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Sample records for acid potassium salt

  1. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  3. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  6. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  7. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  14. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts...

  20. Altered nucleic acid partitioning during phenol extraction or silica adsorption by guanidinium and potassium salts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Ling, Liefeng; Wang, Peng; Song, Ping; Su, Ruirui; Zhu, Guoping

    2011-12-15

    Nucleic acids were found to partition into the phenol phase during phenol extraction in the presence of guanidinium at certain concentrations under acidic conditions. The guanidinium-concentration-dependent nucleic acid partitioning patterns were analogous to those of the nucleic acid adsorption/partitioning onto silica mediated by guanidinium, which implied that phenol and silica interact with nucleic acids through similar mechanisms. A competition effect was observed in which the nucleic acids that had partitioned into the phenol phase or onto the silica solid phase could be recovered to the aqueous phases by potassium in a molecular weight-salt concentration-dependent manner (the higher molecular weight nucleic acids needed higher concentrations of potassium to be recovered, and vice versa). Methods were developed based on these findings to isolate total RNA from Escherichia coli. By controlling the concentrations of guanidinium and potassium salts used before phenol extraction or silica adsorption, we can selectively recover total RNA but not the high molecular weight genomic DNA in the aqueous phases. Genomic DNA-free total RNA obtained by our methods is suitable for RT-PCR or other purposes. The methods can also be adapted to isolate small RNAs or RNA in certain molecular weight ranges by changing the salt concentrations used.

  1. Effect of potassium salts in rats adapted to an acidogenic high-sulfur amino acid diet.

    PubMed

    Sabboh, Houda; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Coxam, Véronique; Tressol, Jean-Claude; Besson, Catherine; Rémésy, Christian; Demigné, Christian

    2005-08-01

    Low-grade metabolic acidosis, consecutive to excessive catabolism of sulfur amino acids and a high dietary Na:K ratio, is a common feature of Western food habits. This metabolic alteration may exert various adverse physiological effects, especially on bone, muscle and kidneys. To assess the actual effects of various K salts, a model of the Westernised diet has been developed in rats: slight protein excess (20 % casein); cations provided as non-alkalinising salts; high Na:K ratio. This diet resulted in acidic urine (pH 5.5) together with a high rate of divalent cation excretion in urine, especially Mg. Compared with controls, K supplementation as KCl accentuated Ca excretion, whereas potassium bicarbonate or malate reduced Mg and Ca excretion and alkalinised urine pH (up to 8). In parallel, citraturia was strongly increased, together with 2-ketoglutarate excretion, by potassium bicarbonate or malate in the diet. Basal sulfate excretion, in the range of 1 mmol/d, was slightly enhanced in rats fed the potassium malate diet. The present model of low-grade metabolic acidosis indicates that potassium malate may be as effective as KHCO3 to counteract urine acidification, to limit divalent cation excretion and to ensure high citrate concentration in urine.

  2. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley in accordance with the following prescribed conditions... intended for use in the malting of barley under conditions whereby the amount of either or both...

  3. Usnic Acid Potassium Salt: An Alternative for the Control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818)

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Vera L. M.; Pereira, Eugênia C.; Falcão, Emerson P. S.; Melo, Ana M. M. A.; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata. PMID:25375098

  4. Safety assessment of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium salt.

    PubMed

    Soni, M G; Burdock, G A; Preuss, H G; Stohs, S J; Ohia, S E; Bagchi, D

    2004-09-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a principle constituent (10-30%) of the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, a plant native to Southeastern Asia. The dried rind has been used for centuries throughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative. Extensive experimental studies show that HCA inhibits fat synthesis and reduces food intake. The objective of this review is to systematically review the available safety/toxicity literature on HCA to determine its safety in-use. The primary mechanism of action of HCA appears to be related to its ability to act as a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), primary building blocks of fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Super CitriMax, a novel calcium/potassium-HCA extract (HCA-SX), is considerably more soluble and bioavailable than calcium-based HCA ingredients. Acute oral toxicity studies in animals demonstrate that CitriMax (50% HCA as calcium salt) has a low acute oral toxicity. In a subchronic study in rats, the gavage administration of HCA-SX at doses up to 2500 mg/kg/day for a period of 90 days caused a significant decrease in body weight and reduction in feed consumption without any adverse effects. The structure, mechanism of action, long history of use of HCA and other toxicity studies indicate that HCA-SX is unlikely to cause reproductive or developmental effects. HCA-SX was not mutagenic in the presence or absence of metabolic activation in Ames genotoxicity assays in strains TA98 and TA102. HCA-SX-induced increases in number of revertants in other strains (TA100 and TA1535 in the absence of metabolic activation and in strain TA1537 in the presence of metabolic activation) but these were not considered as biologically indicative of a mutagenic effect. In several, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials employing up to 2800 mg/day HCA, no treatment-related adverse

  5. Efficacy of a novel calcium/potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid in weight control.

    PubMed

    Preuss, H G; Garis, R I; Bramble, J D; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Rao, C V S; Satyanarayana, S

    2005-01-01

    The weight-loss efficacy of a novel, water-soluble, calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) was re-examined in 90 obese subjects (BMI: 30-50.8 kg/m2). We combined data from two previously reported randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies in order to achieve a better statistical evaluation based on a larger population. This re-examination of data also allowed us to reflect more intensely on various aspects of weight loss studies. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: group A received a daily dose of HCA-SX 4, 667 mg (providing 2,800 mg HCA per day); group B was given a daily dose of a combination of HCA-SX 4,667 mg, niacin-bound chromium (NBC) 4 mg (providing 400 microg elemental chromium), and Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) 400 mg (providing 100 mg gymnemic acid); and group C received a placebo in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before each meal. All subjects were provided a 2,000 kcal diet/day and participated in a supervised walking program for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. Eighty-two subjects completed the study. At the end of 8 weeks, in group A, both body weight and BMI decreased by 5.4%, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides levels were reduced by 12.9% and 6.9%, respectively, while high-density lipoprotein levels increased by 8.9%, serum leptin levels decreased by 38%, serotonin levels increased by 44.5% and urinary excretion of fat metabolites increased by 32-109%. Group B demonstrated similar beneficial changes, but generally to a greater extent. No significant adverse effects were observed. The combined results confirm that HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX plus NBC and GSE reduce body weight and BMI, suppress appetite, improve blood lipid profiles, increase serum leptin and serotonin levels and increase fat oxidation more than placebo. We conclude that dosage levels, timing of administration, subject compliance and bioavailability of HCA-SX significantly affect results and

  6. Structure and properties of the sodium, potassium and calcium salts of 2-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)aminobenzoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszynski, Rafal; Trzesowska-Kruszynska, Agata; Majewski, Piotr; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Majewska, Kamila; Sierański, Tomasz; Lewiński, Bartłomiej

    2010-04-01

    The mefenamic acid sodium, potassium, and calcium salts with general formulae [Na(mef)(H 2O) 2] n· nH 2O, [K(mef)(H 2O)] n and [Ca(mef) 2(H 2O) 2] n· nH 2O have been synthesised, studied by X-ray crystallography, 1H and 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy. The complex salts are air stable and soluble in water. During heating the Na and K complexes melt in the complexed water and next recrystallise in anhydrous form. In the solid state all salts create one-dimensional coordination polymers. The central atoms are five, six and seven coordinated, respectively, for Na, K and Ca complexes. In all structures exist O sbnd H⋯O, N sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The vibrational analysis has been carried out for mefenamic acid and its three coordination polymer compounds on the basis of experimental results as well as quantum mechanical calculations. The theoretical and experimental vibrational frequencies are similar and reveal characteristic vibrations for all IR active oscillators. In the IR spectra of salts exist strong bands at ca. 1365 and 1600 cm -1 typical for carboxylate groups.

  7. New evidence on the structure of potassium salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid, KxH3-xPW12O40.

    PubMed

    Haber, Jerzy; Matachowski, Leszek; Mucha, Dariusz; Stoch, Jerzy; Sarv, Priit

    2005-09-19

    Physicochemical properties and compositions of KxH(3-x)PW12O40 salts, where 2 < or = x < or = 3, have been investigated. It has been found that freshly prepared K2HPW12O40 salt (drying at 313 K) contains particles of heteropolyacid and particles of the neutral potassium salt, the sample being in 78.6% amorphous. On aging at room temperature, the heteropolyacid spreads to form a surface layer covering the neutral potassium salt particles K3PW12O40. Heat treatment of KxH(3-x)PW12O40 salts, where 2 < or = x < 3, from 313 K to higher temperatures induces the transformation of the heteropolyacid-covering K(3) core into a well-dispersed, amorphous surface layer. On further heating of the acidic potassium salts, the surface layer decomposes between 855 and 915 K with the formation of a PW8O26-type bronze as a new phase, the K3PW12O40 salt remaining unchanged. The latter starts to decompose at 1093 K, and in the case of all samples, the process is completed at about 1183 K. Rietveld structure refinement, XPS, and 31P NMR measurements of acidic potassium salts indicate that the core of these salts is always formed by the K3PW12O40 salt, which is covered by a heteropolyacid. Comparison of lattice parameters of the K3 salt and HPW leads to the conclusion that the layer is composed of partially or completely dehydrated heteropolyacid molecules. The coverage of the core by HPW in the K2 sample was estimated to be equal to one monolayer.

  8. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.

    PubMed

    Downs, Bernard W; Bagchi, Manashi; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V; Shara, Michael A; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called potassium bitartrate or cream...

  10. 76 FR 6335 - Sodium and Potassium Salts of N-alkyl (C8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Sodium and Potassium Salts of N-alkyl (C 8 - C 18 )-beta-iminodipropionic acid... residues of sodium and potassium salts of N-alkyl (C 8 -C 18 )-beta-iminodipropionic acid where the C 8 -C.... EPA previously published a final rule to establish a tolerance exemption for sodium salts of SSNA...

  11. Safety assessment of a calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Lau, Francis C; Kim, Doun; Kim, Seung Un; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2010-11-01

    The safety of Garcinia cambogiaextract, its active ingredient (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), and the marketed weight management formula, Super CitriMax(®) (HCA-SX), is supported by numerous in vitro and animal experimental studies as well as several clinical studies. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis, and decrease body weight. A series of toxicological tests including acute, short-term, and sub-chronic studies as well as teratogenicity/reproduction and genotoxicity studies were performed on HCA-SX. In the acute oral toxicity study, administration of a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg of HCA-SX did not reveal any significant changes for all examined tissues. Following the high dose safety testing, there were no remarkable changes or differences observed in any of the experimental conditions monitored. There were no macroscopic abnormalities for any examined tissues at scheduled necropsies. On the basis of these findings, the consumption of HCA-SX at dose level of up to 4667 mg/day is considered safe.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 184.1077 Section 184.1077... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Potassium acid tartrate (C4H5KO6, CAS Reg. No. 868-14-4) is the potassium acid salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is...

  16. Effect of dietary potassium and anionic salts on acid-base and mineral status in periparturient cows.

    PubMed

    Rérat, M; Schlegel, P

    2014-06-01

    Dry cow diets based on grassland forage from intensive production contain high amounts of K and could be responsible for a reduced ability to maintain Ca homoeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether a moderate anionic salt supplementation to a forage-based pre-calving diet with varying native K content affects the mineral and acid-base status in transition cows. Twenty-four dry and pregnant Holstein cows, without antecedent episodes of clinical hypocalcemia, were assigned to two diets during the last 4 weeks before estimated calving date. Twelve cows were fed a hay-based diet low in K (18 g K/kg DM), and 12, a hay-based diet high in K (35 g K/kg DM). Within each diet, six cows received anionic salts during the last 2 weeks before the estimated calving day. After calving, all cows received the high K diet ad libitum. Blood samples were taken daily from day 11 pre-partum to day 5 post-partum. Urine samples were taken on days 7 and 2 pre-partum and on day 2 post-partum. The anionic salt did not alter feed intake during the pre-partum period. Serum Ca was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Feeding pre-partum diets with low K concentrations induced a reduced metabolic alkalotic charge, as indicated by reduced pre-partum urinary base-acid quotient. Transition cows fed the low K diet including anionic salts induced a mild metabolic acidosis before calving, as indicated by higher urinary Ca, lower urinary pH and net acid-base excretion. Although serum Ca during the post-partum period was not affected by dietary treatment, feeding a low K diet moderately supplemented with anionic salts to reach a dietary cation-anion difference close to zero permitted to obtain a metabolic response in periparturient cows without altering the dry matter intake.

  17. 75 FR 42783 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... of certain potassium phosphate salts, specifically anhydrous dipotassium phosphate (``DKP'') and... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of April 1, 2010 (Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  3. 75 FR 16509 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phosphate salts, provided for in subheadings 2835.24.00 and 2835.39.10 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of... ``phosphate salts''). Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China:...

  4. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  5. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  6. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  7. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  8. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  9. 40 CFR 721.638 - Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic... Substances § 721.638 Silyl amine, potassium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as silyl amine, potassium...

  10. 75 FR 24572 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China... investigation of certain potassium phosphate salts (``salts'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  11. Fourier transform infrared study on microemulsion system of potassium salt of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphinic acid (HA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijin; Shi, Nai; Wang, Yi; Chang, Zhiyuan; Wu, JinGuang

    1994-01-01

    To study microemulsion formation in a solvent extraction system is to probe into some basic principles of extraction chemistry in the light of combining extraction chemistry with surface chemistry. In our previous investigations, the microemulsions of the salts of HDEHP and PC88A have been studied systematically by FT-IR. In the experiment, we observed the change of peak positions and intensities of P equals O, P-O-C and P-O-H groups during saponification and hydration, and discovered that the peak of P-O-C splits apart into 1045 and 1075 cm-1. The vibration frequency of the P-O-C group in HDEHP and PC88A is quite close to the symmetric stretching frequency of the POO- group, and thus causes difficulties in the study of their peak position and absorbance variation. For this reason we synthesized bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphinic acid without the P-O-C group. Infrared spectra in the range of 800 - 4000 cm-1 of this microemulsion system was studied.

  12. The stability of potassium iodate in crude table salt.

    PubMed

    ARROYAVE, G; PINEDA, O; SCRIMSHAW, N S

    1956-01-01

    An experiment carried out by the authors confirms that the addition, under commercial conditions, of potassium iodate to crude sea salt is a reliable method for the iodization of salt, a fact of particular significance to countries in which iodization by potassium iodide is unsatisfactory owing to adverse environmental conditions.

  13. The structures of the isomorphous potassium and rubidium salts of 4-nitrobenzoic acid and an overview of the metal complex stereochemistries of the alkali metal salt series with this ligand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham

    2015-06-01

    4-Nitrobenzoic acid (PNBA) has proved to be a useful ligand for the preparation of metal complexes but the known structures of the alkali metal salts of PNBA do not include the rubidium salt. The structures of the isomorphous potassium and rubidium polymeric coordination complexes with PNBA, namely poly[μ2-aqua-aqua-μ3-(4-nitrobenzoato)-potassium], [K(C7H4N2O2)(H2O)2]n, (I), and poly[μ3-aqua-aqua-μ5-(4-nitrobenzoato)-rubidium], [Rb(C7H4N2O2)(H2O)2]n, (II), have been determined. In (I), the very distorted KO6 coordination sphere about the K(+) centres in the repeat unit comprise two bridging nitro O-atom donors, a single bridging carboxylate O-atom donor and two water molecules, one of which is bridging. In Rb complex (II), the same basic MO6 coordination is found in the repeat unit, but it is expanded to RbO9 through a slight increase in the accepted Rb-O bond-length range and includes an additional Rb-O(carboxylate) bond, completing a bidentate O,O'-chelate interaction, and additional bridging Rb-O(nitro) and Rb-O(water) bonds. The comparative K-O and Rb-O bond-length ranges are 2.7352 (14)-3.0051 (14) and 2.884 (2)-3.182 (2) Å, respectively. The structure of (II) is also isomorphous, as well as isostructural, with the known structure of the nine-coordinate caesium 4-nitrobenzoate analogue, (III), in which the Cs-O bond-length range is 3.047 (4)-3.338 (4) Å. In all three complexes, common basic polymeric extensions are found, including two different centrosymmetric bridging interactions through both water and nitro groups, as well as extensions along c through the para-related carboxylate group, giving a two-dimensional structure in (I). In (II) and (III), three-dimensional structures are generated through additional bridges involving the nitro and water O atoms. In all three structures, the two water molecules are involved in similar intra-polymer O-H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions to both carboxylate and water O-atom acceptors. A

  14. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  15. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  16. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  17. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely...

  18. 75 FR 24575 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China... with respect to imports of certain potassium phosphate salts (``phosphate salts'' or ``subject... Salts From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 74 FR...

  19. Crystal structures of the potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid: two isotypic coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Graham

    2015-10-01

    The two-dimensional coordination polymeric structures of the hydrated potassium and rubidium salts of (3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetic acid (3,5-D), namely, poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dipotassium], [K2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , and poly[μ-aqua-bis-[μ3-2-(3,5-di-chloro-phen-oxy)acetato]-dirubidium], [Rb2(C8H5Cl2O3)2(H2O)] n , respectively, have been determined and are described. The two compounds are isotypic and the polymeric structure is based on centrosymmetric dinuclear bridged complex units. The irregular six-coordination about the alkali cations comprises a bridging water mol-ecule lying on a twofold rotation axis, the phen-oxy O-atom donor and a triple bridging carboxyl-ate O atom of the oxo-acetate side chain of the 3,5-D ligand, and the second carb-oxy-ate O-atom donor also bridging. The K-O and Rb-O bond-length ranges are 2.7238 (15)-2.9459 (14) and 2.832 (2)-3.050 (2) Å, respectively, and the K⋯K and Rb⋯Rb separations in the dinuclear units are 4.0214 (7) and 4.1289 (6) Å, respectively. Within the layers which lie parallel to (100), the coordinating water mol-ecule forms an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond to the single bridging carboxyl-ate O atom.

  20. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  1. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  2. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  3. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  4. [Evaluation of potassium iodide in Polish dietary salt].

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, E; Rokicka, B; Gajda, J; Jarecka, J; Oraczewska, A; Karłowski, K

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of iodine deficiency occurring still in Poland include serious health disorders in the population, such as psycho- somatic retardation, hypothyroidism, endemic goitre, even cretinism. Administration of iodized edible salt with daily diet is an effective method for prevention of iodine deficiency. The condition of success is the proper level of potassium iodide in this salt and adequate distribution of iodized salt in various regions of the country. Successful iodine prophylaxis should be based on iodination of edible salt in amounts of 30 +/- 10 mg of KJ/kg. The permission given in the period from February to May 1994 by the General Sanitary Inspector for the production and marketing of edible salt iodized in proportions of 30 +/- 10 mg KJ/kg opened the possibility of starting its production in salt mines. The purpose of the presently reported work was to assess, in cooperation with the Province Sanitary Epidemiological Stations, the adequacy of iodination of the Polish edible salt produced in the years 1994-1995. The study was carried out according to the Polish Standard "Salt (Sodium Chloride) /PN-80/C-84081.35. Potassium iodide determination by photo colorimetric method." In 1995 the number of edible salt samples analyzed was 2484, and this number included 2129 samples of iodized salt. Potassium iodide content agreeing with the above permission was found in 122 samples, that is in 57.4% of iodized salt samples. In 603 samples (28.3%) of iodized salt this content was below that given in the permissions. In 1994 this study was carried out taking 2172 samples of edible salt, including 1586 samples of iodized salt. The content of potassium iodide agreeing with the permissions (30 +/- 10 mg/kg) was found in 342 samples (28, 1%), but 272 (22.4%) samples of iodized salt produced by salt mines contained lower amounts of potassium iodide than the amount indicated in the permissions, but still within the limits set down in the Polish Standard (20 +/- 5 mg

  5. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R

    2014-01-01

    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid

  6. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  7. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  8. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  9. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  10. 21 CFR 201.306 - Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium salt preparations intended for oral... Drug Products § 201.306 Potassium salt preparations intended for oral ingestion by man. (a) The Food... coated tablets containing potassium chloride or other potassium salts which supply 100 milligrams or...

  11. Metal-free Synthesis of Ynones from Acyl Chlorides and Potassium Alkynyltrifluoroborate Salts

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Cassandra L.; Bolshan, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Ynones are a valuable functional group and building block in organic synthesis. Ynones serve as a precursor to many important organic functional groups and scaffolds. Traditional methods for the preparation of ynones are associated with drawbacks including harsh conditions, multiple purification steps, and the presence of unwanted byproducts. An alternative method for the straightforward preparation of ynones from acyl chlorides and potassium alkynyltrifluoroborate salts is described herein. The adoption of organotrifluoroborate salts as an alternative to organometallic reagents for the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds has a number of advantages. Potassium organotrifluoroborate salts are shelf stable, have good functional group tolerance, low toxicity, and a wide variety are straightforward to prepare. The title reaction proceeds rapidly at ambient temperature in the presence of a Lewis acid without the exclusion of air and moisture. Fair to excellent yields may be obtained via reaction of various aryl and alkyl acid chlorides with alkynyltrifluoroborate salts in the presence of boron trichloride. PMID:25742169

  12. 75 FR 42683 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China...''), the Department is issuing an antidumping duty order on certain potassium phosphate salts from the... phosphate salts from the PRC. See Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of...

  13. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  14. 75 FR 30375 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final... determination in the countervailing duty investigation of certain potassium phosphate salts from the People's... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain potassium phosphate salts...

  15. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  19. 40 CFR 721.5425 - α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts... Substances § 721.5425 α-Olefin sulfonate, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an α-olefin sulfonate, potassium salt...

  20. 3,4-Dihydroxy-1,6-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)hexa-2,4-diene-1,6-dione, its 4-methylphenyl analogue, and a potassium salt of 2-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nye, Luke; Turnbull, Mark M; Wikaira, Jan L

    2013-11-01

    Reaction of 4-methoxyacetophenone with diethyl oxalate under basic conditions produced 3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)hexa-2,4-diene-1,6-dione, C20H18O6, (1). The molecules lie across a crystallographic inversion centre and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, similar to acetylacetone, is observed, confirming that the molecule is in the di-enol-dione tautomeric form. Additional O-H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into chains parallel to the b axis. The structure is compared with that of redetermined 4-methylphenyl compound 3,4-dihydroxy-1,6-bis(4-methylphenyl)hexa-2,4-diene-1,6-dione, C20H18O4, (2), which crystallizes in a similar fashion. The salt, catena-poly[[μ2-2-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobut-2-enoato-κ(3)O(1),O(2):O(4)][μ2-2-hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid-κ(2)O(1):O(4)]potassium], [K(C11H9O5)(C11H10O5)]n, (3), was isolated as a by-product of the synthesis of (1). The two organic species are linked by a strong hydrogen bond between the carboxylic acid and carboxylate groups. They are further stabilized and linked into a double-chain structure via the seven-coordinate potassium ion.

  1. 75 FR 30377 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Final... certain potassium phosphate salts (``salts'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period... determination. We determine that salts from the PRC are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States...

  2. On the Existence of Hydrogen Salts of Monoprotic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovska, Marina I.; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Soptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that acid salts exist only for diprotic and polyprotic acids is found in many high school and university textbooks, although the "only" condition is not always stated explicitly. A fairly simple experiment shows that there is a pronounced exothermic effect when pure acetic acid is added to potassium acetate. Experiments with similar…

  3. 75 FR 10466 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts from the People's Republic of China... phosphate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ For information on the estimated subsidy rates... of this investigation was changed from ``Certain Sodium and Potassium Phosphate Salts from the...

  4. 75 FR 42682 - Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Potassium Phosphate Salts From the People's Republic of China...), the Department is issuing a countervailing duty order on certain potassium phosphate salts (phosphate salts) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). DATES: Effective Date: July 22, 2010. FOR...

  5. [Study on the stability of potassium iodide of the iodized salt].

    PubMed

    Voudouris, E

    1975-04-29

    The stability of potassium iodide in iodized salt has been studied with respect to the purity of the salt used as raw material. It has been found that the iodized salt prepared from high purity salt and preserved under proper conditions (protection from light, humidity and high temperatures) keeps, for several months, the most of the initially added potassium iodide, without any addition of stabilizers, except for a small bicarbonate.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, thermal and explosive properties of potassium salts of trinitrophloroglucinol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiong; Chen, Hongyan; Zhang, Tonglai; Zhang, Jianguo; Yang, Li

    2007-08-17

    Three different substituted potassium salts of trinitrophloroglucinol (H(3)TNPG) were prepared and characterized. The salts are all hydrates, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and elemental analysis confirmed that these salts contain crystal H2O and that the amount crystal H2O in potassium salts of H3TNPG is 1.0 hydrate for mono-substituted potassium salts of H3TNPG [K(H2TNPG)] and di-substituted potassium salt of H3TNPG [K2(HTNPG)], and 2.0 hydrate for tri-substituted potassium salt of H3TNPG [K3(TNPG)]. Their thermal decomposition mechanisms and kinetic parameters from 50 to 500 degrees C were studied under a linear heating rate by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Their thermal decomposition mechanisms undergo dehydration stage and intensive exothermic decomposition stage. FT-IR and TG studies verify that their final residua of decomposition are potassium cyanide or potassium carbonate. According to the onset temperature of the first exothermic decomposition process of dehydrated salts, the order of the thermal stability from low to high is from K(H2TNPG) and K2(HTNPG) to K3(TNPG), which is conform to the results of apparent activation energy calculated by Kissinger's and Ozawa-Doyle's method. Sensitivity test results showed that potassium salts of H3TNPG demonstrated higher sensitivity properties and had greater explosive probabilities.

  7. Naphthalene Acetic Acid Potassium Salt (NAA-K(+)) Affects Conidial Germination, Sporulation, Mycelial Growth, Cell Surface Morphology, and Viability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radici-lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Manzo-Valencia, María Karina; Valdés-Santiago, Laura; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Guzmán-de-Peña, Dora Linda

    2016-11-09

    The response to exogenous addition of naphthalene acetic acid potassium salt (NAA-K(+)) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp radici-lycopersici ATCC 60095 and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense isolated from Michoacan Mexico soil is reported. The in vitro study showed that NAA-K(+) might be effective in the control of Fusarium oxysporum. Exogenous application of NAA-K(+) affected both spores and mycelium stages of the fungi. Viability testing using acridine orange and propidium iodide showed that NAA-K(+) possesses fungal killing properties, doing it effectively in the destruction of conidia of this phytopathogenic fungi. Analysis of treated spores by scanning electron microscopy showed changes in the shape factor and fractal dimension. Moreover, NAA-K(+) repressed the expression of brlA and fluG genes. The results disclosed here give evidence of the use of this synthetic growth factor as a substance of biocontrol that presents advantages, and the methods of application in situ should be explored.

  8. Effects of salt intake and potassium supplementation on renalase expression in the kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-Ling; Wang, Jing; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Xiao, Hong-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Renalase is currently the only known amine oxidase in the blood that can metabolize catecholamines and regulate sympathetic activity. High salt intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), possibly through the modulation of renalase expression and secretion, whereas potassium can reverse the high salt-mediated increase in blood pressure. However, whether potassium could also modulate BP through renalase is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate how salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the level of renalase in rats. Eighteen salt-sensitive (SS) and 18 SS-13BN rats were divided into six groups, receiving normal salt (0.3% NaCl), high salt (8% NaCl) and high salt/potassium (8% NaCl and 8% KCl) dietary intervention for four weeks. At the end of experiments, blood and kidneys were collected for analysis. mRNA level of renalase was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and protein level was determined by Western blot. We found that mRNA and protein levels of renalase in the kidneys of SS and SS-13BN rats were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after high salt intervention, whereas dopamine in plasma was increased (P < 0.05) compared with rats received normal salt, suggesting that salt may induce salt-sensitive hypertension through inhibition of renalase expression. We also found increased mRNA level and protein level of renalase, decreased catecholamine levels in plasma, and decreased BP in SS rats treated with high salt/potassium, compared with that of the high salt SS group. Taken together, the salt-induced increase and potassium-induced decrease in BP could be mediated through renalase. More studies are needed to confirm our findings and understand the underlying mechanisms.

  9. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3900 - Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3900 Alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as alkyl polyethylene glycol phosphate, potassium salt (P-90-481), is subject to reporting under...

  14. Amended safety assessment of tall oil acid, sodium tallate, potassium tallate, and ammonium tallate.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Valerie; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2009-01-01

    Tall oil acid is a mixture of oleic and linoleic acids (fatty acids) and rosin acids derived from tall oil, a by-product of pulp from resinous woods, used in cosmetic products as a surfactant at concentrations up to 8%. Ammonium, potassium, and sodium salts also are listed as cosmetic ingredients. In addition to the studies summarized in this report, extensive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity studies in animals are available for oleic, lauric, palmitic, myristic, and stearic fatty acids as published earlier by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR). These data may be extrapolated to tall oil acid and its salts. There are no reports of current uses or use concentration data for ammonium tallate, nor are use concentration data available for the other salts. The CIR Expert Panel found tall oil acid, ammonium tallate, potassium tallate, and sodium tallate to be safe cosmetic ingredients in the given practices of use and concentration.

  15. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1077 - Potassium acid tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium acid tartrate. 582.1077 Section 582.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1077 Potassium acid tartrate. (a) Product. Potassium acid tartrate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. Thermodynamic properties of the aqueous solution of potassium salts of some 4-((alkylcarbonyl)amino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acids at 298 and 313 K.

    PubMed

    Fisicaro, Emilia; Compari, Carlotta; Viscardi, Guido; Quagliotto, Pierluigi

    2002-11-15

    To understand the aggregation behavior of surface-active ligands with a salycilic polar head, we undertook a systematic study of some classes of anionic surfactants where the presence and the position of the -OH and the carboxylic group differ. This paper reports the dilution heats at 298 and 313 K of aqueous solutions of potassium 4-((alkylcarbonyl)amino)-2-hydroxybenzoate (KPAS-C(n) where n stands for the number of carbon atoms in the chain) in KOH at 0.1 m, measured as a function of concentration. From the experimental data, apparent and partial molar enthalpies vs concentration were obtained. By using a pseudo-phase-transition approach, the enthalpy changes upon micelle formation (DeltaH(m)) and assuming that in the restricted range of temperature examined heat capacities are constant, the heat capacity changes have been obtained. Micelle formation enthalpies are seen to be additive with a group contribution for the methylene group of -1.5+/-0.1 kJ mol(-1) per group at 298 K and -2.3+/-0.1 kJ mol(-1) per group at 313 K, comparable with that obtained for similar anionic compounds in the same experimental conditions and for N-alkylnicotinamide chlorides (cationic surfactants). The -CH(2)- group contribution to the micelle formation heat capacities is -53+/-1 J K(-1) mol(-1).

  1. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO[sub 2], highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO[sub 4]/2.5M H[sub 3]PO[sub 4] solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO[sub 2] (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation.

  2. Acid-permanganate oxidation of potassium tetraphenylboron

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-02-01

    Scoping experiments have been performed which show that potassium tetraphenylboron (KTPB) is rapidly oxidized by permanganate in acidic solutions at room temperature. The main Products are CO{sub 2}, highly oxidized organic compounds related to tartaric and tartronic acids, boric acid, and potassium phosphate (when phosphoric acid is used as the source of acid). One liter of 0.6M NaMnO{sub 4}/2.5M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution will destroy up to 8 grams of KTPB. The residual benzene concentration has been measured to be less than the RCRA limit of 0.5 ppm. Approximately 30% of the organic material is released as CO{sub 2} (trace CO) and 0.16% as benzene vapor. The reaction is well behaved, no foaming or spattering. Tests were performed from .15M to near 1M permanganate. The phosphoric acid concentration was maintained at a concentration at least three times that of the permanganate since an excess of acid was desired and this is the ratio that these two reagents are consumed in the oxidation.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. 721.10238 Section 721.10238 Protection of..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  5. Protective effect of dietary potassium against vascular injury in salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kido, Makiko; Ando, Katsuyuki; Onozato, Maristela L; Tojo, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Ogita, Teruhiko; Fujita, Toshiro

    2008-02-01

    Hypertensive cardiovascular damage is accelerated by salt loading but counteracted by dietary potassium supplementation. We suggested recently that antioxidant actions of potassium contribute to protection against salt-induced cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, we examined whether potassium supplementation ameliorated cuff-induced vascular injury in salt-sensitive hypertension via suppression of oxidative stress. Four-week-old Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a normal-salt (0.3% NaCl), high-salt (8% NaCl), or high-salt plus high-potassium (8% KCl) diet for 5 weeks, and some of the rats fed a high-salt diet were also given antioxidants. One week after the start of the treatments, a silicone cuff was implanted around the femoral artery. Examination revealed increased cuff-induced neointimal proliferation with adventitial macrophage infiltration in arteries from salt-loaded Dahl salt-sensitive rats compared with that in arteries from non-salt-loaded animals (intima/media ratio: 0.471+/-0.070 versus 0.302+/-0.037; P<0.05), associated with regional superoxide overproduction and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation and mRNA overexpression. On the other hand, simultaneous potassium supplementation attenuated salt-induced neointimal hyperplasia (intima/media ratio: 0.205+/-0.012; P<0.001), adventitial macrophage infiltration, superoxide overproduction, and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation and overexpression. Antioxidants, which decrease vascular oxidative stress, also reduced neointima formation induced by salt excess. In conclusion, high-potassium diets seems to have a protective effect against the development of vascular damage induced by salt loading mediated, at least in part, through suppression of the production of reactive oxygen species probably generated by reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase.

  6. Effects of pyruvate salts, pyruvic acid, and bicarbonate salts in preventing experimental oxalate urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Tanaka, T; Morozumi, M

    1986-05-01

    Sodium pyruvate, potassium pyruvate, pyruvic acid, sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate were added to a calcium-oxalate lithogenic diet (a glycolic-acid diet) in order to determine their effects in preventing lithogenicity. Male Wistar-strain rats who had been fed the glycolic-acid diet developed marked urinary calculi within four weeks. Rats in the sodium and potassium pyruvate groups had, however, almost no stones in the urinary system. Rats in the bicarbonate and pyruvic-acid groups showed slightly less effect than those in the pyruvate groups. Urinary oxalate excretion was high in all the groups during the experiment. The urinary oxalate concentration was relatively higher in the sodium-pyruvate group, and significantly higher in the potassium-pyruvate group, than in the glycolic-acid group. Urinary citrate excretion was high both in the pyruvate and bicarbonate groups; the urinary citrate concentration was, however, significantly higher in the pyruvate groups than in the bicarbonate groups at the fourth experimental week. The urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations were irrelevant to the diets administered. Therefore, it can be concluded that pyruvate salts inhibit urinary calculi formation, not by decreasing oxalate synthesis, but by increasing the urinary citrate concentration; bicarbonate salts work in the same manner, but a little less effectively.

  7. Sodium and Potassium Interactions with Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Auffinger, Pascal; D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Ennifar, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Metal ions are essential cofactors for the structure and functions of nucleic acids. Yet, the early discovery in the 70s of the crucial role of Mg(2+) in stabilizing tRNA structures has occulted for a long time the importance of monovalent cations. Renewed interest in these ions was brought in the late 90s by the discovery of specific potassium metal ions in the core of a group I intron. Their importance in nucleic acid folding and catalytic activity is now well established. However, detection of K(+) and Na(+) ions is notoriously problematic and the question about their specificity is recurrent. Here we review the different methods that can be used to detect K(+) and Na(+) ions in nucleic acid structures such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance or molecular dynamics simulations. We also discuss specific versus non-specific binding to different structures through various examples.

  8. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  9. Identifying acid salts of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.; Thivierge, R.F. Jr.; Xu, W.W.

    1987-11-05

    In preliminary work they found that significant quantities of certain nitrogen oxides and of sulfuric acid were absorbed by lower hydrates of magnesium sulfate. It appeared that acid salts were being formed but the known chemistry of group IIA (group 2) sulfates and acid sulfates which was worked out many years ago did not provide an explanation of their observations. They developed a new technique for delineating the solidus boundary of ternary mixtures using friability tests and applied it to the systems of interest. Magnesium acid salt hydrates with compositions on the solidus boundary could be readily identified. X-ray powder patterns confirmed the existence of two previously unknown ternary compounds, Mg/sub 2/(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 4H/sub 2/O and Mg(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 3H/sub 2/O. Mixed acid sulfate-nitrate-hydrates could be detected but fuming at room temperatures interfered with quantitative determinations of the solidus boundary and X-ray measurements.

  10. Potassium inhibits dietary salt-induced transforming growth factor-beta production.

    PubMed

    Ying, Wei-Zhong; Aaron, Kristal; Wang, Pei-Xuan; Sanders, Paul W

    2009-11-01

    Human and animal studies demonstrate an untoward effect of excess dietary NaCl (salt) intake on cardiovascular function and life span. The endothelium in particular augments the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, a fibrogenic growth factor, in response to excess dietary salt intake. This study explored the initiating mechanism that regulates salt-induced endothelial cell production of TGF-beta. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing different amounts of NaCl and potassium for 4 days. A bioassay for TGF-beta demonstrated increased (35.2%) amounts of active TGF-beta in the medium of aortic ring segments from rats on the high-salt diet compared with rats maintained on a 0.3% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel inhibited dietary salt-induced vascular production of TGF-beta but did not affect production of TGF-beta by ring segments from rats on the low-salt diet. Immunohistochemical and Western analyses demonstrated the alpha subunit of the calcium-activated potassium channel in endothelial cells. Increasing medium [K+] inhibited production of dietary salt-induced vascular production levels of total and active TGF-beta but did not alter TGF-beta production by aortic rings from rats on the 0.3% NaCl diet. Increasing dietary potassium content decreased urinary active TGF-beta in animals receiving the high-salt diet but did not change urinary active TGF-beta in animals receiving the low-salt diet. The findings demonstrated an interesting interaction between the dietary intake of potassium and excess NaCl and further showed the fundamental role of the endothelial calcium-activated potassium channel in the vascular response to excess salt intake.

  11. Potassium Inhibits Dietary Salt-Induced Transforming Growth Factor-β Production

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Wei-Zhong; Aaron, Kristal; Wang, Pei-Xuan; Sanders, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Human and animal studies demonstrate an untoward effect of excess dietary NaCl (salt) intake on cardiovascular function and life span. The endothelium in particular augments the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, a fibrogenic growth factor, in response to excess dietary salt intake. This study explored the initiating mechanism that regulates salt-induced endothelial cell production of TGF-β. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing different amounts of NaCl and potassium for 4 days. A bioassay for TGF-β demonstrated increased (35.2%) amounts of active TGF-β in the medium of aortic ring segments from rats on the high-salt diet compared with rats maintained on a 0.3% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel inhibited dietary salt-induced vascular production of TGF-β but did not affect production of TGF-β by ring segments from rats on the low-salt diet. Immunohistochemical and Western analyses demonstrated the α subunit of the calcium-activated potassium channel in endothelial cells. Increasing medium [K+] inhibited production of dietary salt-induced vascular production levels of total and active TGF-β but did not alter TGF-β production by aortic rings from rats on the 0.3% NaCl diet. Increasing dietary potassium content decreased urinary active TGF-β in animals receiving the high-salt diet but did not change urinary active TGF-β in animals receiving the low-salt diet. The findings demonstrated an interesting interaction between the dietary intake of potassium and excess NaCl and further showed the fundamental role of the endothelial calcium-activated potassium channel in the vascular response to excess salt intake. PMID:19738156

  12. Protective effect of dietary potassium against cardiovascular damage in salt-sensitive hypertension: possible role of its antioxidant action.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Matsui, Hiromitsu; Fujita, Megumi; Fujita, Toshiro

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high salt intake induces hypertension and cardiovascular damage, while dietary potassium supplementation counteracts these harmful effects. Actually, the protective effect of potassium is strengthened with excess salt as compared with salt depletion. Although the precise mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, in our previous reports, the antihypertensive effect of dietary potassium was accompanied by sympathetic nerve inhibition in salt-sensitive hypertension. Also, potassium supplement suppressed salt-induced insulin resistance. These effects of dietary potassium can explain its cardio- and vasculo-protective action in addition to the potassium supplementation induced decreased salt-induced rise in blood pressure. On the other hand, salt-sensitive hypertension is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction. Moreover, sympathoexcitation can be induced by central ROS upregulation and insulin resistance can be caused by ROS excess in the target organs of insulin, such as skeletal muscle. Conversely, the seemingly different actions of potassium can be explained by the antioxidant effect of dietary potassium; in our recent studies, potassium supplementation inhibits salt-induced progress of cardiac diastolic dysfunction and vascular neointima formation by cuff placement around arteries, associated with the inhibition of regional ROS overproduction, in salt-sensitive hypertension. Thus, it is possible that dietary potassium protects against salt-induced cardiovascular damage by the reduction of ROS generation and by central sympatholytic action and amelioration of insulin resistance induced through its antioxidant effect.

  13. The relationship between uric acid and potassium in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, A C; Boddy, K; King, P C; Brennan, J; Anderson, J A; Buchanan, W W

    1978-01-01

    The serum uric acid concentration in normal healthy subjects has been studied in relation to sex, height, weight, lean body mass measured from total body potassium and predicted from the Hume-Weyers formula (1971), total body potassium, plasma potassium and urea, and packed cell volume. The strongest correlation was found with sex, but height, weight, total body potassium, lean body mass (measured and predicted) also correlated significantly with serum uric acid concentration. However, when the sex variable was removed, the other factors lost their significant correlation. Finally, total red blood cell and plasma volumes were predicted (Hume and Goldberg, 1964) and from these an estimate of total plasma uric acid, total plasma potassium, and total red blood cell potassium obtained. Measured total body potassium was found to correlate well with total plasma potassium and total red blood cell potassium independent of sex. Total plasma uric acid correlated well with measured total body potassium when both sexes were considered and when separated into male and female groups the males retained a significant correlation as did the female group. PMID:686865

  14. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Potassium alginate...

  15. Effect of the salting-out agent anion nature on the phase separation of a potassium salt-potassium bis(alkyl polyoxyethylene)phosphate-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elokhov, A. M.; Lesnov, A. E.; Kudryashova, O. S.

    2016-10-01

    The effect the salting-out agent anion nature has on the temperature and concentration intervals of the existence of the separation area is established by analyzing the phase diagrams of pseudoternary KCl (KBr, KI, KNO3, K2SO4, K4P2O7)-potassium bis(alkyl polyoxyethylene)phosphate (oxyphos B)-water systems. It is concluded that the anionic salting-out capability is reduced in the order P2O 7 4- > SO 4 2- > Cl- > Br‒> NO 7 4- > SO 3 - > I-. The thermodynamic parameters of phase separation used to interpret the results are calculated. The observed pattern of a change in the salting-out ability of the investigated salts relative to aqueous solutions of the surfactants is in good agreement with the lyotropic (Hofmeister) series.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10238 - Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymers with acetone..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance..., polymers with acetone-phenol reaction products and phenol, potassium sodium salts (PMN P-09-147; CAS...

  17. Bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids towards bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids were determined using the agar diffusion assay. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid (FA) was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric aci...

  18. Effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in Chinese subjects: an interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Geng, L.K.; Wang, D.; Ren, K.Y.; Guo, T.S.; Chu, C.; Xie, B.Q.; Liu, F.Q.; Yuan, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that high salt and potassium might be associated with vascular function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Chinese subjects. Forty-nine subjects (28-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day NaCl), a high-salt diet for an additional 7 days (18.0 g/day NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for a final 7 days (18.0 g/day NaCl+4.5 g/day KCl). Brachial-ankle PWV was measured at baseline and on the last day of each intervention. Blood pressure levels were significantly increased from the low-salt to high-salt diet, and decreased from the high-salt diet to high-salt plus potassium supplementation. Baseline brachial-ankle PWV in salt-sensitive subjects was significantly higher than in salt-resistant subjects. There was no significant change in brachial-ankle PWV among the 3 intervention periods in salt-sensitive, salt-resistant, or total subjects. No significant correlations were found between brachial-ankle PWV and 24-h sodium and potassium excretions. Our study indicates that dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation, at least in the short term, had no significant effect on brachial-ankle PWV in Chinese subjects. PMID:25493387

  19. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1610 - Potassium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium alginate. 184.1610 Section 184.1610 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1610 Potassium alginate. (a) Potassium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-36-1) is the potassium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  7. The Acetic Acid Tolerance Response induces cross-protection to salt stress in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Greenacre, E J; Brocklehurst, T F

    2006-10-15

    Salmonella typhimurium induces an Acid Tolerance Response (ATR) upon exposure to mildly acidic conditions in order to protect itself against severe acid shock. This response can also induce cross-protection to other stresses such as heat and salt. We investigated whether both the acetic acid induced and lactic acid induced ATR in S. typhimurium provided cross-protection to a salt stress at 20 degrees C. Acid-adapted cells were challenged with both a sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) shock and their ability to survive ascertained. Acetic acid adaptation provided cells with protection against both NaCl and KCl stress. However, lactic acid adaptation did not protect against either osmotic stressor and rendered cells hypersensitive to NaCl. These results have implications for the food industry where hurdle technology means multiple sub-lethal stresses such as mild pH and low salt are commonly used in the preservation of products.

  8. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  9. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  10. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  11. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  12. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a blend containing the ammonium or calcium salt of isobutyric acid and the ammonium or calcium salts of...

  13. Rice potassium transporter OsHAK1 is essential for maintaining potassium-mediated growth and functions in salt tolerance over low and high potassium concentration ranges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Hu, Qingdi; Luo, Le; Yang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Song; Hu, Yibing; Yu, Ling; Xu, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Potassium (K) absorption and translocation in plants rely upon multiple K transporters for adapting varied K supply and saline conditions. Here, we report the expression patterns and physiological roles of OsHAK1, a member belonging to the KT/KUP/HAK gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The expression of OsHAK1 is up-regulated by K deficiency or salt stress in various tissues, particularly in the root and shoot apical meristem, the epidermises and steles of root, and vascular bundles of shoot. Both oshak1 knockout mutants in comparison to their respective Dongjin or Manan wild types showed a dramatic reduction in K concentration and stunted root and shoot growth. Knockout of OsHAK1 reduced the K absorption rate of unit root surface area by ∼50-55 and ∼30%, and total K uptake by ∼80 and ∼65% at 0.05-0.1 and 1 mm K supply level, respectively. The root net high-affinity K uptake of oshak1 mutants was sensitive to salt stress but not to ammonium supply. Overexpression of OsHAK1 in rice increased K uptake and K/Na ratio. The positive relationship between K concentration and shoot biomass in the mutants suggests that OsHAK1 plays an essential role in K-mediated rice growth and salt tolerance over low and high K concentration ranges.

  14. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  15. Precipitation Reaction of SDS and Potassium Salts in Flocculation of a Micronized Megestrol Acetate Suspension

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Seyed Mahdi; Erfan, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to evaluate K+-SDS and hydrocolloid polymer-SDS interactions in flocculation of megestrol acetate dispersions to enhance their stability as a part of suspension formulation. Different dispersions of micronized megestrol acetate and SDS were prepared. KCl and KH2PO4 and their corresponding sodium salts were added to the dispersions and the preparations were evaluated using general physicochemical and stability tests including appearance, sedimentation volume, sedimentation rate and redispersibility. Addition of polyols and hydrocolloid polymers to the SDS containing dispersions was also investigated for possible instabilities. SDS deflocculated the initial megestrol acetate dispersions. The use of potassium salts unlike the sodium salts flocculated the dispersion particles due to precipitation reaction of potassium ions and the adsorbed SDS. Additionally the uncharged hydrocolloid polymers MC and HPMC in contrast to the ionic polymers xanthan gum and NaCMC showed incompatibility due to their interaction with SDS. K+- SDS interactions have proved useful in protein and DNA analysis studies and we found this precipitation reaction to be applicable in flocculation of pharmaceutical suspensions containing SDS. PMID:24250629

  16. Formation of iodoacetic acids during cooking: interaction of iodized table salt with chlorinated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Becalski, A; Lau, B P-Y; Schrader, T J; Seaman, S W; Sun, W F

    2006-10-01

    Iodoacetic and chloroiodoacetic acids were formed when municipal chlorinated tap water was allowed to react with iodized (with potassium iodide) table salt or with potassium iodide itself. Iodoacetic acid was recently shown to be a potent cytotoxic and genotoxic agent. For analysis, samples were extracted with t-amyl methyl ether and converted to the corresponding methyl esters using methanol and sulfuric acid. The concentration of iodoacetic acid was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using an authentic standard. The identities of iodoacetic and chloroiodoacetic acids were further confirmed by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Certain influences of sodium hypochlorite and humic acid as well as the concentration of potassium iodide on the yields of these acids were investigated. The concentration of iodoacetic acid in tap water samples boiled with 2 g l-1 of iodized table salt was found to be in the 1.5 microg l-1 range, whilst the concentration of chloroiodoacetic acid was estimated to be three to five times lower.

  17. Biogenic Potassium Salt Particles as Seeds for Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, Christopher; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Sinha, Bärbel; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Gunthe, Sachin S.; Smith, Mackenzie; Su, Hang; Artaxo, Paulo; Chen, Qi; Cheng, Yafang; Elbert, Wolfgang; Gilles, Mary K.; Kilcoyne, Arthur L. D.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Weigand, Markus; Martin, Scot T.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2012-08-01

    The fine particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei in pristine Amazonian rainforest air consist mostly of secondary organic aerosol. Their origin is enigmatic, however, because new particle formation in the atmosphere is not observed. Here, we show that the growth of organic aerosol particles can be initiated by potassium-salt-rich particles emitted by biota in the rainforest. These particles act as seeds for the condensation of low- or semi-volatile organic compounds from the atmospheric gas phase or multiphase oxidation of isoprene and terpenes. Our findings suggest that the primary emission of biogenic salt particles directly influences the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei and affects the microphysics of cloud formation and precipitation over the rainforest.

  18. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  2. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  3. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental... requirement of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with... residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt...

  8. Triboelectrification of active pharmaceutical ingredients: week acids and their salts.

    PubMed

    Fujinuma, Kenta; Ishii, Yuji; Yashihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Estuo; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Tarada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-30

    The effect of salt formulation on the electrostatic property of active pharmaceutical ingredients was investigated. The electrostatic property of weak acids (carboxylic acids and amide-enole type acid) and their sodium salts was evaluated by a suction-type Faraday cage meter. Free carboxylic acids showed negative chargeability, whereas their sodium salts showed more positive chargeability than the free acids. However, no such trend was observed for amide-enole type acids.

  9. Effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on serum renalase levels in Chinese adults: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Wang, Dan; Mu, Jian-Jun; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Chu, Chao; Wang, Lan; Geng, Li-Ke; Yuan, Zu-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Renalase, a recently discovered enzyme released by the kidneys, breaks down blood-borne catecholamines and may thus regulate blood pressure (BP). Animal studies have suggested that high levels of dietary salt might reduce blood and kidney renalase levels. We conducted a randomized trial to assess the effects of altered salt and potassium intake on serum renalase levels and the relationship between serum renalase levels and BP in humans.Forty-two subjects (28-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day of NaCl), a high-salt diet for additional 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for final 7 days (18.0 g/day of NaCl + 4.5 g/day of KCl).Serum renalase levels were significantly higher than baseline levels during the low-salt diet intervention period. Renalase levels decreased with the change from the low-salt to high-salt diet, whereas dietary potassium prevented the decrease in serum renalase induced by the high-salt diet. There was a significant inverse correlation between the serum renalase level and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. No significant correlation was found between the renalase level and BP among the different dietary interventions.The present study indicates that variations in dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the serum renalase concentration in Chinese subjects.

  10. Role of dietary salt and potassium intake in cardiovascular health and disease: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Kristal J; Sanders, Paul W

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this review was to provide a synthesis of the evidence on the effect of dietary salt and potassium intake on population blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Dietary guidelines and recommendations are outlined, current controversies regarding the evidence are discussed, and recommendations are made on the basis of the evidence. Designed search strategies were used to search various databases for available studies. Randomized trials of the effect of dietary salt intake reduction or increased potassium intake on blood pressure, target organ damage, cardiovascular disease, and mortality were included. Fifty-two publications from January 1, 1990, to January 31, 2013, were identified for inclusion. Consideration was given to variations in the search terms used and the spelling of terms so that studies were not overlooked, and search terms took the following general form: (dietary salt or dietary sodium or [synonyms]) and (dietary potassium or [synonyms]) and (blood pressure or hypertension or vascular disease or heart disease or chronic kidney disease or stroke or mortality or [synonyms]). Evidence from these studies demonstrates that high salt intake not only increases blood pressure but also plays a role in endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular structure and function, albuminuria and kidney disease progression, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Conversely, dietary potassium intake attenuates these effects, showing a linkage to reduction in stroke rates and cardiovascular disease risk. Various subpopulations, such as overweight and obese individuals and aging adults, exhibit greater sensitivity to the effects of reduced salt intake and may gain the most benefits. A diet that includes modest salt restriction while increasing potassium intake serves as a strategy to prevent or control hypertension and decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus, the body of evidence supports population

  11. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with...

  12. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely used in food and in the... salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty...

  13. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  14. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  3. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  4. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  18. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9650 - Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetramethylammonium salts of... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9650 Tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid. (a... generically as tetramethylammonium salts of alkylbenzenesulfonic acid (PMN P-92-1364) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 747.200 - Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic... Substances § 747.200 Triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid. This section identifies activities with..., are subject to this section: P-83-1005, triethanolamine salt of tricarboxylic acid; and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1650 Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts. (a) Chemical substances... alkyl benzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts (PMNs P-88-1783, P-88-2231, P-88-2237, and P-88-2530)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting...

  5. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    PubMed

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  6. DFT analysis of the structure and IR spectrum of potassium salt of diphenylsulfophthalide - A model compound for polydiphenylenesulfophthalide salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishlov, N. M.; Akhmetzyanov, Sh S.; Khursan, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    Experimental IR spectra of crystalline dried and non-dried potassium diphenylsulfophthalide (TAC-K) as a model compound for polymeric salts are presented. DFT analysis (B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)) of the structure and IR spectra of a series of compounds similar in structure to TAC-K as well as their dimers indicates that the sulfonate group environment strongly affects the positions of absorption bands (ABs) of vibrations of Ssbnd O bonds and demonstrates that information on the exact structure of ion clusters is needed for reliable and unambiguous assignment of the ABs in experimental IR spectra of real sulfonate ion containing systems to particular vibrational modes. Various ways of metal ion coordination with sulfonate ion, as well as their reflection in IR spectra of model compounds, are considered and discussed. Using TAC-K as an example, the effect of an intramolecular hydrogen bond on the vibrational modes of sulfonate group and hydroxy group is considered. The effect of ion aggregation on the shape of the IR spectrum of TAC-K is analyzed for an energetically favorable dimer of this salt as an example. Based on a combination of calculated, literature and reference data, a number of ABs in the IR spectra of TAC-K have been tentatively assigned. In particular, the bands in the region of 3230-3180 cm-1 have been assigned to ν(Osbnd H); those at 1240-1160 cm-1, to νas(SO3-); the AB at 1080 cm-1, to νs(SO3-); that at 616 cm-1, to δ(oop)s(SO3-); and that at 570 cm-1, to δ(ip)as(SO3-).

  7. Dentin is dissolved by high concentrations of L-ascorbic acid 2-[3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl-hydrogen phosphate] potassium salt with or without hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Yasuhisa

    2004-06-01

    L-Ascorbic acid 2-[3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl-hydrogen phosphate] potassium salt (EPC-K(1)) is a conjugate of vitamin C and vitamin E that is water-soluble and stable at room temperature. EPC-K(1) has been developed as a hydroxyl radical (.OH) scavenger and antioxidant. In a previous tooth whitening experiment, it was accidentally found that tooth (dentin) blocks were dissolved by EPC-K(1) with H(2)O(2). In the current study, high concentrations of EPC-K(1) (2.5, 25 mM) with 3% H(2)O(2) dissolved and caused the collapse of dentin blocks. Similar concentrations of EPC-K(1) without 3% H(2)O(2), however, dissolved the dentin blocks without collapse over a 3-week period. In these cases, a.OH-like signal was detected using an ESR spin-trapping method. The volume of calcium in solution (including the dentin block) increased on the addition of EPC-K(1) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the calcium : phosphorus ratio changed from 2 : 1 in sound dentin to 1 : 2 in the collapsed dentin block. High concentrations of EPC-K(1) are therefore considered to have calcium chelating and dentin dissolving activity. The dentin dissolving activity was enhanced when EPC-K(1) was used with H(2)O(2). EPC-K(1) had no protective effect when used in tooth whitening with H(2)O(2).

  8. Use of agar diffusion assay to measure bactericidal activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, and myristic acids. A 0.5M concentration of each fatty acid was dissolved in 1.0 M potassium hydroxide (KOH), and pH of the mixtures was adjusted to 10.5 with citric acid. Solu...

  9. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  10. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C 8 -C 18 Saturated); Exemption from the... fatty acids (C 8 -C 18 saturated) applied pre- and post-harvest on all raw agricultural commodities when... eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of ammonium salts of fatty acids...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1625 - Potassium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium citrate. 184.1625 Section 184.1625 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1625 Potassium citrate. (a) Potassium citrate (C6H5K3O7·H2O, CAS Reg. No. 006100-0905-096) is the potassium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing...

  20. [Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

    2006-11-01

    Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids.

  1. The NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signalling pathway is pivotal for enhanced salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jayakannan, Maheswari; Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Shabala, Sergey; Massart, Amandine; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Rengel, Zed

    2015-04-01

    The role of endogenous salicylic acid (SA) signalling cascades in plant responses to salt and oxidative stresses is unclear. Arabidopsis SA signalling mutants, namely npr1-5 (non-expresser of pathogenesis related gene1), which lacks NPR1-dependent SA signalling, and nudt7 (nudix hydrolase7), which has both constitutively expressed NPR1-dependent and NPR1-independent SA signalling pathways, were compared with the wild type (Col-0) during salt or oxidative stresses. Growth and viability staining showed that, compared with wild type, the npr1-5 mutant was sensitive to either salt or oxidative stress, whereas the nudt7 mutant was tolerant. Acute salt stress caused the strongest membrane potential depolarization, highest sodium and proton influx, and potassium loss from npr1-5 roots in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Though salt stress-induced hydrogen peroxide production was lowest in the npr1-5 mutant, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress (induced by 1mM of hydroxyl-radical-generating copper-ascorbate mix, or either 1 or 10mM hydrogen peroxide) caused a higher potassium loss from the roots of the npr1-5 mutant than the wild type and nudt7 mutant. Long-term salt exposure resulted in the highest sodium and the lowest potassium concentration in the shoots of npr1-5 mutant in comparison with the wild type and nudt7 mutant. The above results demonstrate that NPR1-dependent SA signalling is pivotal to (i) controlling Na(+) entry into the root tissue and its subsequent long-distance transport into the shoot, and (ii) preventing a potassium loss through depolarization-activated outward-rectifying potassium and ROS-activated non-selective cation channels. In conclusion, NPR1-dependent SA signalling is central to the salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

  2. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous... prescribed conditions: (a) The additives meet the following specifications: (1) Fumaric acid contains...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.1648 - Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). 721.1648 Section 721.1648 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1648 Substituted benzenesulfonic acid salt (generic). (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aliphatic dicarboxylic...

  12. Association of low potassium diet and folic acid deficiency in patients with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Most of the folic acid sources are rich also in potassium. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually receive a low potassium diet. We investigated the possibility of an association between low potassium diet and folic acid deficiency. Methods In total, 128 CKD patients participated in this cross-sectional study. Sixty-four patients with CKD grades 1 and 2 were on an unrestricted potassium diet when enrolled in the study, and 64 patients with CKD grades 3 and 4 had received instructions to restrict their intake of potassium at least 6 months before enrollment in the study. Subjects were evaluated for daily intake of folic acid (DIFA), daily intake of potassium (DIK), and serum folic acid levels (SFA). Results DIFA correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the DIK, and the SFA (P<0.001). SFA correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (P<0.001). Mean DIFA and mean SFA were lower among patients with CKD grades 3 and 4 than among those with CKD grades 1 and 2 (P<0.001). The mean DIFA in patients with folic acid deficiency was lower than that in those with SFA ≥7.1 nmol/L (P<0.001). There was lower SFA and threefold greater frequency of folic acid deficiency among patients with CKD grades 3 and 4 who had received instructions to restrict their intake of potassium than among patients with CKD grades 1 and 2 who were on an unrestricted potassium diet. Conclusion A potassium-restricted diet offered to patients with CKD grades 3 and 4 may be associated with folic acid deficiency. Serum levels of folic acid should be investigated before starting potassium restriction in patients with CKD grades 3 and 4, in order to identify individuals with folic acid deficiency or with marginal serum levels who should receive folic acid replacement therapy. PMID:26056461

  13. Reduction of C,N-chelated chloroborane: straightforward formation of the unprecedented 1H-2,1-benzazaborolyl potassium salt.

    PubMed

    Hejda, Martin; Jambor, Roman; Růžička, Aleš; Lyčka, Antonín; Dostál, Libor

    2014-06-28

    Reduction of C,N-chelated chloroborane [2-(CH=NtBu)C6H4]BPhCl () with the potassium metal afforded (3,3')-bis(1-Ph-2-tBu-1H-2,1-benzazaborole) (2). Compound 2 is formed via C-C reductive coupling reaction. Subsequent reduction of 2 with two equivalents of the potassium metal produced orange crystals of 1Ph-2tBu-1H-2,1-benzazaborolyl (Bab) potassium salt K(THF)(Bab) (3). Compound 3 is able to react with simple electrophiles (MeI or Me3SiCl) resulting in the formation of substituted 1H-2,1-benzazaboroles.

  14. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  15. Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones altered by potassium fertilizer rates in the midsouth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the effect of potassium fertilizer on soybean ([Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and isoflavones) is still largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of potassium application on seed p...

  16. Antihypertensive and renoprotective effect of the kinin pathway activated by potassium in a model of salt sensitivity following overload proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Ardiles, Leopoldo; Cardenas, Areli; Burgos, María E; Droguett, Alejandra; Ehrenfeld, Pamela; Carpio, Daniel; Mezzano, Sergio; Figueroa, Carlos D

    2013-06-15

    The albumin overload model induces proteinuria and tubulointersitial damage, followed by hypertension when rats are exposed to a hypersodic diet. To understand the effect of kinin system stimulation on salt-sensitive hypertension and to explore its potential renoprotective effects, the model was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats that had previously received a high-potassium diet to enhance activity of the kinin pathway, followed with/without administration of icatibant to block the kinin B₂ receptor (B₂R). A disease control group received albumin but not potassium or icatibant, and all groups were exposed to a hypersodic diet to induce salt-sensitive hypertension. Potassium treatment increased the synthesis and excretion of tissue kallikrein (Klk1/rKLK1) accompanied by a significant reduction in blood pressure and renal fibrosis and with downregulation of renal transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA and protein compared with rats that did not receive potassium. Participation of the B₂R was evidenced by the fact that all beneficial effects were lost in the presence of the B₂R antagonist. In vitro experiments using the HK-2 proximal tubule cell line showed that treatment of tubular cells with 10 nM bradykinin reduced the epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation and albumin-induced production of TGF-β, and the effects produced by bradykinin were prevented by pretreatment with the B₂R antagonist. These experiments support not only the pathogenic role of the kinin pathway in salt sensitivity but also sustain its role as a renoprotective, antifibrotic paracrine system that modulates renal levels of TGF-β.

  17. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  2. Self-assembly of fatty acids and hydroxyl derivative salts.

    PubMed

    Novales, Bruno; Navailles, Laurence; Axelos, Monique; Nallet, Frédéric; Douliez, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    We report the dispersions of a fatty acid and hydroxyl derivative salts in aqueous solutions that were further used to produce foams and emulsions. The tetrabutyl-ammonium salts of palmitic acid, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, and omega-hydroxy palmitic acid formed isotropic solutions of micelles, whereas the ethanolamine salts of the same acids formed turbid birefringent lamellar solutions. The structure and dimension of those phases were confirmed by small-angle neutron scattering and NMR. Micelles exhibited a surprisingly small radius of about 20 A, even for hydroxyl fatty acids, suggesting the formation of hydrogen bonds between lipids in the core of the micelles. In the case of ethanolamine salts of palmitic and 12-hydroxy stearic acids, the lipids were arranged in bilayers, with a phase transition from gel to fluid upon heating, whereas for omega-hydroxy palmitic acid, monolayers formed in accordance with the bola shape of this lipid. Foams and emulsions produced from ethanolamine salt solutions were more stable than those obtained from tetrabutyl-ammonium salt solutions. We discuss these results in terms of counterion size, lipid molecular shape, and membrane curvature.

  3. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  4. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  5. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  6. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  7. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  8. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  9. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  10. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  11. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  12. 40 CFR 721.2086 - Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.2086 Section 721.2086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2086 Coco acid triamine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts....

  13. Extension of shelf life of whole and peeled shrimp with organic acid salts and bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Al-Dagal, M M; Bazaraa, W A

    1999-01-01

    Microbiological and sensory characteristics of treated whole and peeled shrimp from the east coast of Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Shrimp samples were treated with organic acid salts with or without Bifidobacterium breve culture and stored in ice. Peeling alone extended the microbiological shelf life by 4 days. Treatment of whole shrimp with sodium acetate alone or potassium sorbate with bifidobacteria prolonged the microbiological shelf life by 3 days and increased the microbial generation time from 12.8 h (control) to 30.1 h or 31.4 h, respectively. The microbiological and sensory shelf life of peeled shrimp treated with sodium acetate was more than 17 days. Sodium acetate extended the microbial lag phase and lengthened the generation time (38.7 h compared to 15.8 h for the control). Micrococci and coryneforms were the predominant microorganisms in whole shrimp during storage. Treatment with sodium acetate maintained better sensory characteristics for peeled shrimp than potassium sorbate combined with bifidobacteria.

  14. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their... blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate; as well as blends with other ingredients, such as sugar, where the unblended form(s) of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium...

  15. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Halpern, Yuval

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  16. Polyimide amic acid salts and polyimide membranes formed therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz; Macheras, James Timothy

    2004-04-06

    The invention relates to preparation and uses of novel polymeric materials, polyimide amic acid salts (PIAAS). The use of these materials for the fabrication of fluid separation membranes is further disclosed.

  17. Potassium Ions are More Effective than Sodium Ions in Salt Induced Peptide Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubina, Michael V.; Vyazmin, Sergey Yu.; Boitsov, Vitali M.; Nikolaev, Eugene N.; Popov, Igor A.; Kononikhin, Alexey S.; Eliseev, Igor E.; Natochin, Yuri V.

    2013-04-01

    Prebiotic peptide formation under aqueous conditions in the presence of metal ions is one of the plausible triggers of the emergence of life. The salt-induced peptide formation reaction has been suggested as being prebiotically relevant and was examined for the formation of peptides in NaCl solutions. In previous work we have argued that the first protocell could have emerged in KCl solution. Using HPLC-MS/MS analysis, we found that K+ is more than an order of magnitude more effective in the L-glutamic acid oligomerization with 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole in aqueous solutions than the same concentration of Na+, which is consistent with the diffusion theory calculations. We anticipate that prebiotic peptides could have formed with K+ as the driving force, not Na+, as commonly believed.

  18. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  19. Effects of potassium on expression of renal sodium transporters in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats induced by uninephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Yong; Kim, Sejoong; Lee, Jay Wook; Jung, Eun Sook; Heo, Nam Ju; Son, Min-Jeong; Oh, Yun Kyu; Na, Ki Young; Han, Jin Suk; Joo, Kwon Wook

    2011-06-01

    Dietary potassium is an important modulator of systemic blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary potassium is associated with an altered abundance of major renal sodium transporters that may contribute to the modulation of systemic BP. A unilateral nephrectomy (uNx) was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats, and the rats were fed a normal-salt diet (0.3% NaCl) for 4 wk. Thereafter, the rats were fed a high-salt (HS) diet (3% NaCl) for the entire experimental period. The potassium-repleted (HS+KCl) group was given a mixed solution of 1% KCl as a substitute for drinking water. We examined the changes in the abundance of major renal sodium transporters and the expression of mRNA of With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinases sequentially at 1 and 3 wk. The systolic BP of the HS+KCl group was decreased compared with the HS group (140.3 ± 2.97 vs. 150.9 ± 4.04 mmHg at 1 wk; 180.3 ± 1.76 vs. 207.7 ± 6.21 mmHg at 3 wk). The protein abundances of type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3) and Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) in the HS+KCl group were significantly decreased (53 and 45% of the HS group at 1 wk, respectively; 19 and 8% of HS group at 3 wk). WNK4 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the HS+KCl group (1.4-fold of control at 1 wk and 1.9-fold of control at 3 wk). The downregulation of NHE3 and NCC may contribute to the BP-attenuating effect of dietary potassium associated with increased urinary sodium excretion.

  20. Stability of salt double-fortified with ferrous fumarate and potassium iodate or iodide under storage and distribution conditions in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Oshinowo, Toks; Diosady, Levente; Yusufali, Rizwan; Laleye, Louis

    2004-09-01

    The stability of table salt double-fortified with iron as ferrous fumarate, and with iodine as potassium iodide or potassium iodate, has been investigated under actual field conditions of storage and distribution in the coastal and highland regions of Kenya. Seven 200-g sample packets of double-fortified salt in sealed polyethylene bags and a similar packet containing a datalogger for monitoring temperature and humidity were packaged with 21 sample bags of salt from another study into a bundle, which then entered the distribution network from a salt manufacturer's facility to the consumer. Iodine retention values of up to 90% or more were obtained during the three-month study. Double-fortified salt was prepared using ferrous fumarate microencapsulated with a combination of binders and coloring agents and coated with soy stearine, in combination with either iodated salt or salt iodized with potassium iodide microencapsulated with dextrin and coated with soy stearine. Most of the ferrous iron was retained, with less than 17% being oxidized to the ferric state. The polyethylene film overwrap of salt packs in the bundles provided significant protection from ambient humidity. Salt double-fortified with iodine and microencapsulated iron ferrous fumarate premix was generally quite stable, because both iodine and ferrous iron were protected during distribution and retail in typical tropical conditions in Kenya's highlands and humid lowlands.

  1. Genetic engineering of the biosynthesis of glycinebetaine leads to alleviate salt-induced potassium efflux and enhances salt tolerance in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dandan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Cuicui; Meng, Qingwei; Li, Gang; Chen, Tony H H; Yang, Xinghong

    2017-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. 'Moneymaker') was transformed with the choline oxidase gene codA from Arthrobacter globiformis, which was modified to allow for targeting to both chloroplasts and the cytosol. Glycine betaine (GB) was accumulated in transformed plants, while no detectable GB was found in wild-type (WT) plants. Compared to WT plants, transgenic lines showed significantly higher photosynthetic rates (Pn) and antioxidant enzyme activities and lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the leaves when exposed to salt stress. Furthermore, compared with WT plants, K(+) efflux decreased and Na(+) efflux increased in roots of transgenic plants under salt stress; resulted in lower Na(+)/K(+) ratios in transgenic lines. The exogenous application of GB also significantly reduced NaCl-induced K(+) efflux and increased Na(+) efflux in WT plants. A qRT-PCR assay indicated that GB enhanced NaCl-induced expression of genes encoding the K(+) transporter, Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, and H(+)-ATPase. These results suggest that the enhanced salt tolerance conferred by codA in transgenic tomato plants might be due to the regulation of ion channel and transporters by GB, which would allow high potassium levels and low sodium levels to be maintained in transgenic plants under salt stress condition.

  2. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  3. O-phenylphenol and its sodium and potassium salts: a toxicological assessment.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, E M; Brendler-Schwaab, S Y; Freyberger, A; Herbold, B A; Leser, K H; Richter, M

    2002-01-01

    Ortho-phenylphenol (OPP) and its sodium (SOPP) and potassium (POPP) salts are used as fungicides and disinfectants. Due to the widespread use of especially OPP and SOPP, the potential for consumer exposure and some "critical" findings the toxicological database is quite extensive and complex. In experimental animals toxicity after single oral and dermal administration of these compounds is low. For the skin and mucous membranes, OPP has to be considered as irritating, and SOPP and POPP as corrosive. A large number of chronic toxicity and reproduction studies did not show any indication of oestrogen-like or other endocrine effects of OPP in the mammalian organism. No teratogenic effects were observed after the administration of OPP or SOPP in rats, mice, and rabbits. In two-generation studies in rats, OPP did not affect reproduction. The available data do not suggest a relevant potential for immunotoxic properties. The administration of high dietary concentrations of OPP to mice up to 2 years induced hepatocellular changes indicative of adaptations to metabolic demands, zonal degeneration, focal hepatocellular necrosis, and/or pigmentation of the liver. Only in male mice of one study, using a strain prone to develop hepatocellular tumors at high spontaneous incidences, the incidence of hepatocellular adenomas was increased. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas was not affected by treatment. The urothel of the urinary bladder (at very high doses also of the renal pelvis and the papilla) is the main target tissue after the repeated oral exposure of rats. The changes initially consist of increased mitosis, followed by simple epithelial hyperplasia, developing to a papillary and/or nodular form, later on to papillomas and transitional carcinomas. Crystals or stones in the bladder do not play a decisive role in this cascade. SOPP is more effective than OPP in this respect. Male rats are much more sensitive than females. In mice, hamsters, guinea pigs, and dogs

  4. Modelling malic acid accumulation in fruits: relationships with organic acids, potassium, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lobit, Philippe; Genard, Michel; Soing, Patrick; Habib, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Malic acid production, degradation, and storage during fruit development have been modelled. The model assumes that malic acid content is determined essentially by the conditions of its storage in the mesocarp cells, and provides a simplified representation of the mechanisms involved in the accumulation of malate in the vacuole and their regulation by thermodynamic constraints. Solving the corresponding system of equations made it possible to predict the malic acid content of the fruit as a function of organic acids, potassium concentration, and temperature. The model was applied to peach fruit, and parameters were estimated from the data of fruit development monitored over 2 years. The predictions were in good agreement with experimental data. Simulations were performed to analyse the behaviour of the model in response to variations in composition and temperature.

  5. Use of agar diffusion assay to evaluate bactericidal activity of formulations of alkaline salts of fatty acids against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine antibacterial activity of alkaline salts of fatty acids (FA). Wells in agar media seeded with bacteria were filled with FA-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions, plates were incubated, and zones of inhibition were measured. The relationship between bacteric...

  6. Reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions: the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dongfeng; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ji-Chun; Huang, Jianfeng; Bazzano, Lydia A; Lu, Fanghong; Mu, Jianjun; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Mills, Katherine; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Rice, Treva; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions vary among individuals. We studied the long-term reproducibility of blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium intake. We repeated the dietary sodium and potassium interventions among 487 Chinese adults 4.5 years after the original dietary intervention. The identical dietary intervention protocol, which included a 7-day low-sodium feeding (51.3 mmol/d), a 7-day high-sodium feeding (307.8 mmol/d), and a 7-day high-sodium feeding with oral potassium supplementation (60.0 mmol/d), was applied in both the initial and repeated studies. Three blood pressure measurements were obtained during each of the 3 days of baseline observation and on days 5, 6, and 7 of each intervention period. The results from the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium and potassium showed excellent compliance with the study diet. Blood pressure responses to dietary intervention in the original and repeated studies were highly correlated. For example, the correlation coefficients (95% confidence interval) for systolic blood pressure levels were 0.77 (0.73-0.80) at baseline, 0.79 (0.75-0.82) during low sodium, 0.80 (0.77-0.83) during high sodium, and 0.82 (0.79-0.85) during high sodium and potassium supplementation interventions (all P<0.0001). The correlation coefficients for systolic blood pressure changes were 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from baseline to low sodium, 0.37 (0.29-0.44) from low to high sodium, and 0.28 (0.20-0.36) from high sodium to high sodium plus potassium supplementation (all P<0.0001). These data indicate that blood pressure responses to dietary sodium and potassium interventions have long-term reproducibility and stable characteristics in the general population.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1804 - Sodium potassium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium potassium tartrate. 184.1804 Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1804 Sodium potassium tartrate. (a) Sodium potassium tartrate (C4H4KNaO6·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 304-59-6) is the sodium potassium salt of l−(+)−tartaric acid and is also called the...

  12. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  13. Determination of iodide using flow injection with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Mohammad; Atiq-ur-Rehman; Waseem, Amir; Nabi, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection method is described for the determination of iodide, based on potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection via oxidation of formaldehyde in aqueous hydrochloric acid. The calibration graph was linear over the range 1.0-12 x 10(-6) mol/L (r2 = 0.9955) with relative standard deviations (n = 4) in the range 1.0-3.5%. The detection limit (3sigma) was 1.0 x 10(-7) mol/L, with sample throughput of 120/h. The effect of interfering cations [Ca(II), Mg(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Fe(III) and Pb(II)] and anions (Cl-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), NO3-, NO2-, F- and SO3(2-)) were studied. The method was applied to iodized salt samples and the results obtained in the range 0.03 +/- 0.005 - 0.10 +/- 0.006 mg I/g were in reasonable agreement with the amount labelled. The method was statistically compared with the results obtained by titration; no significant disagreement at 95% confidence was observed.

  14. Movements of sodium and potassium into ejaculated boar spermatozoa suspended in seminal plasma and a biological salt solution.

    PubMed

    Crabo, B G; Zimmerman, K J; Moore, R; Thornburgh, F H

    1976-10-22

    Uptake of 22Na and 42K into ejaculated boar spermatozoa was measured in vitro. Cells were suspended either in seminal plasma or in a biological salt solution of essentially the same composition as boar seminal plasma. Samples were incubated at 30 degrees C. Correction was made for extracellular space in the centrifuged sperm pellet. This was determined as 22Na-space, which was less (P less than 0.001) than [14C] carboxyinulin space. Large differences were observed among individual ejaculates. The half-time for potassium uptake into the spermatozoa averaged 11.5 min, which is much faster than that for leukocytes or erythrocytes. When the spermatozoa were suspended in the biological salt solution, the initial rate of 42K uptake was significantly decreased. This may be due to disturbances of the protein components of the sperm membrane. The uptake of 22Na into the spermatozoa was slow. Sodium and potassium transport appeared not to be coupled in the 3/2 ratio which has been reported for erythrocyte membranes. The average concentration of sodium was 108 mM in seminal plasma and 26 mM in the spermatozoa (112 mmol/kg water and 38 mmol/kg water, respectively). The corresponding figures for potassium were 26 mM and 51 mM (27 mmol/kg water and 74 mmol/kg water). The random error for a single determination for the various methods used varied between 2.4 and 13.3% of the mean.

  15. Potassium nitrate application alleviates sodium chloride stress in winter wheat cultivars differing in salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanhai; Jia, Aijun; Ning, Tangyuan; Xu, Jialin; Li, Zengjia; Jiang, Gaoming

    2008-09-29

    A sand culture experiment was conducted to answer the question whether or not exogenous KNO(3) can alleviate adverse effects of salt stress in winter wheat by monitoring plant growth, K(+)/Na(+) accumulation and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes. Seeds of two wheat cultivars (CVs), DK961 (salt-tolerant) and JN17 (salt-sensitive), were planted in sandboxes and controls germinated and raised with Hoagland nutrient solution (6 mM KNO(3), no NaCl). Experimental seeds were exposed to seven modified Hoagland solutions containing increased levels of KNO(3) (11, 16, 21 mM) or 100 mM NaCl in combination with the four KNO(3) concentrations (6, 11, 16 and 21 mM). Plants were harvested 30 d after imbibition, with controls approximately 22 cm in height. Both CVs showed significant reduction in plant height, root length and dry weight of shoots and roots under KNO(3) or NaCl stress. However, the combination of increased KNO(3) and NaCl alleviated symptoms of the individual salt stresses by improving growth of shoots and roots, reducing electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde and soluble sugar contents and enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. The salt-tolerant cultivar accumulated more K(+) in both shoots and roots compared with the higher Na(+) accumulation typical for the salt-sensitive cultivar. Soluble sugar content and activities of antioxidant enzymes were found to be more stable in the salt-tolerant cultivar. Our findings suggest that the optimal K(+)/Na(+) ratio of the nutrient solution should be 16:100 for both the salt-tolerant and the salt-sensitive cultivar under the experimental conditions used, and that the alleviation of NaCl stress symptoms through simultaneously applied elevated KNO(3) was more effective in the salt-tolerant than in the salt-sensitive cultivar.

  16. Maternal history of hypertension and blood pressure response to potassium intake: the GenSalt Study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tanika N; Gu, Dongfeng; Rao, D C; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jichun; Cao, Jie; Li, Jianxin; Lu, Fonghong; Ma, Jixiang; Mu, Jianjun; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang

    2012-10-01

    The relation between parental history of hypertension and blood pressure response to potassium intake is unknown. A 7-day high-sodium followed by a 7-day high-sodium plus potassium dietary-feeding study was conducted from 2003 to 2005 among 1,871 Chinese participants. Those with a maternal history of hypertension had larger systolic blood pressure responses to potassium compared with those without: -4.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): -4.99, -3.62) mm Hg versus -3.35 (95% CI: -4.00, -2.70) mm Hg, respectively (P(difference) = 0.002). A consistent trend was observed for diastolic blood pressure responses: -1.80 (95% CI: -2.41, -1.20) mm Hg versus -1.35 (95% CI: -1.95, -0.74) mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.07). Stronger associations between early onset maternal hypertension and blood pressure responses were noted, with systolic blood pressure decreases of -4.80 (95% CI: -5.65, -3.95) mm Hg versus -3.55 (95% CI: -4.17, -2.93) mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure decreases of -2.25 (95% CI: -3.01, -1.50) mm Hg versus -1.42 (95% CI: -1.99, -0.85) mm Hg among those with early onset maternal hypertension versus those without, respectively (P = 0.001 and 0.009, respectively). Odds ratios for high potassium sensitivity were 1.36 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.92) and 1.60 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.36) for those with maternal hypertension and early onset maternal hypertension, respectively (P = 0.08 and 0.02, respectively). Potassium supplementation could help to reduce blood pressure among those with a maternal history of hypertension.

  17. Influence of salt purity on Na+ and palmitic acid interactions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zishuai; Hua, Wei; Verreault, Dominique; Allen, Heather C

    2013-12-19

    The influence of salt purity on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the carboxylate (COO(-)) head group of palmitic acid (PA) monolayers is studied in the COO(-) and OH stretching regions using broad-band vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. Ultrapure (UP) and ACS grade NaCl salts are used for aqueous solution preparation after proper pretreatment. The time evolution of VSFG spectra of PA monolayers on solutions made from these two grades of salts is different, which reveals that the salt purity has a significant impact on the interactions between Na(+) ions and the COO(-) group of PA. The trace metal impurities in ACS grade salt, which are more abundant than those in UP grade salt, are responsible for this difference due to their stronger affinity for the carboxylate group relative to Na(+) and further affects the interfacial water structure. These results suggest that the alkali salt grade even after pretreatment is critical in the studies of alkali cation-carboxylate interactions and comparison of relative binding affinities of different cations.

  18. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content.

  19. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  20. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... is citric acid and certain citrate salts. The product is currently classified in the...

  1. Probing the early stages of salt nucleation—Experimental and theoretical investigations of sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S. H. M.; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2015-01-14

    Due to the fast solvent evaporation in electrospray ionization (ESI), the concentration of initially dilute electrolyte solutions rapidly increases to afford the formation of supersaturated droplets and generation of various pristine anhydrous salt clusters in the gas phase. The size, composition, and charge distributions of these clusters, in principle, witness the nucleation evolution in solutions. Herein, we report a microscopic study on the initial stage of nucleation and crystallization of sodium/potassium thiocyanate salt solutions simulated in the ESI process. Singly charged M{sub x}(SCN){sub x+1}{sup −}, doubly charged M{sub y}(SCN){sub y+2}{sup 2−} (M = Na, K), and triply charged K{sub z}(SCN){sub z+3}{sup 3−} anion clusters (x, y, and z stand for the number of alkali atoms in the singly, doubly, and triply charged clusters, respectively) were produced via electrospray of the corresponding salt solutions and were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of these sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions were obtained, and theoretical calculations were carried out for the sodium thiocyanate clusters in assisting spectral identification. The measured VDEs of singly charged anions M{sub x}(SCN){sub x+1}{sup −} (M = Na and K) demonstrate that they are superhalogen anions. The existence of doubly charged anions M{sub y}(SCN){sub y+2}{sup 2−} (y = 2x, x ≥ 4 and 3 for M = Na and K, respectively) and triply charged anions K{sub z}(SCN){sub z+3}{sup 3−} (z = 3x, x ≥ 6) was initially discovered from the photoelectron spectra for those singly charged anions of M{sub x}(SCN){sub x+1}{sup −} with the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and later independently confirmed by the observation of their distinct mass spectral distributions and by taking their NIPE spectra for those pure multiply charged anions with their m/z different from the singly charged species. For large clusters, multiply

  2. Probing the early stages of salt nucleation—experimental and theoretical investigations of sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Shihu; Kong, Xiangyu; Wang, Xue B.

    2015-01-14

    Due to fast solvent evaporation in electrospray ionization (ESI), the concentration of initially dilute electrolyte solutions rapidly increases to afford formation of supersaturated droplets and generating various pristine anhydrous salt clusters in the gas phase. The size, composition, and charge distributions of these clusters, in principle witness the nucleation evolution in solutions. Herein, we report a microscopic study on the initial stage of nucleation and crystallization of sodium/potassium thiocyanate salt solutions simulated in the ESI process. Singly charged Mx(SCN)⁻x+1, doubly charged My(SCN)²⁻y+2 (M = Na, K), and triply charged Kz(SCN)³⁻z+3 anion clusters were produced via electrospray of the corresponding salt solutions, and were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of these sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions were obtained, and theoretical calculations were carried out for sodium thiocyanate clusters in assisting spectral identification. The measured VDEs of singly charged anions Mx(SCN)⁻x+1 (M = Na and K) demonstrate they are superhalogen anions. The existence of doubly charged anions My (SCN)²⁻y+2 (y = 2x, x ≥ 4 and 3 for M = Na and K, respectively) and triply charged anions Kz(SCN)³⁻z+3 (z = 3x, x ≥ 6) were initially discovered from the photoelectron spectra for those singly charged anions of Msub>x(SCN)⁻x+1 with the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and later independently confirmed by observation of their distinct mass spectral distributions and by taking their NIPE spectra for those pure multiply charged anions with their m/z different from the singly charged species. For large clusters, multiply charged clusters are found to become preferred, but at higher temperatures those multiply charged clusters

  3. Probing the early stages of salt nucleation—Experimental and theoretical investigations of sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, S. H. M.; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the fast solvent evaporation in electrospray ionization (ESI), the concentration of initially dilute electrolyte solutions rapidly increases to afford the formation of supersaturated droplets and generation of various pristine anhydrous salt clusters in the gas phase. The size, composition, and charge distributions of these clusters, in principle, witness the nucleation evolution in solutions. Herein, we report a microscopic study on the initial stage of nucleation and crystallization of sodium/potassium thiocyanate salt solutions simulated in the ESI process. Singly charged M x (SCN)x + 1 - , doubly charged M y (SCN)y + 2 2 - (M = Na, K), and triply charged K z (SCN)z + 3 3 - anion clusters (x, y, and z stand for the number of alkali atoms in the singly, doubly, and triply charged clusters, respectively) were produced via electrospray of the corresponding salt solutions and were characterized by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES). The vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of these sodium/potassium thiocyanate cluster anions were obtained, and theoretical calculations were carried out for the sodium thiocyanate clusters in assisting spectral identification. The measured VDEs of singly charged anions M x (SCN)x + 1 - (M = Na and K) demonstrate that they are superhalogen anions. The existence of doubly charged anions M y (SCN)y + 2 2 - (y = 2x, x ≥ 4 and 3 for M = Na and K, respectively) and triply charged anions K z (SCN)z + 3 3 - (z = 3x, x ≥ 6) was initially discovered from the photoelectron spectra for those singly charged anions of M x (SCN)x + 1 - with the same mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and later independently confirmed by the observation of their distinct mass spectral distributions and by taking their NIPE spectra for those pure multiply charged anions with their m/z different from the singly charged species. For large clusters, multiply charged clusters were found to become preferred, but at higher temperatures, those multiply charged

  4. [The new directions in the physiotherapeutic applications of the natural potassium salts of the Western Ural].

    PubMed

    Chereshnev, V A; Barannikov, V G; Kirichenko, L V; Varankina, S A; Khokhryakova, V P; Dement'ev, S V

    2016-01-01

    Salt therapy (halotherapy) as a non-traditional method for the treatment of various pathological conditions has become an increasingly popular therapeutic modality in Russia and abroad. The Perm region houses one of the largest sylvinite-bearing potash deposits in the world. These salts are possessed of special physical and chemical properties of great value for the treatment of different diseases. The objective of the present work was to develop novel approaches to the application of sylvinite for the treatment and prevention of various diseases.

  5. Oxidation kinetics of crystal violet by potassium permanganate in acidic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sameera Razi; Ashfaq, Maria; Mubashir; Masood, Summyia

    2016-05-01

    The oxidation kinetics of crystal violet (a triphenylmethane dye) by potassium permanganate was focused in an acidic medium by the spectrophotometric method at 584 nm. The oxidation reaction of crystal violet by potassium permanganate is carried out in an acidic medium at different temperatures ranging within 298-318 K. The kinetic study was carried out to investigate the effect of the concentration, ionic strength and temperature. The reaction followed first order kinetics with respect to potassium permanganate and crystal violet and the overall rate of the reaction was found to be second order. Thermodynamic activation parameters like the activation energy ( E a), enthalpy change (Δ H*), free energy change (Δ G*), and entropy change (Δ S*) have also been evaluated.

  6. Potassium-competitive acid blockers: Advanced therapeutic option for acid-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Inatomi, Nobuhiro; Matsukawa, Jun; Sakurai, Yuuichi; Otake, Kazuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    Acid-related diseases (ARDs), such as peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease, represent a major health-care concern. Some major milestones in our understanding of gastric acid secretion and ARD treatment reached during the last 50years include 1) discovery of histamine H2-receptors and development of H2-receptor antagonists, 2) identification of H(+),K(+)-ATPase as the parietal cell proton pump and development of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and 3) identification of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as the major cause of peptic ulcers and development of effective eradication regimens. Although PPI treatments have been effective and successful, there are limitations to their efficacy and usage, i.e. short half-life, insufficient acid suppression, slow onset of action, and large variation in efficacy among patients due to CYP2C19 metabolism. Potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs) inhibit H(+),K(+)-ATPase in a reversible and K(+)-competitive manner, and exhibit almost complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion from the first dose. Many pharmaceutical companies have tried to develop P-CABs, but most of their clinical development has been discontinued due to safety concerns or a similar efficacy to PPIs. Revaprazan was developed in Korea and was the first P-CAB approved for sale. Vonoprazan, approved in 2014 in Japan, has a completely different chemical structure and higher pKa value compared to other P-CABs, and exhibits rapid onset of action and prolonged control of intragastric acidity. Vonoprazan is an effective treatment for ARDs that is especially effective in healing reflux esophagitis and for H. pylori eradication. P-CABs, such as vonoprazan, promise to further improve the management of ARDs.

  7. A potassium-18-crown-6 salt of a cyclic myo-inositol phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kumara Swamy, K C; Kumaraswamy, S

    2001-10-01

    The six-membered phosphorinane ring in (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane)potassium 2-O-benzoyl-1,3,5-O-methylidyne-myo-inositol 4,6-cyclophosphate trihydrate, [K(C(12)H(24)O(6))](C(14)H(12)O(9)P).3H(2)O, has a boat rather than a chair conformation. The K(+) ion is eight-coordinate and is connected to one of the phosphate O atoms, one of the O atoms of the myo-inositol residue and the six O atoms of the crown ether.

  8. THE BASIS OF STABILITY IN LYSINE AND ARGININE SALTS OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    LINOLEIC ACID , STABILIZATION), (* FATTY ACIDS , STABILITY), (*AMINO ACIDS , SALTS), (*ANTIOXIDANTS, AMINO ACIDS ), DEHYDRATED FOODS, ADDITIVES...PRESERVATION, COMPLEX COMPOUNDS, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, INFRARED SPECTRA, NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CRYSTAL LATTICES, MOLECULAR ISOMERISM, FATTY ACID ESTERS

  9. Bacterial flora of skin of processed broilers after multiple washing in potassium hydroxide and lauric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of various types of bacteria on skin of processed broilers was determined after each of five consecutive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Breast skin was taken from carcasses obtained from a commercial processing facility. Portions of skin were washe...

  10. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  11. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution (w/v). Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing li...

  12. Role of lauric acid-potassium hydroxide concentration on bacterial contamination of spray washed broiler carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed in a spray cabinet with various concentrations of lauric acid (LA)-potassium hydroxide (KOH) solutions. Fifty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing line of...

  13. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  14. Sea salt particles react with organic acids in atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-10-01

    Sea salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), particles lofted into the atmosphere by the motion of ocean waves affect atmospheric chemistry; these particles can undergo reactions with trace atmospheric gases and internal mixing with anthropogenic pollutants depositing on particle surface. Several studies have found that NaCl particles in the atmosphere are depleted in chloride and have attributed this to reactions with inorganic acids. However, reactions with inorganic acids do not fully account for the observed chloride depletion in some locations; it has been suggested that organic acids, likely of anthropogenic origin, may also play a role in chloride depletion, but results have been uncertain.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Potassium Aryl- and Alkyl-Substituted Silylchalcogenolate Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jessica Lynn; Montgomery, Ashley C.; Samaan, Christopher A.; Janicke, Michael Timothy; Scott, Brian Lindley; Gaunt, Andrew James

    2016-02-23

    Treatment of either triphenyl(chloro)silane or tert-butyldiphenyl(chloro)silane with potassium metal in THF, followed by addition of 18-crown-6, affords [K(18-crown-6)][SiPh3] (1) and [K(18-crown-6)][SiPh2 tBu] (2), respectively, as the reaction products in high yield. Compounds 1 and 2 were fully characterized including by multi-nuclear NMR and IR spectroscopies. Addition of elemental chalcogen to either 1 or 2, results in facile chalcogen insertion into the potassium-silicon bond to afford the silylchalcogenolates, [K(18-crown-6)][E– SiPh2R] (E = S, R = Ph (3); Se, R = Ph (4); E = Te, R = Ph (5); E = S, R = tBu (6); E = Se, R = tBu (7); E = Te, R = tBu (8)), in moderate to good yield. The silylchalcogenolates reported herein were characterized by multi-nuclear NMR and IR spectroscopies, and their solid-state molecular structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Importantly, the reported compounds crystallize as discrete monomers in the solid-state, a structural feature not previously observed in silylchalcogenolates, providing well-defined access routes into systematic metal complexation studies.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Potassium Aryl- and Alkyl-Substituted Silylchalcogenolate Salts

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Jessica Lynn; Montgomery, Ashley C.; Samaan, Christopher A.; ...

    2016-02-23

    Treatment of either triphenyl(chloro)silane or tert-butyldiphenyl(chloro)silane with potassium metal in THF, followed by addition of 18-crown-6, affords [K(18-crown-6)][SiPh3] (1) and [K(18-crown-6)][SiPh2 tBu] (2), respectively, as the reaction products in high yield. Compounds 1 and 2 were fully characterized including by multi-nuclear NMR and IR spectroscopies. Addition of elemental chalcogen to either 1 or 2, results in facile chalcogen insertion into the potassium-silicon bond to afford the silylchalcogenolates, [K(18-crown-6)][E– SiPh2R] (E = S, R = Ph (3); Se, R = Ph (4); E = Te, R = Ph (5); E = S, R = tBu (6); E = Se, R =more » tBu (7); E = Te, R = tBu (8)), in moderate to good yield. The silylchalcogenolates reported herein were characterized by multi-nuclear NMR and IR spectroscopies, and their solid-state molecular structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Importantly, the reported compounds crystallize as discrete monomers in the solid-state, a structural feature not previously observed in silylchalcogenolates, providing well-defined access routes into systematic metal complexation studies.« less

  17. Materials corrosion in molten lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-potassium fluoride eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Luke Christopher

    Static corrosion studies were undertaken to determine the compatibility of several candidate high temperature materials for a heat transfer loop in a molten alkali fluoride eutectic salt, LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol % (commonly referred to as FLiNaK), as well as a molten chloride near eutectic salt, KCl-MgCl2: 68-32 mol %. Several high temperature alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, Nb-1Zr, a nearly pure Ni alloy Ni-201, and a C/SiSiC ceramic were exposed to molten FLiNaK at 850°C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion occurred predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the Cr bearing alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries. Corrosion was noted to occur from selective attack of the Si phase in the C/SiSiC ceramic. Alloy weight-loss/area due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys' weight-loss/area was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present in the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. The corrosion mechanisms for the chloride based salt were found to be similar to those observed in FLiNaK, but the chemical attack was found to be less aggressive. Sulfamate Ni electroplating and Mo plasma spraying of Fe-Ni-Cr alloy coupons was investigated to mitigate Cr dissolution. A chemical vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating was also investigated to protect the C/SiSiC composites. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to provide protection against alloy corrosion in molten fluoride salts. Furthermore, the presence of a chromium-oxide interlayer at the interface of the Ni-plating and alloy substrate can further improve the efficacy of the Ni-plating. The pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating on the C/SiSiC composites

  18. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL USING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS CONTAINING POTASSIUM FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Crowder, M.; Bronikowski, M.

    2007-10-15

    The deinventory and deactivation of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) FB-Line facility required the disposition of approximately 2000 items from the facility's vaults. Plutonium (Pu) scraps and residues which do not meet criteria for conversion to a mixed oxide fuel will be dissolved and the solution stored for subsequent disposition. Some of the items scheduled for dissolution are composite materials containing Pu and tantalum (Ta) metals. The preferred approach for handling this material is to dissolve the Pu metal, rinse the Ta metal with water to remove residual acid, and burn the Ta metal. The use of a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) was initially recommended for the dissolution of approximately 500 g of Pu metal. However, prior to the use of the flowsheet in the SRS facility, a new processing plan was proposed in which the feed to the dissolver could contain up to 1250 g of Pu metal. To evaluate the use of a larger batch size and subsequent issues associated with the precipitation of plutonium-containing solids from the dissolving solution, scaled experiments were performed using Pu metal and samples of the composite material. In the initial experiment, incomplete dissolution of a Pu metal sample demonstrated that a 1250 g batch size was not feasible in the HB-Line dissolver. Approximately 45% of the Pu was solubilized in 4 h. The remaining Pu metal was converted to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Based on this work, the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal using a 4-6 h cycle time was recommended for the HB-Line facility. Three dissolution experiments were subsequently performed using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material to demonstrate conditions which reduced the risk of precipitating a double fluoride salt containing Pu and K from the dissolving solution. In these experiments, the KF concentration was reduced from 0.2 M to either 0.15 or 0.175 M. With the use of 4 M HNO{sub 3} and a reduction in the KF

  19. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.980 - Sodium salt of azo acid dye.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium salt of azo acid dye. 721.980... Substances § 721.980 Sodium salt of azo acid dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a sodium salt of azo acid dye (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3625 - Fatty acid amine salt (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid amine salt (generic name... Substances § 721.3625 Fatty acid amine salt (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid amine salt (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN...

  1. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45... Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.45 Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4) may be safely used in food...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10550 - Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10550 Rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (generic). (a) Chemical... as rare earth salt of a carboxylic acid (PMN P-05-324) is subject to reporting under this section...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance... acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-04-153; CAS No. 13990-54-0) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213,...

  13. Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

    2006-01-17

    Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack

  14. Crystal structure of the heptamolybdate(VI) (paramolybdate) ion, [Mo7O24]6-, in the ammonium and potassium tetrahydrate salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, H.T.; Gatehouse, B.M.; Leverett, P.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal structures of the isomorphous salts MI6 [Mo7O24],4H2O (M = NH4 or K) have been refined by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction methods. Unit cell dimensions of these monoclinic compounds, space group P21/C with Z = 4, are, ammonium salt: a = 8.3934 ?? 0.0008, b = 36.1703 ?? 0.0045, c = 10.4715 ?? 0.0011 A??, ?? = 115.958?? ?? 0.008??; and potassium salt: a = 8.15 ?? 0.02, b = 35.68 ?? 0.1, c = 10.30 ?? 0.02 A??, ?? = 115.2?? ?? 02??. By use of multiple Weissenberg patterns, 8197 intensity data (Mo-K?? radiation) for the ammonium compound and 2178 (Cu-K?? radiation) for the potassium compound were estimated visually and used to test and refine Lindqvist's proposed structure in the space group P21/c. Lindqvist's structure was confirmed and the full matrix least-squares isotropic refinement led to R 0.076 (ammonium) 0.120 (potassium), with direct unambiguous location of the cations and water molecules in the potassium compound.

  15. Systematic study of the structures of potassiated tertiary amino acids: salt bridge structures dominate.

    PubMed

    Drayss, Miriam K; Blunk, Dirk; Oomens, Jos; Gao, Bing; Wyttenbach, Thomas; Bowers, Michael T; Schäfer, Mathias

    2009-08-27

    The gas-phase structures of a series of potassiated tertiary amino acids have been systematically investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and computational modeling. The examined analytes comprise a set of five linear N,N-dimethyl amino acids derived from N,N-dimethyl glycine and three cyclic N-methyl amino acids including N-methyl proline. The number of methylene groups in either the alkyl chain of the linear members or in the ring of the cyclic members of the series is gradually varied. The spectra of the cyclic potassiated molecular ions are similar and well resolved, whereas the clear signals in the respective spectra of the linear analytes increasingly overlap with longer alkyl chains. Measured IRMPD spectra are compared to spectra calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level of theory to identify the structures present in the experimental studies. On the basis of these experiments and calculations, all potassiated molecular ions of this series adopt salt bridge structures in the gas phase, involving bidentate coordination of the potassium cation to the carboxylate moiety. The assigned salt bridge structures are predicted to be the global minima on the potential energy surfaces. IMS cross-section measurements of the potassiated systems show a monotonic increase with growing system size, suggesting that the precursor ions adopt the same type of structure and comparisons between experimental and theoretical cross sections are consistent with salt bridge structures and the IRMPD results.

  16. Potassium Retention under Salt Stress Is Associated with Natural Variation in Salinity Tolerance among Arabidopsis Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanling; Kong, Xiangpei; Li, Cuiling; Liu, Yongxiu; Ding, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Plants are exposed to various environmental stresses during their life cycle such as salt, drought and cold. Natural variation mediated plant growth adaptation has been employed as an effective approach in response to the diverse environmental cues such as salt stress. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not well understood. In the present study, a collection of 82 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions (ecotypes) was screened with a view to identify variation for salinity tolerance. Seven accessions showed a higher level of tolerance than Col-0. The young seedlings of the tolerant accessions demonstrated a higher K+ content and a lower Na+/K+ ratio when exposed to salinity stress, but its Na+ content was the same as that of Col-0. The K+ transporter genes AtHAK5, AtCHX17 and AtKUP1 were up-regulated significantly in almost all the tolerant accessions, even in the absence of salinity stress. There was little genetic variation or positive transcriptional variation between the selections and Col-0 with respect to Na+-related transporter genes, as AtSOS genes, AtNHX1 and AtHKT1;1. In addition, under salinity stress, these selections accumulated higher compatible solutes and lower reactive oxygen species than did Col-0. Taken together, our results showed that natural variation in salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis seems to have been achieved by the strong capacity of K+ retention. PMID:25993093

  17. Palmitoleic acid calcium salt: a lubricant and bactericidal powder from natural lipids.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Kawamura, Yuki; Yamazaki, Yuki; Kijima, Tatsuro; Morikawa, Toshiya; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid is a promising bactericidal agent for cleansing products with alternative bactericidal abilities. In this study, we focus on the physical and biological activity of palmitoleic acid calcium salt (C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt) because it forms via an ion-exchange reaction between palmitoleic acid and Ca ions in tap water, and remains on the skin surface during the cleansing process. Here, we prepared C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt to investigate its crystal structure and physical and bactericidal properties. The Ca salt was a plate-shaped lamellar crystalline powder with a particle diameter of several micrometers to several tens of micrometers; it exhibited significant lubricity and alternative bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). We also examined other fatty acid Ca salts prepared from lauric acid (C12:0 fatty acid), palmitic acid (C16:0 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid). The bactericidal activities and lubricity of the fatty acid Ca salts changed with the alkyl chain length and the degree of unsaturation. The C16:1 fatty acid Ca salt exhibited the strongest selective bactericidal ability among the four investigated fatty acid Ca salts. These findings suggest that C16:1 fatty acid and its Ca salt have potential applications in cleansing and cosmetic products.

  18. Dietary potassium and the renal control of salt balance and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Penton, David; Czogalla, Jan; Loffing, Johannes

    2015-03-01

    Dietary potassium (K(+)) intake has antihypertensive effects, prevents strokes, and improves cardiovascular outcomes. The underlying mechanism for these beneficial effects of high K(+) diets may include vasodilation, enhanced urine flow, reduced renal renin release, and negative sodium (Na(+)) balance. Indeed, several studies demonstrate that dietary K(+) intake induces renal Na(+) loss despite elevated plasma aldosterone. This review briefly highlights the epidemiological and experimental evidences for the effects of dietary K(+) on arterial blood pressure. It discusses the pivotal role of the renal distal tubule for the regulation of urinary K(+) and Na(+) excretion and blood pressure and highlights that it depends on the coordinated interaction of different nephron portions, epithelial cell types, and various ion channels, transporters, and ATPases. Moreover, we discuss the relevance of aldosterone and aldosterone-independent factors in mediating the effects of an altered K(+) intake on renal K(+) and Na(+) handling. Particular focus is given to findings suggesting that an aldosterone-independent downregulation of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter significantly contributes to the natriuretic and antihypertensive effect of a K(+)-rich diet. Last but not least, we refer to the complex signaling pathways enabling the kidney to adapt its function to the homeostatic needs in response to an altered K(+) intake. Future work will have to further address the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism and to elucidate, among others, how an altered dietary K(+) intake is sensed and how this signal is transmitted to the different epithelial cells lining the distal tubule.

  19. Syntheses and biological activities of potent potassium channel openers derived from (+/-)-2-oxo-1-pyridin-3-yl-cyclohexanecarbothioic acid methylamide: new potassium channel openers.

    PubMed

    Brown, T J; Chapman, R F; Mason, J S; Palfreyman, M N; Vicker, N; Walsh, R J

    1993-05-28

    The syntheses and biological activities of (+/-)-2-(cyanomethylene)-1-pyridin-3-ylcyclohexanecarbothioic++ + acid methylamide (6) and trans-(+/-)-2-(cyanomethyl)-1-pyridin-3-ylcyclohexanecarbothioic acid methylamide (14) derived from (+/-)-2-oxo-1-pyridin-3-ylcyclohexanecarbothioic acid methylamide (4) are reported. Compounds were tested for antagonism of potassium-induced contraction of de-endothelialized rat aorta. The effects of modification of 6 and 14 on in vitro K(+)-channel opening activity are presented. These new series of potassium channel openers so derived are best exemplified by (+/-)-2-[2-(phenylsulfanyl)ethylidene]-1-pyridin-3-ylcyclohexan ecarbothioic acid methylamide (13d, RP 66266) and trans-(+/-)-2-[2-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl]-1-pyridin-3- ylcyclohexanecarbothioic acid methylamide (25a, RP 66784), which have IC90 values of 3 and 0.3 nM, respectively. The potency of the most active compounds indicates a possible interaction at an extra binding site. The compounds described herein are potential antihypertensive and antianginal agents.

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its salts and esters and Glycyrrhizic Acid and its salts and esters are cosmetic ingredients that function as flavoring agents or skin-conditioning agents - miscellaneous or both. These chemicals may be isolated from licorice plants. Glycyrrhetinc Acid is described as at least 98% pure, with 0.6% 24-OH-Glycyrrhetinic Acid, not more than 20 mu g/g of heavy metals and not more than 2 mu g/g of arsenic. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate has been found to be at least 98% pure and Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate has been found to be at least 95% pure. Glycyrrhetinic Acid is used in cosmetics at concentrations of up to 2%; Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, up to 1%; Glycyrrhizic Acid, up to 0.1%; Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, up to 5%; Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, up to 1%; and Potassium Glycyrretinate, up to 1%. Although Glycyrrhizic Acid is poorly absorbed by the intestinal tract, it may be hydrolyzed to Glycyrrhetinic Acid by a beta -glucuronidase produced by intestinal bacteria. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid bind to rat and human albumin, but do not absorb well into tissues. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid and metabolites are mostly excreted in the bile, with very little excreted in urine. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate was undetectable in the receptor chamber when tested for transepidermal permeation through pig skin. Glycyrrhizic Acid increased the dermal penetration of diclofenac sodium in rat skin. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate increased the intestinal absorption of calcitonin in rats. In humans, Glycyrrhetinic Acid potentiated the effects of hydrocortisone in the skin. Moderate chronic or high acute exposure to Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, and their metabolites have been demonstrated to cause transient systemic alterations, including increased potassium excretion, sodium and water retention, body weight gain, alkalosis, suppression of the renin-angiotensis-aldosterone system, hypertension, and muscular paralysis; possibly through inhibition of

  1. Students' Understanding of Acid, Base and Salt Reactions in Qualitative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kim-Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh-Khang; Chia, Lian-Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Uses a two-tier, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument to determine (n=915) grade 10 students' understanding of the acid, base, and salt reactions involved in basic qualitative analysis. Reports that many students did not understand the formation of precipitates and the complex salts, acid/salt-base reactions, and thermal decomposition involved in…

  2. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  4. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  5. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  6. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  8. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  10. 76 FR 52875 - 2-Propenoic Acid, Polymer With Ethenylbenzene and (1-methylethenyl) Benzene, Sodium Salt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ..., Sodium Salt; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule...-Propenoic acid, polymer with ethenylbenzene and (1-methylethenyl) benzene, sodium salt when used as an inert... residues of 2-Propenoic acid, polymer with ethenylbenzene and (1- methylethenyl) benzene, sodium salt...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  16. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... and its sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No....

  20. 40 CFR 721.2175 - Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid... Substances § 721.2175 Salt of cyclodiamine and mineral acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a salt of cyclodiamine...

  1. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkylsulfate salt. 721.720 Section 721.720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10382 - Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10382 Diphosphoric acid, calcium salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and... salt (1:1) (PMN P-10-313; CAS No. 14866-19-4) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salts. 721.4663 Section 721.4663 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metal salt (generic). 721.10098 Section 721.10098 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject...

  15. Aquaculture fouling: Efficacy of potassium monopersulphonate triple salt based disinfectant (Virkon® Aquatic) against Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Paetzold, S Christine; Davidson, Jeff

    2011-07-01

    With the increasing spread of invasive marine species and their detrimental effects on aquaculture operations globally, mitigation strategies need to be optimized to mitigate economic impacts. The efficacy of a potassium monopersulphonate triple salt based disinfectant used in the aquaculture industry (Virkon® Aquatic at 0.5-5%) was evaluated against the solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis, as well as the susceptibility of three different age groups of C. intestinalis to the treatment and the effect of the disinfectant on mussel mortality. Younger C. intestinalis were most affected by all treatments, and almost all immersion applications significantly decreased the biomass of C. intestinalis compared to untreated plates. Disinfectant solutions of ≥ 1% reduced biomass below pre-treatment levels. Mussel mortality was low, especially for solutions <3%. C. intestinalis should be treated 4 weeks post-settlement to maximize antifouling treatment effects. Immersion in 3% disinfectant for 30 s reduced the biomass of C. intestinalis by up to 89% and would be feasible in field applications using existing treatment equipment.

  16. 42K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in barley: mechanism and relevance to salt tolerance.

    PubMed

    Britto, Dev T; Ebrahimi-Ardebili, Sasha; Hamam, Ahmed M; Coskun, Devrim; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2010-04-01

    *Stimulation of potassium (K(+)) efflux by sodium (Na(+)) has been the subject of much recent attention, and its mechanism has been attributed to the activities of specific classes of ion channels. *The short-lived radiotracer (42)K(+) was used to test this attribution, via unidirectional K(+)-flux analysis at the root plasma membrane of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare), in response to NaCl, KCl, NH(4)Cl and mannitol, and to channel inhibitors. *Unidirectional K(+) efflux was strongly stimulated by NaCl, and K(+) influx strongly suppressed. Both effects were ameliorated by elevated calcium (Ca(2+)). As well, K(+) efflux was strongly stimulated by KCl, NH(4)Cl and mannitol , and NaCl also stimulated (13)NH(4)(+) efflux. The Na(+)-stimulated K(+) efflux was insensitive to cesium (Cs(+)) and pH 4.2, weakly sensitive to the K(+)-channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)) and quinine, and moderately sensitive to zinc (Zn(2+)) and lanthanum (La(3+)). *We conclude that the stimulated efflux is: specific neither to Na(+) as effector nor K(+) as target; composed of fluxes from both cytosol and vacuole; mediated neither by outwardly-rectifying K(+) channels nor nonselective cation channels; attributable, alternatively, to membrane disintegration brought about by ionic and osmotic components; of limited long-term significance, unlike the suppression of K(+) influx by Na(+), which is a greater threat to K(+) homeostasis under salt stress.

  17. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  18. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  19. Investigation on surface structure of potassium permanganate/nitric acid treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Congli; Liu, Shuling; Gong, Tianlong; Gu, Aiqun; Yu, Zili

    2014-10-01

    In the previous articles concerning the treatment of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) with potassium permanganate/nitric acid mixture, the conversion of a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was partially assigned to the defluorination of PTFE and then the introduction of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups into the defluorinated sites. In the present work, PTFE sheets were treated with potassium permanganate/nitric acid, and the surfaces before and after treatment were comparatively characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface sediments of the treated PTFE were also determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicate that the conversion of the hydrophobicity to the hydrophilicity on the modified PTFE surface is mainly due to the deposition of hydrophilic manganese oxides which covered the fluorocarbon surface, and no detectable chemical reactions of PTFE occur in the treating process.

  20. A Novel Mechanism of Ion Homeostasis and Salt Tolerance in Yeast: the Hal4 and Hal5 Protein Kinases Modulate the Trk1-Trk2 Potassium Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Mulet, Jose M.; Leube, Martin P.; Kron, Stephen J.; Rios, Gabino; Fink, Gerald R.; Serrano, Ramon

    1999-01-01

    The regulation of intracellular ion concentrations is a fundamental property of living cells. Although many ion transporters have been identified, the systems that modulate their activity remain largely unknown. We have characterized two partially redundant genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, HAL4/SAT4 and HAL5, that encode homologous protein kinases implicated in the regulation of cation uptake. Overexpression of these genes increases the tolerance of yeast cells to sodium and lithium, whereas gene disruptions result in greater cation sensitivity. These phenotypic effects of the mutations correlate with changes in cation uptake and are dependent on a functional Trk1-Trk2 potassium transport system. In addition, hal4 hal5 and trk1 trk2 mutants exhibit similar phenotypes: (i) they are deficient in potassium uptake; (ii) their growth is sensitive to a variety of toxic cations, including lithium, sodium, calcium, tetramethylammonium, hygromycin B, and low pH; and (iii) they exhibit increased uptake of methylammonium, an indicator of membrane potential. These results suggest that the Hal4 and Hal5 protein kinases activate the Trk1-Trk2 potassium transporter, increasing the influx of potassium and decreasing the membrane potential. The resulting loss in electrical driving force reduces the uptake of toxic cations and improves salt tolerance. Our data support a role for regulation of membrane potential in adaptation to salt stress that is mediated by the Hal4 and Hal5 kinases. PMID:10207057

  1. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid from Canada with...

  2. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from... citric acid from Canada with respect to JBL Canada covering the period November 20, 2008, through May...

  3. Effect of deep-fat frying on ascorbic acid, carotenoids and potassium contents of plantain cylinders.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Gonzalez, Juan A; Avallone, Sylvie; Brat, Pierre; Trystram, Gilles; Bohuon, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The influence of thermal treatment (frying of plantain) on the micronutrients ascorbic acid, potassium and carotenoids is evaluated. Cylinders (diameter 30 mm, thickness 10 mm) of plantain (Musa AAB 'barraganete') were fried at four thermal treatments (120-180 degrees C and from 24 to 4 min) to obtain products with approximately the same water content (approximately 0.8+/-0.02 kg/kg1) and fat content (approximately 0.15+/-0.06 kg/kg). The thermal study used the cook value and the mean cook value as indicators of the effect of several different treatment temperatures and times on quality. Deep-fat frying had no significant effect on carotenoid contents at any frying conditions, and on potassium content, except at 120 degrees C and 24 min (loss acid. The process with the greatest effect was low temperature and long time (120 degrees C/24 min), as observed for potassium and ascorbic acid. These results are in agreement with other studies that demonstrated short thermal treatments at high temperatures protect food nutritional quality, as shown by the cook value and the mean cook value. In our work, deep-fat frying of plantain preserved most of the micronutrient contents that were evaluated.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are cerebral vasodilators via the TREK-1 potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Nicolas; Pétrault, Olivier; Manta, Stella; Giordanengo, Valérie; Gounon, Pierre; Bordet, Régis; Lazdunski, Michel; Heurteaux, Catherine

    2007-07-20

    Vessel occlusion is the most frequent cause for impairment of local blood flow within the brain resulting in neuronal damage and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid improve brain resistance against cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and particularly alpha-linolenic acid on the cerebral blood flow and on the tone of vessels that regulate brain perfusion. alpha-Linolenic acid injections increased cerebral blood flow and induced vasodilation of the basilar artery but not of the carotid artery. The saturated fatty acid palmitic acid did not produce vasodilation. This suggested that the target of the polyunsaturated fatty acids effect was the TREK-1 potassium channel. We demonstrate the presence of this channel in basilar but not in carotid arteries. We show that vasodilations induced by the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the basilar artery as well as the laser-Doppler flow increase are abolished in TREK-1(-/-) mice. Altogether these data indicate that TREK-1 activation elicits a robust dilation that probably accounts for the increase of cerebral blood flow induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid or docosahexanoic acid. They suggest that the selective expression and activation of TREK-1 in brain collaterals could play a significant role in the protective mechanisms of polyunsaturated fatty acids against stroke by providing residual circulation during ischemia.

  5. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ..., sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in their unblended forms, whether dry or in solution, and regardless of packaging type. The scope also includes blends of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium... acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate constitute 40 percent or more, by weight, of the blend....

  6. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  7. Using a Low-Sodium, High-Potassium Salt Substitute to Reduce Blood Pressure among Tibetans with High Blood Pressure: A Patient-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xingshan; Yin, Xuejun; Li, Xian; Yan, Lijing L.; Lam, Christopher T.; Li, Shenshen; He, Feng; Xie, Wuxiang; Sang, Ba; Luobu, Gesang; Ke, Liang; Wu, Yangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt-substitute on lowering blood pressure (BP) among Tibetans living at high altitude (4300 meters). Method The study was a patient-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted between February and May 2009 in Dangxiong County, Tibetan Autonomous Region, China. A total of 282 Tibetans aged 40 or older with known hypertension (systolic BP≥140 mmHg) were recruited and randomized to intervention (salt-substitute, 65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride and 10% magnesium sulfate) or control (100% sodium chloride) in a 1: 1 allocation ratio with three months’ supply. Primary outcome was defined as the change in BP levels measured from baseline to followed-up with an automated sphygmomanometer. Per protocol (PP) and intention to treat (ITT) analyses were conducted. Results After the three months’ intervention period, the net reduction in SBP/DBP in the intervention group in comparison to the control group was −8.2/−3.4 mmHg (all p<0.05) in PP analysis, after adjusting for baseline BP and other variables. ITT analysis showed the net reduction in SBP/DBP at −7.6/−3.5 mmHg with multiple imputations (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the whole distribution of blood pressure showed an overall decline in SBP/DBP and the proportion of patients with BP under control (SBP/DBP<140 mmHg) was significantly higher in salt-substitute group in comparison to the regular salt group (19.2% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.027). Conclusion Low sodium high potassium salt-substitute is effective in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and offers a simple, low-cost approach for hypertension control among Tibetans in China. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01429246 PMID:25338053

  8. An Extremely Halophilic Proteobacterium Combines a Highly Acidic Proteome with a Low Cytoplasmic Potassium Content*

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Ratnakar; Challacombe, Jean; Raiford, Douglas W.; Hoff, Wouter D.

    2013-01-01

    Halophilic archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that function only at high salinity. We examined osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris. Genome sequencing and isoelectric focusing gel electrophoresis showed that the proteome of H. halophila is acidic. In line with this finding, H. halophila accumulated molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt medium as detected by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. This result extends the taxonomic range of organisms using KCl as a main osmoprotectant to the Proteobacteria. The closely related organism H. halochloris does not exhibit an acidic proteome, matching its inability to accumulate K+. This observation indicates recent evolutionary changes in the osmoprotection strategy of these organisms. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt medium, its cytoplasmic K+ content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. First, we conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K+ ions and acidic side chains but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. Second, we propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K+-binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface. PMID:23144460

  9. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  10. Analytical applications of condensed phosphoric acid-III Iodometric determination of sulphur after reduction of sulphate with sodium hypophosphite and either tin metal or potassium iodide in condensed phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, T; Iwahori, H; Ishii, H

    1980-06-01

    Novel methods for the reduction of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide with hypophosphite-tin metal or hypophosphite-iodide in condensed phosphoric acid (CPA) are proposed. The reduction of sulphate with hypophosphite alone does not proceed quantitatively. Sulphate, however, is quantitatively decomposed with hypophosphite when tin metal or potassium iodide is used together with it. The determination of sulphur by the hypophosphite-tin metal-CPA and tin(II)-CPA methods is interfered with by copper on account of the stabilization of copper(I) sulphide, but this interference can be eliminated by adding iodide, e.g. potassium and lead salts. Alum and barytes are quantitatively decomposed within 15 min at 140 and 280 degrees , respectively. The hydrogen sulphide evolved is absorbed in zinc acetate solution at pH 4.5 and then determined by iodometry.

  11. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  14. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10370 - Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10370 Phosphonic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt... substance identified as phosphinic acid, p-octyl-, lanthanum (3+) salt (2:1) (PMN P-10-99; CAS No....

  16. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10633 - Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10633 Aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as aromatic sulfonic acid amino azo dye salts (PMN P-12-276) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10474 - Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10474 Substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (generic). (a... generically as substituted amino ethane sulfonic acid salt (PMN P-04-107) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7785 - Substituted alkyl aminomethylene polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyphosphonic acid, salt (generic). 721.7785 Section 721.7785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... acid, salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamino methylene polyphosphonic acid,...

  3. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  4. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  6. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  7. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies activities... subject to this section: P-84-310, triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. (b)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10487 - Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10487 Alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (generic). (a) Chemical... as alkylbenzenes sulfonic acids, metal salts (PMNs P-04-599, P-04-600, P-04-605, and P-04-606)...

  15. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from Canada.\\1\\ The review... period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain...

  16. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... availability of EPA's proposed registration review decisions for the pesticides propionic acid and salts, and... acid is a fungicide and bactericide that is used to control fungi and bacteria in stored hay and...

  17. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  18. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of... preliminary results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The review covers one manufacturer/exporter of...

  19. Influence of electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts on microbial quality and overall appearance of blueberries during storage.

    PubMed

    Liato, Viacheslav; Hammami, Riadh; Aïder, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of diluted electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts (potassium acetate, potassium citrate and calcium lactate) to extend the shelf life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. The sanitizing capacity of these solutions was studied against pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 as well as phytopathogenic fungi A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. The results showed that a 5-min treatment of inoculated blueberries with electro-activated solutions resulted in a 4 log CFU/g reduction in Listeria monocytogenes for all solutions. For E. coli O157:H7, the electro-activated potassium acetate and potassium citrate solutions achieved a decrease of 3.5 log CFU/g after 5 min of berry washing. The most important fungus reduction was found when blueberries were washed with an electro-activated solution of potassium acetate and a NaOCl solution. After 5 min of blueberry washing with an electro-activated potassium acetate solution, a very high reduction effect was observed for A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea, which showed survival levels of only 2.2 ± 0.16, 0.34 ± 0.15 and 0.21 ± 0.16 log CFU/g, respectively. Regarding the effect of the washing on the organoleptic quality of blueberries, the obtained results showed no negative effect on the product color or textural profile. Finally, this work suggests that washing with electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts can be used to enhance the shelf-life of blueberries during post-harvest storage.

  20. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  5. Effect of Azotobacter vinelandii and compatible solutes on germination wheat seeds and root concentrations of sodium and potassium under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Silini, A; Silini-Chérif, H; Ghoul, M

    2012-02-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and exogenous application of compatible solutes on seed germination and root concentrations of sodium and potassium of two wheat varieties (Triticum durum L.) were evaluated under saline stress. In this experiment, Azotobacter vinelandii strain DSM85, glycine betaine and proline were used. Inoculated seeds for each variety were placed on Whatman paper in 9 cm Petri dishes containing 15 mL of distilled water or NaCl solutions at various concentrations (control, 100, 200, 300 mM) supplemented with or without glycine betaine (GB) or proline at 5 mM. The results indicated that addition of proline (5 mM) stimulated the production of indol acetic acid and the growth of A. vinelandii at 200 and 300 mM NaCl, respectively. The germination rate index and the germination final percentage decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing salinity level. The germination was significantly diminished at 300 mM with significant variation among varieties and Waha variety had higher germination percentage than Bousselam variety. Inoculation of seeds by A. vinelandii and exogenous application of proline had significantly positive effect on the germination at this concentration of NaCl. The rate of accumulation of Na+ in roots was important at 100 mM and increased at 200 mM. The concentration of K+ decreased when salinity increased. The effect of inoculation or inoculation with proline decreased the accumulation of Na' and reduced the loss of K+ under salt stress. From the present study we can conclude that the use of A. vinelandii strain DSM85 and external application of low concentrations of proline on seeds might be considered as a strategy for the protection of plants under saline stress.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN...

  11. Salts of phenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with Cinchona alkaloids: Crystal structures, thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2016-06-01

    Seven salts were formed with phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) and the Cinchona alkaloids; cinchonidine (CIND), quinidine (QUID) and quinine (QUIN). For all the structures the proton was transferred from the carboxylic acid of the PAA/HPAA to the quinuclidine nitrogen of the respective Cinchona alkaloid. For six of the salts, water was included in the crystal structures with one of these also incorporating an isopropanol solvent molecule. However HPAA co-crystallised with quinine to form an anhydrous salt, (HPAA-)(QUIN+). The thermal stability of the salts were determined and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the (HPAA-)(QUIN+) salt had the highest thermal stability compared to the other salt hydrates. The salts were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (PAA-)(QUID+)·H2O and (PAA-)(QUIN+)·H2O are isostructural and Hirshfeld surface analysis was completed to compare the intermolecular interactions in these two structures.

  12. Inactivation of human norovirus surrogates by benzalkonium chloride, potassium peroxymonosulfate, tannic acid, and gallic acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2012-09-01

    Novel methods to effectively disinfect contact surfaces and prevent human norovirus transmission are essential. The effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), potassium peroxymonosulfate (KPMS), tannic acid (TA), and gallic acid (GA) on enteric virus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), and bacteriophage MS2 was studied. Viruses at high (∼7 log₁₀ PFU/mL) or low (∼5 log₁₀ PFU/mL) titers were mixed with equal volumes of BAC (0.2, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL), KPMS (5, 10, and 20 mg/mL), TA (0.02 and 0.2 mg/mL), GA (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 mg/mL), or water and incubated for 2 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after triplicate treatments was evaluated using plaque assays in duplicate. Low titers of FCV-F9 and MNV-1 were completely reduced, while low-titer MS2 was reduced by 1.7-1.8 log₁₀ PFU/mL with BAC at all three concentrations. High-titer FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.87, 3.08, and 3.25 log₁₀ PFU/mL, and high-titer MNV-1 was reduced by 1.55, 2.32, and 2.75 log₁₀ PFU/mL with BAC at 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. High-titer MS2 was reduced by ∼2 log₁₀ PFU/mL with BAC at all three concentrations. KPMS at all three concentrations reduced high and low titers of FCV-F9 and MS2 and low-titer MNV-1 to undetectable levels, while high-titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.92 and 3.44 log₁₀ PFU/mL with KMPS at 2.5 and 5 mg/mL, respectively. TA at 0.2 mg/mL only reduced high-titer FCV-F9 by 0.98 log₁₀ PFU/mL and low-titer FCV-F9 by 1.95 log₁₀ PFU/mL. GA at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL reduced low-titer FCV-F9 by 2.50, 2.36, and 0.86 log₁₀ PFU/mL, respectively with negligible effects against high-titer FCV-F9. BAC and KPMS show promise to be used as broad-spectrum contact surface disinfectants for prevention of noroviral surrogate contamination.

  13. Potassium bicarbonate supplementation lowers bone turnover and calcium excretion in older men and women a randomized dose-finding trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid load accompanying modern diets may have adverse effects on bone and muscle metabolism. Treatment with alkaline salts of potassium can neutralize the acid load, but the optimal amount of alkali is not established. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of two doses of potassium bic...

  14. Data on energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles obtained by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of transition metal salts.

    PubMed

    Zimnyakov, D A; Sevrugin, A V; Yuvchenko, S A; Fedorov, F S; Tretyachenko, E V; Vikulova, M A; Kovaleva, D S; Krugova, E Y; Gorokhovsky, A V

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the data on the energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles produced by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of different transition metal salts. Band gap characteristics are investigated using diffuse reflection spectra of the obtained powders. Calculated logarithmic derivative quantity of the Kubelka-Munk function reveals a presence of local maxima in the regions 0.5-1.5 eV and 1.6-3.0 eV which correspond to band gap values of the investigated materials. The values might be related to the constituents of the composite nanoparticles and intermediate products of their chemical interaction.

  15. 77 FR 68686 - Xylenesulfonic Acid, Sodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Xylenesulfonic Acid, Sodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of xylenesulfonic acid, sodium salt (also known as sodium xylene sulfonate) (CAS Reg. No. 1300-72-7) when used as an inert ingredient...

  16. Starch-lipid complexes: Interesting material and applications from amylose-fatty acid salt inclusion complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aqueous slurries of high amylose starch can be steam jet cooked and blended with aqueous solutions of fatty acid salts to generate materials that contain inclusion complexes between amylose and the fatty acid salt. These complexes are simply prepared on large scale using commercially available steam...

  17. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On...). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of...

  18. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  19. 76 FR 77772 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

  20. 76 FR 33219 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's...

  1. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic... order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

  2. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages.

  3. Salt-Related MYB1 Coordinates Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Signaling during Salt Stress in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Tohge, Takayuki; Ivakov, Alexander; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mutwil, Marek; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Persson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as salinity, cause global yield loss of all major crop plants. Factors and mechanisms that can aid in plant breeding for salt stress tolerance are therefore of great importance for food and feed production. Here, we identified a MYB-like transcription factor, Salt-Related MYB1 (SRM1), that negatively affects Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seed germination under saline conditions by regulating the levels of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Accordingly, several ABA biosynthesis and signaling genes act directly downstream of SRM1, including SALT TOLERANT1/NINE-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE3, RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION26, and Arabidopsis NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN19. Furthermore, SRM1 impacts vegetative growth and leaf shape. We show that SRM1 is an important transcriptional regulator that directly targets ABA biosynthesis and signaling-related genes and therefore may be regarded as an important regulator of ABA-mediated salt stress tolerance. PMID:26243618

  4. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin. PMID:26839810

  5. [The identification of several saturated fatty acids and their salts by means of infrared spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui

    2007-02-01

    It is considered that saturated fatty acids and their salts may be potential hydrocarbon-generation matters in carbonate rocks. However, there is no effective method to distinguish them from natural sediments, making recognizing their distribution in sediments a challenge. Formic acid, acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium formate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate, and magnesium stearate from some chemical plants were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Their infrared spectra were obtained and the distinctions of the infrared spectra between saturated fatty acids and their salts were studied in detail. The differences in the group's electron-releasing ability, molecular reduced mass, ion configuration and the length of carbon chain can cause wavelength shifts of infrared absorption peaks of the saturated fatty acids and their salts. The research provides a method for the identification of saturated fatty acids and their salts in samples from nature.

  6. The potassium transporter OsHAK21 functions in the maintenance of ion homeostasis and tolerance to salt stress in rice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Shen, Like; Shen, Zhenxing; Jing, Wen; Ge, Hongliang; Zhao, Jiangzhe; Zhang, Wenhua

    2015-12-01

    The intracellular potassium (K(+) ) homeostasis, which is crucial for plant survival in saline environments, is modulated by K(+) channels and transporters. Some members of the high-affinity K(+) transporter (HAK) family are believed to function in the regulation of plant salt tolerance, but the physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report a significant inducement of OsHAK21 expression by high-salinity treatment and provide genetic evidence of the involvement of OsHAK21 in rice salt tolerance. Disruption of OsHAK21 rendered plants sensitive to salt stress. Compared with the wild type, oshak21 accumulated less K(+) and considerably more Na(+) in both shoots and roots, and had a significantly lower K(+) net uptake rate but higher Na(+) uptake rate. Our analyses of subcellular localizations and expression patterns showed that OsHAK21 was localized in the plasma membrane and expressed in xylem parenchyma and individual endodermal cells (putative passage cells). Further functional characterizations of OsHAK21 in K(+) uptake-deficient yeast and Arabidopsis revealed that OsHAK21 possesses K(+) transporter activity. These results demonstrate that OsHAK21 may mediate K(+) absorption by the plasma membrane and play crucial roles in the maintenance of the Na(+) /K(+) homeostasis in rice under salt stress.

  7. Effect of amino acid additives on the growth and physical properties of potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, A. Elakkina; Kanchana, P.; Sekar, C.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of potassium acid phthalate (KAP) have been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique by adding L-alanine (LA), glycine (Gly) and L-tyrosine (LT) as additives. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the phase formation and amino acids doping into KAP crystals. The optical absorption studies reveal that the LA doped crystals possess less absorption of visible ray than the pristine, Gly and LT doped KAP crystals. Optical transmission is found to be low in LT doped KAP than in all the other crystals. TG-DTA studies show the decomposition temperatures to be 255 °C, 232 °C, 258 °C and 264 °C for pure, LA, Gly and LT doped KAP crystals respectively. SHG efficiency of LA doped KAP crystal was found to be 1.1 times (31 mV for KDP and 34 mV for LA doped KAP) that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. This is much higher when compared to that of undoped KAP crystal (12 mV). The grown crystals were also subjected to FTIR, microhardness and dielectric studies.

  8. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2076 - D-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium salt. 721.2076 Section 721...-Glucuronic acid, polymer with 6-deoxy-L-mannose and D-glucose, acetate, calcium magnesium potassium sodium... potassium sodium salt (PMN P-00-7; CAS No.125005-87-0) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. Determination of tertiary amines and salts of organic acids in acetic acid by catalytic thermometric titration.

    PubMed

    Vajgand, V J; Gaál, F F

    1967-03-01

    A new method of determination of tertiary amines and salts of organic adds in acetic acid solution, to which about 2 % of water and 8% acetic anhydride are added, is described. After the equivalence point, the excess of perchloric acid catalyses the exothermic reaction of water with acetic anhydride. The end-point is determined from the graph of temperature against volume of added titrant. If a slightly soluble compound is produced during the titration, the precision of the new method is superior to that of the potentiometric method.

  12. Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots.

    PubMed Central

    Moons, A; Prinsen, E; Bauw, G; Van Montagu, M

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonates have been implicated in responses to water deficit and wounding. We compared the molecular and physiological effects of jasmonic acid (JA) (< or = 10 microM), ABA, and salt stress in roots of rice. JA markedly induced a cationic peroxidase, two novel 32- and 28-kD proteins, acidic PR-1 and PR-10 pathogenesis-related proteins, and the salt stress-responsive SalT protein in roots. Most JA-responsive proteins (JIPs) from roots also accumulated when plants were subjected to salt stress. None of the JIPs accumulated when plants were treated with ABA. JA did not induce an ABA-responsive group 3 late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. Salt stress and ABA but not JA induced oslea3 transcript accumulation. By contrast, JA, ABA, and salt stress induced transcript accumulation of salT and osdrr, which encodes a rice PR-10 protein. However, ABA also negatively affected salT transcript accumulation, whereas JA negatively affected ABA-induced oslea3 transcript levels. Endogenous root ABA and methyl jasmonate levels showed a differential increase with the dose and the duration of salt stress. The results indicate that ABA and jasmonates antagonistically regulated the expression of salt stress-inducible proteins associated with water deficit or defense responses. PMID:9437865

  13. Potassium fulvate as co-interpenetrating agent during graft polymerization of acrylic acid from cellulose.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Mohamed B M; El-Hai, Farag Abd; Mohamed, Magdy F; Essawy, Hisham A

    2016-10-01

    Grafting polymerization of acrylic acid onto cellulose in presence of potassium fulvate (KF) as a co-interpenetrating agent results enhanced water sorption compared to materials prepared similarly in its absence. The insertion of potassium fulvate (KF) did not affect the grafting process and is thought to proceed in parallel to the graft polymerization via intensive polycondensation reactions of its function groups (-COOH and OH) with COOH of the monomer and OH groups of cellulose. The combination of graft copolymerization and polycondensation reactions is assumed to produce interpenetrating network structure. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) confirmed successful incorporation within the network structure which is an evidence for formation of interpenetrating network. The obtained structures showed homogeneous uniform surface as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained superabsorbent possessed high water absorbency 422 and 48.8g/g in distilled water and saline (0.9wt.% NaCl solution), respectively, and enhanced water retention even at elevated temperatures as revealed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). This could be explained by the high content of hydrophilic groups. The new superabsorbents proved to be efficient devices for controlled release of fertilizers which expands their use in agricultural applications.

  14. Metabolism, uptake, and excretion of a D-glucaric acid salt and its potential use in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Walaszek, Z; Szemraj, J; Narog, M; Adams, A K; Kilgore, J; Sherman, U; Hanausek, M

    1997-01-01

    D-Glucaric acid (GA) is a nontoxic, natural compound. One of its derivatives is the potent beta-glucuronidase inhibitor D-glucaro-1,4-lactone (1,4-GL). The goal of this study was to demonstrate the in vivo formation of 1,4-GL from a D-glucarate salt and determine its metabolism, uptake by selected organs, and excretion following oral administration of potassium hydrogen D-[14C]glucarate to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. 1,4-GL increases detoxification of carcinogens and tumor promoters/progressors by inhibiting beta-glucuronidase and preventing hydrolysis of their glucuronides. 1,4-GL and its precursors, such as potassium hydrogen D-glucarate and calcium D-glucarate, may exert their anticancer action, in part, through alterations in steroidogenesis accompanied by changes in the hormonal environment and the proliferative status of the target organ. Thus, GA derivatives may be useful as new or adjuvant cancer preventive and therapeutic agents. In our study, 1,4-GL was found to be formed from the D-glucarate salt in the stomach of rats. It was apparently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, transported with the blood to different internal organs, and excreted in the urine and to a lesser extent in bile. There were no significant differences in the metabolism of PHG between male and female rats. Thus, formation of 1,4-GL from D-glucaric acid derivatives may be prerequisite for their inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis in rodents and prevention of breast, prostate, and colon cancer in humans.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10135 - Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10135 Phosphinic acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1). (a) Chemical... acid, P,P-diethyl-, zinc salt (2:1) (PMN P-05-11; CAS No. 284685-45-6) is subject to reporting...

  20. 21 CFR 172.800 - Acesulfame potassium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acesulfame potassium. 172.800 Section 172.800 Food... Acesulfame potassium. Acesulfame potassium (CAS Reg. No. 55589-62-3), also known as acesulfame K, may be... following conditions: (a) Acesulfame potassium is the potassium salt of...

  1. Acidic Potassium Permanganate Chemiluminescence for the Determination of Antioxidant Potential in Three Cultivars of Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shivani; Adholeya, Alok; Conlan, Xavier A; Cahill, David M

    2016-03-01

    Ocimum basilicum, a member of the family Lamiaceae, is a rich source of polyphenolics that have antioxidant properties. The present study describes the development and application of an online HPLC-coupled acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence assay for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of antioxidants in three cultivars of O. basilicum grown under greenhouse conditions. The chemiluminescence based assay was found to be a sensitive and efficient method for assessment of total and individual compound antioxidant potential. Leaves, flowers and roots were found to be rich reserves of the antioxidant compounds which showed intense chemiluminescence signals. The polyphenolics such as rosmarinic, chicoric, caffeic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric and ferulic acids showed antioxidant activity. Further, rosmarinic acid was found to be the major antioxidant component in water-ethanol extracts. The highest levels of rosmarinic acid was found in the leaves and roots of cultivars "holy green" (14.37; 11.52 mM/100 g DW respectively) followed by "red rubin" (10.02; 10.75 mM/100 g DW respectively) and "subja" (6.59; 4.97 mM/100 g DW respectively). The sensitivity, efficiency and ease of use of the chemiluminescence based assay should now be considered for its use as a primary method for the identification and quantification of antioxidants in plant extracts.

  2. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E W

    1982-06-01

    The free acid content of solutions containing hydrolyzable ions has been determined potentiometrically by a standard addition method. Two increments of acid are added to the sample in 1M potassium thiocyanate solution. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. The method has been demonstrated for solutions containing Al/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/, Hg/sup 2 +/, Ni/sup 2 +/, Th/sup 4 +/, or UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/ with a metal-to-acid ratio of < 2.5. The method is suitable for determination of 10 ..mu..moles acid in 10 mL total volume. The accuracy can be judged from the agreement of the Nernst slopes found in the presence and absence of hydrolyzable ions. The relative standard deviation is < 2.5%. The report includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which the method was evolved. Also included is a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure.

  3. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's...\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent to...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  9. 76 FR 6347 - (S,S)-Ethylenediamine Disuccinic Acid Trisodium Salt; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 (S,S)-Ethylenediamine Disuccinic Acid Trisodium Salt; Exemption From the... disuccinic acid trisodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 178949-82-1) when used as an inert ingredient (sequestrant or...)-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid trisodium salt. DATES: This regulation is effective February 4, 2011....

  10. Determination of free acid by standard addition method in potassium thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An analytical method for determination of free acidity in all SRP process solutions has been developed. Free acidity was successfully determined in solutions of nitric acid and the nitrates of aluminum, chromium(III), iron(III), mercury(II), nickel(II), thorium, and uranium(VI), at metal-to-acid ratios <2.5. Sample requirements, instrumentation, and mode of operation are similar to those currently used in the Laboratories Department free acid procedures. The simple procedure would be suitable for automation and microprocessor control. The method consists of two additions of known increments of acid into a solution containing the sample aliquot (10 ..mu..moles free acid) and 10 mL 1M potassium thiocyanate. The potential is determined in the initial solution and after each addition with a glass electrode and pH meter. The sample concentration is calculated by solution of three simultaneous Nernst equations. Two programs for this iterative computation are available: one written for the PDP-15 computer and another for a Hewlett-Packard 67 (or 97) programmable calculator. The accuracy of the result is verified by a slope that approximates the theoretical Nernst value. The relative standard deviation is <2.5%. This memorandum includes a survey of experiments with thermometric, pH, and Gran plot titrations in a variety of complexants, from which this particular system and technique logically evolved. The appendix includes a literature survey of sixty references, a discussion of the basic measurements, and a complete analytical procedure. The final step for completion of this RTA is training and consultation at the convenience of the Laboratories Department for demonstration of the method with process samples.

  11. Measuring and predicting the diffraction properties of cylindrically bent potassium acid phthalate, KAP(001), crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, M. J.; Jacoby, K. D.

    2017-02-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray diffraction properties of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two measurement methods. One method used a diode type X-ray source and a dual goniometer analysis system, utilizing a flat, perfect KAP(001) crystal as the monochromator. The second method used a synchrotron source and dual crystal Si(111) monochromator. Bent crystals are used in X-ray spectrometers as dispersion elements. These crystals are bent into a circular cylinder section, and this bending can alter the rocking curve properties. The crystal rocking curves were measured for spectral energies ranging from 1250 to 4500 eV. A multi-lamellar model was compared to the measurements and showed good quantitative agreement. This provides a valuable tool for predicting the changes to the KAP (001) for any radius of curvature when the crystal is bent into a cylindrical section.

  12. Chemiluminescence detection of cannabinoids and related compounds with acidic potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Holland, Brendan J; Francis, Paul S; Li, Bingshan; Tsuzuki, Takuya; Adcock, Jacqui L; Barnett, Neil W; Conlan, Xavier A

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of chemiluminescence from the reaction of cannabinoids with acidic potassium permanganate, which we have applied to the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of cannabidiol (CBD) in industrial-grade hemp. The intensities of the light-producing reactions with two commercially available cannabinoid standards were compared to that of seven model phenolic analytes. Resorcinol, representing the parent phenolic moiety of the cannabinoid class, was shown to react with the permanganate reagents in a manner more similar to phenol than to its hydroxyphenol positional isomers, pyrocatechol and hydroquinone. Alkyl substituents on the phenolic ring, however, have a considerable impact on emission intensity that is dependent upon the position of the groups and the composition of the permanganate reagent. This analytical approach has potential for the determination of other cannabinoids including Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol in drug-grade cannabis.

  13. Polaron conductivity mechanism in potassium acid phthalate crystal: AC-conductivity investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipič, Cene; Levstik, Iva; Levstik, Adrijan; Hadži, Dušan

    2016-08-01

    The complex dielectric constant, \\varepsilon *(ν ,T), of potassium acid phthalate monocrystal (KAP) was investigated over the broad frequency and temperature range. While the imaginary part of dielectric constant ε‧‧(ν) increases rapidly with increasing temperature in the studied temperature range, the real part of dielectric constant ε‧(ν) increases only at high temperatures; there is almost no change of ε‧(ν) below 200 K. Both values of ε‧ and ε‧‧ are frequency dependent; the values increase with decreasing frequencies. At temperatures below 450 K the ac electrical conductivity and dielectric constant follow simultaneously the universal dielectric response (UDR). The analysis of the temperature dependence of the UDR parameter s in terms of the theoretical model for small polarons revealed that this mechanism governs the charge transport in KAP crystal in the studied temperature range.

  14. Characterization of potassium bromide crystals grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, J. Uma; Krishnan, C.; Kalyanaraman, S.; Selvarajan, P.

    2016-12-01

    Potassium bromide crystals were grown in the aqueous solution of picric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis ensures that the grown sample is in Fm3m space group and FCC structure. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) reveals the presence of elements in the title compound. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum reveals that the grown sample is a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups present in the sample. The thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermogravimetric (DTA) analyses ensure that the sample material is thermally stable up to 160 °C. The second harmonic efficiency of the sample is 1.3 times greater than that of standard KDP. The mechanical strength of the grown sample is estimated by Vickers microhardness tester. The electrical properties were investigated by impedance analysis and the results of various studies of the grown crystals are discussed.

  15. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Singha, S.; Kumar, S.; Dey, S. K.

    2015-06-24

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br···π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory.

  16. Synthesis, single crystal structure and energy optimization of a multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, S.; Dey, S. K.; Kumar, S.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystal of a multicomponent salt (IMTBTP) of imidazole with tetrabromoterepthalic acid has been synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystal structure of the salt has been determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction technique. The supramolecular structure analysis reveals that the multicomponent salt is formed by noncovalent hydrogen bonding interaction and Br...π interaction. The energy optimization and HOMO-LUMO energy gap calculation have been carried out by Density Functional Theory.

  17. Effect of polacrilin potassium as disintegrant on bioavailability of diclofenac potassium in tablets : a technical note.

    PubMed

    Bele, Mrudula H; Derle, Diliprao V

    2012-09-01

    Polacrilin potassium is an ion exchange resin used in oral pharmaceutical formulations as a tablet disintegrant. It is a weakly acidic cation exchange resin. Chemically, it is a partial potassium salt of a copolymer of methacrylic acid with divinyl benzene. It ionizes to an anionic polymer chain and potassium cations. It was hypothesized that polacrilin potassium may be able to improve the permeability of anionic drugs according to the Donnan membrane phenomenon. The effect of polacrilin potassium on the permeability of diclofenac potassium, used as a model anionic drug, was tested in vitro using diffusion cells and in vivo by monitoring serum levels in rats. The amount of drug permeated across a dialysis membrane in vitro was significantly more in the presence of polacrilin potassium. Significant improvement was found in the extent of drug absorption in vivo. It could be concluded that polacrilin potassium may be used as a high-functionality excipient for improving the bioavailability of anionic drugs having poor gastrointestinal permeability.

  18. Chromatographic resolution of a salt into its parent acid and base constituents.

    PubMed

    Davankov, Vadim; Tsyurupa, Maria

    2006-12-08

    Based on the results of the earlier proposed process of separation of mixtures of mineral electrolytes by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), it has been suggested that a mineral salt must spontaneously resolve, at least partially, into its parent acid and base constituents, provided that the separating media discriminates the anion and cation of the salt according to their size. Indeed, migration of a zone of an aqueous salt solution through a bed of neutral nanoporous hypercrosslinked polystyrene-type packing was shown to result in the generation of acidic and alkaline effluent fractions. The principle of spontaneous salt resolution has been extended to other types of discriminating interactions between the stationary phase and the two ions of the salt. The idea was exemplified by the resolution of ammonium acetate, due to hydrophobic retention of the acetate, into fractions enriched in ammoniac and then acetic acid.

  19. Development of Spheroidal Inorganic Sorbents for Treatment of Acidic Salt-Bearing Liquid Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.L.

    2001-09-07

    A spheroidal composite inorganic sorbent was developed for U.S. Department of Energy-Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (USDOE-ESP) for potential use in removing radioactive cesium isotopes from acidic high-salt waste streams such as those at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate (ZrHP) embedded with fine powder of ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), was prepared using a unique internal gelation process which can be used to make porous reproducible microspheres that are structurally strong, have a low tendency for surface erosion, and improve the flow dynamics for column operations. Both ZrHP and AMP are excellent sorbent materials and, being inorganic, are stable in high radiation fields. AMP is a very effective sorbent for removing cesium from salt-bearing waste streams for a wide range of acidity. In the pH range of 2 to 10, ZrHP is also a very effective sorbent for removing Cs, Sr, Th, U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), Hg, and Pb from streams of lower ionic concentrations. Crucial to developing the spheroidal AMP-ZrHP sorbent was to determine the ideal weight percentage of AMP that could be embedded in the ZrHP microspheres in order to maintain the structural integrity of the microspheres and also achieve a good cesium separation. A total of 12 preparations were made. The dry weight percentage of AMP ranged from 30 to 60. Overall, the best composite microspheres prepared contained 50% AMP (by dry weight measurement). Another composite microsphere, which was composed of titanium monohydrogen phosphate (TiHP) embedded with 18 wt % (air-dried weight) potassium cobalt hexacyanoferrate (KCoCF) and developed for a different separations application, was also batch tested for comparison. It proved to be as effective in removing,the cesium as the air-dried AMP (50 wt %)-ZrHP. Granular KCoCF was also prepared and was very effective. Large samples of each of these materials were sent to

  20. A Neat Trick Using Oxalic Acid Dihydrate and Potassium Permanganate and Other Experiments with Small Organic Amine or Oxygenated Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelland, Malcolm A.

    2011-01-01

    Solid potassium permanganate (KMnO[subscript 4]) is shown to react in a variety of ways with small organic amines or oxygenated compounds depending on whether they are liquids or solids and whether water is present. In particular, its reaction with solid oxalic acid dihydrate can be initiated by the moisture in one's breath, making an intriguing…

  1. Bacterial flora of skin of processed broiler chickens after successive washings in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the size of the populations of different groups of bacteria in the normal flora of the skin of processed broilers were examined after each of five consecutive washings with mixtures of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and lauric acid (LA). Skin from commercially processed broiler carcasses was ...

  2. Use of potassium permanganate for iron and manganese removal from acid mine drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Boll, J.E.; Deshinsky, G.

    1985-12-09

    Surface and deep shaft coal mining operations find it difficult to meet Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards concerning acid, iron and manganese in drainage waters. Correcting the acid and iron problem is relatively simple, but effectively controlling manganese is more difficult. The best way to remove manganese is by chemical oxidation. A common treatment method is pH adjustment with lime or soda ash. This practice neutralizes the acid and removes most of the iron by forming an insoluble precipitate. The amount of lime or soda ash needed to remove manganese raises the pH beyond the acceptable range of 6-9. Potassium permanganate (KMnO/sub 4/) can be used to oxidize the dissolved manganese to an insoluble manganese precipitate. It can also oxidize any residual iron. The adjusted pH reduces unnecessary consumption of permanganate needed to oxidize manganese and meets EPA standards. It reacts on contact producing an insoluble manganese dioxide (MnO/sub 2/). The MnO/sub 2/ supplements the oxidation with a settling effect. Permanganate can be applied at all pHs, with faster results at neutral or slightly alkaline levels. Its use for iron and manganese removal is very attractive because the reactions are complete, rapid, and require only a minimal amount of chemicals. Laboratory evaluation and field case histories will be discussed in the paper. 3 figures.

  3. Usefulness of vonoprazan, a potassium ion-competitive acid blocker, for primary eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Shinya; Kawakami, Takumi; Nakatsugawa, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Takahiro; Fujii, Hideki; Tomatsuri, Naoya; Nakamura, Hideki; Sato, Hideki; Okuyama, Yusuke; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate usefulness of triple therapy with vonoprazan, a potassium ion-competitive acid blocker and antibiotics, for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. METHODS The H. pylori eradication rate was examined in 2507 patients (2055 undergoing primary eradication and 452 undergoing secondary eradication, excluding patients with subtotal gastrectomy) at the Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital from March 2013 to September 2015. For patients treated from March 2013 to February 2015, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) was used to reduce acid secretion, while vonoprazan was used after March 2015. The success rates of the 2 regimens (PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin/metronidazole, or vonoprazan + amoxicillin + clarithromycin/metronidazole) were compared. RESULTS The success rate of primary H. pylori eradication was significantly higher in the vonoprazan group. When stratified by the underlying disease, a significant increase of the H. pylori eradication rate was observed in patients with chronic gastritis. A significantly lower H. pylori eradication rate was observed in younger patients compared to older patients in the PPI group, but there was no difference according to age in the vonoprazan group. On the other hand, the success rate of secondary eradication was similar at approximately 90% in both groups. CONCLUSION Vonoprazan is very useful for primary eradication of H. pylori, and may become a first-line acid secretion inhibitor instead of PPIs. PMID:27867688

  4. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  5. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. 40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate... chemical substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salts...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10630 - Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amino acid, carboxyalkyl... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10630 Amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate... chemical substances identified generically as amino acid, carboxyalkyl, alkylsulfonate, alkali salts...

  8. Crystal Chemistry of the Potassium and Rubidium Uranyl Borate Families Derived from Boric Acid Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2010-07-19

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with a large excess of molten boric acid in the presence of potassium or rubidium nitrate results in the formation of three new potassium uranyl borates, K{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 12}O{sub 19}(OH){sub 4}]·0.3H{sub 2}O (KUBO-1), K[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 15}(OH){sub 5}] (KUBO-2), and K[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}]·0.7H{sub 2}O (KUBO-3) and two new rubidium uranyl borates Rb{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 13}O{sub 20}(OH){sub 5}] (RbUBO-1) and Rb[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}]·0.7H{sub 2}O (RbUBO-2). The latter is isotypic with KUBO-3. These compounds share a common structural motif consisting of a linear uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, cation surrounded by BO{sub 3} triangles and BO{sub 4} tetrahedra to create an UO{sub 8} hexagonal bipyramidal environment around uranium. The borate anions bridge between uranyl units to create sheets. Additional BO{sub 3} triangles extend from the polyborate layers and are directed approximately perpendicular to the sheets. All of these compounds adopt layered structures. With the exception of KUBO-1, the structures are all centrosymmetric. All of these compounds fluoresce when irradiated with long-wavelength UV light. The fluorescence spectrum yields well-defined vibronically coupled charge-transfer features.

  9. Data on energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles obtained by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of transition metal salts

    PubMed Central

    Zimnyakov, D.A.; Sevrugin, A.V.; Yuvchenko, S.A.; Fedorov, F.S.; Tretyachenko, E.V.; Vikulova, M.A.; Kovaleva, D.S.; Krugova, E.Y.; Gorokhovsky, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the data on the energy-band-gap characteristics of composite nanoparticles produced by modification of the amorphous potassium polytitanate in aqueous solutions of different transition metal salts. Band gap characteristics are investigated using diffuse reflection spectra of the obtained powders. Calculated logarithmic derivative quantity of the Kubelka–Munk function reveals a presence of local maxima in the regions 0.5–1.5 eV and 1.6–3.0 eV which correspond to band gap values of the investigated materials. The values might be related to the constituents of the composite nanoparticles and intermediate products of their chemical interaction. PMID:27158654

  10. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Samira; Stein, Matthias; Elinder, Fredrik; Andersson, Magnus; Lindahl, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD), the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins. PMID:26751683

  11. Enhanced skin permeation of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid by salt formation.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Vijay; Kumar, H Yogish; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to prepare salts of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA) to improve its physicochemical properties for percutaneous application. 6-MNA, an active metabolite of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nabumetone has long half life and has the tendency to penetrate well into synovial fluid. The physicochemical properties of 6-MNA salts were investigated by solubility measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR). The DSC thermograms and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra indicated that 6-MNA formed salts with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts formed with amine bases (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine and diethylamine) had lower melting points while alkali metal salt (sodium) had higher melting point than 6-MNA. The salts had higher solubilities than 6-MNA as determined in phosphate buffer at pH 5.0 and 7.4. There is no significant difference in partition coefficient (log P) values between salts and 6-MNA at pH 5.0 but, at pH 7.4, the log P values for the salts increased by 4-10 times as compared to 6-MNA. In vitro permeation studies showed that all the salts increased the flux in comparision to 6-MNA, and the ethanolamine salt (1b) was found to be having 7.7 and 9.4 times higher permeability as compared to 6-MNA at pH 5.0 and 7.4, respectively.

  12. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  13. 77 FR 26954 - 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... 1- naphthaleneacetic acid, potassium and sodium salts in or on potatoes. Stehekin, LLC petitioned... irritant or a dermal sensitizer. The 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and its sodium salt were found to be... minor skeletal changes) were seen in rats orally gavaged with the sodium salt. Reproductive effects...

  14. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for the period January 1, 2010, through December... Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  15. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See... and Certain Citrate Salts, 74 FR 25705 (May 29, 2009). On May 2, 2011, the Department published...

  16. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on June 6, 2012.\\1\\ The period of... Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Post- Preliminary...

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), hydroxyproline (Hyp), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson Trichrome (MT) examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22559721

  18. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See... of the administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit....

  19. Different responses of two Mosla species to potassium limitation in relation to acid rain deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Gu, Bao-jing; Ge, Ying; Liu, Zhen; Jiang, De-an; Chang, Scott X; Chang, Jie

    2009-08-01

    The increasingly serious problem of acid rain is leading to increased potassium (K) loss from soils, and in our field investigation, we found that even congenerically relative Mosla species show different tolerance to K-deficiency. A hydroponic study was conducted on the growth of two Mosla species and their morphological, physiological and stoichiometric traits in response to limited (0.35 mmol K/L), normal (3.25 mmol K/L) and excessive (6.50 mmol K/L) K concentrations. Mosla hangchowensis is an endangered plant, whereas Mosla dianthera a widespread weed. In the case of M. hangchowensis, in comparison with normal K concentration, K-limitation induced a significant reduction in net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), soluble protein content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. However, leaf mass ratio (LMR) and root mass ratio (RMR) were changed little by K-limitation. In contrast, for M. dianthera, K-limitation had little effect on P(n), soluble protein content, SOD activity, and MDA concentration, but increased LMR and RMR. Critical values of N (nitrogen):K and K:P (phosphorus) ratios in the shoots indicated that limitation in acquiring K occurred under K-limited conditions for M. hangchowensis but not for M. dianthera. We found that low K content in natural habitats was a restrictive factor in the growth and distribution of M. hangchowensis, and soil K-deficiency caused by acid rain worsened the situation of M. hangchowensis, while M. dianthera could well acclimate to the increasing K-deficiency. We suggest that controlling the acid rain and applying K fertilizers may be an effective way to rescue the endangered M. hangchowensis.

  20. Nitrooleic Acid Attenuates Lipid Metabolic Disorders and Liver Steatosis in DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiping; Sun, Jing; Jia, Zhanjun; Yang, Tianxin; Xu, Liang; Zhao, Bing; Yu, Kezhou; Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Nitrooleic acid (OA-NO2) is endogenous ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. The present study was aimed at investigating the beneficial effects of OA-NO2 on the lipid metabolism and liver steatosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate- (DOCA-) salt induced hypertensive mice model. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided to receive DOCA-salt plus OA-NO2 or DOCA-salt plus vehicle and another group received neither DOCA-salt nor OA-NO2 (control group). After 3-week treatment with DOCA-salt plus 1% sodium chloride in drinking fluid, the hypertension was noted; however, OA-NO2 had no effect on the hypertension. In DOCA-salt treated mice, the plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly increased compared to control mice, and pretreatment with OA-NO2 significantly reduced these parameters. Further, the histopathology of liver exhibited more lipid distribution together with more serious micro- and macrovesicular steatosis after DOCA-salt treatment and that was consistent with liver tissue triglyceride and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) content. The mice pretreated with OA-NO2 showed reduced liver damage accompanied with low liver lipid content. Moreover, the liver TBARS, together with the expressions of gp91phox and p47phox, were parallelly decreased. These findings indicated that OA-NO2 had the protective effect on liver injury against DOCA-salt administration and the beneficial effect could be attributed to its antihyperlipidemic activities.

  1. Efficient Fractionation and Analysis of Fatty Acids and their Salts in Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposits.

    PubMed

    Benecke, Herman P; Allen, Sara K; Garbark, Daniel B

    2017-02-01

    A fractionation methodology of fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposits was developed based on the insolubility of fatty acid salts in dichloromethane (DCM) and the relatively high solubility of fatty acids and triglycerides in DCM. Using this method, coupled with spectral analysis, it was shown that fatty acids rather than fatty acid salts were the predominant species in FOG deposits obtained from three metropolitan locations in the United States and that fatty acid triglycerides were either not detected or were present in very small concentrations. This solubility-based fractionation approach also revealed the presence of nitrogen-containing compounds that had not been previously detected in FOG deposits including peptides and (or) proteins. The comparison of the ratios of stearic acid salts to stearic acid versus the ratio of palmitic acid salts to palmitic acid in FOG deposits may indicate that the initial step in FOG deposit formation is the preferential precipitation of stearic acid salts.

  2. Catalytic biodiesel production mediated by amino acid-based protic salts.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingbo; Guo, Zheng

    2017-02-06

    Hetero-/homo-geneous acid catalysts are effective catalysts for biodiesel produced from oils containing high free fatty acids. The protic salts synthesized from natural amino acids were examined for their catalytic activity and efficiency for esterification of oleic acid after structural identification and characterization. The melting points of the protic salts were measured. In the esterification reaction of oleic acid with methanol, [Asp][NO3] performed the best, correlating to its higher Hammett acidity. The optimal reaction conditions for esterification of oleic acid to achieve 97% biodiesel yield were: temperature 70 °C, catalyst 10% (w/w, on oleic acid basis), methanol to oleic acid ratio 7.5:1, and 5 h. [Asp][NO3] could be a generally good catalyst for esterification of oleic acid with alcohols with chain length up to 6. The biodiesel yield of 93.86% was obtained from palm fatty acid distillate, implying potential industrial application of the catalyst. Kinetic study indicated that the reaction followed a pseudo-first order reaction, with activation energy and pre-exponential of 57.36 kJ/mol and 44.24×105 min-1. In conclusion, the aspartic acid derived protic salt is a promising, operational simply, sustainable, renewable, and possible biodegradable catalyst for converting high content of free fatty acids into biodiesel.

  3. Measuring the X-ray Resolving Power of Bent Potassium Acid Phthalate Diffraction Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J.; Wu, M.; Jacoby, K. D.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a dual goniometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  4. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J. Jacoby, K. D.; Wu, M.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-15

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  5. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystals.

    PubMed

    Haugh, M J; Wu, M; Jacoby, K D; Loisel, G P

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  6. Measuring the x-ray resolving power of bent potassium acid phthalate diffraction crystalsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, M. J.; Wu, M.; Jacoby, K. D.; Loisel, G. P.

    2014-11-01

    This report presents the results from measuring the X-ray resolving power of a curved potassium acid phthalate (KAP(001)) spectrometer crystal using two independent methods. It is part of a continuing effort to measure the fundamental diffraction properties of bent crystals that are used to study various characteristics of high temperature plasmas. Bent crystals like KAP(001) do not usually have the same diffraction properties as corresponding flat crystals. Models that do exist to calculate the effect of bending the crystal on the diffraction properties have simplifying assumptions and their accuracy limits have not been adequately determined. The type of crystals that we measured is being used in a spectrometer on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The first technique for measuring the crystal resolving power measures the X-ray spectral line width of the characteristic lines from several metal anodes. The second method uses a diode X-ray source and a double crystal diffractometer arrangement to measure the reflectivity curve of the KAP(001) crystal. The width of that curve is inversely proportional to the crystal resolving power. The measurement results are analyzed and discussed.

  7. A Single Amino-Acid Substitution in the Sodium Transporter HKT1 Associated with Plant Salt Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhtar; Raddatz, Natalia; Aman, Rashid; Kim, Songmi; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Jan, Masood; Baek, Dongwon; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Oh, Dong-Ha; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bressan, Ray A; Lee, Keun Woo; Maggio, Albino; Pardo, Jose M; Bohnert, Hans J; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-07-01

    A crucial prerequisite for plant growth and survival is the maintenance of potassium uptake, especially when high sodium surrounds the root zone. The Arabidopsis HIGH-AFFINITY K(+) TRANSPORTER1 (HKT1), and its homologs in other salt-sensitive dicots, contributes to salinity tolerance by removing Na(+) from the transpiration stream. However, TsHKT1;2, one of three HKT1 copies in Thellungiella salsuginea, a halophytic Arabidopsis relative, acts as a K(+) transporter in the presence of Na(+) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Amino-acid sequence comparisons indicated differences between TsHKT1;2 and most other published HKT1 sequences with respect to an Asp residue (D207) in the second pore-loop domain. Two additional T salsuginea and most other HKT1 sequences contain Asn (n) in this position. Wild-type TsHKT1;2 and altered AtHKT1 (AtHKT1(N-D)) complemented K(+)-uptake deficiency of yeast cells. Mutant hkt1-1 plants complemented with both AtHKT1(N) (-) (D) and TsHKT1;2 showed higher tolerance to salt stress than lines complemented by the wild-type AtHKT1 Electrophysiological analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed the functional properties of these transporters and the differential selectivity for Na(+) and K(+) based on the n/d variance in the pore region. This change also dictated inward-rectification for Na(+) transport. Thus, the introduction of Asp, replacing Asn, in HKT1-type transporters established altered cation selectivity and uptake dynamics. We describe one way, based on a single change in a crucial protein that enabled some crucifer species to acquire improved salt tolerance, which over evolutionary time may have resulted in further changes that ultimately facilitated colonization of saline habitats.

  8. A Single Amino-Acid Substitution in the Sodium Transporter HKT1 Associated with Plant Salt Tolerance1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Akhtar; Aman, Rashid; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Jan, Masood; Baek, Dongwon; Khan, Irfan Ullah; Oh, Dong-Ha; Lee, Sang Yeol; Bressan, Ray A.; Lee, Keun Woo; Maggio, Albino; Yun, Dae-Jin

    2016-01-01

    A crucial prerequisite for plant growth and survival is the maintenance of potassium uptake, especially when high sodium surrounds the root zone. The Arabidopsis HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER1 (HKT1), and its homologs in other salt-sensitive dicots, contributes to salinity tolerance by removing Na+ from the transpiration stream. However, TsHKT1;2, one of three HKT1 copies in Thellungiella salsuginea, a halophytic Arabidopsis relative, acts as a K+ transporter in the presence of Na+ in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Amino-acid sequence comparisons indicated differences between TsHKT1;2 and most other published HKT1 sequences with respect to an Asp residue (D207) in the second pore-loop domain. Two additional T. salsuginea and most other HKT1 sequences contain Asn (n) in this position. Wild-type TsHKT1;2 and altered AtHKT1 (AtHKT1N-D) complemented K+-uptake deficiency of yeast cells. Mutant hkt1-1 plants complemented with both AtHKT1N-D and TsHKT1;2 showed higher tolerance to salt stress than lines complemented by the wild-type AtHKT1. Electrophysiological analysis in Xenopus laevis oocytes confirmed the functional properties of these transporters and the differential selectivity for Na+ and K+ based on the n/d variance in the pore region. This change also dictated inward-rectification for Na+ transport. Thus, the introduction of Asp, replacing Asn, in HKT1-type transporters established altered cation selectivity and uptake dynamics. We describe one way, based on a single change in a crucial protein that enabled some crucifer species to acquire improved salt tolerance, which over evolutionary time may have resulted in further changes that ultimately facilitated colonization of saline habitats. PMID:27208305

  9. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method.

  10. Closed cycle ion exchange method for regenerating acids, bases and salts

    DOEpatents

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-01-01

    A method for conducting a chemical reaction in acidic, basic, or neutral solution as required and then regenerating the acid, base, or salt by means of ion exchange in a closed cycle reaction sequence which comprises contacting the spent acid, base, or salt with an ion exchanger, preferably a synthetic organic ion-exchange resin, so selected that the counter ions thereof are ions also produced as a by-product in the closed reaction cycle, and then regenerating the spent ion exchanger by contact with the by-product counter ions. The method is particularly applicable to closed cycle processes for the thermochemical production of hydrogen.

  11. Preparation and characterization of uniform particles of uric acid and its salts.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amr Ali; Matijević, Egon

    2013-02-15

    Uric acid, the major component in many kinds of kidney stones, as well as its sodium, ammonium, calcium, and barium salts were successfully prepared as uniform dispersions by precipitation in basic aqueous solutions. The effects of the reactant concentrations, pH, and the stabilizers were evaluated in detail. Except for the platelets of the pure acid, all prepared compounds appeared as needles or their aggregates. The electron micrographs showed that kidney stones consisted of such aggregates although less regular in size and morphology. All prepared urate salts had a 1:1 cation/uric acid ratio, regardless of the valence of the cation. The electrokinetic measurements showed all these particles to have negative ζ-potentials over the pH range 3-9. The precipitated salt particles were chemically and morphologically unstable at low pH values by decomposing into ill-defined aggregates of the pure uric acid.

  12. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  14. Copolymer of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt: Effective waterproofing agent for oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsova, O.N.; Avvakumova, N.I.

    1992-08-10

    In the development of technology for the copolymerization of methacrylic acid with its diethylammonium salt (MAA-MAA{center_dot}DEA), the polymer-like reaction of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) with diethylamine (DEA) and the polymerization of MAA in the presence of DEA have been studied. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  16. Conformation of the umifenovir cation in the molecular and crystal structures of four carboxylic acid salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orola, Liana; Sarcevica, Inese; Kons, Artis; Actins, Andris; Veidis, Mikelis V.

    2014-01-01

    The umifenovir salts of maleic, salicylic, glutaric, and gentisic acid as well as the chloroform solvate of the salicylate were prepared. Single crystals of the five compounds were obtained and their molecular and crystal structures determined by X-ray diffraction. In each structure the conformation of phenyl ring with respect to the indole group of the umifenovir moiety is different. The water solubility and melting points of the studied umifenovir salts have been determined.

  17. Preparation and characterization of uniform particles of flufenamic acid and its calcium and barium salts.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amr Ali; Matijević, Egon

    2012-09-01

    Uniform fully dispersed particles of flufenamic acid, a widely used anti-inflammatory drug, were prepared by two different methods. In the first one, the drug solution in organic solvents was added to a non-solvent (water or aqueous solutions of stabilizers); while in the second procedure the drug was precipitated by acidifying its basic aqueous solutions. In addition calcium and barium salts of uniform spherical particles were obtained by precipitation in aqueous basic solutions of the drug. These salts are supposed to improve the drug reactivity. The prepared dispersions of the drug and its salts were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and electrophoresis.

  18. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10202 - Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- [(substituted)azo]-, strontium salt (1:1) (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10202 Benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1... identified generically as benzoic acid, 4-chloro-2- -, strontium salt (1:1) (PMN P-08-701) is subject...