults ingesting large quantities of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Cho, E S; Coon, J D; Stegink, L D

    1987-07-01

    In aqueous solution, aspartame can cyclicize to form its corresponding diketopiperazine (3-carboxymethyl-6-benzyl-2,5-diketopiperazine; DKP) and methanol. We measured plasma and urinary concentrations of DKP in samples obtained from six normal adult subjects ingesting 2.2 mg DKP/kg body weight. The DKP was administered as part of a dose of 200 mg aspartame/kg body weight. DKP concentrations in plasma were below the detection limit (less than 1 microgram/ml) of the high-pressure liquid chromatographic method at each time interval after ingestion at which they were measured. Mean (+/- SD) total urinary DKP excreted during the first 24-hr period after dosing was 6.68 +/- 1.30 mg (4.83 +/- 0.23% of the ingested DKP dose). Approximately 44% of the total DKP excreted was excreted in the first 4 hr after dosing. PMID:3623338

  1. Time-dependent effects of dexamethasone plasma concentrations on glucocorticoid receptor challenge tests.

    PubMed

    Menke, Andreas; Arloth, Janine; Best, Johanna; Namendorf, Christian; Gerlach, Tamara; Czamara, Darina; Lucae, Susanne; Dunlop, Boadie W; Crowe, Tanja Mletzko; Garlow, Steven J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Ritchie, James C; Craighead, W Edward; Mayberg, Helen S; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Binder, Elisabeth B; Uhr, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoid challenge tests such as the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and the combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (dex-CRH) test are considered to be able to sensitively measure hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in stress-related psychiatric and endocrine disorders. We used mass-spectrometry to assess the relationship of plasma dexamethasone concentrations and the outcome of these tests in two independent cohorts. Dexamethasone concentrations were measured after oral ingestion of 1.5mg dexamethasone in two cohorts that underwent a standard (dexamethasone at 23:00h) as well as modified (18:00h) DST and dex-CRH test. The first study population was a case/control cohort of 105 depressed patients and 133 controls in which peripheral blood mRNA expression was also measured. The second was a cohort of 261 depressed patients that underwent a standard dex-CRH test at baseline and after 12 weeks' treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy or antidepressants. Dexamethasone concentrations explained significant proportions of the