Science.gov

Sample records for acid producing potential

  1. Evaluation of Acid Producing Potential of Road-cut Rock Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K.; Han, D.

    2006-12-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) developed as a result of road construction represents a number of technical, environmental, and social problems. Engineering impacts from ARD, the product of atmospheric oxidation of rock-forming sulfide minerals, including degradation of surface water quality, disintegration of construction materials, and structural damage of buildings, have been documented widely around the world. To characterize the ARD and to evaluate acid producing potential of road-cut rocks, samples of rocks and water were collected from two road-cut sites of shale to phyllite showing such visual indicators of ARD as orange iron precipitates along streambed and rocks. Acid Base Accounting (ABA) test, the most commonly applied static test to evaluate the potential acidity, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were performed for fifteen rock samples. In terms of NAPP (Net Acid Producing Potential) and NAGpH (pH of Net Acid Generation), seven, four, and four rock samples were classified into a PAF (potentially acid forming) group, a NAF (non-acid forming) group, and an uncertain group, respectively. Water samples with low pH of 4.4, low DO (dissolved oxygen), and high contents of heavy metals and sulfate ion showed the generation of ARD in the studied area, which confirmed the applicability of ABA test to prediction of ARD in road-cut rock slopes. Evaluation of acid producing potential of earth materials should be an essential step in the pre-design stage of construction works especially in the vicinity of mining areas.

  2. Potential of selected lactic acid bacteria to produce food compatible antifungal metabolites.

    PubMed

    De Muynck, Cassandra; Leroy, Annelies I J; De Maeseneire, Sofie; Arnaut, Filip; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick J

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of lactic acid bacteria to inhibit the outgrowth of some common food-spoiling fungi. Culture supernatants of 17 Lactic acid bacterial strains as well as of three commercial probiotic cultures were evaluated for antifungal activity using an agar-diffusion method. The method parameters were chosen in order to reveal compounds for potential use in food (bio)preservation. Thirteen strains showed antifungal activity of which five strains were very promising: Lactobacillus acidophilus LMG 9433, L. amylovorus DSM 20532, L. brevis LMG 6906, L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis LMG 9196 and L. plantarum LMG 6907. Four of these five strains were further examined; it was found that the produced antifungal metabolites were pH-dependent. The exact chemical nature of these substances has not been revealed yet. PMID:15646380

  3. Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Dueñas, María Teresa; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Wheat contains various essential nutrients including the B group of vitamins. However, B group vitamins, normally present in cereals-derived products, are easily removed or destroyed during milling, food processing or cooking. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of foods and can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value, flavor and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the identification and application of strains delivering health-promoting compounds is a fascinating field. Besides their key role in food fermentations, several LAB found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals are commercially used as probiotics and possess generally recognized as safe status. LAB are usually auxotrophic for several vitamins although certain strains of LAB have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B group. In recent years, a number of biotechnological processes have been explored to perform a more economical and sustainable vitamin production than that obtained via chemical synthesis. This review article will briefly report the current knowledge on lactic acid bacteria synthesis of vitamins B2, B11 and B12 and the potential strategies to increase B-group vitamin content in cereals-based products, where vitamins-producing LAB have been leading to the elaboration of novel fermented functional foods. In addition, the use of genetic strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will be also discussed. PMID:23093174

  4. Trichoderma harzianum Produces a New Thermally Stable Acid Phosphatase, with Potential for Biotechnological Application

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Amanda Araújo; Leitão, Vanessa Oliveira; Ramada, Marcelo Henrique; Mehdad, Azadeh; Georg, Raphaela de Castro; Ulhôa, Cirano José; de Freitas, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Acid phosphatases (ACPases) are produced by a variety of fungi and have gained attention due their biotechnological potential in industrial, diagnosis and bioremediation processes. These enzymes play a specific role in scavenging, mobilization and acquisition of phosphate, enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. In this study, a new ACPase from Trichoderma harzianum, named ACPase II, was purified and characterized as a glycoprotein belonging to the acid phosphatase family. ACPase II presents an optimum pH and temperature of 3.8 and 65°C, respectively, and is stable at 55°C for 120 min, retaining 60% of its activity. The enzyme did not require metal divalent ions, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate and tungstate. Affinity for several phosphate substrates was observed, including phytate, which is the major component of phosphorus in plant foods. The inhibition of ACPase II by tungstate and phosphate at different pH values is consistent with the inability of the substrate to occupy its active site due to electrostatic contacts that promote conformational changes, as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy. A higher affinity for tungstate rather than phosphate at pH 4.0was observed, in accordance with its highest inhibitory effect. Results indicate considerable biotechnological potential of the ACPase II in soil environments. PMID:26938873

  5. Trichoderma harzianum Produces a New Thermally Stable Acid Phosphatase, with Potential for Biotechnological Application.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda Araújo; Leitão, Vanessa Oliveira; Ramada, Marcelo Henrique; Mehdad, Azadeh; Georg, Raphaela de Castro; Ulhôa, Cirano José; de Freitas, Sonia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Acid phosphatases (ACPases) are produced by a variety of fungi and have gained attention due their biotechnological potential in industrial, diagnosis and bioremediation processes. These enzymes play a specific role in scavenging, mobilization and acquisition of phosphate, enhancing soil fertility and plant growth. In this study, a new ACPase from Trichoderma harzianum, named ACPase II, was purified and characterized as a glycoprotein belonging to the acid phosphatase family. ACPase II presents an optimum pH and temperature of 3.8 and 65 °C, respectively, and is stable at 55 °C for 120 min, retaining 60% of its activity. The enzyme did not require metal divalent ions, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate and tungstate. Affinity for several phosphate substrates was observed, including phytate, which is the major component of phosphorus in plant foods. The inhibition of ACPase II by tungstate and phosphate at different pH values is consistent with the inability of the substrate to occupy its active site due to electrostatic contacts that promote conformational changes, as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy. A higher affinity for tungstate rather than phosphate at pH 4.0 was observed, in accordance with its highest inhibitory effect. Results indicate considerable biotechnological potential of the ACPase II in soil environments. PMID:26938873

  6. Complete genome sequence of probiotic Bacillus coagulans HM-08: A potential lactic acid producer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guoqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-06-20

    Bacillus coagulans HM-08 is a commercialized probiotic strain in China. Its genome contains a 3.62Mb circular chromosome with an average GC content of 46.3%. In silico analysis revealed the presence of one xyl operon as well as several other genes that are correlated to xylose utilization. The genetic information provided here may help to expand its future biotechnology potential in lactic acid production. PMID:27130497

  7. Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for safety improvements of traditional Thai fermented meat and human health.

    PubMed

    Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are very important in converting of agricultural products into safe, delicious and shelf stable foods for human consumption. The preservative activity of LAB in foods is mainly attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites such as organic acids and bacteriocins which enables them to grow and control the growth of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Besides ensuring safety, bacteriocin-producing LAB with their probiotic potentials could also be emerging as a means to develop functional meat products with desirable health benefits. Nevertheless, to be qualified as a candidate probiotic culture, other prerequisite probiotic properties of bacteriocin-producing LAB have to be assessed according to regulatory guidelines for probiotics. Nham is an indigenous fermented sausage of Thailand that has gained popularity and acceptance among Thais. Since Nham is made from raw meat and is usually consumed without cooking, risks due to undesirable microorganisms such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, are frequently observed. With an ultimate goal to produce safer and healthier product, our research attempts on the development of a variety of new Nham products are discussed. PMID:26100576

  8. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  9. Phytase-Producing Potential and Other Functional Attributes of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolates for Prospective Probiotic Applications.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Syed Tabia; Bhat, Bilqeesa; Gupta, Mahak; Bajaj, Bijender Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Wide variations among multifaceted-health benefitting attributes of probiotics fueled investigations on targeting efficacious probiotics. In the current study, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from poultry gut, feces of rat, chicken, human infants, and fermented foods were characterized for desired probiotic functional properties including the phytase-producing ability which is one of the wanted characteristics for probiotics for potential applications for upgrading animal nutrition, enhancing feed conversion, and minimizing anti-nutritional properties. Among 62 LAB isolates Weissella kimchii R-3 an isolate from poultry gut exhibited substantial phytase-producing ability (1.77 U/ml) in addition to other functional probiotic characteristics viz. hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, coaggregation with bacterial pathogens, and antimicrobial activity against pathogens. Survival of W. kimchii R-3 cells (in free and calcium alginate encapsulated state) was examined sequentially in simulated gastric and intestinal juices. Encapsulated cells exhibited better survival under simulated gut conditions indicating that encapsulation conferred considerable protection against adverse gut conditions. Furthermore, simulated gastric and intestinal juices with pepsin and pancreatin showed higher survival of cells than the juices without pepsin and pancreatin. W. kimchii R-3 due to its significant functional probiotic attributes may have prospective for commercial applications in human/animal nutrition. PMID:27349529

  10. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  11. Fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria from sourdough and assessment of the isolates for industrial potential.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung Won; Kim, Wang June; Lee, Kwang Geun; Kim, Cheol Woo; Noh, Wan Seob

    2008-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antimicrobial activity and high exopolysaccharide (EPS) production ability isolated from sourdough were studied for their fermentation characteristics as potential new starter cultures. The values of pH, titratable acidity, and viable cell counts were 4.06+/-0.009-4.50+/- 0.015, 0.787+/-0.020%-1.172+/-0.018%, and 8.78+/-0.08-8.98+/- 0.06 log CFU/ml, respectively. In order to select probiotics with a high survival rate in the gut, isolates were tested to assess resistance against the artificial gastric acid and bile juice. Viable LAB counts were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the acidity. At pH 2.0, the total declines in the initial bacterial counts were 4.52+/-0.07 log for S. thermophilus St-Body-1, >7.98+/-0.03 log for E. flavescens DU-10, >7.95+/-0.05 log for E. faecium DU-12, and 3.15+/- 0.06 log for L. amylovorus DU-21. Among the strains, L. amylovorus DU-21 was the only strain that had bile tolerance under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. In order to improve EPS production by L. amylovorus DU- 21, the influence of carbon source was studied. When glucose was used as a carbon source, EPS production dramatically increased to 17.19+/-0.28 g/l (p<0.05). The maximum cell growth (10.012+/-0.012 log CFU/ml) and EPS production (18.71+/-0.19 g/l) were achieved when 15 g/ l of glucose was employed as the carbon source. PMID:18667855

  12. Low acid producing solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    The potential environmental effects of the exhaust products of conventional rocket propellants have been assessed by various groups. Areas of concern have included stratospheric ozone, acid rain, toxicity, air quality and global warming. Some of the studies which have been performed on this subject have concluded that while the impacts of rocket use are extremely small, there are propellant development options which have the potential to reduce those impacts even further. This paper discusses the various solid propellant options which have been proposed as being more environmentally benign than current systems by reducing HCI emissions. These options include acid neutralized, acid scavenged, and nonchlorine propellants. An assessment of the acid reducing potential and the viability of each of these options is made, based on current information. Such an assessment is needed in order to judge whether the potential improvements justify the expenditures of developing the new propellant systems.

  13. Screening of microbial lipases and evalutaion of their potential to produce glycerides with high gamma linolenic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Fregolente, Patricia B L; Fregolente, Leonardo V; Maciel, Maria R W; Carvalho, Patricia O

    2009-10-01

    Gamma linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, cis- 6,9,12- octadecatrienoic acid), an important compound in n- 6 eicosanoid family biosynthesis, occurs in the lipids of a few plant and microbial sources. This study focused on the screening of microbial strains with suitable lipase activity for enrichment of GLA by selective hydrolysis of the borage oil (21.6 % of GLA/total fatty acids). Firstly, 352 microrganisms were tested for their lipolytic capacity using screening techniques on agar plates containing borage oil, strains were then selected and screened for their activity (U/mg) using both submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid state fermentation (SSF). The rate of hydrolysis and the selective preference of these hydrolytic enzymes towards fatty acids, with a special focus on enrichment of GLA were studied and compared with those obtained by two commercially-available lipases. Only one of the lipases tested during this study displayed selectivity, discriminating the GLA during the hydrolysis reaction. Using the enzymatic extract from Geotrichum candidum as a biocatalyst of the reaction, it was possible to obtain a percentage of 41.7% of GLA in acylglycerols fraction when the borage oil was treated in a fixed-bed reactor for 24 hours at 30ºC. PMID:24031421

  14. Secreted or nonsecreted forms of acidic fibroblast growth factor produced by transfected epithelial cells influence cell morphology, motility, and invasive potential.

    PubMed Central

    Jouanneau, J; Gavrilovic, J; Caruelle, D; Jaye, M; Moens, G; Caruelle, J P; Thiery, J P

    1991-01-01

    Addition of exogenous acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) to NBT-II epithelial carcinoma cells results in fibroblastic transformation and cell motility. We have generated aFGF-producing NBT-II cells by transfection with recombinant expression vectors containing human aFGF cDNA, or the human aFGF cDNA coupled to a signal peptide (SP) sequence. The effects of the nonsecreted and the secreted 16-kDa growth factor on the morphology, motility, and cell invasive potential (gelatinase activity) were compared. aFGF coupled to a SP was actively secreted out of the producing cells. The secretion of aFGF was not necessary for induction of gelatinase activity, as this was observed in NBT-II cells producing aFGF with or without SP. Production of aFGF, whether secreted or not secreted, resulted in increased in vitro motility of most isolated clones; however, there was no correlation between aFGF level and motility rate. The data suggest that expression of aFGF in NBT-II cells induces metastatic potential through an autocrine or intracrine mechanism. Images PMID:1707175

  15. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  16. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-05-26

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  17. Poly-γ-glutamic acid produced from Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 2876 as a potential substitute for polyacrylamide in the sugarcane industry.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shan; Yao, Haosheng; Chen, Zhen; Zeng, Shengquan; Xi, Xi; Wang, Yuanpeng; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao

    2015-01-01

    As an environmentally friendly and industrially useful biopolymer, poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) from Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 2876 was characterized by the high-resolution mass spectrometry and (1)H NMR. A flocculating activity of 11,474.47 U mL(-1) obtained with γ-PGA, and the effects of carbon sources, ions, and chemical properties (D-/L-composition and molecular weight) on the production and flocculating activity of γ-PGA were discussed. Being a bioflocculant in the sugar refinery process, the color and turbidity of the sugarcane juice was IU 1,877.36 and IU 341.41 with 0.8 ppm of γ-PGA, respectively, which was as good as the most widely used chemically synthesized flocculant in the sugarcane industry--polyacrylamide with 1 ppm. The γ-PGA produced from B. licheniformis CGMCC 2876 could be a promising alternate of chemically synthesized flocculants in the sugarcane industry. PMID:26033934

  18. Recovery of carboxylic acids produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    López-Garzón, Camilo S; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylic acids such as citric, lactic, succinic and itaconic acids are useful products and are obtained on large scale by fermentation. This review describes the options for recovering these and other fermentative carboxylic acids. After cell removal, often a primary recovery step is performed, using liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, precipitation or conventional electrodialysis. If the carboxylate is formed rather than the carboxylic acid, the recovery process involves a step for removing the cation of the formed carboxylate. Then, bipolar electrodialysis and thermal methods for salt splitting can prevent that waste inorganic salts are co-produced. Final carboxylic acid purification requires either distillation or crystallization, usually involving evaporation of water. Process steps can often be combined synergistically. In-situ removal of carboxylic acid by extraction during fermentation is the most popular approach. Recovery of the extractant can easily lead to waste inorganic salt formation, which counteracts the advantage of the in-situ removal. For industrial production, various recovery principles and configurations are used, because the fermentation conditions and physical properties of specific carboxylic acids differ. PMID:24751382

  19. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  20. Potential of Lactic Streptococci to Produce Bacteriocin

    PubMed Central

    Geis, Arnold; Singh, Jasjit; Teuber, Michael

    1983-01-01

    A survey was made on the bacteriocin-producing potential of lactic streptococci. Bacteriocin-like activities were isolated and partially purified from about 5% of the 280 strains investigated. The frequency of production varied from about 1% in Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis to 9 and 7.5% in S. lactis and Streptococcus cremoris, respectively. Eight strains of S. cremoris produced bacteriocins which, on the basis of heat stability at different pH values and inhibitory spectrum, could be divided into four types. From 54 S. lactis strains, 5 strains produced inhibitory substances, namely, three nisin-like antibiotics and two different bacteriocins. Only 1 of 93 S. lactis subsp. diacetylactis strains produced a bacteriocin which was very similar to bacteriocins of type I in S. cremoris. All of the bacteriocins that were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation showed very limited inhibitory spectra. Most of the lactic streptococci and a few members of the genera Clostridium, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus were inhibited. None of the bacteriocins acted on gram-negative bacteria. The bacteriocinogenic strains were also characterized on the basis of plasmid content. All strains possessed between one and nine plasmids ranging from 1 to 50 megadaltons. Images PMID:16346166

  1. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay KS; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA. PMID:19619289

  2. Cyanobacteria blooms produce teratogenic retinoic acids

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoqin; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wan, Yi; Giesy, John P.; Hu, Jianying

    2012-01-01

    Deformed amphibians have been observed in eutrophic habitats, and some clues point to the retinoic acids (RAs) or RA mimics. However, RAs are generally thought of as vertebrate-specific hormones, and there was no evidence that RAs exist in cyanobacteria or algae blooms. By analyzing RAs and their analogs 4-oxo-RAs in natural cyanobacteria blooms and cultures of cyanobacteria and algae, we showed that cyanobacteria blooms could produce RAs, which were powerful animal teratogens. Intracellular RAs and 4-oxo-RAs with concentrations between 0.4 and 4.2 × 102 ng/L were detected in all bloom materials, and extracellular concentrations measured in water from Taihu Lake, China, were as great as 2.0 × 10 ng/L, which might pose a risk to wildlife through chronic exposure. Further examination of 39 cyanobacteria and algae species revealed that 32 species could produce RAs and 4-oxo-RAs (1.6–1.4 × 103 ng/g dry weight), and the dominant cyanobacteria species in Taihu Lake, Microcystis flos-aquae and Microcystis aeruginosa, produced high amounts of RAs and 4-oxo-RAs with concentrations of 1.4 × 103 and 3.7 × 102 ng/g dry weight, respectively. Most genera of cyanobacteria that could produce RAs and 4-oxo-RAs, such as Microcystis, Anabaena, and Aphanizomenon, often occur dominantly in blooms. Production of RAs and 4-oxo-RAs by cyanobacteria was associated with species, origin location, and growth stage. These results represent a conclusive demonstration of endogenous production of RAs in freshwater cyanobacteria blooms. The observation of teratogenic RAs in cyanobacteria is evolutionarily and ecologically significant because RAs are vertebrate-specific hormones, and cyanobacteria form extensive and highly visible blooms in many aquatic ecosystems. PMID:22645328

  3. SURVEY AND SUMMARY: Mutagenic potentials of damaged nucleic acids produced by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species: approaches using synthetic oligonucleotides and nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    DNA and DNA precursors (deoxyribonucleotides) suffer damage by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. They are important mutagens for organisms, due to their endogenous formation. Damaged DNA and nucleotides cause alterations of the genetic information by the mispairing properties of the damaged bases, such as 8-hydroxyguanine (7,8-dihydro- 8-oxoguanine) and 2-hydroxyadenine. Here, the author reviews the mutagenic potentials of damaged bases in DNA and of damaged DNA precursors formed by reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, focusing on the results obtained with synthetic oligonucleotides and 2′-deoxyribonucleoside 5′-triphosphates. PMID:12527759

  4. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

  5. Biomass pretreatment affects Ustilago maydis in producing itaconic acid

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the last years, the biotechnological production of platform chemicals for fuel components has become a major focus of interest. Although ligno-cellulosic material is considered as suitable feedstock, the almost inevitable pretreatment of this recalcitrant material may interfere with the subsequent fermentation steps. In this study, the fungus Ustilago maydis was used to produce itaconic acid as platform chemical for the synthesis of potential biofuels such as 3-methyltetrahydrofuran. No studies, however, have investigated how pretreatment of ligno-cellulosic biomass precisely influences the subsequent fermentation by U. maydis. Thus, this current study aims to first characterize U. maydis in shake flasks and then to evaluate the influence of three exemplary pretreatment methods on the cultivation and itaconic acid production of this fungus. Cellulose enzymatically hydrolysed in seawater and salt-assisted organic-acid catalysed cellulose were investigated as substrates. Lastly, hydrolysed hemicellulose from fractionated beech wood was applied as substrate. Results U. maydis was characterized on shake flask level regarding its itaconic acid production on glucose. Nitrogen limitation was shown to be a crucial condition for the production of itaconic acid. For itaconic acid concentrations above 25 g/L, a significant product inhibition was observed. Performing experiments that simulated influences of possible pretreatment methods, U. maydis was only slightly affected by high osmolarities up to 3.5 osmol/L as well as of 0.1 M oxalic acid. The production of itaconic acid was achieved on pretreated cellulose in seawater and on the hydrolysed hemicellulosic fraction of pretreated beech wood. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis is a promising producer of itaconic acid, since it grows as single cells (yeast-like) in submerged cultivations and it is extremely robust in high osmotic media and real seawater. Moreover, U. maydis can grow on the hemicellulosic fraction

  6. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  7. Potentially hazardous waste produced at home

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of waste generation household consisting of biological material and to investigate the knowledge presented by those responsible for the generation of waste in the home environment on the potential health risk human and environmental. Method It is a quantitative survey performed in Parque Capuava, Santo André (SP). The questionnaire was administered by the community employers and nursing students during the consultation with nursing supervision through interview question/answer. The exclusion criteria were patients who were not in the area served by the Basic Health Unit which covers the area of Pq Capuava. The sample was consisted of 99 persons and the data collection a questionnaire was used. Results We observed that 63.3% of people said to use disposables, with the majority (58.7%) of these use the public collection as the final destination of these materials. It was reported that 73.7% of those surveyed reported having knowledge about the risk of disease transmission. Public awareness of the importance of proper packaging and disposal of potentially hazardous household waste may contribute significantly to the preservation of human and environmental health and this procedure can be performed and supervised by professional nurses. Conclusion We suggest implementation of workshops for community health workers and the general population in order to enhance their knowledge about the storage and disposal of potentially infectious waste generated at home, thereby reducing the potential risk of disease transmission by improper management. PMID:23806043

  8. Purification process for succinic acid produced by fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Glassner, D.A.; Elankovan, P.; Beacom, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    Succinic acid is a versatile four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. It can be used commercially as an intermediate chemical for the manufacture of 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, and many other chemicals. Succinic acid can be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates. A complete process for the production and purification of succinic acid from carbohydrates has been developed. The process includes fermentation, desalting electrodialysis, water-splitting electrodialysis, and crystallization to produce a pure crystalline succinic acid. This article will present experimental work performed in the development of this process.

  9. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The national laboratory consortium has undertaken an R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI) to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources. The projects near-term goal is to demonstrate an economically competetive process for producing 1,4-butanediol and other derivatives from biologically produced succinic acid without generating a major salt waste. The competitiveness to the petrochemical process must be demonstrated.

  10. Oleanolic acid alters bile acid metabolism and produces cholestatic liver injury in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Zhang, Youcai; Wu, Kai Connie; Fan, Fang; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-11-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a triterpenoids that exists widely in plants. OA is effective in protecting against hepatotoxicants. Whereas a low dose of OA is hepatoprotective, higher doses and longer-term use of OA produce liver injury. This study characterized OA-induced liver injury in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were given OA at doses of 0, 22.5, 45, 90, and 135 mg/kg, s.c., daily for 5 days, and liver injury was observed at doses of 90 mg/kg and above, as evidenced by increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, increases in serum total bilirubin, as well as by liver histopathology. OA-induced cholestatic liver injury was further evidenced by marked increases of both unconjugated and conjugated bile acids (BAs) in serum. Gene and protein expression analysis suggested that livers of OA-treated mice had adaptive responses to prevent BA accumulation by suppressing BA biosynthetic enzyme genes (Cyp7a1, 8b1, 27a1, and 7b1); lowering BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2); and increasing a BA efflux transporter (Ostβ). OA increased the expression of Nrf2 and its target gene, Nqo1, but decreased the expression of AhR, CAR and PPARα along with their target genes, Cyp1a2, Cyp2b10 and Cyp4a10. OA had minimal effects on PXR and Cyp3a11. Taken together, the present study characterized OA-induced liver injury, which is associated with altered BA homeostasis, and alerts its toxicity potential. - Highlights: • Oleanolic acid at higher doses and long-term use may produce liver injury. • Oleanolic acid increased serum ALT, ALP, bilirubin and bile acid concentrations. • OA produced feathery degeneration, inflammation and cell death in the liver. • OA altered bile acid homeostasis, affecting bile acid synthesis and transport.

  11. The Potential for Microalgae as Bioreactors to Produce Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Na; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Yuhong; Hu, Zanmin

    2016-01-01

    As photosynthetic organisms, microalgae can efficiently convert solar energy into biomass. Microalgae are currently used as an important source of valuable natural biologically active molecules, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and enzymes. Significant advances have been achieved in microalgae biotechnology over the last decade, and the use of microalgae as bioreactors for expressing recombinant proteins is receiving increased interest. Compared with the bioreactor systems that are currently in use, microalgae may be an attractive alternative for the production of pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins and other valuable products. Products synthesized via the genetic engineering of microalgae include vaccines, antibodies, enzymes, blood-clotting factors, immune regulators, growth factors, hormones, and other valuable products, such as the anticancer agent Taxol. In this paper, we briefly compare the currently used bioreactor systems, summarize the progress in genetic engineering of microalgae, and discuss the potential for microalgae as bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals. PMID:27322258

  12. The Potential for Microalgae as Bioreactors to Produce Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Yan, Na; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Yuhong; Hu, Zanmin

    2016-01-01

    As photosynthetic organisms, microalgae can efficiently convert solar energy into biomass. Microalgae are currently used as an important source of valuable natural biologically active molecules, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and enzymes. Significant advances have been achieved in microalgae biotechnology over the last decade, and the use of microalgae as bioreactors for expressing recombinant proteins is receiving increased interest. Compared with the bioreactor systems that are currently in use, microalgae may be an attractive alternative for the production of pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins and other valuable products. Products synthesized via the genetic engineering of microalgae include vaccines, antibodies, enzymes, blood-clotting factors, immune regulators, growth factors, hormones, and other valuable products, such as the anticancer agent Taxol. In this paper, we briefly compare the currently used bioreactor systems, summarize the progress in genetic engineering of microalgae, and discuss the potential for microalgae as bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals. PMID:27322258

  13. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  14. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Palasz, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

  15. Antioxidative potential of folate producing probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus CD6.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayesh Jagannath; Mokashe, Narendra Uttamrao; Patil, Hemant Jagatrao; Chaudhari, Bhushan Liladhar

    2013-02-01

    Folate producing Lactobacillus sp. CD6 isolated from fermented milk showed 98% similarity with Lactobacillus helveticus based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It was found to produce a folic acid derivative 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF). The intracellular cell-free extract of strain demonstrated antioxidative activity with the inhibition rate of ascorbate autoxidation in the range of 27.5% ± 3.7%. It showed highest metal ion chelation ability for Fe(2+) (0.26 ± 0.06 ppm) as compared to Cu(2+). The DPPH (α,α-Diphenyl-β-Picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity for intact cells were found to be 24.7% ± 10.9% proved its antioxidative potential. Furthermore, it demonstrated 14.89% inhibition of epinephrine autoxidation, 20.9 ± 1.8 μg cysteine equivalent reducing activity and 20.8% ± 0.9% hydroxyl radical scavenging effect. The strain was evaluated for probiotic properties as per WHO and FAO guidelines. It showed 90.61% survival at highly acidic condition (pH 2.0), 90.66% viability in presence of synthetic gastric juice and 68% survivability at 0.5% bile concentration for 24 h. It was susceptible to many antibiotics which reduces the prospect to offer resistance determinants to other organisms if administered in the form of probiotic preparations. It showed in vitro mucus binding and antimicrobial activity against enteric pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium (NCIM 2501), Streptococcus pyogenes (NCIM 2608), and Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 5021) and moreover it showed non- hemolytic activity on sheep blood agar. PMID:24425884

  16. Isolation and characterization of bacterium producing lipid from short-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yoshiko; Nakai, Shota; Ohkawachi, Masahiko; Suemitsu, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Aki, Tsunehiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic fermentation generates propionic acid, which inhibits microbial growth and accumulates in wastewater containing increased amounts of organic matter. We therefore isolated a propionic acid-assimilating bacterium that could produce triacylglycerol, for use in wastewater treatment. Nitratireductor sp. strain OM-1 can proliferate in medium containing propionic, acetic, butyric, and valeric acids as well as glycerol, and produces triacylglycerol when both propionic and acetic acids or glycerol are present. In composite model wastewater containing acetic acid, propionic acid and glycerol, this strain shows an even higher conversion rate, suggesting that it is suitable for wastewater treatment. Further, nitrogen depletion in medium containing an acetic-propionic acid mixture resulted in the production of the light oil 2-butenoic acid 1-methylethyl ester, but not triacylglycerol. Collectively, our data indicate that strain OM-1 has the potential to reduce accumulation of activated sludge in wastewater treatment and may contribute to the production of biodiesel. PMID:26649900

  17. Method to produce succinic acid from raw hydrolysates

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia Y.; Nghiem, Nhuan Phu

    2004-06-01

    A method for producing succinic acid from industrial-grade hydrolysates is provided, comprising supplying an organism that contains mutations for the genes ptsG, pflB, and ldhA, allowing said organism to accumulate biomass, and allowing said organism to metabolize the hydrolysate. Also provided is a bacteria mutant characterized in that it produces succinic acid from substrate contained in industrial-grade hydrolysate in a ratio of between 0.6:1 and 1.3:1 succinic acid to substrate.

  18. [Detection of cyclopiazonic acid and its producers in food].

    PubMed

    Ostrý, V; Polster, M

    1989-07-01

    In the course of six months, 60 samples of foods were examined for their contents of cyclopiazonic acid. These samples were subjected to a basal mycological screening aimed at Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium sp. strains. Cyclopiazonic acid contents in samples of Hermelín cheese, peanuts, rice, peeled barley grains, Folican salami, and packaged meat did not exceed the value of 0.5 mg.kg-1. When using a modification of the method of cyclopiazonic acid isolation described by Dorner et al. (1983), 521 mg of this mycotoxin were isolated from a culture of Penicillium griseofulvum CCM 8006 strain grown in liquid medium containing 2% yeast autolysate and 2.5% sucrose. About 47% of the isolated Aspergillus flavus strains were bitoxicogenic (produced both cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxin). Cyclopiazonic acid was produced by 23.5% of the isolated Penicillium sp. strains. No cyclopiazonic acid was produced in vitro by Penicillium nalgoviensis strains from the Czechoslovak collection on sweet wort agar containing peptone from soybean. Penicillium commune F-426 and Penicillium aurantiogriseum F-708 strains are efficient producers of this acid. PMID:2508296

  19. Microbial production of glyceric acid, an organic acid that can be mass produced from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yuko; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Hattori, Hiromi; Ano, Yoshitaka; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kitamoto, Dai; Itagaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Kunihiro; Yanagishita, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Sakaki, Keiji

    2009-12-01

    Glyceric acid (GA), an unfamiliar biotechnological product, is currently produced as a small by-product of dihydroxyacetone production from glycerol by Gluconobacter oxydans. We developed a method for the efficient biotechnological production of GA as a target compound for new surplus glycerol applications in the biodiesel and oleochemical industries. We investigated the ability of 162 acetic acid bacterial strains to produce GA from glycerol and found that the patterns of productivity and enantiomeric GA compositions obtained from several strains differed significantly. The growth parameters of two different strain types, Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 and Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470, were optimized using a jar fermentor. G. frateurii accumulated 136.5 g/liter of GA with a 72% d-GA enantiomeric excess (ee) in the culture broth, whereas A. tropicalis produced 101.8 g/liter of d-GA with a 99% ee. The 136.5 g/liter of glycerate in the culture broth was concentrated to 236.5 g/liter by desalting electrodialysis during the 140-min operating time, and then, from 50 ml of the concentrated solution, 9.35 g of GA calcium salt was obtained by crystallization. Gene disruption analysis using G. oxydans IFO12528 revealed that the membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase (mADH)-encoding gene (adhA) is required for GA production, and purified mADH from G. oxydans IFO12528 catalyzed the oxidation of glycerol. These results strongly suggest that mADH is involved in GA production by acetic acid bacteria. We propose that GA is potentially mass producible from glycerol feedstock by a biotechnological process. PMID:19837846

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Dietary Phenolic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Saibabu, Venkata; Fatima, Zeeshan; Khan, Luqman Ahmad; Hameed, Saif

    2015-01-01

    Although modern lifestyle has eased the quality of human life, this lifestyle's related patterns have imparted negative effects on health to acquire multiple diseases. Many synthetic drugs are invented during the last millennium but most if not all of them possess several side effects and proved to be costly. Convincing evidences have established the premise that the phytotherapeutic potential of natural compounds and need of search for novel drugs from natural sources are of high priority. Phenolic acids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites spread throughout the plant kingdom and generally involved in plethora of cellular processes involved in plant growth and reproduction and also produced as defense mechanism to sustain various environmental stresses. Extensive research on PAs strongly suggests that consumption of these compounds hold promise to offer protection against various ailments in humans. This paper focuses on the naturally derived PAs and summarizes the action mechanisms of these compounds during disease conditions. Based on the available information in the literature, it is suggested that use of PAs as drugs is very promising; however more research and clinical trials are necessary before these bioactive molecules can be made for treatment. Finally this review provides greater awareness of the promise that natural PAs hold for use in the disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26442119

  1. Potential bronchoconstrictor stimuli in acid fog.

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, J R; Fine, J M; Gordon, T; Sheppard, D

    1989-01-01

    Acid fog is complex and contains multiple stimuli that may be capable of inducing bronchoconstriction. These stimuli include sulfuric and niric acids, the principal inorganic acids present; sulfites, formed in the atmosphere as a reaction product of sulfur dioxide and water droplets; fog water itself, a hypoosmolar aerosol; the organic acid hydroxymethanesulfonate, the bisulfite adduct of formaldehyde; and gaseous pollutants, e.g., sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone. Given this complexity, evaluation of the respiratory health effects of naturally occurring acid fog requires assessment of the bronchoconstrictor potency of each component stimulus and possible interactions among these stimuli. We summarize the results of three studies that involve characterization of the bronchoconstrictor potency of acid fog stimuli and/or their interaction in subjects with asthma. The results of the first study indicate that titratable acidity appears to be a more important stimulus to bronchoconstriction than is pH. The results of the second study demonstrate that sulfite species are capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, especially when inhaled at acid pH. The results of the third study suggest that acidity can potentiate hypoosmolar fog-induced bronchoconstriction. PMID:2539989

  2. Potential bronchoconstrictor stimuli in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Balmes, J.R.; Fine, J.M.; Gordon, T.; Sheppard, D.

    1989-02-01

    Acid fog is complex and contains multiple stimuli that may be capable of inducing bronchoconstriction. These stimuli include sulfuric and nitric acids, the principal inorganic acids present; sulfites, formed in the atmosphere as a reaction product of sulfur dioxide and water droplets; fog water itself, a hypoosmolar aerosol; the organic acid hydroxymethanesulfonate, the bisulfite adduct of formaldehyde; and gaseous pollutants, e.g., sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, ozone. Given this complexity, evaluation of the respiratory health effects of naturally occurring acid fog requires assessment of the bronchoconstrictor potency of each component stimulus and possible interactions among these stimuli. We summarize the results of three studies that involve characterization of the bronchoconstrictor potency of acid fog stimuli and/or their interaction in subjects with asthma. The results of the first study indicate that titratable acidity appears to be a more important stimulus to bronchoconstriction than is pH. The results of the second study demonstrate that sulfite species are capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, especially when inhaled at acid pH. The results of the third study suggest that acidity can potentiate hypoosmolar fog-induced bronchoconstriction.

  3. Amino Acid Degradations Produced by Lipid Oxidation Products.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-06-10

    Differently to amino acid degradations produced by carbohydrate-derived reactive carbonyls, amino acid degradations produced by lipid oxidation products are lesser known in spite of being lipid oxidation a major source of reactive carbonyls in food. This article analyzes the conversion of amino acids into Strecker aldehydes, α-keto acids, and amines produced by lipid-derived free radicals and carbonyl compounds, as well as the role of lipid oxidation products on the reactions suffered by these compounds: the formation of Strecker aldehydes and other aldehydes from α-keto acids; the formation of Strecker aldehydes and olefins from amines; the formation of shorter aldehydes from Strecker aldehydes; and the addition reactions suffered by the olefins produced from the amines. The relationships among all these reactions and the effect of reaction conditions on them are discussed. This knowledge should contribute to better control food processing in order to favor the formation of desirable beneficial compounds and to inhibit the production of compounds with deleterious properties. PMID:25748518

  4. Escherichia coli produces linoleic acid during late stationary phase.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitch, H D; Sklan, D; Chace, D H; Stevens, R D; Fridovich, I

    1993-01-01

    Escherichia coli produces linoleic acid in the late stationary phase. This was the case whether the cultures were grown aerobically or anaerobically on a supplemented glucose-salts medium. The linoleic acid was detected by thin-layer chromatography and was measured as the methyl ester by gas chromatography. The linoleic acid methyl ester was identified by its mass spectrum. Lipids extracted from late-stationary-phase cells generated thiobarbituric acid-reactive carbonyl products when incubated with a free radical initiator. In contrast, extracts from log-phase or early-stationary-phase cells failed to do so, in accordance with the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acid only in the stationary-phase cells. PMID:8366020

  5. A Glutamic Acid-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Malaysian Fermented Foods

    PubMed Central

    Zareian, Mohsen; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Mohamed, Abdul Karim Sabo; Forghani, Bita; Ab-Kadir, Mohd Safuan B.; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    l-glutamaic acid is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and an important intermediate in metabolism. In the present study, lactic acid bacteria (218) were isolated from six different fermented foods as potent sources of glutamic acid producers. The presumptive bacteria were tested for their ability to synthesize glutamic acid. Out of the 35 strains showing this capability, strain MNZ was determined as the highest glutamic-acid producer. Identification tests including 16S rRNA gene sequencing and sugar assimilation ability identified the strain MNZ as Lactobacillus plantarum. The characteristics of this microorganism related to its glutamic acid-producing ability, growth rate, glucose consumption and pH profile were studied. Results revealed that glutamic acid was formed inside the cell and excreted into the extracellular medium. Glutamic acid production was found to be growth-associated and glucose significantly enhanced glutamic acid production (1.032 mmol/L) compared to other carbon sources. A concentration of 0.7% ammonium nitrate as a nitrogen source effectively enhanced glutamic acid production. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of glutamic acid production by lactic acid bacteria. The results of this study can be further applied for developing functional foods enriched in glutamic acid and subsequently γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) as a bioactive compound. PMID:22754309

  6. New fermentation processes for producing itaconic acid and citric acid for industrial uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Itaconic acid is an important industrial chemical that we have produced by fermentation of simple sugars using the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica. Itaconic acid is priced at ~$4 per kg and has an annual market volume of about 15,000 metric tons. Itaconic acid is used in the polymer industry and for m...

  7. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  8. NEUROXOTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that EPA consider noncancer endpoints for the assessment of adverse human health effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is one of many DBPs produced by the chlorination of drinking water. Its chlorinated analog, ...

  9. Isolation of two Pseudomonas strains producing pseudomonic acid A.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Eva; Fekete, Agnes; Lintelmann, Jutta; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philipe; Meckenstock, Rainer U

    2009-02-01

    Two novel Pseudomonas strains were isolated from groundwater sediment samples. The strains showed resistance against the antibiotics tetracycline, cephalothin, nisin, vancomycin, nalidixic acid, erythromycin, lincomycin, and penicillin and grew at temperatures between 15 and 37 degrees C and pH values from 4 to 10 with a maximum at pH 7 to 10. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences and the substrate spectrum of the isolates revealed that the two strains belonged to the Pseudomonas fluorescens group. The supernatants of both strains had an antibiotic effect against Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative strain. The effective substance was produced under standard cultivation conditions without special inducer molecules or special medium composition. The antibiotically active compound was identified as pseudomonic acid A by off-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). The measurement on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC, UV-vis detection) confirmed the determination of pseudomonic acid A which was produced by both strains at 1.7-3.5mg/l. Our findings indicate that the ability to produce the antibiotic pseudomonic acid A (Mupirocin) is more spread among the pseudomonads then anticipated from the only producer known so far. PMID:19070447

  10. Using Spreadsheets to Produce Acid-Base Titration Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, Martin James; Parkinson, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes two spreadsheets for producing acid-base titration curves, one uses relatively simple cell formulae that can be written into the spreadsheet by inexperienced students and the second uses more complex formulae that are best written by the teacher. (JRH)

  11. Amylase activity of Aspergillus strains--producers of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Tsekova, K; Dentchev, D; Vicheva, A; Dekovska, M

    1993-01-01

    The ability of fungi from genus Aspergillus (producers of organic acids) to synthesize amylase enzymes (alpha-amylase and glucoamylase) was investigated. The productivity of the strains on Czapek-Dox agar and in liquid Czapec-Dox media with 3% soluble starch as a carbon source was established. PMID:8285132

  12. Development of Fatty Acid-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Takeno, Seiki; Takasaki, Manami; Urabayashi, Akinobu; Mimura, Akinori; Muramatsu, Tetsuhiro; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    To date, no information has been made available on the genetic traits that lead to increased carbon flow into the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To develop basic technologies for engineering, we employed an approach that begins by isolating a fatty acid-secreting mutant without depending on mutagenic treatment. This was followed by genome analysis to characterize its genetic background. The selection of spontaneous mutants resistant to the palmitic acid ester surfactant Tween 40 resulted in the isolation of a desired mutant that produced oleic acid, suggesting that a single mutation would cause increased carbon flow down the pathway and subsequent excretion of the oversupplied fatty acid into the medium. Two additional rounds of selection of spontaneous cerulenin-resistant mutants led to increased production of the fatty acid in a stepwise manner. Whole-genome sequencing of the resulting best strain identified three specific mutations (fasR20, fasA63up, and fasA2623). Allele-specific PCR analysis showed that the mutations arose in that order. Reconstitution experiments with these mutations revealed that only fasR20 gave rise to oleic acid production in the wild-type strain. The other two mutations contributed to an increase in oleic acid production. Deletion of fasR from the wild-type strain led to oleic acid production as well. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the fasR20 mutation brought about upregulation of the fasA and fasB genes encoding fatty acid synthases IA and IB, respectively, by 1.31-fold ± 0.11-fold and 1.29-fold ± 0.12-fold, respectively, and of the accD1 gene encoding the β-subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by 3.56-fold ± 0.97-fold. On the other hand, the fasA63up mutation upregulated the fasA gene by 2.67-fold ± 0.16-fold. In flask cultivation with 1% glucose, the fasR20 fasA63up fasA2623 triple mutant produced approximately 280 mg of fatty acids/liter, which consisted mainly of oleic

  13. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris to produce ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy fatty acid of industrial importance.

    PubMed

    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Chen, Yan; Ng, Siew Hon; Chen, Jianan; Qiu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) has many specialized uses in bioproduct industries, while castor bean is currently the only commercial source for the fatty acid. This report describes metabolic engineering of a microbial system (Pichia pastoris) to produce ricinoleic acid using a "push" (synthesis) and "pull" (assembly) strategy. CpFAH, a fatty acid hydroxylase from Claviceps purpurea, was used for synthesis of ricinoleic acid, and CpDGAT1, a diacylglycerol acyl transferase for the triacylglycerol synthesis from the same species, was used for assembly of the fatty acid. Coexpression of CpFAH and CpDGAT1 produced higher lipid contents and ricinoleic acid levels than expression of CpFAH alone. Coexpression in a mutant haploid strain defective in the Δ12 desaturase activity resulted in a higher level of ricinoleic acid than that in the diploid strain. Intriguingly, the ricinoleic acid produced was mainly distributed in the neutral lipid fractions, particularly the free fatty acid form, but with little in the polar lipids. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the metabolic engineering strategy and excellent capacity of the microbial system for production of ricinoleic acid as an alternative to plant sources for industrial uses. PMID:26323290

  14. The utilization of Pseudomonas taetrolens to produce lactobionic acid.

    PubMed

    Goderska, Kamila; Szwengiel, Artur; Czarnecki, Zbigniew

    2014-08-01

    Lactobionic acid is a relatively new product derived from lactose oxidation, with high potential applications as a bioactive compound. Conducted experiments confirmed that both the time and temperature influenced the production of lactobionic acid during bioconversion of lactose using the Pseudomonas taetrolens bacteria. The study also investigated the effect of inoculum concentration on the production of lactobionic acid as a result of oxidation of whey-derived lactose. The highest concentration of lactobionic acid during oxidation of whey-derived lactose at a temperature of 30 °C by microorganisms. P. taetrolens was obtained during 50-h oxidation of the medium, which contained 25 % addition of the inoculum, in which the count of live cells was 2.85 × 10(9) CFU/ml. PMID:24980748

  15. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  16. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  17. Prospects of boswellic acids as potential pharmaceutics.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiyong; Liu, Zhenli; Ning, Zhangchi; Liu, Yuanyan; Song, Zhiqian; Wang, Chun; Lu, Aiping

    2015-03-01

    Boswellic acids have long been considered the main bioactive components of frankincense, and many studies in vitro and in animals as well as several clinical studies have confirmed their various bioactivities. In particular, a large number of mechanistic studies have confirmed their anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. However, not every boswellic acid exhibits a satisfactory pharmacological performance, which depends on the chemical structure and functional groups of the acid. To enhance the pharmacological values of boswellic acids, derivatization has been specifically applied with the aim of discovering more active derivatives of BAs. In addition, the preliminary pharmacokinetic studies of these compounds using various standard methods show their poor bioavailability in humans and rodents, which has led to questions of their pharmacological relevance and potentially limits their use in clinical practice and pharmaceutical development. To improve these effects, some approaches have shown some improvements in effectiveness, and the new formula compatibility approach is considered a very reasonable method for improving the bioavailability of boswellic acids. PMID:25714728

  18. Immunomodulatory potential of shatavarins produced from Asparagus racemosus tissue cultures

    PubMed Central

    Pise, Mashitha Vinod; Rudra, Jaishree Amal; Upadhyay, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Asparagus racemosus (vernacular name: Shatavari) are attributed to its steroidal saponins called shatavarins. This plant is facing the threat of being endangered due to several developmental, seasonal constrains and malpractices involved in its collection and storage. To support its conservation, a tissue culture protocol is standardized which produces 20 fold higher levels of shatavarin. Here we evaluate the bioactivity and immunomodulatory potential of in vitro produced shatavarins from cell cultures of AR using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vitro produced shatavarin stimulated immune cell proliferation and IgG secretion in a dose dependent manner. It stimulated interleukin (IL)-12 production and inhibited production of IL-6. It also had strong modulatory effects on Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, indicating its potential application for immunotherapies where Th1/Th2 balance is envisaged. Our study demonstrating the bioactivity of tissue cultured AR extracts supports further in vivo evaluation of its immunomodulatory efficacy. PMID:26283842

  19. Immunomodulatory potential of shatavarins produced from Asparagus racemosus tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Pise, Mashitha Vinod; Rudra, Jaishree Amal; Upadhyay, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Asparagus racemosus (vernacular name: Shatavari) are attributed to its steroidal saponins called shatavarins. This plant is facing the threat of being endangered due to several developmental, seasonal constrains and malpractices involved in its collection and storage. To support its conservation, a tissue culture protocol is standardized which produces 20 fold higher levels of shatavarin. Here we evaluate the bioactivity and immunomodulatory potential of in vitro produced shatavarins from cell cultures of AR using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vitro produced shatavarin stimulated immune cell proliferation and IgG secretion in a dose dependent manner. It stimulated interleukin (IL)-12 production and inhibited production of IL-6. It also had strong modulatory effects on Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, indicating its potential application for immunotherapies where Th1/Th2 balance is envisaged. Our study demonstrating the bioactivity of tissue cultured AR extracts supports further in vivo evaluation of its immunomodulatory efficacy. PMID:26283842

  20. Weed control possibilities and harvest strategies for the Omega-3 fatty acid producing crop common purslane (Portulacca oleracea var. sativa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common purslane is traditionally considered a weed. Recent literature suggests the potential human health benefits of omega-3 fatty acid consumption. Omega-3 fatty acids are found in flax seed oil (LNA) and fish oil (DHA and EPA), but the highest known producer of Omega-3 fatty acid in plant tissu...

  1. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  2. Potential human health effects of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Adverse human health effects, namely acute and chronic respiratory effects, can occur from the pre-deposition phase of the acid rain phenomenon due to inhalation of acidic particles and gases. State-of-the-art methodology to evaluate these effects is just now being applied to this question. The major post-deposition effect of the acid rain phenomenon is to acidify water, increasing solubility and subsequent human exposure to mercury, lead, cadmium, and aluminum. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, a highly toxic compound, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. Deficiencies in the identification of the contribution of pre-deposition of air pollutants and post-deposition mobilization of toxic metals to the recognized potential health effects of the involved toxic substances is due to the fact that scientists have not addressed these specific questions. 113 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Amino acid decarboxylations produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls in amino acid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; León, M Mercedes; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-10-15

    The formation of 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde in mixtures of phenylalanine, a lipid oxidation product, and a second amino acid was studied to determine the role of the second amino acid in the degradation of phenylalanine produced by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls. The presence of the second amino acid usually increased the formation of the amine and reduced the formation of the Strecker aldehyde. The reasons for this behaviour seem to be related to the α-amino group and the other functional groups (mainly amino or similar groups) present in the side-chain of the amino acid. These groups are suggested to modify the lipid-derived reactive carbonyl but not the reaction mechanism because the Ea of formation of both 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde remained unchanged in all studied systems. All these results suggest that the amine/aldehyde ratio obtained by amino acid degradation can be modified by adding free amino acids during food formulation. PMID:27173560

  4. Improving the potential to produce oil from naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.; Nighswander, J.; Berg, R.R.; Friedman, M.; Gangi, A.F.; Poston, S.W.

    1994-12-31

    A multi-phase effort that involved geological, geophysical, and petroleum engineering studies yielded an improved understanding of naturally fractured reservoirs and potential manners to improve the incidence of oil production from such reservoirs. Maps of fracture traces on bedding planes in the Austin Chalk outcrops showed organized trends of the fracture development and a hierarchical nature within the complete fracture system. Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data has been used to estimate fracture orientation from shear-wave splitting. Well log responses in Austin Chalk wells have shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Well logs have also been used to calculate average resistivity of producing zones and to correlate resistivity with oil saturation and therefore with producing potential. Additionally, the use of carbonates water imbibition displacement processes has shown encouraging results of accelerating and increasing oil recovery of oil which do not have appreciable asphaltene contents.

  5. Phoma glomerata D14: An Endophytic Fungus from Salvia miltiorrhiza That Produces Salvianolic Acid C.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuqing; Zhai, Xin; Shu, Zhiheng; Dong, Ruifang; Ming, Qianliang; Qin, Luping; Zheng, Chengjian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, more and more researches focus on endophytic fungi derived from important medicinal plants, which can produce the same bioactive metabolites as their host plants. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant with versatile pharmacological effects. But the wild plant resource has been in short supply due to the overcollection for bioactive metabolites. Our study was therefore conducted to isolate endophytic fungi from S. miltiorrhiza and get candidate strains that produce the same bioactive compounds as the plant. As a result, an endophyte that produces salvianolic acid C was obtained and identified as Phoma glomerata D14 based on its morphology and internal transcribed spacer analysis. Salvianolic acid C was found present in both the mycelia and fermentation broth. Our study indicates that the endophytic fungus has significant industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands for salvianolic acid C in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way. PMID:26979309

  6. Screening of marine bacterial producers of polyunsaturated fatty acids and optimisation of production.

    PubMed

    Abd El Razak, Ahmed; Ward, Alan C; Glassey, Jarka

    2014-02-01

    Water samples from three different environments including Mid Atlantic Ridge, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea were screened in order to isolate new polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) bacterial producers especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Two hundred and fifty-one isolates were screened for PUFA production and among them the highest number of producers was isolated from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge followed by the Red Sea while no producers were found in the Mediterranean Sea samples. The screening strategy included a simple colourimetric method followed by a confirmation via GC/MS. Among the tested producers, an isolate named 66 was found to be a potentially high PUFA producer producing relatively high levels of EPA in particular. A Plackett-Burman statistical design of experiments was applied to screen a wide number of media components identifying glycerol and whey as components of a production medium. The potential low-cost production medium was optimised by applying a response surface methodology to obtain the highest productivity converting industrial by-products into value-added products. The maximum achieved productivity of EPA was 20 mg/g, 45 mg/l, representing 11% of the total fatty acids, which is approximately five times more than the amount produced prior to optimisation. The production medium composition was 10.79 g/l whey and 6.87 g/l glycerol. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation of potential bacteria PUFA producers from Mediterranean and Red Seas providing an evaluation of a colourimetric screening method as means of rapid screening of a large number of isolates. PMID:24292901

  7. Biologically produced succinic acid: A new route to chemical intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Alternative Feedstocks (AF) program is forging new links between the agricultural community and the chemicals industry through support of research and development (R & D) that uses `green` feedstocks to produce chemicals. The program promotes cost-effective industrial use of renewable biomass as feedstocks to manufacture high-volume chemical building blocks. Industrial commercialization of such processes would stimulate the agricultural sector by increasing the demand of agricultural and forestry commodities. New alternatives for American industry may lie in the nation`s forests and fields. The national laboratory consortium has undertaken a joint R&D project with the Michigan Biotechnology Institute to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a chemical intermediate, succinic acid, and various derivatives, from renewable agricultural resources.

  8. Technological and economic potential of poly(lactic acid) and lactic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.; Bonsignore, P.; Moon, S.H.; Frank, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}40,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food processing and industrial applications. lactic acid h,as the potential of becoming a very large volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from renewable carbohydrates for use as feedstocks for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, plant growth regulators, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and specially chemical intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from crude fermentation broths and the conversion of tactic acid to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. The development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes, extractive distillations integrated with fermentation, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The use of bipolar ED can virtually eliminate the salt or gypsum waste produced in the current lactic acid processes. In this paper, the recent technical advances in tactic and polylactic acid processes are discussed. The economic potential and manufacturing cost estimates of several products and process options are presented. The technical accomplishments at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the future directions of this program at ANL are discussed.

  9. Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, John J.; Quesada, Mark A.; Randesi, Matthew

    1999-10-19

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

  10. Botryosphaeriales fungi produce extracellular enzymes with biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Ana Cristina; Saraiva, Márcia; Correia, António; Alves, Artur

    2014-05-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi are known for producing an arsenal of extracellular enzymes whose involvement in the infection mechanism has been suggested. However, these enzymes are largely unknown and their biotechnological potential also remains poorly understood. In this study, the production and thermostability of extracellular enzymes produced by phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae was investigated. Hydrolytic and oxidative activities were detected and quantified at different temperatures. Most strains (70%; 37/53) were able to produce simultaneously cellulases, laccases, xylanases, pectinases, pectin lyases, amylases, lipases, and proteases. Surprisingly for mesophilic filamentous fungi, several enzymes proved to be thermostable: cellulases from Neofusicoccum mediterraneum CAA 001 and from Dothiorella prunicola CBS 124723, lipases from Diplodia pinea (CAA 015 and CBS 109726), and proteases from Melanops tulasnei CBS 116806 were more active at 70 °C than at any of the other temperatures tested. In addition, lipases produced by Diplodia pinea were found to be significantly more active than any other known lipase from Botryosphaeriales. The thermal activity profile and the wide array of activities secreted by these fungi make them optimal producers of biotechnologically relevant enzymes that may be applied in the food and the health industries (proteases), the pulp-and-paper and biofuel industries (cellulases), or even in the detergent industry (lipases, proteases, amylases, and cellulases). PMID:24802941

  11. Identification of an itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei; Huang, Xuenian; Zhong, Chengwei; Li, Jianjun; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Itaconic acid, one of the most promising and flexible bio-based chemicals, is mainly produced by Aspergillus terreus. Previous studies to improve itaconic acid production in A. terreus through metabolic engineering were mainly focused on its biosynthesis pathway, while the itaconic acid-degrading pathway has largely been ignored. In this study, we used transcriptomic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and in vitro enzymatic analyses to identify three key enzymes, itaconyl-CoA transferase (IctA), itaconyl-CoA hydratase (IchA), and citramalyl-CoA lyase (CclA), that are involved in the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus. In the itaconic acid catabolic pathway in A. terreus, itaconic acid is first converted by IctA into itaconyl-CoA with succinyl-CoA as the CoA donor, and then itaconyl-CoA is hydrated into citramalyl-CoA by IchA. Finally, citramalyl-CoA is cleaved into acetyl-CoA and pyruvate by CclA. Moreover, IctA can also catalyze the reaction between citramalyl-CoA and succinate to generate succinyl-CoA and citramalate. These results, for the first time, identify the three key enzymes, IctA, IchA, and CclA, involved in the itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing A. terreus. The results will facilitate the improvement of itaconic acid production by metabolically engineering the catabolic pathway of itaconic acid in A. terreus. PMID:27102125

  12. Virulence Potential of Activatable Shiga Toxin 2d–Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Fresh Produce

    PubMed Central

    Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; O'Brien, Alison D.; Feng, Peter C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food- and waterborne pathogens that are often transmitted via beef products or fresh produce. STEC strains cause both sporadic infections and outbreaks, which may result in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC strains may elaborate Stx1, Stx2, and/or subtypes of those toxins. Epidemiological evidence indicates that STEC that produce subtypes Stx2a, Stx2c, and/or Stx2d are more often associated with serious illness. The Stx2d subtype becomes more toxic to Vero cells after incubation with intestinal mucus or elastase, a process named “activation.” Stx2d is not generally found in the E. coli serotypes most commonly connected to STEC outbreaks. However, STEC strains that are stx2d positive can be isolated from foods, an occurrence that gives rise to the question of whether those food isolates are potential human pathogens. In this study, we examined 14 STEC strains from fresh produce that were stx2d positive and found that they all produced the mucus-activatable Stx2d and that a subset of the strains tested were virulent in streptomycin-treated mice. PMID:26555533

  13. Virulence Potential of Activatable Shiga Toxin 2d-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Fresh Produce.

    PubMed

    Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D; Feng, Peter C H

    2015-11-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are food- and waterborne pathogens that are often transmitted via beef products or fresh produce. STEC strains cause both sporadic infections and outbreaks, which may result in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. STEC strains may elaborate Stx1, Stx2, and/or subtypes of those toxins. Epidemiological evidence indicates that STEC that produce subtypes Stx2a, Stx2c, and/or Stx2d are more often associated with serious illness. The Stx2d subtype becomes more toxic to Vero cells after incubation with intestinal mucus or elastase, a process named "activation." Stx2d is not generally found in the E. coli serotypes most commonly connected to STEC outbreaks. However, STEC strains that are stx2d positive can be isolated from foods, an occurrence that gives rise to the question of whether those food isolates are potential human pathogens. In this study, we examined 14 STEC strains from fresh produce that were stx2d positive and found that they all produced the mucus-activatable Stx2d and that a subset of the strains tested were virulent in streptomycin-treated mice. PMID:26555533

  14. Exploring omega-3 fatty acids, enzymes and biodiesel producing thraustochytrids from Australian and Indian marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsha; Singh, Dilip; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Thyagarajan, Tamilselvi; Sonkar, Shailendra P; Mathur, Anshu S; Tuli, Deepak K; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2016-03-01

    The marine environment harbours a vast diversity of microorganisms, many of which are unique, and have potential to produce commercially useful materials. Therefore, marine biodiversity from Australian and Indian habitat has been explored to produce novel bioactives, and enzymes. Among these, thraustochytrids collected from Indian habitats were shown to be rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), together constituting 51-76% of total fatty acids (TFA). Indian and Australian thraustochytrids occupy separate positions in the dendrogram, showing significant differences exist in the fatty acid profiles in these two sets of thraustochytrid strains. In general, Australian strains had a higher docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content than Indian strains with DHA at 17-31% of TFA. A range of enzyme activities were observed in the strains, with Australian strains showing overall higher levels of enzyme activity, with the exception of one Indian strain (DBTIOC-1). Comparative analysis of the fatty acid profile of 34 strains revealed that Indian thraustochytrids are more suitable for biodiesel production since these strains have higher fatty acids content for biodiesel (FAB, 76%) production than Australian thraustochytrids, while the Australian strains are more suitable for omega-3 (40%) production. PMID:26580151

  15. Characterization of mannosylerythritol lipids containing hexadecatetraenoic acid produced from cuttlefish oil by Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Kawamura, Daisuke; Morita, Naoki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds produced by microorganisms. Mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL) are promising biosurfactants produced by Ustilaginomycetes, and their physicochemical and biochemical properties differ depending on the chemical structure of their hydrophilic and/or hydrophobic moieties. To further develop MEL derivatives and expand their potential applications, we focused our attention on the use of cuttlefish oil, which contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (e.g., docosahexaenoic acid, C₂₂:₆, and eicosapentaenoic acid, C₂₀:₅, as the sole carbon source. Among the microorganisms capable of producing MEL, only nine strains were able to produce them from cuttlefish oil. On gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, we observed that Pseudozyma churashimaensis OK96 was particularly suitable for the production of MEL-A, a MEL containing hexadecatetraenoic acid (C₁₆:₄) (23.6% of the total unsaturated fatty acids and 7.7% of the total fatty acids). The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surface tension at CMC of the new MEL-A were 5.7×10⁻⁶ M and 29.5 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A produced from soybean oil were 2.7×10⁻⁶ M and 27.7 mN/m, respectively. With polarized optical and confocal laser scanning microscopies, the self-assembling properties of MEL-A were found to be different from those of conventional MEL. Furthermore, based on the DPPH radical-scavenging assay, the anti-oxidative activity of MEL-A was found to be 2.1-fold higher than that of MEL-A produced from soybean oil. Thus, the newly identified MEL-A is attractive as a new functional material with excellent surface-active and antioxidative properties. PMID:23648407

  16. Potentiation of phenobarbital-induced anticonvulsant activity by pipecolic acid.

    PubMed

    Takahama, K; Miyata, T; Okano, Y; Kataoka, M; Hitoshi, T; Kasé, Y

    1982-07-01

    Pipecolic acid (PA) is an intermediate of lysine metabolism in the mammalian brain. Recent findings suggest a functional connection of PA as neuromodulator in GABAergic transmission. Since many drugs are postulated to produce their effects by interaction with the central GABA system, the influence of PA on the anticonvulsant activity of phenobarbital was examined. Pretreatment of mice with 50 mg . kg-1 of PA potentiated the suppressing effects of the barbiturate on electrically and chemically induced convulsions. However, there was no potentiation of the behavioral effects and hypothermia induced by phenobarbital. PA itself had no or only little effect on the convulsions, motor function and rectal temperature when given in i.p. doses up to 500 mg . kg-1. Intraventricular administration of 500 microgram of PA also did not suppress either type of convulsion, although it produced ptosis, hypotonia, sedation and hypothermia. The results are discussed in relation to GABA system. PMID:6288409

  17. Developments in lead-acid batteries: a lead producer's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, P. C.

    Rapid progress is being made in many aspects of materials, design and construction for lead-acid batteries. Much of this work has taken place under the auspices of the Advanced Lead-Acid Battery Consortium (ALABC). From the general tone of the literature, it seems likely that several of these developments will be adopted in commercial products, and that there will be cross-fertilization between the emerging electric vehicle (EV) battery technology and the starting, lighting and ignition (SLI) battery. Given the impetus for improvement from several different factors, the development process appears to be accelerating. To those not intimately involved in the battery design and specification process, it is not clear which of the possible developments will make it from the laboratory to general commercial adoption. Some of the possible changes in materials, design and construction could have an impact on the recovery, recycling, smelting and refining of lead-acid batteries. Some of the possible developments are outlined and their possible impact is discussed. It is likely that negative effects may be minimized if battery developments are considered from other perspectives, largely based on the overall life-cycle, as early in the design phase of new products as possible. Three strategies for minimizing undesirable effects are advocated: first, improved communication between car manufacturers, battery manufacturers and lead producers second, use of life-cycle analysis (LCA) to identify and optimize all attributes of the product throughout its life-cycle third, concerted and coordinated action to deal with issues important to the industry once trends are identified.

  18. NREL Creates New Pathways for Producing Biofuels and Acids from Cyanobacteria (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Cyanobacteria use photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into glycogen, a carbohydrate that is stored in the cells as an energy source. However, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have discovered that this photosynthesis can be redirected to produce lipids and valuable organic acids. The research could yield a new source of biofuels, because the lipids can potentially be extracted from the bacteria and converted into biodiesel.

  19. Short-chain fatty acids produced by intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Topping, D L

    1996-03-01

    The colon is the major site of bacterial colonisation in the human gut and the resident species are predominantly anaerobes. They include potential pathogens but the greater proportion appear to be organisms which salvage energy through the metabolism of undigested carbohydrates and gut secretions. The major products of carbohydrate metabolism are the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetate, propionate and butyrate. In addition to general effects (such as lowering of pH) individual acids exert specific effects. All of the major SCFA appear to promote the flow of blood through the colonic vasculature while propionate enhances muscular activity and epithelial cell proliferation. Butyrate appears to promote a normal cell phenotype as well as being a major fuel for colonocytes. Important substrates for bacterial fermentation include non-starch polysaccharides (major components of dietary fibre) but it seems that starch which has escaped digestion in the small intestine (resistant starch) is the major contributor. Oligosaccharides are utilised by probiotic organisms and in the diet, act as prebiotics in promoting their numbers in faeces. High amylose starch is a form of RS and it appears to act as a prebiotic also. Although there is evidence that probiotics such as Bifidobacteria metabolise oligosaccharides and other carbohydrates, there appears to be little evidence to support a change in faecal SCFA excretion. It seems that any health benefits of probiotics are exerted through means other than SCFA. PMID:24394459

  20. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D.

    2011-03-01

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  1. Process for producing and recovering elemental sulfur from acid gas

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R. L.

    1985-03-26

    A system and process produce high actual levels of sulfur recovery from acid gas. The system includes two conventional Claus reactors and two cold bed adsorption (CBA) reactors. Four condensers are provided, one disposed before each of the catalytic reactors, and one disposed after the CBA reactor. The system includes a gas clean-up treatment zone for hydrogenation, drying and oxidation of gas to provide stoichiometric ratio of H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/. The gas is passed through the clean-up treatment zone prior to being fed to the first of the CBA reactors. The system is designed to operate either in a recovery mode or in a regeneration mode. In the recovery mode, the reactors are in series and the CBA reactors are operated below dew point of sulfur. In regeneration mode, effluent from the clean-up treatment zone is heated in a heat exchanger using effluent from the first catalytic reactor as the heat source. The resulting regeneration gas is fed to one of the two CBA reactors to vaporize sulfur and regenerate the catalyst. The vaporized sulfur is recovered in the condenser. The effluent from the condenser is passed to the other CBA reactor which is operated in the recovery mode during regeneration.

  2. Elevations of endogenous kynurenic acid produce spatial working memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Chess, Amy C; Simoni, Michael K; Alling, Torey E; Bucci, David J

    2007-05-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a tryptophan metabolite that is synthesized and released by astrocytes and acts as a competitive antagonist of the glycine site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors at high concentrations and as a noncompetitive antagonist of the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at low concentrations. The discovery of increased cortical KYNA levels in schizophrenia prompted the hypothesis that elevated KYNA concentration may underlie the working memory dysfunction observed in this population that has been attributed to altered glutamatergic and/or cholinergic transmission. The present study investigated the effect of elevated endogenous KYNA on spatial working memory function in rats. Increased KYNA levels were achieved with intraperitoneal administration of kynurenine (100 mg/kg), the precursor of KYNA synthesis. Rats were treated with either kynurenine or a vehicle solution prior to testing in a radial arm maze task at various delays. Elevations of endogenous KYNA resulted in increased errors in the radial arm maze. In separate experiments, assessment of locomotor activity in an open field and latency to retrieve food reward from one of the maze arms ruled out the possibility that deficits in the maze were attributable to altered locomotor activity or motivation to consume food. These results provide evidence that increased KYNA levels produce spatial working memory deficits and are among the first to demonstrate the influence of glia-derived molecules on cognitive function. The implications for psychopathological conditions such as schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:16920787

  3. Plant Hormone Salicylic Acid Produced by a Malaria Parasite Controls Host Immunity and Cerebral Malaria Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Ryuma; Aonuma, Hiroka; Kojima, Mikiko; Tahara, Michiru; Andrabi, Syed Bilal Ahmad; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Nagamune, Kisaburo

    2015-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii produces the plant hormone abscisic acid, but it is unclear if phytohormones are produced by the malaria parasite Plasmodium spp., the most important parasite of this phylum. Here, we report detection of salicylic acid, an immune-related phytohormone of land plants, in P. berghei ANKA and T. gondii cell lysates. However, addition of salicylic acid to P. falciparum and T. gondii culture had no effect. We transfected P. falciparum 3D7 with the nahG gene, which encodes a salicylic acid-degrading enzyme isolated from plant-infecting Pseudomonas sp., and established a salicylic acid-deficient mutant. The mutant had a significantly decreased concentration of parasite-synthesized prostaglandin E2, which potentially modulates host immunity as an adaptive evolution of Plasmodium spp. To investigate the function of salicylic acid and prostaglandin E2 on host immunity, we established P. berghei ANKA mutants expressing nahG. C57BL/6 mice infected with nahG transfectants developed enhanced cerebral malaria, as assessed by Evans blue leakage and brain histological observation. The nahG-transfectant also significantly increased the mortality rate of mice. Prostaglandin E2 reduced the brain symptoms by induction of T helper-2 cytokines. As expected, T helper-1 cytokines including interferon-γ and interleukin-2 were significantly elevated by infection with the nahG transfectant. Thus, salicylic acid of Plasmodium spp. may be a new pathogenic factor of this threatening parasite and may modulate immune function via parasite-produced prostaglandin E2. PMID:26466097

  4. Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 produces furanomycin, a non-proteinogenic amino acid with selective antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 has been extensively studied because of its plant growth promoting properties and potential as a biocontrol agent. The genome of SBW25 has been sequenced, and among sequenced strains of pseudomonads, SBW25 appears to be most closely related to P. fluorescens WH6. In the authors’ laboratories, WH6 was previously shown to produce and secrete 4-formylaminooxyvinylglycine (FVG), a non-proteinogenic amino acid with selective herbicidal and antimicrobial activity. Although SBW25 does not have the genetic capacity to produce FVG, we were interested in determining whether this pseudomonad might produce some other type of non-proteinogenic amino acid. Results P. fluorescens SBW25 was found to produce and secrete a ninhydrin-reactive compound with selective antimicrobial properties. This compound was purified from SBW25 culture filtrate and identified as the non-proteinogenic amino acid L-furanomycin [2S,2′R,5′S)-2-amino-2-(5′methyl-2′,5′-dihydrofuran-2′-yl)acetic acid]. Conclusions The identification of furanomycin as a secondary metabolite of SBW25 is the first report of the production of furanomycin by a pseudomonad. This compound was known previously only as a natural product produced by a strain of Streptomyces. This report adds furanomycin to the small list of non-proteinogenic amino acids that have been identified as secondary products of pseudomonads. This study also extends the list of bacteria that are inhibited by furanomycin to include several plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23688329

  5. Constructing a recombinant hyaluronic acid biosynthesis operon and producing food-grade hyaluronic acid in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Juzheng; Ling, Peixue; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-02-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), a natural high molecular weight polysaccharide, is produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. However, Streptococcus has several drawbacks including its potential to produce exotoxins, so there is demand for an alternative HA source. Here, a recombinant HA biosynthesis operon, as well as the HA biosynthesis operon of S. zooepidemicus were introduced into L. lactis using the nisin-controlled expression system, respectively. HA was successfully synthesized by recombinant L. lactis. Furthermore, overexpression of the endogenous enzymes directing the synthesis of precursor sugars was effective at increasing HA production, and increasing the supply of UDP-activated monosaccharide donors aided synthesis of monodisperse HA polysaccharides. Besides GRAS host strain (L. lactis) and NICE system, the selecting marker (lacF gene) of the recombinant strain is also food grade. Therefore, HA produced by recombinant L. lactis overcomes the problems associated with Streptococcus and provides a source of food-grading HA appropriate for widespread biotechnological applications. PMID:25447786

  6. Novel Simplified and Rapid Method for Screening and Isolation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Producing Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tilay, Ashwini; Annapure, Uday

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is a potential biotechnological approach for production of valuable nutraceuticals. Reliable method for screening of number of strains within short period of time is great need. Here, we report a novel simplified method for screening and isolation of PUFA-producing bacteria by direct visualization using the H2O2-plate assay. The oxidative stability of PUFAs in growing bacteria towards added H2O2 is a distinguishing characteristic between the PUFAs producers (no zone of inhibition) and non-PUFAs producers (zone of inhibition) by direct visualization. The confirmation of assay results was performed by injecting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by selected marine bacteria to Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). To date, this assay is the most effective, inexpensive, and specific method for bacteria producing PUFAs and shows drastically reduction in the number of samples thus saves the time, effort, and cost of screening and isolating strains of bacterial PUFAs producers. PMID:22934188

  7. Peculiarities of extracellular potentials produced by deep muscles. Part 1: single fibre potential fields.

    PubMed

    Arabadzhiev, T I

    2013-06-01

    The similarity among surface electromyography (EMG) signals recorded by the poles of electrode arrays above deep muscles like erector spinae is a substantial obstacle in determining major muscle characteristics. What makes EMG signals so different when detected at various distances from the fibres? To answer this question, we simulated and analyzed extracellular potential fields produced by a single muscle fibre. We considered the fields at a few specific time instants. They corresponded to the origination of two depolarized zones at the end-plate, their propagation along both semi-fibres, and extinction at the fibre-ends. We used intracellular action potentials and muscle fibre propagation velocities typical for non-fatigued or fatigued muscle fibres. We have shown that at relatively small distances from the fibre, the strong potential fields are concentrated mainly near the sources. The interaction between potential fields is weak and the propagation of the fields and EMG signals in relatively long fibres is clearly apparent. At large distances, the potential fields are wide and the interaction between the fields produced by the two depolarized zones is strong. The total potential field could remain non-propagating during the entire main phase. As a result, the propagation will be obscured also in EMG signals. PMID:23361341

  8. Perceptions of Sustainable Agriculture: A Longitudinal Study of Young and Potential Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamon, Julia A.; Scofield, Gaylan G.

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of an older group of agricultural producers (n=45), young producers (n=102) , and potential producers (n=77) showed the following: potential producers were more positive about sustainable agriculture, younger and potential groups were more likely than older to use dealers as information sources, and potentials were more likely to be…

  9. Evaluation of humic fractions potential to produce bio-oil through catalytic hydroliquefaction.

    PubMed

    Lemée, L; Pinard, L; Beauchet, R; Kpogbemabou, D

    2013-12-01

    Humic substances were extracted from biodegraded lignocellulosic biomass (LCBb) and submitted to catalytic hydroliquefaction. The resulting bio-oils were compared with those of the initial biomass. Compared to fulvic and humic acids, humin presented a high conversion rate (74 wt.%) and the highest amount of liquid fraction (66 wt.%). Moreover it represented 78% of LCBb. Humin produced 43 wt.% of crude oil and 33 wt.% of hexane soluble fraction containing hydrocarbons which is a higher yield than those from other humic substances as well as from the initial biomass. Hydrocarbons were mainly aromatics, but humin produces the highest amount of aliphatics. Considering the quantity, the quality and the molecular composition of the humic fractions, a classification of the potential of the latter to produce fuel using hydroliquefaction process can be assess: Hu>AF>AH. The higher heating value (HHV) and oxygen content of HSF from humin were fully compatible with biofuel characteristics. PMID:24140851

  10. Novel Lactate Transporters from Carboxylic Acid-Producing Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  11. Rapid detection method for fusaric acid-producing species of Fusarium by PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin produced by species of the fungus Fusarium and can act synergistically with other Fusarium toxins. In order to develop a specific detection method for fusaric acid-producing fungus, PCR prim¬ers were designed to amplify FUB10, a transcription factor gene in fusaric acid ...

  12. Antimicrobial and immune modulatory effects of lactic acid and short chain fatty acids produced by vaginal microbiota associated with eubiosis and bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Muriel; Srbinovski, Daniela; Hearps, Anna C.; Latham, Catherine F.; Ramsland, Paul A.; Gugasyan, Raffi; Cone, Richard A.; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by vaginal microbiota have reported antimicrobial and immune modulatory activities indicating their potential as biomarkers of disease and/or disease susceptibility. In asymptomatic women of reproductive-age the vaginal microbiota is comprised of lactic acid-producing bacteria that are primarily responsible for the production of lactic acid present at ~110 mM and acidifying the vaginal milieu to pH ~3.5. In contrast, bacterial vaginosis (BV), a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota, is characterized by decreased lactic acid-producing microbiota and increased diverse anaerobic bacteria accompanied by an elevated pH>4.5. BV is also characterized by a dramatic loss of lactic acid and greater concentrations of mixed SCFAs including acetate, propionate, butyrate, and succinate. Notably women with lactic acid-producing microbiota have more favorable reproductive and sexual health outcomes compared to women with BV. Regarding the latter, BV is associated with increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. In vitro studies demonstrate that lactic acid produced by vaginal microbiota has microbicidal and virucidal activities that may protect against STIs and endogenous opportunistic bacteria as well as immune modulatory properties that require further characterization with regard to their effects on the vaginal mucosa. In contrast, BV-associated SCFAs have far less antimicrobial activity with the potential to contribute to a pro-inflammatory vaginal environment. Here we review the composition of lactic acid and SCFAs in respective states of eubiosis (non-BV) or dysbiosis (BV), their effects on susceptibility to bacterial/viral STIs and whether they have inherent microbicidal/virucidal and immune modulatory properties. We also explore their potential as biomarkers for the presence and/or increased susceptibility to STIs. PMID:26082720

  13. Method for producing iron-based acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Farcasiu, M.; Kathrein, H.; Kaufman, P.B.; Diehl, J.R.

    1998-04-01

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst with a long shelf-life is described. Crystalline iron oxides are doped with lattice compatible metals which are heated with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures.

  14. Methods for producing 3-hydroxypropionic acid and other products

    DOEpatents

    Lynch, Michael D.; Gill, Ryan T.; Lipscomb, Tanya E. W.

    2016-07-12

    This invention relates to metabolically engineered microorganism strains, such as bacterial strains, in which there is an increased utilization of malonyl-CoA for production of a chemical product, which includes 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  15. Lipoic acid - biological activity and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Gorąca, Anna; Huk-Kolega, Halina; Piechota, Aleksandra; Kleniewska, Paulina; Ciejka, Elżbieta; Skibska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    α-Lipoic acid (LA; 5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanoic acid) was originally isolated from bovine liver by Reed et al. in 1951. LA was once considered a vitamin. Subsequently, it was found that LA is not a vitamin and is synthesized by plants and animals. LA is covalently bound to the ε-amino group of lysine residues and functions as a cofactor for mitochondrial enzymes by catalyzing the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate and branched-chain α-keto acids. LA and its reduced form - dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), meet all the criteria for an ideal antioxidant because they can easily quench radicals, can chelate metals, have an amphiphlic character and they do not exhibit any serious side effects. They interact with other antioxidants and can regenerate them. For this reason, LA is called an antioxidant of antioxidants. LA has an influence on the second messenger nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and attenuates the release of free radicals and cytotoxic cytokines. The therapeutic action of LA is based on its antioxidant properties. Current studies support its use in the ancillary treatment of many diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, autoimmune diseases, cancer and AIDS. This review was undertaken to gather the most recent information regarding the therapeutic properties of LA and its possible utility in disease treatment. PMID:22001972

  16. Antimicrobial potential of probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Avonts, L; De Vuyst, L

    2001-01-01

    Antibacterial activity is an important characteristic of probiotics. A possible way to achieve this antibacterial activity is through the production of bacteriocins. This study shows that the commercial probiotic strains Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 and Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029 produce bacteriocins. The nature of the antimicrobial compound could be derived from its behaviour: a narrow inhibitory spectrum (only active against closely related strains), loss of activity when treated with proteinases, and rather small molecular masses (around 6000 Da or less). Further, three bacteriocins produced by Lb. johnsonii LA1, Lb. casei YIT 9029 and Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 showed inhibitory activity against the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. However, a fourth bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 was not able to inhibit H. pylori. This indicates that some bacteriocins produced by specific probiotic strains can fulfil a role in the inhibition of this common pathogen. PMID:15954651

  17. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid soybeans were produced by combining a mutant FAD2-1A and a mutant FAD2-1B gene. Despite having a high oleic acid content, the linolenic acid content of these soybeans was in the range of 4-6%. Therefore, a study was conducted to incorporate one or two mutant FAD3 genes into the high ...

  18. Ursolic acid (UA): A metabolite with promising therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Dharambir; Tuli, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Anil K

    2016-02-01

    Plants are known to produce a variety of bioactive metabolites which are being used to cure various life threatening and chronic diseases. The molecular mechanism of action of such bioactive molecules, may open up new avenues for the scientific community to develop or improve novel therapeutic approaches to tackle dreadful diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Ursolic acid (UA) is one among the categories of such plant-based therapeutic metabolites having multiple intracellular and extracellular targets that play role in apoptosis, metastasis, angiogenesis and inflammatory processes. Moreover, the synthetic derivatives of UA have also been seen to be involved in a range of pharmacological applications, which are associated with prevention of diseases. Evidences suggest that UA could be used as a potential candidate to develop a comprehensive competent strategy towards the treatment and prevention of health disorders. The review article herein describes the possible therapeutic effects of UA along with putative mechanism of action. PMID:26775565

  19. New implicitly solvable potential produced by second order shape invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Cannata, F.; Ioffe, M.V.; Kolevatova, E.V.; Nishnianidze, D.N.

    2015-05-15

    The procedure proposed recently by Bougie et al. (2010) to study the general form of shape invariant potentials in one-dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SUSY QM) is generalized to the case of Higher Order SUSY QM with supercharges of second order in momentum. A new shape invariant potential is constructed by this method. It is singular at the origin, it grows at infinity, and its spectrum depends on the choice of connection conditions in the singular point. The corresponding Schrödinger equation is solved explicitly: the wave functions are constructed analytically, and the energy spectrum is defined implicitly via the transcendental equation which involves Confluent Hypergeometric functions. - Highlights: • New potential with 2nd order irreducible shape invariance was constructed. • The connection conditions at the singularity of potential were obtained. • The explicit expressions for all wave functions were derived. • The implicit equation for the energy spectrum was obtained.

  20. Antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials of selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Kemal; Tepe, Bektas; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ten different phenolic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic, cinnamic, ferulic, gallic, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, rosmarinic, syringic, and vanillic acids) were evaluated for their antioxidant and DNA damage protection potentials. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using four different test systems named as β-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and chelating effect. In all test systems, rosmarinic acid showed the maximum activity potential, while protocatechuic acid was determined as the weakest antioxidant in β-carotene bleaching, DPPH free radical scavenging, and chelating effect assays. Phenolic acids were also screened for their protective effects on pBR322 plasmid DNA against the mutagenic and toxic effects of UV and H2O2. Ferulic acid was found as the most active phytochemical among the others. Even at the lowest concentration value (0.002 mg/ml), ferulic acid protected all of the bands in the presence of H2O2 and UV. It is followed by caffeic, rosmarinic, and vanillic acids. On the other hand, cinnamic acid (at 0.002 mg/ml), gallic acid (at 0.002 mg/ml), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/ml), and protocatechuic acid (at 0.002 and 0.004 mg/ml) could not protect plasmid DNA. PMID:25542528

  1. Determination of boron in produced water using the carminic acid assay.

    PubMed

    Floquet, Cedric F A; Sieben, Vincent J; MacKay, Bruce A; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-04-01

    Using the carminic acid assay, we determined the concentration of boron in oilfield waters. We investigated the effect of high concentrations of salts and dissolved metals on the assay performance. The influence of temperature, development time, reagent concentration, and water volume was studied. Ten produced and flowback water samples of different origins were measured, and the method was successfully validated against ICP-MS measurements. In water-stressed regions, produced water is a potential source of fresh water for irrigation, industrial applications, or consumption. Therefore, boron concentration must be determined and controlled to match the envisaged waste water reuse. Fast, precise, and onsite measurements are needed to minimize errors introduced by sample transportation to laboratories. We found that the optimum conditions for our application were a 5:1 mixing volume ratio (reagent to sample), a 1 g L(-1) carminic acid concentration in 99.99% sulfuric acid, and a 30 min reaction time at ambient temperature (20 °C to 23 °C). Absorption values were best measured at 610 nm and 630 nm and baseline corrected at 865 nm. Under these conditions, the sensitivity of the assay to boron was maximized while its cross-sensitivity to dissolved titanium, iron, barium and zirconium was minimized, alleviating the need for masking agents and extraction methods. PMID:26838405

  2. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  3. POTENTIAL HYDROCARBON PRODUCING SPECIES OF WESTERN GHATS, TAMIL, NADU, INDIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decline in the world supplies of hydrocarbons has lead to the search for alternate sources of fuel and chemicals. Plant species are potential sources of hydrocarbons. Large-scale screening of plants growing in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was conducted to assess the hydrocarbon productio...

  4. Ecophysiology of Aspergillus section nigri species potential ochratoxin a producers.

    PubMed

    Astoreca, Andrea L; Magnoli, Carina E; Dalcero, Ana M

    2010-11-01

    After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as a(W) and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption. PMID:22069566

  5. Ecophysiology of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species Potential Ochratoxin A Producers

    PubMed Central

    Astoreca, Andrea L.; Magnoli, Carina E.; Dalcero, Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    After aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most studied mycotoxin due to the toxicological significance in human and animal diets. OTA presence has been extensively reported worldwide in the last decade in several agricultural products. The main OTA producer in tropical and temperate climates is Aspergillus carbonarius followed by species belonging to A. niger aggregate. Currently, many scientists worldwide have studied the influence of water activity and temperature for growth and biosynthesis of OTA by these species on synthetic media. This article reviews ecophysiological studies of Aspergillus section Nigri strains on synthetic media and natural substrates. The results of these investigations suggest that significant amounts of OTA can be produced in only five days and that the use of different storage practices, such as aW and temperature levels below 0.930 and 15 °C, respectively, allow controlling fungal contamination and minimizing the OTA production in several products as peanuts, corn, dried grapes and derived products for human consumption. PMID:22069566

  6. Yarrowia lipolytica as a biotechnological chassis to produce usual and unusual fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising alternatives to petroleum for the production of fuels and chemicals is bio-oil based chemistry. Microbial oils are gaining importance because they can be engineered to accumulate lipids enriched in desired fatty acids. These specific lipids are closer to the commercialized product, therefore reducing pollutants and costly chemical steps. Yarrowia lipolytica is the most widely studied and engineered oleaginous yeast. Different molecular and bioinformatics tools permit systems metabolic engineering strategies in this yeast, which can produce usual and unusual fatty acids. Usual fatty acids, those usually found in triacylglycerol, accumulate through the action of several pathways, such as fatty acid/triacylglycerol synthesis, transport and degradation. Unusual fatty acids are enzymatic modifications of usual fatty acids to produce compounds that are not naturally synthetized in the host. Recently, the metabolic engineering of microorganisms has produced different unusual fatty acids, such as building block ricinoleic acid and nutraceuticals such as conjugated linoleic acid or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Additionally, microbial sources are preferred hosts for the production of fatty acid-derived compounds such as γ-decalactone, hexanal and dicarboxylic acids. The variety of lipids produced by oleaginous microorganisms is expected to rise in the coming years to cope with the increasing demand. PMID:26703186

  7. Potential effects of chlorogenic acids on platelet activiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coffee (Coffea sp) is a most consumed beverage world-wide. Chlorogenic acids (CHAs) are naturally occurring phenolic acid esters abundantly found in coffee. They are reported to have potential health effects on several chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). At...

  8. Probiotic characterization of potential hydrolases producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis isolated from pickled yam.

    PubMed

    Bhanwar, Seema; Singh, Arashdeep; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize potential probiotic strain co-producing α-amylase and β-galactosidase. Sixty-three strains, isolated from pickle samples were screened for their hydrolase producing capacity by utilizing different starches as carbon source. One out of 63 strains, isolated from traditionally fermented pickled yam showing maximum hydrolase activity (α-amylase (36.9 U/ml) and β-galactosidase (42.6 U/ml)) within a period of 48 hours was identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Further, it was assessed for the probiotic characteristics under gastrointestinal conditions like acidic, alkaline, proteolytic enzymes, bile stress and found to exhibit tolerance to these stresses. The therapeutic potential of the isolate is implicated because of its antagonistic effect against enteric foodborne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Aeromonas hydrophila). The results of this study entail a potential applicability of the isolate in developing future probiotic foods besides the production of industrially significant hydrolases. PMID:24020495

  9. The potential of algae blooms to produce renewable gaseous fuel.

    PubMed

    Allen, E; Browne, J; Hynes, S; Murphy, J D

    2013-11-01

    Ulva lactuca (commonly known as sea letuce) is a green sea weed which dominates Green Tides or algae blooms. Green Tides are caused by excess nitrogen from agriculture and sewage outfalls resulting in eutrophication in shallow estuaries. Samples of U. lactuca were taken from the Argideen estuary in West Cork on two consecutive years. In year 1 a combination of three different processes/pretreatments were carried out on the Ulva. These include washing, wilting and drying. Biomethane potential (BMP) assays were carried out on the samples. Fresh Ulva has a biomethane yield of 183LCH4/kgVS. For dried, washed and macerated Ulva a BMP of 250LCH4/kgVS was achieved. The resource from the estuary in West Cork was shown to be sufficient to provide fuel to 264 cars on a year round basis. Mono-digestion of Ulva may be problematic; the C:N ratio is low and the sulphur content is high. In year 2 co-digestion trials with dairy slurry were carried out. These indicate a potential increase in biomethane output by 17% as compared to mono-digestion of Ulva and slurry. PMID:23850117

  10. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  11. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  12. Lactic acid and methane: improved exploitation of biowaste potential.

    PubMed

    Dreschke, G; Probst, M; Walter, A; Pümpel, T; Walde, J; Insam, H

    2015-01-01

    This feasibility study investigated a two-step biorefining approach to increase the value gained by recycling of organic municipal solid waste. Firstly, lactic acid was produced via batch fermentation at 37°C using the indigenous microbiome. Experiments revealed an optimal fermentation period of 24h resulting in high yields of lactic acid (up to 37gkg(-1)). The lactic acid proportion of total volatile fatty acid content reached up to 83%. Lactobacilli were selectively enriched to up to 75% of the bacterial community. Additionally conversion of organic matter to lactic acid was increased from 22% to 30% through counteracting end product inhibition by continuous lactic acid extraction. Secondly, fermentation residues were used as co-substrate in biomethane production yielding up to 618±41Nmlbiomethaneg(-1) volatile solids. Digestate, the only end product of this process can be used as organic fertilizer. PMID:25460983

  13. A heteromeric Texas coral snake toxin targets acid-sensing ion channels to produce pain.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Christopher J; Chesler, Alexander T; Sharif-Naeini, Reza; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Sánchez, Elda E; Burlingame, Alma L; Basbaum, Allan I; Julius, David

    2011-11-17

    Natural products that elicit discomfort or pain represent invaluable tools for probing molecular mechanisms underlying pain sensation. Plant-derived irritants have predominated in this regard, but animal venoms have also evolved to avert predators by targeting neurons and receptors whose activation produces noxious sensations. As such, venoms provide a rich and varied source of small molecule and protein pharmacophores that can be exploited to characterize and manipulate key components of the pain-signalling pathway. With this in mind, here we perform an unbiased in vitro screen to identify snake venoms capable of activating somatosensory neurons. Venom from the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener tener), whose bite produces intense and unremitting pain, excites a large cohort of sensory neurons. The purified active species (MitTx) consists of a heteromeric complex between Kunitz- and phospholipase-A2-like proteins that together function as a potent, persistent and selective agonist for acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), showing equal or greater efficacy compared with acidic pH. MitTx is highly selective for the ASIC1 subtype at neutral pH; under more acidic conditions (pH < 6.5), MitTx massively potentiates (>100-fold) proton-evoked activation of ASIC2a channels. These observations raise the possibility that ASIC channels function as coincidence detectors for extracellular protons and other, as yet unidentified, endogenous factors. Purified MitTx elicits robust pain-related behaviour in mice by activation of ASIC1 channels on capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibres. These findings reveal a mechanism whereby snake venoms produce pain, and highlight an unexpected contribution of ASIC1 channels to nociception. PMID:22094702

  14. Lift producing device exhibiting low drag and reduced ventilation potential and method for producing the same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Richard A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A lift producing device is disclosed which is adapted to be connected to a vehicle to provide lift to the vehicle when the vehicle is moved relative to a first fluid medium having a first density and viscosity and being in contact with a second fluid medium adjacent the vehicle. The second fluid medium has a second fluid density which is different from the first fluid density. The lift producing device comprises opposed first and second major surfaces joined at a longitudinally extending leading edge and at a longitudinally extending trailing edge, with at least a portion of the longitudinally extending leading edge being spaced from the longitudinally extending trailing edge by a predetermined mean chord length. When the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within a range of predetermined velocities, with each of the velocities having a direction inclined from a plane extending through the leading edge and the trailing edge within a predetermined angular range, a region of high pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the first major surface and a region of low pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the second major surface. The lift producing device has a cross-sectional shape which will generate a pressure distribution around the device when the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within the range of predetermined velocities such that the first fluid medium exhibits attached laminar flow along the device for a portion of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge and will neither form a laminar separation bubble adjacent the second major surface of the device, nor exhibit turbulent separation adjacent the second major surface for substantially all of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The portion along which attached laminar flow is maintained is the longest portion which will still fulfill

  15. Degradation potential and growth of anaerobic bacteria in produced water.

    PubMed

    Vieira, D S; Sérvulo, E F C; Cammarota, M C

    2005-08-01

    The efficiency of an anaerobic biological treatment for the reduction of essential contaminants of produced water from an offshore oilfield was investigated using a microbial consortium enriched with sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Experiments were conducted in a bench bioreactor at 35 degrees C, 250 rpm, with intermittent purges of N2 gas in order to establish anaerobic conditions and to remove the H2S generated. The results showed that pH control effectively influenced the activity of the anaerobic bacteria leading to COD removal of 57%. Meanwhile, pH control was found to have no influence on the removal efficiencies of oil and grease and total phenols. In all experiments, removals of oil and grease and total phenols of 60% and 58-67%, respectively, were obtained after a 15-day process. In studies carried out with biomass reuse the reductions obtained were 61% for oil and grease and 78% for total phenols over the same period. Such results point to the technical feasibility of anaerobic biodegradation for oilfield wastewater treatment. PMID:16128390

  16. Metabolism of hydroxy fatty acids in dogs with steatorrhea secondary to experimentally produced intestinal blind loops.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y S; Spritz, N

    1968-07-01

    Several aspects of the metabolism of hydroxy fatty acids were studied in dogs with steatorrhea resulting from an experimentally produced jejunal blind loop. In these animals hydroxy acids were present in the stool in amounts far above normal. These acids disappeared from the feces during tetracycline administration and after exclusion of the blind loop-both procedures that corrected the steatorrhea apparently by reducing bacterial overgrowth. Hydroxy acids persisted in higher than normal amounts, however, after administration of taurocholic acid, which also corrected the steatorrhea, but by a different mechanism. Both in normal dogs and in those with blind loops, hydroxy acid constituted a higher percentage of total fatty acids in the jejunum. A possible conclusion is that hydroxy fatty acids have an enterohepatic circulation via the portal system. When hydroxy acids were fed to normal dogs, steatorrhea was not produced and absorption in amounts similar to that of unsubstituted stearic acid was observed. Isotopic oleic and linoleic acids were converted to hydroxy acids both in vivo and during in vitro incubation with feces; stearic acid was not. These findings support the idea that hydroxy acids arise by the addition of water across double bonds, this addition being catalyzed by enzymes of intestinal bacteria. PMID:5725881

  17. Some organic acids attenuate the effects of furosemide on the endocochlear potential.

    PubMed

    Rybak, L P; Whitworth, C

    1987-01-01

    A series of organic acid transport inhibitors significantly reduced the endocochlear potential (EP) decline produced by furosemide in the chinchilla. Probenecid, sodium salicylate and penicillin G were much more effective than novobiocin, meclofenamate or diatrizoate. Inhibitors of organic base transport, choline and N-methyl nicotinamide, had no effect on the furosemide-induced drop of the EP. These findings suggest that at least part of furosemide ototoxicity may be mediated by organic acid transport. PMID:2951360

  18. Mycotoxin-producing potential of fungi isolated from amaranth seeds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bresler, G; Brizzio, S B; Vaamonde, G

    1995-03-01

    To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by molds in amaranth grains, the mycoflora was determined both before and after surface disinfection on dichloran-chloramphenicol-peptone agar (DCPA) and dichloran-18% glycerol agar (DG18). On both media Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria were the predominant genera. A flaus and A. parasiticus were the Aspergillus species most frequently isolated. P. chrysogenum was the species most common among the penicillia. F. equiseti was the predominant Fusarium species. Isolates of Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium were screened for mycotoxin production on sterile rice substrate and also using a simple screening method. Toxinogenic strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), A. versicolor (sterigmatocystin), P. citrinum (citrinin), P. viridicatum (penicillic acid), F. moniliforme, F. equiseti and F. semitectum (zearalenone), were encountered. The simple screening method for toxinogenic molds showed good performance for the detection of molds producing aflatoxins and zearalenone compared with mycotoxins production on the natural substrate. PMID:7599026

  19. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Halotolerant, biosurfactant-producing Bacillus species potentially useful for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jenneman, G.E.; McInerney, M.J.; Knapp, R.M.; Clark, J.B.; Feero, J.M.; Revus, D.E.; Menzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from oil-field injection water with properties potentially useful for in situ enhanced oil recovery. Conventional miscible flooding procedures use expensive synthetic detergents such as petroleum sulfonates that precipitate in high NaCl brines and adsorb to rock surfaces. The Bacillus sp. produced a biosurfactant when grown at 40 C in a sucrose mineral salts medium containing 5% NaCl. The biosurfactant was produced during the log phase of growth in the presence or absence of either crude oil or hexadecane. The surface tension of a 5% NaCl solution decreased from 74.0 mN/m to 27 mN/m when the surfactant was added. Interfacial tension of a 5% NaCl brine/octane mixture was as low as 0.43 mN/m when measured by a spinning drop tensiometer. The surfactant was extracted by acid precipitation at a pH of 2.0. The extracted surfactant exhibited optimal surface tension-lowering ability in 4-5% NaCl solutions between pH's of 6.0 to 10.0. The addition of calcium up to 340 mg/liter and incubation temperatures up to 100 C did not alter appreciably the surfactant activity. Mobilization of crude oil and oil bank formation occurred in a sandpack column after addition of the biosurfactant. 16 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  1. Fatty acids and their therapeutic potential in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Lei, Enie; Vacy, Kristina; Boon, Wah Chin

    2016-05-01

    There is little doubt that we are what we eat. Fatty acid supplementation and diets rich in fatty acids are being promoted as ways to a healthier brain. Short chain fatty acids are a product of intestinal microbiota metabolism of dietary fibre; and their derivatives are used as an anti-convulstant. They demonstrated therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative conditions as HDAC inhibitors; and while the mechanism is not well understood, have been shown to lower amyloid β in Alzheimer's Disease in preclinical studies. Medium chain fatty acids consumed as a mixture in dietary oils can induce ketogenesis without the need for a ketogentic diet. Hence, this has the potential to provide an alternative energy source to prevent neuronal cell death due to lack of glucose. Long chain fatty acids are commonly found in the diet as omega fatty acids. They act as an anti-oxidant protecting neuronal cell membranes from oxidative damage and as an anti-inflammatory mediator in the brain. We review which agents, from each fatty acid class, have the most therapeutic potential for neurological disorders (primarily Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Autism Spectrum Disorder as well as possible applications to traumatic brain injury), by discussing what is known about their biological mechanisms from preclinical studies. PMID:26939763

  2. Aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid production by a sclerotium-producing Aspergillus tamarii strain.

    PubMed Central

    Goto, T; Wicklow, D T; Ito, Y

    1996-01-01

    The production of aflatoxins B1 and B2 by Aspergillus tamarii (subgenus Circumdati section Flavi) is reported for the first time. The fungus was isolated from soil collected from a tea (Camellia sinensis) field in Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan. Three single-spore cultures, NRRL 25517, NRRL 25518, and NRRL 25519, were derived from subcultures of the original isolate 19 (MZ2). Each of these single-spore cultures of A. tamarii produced aflatoxins B1 and B2 and cyclopiazonic acid, as well as black, pear-shaped sclerotia. The demonstration of aflatoxin production by A. tamarii is examined in connection with A. tamarii phylogenetic relationships, chemical ecology, and potential use in food fermentations. PMID:8899995

  3. Isolation and characterization of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria from ready-to-eat food products.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W J; Asmundson, R V; Huang, C M

    1996-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from a range of foods sold in ready-to-eat form were screened for bacteriocin production. Twenty-two bacteriocin-producing cultures were isolated from 14 of the 41 foods sampled. Bacteriocin-producing isolates from meat, fish and dairy products were Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc species typically found associated with these products. Most of these isolates gave only a narrow inhibitory spectrum although two showed activity against Listeria monocytogenes. Fruit and vegetable products gave a broader range of organisms but most of the bacteriocin-producing cultures were found to be strains of Lactococcus. Several lactococci produced a nisin-like activity, and showed a broad inhibitory spectrum against the indicator strains tested. The ease with which bacteriocin-producing strains could be isolated implies that they are already being safely consumed in food, and highlights the potential for using bacteriocin-producing cultures for biopreservation, especially in association with minimally processed products. PMID:8930706

  4. Characterization of fatty amides produced by lipase-catalyzed amidation of multihydroxylated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel multi-hydroxylated primary fatty amides produced by direct amidation of 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) and 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (TOD) were characterized by GC-MS and NMR. The amidation reactions were catalyzed by immobilized Pseudozyma (Candida) antarctica li...

  5. Volatile fatty acids influence on the structure of microbial communities producing PHAs.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Slawomir; Przybylek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) can be produced by microorganisms and are a biodegradable alternative to fossil-fuel based plastics. Currently, the focus is on reducing production costs by exploring alternative substrates for PHAs production, and on producing copolymers which are less brittle than monomers. Accordingly, this study used a substrate consisting of wastewater from waste-glycerol fermentation, supplemented with different amounts of acetic and propionic acids. These substrates were used to feed mixed microbial communities enriched from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. A reactor supplemented with 2 mL of acetic acid produced 227.8 mg/L of a homopolymer of hydroxybutyrate (3 HB); 4 mL of acetic acid produced 279.8 mg/L 3 HB; whereas 4 mL of propionic acid produced 673.0 mg/L of a copolymer of 3 HB and 3 HV (hydroxyvalerate). Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) was used to show the differences between the communities created in the reactors. Thauera species predominated in biomass that produced 3 HB; Paracoccus denitrificans in the biomass that produced 3 HB-co-3 HV. Because P. denitrificans produced the more desirable copolymer, it may be advantageous to promote its growth in PHAs-producing reactors by adding propionate. PMID:25242921

  6. Volatile fatty acids influence on the structure of microbial communities producing PHAs

    PubMed Central

    Ciesielski, Slawomir; Przybylek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) can be produced by microorganisms and are a biodegradable alternative to fossil-fuel based plastics. Currently, the focus is on reducing production costs by exploring alternative substrates for PHAs production, and on producing copolymers which are less brittle than monomers. Accordingly, this study used a substrate consisting of wastewater from waste-glycerol fermentation, supplemented with different amounts of acetic and propionic acids. These substrates were used to feed mixed microbial communities enriched from activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor. A reactor supplemented with 2 mL of acetic acid produced 227.8 mg/L of a homopolymer of hydroxybutyrate (3HB); 4 mL of acetic acid produced 279.8 mg/L 3HB; whereas 4 mL of propionic acid produced 673.0 mg/L of a copolymer of 3HB and 3HV (hydroxyvalerate). Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) was used to show the differences between the communities created in the reactors. Thauera species predominated in biomass that produced 3HB; Paracoccus denitrificans in the biomass that produced 3HB-co-3HV. Because P. denitrificans produced the more desirable copolymer, it may be advantageous to promote its growth in PHAs-producing reactors by adding propionate. PMID:25242921

  7. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Poli, Jandora Severo; da Silva, Mirra Angelina Neres; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Pasa, Vânya M D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Valente, Patricia

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of medium composition and culture conditions on lipid content, fatty acid profile and biomass production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica QU21. Lipid production by the yeast growing on glycerol/(NH4)2SO4 (10%/0.1%) reached 1.48g/L (30.1% according to total cell dry weight). When glycerol was replaced by crude glycerol (industrial waste), the lipid yield was 1.27g/L, with no significant difference. Some particular fatty acids were found when crude glycerol was combined with fresh yeast extract (FYE, brewery waste), as linolenic acid (C18:3n3), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3). In addition, the FYE promoted an increase of more than 300% on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA), which is an undesirable feature for biodiesel production. The fatty acid composition of the oil produced by Y. lipolytica QU21 growing on crude glycerol/(NH4)2SO4 presented a potential use as biodiesel feedstock, with low PUFA content. PMID:24727354

  8. Ozonolysis mechanism of lignin model compounds and microbial treatment of organic acids produced.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Daidai, M; Kobayashi, F

    2004-01-01

    Treatment methods comprising ozonolysis and microbial treatment of lignin discharged from the pulp manufacture industries were investigated by using a sulfite pulp wastewater and a lignin model compound, i.e. sodium lignosulfonate. Dynamic behaviors for the formations of intermediate derivatives such as muconic acid, maleic acid, and oxalic acid produced from the ozonolysis of sulfite pulp wastewater were observed from data of UV absorption at 280 nm by a spectrophotometer and at 210 nm by high performance liquid chromatography. The microorganisms that were isolated by the enrichment culture method were used to degrade the organic acids such as oxalic acid and acetic acid. Time courses of biological degradation of these organic acids indicated diauxic growth, which was found in a culture with mixed substrates. In the treatment of sodium lignosulfonate, the ozonolysis and microbial treatment using activated sludge converted sodium lignosulfonate into carbon dioxide and water almost completely. PMID:15461411

  9. Gluconic acid produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 possesses antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Savino, María J; Bertini, Elisa V; Sánchez, Leandro A; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    Gluconic acid is produced in large quantities by the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5. This organic acid derives from direct oxidation of glucose by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in this plant growth-promoting bacterium. In the present article, evidence is presented showing that gluconic acid is also responsible for the antimicrobial activity of G. diazotrophicus Pal5. The broad antagonistic spectrum includes Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Eukaryotic microorganisms are more resistant to growth inhibition by this acid. Inhibition by gluconic acid can be modified through the presence of other organic acids. In contrast to other microorganisms, the Quorum Sensing system of G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a regulatory mechanism that plays a key role in several microbe-microbe interactions, is not related to gluconic acid production and the concomitant antagonistic activity. PMID:25049167

  10. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  11. Metabolic engineering of yeast to produce fatty acid-derived biofuels: bottlenecks and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jiayuan; Feng, Xueyang

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid-derived biofuels can be a better solution than bioethanol to replace petroleum fuel, since they have similar energy content and combustion properties as current transportation fuels. The environmentally friendly microbial fermentation process has been used to synthesize advanced biofuels from renewable feedstock. Due to their robustness as well as the high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors and phage contamination, yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica have attracted tremendous attention in recent studies regarding the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, including fatty acids, fatty acid ethyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty alkanes. However, the native yeast strains cannot produce fatty acids and fatty acid-derived biofuels in large quantities. To this end, we have summarized recent publications in this review on metabolic engineering of yeast strains to improve the production of fatty acid-derived biofuels, identified the bottlenecks that limit the productivity of biofuels, and categorized the appropriate approaches to overcome these obstacles. PMID:26106371

  12. Sugar-coated: exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria for food and human health applications.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P M; Ross, R P; Fitzgerald, G F; Caplice, N M; Stanton, C

    2015-03-01

    The human enteric microbiome represents a veritable organ relied upon by the host for a range of metabolic and homeostatic functions. Through the production of metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFA), folate, vitamins B and K, lactic acid, bacteriocins, peroxides and exopolysaccharides, the bacteria of the gut microbiome provide nutritional components for colonocytes, liver and muscle cells, competitively exclude potential pathogenic organisms and modulate the hosts immune system. Due to the extensive variation in structure, size and composition, microbial exopolysaccharides represent a useful set of versatile natural ingredients for the food industrial sector, both in terms of their rheological properties and in many cases, their associated health benefits. The exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria that fall within the 35 Lactobacillus and five Bifidobacterium species which have achieved qualified presumption of safety (QPS) and generally recognised as safe (GRAS) status are of particular interest, as their inclusion in food products can avoid considerable scrutiny. In addition, additives commonly utilised by the food industry are becoming unattractive to the consumer, due to the demand for a more 'natural' and 'clean labelled' diet. In situ production of exopolysaccharides by food-grade cultures in many cases confers similar rheological and sensory properties in fermented dairy products, as traditional additives, such as hydrocolloids, collagen and alginate. This review will focus on microbial synthesis of exopolysaccharides, the human health benefits of dietary exopolysaccharides and the technofunctional applications of exopolysaccharide-synthesising microbes in the food industry. PMID:25580594

  13. Application of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid bacteria to control pathogens in ready-to-use vegetables.

    PubMed

    Vescovo, M; Torriani, S; Orsi, C; Macchiarolo, F; Scolari, G

    1996-08-01

    Five psychrotrophic strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lact. plantarum and Pediococcus spp.) were isolated from 22 samples of commercial salads. These strains were shown to inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on MRS agar, in salads and in juice prepared from vegetable salads. Lactobacillus casei IMPCLC34 was most effective in reducing total mesophilic bacteria and the coliform group; Aer. hydrophila, Salm. typhimurium and Staph. aureus disappeared after 6 d of storage, while the counts for L. monocytogenes remained constant. The potential application of antimicrobial-producing lactic acid bacteria as biopreservatives of ready-to-use vegetables is suggested. PMID:8760320

  14. Decomposition of Pyruvic Acid on the Ground-State Potential Energy Surface.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel

    2016-01-21

    A potential energy surface is reported for isomerization and decomposition of gas-phase pyruvic acid (CH3C(O)C(O)OH) in its ground electronic state. Consistent with previous works, the lowest energy pathway for pyruvic acid decomposition is identified as decarboxylation to produce hydroxymethylcarbene (CH3COH), with overall barrier of 43 kcal mol(-1). This study discovers that pyruvic acid can also isomerize to the α-lactone form with a barrier of only 36 kcal mol(-1), from which CO elimination can occur at 49 kcal mol(-1) above pyruvic acid. An additional novel channel is identified for the tautomerisation of pyruvic acid to the enol form, via a double H-shift mechanism. The barrier for this process is 51 kcal mol(-1), which is around 20 kcal mol(-1) lower than the barrier for conventional keto-enol tautomerization via a 1,3-H shift transition state. Rate coefficients are calculated for pyruvic acid decomposition through RRKM theory/master equation simulations at 800-2000 K and 1 atm, showing good agreement with the available experimental data. The dissociation of vibrationally excited pyruvic acid produced through photoexcitation and subsequent internal conversion to the ground state is also modeled under tropospheric conditions and is seen to produce appreciable quantities of CO (∼1-4%) in addition to CH3COH via the dominant CO2 loss channel. PMID:26587666

  15. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita; Schaap, Peter; van de Vondervoort, Peter; Culley, David E.; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy; Braus, Gerhard; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; ATkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noel; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens B.; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases and protein transporters.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95, a potential probiotic strain producing bacteriocins and B-group vitamin riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Gu, Qing

    2016-07-10

    Lactobacillus plantarum LZ95 is a potential probiotic isolated from newborn infant fecal and it is identified to produce riboflavin with great antimicrobial activity. The complete genome sequence of this strain was reported in the present study. The genome contains a 3,261,418-bp chromosome and two plasmids. Genes, related to the biosynthesis of bacteriocins and riboflavin, were identified. This work will facilitate to reveal the biosynthetic mechanism of bacteriocins and B-group vitamins in lactic acid bacteria and provide evidence for its potential application in food industry. PMID:27140869

  17. [Screening and identification of indoleacetic acid producing endophytic bacterium in Panax ginseng].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yun; Tian, Lei; Chen, Chang-qing; Zhang, Guan-jun; Li, Tong; Chen, Jing-xiu; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria which was producing indoleacetic acid was screened from Panax ginseng by using the Salkowski method. The active strain was also tested for its ability of nitrogen fixation by using the Ashby agar plates, the PKV plates and quantitative analysis of Mo-Sb-Ascrobiology acid colorimetry was used to measure its ability of phosphate solubilization, for its ability of potassium solubilization the silicate medium and flame spectrophotometry was used, for its ability of producing siderophores the method detecting CAS was used, for its ability of producing ACC deaminase the Alpha ketone butyric acid method was applied. And the effect on promoting growth of seed by active strain was tested. The results showed that the indoleacetic acid producing strain of JJ5-2 was obtained from 118 endophytes, which the content of indoleacetic acid was 10.2 mg x L(-1). The JJ5-2 strain also had characteristics of phosphate and potassium solubilization, nitrogen fixation, producing siderophores traits, and the promoting germination of ginseng seeds. The JJ5-2 strain was identified as Bacillus thuringiensis by analyzing morphology, physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:26080547

  18. Comparative Genomics of Acetobacterpasteurianus Ab3, an Acetic Acid Producing Strain Isolated from Chinese Traditional Rice Vinegar Meiguichu.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kai; Li, Yudong; Sun, Jing; Liang, Xinle

    2016-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus, an acetic acid resistant bacterium belonging to alpha-proteobacteria, has been widely used to produce vinegar in the food industry. To understand the mechanism of its high tolerance to acetic acid and robust ability of oxidizing ethanol to acetic acid (> 12%, w/v), we described the 3.1 Mb complete genome sequence (including 0.28 M plasmid sequence) with a G+C content of 52.4% of A. pasteurianus Ab3, which was isolated from the traditional Chinese rice vinegar (Meiguichu) fermentation process. Automatic annotation of the complete genome revealed 2,786 protein-coding genes and 73 RNA genes. The comparative genome analysis among A. pasteurianus strains revealed that A. pasteurianus Ab3 possesses many unique genes potentially involved in acetic acid resistance mechanisms. In particular, two-component systems or toxin-antitoxin systems may be the signal pathway and modulatory network in A. pasteurianus to cope with acid stress. In addition, the large numbers of unique transport systems may also be related to its acid resistance capacity and cell fitness. Our results provide new clues to understanding the underlying mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter species and guiding industrial strain breeding for vinegar fermentation processes. PMID:27611790

  19. Endophytic Fungi from Frankincense Tree Improves Host Growth and Produces Extracellular Enzymes and Indole Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Farsi, Zainab; Al-Mamari, Aza; Waqas, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Elyassi, Ali; Mabood, Fazal; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Boswellia sacra, an economically important frankincense-producing tree found in the desert woodlands of Oman, is least known for its endophytic fungal diversity and the potential of these fungi to produce extracellular enzymes and auxins. We isolated various fungal endophytes belonging to Eurotiales (11.8%), Chaetomiaceae (17.6%), Incertae sadis (29.5%), Aureobasidiaceae (17.6%), Nectriaceae (5.9%) and Sporomiaceae (17.6%) from the phylloplane (leaf) and caulosphere (stem) of the tree. Endophytes were identified using genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions, whereas a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the same gene fragment was made with homologous sequences. The endophytic colonization rate was significantly higher in the leaf (5.33%) than the stem (0.262%). The Shannon-Weiner diversity index was H′ 0.8729, while Simpson index was higher in the leaf (0.583) than in the stem (0.416). Regarding the endophytic fungi’s potential for extracellular enzyme production, fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferone standards and substrates were used to determine the presence of cellulases, phosphatases and glucosidases in the pure culture. Among fungal strains, Penicillum citrinum BSL17 showed significantly higher amounts of glucosidases (62.15±1.8 μM-1min-1mL) and cellulases (62.11±1.6 μM-1min-1mL), whereas Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher secretion of glucosidases (69.4±0.79 μM-1min-1mL) and phosphatases (3.46±0.31μM-1min-1mL) compared to other strains. Aureobasidium sp. BSS6 and Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher potential for indole acetic acid production (tryptophan-dependent and independent pathways). Preussia sp. BSL10 was applied to the host B. sacra tree saplings, which exhibited significant improvements in plant growth parameters and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments. The current study concluded that endophytic microbial resources producing extracellular enzymes and auxin

  20. Endophytic Fungi from Frankincense Tree Improves Host Growth and Produces Extracellular Enzymes and Indole Acetic Acid.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Al-Farsi, Zainab; Al-Mamari, Aza; Waqas, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Elyassi, Ali; Mabood, Fazal; Shin, Jae-Ho; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Boswellia sacra, an economically important frankincense-producing tree found in the desert woodlands of Oman, is least known for its endophytic fungal diversity and the potential of these fungi to produce extracellular enzymes and auxins. We isolated various fungal endophytes belonging to Eurotiales (11.8%), Chaetomiaceae (17.6%), Incertae sadis (29.5%), Aureobasidiaceae (17.6%), Nectriaceae (5.9%) and Sporomiaceae (17.6%) from the phylloplane (leaf) and caulosphere (stem) of the tree. Endophytes were identified using genomic DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions, whereas a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the same gene fragment was made with homologous sequences. The endophytic colonization rate was significantly higher in the leaf (5.33%) than the stem (0.262%). The Shannon-Weiner diversity index was H' 0.8729, while Simpson index was higher in the leaf (0.583) than in the stem (0.416). Regarding the endophytic fungi's potential for extracellular enzyme production, fluorogenic 4-methylumbelliferone standards and substrates were used to determine the presence of cellulases, phosphatases and glucosidases in the pure culture. Among fungal strains, Penicillum citrinum BSL17 showed significantly higher amounts of glucosidases (62.15±1.8 μM-1min-1mL) and cellulases (62.11±1.6 μM-1min-1mL), whereas Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher secretion of glucosidases (69.4±0.79 μM-1min-1mL) and phosphatases (3.46±0.31μM-1min-1mL) compared to other strains. Aureobasidium sp. BSS6 and Preussia sp. BSL10 showed significantly higher potential for indole acetic acid production (tryptophan-dependent and independent pathways). Preussia sp. BSL10 was applied to the host B. sacra tree saplings, which exhibited significant improvements in plant growth parameters and accumulation of photosynthetic pigments. The current study concluded that endophytic microbial resources producing extracellular enzymes and auxin could

  1. Characterization of stearidonic acid soybean oil enriched with palmitic acid produced by solvent-free enzymatic interesterification.

    PubMed

    Teichert, Sarah A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2011-09-14

    Stearidonic acid soybean oil (SDASO) is a plant source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). Solvent-free enzymatic interesterification was used to produce structured lipids (SLs) in a 1 L stir-batch reactor with a 1:2 substrate mole ratio of SDASO to tripalmitin, at 65 °C for 18 h. Two SLs were synthesized using immobilized lipases, Novozym 435 and Lipozyme TL IM. Free fatty acids (FFAs) were removed by short-path distillation. SLs were characterized by analyzing FFA and FA (total and positional) contents, iodine and saponification values, melting and crystallization profiles, tocopherols, and oxidative stability. The SLs contained 8.15 and 8.38% total stearidonic acid and 60.84 and 60.63% palmitic acid at the sn-2 position for Novozym 435 SL and Lipozyme TL IM SL, respectively. The SLs were less oxidatively stable than SDASO due to a decrease in tocopherol content after purification of the SLs. The saponification values of the SLs were slightly higher than that of the SDASO. The melting profiles of the SLs were similar, but crystallization profiles differed. The triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species of the SLs were similar to each other, with tripalmitin being the major TAG. SDASO's major TAG species comprised stearidonic and oleic acids or stearidonic, α-linolenic, and γ-linolenic acids. PMID:21830790

  2. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. Results The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Conclusions Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25333633

  3. Extracellular Nucleic Acids in Urine: Sources, Structure, Diagnostic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bryzgunova, O. E.; Laktionov, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNA) may reach the urine through cell necrosis or apoptosis, active secretion of nucleic acids by healthy and tumor cells of the urinary tract, and transport of circulating nucleic acids (cir- NA) from the blood into primary urine. Even though urinary DNA and RNA are fragmented, they can be used to detect marker sequences. MicroRNAs are also of interest as diagnostic probes. The stability of cfNA in the urine is determined by their structure and packaging into supramolecular complexes and by nuclease activity in the urine. This review summarizes current data on the sources of urinary cfNA, their structural features, diagnostic potential and factors affecting their stability. PMID:26483959

  4. Use of raw glycerol to produce oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids by a thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Scott, Spencer D; Armenta, Roberto E; Berryman, Kevin T; Norman, Andrew W

    2011-03-01

    Glucose is the typical carbon source for producing microbial polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with single cell microorganisms such as thraustochytrids. We assessed the use of a fish oil derived glycerol by-product (raw glycerol), produced by a fish oil processing plant, as a carbon source to produce single cell oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), notably docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These results were compared to those obtained when using analytical grade glycerol, and glucose. The thraustochytrid strain tested produced similar amounts of oil and PUFA when grown with both types of glycerol, and results were also similar to those obtained using glucose. After 6 days of fermentation, approximately 320 mg/g of oil, and 145 mg/g of PUFA were produced with all carbon sources tested. All oils produced by our strain were 99.95% in the triacylglycerol form. To date, this is the first report of using raw glycerol derived from fish oil for producing microbial triglyceride oil rich in PUFA. PMID:22112910

  5. Electric Potential Near The Extraction Region In Negative Ion Sources With Surface Produced Negative Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fukano, A.; Hatayama, A.

    2011-09-26

    The potential distribution near the extraction region in negative ion sources for the plasma with the surface produced negative ions is studied analytically. The potential is derived analytically by using a plasma-sheath equation, where negative ions produced on the Plasma Grid (PG) surface are considered in addition to positive ions and electrons. A negative potential peak is formed in the sheath region near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production of negative ions or for low energy negative ions. Negative ions are reflected by the negative potential peak near the PG and returned to the PG surface. This reflection mechanism by the negative potential peak possibly becomes a factor in negative ion extraction. It is also indicated that the potential difference between the plasma region and the wall decreases by the surface produced negative ions. This also has the possibility to contribute to the negative ion extraction.

  6. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Roberto; Liu, Li; Lopez, Jose; An, Tianying; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2008-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS) genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum. PMID:18728765

  7. A new sesquiterpene antibiotic, heptelidic acid producing organisms, fermentation, isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Y; Kodama, K; Furuya, K; Takahashi, S; Haneishi, T; Takiguchi, Y; Arai, M

    1980-05-01

    A new sesquiterpene antibiotic, heptelidic acid, was found in the culture filtrate of three different strains of fungi isolated from soil samples. These strains were identified as Gliocladium virens, Chaetomium globosum and Trichoderma viride. Heptelidic acid was produced by conventional submerged culture and purified by successive column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 and finally by preparative TLC on silica gel. The molecular formula of heptelidic acid was determined as C15H20O5 on the basis of elementary analysis and high resolution mass spectrometry of its monomethyl ester. The antimicrobial spectrum of the antibiotic revealed its specific activity against anaerobic bacteria, especially against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:7191847

  8. Produce from Africa’s Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A.; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa’s populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa’s resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  9. Potential of various archae- and eubacterial strains as industrial polyhydroxyalkanoate producers from whey.

    PubMed

    Koller, Martin; Hesse, Paula; Bona, Rodolfo; Kutschera, Christoph; Atlić, Aid; Braunegg, Gerhart

    2007-02-12

    Three different microbial wild-type strains are compared with respect to their potential as industrial scale polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producers from the feed stock whey lactose. The halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei as well as two eubacterial strains (Pseudomonas hydrogenovora and Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava) are investigated. H. mediterranei accumulated 50 wt.-% of poly-3-(hydroxybutyrate-co-8%-hydroxyvalerate) from hydrolyzed whey without addition of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) precursors (specific productivity q(p): 9.1 mg x g(-1) x h(-1)). Using P. hydrogenovora, the final percentage of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) amounted to 12 wt.-% (q(p): 2.9 mg x g(-1) x h(-1)). With H. pseudoflava, it was possible to reach 40 wt.-% P-3(HB-co-5%-HV) on non-hydrolyzed whey lactose plus addition of valeric acid as 3HV precursor (q(p): 12.5 mg x g(-1) x h(-1)). A detailed characterization of the isolated biopolyesters and an evaluation with regard to the economic feasibility completes the study. PMID:17295410

  10. Produce from Africa's Gardens: Potential for Leafy Vegetable and Fruit Fermentations.

    PubMed

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Fusco, Vincenzina; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Kabisch, Jan; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Huch, Melanie; Frommherz, Lara; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Becker, Biserka; Benomar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-01-01

    A rich variety of indigenous fruits and vegetables grow in Africa, which contribute to the nutrition and health of Africa's populations. Fruits and vegetables have high moisture and are thus inherently prone to accelerated spoilage. Food fermentation still plays a major role in combating food spoilage and foodborne diseases that are prevalent in many of Africa's resource disadvantaged regions. Lactic acid fermentation is probably the oldest and best-accepted food processing method among the African people, and is largely a home-based process. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits is, however, underutilized in Africa, although such fermented products could contribute toward improving nutrition and food security in this continent, where many are still malnourished and suffer from hidden hunger. Fermentation of leafy vegetables and fruits may not only improve safety and prolong shelf life, but may also enhance the availability of some trace minerals, vitamins and anti-oxidants. Cassava, cow-peas, amaranth, African nightshade, and spider plant leaves have a potential for fermentation, as do various fruits for the production of vinegars or fruit beers and wines. What is needed to accelerate efforts for production of fermented leaves and vegetables is the development of fermentation protocols, training of personnel and scale-up of production methods. Furthermore, suitable starter cultures need to be developed and produced to guarantee the success of the fermentations. PMID:27458430

  11. Ustilago maydis produces itaconic acid via the unusual intermediate trans-aconitate.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Elena; Przybilla, Sandra K; Friedrich, Alexandra; Buckel, Wolfgang; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M; Bölker, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Itaconic acid is an important biomass-derived chemical building block but has also recently been identified as a metabolite produced in mammals, which has antimicrobial activity. The biosynthetic pathway of itaconic acid has been elucidated in the ascomycetous fungus Aspergillus terreus and in human macrophages. In both organisms itaconic acid is generated by decarboxylation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate cis-aconitate. Here, we show that the basidiomycetous fungus Ustilago maydis uses an alternative pathway and produces itaconic acid via trans-aconitate, the thermodynamically favoured isomer of cis-aconitate. We have identified a gene cluster that contains all genes involved in itaconic acid formation. Trans-aconitate is generated from cis-aconitate by a cytosolic aconitate-Δ-isomerase (Adi1) that belongs to the PrpF family of proteins involved in bacterial propionate degradation. Decarboxylation of trans-aconitate is catalyzed by a novel enzyme, trans-aconitate decarboxylase (Tad1). Tad1 displays significant sequence similarity with bacterial 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzymes (CMLE). This suggests that U. maydis has evolved an alternative biosynthetic pathway for itaconate production using the toxic intermediate trans-aconitate. Overexpression of a pathway-specific transcription factor (Ria1) or a mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid transporter (Mtt1) resulted in a twofold increase in itaconate yield. Therefore, our findings offer new strategies for biotechnological production of this valuable biomass-derived chemical. PMID:26639528

  12. Selective potentiation of alpha 1 glycine receptors by ginkgolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Maleeva, Galyna; Buldakova, Svetlana; Bregestovski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) belong to the superfamily of pentameric cys-loop receptor-operated channels and are involved in numerous physiological functions, including movement, vision, and pain. In search for compounds performing subunit-specific modulation of GlyRs we studied action of ginkgolic acid, an abundant Ginkgo biloba product. Using patch-clamp recordings, we analyzed the effects of ginkgolic acid in concentrations from 30 nM to 25 μM on α1–α3 and α1/β, α2/β configurations of GlyR and on GABAARs expressed in cultured CHO-K1 cells and mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells. Ginkgolic acid caused an increase in the amplitude of currents mediated by homomeric α1 and heteromeric α1/β GlyRs and provoked a left-shift of the concentration-dependent curves for glycine. Even at high concentrations (10–25 μM) ginkgolic acid was not able to augment ionic currents mediated by α2, α2/β, and α3 GlyRs, or by GABAAR consisting of α1/β2/γ2 subunits. Mutation of three residues (T59A/A261G/A303S) in the α2 GlyR subunit to the corresponding ones from the α1 converted the action of ginkgolic acid to potentiation with a distinct decrease in EC50 for glycine, suggesting an important role for these residues in modulation by ginkgolic acid. Our results suggest that ginkgolic acid is a novel selective enhancer of α1 GlyRs. PMID:26578878

  13. Physiological characterization of the high malic acid-producing Aspergillus oryzae strain 2103a-68.

    PubMed

    Knuf, Christoph; Nookaew, Intawat; Remmers, Ilse; Khoomrung, Sakda; Brown, Stephen; Berry, Alan; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-04-01

    Malic acid is a C₄ dicarboxylic acid that is currently mainly used in the food and beverages industry as an acidulant. Because of the versatility of the group of C₄ dicarboxylic acids, the chemical industry has a growing interest in this chemical compound. As malic acid will be considered as a bulk chemical, microbial production requires organisms that sustain high rates, yields, and titers. Aspergillus oryzae is mainly known as an industrial enzyme producer, but it was also shown that it has a very competitive natural production capacity for malic acid. Recently, an engineered A. oryzae strain, 2103a-68, was presented which overexpressed pyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, and a malic acid transporter. In this work, we report a detailed characterization of this strain including detailed rates and yields under malic acid production conditions. Furthermore, transcript levels of the genes of interest and corresponding enzyme activities were measured. On glucose as carbon source, 2103a-68 was able to secrete malic acid at a maximum specific production rate during stationary phase of 1.87 mmol (g dry weight (DW))⁻¹ h⁻¹ and with a yield of 1.49 mol mol⁻¹. Intracellular fluxes were obtained using ¹³C flux analysis during exponential growth, supporting the success of the metabolic engineering strategy of increasing flux through the reductive cytosolic tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch. Additional cultivations using xylose and a glucose/xylose mixture demonstrated that A. oryzae is able to efficiently metabolize pentoses and hexoses to produce malic acid at high titers, rates, and yields. PMID:24413918

  14. Phyllostictines A-D, Oxazatricycloalkenones Produced by Phyllosticta cirsii, A Potential Mycoherbicide for Cirsium arvense Biocontrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phyllosticta cirsii, a fungal pathogen isolated from Cirsium arvense and proposed as biocontrol agent of this noxious perennial weed, produces in liquid cultures different phytotoxic metabolites with potential herbicidal activity. Four new oxazatricycloalkenones, named phyllostictines A-D, were isol...

  15. Phenolic acid degradation potential and growth behavior of lactic acid bacteria in sunflower substrates.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Caroline; Heinrich, Veronika; Vogel, Rudi F; Toelstede, Simone

    2016-08-01

    Sunflower flour provides a high content of protein with a well-balanced amino acid composition and is therefore regarded as an attractive source for protein. The use for human nutrition is hindered by phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acid, which can lead under specific circumstances to undesirable discolorations. In this study, growth behavior and degradation ability of chlorogenic acid of four lactic acid bacteria were explored. Data suggested that significant higher fermentation performances on sunflower flour as compared to sunflower protein concentrate were reached by Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. In fermentation with the latter two strains reduced amounts of chlorogenic acid were observed in sunflower flour (-11.4% and -19.8%, respectively), which were more pronounced in the protein concentrate (-50.7% and -95.6%, respectively). High tolerances against chlorogenic acid and the cleavage product quinic acid with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥20.48 mg/ml after 48 h were recorded for all strains except Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, which was more sensitive. The second cleavage compound, caffeic acid revealed a higher antimicrobial potential with MIC values of 0.64-5.12 mg/ml. In this proof of concept study, degradation versus inhibitory effect suggest the existence of basic mechanisms of interaction between phenolic acids in sunflower and lactic acid bacteria and a feasible way to reduce the chlorogenic acid content, which may help to avoid undesired color changes. PMID:27052717

  16. Use of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    PubMed

    Athalye, Sneha K; Garcia, Rafael A; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-04-01

    Crude glycerol is a major byproduct for the biodiesel industry. Producing value-added products through microbial fermentation on crude glycerol provides opportunities to utilize a large quantity of this byproduct. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of using crude glycerol for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) by the fungus Pythium irregulare . When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 30 g/L crude glycerol and 10 g/L yeast extract, EPA yield and productivity reached 90 mg/L and 14.9 mg/L x day, respectively. Adding pure vegetable oils (flaxseed oil and soybean oil) to the culture greatly enhanced the biomass and the EPA production. This enhancement was due to the oil absorption by the fungal cells and elongation of shorter chain fatty acids (e.g., linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid) into longer chain fatty acid (e.g., EPA). The major impurities contained in crude glycerol, soap and methanol, were inhibitory to fungal growth. Soap can be precipitated from the liquid medium through pH adjustment, whereas methanol can be evaporated from the medium during autoclaving. The glycerol-derived fungal biomass contained about 15% lipid, 36% protein, and 40% carbohydrate, with 9% ash. In addition to EPA, the fungal biomass was also rich in the essential amino acids lysine, arginine, and leucine, relative to many common feedstuffs. Elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma showed that aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium, sulfur, and zinc were present in the biomass, whereas no heavy metals (such as mercury and lead) were detected. The results show that it is feasible to use crude glycerol for producing fungal biomass that can serve as EPA-fortified food or feed. PMID:19265450

  17. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. PMID:27295251

  18. Germicide wound pad with active, in situ, electrolytically produced hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Rubinsky, L; Patrick, B; Mikus, P; Rubinsky, B

    2016-04-01

    We describe a new wound dressing technology that can actively generate an inorganic germicide agent, in situ, within the wound pad. The technology provides real time control over the quantitative, spatial and temporal delivery of the germicide. The identity of the germicide is hypochlorous acid (HClO). The HClO is produced in a flexible wound pad, made of a composite of thin (micrometer scale) layers of various materials, with different electrochemical properties that enhance HClO production. Active control over the production of HClO is achieved by control of the pH and of the electric potential across the layers. The effectiveness of the Active HClO Pad (AHClOP) concept is demonstrated in a study on sterilization of E. coli in a deep wound contamination simulating gel. The performance of the AHClOP is compared with that of four commercial wound dressings. Results show that the AHClOP can sterilize throughout the gel, while the commercial dressings cannot. PMID:26888442

  19. Heterologous Production of Hyaluronic Acid in an ε-Poly-l-Lysine Producer, Streptomyces albulus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Tomohiro; Shibata, Nobuyuki; Hamano, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in a wide range of medical applications, where its performance and therapeutic efficacy are highly dependent on its molecular weight. In the microbial production of HA, it has been suggested that a high level of intracellular ATP enhances the productivity and molecular weight of HA. Here, we report on heterologous HA production in an ε-poly-l-lysine producer, Streptomyces albulus, which has the potential to generate ATP at high level. The hasA gene from Streptococcus zooepidemicus, which encodes HA synthase, was refactored and expressed under the control of a late-log growth phase-operating promoter. The expression of the refactored hasA gene, along with genes coding for UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase, and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, which are involved in HA precursor sugar biosynthesis, resulted in efficient production of HA in the 2.0 MDa range, which is greater than typical bacterial HA, demonstrating that a sufficient amount of ATP was provided to support the biosynthesis of the precursor sugars, which in turn promoted HA production. In addition, unlike in the case of streptococcal HA, S. albulus-derived HA was not cell associated. Based on these findings, our heterologous production system appears to have several advantages for practical HA production. We propose that the present system could be applicable to the heterologous production of a wide variety of molecules other than HA in the case their biosynthesis pathways require ATP in vivo. PMID:25795665

  20. A diverse assemblage of indole-3-acetic acid producing bacteria associate with unicellular green algae.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, Christopher E; Piskorska, Magdalena; Soule, Tanya; Petelos, Angela; Yeager, Chris M

    2014-08-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of liquid transportation fuels. In natural waters, the importance of physical associations and biochemical interactions between microalgae and bacteria is generally well appreciated, but the significance of these interactions to algal biofuels production have not been investigated. Here, we provide a preliminary report on the frequency of co-occurrence between indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing bacteria and green algae in natural and engineered ecosystems. Growth experiments with unicellular algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, revealed IAA concentration-dependent responses in chlorophyll content and dry weight. Importantly, discrete concentrations of IAA resulted in cell culture synchronization, suggesting that biochemical priming of cellular metabolism could vastly improve the reliability of high density cultivation. Bacterial interactions may have an important influence on algal growth and development; thus, the preservation or engineered construction of the algal-bacterial assembly could serve as a control point for achieving low input, reliable production of algal biofuels. PMID:24879600

  1. Peculiarities of extracellular potentials produced by deep muscles. Part 2: motor unit potentials.

    PubMed

    Arabadzhiev, T I

    2013-07-01

    The potential fields generated by single fibres far from the sources are non-propagating. This suggests that there should be differences in the features of surface motor unit (MU) potentials (MUPs) detected from deep and superficial muscles. We explored the features using a simulation approach. We have shown that the non-propagating character and similar shapes among surface MUPs recorded over a wide area above deep muscles with monopolar or longitudinal single differential (LSD) electrodes are natural. Contrary to close distances, at large radial distances single differentiation did not emphasize MUP main phase relative weight. The position of the end plate area could be estimated with LSD detections only for MUs with long (123 mm) almost symmetric fibres. With short fibres, the LSD main phase was masked by the outlined terminal phases. This could be misleading in MUP analysis since the terminal phases reflect standing sources. The highly asymmetric fibres could yield peculiar MUP shapes resembling MUPs of two distinct MUs. We have shown that the relative weight of terminal phases at large fibre-electrode distance decreases under abnormal peripheral conditions. However, the changes in membrane depolarization due to fatigue or pathology could be assessed non-invasively also from deep muscles. PMID:23393049

  2. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  3. Glucansucrases from lactic acid bacteria which produce water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dextrans and related glucans produced from sucrose by lactic acid bacteria have been studied for many years and are used in numerous commercial applications and products. Most of these glucans are water-soluble, except for a few notable exceptions from cariogenic Streptococcus spp. and a very small ...

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923)

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Benjamin; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain. PMID:26941139

  5. Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free-solution capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid to produce natural superabsorbent gels. The gel properties are defined by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), and uptake of water, salt solutions, and aqueous ethanol. Temperatures above 120'C and dry cond...

  6. Modification of vital wheat gluten with phosphoric acid to produce high free solution capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten reacts with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea to produce natural superabsorbent gels. Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) reveal chemical changes from the reaction. Temperatures above 120°C and dry conditions create the op...

  7. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    1997-09-16

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

  8. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  9. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  10. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  11. Use of plant fatty acyl hydroxylases to produce hydroxylated fatty acids and derivatives in plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    1998-09-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds. 35 figs.

  12. Modification of wheat gluten with citric acid to produce superabsorbent materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten was reacted with citric acid to produce natural superabsorbent materials able to absorb up to 78 times its weight in water. The properties of the modified gluten samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and water uptak...

  13. Electrocatalytic oxidation of n-propanol to produce propionic acid using an electrocatalytic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Li, Jianxin; Wang, Hong; Cheng, Bowen; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Yang, Yang; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2013-05-18

    An electrocatalytic membrane reactor assembled using a nano-MnO2 loading microporous Ti membrane as an anode and a tubular stainless steel as a cathode was used to oxidize n-propanol to produce propionic acid. The high efficiency and selectivity obtained is related to the synergistic effect between the reaction and separation in the reactor. PMID:23572114

  14. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings.

    PubMed

    Uranga, Carla C; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. PMID:26926564

  15. Specificity and Mode of Action of the Antifungal Fatty Acid cis-9-Heptadecenoic Acid Produced by Pseudozyma flocculosa

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Tyler J.; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2001-01-01

    cis-9-Heptadecenoic acid (CHDA), an antifungal fatty acid produced by the biocontrol agent Pseudozyma flocculosa, was studied for its effects on growth and/or spore germination in fungi. Inhibition of growth and/or germination varied considerably and revealed CHDA sensitivity groups within tested fungi. Analysis of lipid composition in these fungi demonstrated that sensitivity was related primarily to a low intrinsic sterol content and that a high level of unsaturation of phospholipid fatty acids was not as involved as hypothesized previously. Our data indicate that CHDA does not act directly with membrane sterols, nor is it utilized or otherwise modified in fungi. A structural mechanism of CHDA, consistent with the other related antifungal fatty acids produced by P. flocculosa, is proposed in light of its activity and specificity. The probable molecular events implicated in the sensitivity of fungi to CHDA are (i) partitioning of CHDA into fungal membranes; (ii) a variable elevation in fluidity dependent on the buffering capability (sterol content) in fungi; and (iii) higher membrane disorder causing conformational changes in membrane proteins, increased membrane permeability and, eventually, cytoplasmic disintegration. PMID:11157268

  16. ACUTE SULFOLANE EXPOSURE PRODUCES TEMPERATURE-INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT CHANGES IN VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the consequences of acute exposure to sulfolane upon the visual system, as measured using flash evoked potential (FEPs) and pattern reversal evoked potentials (PREPs). A single injection of either 1/2 or 1/4, but not 1/8 the i.p. LD50 (1600 mg/kg) produced si...

  17. Microbial community potentially responsible for acid and metal release from an Ostrobothnian acid sulfate soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaofen; Lim Wong, Zhen; Sten, Pekka; Engblom, Sten; Österholm, Peter; Dopson, Mark; Nakatsu, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Soils containing an approximately equal mixture of metastable iron sulfides and pyrite occur in the boreal Ostrobothnian coastal region of Finland, termed ‘potential acid sulfate soil materials’. If the iron sulfides are exposed to air, oxidation reactions result in acid and metal release to the environment that can cause severe damage. Despite that acidophilic microorganisms catalyze acid and metal release from sulfide minerals, the microbiology of acid sulfate soil (ASS) materials has been neglected. The molecular phylogeny of a depth profile through the plough and oxidized ASS layers identified several known acidophilic microorganisms and environmental clones previously identified from acid- and metal-contaminated environments. In addition, several of the 16S rRNA gene sequences were more similar to sequences previously identified from cold environments. Leaching of the metastable iron sulfides and pyrite with an ASS microbial enrichment culture incubated at low pH accelerated metal release, suggesting microorganisms capable of catalyzing metal sulfide oxidation were present. The 16S rRNA gene analysis showed the presence of species similar to Acidocella sp. and other clones identified from acid mine environments. These data support that acid and metal release from ASSs was catalyzed by indigenous microorganisms adapted to low pH. PMID:23369102

  18. The isolation and identification of new microalgal strains producing oil and carotenoid simultaneously with biofuel potential.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Amritpreet Kaur; Hodgson, Peter; Barrow, Colin J; Sashidhar, Burla; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-07-01

    Taxonomy and phylogeny of twenty two microalgal isolates were examined using both universal and newly designed molecular primers. Among the isolates, Scenedesmus bijugus, Coelastrella sp., Auxenochlorella protothecoides, and Chlorella sp. were particularly promising in terms of producing lipids as measured by fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) analysis and significant concentration of carotenoids. A comparative experiment showed that S. bijugus and Chlorella sp. were the most promising candidates (L(-)(1)d(-)(1), with biomass) 174.77±6.75, 169.81±5.22mg, lipids 40.14±3.31, 39.72±3.89mg, lutein 0.47, 0.36mg, and astaxanthin 0.27, 0.18mg respectively. The fatty acids produced by these microalgal isolates were mainly palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid. The freshwater microalgal isolate S. bijugus be the most suitable isolate for producing biodiesel and carotenoids, due to high productivity of biomass, lipids, metabolites, and its suitable fatty acid profile. PMID:27043053

  19. Investigation of secondary formation of formic acid: urban environment vs. oil and gas producing region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, B.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Roberts, J. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Koss, A.; Edwards, P. M.; Graus, M.; Kuster, W. C.; Li, S.-M.; Wild, R. J.; Brown, S. S.; Dubé, W. P.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Johnson, J. E.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Lefer, B.; Hayes, P. L.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Zamora, R.; Ervens, B.; Millet, D. B.; Rappenglück, B.; de Gouw, J. A.

    2015-02-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids in the atmosphere. However, current photochemical models cannot fully explain observed concentrations and in particular secondary formation of formic acid across various environments. In this work, formic acid measurements made at an urban receptor site (Pasadena) in June-July 2010 during CalNex (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change) and a site in an oil and gas producing region (Uintah Basin) in January-February 2013 during UBWOS 2013 (Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Studies) will be discussed. Although the VOC (volatile organic compounds) compositions differed dramatically at the two sites, measured formic acid concentrations were comparable: 2.3 ± 1.3 in UBWOS 2013 and 2.0 ± 1.0 ppb in CalNex. We determine that concentrations of formic acid at both sites were dominated by secondary formation (> 99%). A constrained box model using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) underestimates the measured formic acid concentrations drastically at both sites (by a factor of > 10). Compared to the original MCM model that includes only ozonolysis of unsaturated organic compounds and OH oxidation of acetylene, when we updated yields of ozonolysis of alkenes and included OH oxidation of isoprene, vinyl alcohol chemistry, reaction of formaldehyde with HO2, oxidation of aromatics, and reaction of CH3O2 with OH, the model predictions for formic acid were improved by a factor of 6.4 in UBWOS 2013 and 4.5 in CalNex, respectively. A comparison of measured and modeled HCOOH/acetone ratios is used to evaluate the model performance for formic acid. We conclude that the modified chemical mechanism can explain 19 and 45% of secondary formation of formic acid in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. The contributions from aqueous reactions in aerosol and heterogeneous reactions on aerosol surface to formic acid are estimated to be 0-6 and 0-5% in UBWOS 2013 and CalNex, respectively. We observe that

  20. Nematicidal Activity of Kojic Acid Produced by Aspergillus oryzae against Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Yoon; Jang, Ja Yeong; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Lee, Hye Won; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Yeo, Joo Hong; Lee, Hyang Burm; Kim, In Seon; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The fungal strain EML-DML3PNa1 isolated from leaf of white dogwood (Cornus alba L.) showed strong nematicidal activity with juvenile mortality of 87.6% at a concentration of 20% fermentation broth filtrate at 3 days after treatment. The active fungal strain was identified as Aspergillus oryzae, which belongs to section Flavi, based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the ITS rDNA, calmodulin (CaM), and β-tubulin (BenA) genes. The strain reduced the pH value to 5.62 after 7 days of incubation. Organic acid analysis revealed the presence of citric acid (515.0 mg/kg), malic acid (506.6 mg/kg), and fumaric acid (21.7 mg/kg). The three organic acids showed moderate nematicidal activities, but the mixture of citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid did not exhibit the full nematicidal activity of the culture filtrate of EML- DML3PNa1. Bioassay-guided fractionation coupled with (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and EI-MS analyses led to identification of kojic acid as the major nematicidal metabolite. Kojic acid exhibited dose-dependent mortality and inhibited the hatchability of M. incognita, showing EC50 values of 195.2 µg/ml and 238.3 µg/ml, respectively, at 72 h postexposure. These results suggest that A. oryzae EML-DML3PNa1 and kojic acid have potential as a biological control agent against M. incognita. PMID:27197670

  1. Targeted metabolomics of Physaria fendleri, an industrial crop producing hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Anderson, Brooke; Boyd, Alison; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2014-03-01

    Physaria fendleri (syn. Lesquerella) is a Brassicaceae producing lesquerolic acid, a highly valued hydroxy fatty acid that could be used for several industrial applications, such as cosmetics, lubricating greases, paints, plastics and biofuels. Free of toxins, Physaria oil is an attractive alternative to imported castor (Ricinus communis) oil, and is hence on the verge of commercialization. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fatty acid methyl esters revealed that lesquerolic acid was synthesized and accumulated in the embryos, reaching 60% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. The sequential extraction and characterization of biomass compounds revealed that Physaria embryo metabolism switched from protein to fatty acid biosynthesis between 18 and 24 days post-anthesis (DPA). In order to unravel the metabolic pathways involved in fatty acid synthesis, a targeted metabolomics study was conducted on Physaria embryos at different stages of development. For this purpose, two novel high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods were developed and validated to quantify sugars, sugar alcohols and amino acids. Specificity was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring, and the limits of quantification were in the pmole-fmole range. The comparative metabolomic study underlined that: (i) the majority of the metabolites accumulate in Physaria embryos between 18 and 27 DPA; (ii) the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, the tricarboxilic acid cycle and the anaplerotic pathway drain a substantial amount of carbon; and (iii) ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate is present, which specifically indicates that the Calvin cycle is occurring. The importance and the relevance of these findings regarding fatty acid synthesis were discussed. PMID:24443498

  2. Production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 and its compatibility with CLA-producing rumen bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Hui Gyu; Heo, Wan; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyun Seop; Bae, Gui Seck; Chung, Soo Hyun; Seo, Ho-Chan; Kim, Young Jun

    2011-02-01

    This study was performed to characterize the ability of an active Bifidobacterium strain to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and to test its possible utilization as a probiotic compatible to the ruminal condition. Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 can actively convert linoleic acid (LA) to cis-9,trans-11-CLA, which is a major isomer derived from microbial conversion. LMC520 showed reasonable tolerance under acidic conditions (pH 2.5 with 1% pepsin) and in the presence of oxgall (0-3%). The growth and CLA production of LMC520 were tested under ruminal conditions and compared with those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38, which is a major CLA producer in the rumen as an intermediate in the biohydrogenation (BH) process. LMC520 converted 15% of LA to CLA under ruminal conditions, which was 2 times higher activity than that of A38, and there was no decline in CLA level during prolonged incubation of 48 h. The BH activity of LMC520 was comparable to that of A38. When LMC520 was cocultured with A38, even with slight decrease of CLA due to high BH activity by A38, but the level of CLA was maintained by the high CLA-producing activity of LMC520. This comparative study shows the potential of this strain to be applied as a functional probiotic not only for humans but also for ruminants as well as to increase CLA production. PMID:21192703

  3. Potential of phosphoric acid-catalyzed pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis for biosugar production from Gracilaria verrucosa.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh-Min; Kim, Sung-Koo; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2016-07-01

    This study combined phosphoric acid-catalyzed pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to produce biosugars from Gracilaria verrucosa as a potential renewable resource for bioenergy applications. We optimized phosphoric acid-catalyzed pretreatment conditions to 1:10 solid-to-liquid ratio, 1.5 % phosphoric acid, 140 °C, and 60 min reaction time, producing a 32.52 ± 0.06 % total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. By subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, a 68.61 ± 0.90 % TRS yield was achieved. These results demonstrate the potential of phosphoric acid to produce biosugars for biofuel and biochemical production applications. PMID:27003825

  4. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhukova, Natalia V.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens) and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed. PMID:25196731

  5. Screening of Burkholderia sp. WGB31 producing anisic acid from anethole and optimization of fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peihong; Song, Zhangyang; Zhang, Zhenyong; Zeng, Huahe; Tang, Xianlai; Jiang, Chengjian; Li, Junfang; Wu, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Anisic acid, the precursor of a variety of food flavors and industrial raw materials, can be bioconversed from anethole which extracted from star anise fruits. WGB31 strain with anisic acid molar production rate of 10.25% was isolated and identified as Burkholderia sp. Three significant influential factors, namely, glucose concentration, initial pH value, and medium volume were selected and their effects were evaluated by Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Regression analysis was performed to determine response surface methodology and the significance was tested to obtain the process model of optimal conditions for producing anisic acid. The fermentation conditions at the stable point of the model were obtained: glucose 6 g L(-1) , pH 6.2, culture medium volume 61 mL in a triangular flask with 250 ml volume. Verification test indicated that the production rate of anisic acid was 30.7%, which was three times of that before optimizing. The results provide a basis and reference for producing anisic acid by microbial transformation. PMID:25100156

  6. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  7. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  8. Biogenic acids produced on epoxy linings installed in sewer crown and tidal zones.

    PubMed

    Valix, M; Shanmugarajah, K

    2015-09-01

    In this study the biogenic acids generated by microbes on the surface of Bisphenol A epoxy mortar coupons were investigated for up to 30 months. The epoxy coupons were installed in six sewers in three city locations, Sydney, Melbourne and Perth. Coupons were installed in both the crown and the tidal zones of the sewers to capture the effect of location within the pipe on acid production. The coupons were retrieved approximately every 6 months to provide a dynamic analysis of the biogenic acid production. Our results reveal the colonisation of epoxy mortar by the more aggressive acidophilic bacteria occurred within six months to two years of their installation in the sewer pipes. Biogenic acid generation appear to occur homogeneously from the tidal zone to the crown of the sewer pipes. The reduction in the surface pH of the epoxy lining was supported by the successive growth of microbes beginning with fungi followed be neutrophilic and heterotrophic bacteria and finally by the acidophilic bacteria and the corresponding accumulation of organic and sulphuric acids attributed to these organisms. This study also revealed the potential inhibiting effects on the microbes induced by the accumulation of metabolic products on the epoxy surface. The accumulation of organic acids and H2S coincided with the growth and metabolism inhibition of fungi and acidophilic bacteria. These results provide insights into the microbial interaction and biogenic acids production that contribute to lining degradation and corrosion of concrete in sewer pipes. PMID:26005783

  9. Sorption and leaching potential of acidic herbicides in Brazilian soils.

    PubMed

    Spadotto, Claudio A; Hornsby, Arthur G; Gomes, Marco A F

    2005-01-01

    Leaching of acidic herbicides (2,4-D, flumetsulam, and sulfentrazone) in soils was estimated by comparing the original and modified AF (Attenuation Factor) models for multi-layered soils (AFi). The original AFi model was modified to include the concept of pH-dependence for Kd (sorption coefficient) based on pesticide dissociation and changes in the accessibility of soil organic functional groups able to interact with the pesticide. The original and modified models, considering soil and herbicide properties, were applied to assess the leaching potential of selected herbicides in three Brazilian soils. The pH-dependent Kd values estimated for all three herbicides were observed to be always higher than pH-independent Kd values calculated using average Koc data, and therefore the original AFi model overestimated the overall leaching potential for the soils studied. PMID:15656159

  10. Potential SSP Perfluorooctanoic Acid Related Fluoropolymer Materials Obsolescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segars, Matt G.

    2006-01-01

    The Shuttle Environmental Assurance Initiative (SEA) has identified a potential for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to incur materials obsolescence issues due to agreements between the fluoro-chemical industry and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to participate in a Global Stewardship Program for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). This presentation will include discussions of the chemistry, regulatory drivers, affected types of fluoropolymer and fluoroelastomer products, timeline for reformulations, and methodology for addressing the issue. It will cover the coordination of assessment efforts with the International Space Station and Head Quarters Air Force Space Command, along with some examples of impacted materials. The presentation is directed at all members of the international aerospace community concerned with identifying potential environmentally driven materials obsolescence issues.

  11. Revegetation potential of acidic mill tailings in southwestern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelius, J.M.; Beeson, D.L.; Gomez, M.; Lindemann, W.C.; Whitford, W.G.; Zehner, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    A greenhouse project was conducted to examine the revegetation potential of acid mill tailings from an abandoned mill site near Silver City, Grant County, New Mexico. The tailings piles covered about 35 acres, had percent level concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, an average pH of 2.2, and an average net neutralization potential of 120 tons calcium carbonate per kiloton tailings. To successfully revegetate the tailings, five problems must be overcome: (1) neutralization of current and future acidity, (2) immobilization of metals, (3) restoration of biological activity, (4) improvement of water holding capacity, and (5) increasing the supply of plant nutrients. Tailings material was mixed with crushed limestone and divided into greenhouse pots in a randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement of treatments, including nine plant species and four organic amendments. Fertilizer was added based on soil fertility analysis. Germination and growth characteristics of plant species, and physical and chemical characteristics of soil were examined. Liming effectively removed or moderated most chemical plant growth problems. Water soluble and plant available metals in neutralized tailings were slightly higher than in native soils.

  12. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area. PMID:26494982

  13. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids production by and okara-utilizing potential of thraustochytrids.

    PubMed

    Fan, K W; Chen, F; Jones, E B; Vrijmoed, L L

    2001-10-01

    Nine thraustochytrid strains isolated from subtropical mangroves were screened for their eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production potential in a glucose yeast extract medium. Their ability to utilize okara (soymilk residue) for growth and EPA and DHA production was also evaluated. EPA yield was low in most strains, while DHA level was high on glucose yeast extract medium, producing 28.1-41.1% of total fatty acids, for all strains, with the exception of Ulkenia sp. KF13. The DHA yield of Schizochytrium mangrovei strains ranged from 747.7 to 2778.9 mg/l after 52 h of fermentation at 25 degrees C. All strains utilized okara as a substrate for growth, but DHA yield was lower when compared with fermentation in a glucose yeast extract medium. PMID:11687930

  14. Artifacts resembling budding bacteria produced in placer-gold amalgams by nitric acid leaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Microscopic filiform morphologies in gold which are indistinguishable from forms originally interpreted as bacterial in origin were produced in the laboratory by treating amalgams made from natural and artificial gold with hot nitric acid. Textures ranging from cobblestone to deeply crenulated to nodular filiform were produced in the laboratory from all tested natural and artificial gold amalgams; analogous textures widespread in Alaskan placer gold may have a similar inorganic origin. These results indicate that morphology alone cannot be considered adequate evidence of microbial involvement in gold formation. -Author

  15. Artifacts resembling budding bacteria produced in placer-gold amalgams by nitric acid leaching

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Microscopic filiform morphologies in gold which are indistinguishable from forms originally interpreted as bacterial in origin were produced in the laboratory by treating amalgams made from natural and artificial gold with hot nitric acid. Textures ranging from cobblestone to deeply crenulated to nodular filiform were produced in the laboratory from all tested natural and artificial gold amalgams; analogous textures widespread in Alaskan placer gold may have a similar inorganic origin. These results indicate that morphology alone cannot be considered adequate evidence of microbial involvement in gold formation.

  16. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  17. Electrochemical method for producing a biodiesel mixture comprising fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol

    DOEpatents

    Lin, YuPo J; St. Martin, Edward J

    2013-08-13

    The present invention relates to an integrated method and system for the simultaneous production of biodiesel from free fatty acids (via esterification) and from triglycerides (via transesterification) within the same reaction chamber. More specifically, one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for the production of biodiesel using an electrodeionization stack, wherein an ion exchange resin matrix acts as a heterogeneous catalyst for simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions between a feedstock and a lower alcohol to produce biodiesel, wherein the feedstock contains significant levels of free fatty acid. In addition, because of the use of a heterogeneous catalyst, the glycerol and biodiesel have much lower salt concentrations than raw biodiesel produced by conventional transesterification processes. The present invention makes it much easier to purify glycerol and biodiesel.

  18. [Properties of a cephalosporinase produced by Proteus penneri inhibited by clavulanic acid].

    PubMed

    Miro, E; Barthelemy, M; Peduzzi, J; Reynaud, A; Morand, A; Prats, G; Labia, R

    1994-05-01

    P. penneri produces an inducible cephalosporinase, as many Enterobacteriaceae. Nevertheless this betalactamase is susceptible to clavulanic acid which is an exception also encountered for P. vulgaris. The authors studied the enzyme produced by P. penneri 14HBC resistant to cefotaxime (MIC 16 mg/l) isolated in Spain in 1992. This betalactamase of isoelectric point 6.65 hydrolyzes first generation cephalosporins, amoxycillin and poorly ticarcillin as it occurs for all cephalosporinases. However, this enzyme hydrolyzes strongly oxyimino-cephalosporins: cefuroxime, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefpirome as it occurs with extended-spectrum betalactamases. Cephamycins and imipenem are not substrates. Clavulanic acid has a very good affinity for this betalactamase which is inactivated progressively. These properties are similar to those of the enzyme of P. vulgaris Ro104 of isoelectric point 8.3 which, contrarily to other cephalosporinases, belongs to the structural Ambler's class A. PMID:7824319

  19. Some distinguishable properties between acid-stable and neutral types of alpha-amylases from acid-producing koji.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Toshihiko; Fujita, Kiyotaka; Kitahara, Kanefumi

    2007-11-01

    The highly humid climate of Japan facilitates the growth of various molds. Among these molds, Aspergillus oryzae is the most important and popular in Japan, and has been used as yellow-koji in producing many traditional fermented beverages and foods, such as Japanese sake, and soy sauce. Taka-amylase A (TAA), a major enzyme produced by the mold, is well known worldwide to be a leading enzyme for industrial utilization and academic study, since many extensive studies have been carried out with TAA. In southern Kyushu, the other koji's of citric acid-producing molds have often been used, such as in the production of a traditional distilled liquor of shochu. The koji molds black-koji and white-koji produce two types of alpha-amylase, namely, acid-stable (AA) and common neutral (NA). The latter enzyme is enzymatically and genetically similar to TAA. In this review, we investigate AA from three molds, Aspergillus niger, A. kawachii and A. awamori, and the yeast Cryptococcus sp. regarding the distinguishable properties between AA and NA. (i) The N-terminus amino acid sequences of AA determined by molecular cloning started with the sequence of L-S-A-, whereas those of NA started with A-T-P-. (ii) Most of the full sequences of AA were composed of, besides a core catalytic domain, an extra domain of a hinge region and a carbohydrate binding domain, which could be responsible for raw-starch-digestibility. The AA from A. niger has no exceptionally extra domain, similarly to NA. (iii) Simple methods for distinguishing AA from NA using CNP-alpha-G3 and G5 as substrates were developed by our group. (iv) The number of subsite in AA on the basis of its cleavage pattern of maltooligosaccharides was estimated to be five, which differs from that of TAA, 7-9. AA has many advantages in industrial applications, such as its acid-stability, thermostability, and raw-starch digesting properties. PMID:18086434

  20. Three cases of opportunistic infection caused by propionic acid producing Corynebacterium minutissimum.

    PubMed

    Van Bosterhaut, B; Cuvelier, R; Serruys, E; Pouthier, F; Wauters, G

    1992-07-01

    Propionic acid producing strains of Corynebacterium minutissimum were isolated from three patients with opportunistic infections. One neutropenic patient was undergoing chemotherapy for prolymphocytic leukemia; the other two patients were undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis respectively. An unusual feature of these three strains was their resistance to several antibiotics, which is seldom seen in diphtheroids other than Corynebacterium jeikeium and CDC group D2. PMID:1396773

  1. Oleic Acid: Natural variation and potential enhancement in oilseed crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega 9 fatty acid (MUFA, C18:1) which can be found in various plant lipids and animal fats. Unlike omega 3 (a-linolenic acid, C18:3) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids which are essential because they cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained f...

  2. Potential of fly ash for neutralisation of acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Jia, Yu; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2016-09-01

    Lignite (PK), bituminous (FI) and biomass (SE) fly ashes (FAs) were mineralogically and geochemically characterised, and their element leachability was studied with batch leaching tests. The potential for acid neutralisation (ANP) was quantified by their buffering capacity, reflecting their potential for neutralisation of acid mine drainage. Quartz was the common mineral in FAs detected by XRD with iron oxide, anhydrite, and magnesioferrite in PK, mullite and lime in FI, and calcite and anorthite in SE. All the FAs had high contents of major elements such as Fe, Si, Al and Ca. The Ca content in SE was six and eight times higher compared to PK and FI, respectively. Sulphur content in PK and SE was one magnitude higher than FI. Iron concentrations were higher in PK. The trace element concentrations varied between the FAs. SE had the highest ANP (corresponding to 275 kg CaCO3 tonne(-1)) which was 15 and 10 times higher than PK and FI, respectively. The concentrations of Ca(2+), SO4 (2-), Na(+) and Cl(-) in the leachates were much higher compared to other elements from all FA samples. Iron, Cu and Hg were not detected in any of the FA leachates because of their mild to strong alkaline nature with pH ranging from 9 to 13. Potassium leached in much higher quantity from SE than from the other ashes. Arsenic, Mn and Ni leached from PK only, while Co and Pb from SE only. The concentrations of Zn were higher in the leachates from SE. The FAs used in this study have strong potential for the neutralisation of AMD due to their alkaline nature. However, on the other hand, FAs must be further investigated, with scaled-up experiments before full-scale application, because they might leach pronounced concentrations of elements of concern with decreasing pH while neutralising AMD. PMID:27209637

  3. Potential Biological Applications of Bio-Based Anacardic Acids and Their Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Fatma B.; Mubofu, Egid B.

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30–35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  4. Potential biological applications of bio-based anacardic acids and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Fatma B; Mubofu, Egid B

    2015-01-01

    Cashew nut shells (CNS), which are agro wastes from cashew nut processing factories, have proven to be among the most versatile bio-based renewable materials in the search for functional materials and chemicals from renewable resources. CNS are produced in the cashew nut processing process as waste, but they contain cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) up to about 30-35 wt. % of the nut shell weight depending on the method of extraction. CNSL is a mixture of anacardic acid, cardanol, cardol, and methyl cardol, and the structures of these phenols offer opportunities for the development of diverse products. For anacardic acid, the combination of phenolic, carboxylic, and a 15-carbon alkyl side chain functional group makes it attractive in biological applications or as a synthon for the synthesis of a multitude of bioactive compounds. Anacardic acid, which is about 65% of a CNSL mixture, can be extracted from the agro waste. This shows that CNS waste can be used to extract useful chemicals and thus provide alternative green sources of chemicals, apart from relying only on the otherwise declining petroleum based sources. This paper reviews the potential of anacardic acids and their semi-synthetic derivatives for antibacterial, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The review focuses on natural anacardic acids from CNS and other plants and their semi-synthetic derivatives as possible lead compounds in medicine. In addition, the use of anacardic acid as a starting material for the synthesis of various biologically active compounds and complexes is reported. PMID:25894225

  5. Proteinase-producing halophilic lactic acid bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation and their ability to produce volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2010-07-15

    Halophilic lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fish sauce mashes fermented at 1 to 12 months. Seven out of sixty-four isolates were selected according to their proteolytic activity and growth at 25% NaCl for characterization and investigation of volatile compound production. All selected isolates were Gram-positive cocci with pairs/tetrads and grew at 0-25% NaCl, pH 4.5-9.0. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 99% homology to Tetragenococcus halophilus ATCC 33315. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of all isolates were also similar to those of T. halophilus ATCC 33315. These isolates were, thus, identified as T. halophilus. All isolates hydrolyzed fish protein in the medium containing 25% NaCl. Intracellular aminopeptidase of 7 isolates exhibited the highest activity of 2.85-3.67 U/ml toward Ala-p-nitroanilide (Ala-pNA). T.halophilus strains MS33 and M11 showed the highest alanyl aminopeptidase activity (P<0.05), and produced histamine in mGYP broth containing 5 and 25% NaCl in the level of 6.62-22.55 and 13.14-20.39 mg/100ml, respectively. Predominant volatile compounds of fish broth containing 25% NaCl inoculated with T. halophilus MS33 and MRC5-5-2 were 1-propanol, 2-methylpropanal, and benzaldehyde, corresponding to major volatile compounds in fish sauce. T.halophilus appeared to play an important role in volatile compound formation during fish sauce fermentation. PMID:20541276

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Acetobacterium bakii DSM 8239, a Potential Psychrophilic Chemical Producer through Syngas Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soonkyu; Song, Yoseb

    2015-01-01

    Acetobacterium bakii DSM 8239 is an anaerobic, psychrophilic, and chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that is a potential platform for producing commodity chemicals from syngas fermentation. We report here the draft genome sequence of A. bakii DSM 8239 (4.14 Mb) to elucidate its physiological and metabolic properties related to syngas fermentation. PMID:26404601

  7. Draft genome sequences of clostridium strains native to Colombia with the potential to produce solvents.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Morales, Juan Pablo; Perez-Mancilla, Ximena; López-Kleine, Liliana; Montoya Castaño, Dolly; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Genomes from four Clostridium sp. strains considered to be mesophilic anaerobic bacteria, isolated from crop soil in Colombia, with a strong potential to produce alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, were analyzed. We present the draft genome of these strains, which will be useful for developing genetic engineering strategies. PMID:25999575

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Clostridium Strains Native to Colombia with the Potential To Produce Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Morales, Juan Pablo; Perez-Mancilla, Ximena; López-Kleine, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Genomes from four Clostridium sp. strains considered to be mesophilic anaerobic bacteria, isolated from crop soil in Colombia, with a strong potential to produce alcohols like 1,3-propanediol, were analyzed. We present the draft genome of these strains, which will be useful for developing genetic engineering strategies. PMID:25999575

  9. Genome Sequence of Pichia kudriavzevii M12, a Potential Producer of Bioethanol and Phytase

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; Ling, How Lie; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of Pichia kudriavzevii M12 is presented here. The genome reveals the presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in xylose utilization and the pentose phosphate pathway for bioethanol production. Strain M12 is also a potential producer of phytases, enzymes useful in food processing and agriculture. PMID:23027839

  10. The Lactic Acid Bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici Suppresses Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Inducing IL-10-Producing Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Kazushiro; Kinoshita, Makoto; Okuno, Tatsusada; Moriya, Masayuki; Kohda, Tohru; Honorat, Josephe A.; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Kayama, Hisako; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Sakoda, Saburo; Nakatsuji, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Background Certain intestinal microflora are thought to regulate the systemic immune response. Lactic acid bacteria are one of the most studied bacteria in terms of their beneficial effects on health and autoimmune diseases; one of which is Multiple sclerosis (MS) which affects the central nervous system. We investigated whether the lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus acidilactici, which comprises human commensal bacteria, has beneficial effects on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Methodology/Principal Findings P. acidilactici R037 was orally administered to EAE mice to investigate the effects of R037. R037 treatment suppressed clinical EAE severity as prophylaxis and therapy. The antigen-specific production of inflammatory cytokines was inhibited in R037-treated mice. A significant increase in the number of CD4+ Interleukin (IL)-10-producing cells was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and spleens isolated from R037-treated naive mice, while no increase was observed in the number of these cells in the lamina propria. Because only a slight increase in the CD4+Foxp3+ cells was observed in MLNs, R037 may primarily induce Foxp3− IL10-producing T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells in MLNs, which contribute to the beneficial effect of R037 on EAE. Conclusions/Significance An orally administered single strain of P. acidilactici R037 ameliorates EAE by inducing IL10-producing Tr1 cells. Our findings indicate the therapeutic potential of the oral administration of R037 for treating multiple sclerosis. PMID:22110705

  11. Chromosomal integration of hyaluronic acid synthesis (has) genes enhances the molecular weight of hyaluronan produced in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Hmar, Rothangmawi Victoria; Prasad, Shashi Bala; Jayaraman, Guhan; Ramachandran, Kadathur B

    2014-12-01

    Microbial production of hyaluronic acid (HA) is an attractive substitute for extraction of this biopolymer from animal tissues. Natural producers such as Streptococcus zooepidemicus are potential pathogens; therefore, production of HA by recombinant bacteria that are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organisms is a viable alternative that is being extensively explored. However, plasmid-based expression systems for HA production by recombinant bacteria have the inherent disadvantage of reduced productivity because of plasmid instability. To overcome this problem, the HA synthesis genes (hasA-hasB and hasA-hasB-hasC) from has-operon of S. zooepidemicus were integrated into the chromosome of Lactococcus lactis by site-directed, double-homologous recombination developing strains VRJ2AB and VRJ3ABC. The chromosomal integration stabilized the genes and obviated the instability observed in plasmid-expressed recombinant strains. The genome-integrated strains produced higher molecular weight (3.5-4 million Dalton [MDa]) HA compared to the plasmid-expressed strains (2 MDa). High molecular weight HA was produced when the intracellular concentration of uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and uridine diphosphate-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) was almost equal and hasA to hasB ratio was low. This work suggests an optimal approach to obtain high molecular weight HA in recombinant strains. PMID:25044639

  12. Potential mechanisms for low uric acid in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Sampat, Radhika; Young, Sarah; Rosen, Ami; Bernhard, Douglas; Millington, David; Factor, Stewart; Jinnah, H A

    2016-04-01

    Several epidemiologic studies have described an association between low serum uric acid (UA) and Parkinson disease (PD). Uric acid is a known antioxidant, and one proposed mechanism of neurodegeneration in PD is oxidative damage of dopamine neurons. However, other complex metabolic pathways may contribute. The purpose of this study is to elucidate potential mechanisms of low serum UA in PD. Subjects who met diagnostic criteria for definite or probable PD (n = 20) and controls (n = 20) aged 55-80 years were recruited. Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from all participants, and both uric acid and allantoin were measured and corrected for body mass index (BMI). Urinary metabolites were compared using a twoway ANOVA with diagnosis and sex as the explanatory variables. There were no significant differences between PD and controls for total UA (p = 0.60), UA corrected for BMI (p = 0.37), or in the interaction of diagnosis and sex on UA (p = 0.24). Similarly, there were no significant differences between PD and controls for allantoin (p = 0.47), allantoin corrected for BMI (p = 0.57), or in the interaction of diagnosis and sex on allantoin (p = 0.78). Allantoin/UA ratios also did not significantly differ by diagnosis (p = 0.99). Our results imply that low serum UA in PD may be due to an intrinsic mechanism that alters the homeostatic set point for serum UA in PD, and may contribute to relatively lower protection against oxidative damage. These findings provide indirect support for neuroprotection trials aimed at raising serum UA. PMID:26747026

  13. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M E; Silva, J; González, S N

    2010-10-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances. PMID:24031582

  14. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M.E.; Silva, J.; González, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances. PMID:24031582

  15. Structural and rheological characterisation of heteropolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria in wheat and sorghum sourdough.

    PubMed

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke K; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-05-01

    Hydrocolloids improve the volume, texture, and shelf life of bread. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during sourdough fermentation can replace hydrocolloids. It was the aim of this study to determine whether heteropolysaccharides (HePS) synthesized intracellularly from sugar nucleotides by glycosyltransferases are produced in wheat and gluten-free sorghum sourdough at effective levels. The HePS-producing strains Lactobacillus casei FUA3185, L. casei FUA3186, and Lactobacillus buchneri FUA3154 were used; Weissella cibaria 10M producing no EPS in the absence of sucrose served as control strain. Cell suspensions of L. buchneri in MRS showed the highest viscosity at low shear rate. Glycosyltransferase genes responsible of HePS formation in LAB were expressed in sorghum and wheat sourdough. However, only HePS produced by L. buchneri influenced the rheological properties of sorghum sourdoughs but not of wheat sourdoughs. Sorghum sourdough fermented with L. buchneri exhibited a low |G*| compared to the control, indicating a decrease in resistance to deformation. An increase in tan δ indicated decreased elasticity. The use of LAB producing HePS expands the diversity of EPS and increases the variety of cultures for use in baking. PMID:21356463

  16. Polyunsaturated lysophosphatidic acid as a potential asthma biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Steven J; Park, Gye Young; Christman, John W; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lipid mediator in biological fluids and tissues, is generated mainly by autotaxin that hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to LPA and choline. Total LPA levels are increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from asthmatic lung, and are strongly induced following subsegmental bronchoprovocation with allergen in subjects with allergic asthma. Polyunsaturated molecular species of LPA (C22:5 and C22:6) are selectively synthesized in the airways of asthma subjects following allergen challenge and in mouse models of allergic airway inflammation, having been identified and quantified by LC/MS/MS lipidomics. This review discusses current knowledge of LPA production in asthmatic lung and the potential utility of polyunsaturated LPA molecular species as novel biomarkers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and exhaled breath condensate of asthma subjects. PMID:26808693

  17. Improved method for producing catalytic carbon and the potential for increasing its use in commercial applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, C.W.; Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Feizoulof, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an improved method for producing a catalytic carbon, which was first produced in the late 1960s. The new activated carbon (AC) removes and destroys organic pollutants in aqueous solutions. To determine the effects of altering the pore structure and surface chemistry of activated carbons, carbons differing in the amount of functional groups on their surfaces were prepared in three steps: (1) oxidizing AC with boiling nitric acid, (2) washing oxidized AC with water to remove the acid, and (3) heating oxidized AC to temperatures beteween 100 and 925 ??C. The surfaces of the products were characterized by determining the amount of CO2 and CO evolved during temperature-programmed desorption. Depending on the desorption temperature, these modified carbons showed enhanced adsorptive and/or catalytic properties that included (1) carbon molecular sieves for separating oxygen from nitrogen, (2) increased capacity for adsorbing sulfur dioxide, (3) stronger adsorption of p-nitrophenol from water, and (4) catalysis of dehydrochlorination reactions. A dehydrohalogenation catalyst produced by the oxidation/ desorption steps was found to be similar to one prepared in the 1960s by oxidizing AC with air at 500-700 ??C. The dehydrohalogenation catalyst produced by either the old method or the new method involves an oxidized surface that has been exposed to a 500-700 ??C temperature range. This carbon catalyst retains modified adsorptive properties of the AC from which it is produced. It can be used both to adsorb pollutants from liquid or gaseous streams and to convert them to recyclable products.

  18. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  19. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  20. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  1. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from edible fats and oils. 172.225 Section 172.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  3. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV-vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid. PMID:26841717

  4. A microbial transformation using Bacillus subtilis B7-S to produce natural vanillin from ferulic acid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Yan, Lei; Wu, Zhengrong; Li, Suyue; Bai, Zhongtian; Yan, Xiaojuan; Wang, Ningbo; Liang, Ning; Li, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain B7-S screened from18 strains is an aerobic, endospore-forming, model organism of Gram-positive bacteria which is capable to form vanillin during ferulic acid bioconversion. The bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by Bacillus subtilis B7-S (B. subtilis B7-S) was investigated. Based on our results, the optimum bioconversion conditions for the production of vanillin by B. subtilis B7-S can be summarized as follows: temperature 35 °C; initial pH 9.0; inoculum volume 5%; ferulic acid concentration 0.6 g/L; volume of culture medium 20%; and shaking speed 200 r/min. Under these conditions, several repeated small-scale batch experiments showed that the maximum conversion efficiency was 63.30% after 3 h of bioconversion. The vanillin products were confirmed by spectral data achieved from UV–vis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscope (ICP-AES) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) spectra. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) results confirmed that the cell surface of B. subtilis plays a role in the induction of ferulic acid tolerance. These results demonstrate that B. subtilis B7-S has the potential for use in vanillin production through bioconversion of ferulic acid. PMID:26841717

  5. Tribromopyrrole, brominated acids, and other disinfection byproducts produced by disinfection of drinking water rich in bromide.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Susan D; Thruston, Alfred D; Rav-Acha, Chaim; Groisman, Ludmila; Popilevsky, Inna; Juraev, Olga; Glezer, Victor; McKague, A Bruce; Plewa, Michael J; Wagner, Elizabeth D

    2003-09-01

    Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), we investigated the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from high bromide waters (2 mg/L) treated with chlorine or chlorine dioxide used in combination with chlorine and chloramines. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation of DBPs formed by chlorine dioxide under high bromide conditions. Drinking water from full-scale treatment plants in Israel was studied, along with source water (Sea of Galilee) treated under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Select DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, aldehydes, chlorite, chlorate, and bromate) were quantified. Many of the DBPs identified have not been previously reported, and several of the identifications were confirmed through the analysis of authentic standards. Elevated bromide levels in the source water caused a significant shift in speciation to bromine-containing DBPs; bromoform and dibromoacetic acid were the dominant DBPs observed, with very few chlorine-containing compounds found. Iodo-trihalomethanes were also identified, as well as a number of new brominated carboxylic acids and 2,3,5-tribromopyrrole, which represents the first time a halogenated pyrrole has been reported as a DBP. Most of the bromine-containing DBPs were formed during pre-chlorination at the initial reservoir, and were not formed by chlorine dioxide itself. An exception wasthe iodo-THMs, which appeared to be formed by a combination of chlorine dioxide with chloramines or chlorine (either added deliberately or as an impurity in the chlorine dioxide). A separate laboratory study was also conducted to quantitatively determine the contribution of fulvic acids and humic acids (from isolated natural organic matter in the Sea of Galilee) as precursor material to several of the DBPs identified. Results showed that fulvic acid plays a greater role in the formation of THMs, haloacetic acids, and aldehydes, but 2,3,5-tribromopyrrole was produced primarily from humic

  6. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    PubMed

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd < 1, Cu 11, Fe 106, Mn 52, Pb < 5, Zn 25 and S 3934; similar levels were found in lucerne hay (used as cattle feed) from two Dee fields. All lucerne and lucerne hay data were generally comparable with levels found in the lucerne reference fields, suggesting no AMD influence; the levels were within the US National Research Council (US NRC) guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake. Pasture grass (also cattle feed) from two fields in the Dee River floodplains gave mean concentrations (mg/kg dry) of Cd 0.14, Cu 12, Fe 313, Mn 111, Pb 1.4, Zn 86 and S 2450. All metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and

  7. Fatty acid synthase as a potential therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Richard; Peluso, Stephane; Nguyen, Paul L; Loda, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme involved in neoplastic lipogenesis. Overexpression of FASN is common in many cancers, and accumulating evidence suggests that it is a metabolic oncogene with an important role in tumor growth and survival, making it an attractive target for cancer therapy. Early small-molecule FASN inhibitors such as cerulenin, C75 and orlistat have been shown to induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines and to induce tumor growth delay in several cancer xenograft models but their mechanism is still not well understood. These molecules suffer from pharmacological limitations and weight loss as a side effect that prevent their development as systemic drugs. Several potent inhibitors have recently been reported that may help to unravel and exploit the full potential of FASN as a target for cancer therapy in the near future. Furthermore, novel sources of FASN inhibitors, such as green tea and dietary soy, make both dietary manipulation and chemoprevention potential alternative modes of therapy in the future. PMID:20373869

  8. In-line System to Produce High-Purity Acid Solutions.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Hiroto; Higo, Yuji; Ishii, Mizuo; Maruyama, Noboru; Yamazaki, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a new device that generates a high-purity acid solution. It comprises three compartments divided by anion-exchange membranes and filled with ion-exchange resins. Fluorochemical cation-exchange membranes, which tolerate electrochemical wear and permit bulk flow, are inserted between each electrode and the anion-exchange resin. A bipolar boundary is a composite boundary comprising anion and cation exchangers. This device has four bipolar boundaries to separate the location of acid generation from the location where water is electrolyzed. It can tolerate high pressures, resist degradation due to electrolysis at the electrodes, and produce high-purity acid solutions that are free from gases and cationic impurities. The acid solution is generated on the basis of an electrokinetic phenomenon at the surfaces of ion-exchange resins and membranes in an electric field; its concentration can be controlled at rates from 0.01 to 100 μmol/min by adjusting the electrical current applied to the device. PMID:27302592

  9. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  10. Purification and characterization of acidolysin, an acidic metalloprotease produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    PubMed Central

    Croux, C; Paquet, V; Goma, G; Soucaille, P

    1990-01-01

    Acidolysin an extracellular protease produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography with a recovery of 91%. The enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 44,000 as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and an acidic isoelectric point of 3.3. Acidolysin was very sensitive to metal-chelating agents and phosphoramidon and was unaffected by sulfhydryl reagents. It was shown to be a calcium- and zinc-containing protease. It exhibited optimal activity against Azocoll at pH 5 and 45 degrees C. It was stable at low pH and heat labile above 50 degrees C. It exhibited specificity toward peptide bonds formed by the amino group of hydrophobic amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and phenylalanine) and its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity with that of Bacillus subtilis neutral metalloprotease A. Acidolysin is the first phosphoramidon-sensitive, acidic zinc metalloprotease reported. Images PMID:2082818

  11. Characterization of Five Fungal Endophytes Producing Cajaninstilbene Acid Isolated from Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Yuan Gang; Fu, Yu Jie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Five fungal endophytes (K4, K5, K6, K9, K14) producing Cajaninstilbene acid (CSA, 3-hydroxy-4-prenyl-5-methoxystilbene-2-carboxylic acid) were isolated from the roots of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]. CSA is responsible for the prominent pharmacological activities in pigeon pea. The amount of CSA in culture solution varied among the five fungal endophytes. K4 produced the highest levels of CSA (1037.13 µg/L) among the endophytes tested after incubation for five days. Both morphological characteristics and molecular methods were used for species identification of fungal endophytes. The five endophytic isolates were characterized by analyzing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA and β-tubulin genes. The K4, K5, K9 and K14 strains isolated from pigeon pea roots were found to be closely related to the species Fusarium oxysporum. K6 was identified as Neonectria macrodidym. The present study is the first report on the isolation and identification of fungal endophytes producing CSA in pigeon pea. The study also provides a scientific base for large scale production of CSA. PMID:22102911

  12. HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Symbalisty, E.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the authors report on recent radar measurements taken during the month of October 1994 with the LDG HF radar in the Ivory Coast, Africa as part of the International Equatorial Electrojet Year. The purpose of this experimental effort in part was to study the effects of thunderstorms on the ionosphere. At the same time, the authors decided to carry out a set of experiments of an exploratory nature to look for echoes that could potentially arise from ionization produced in the mesosphere. The two leading candidates for producing transient ionization in the mesosphere are meteors and high-altitude discharges. Each is discussed in the context of these measurements.

  13. Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2014-11-01

    Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production. PMID:24861313

  14. Poly(L-diaminopropionic acid), a novel non-proteinic amino acid oligomer co-produced with poly(ε-L-lysine) by Streptomyces albulus PD-1.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Xu, Hong; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Zhaoxian; Chi, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Poly(ε-L-lysine) (ε-PL) producer strain Streptomyces albulus PD-1 secreted a novel polymeric substance into its culture broth along with ε-PL. The polymeric substance was purified to homogeneity and identified. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as other analytical techniques revealed that the substance was poly(L-diaminopropionic acid) (PDAP). PDAP is an L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid oligomer linking between amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. The molecular weight of PDAP ranged from 500 to 1500 Da, and no co-polymers composed of L-diaminopropionic acid and L-lysine were present in the culture broth. Compared with ε-PL, PDAP exhibited stronger inhibitory activities against yeasts but weaker activities against bacteria. ε-PL and PDAP co-production was also investigated. Both ε-PL and PDAP were synthesized during the stationary phase of growth, and the final ε-PL and PDAP concentration reached 21.7 and 4.8 g L(-1), respectively, in fed-batch fermentation. Citric acid feeding resulted in a maximum ε-PL concentration of 26.1 g L(-1) and a decrease in the final concentration of PDAP to 3.8 g L(-1). No studies on ε-PL and PDAP co-production in Streptomyces albulus have been reported previously, and inhibition of by-products such as PDAP is potentially useful in ε-PL production. PMID:23775267

  15. Oil and gas technology transfer activities and potential in eight major producing states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    In 1990, the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (the Compact) performed a study that identified the structure and deficiencies of the system by which oil and gas producers receive information about the potential of new technologies and communicate their problems and technology needs back to the research community. The conclusions of that work were that major integrated companies have significantly more and better sources of technology information than independent producers. The majors also have significantly better mechanisms for communicating problems to the research and development (R&D) community. As a consequence, the Compact recommended analyzing potential mechanisms to improve technology transfer channels for independents and to accelerate independents acceptance and use of existing and emerging technologies. Building on this work, the Compact, with a grant from the US Department Energy, has reviewed specific technology transfer organizations in each of eight major oil producing states to identify specific R&D and technology transfer organizations, characterize their existing activities, and identify potential future activities that could be performed to enhance technology transfer to oil and gas producers. The profiles were developed based on information received from organizations,follow-up interviews, site visit and conversations, and participation in their sponsored technology transfer activities. The results of this effort are reported in this volume. In addition, the Compact has also developed a framework for the development of evaluation methodologies to determine the effectiveness of technology transfer programs in performing their intended functions and in achieving desired impacts impacts in the producing community. The results of that work are provided in a separate volume.

  16. Biologic Potential of Calcium Phosphate Biopowders Produced via Decomposition Combustion Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, N.; King, K.B.; Ayers, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the biologic potential of calcium phosphate (CaP) biopowders produced with a novel reaction synthesis system. Decomposition combustion synthesis (DCS) is a modified combustion synthesis method capable of producing CaP powders for use in bone tissue engineering applications. During DCS, the stoichiometric ratio of reactant salt to fuel was adjusted to alter product chemistry and morphology. In vitro testing methods were utilized to determine the effects of controlling product composition on cytotoxicity, proliferation, biocompatibility and biomineralization. In vitro, human fetal osteoblasts (ATCC, CRL-11372) cultured with CaP powder displayed a flattened morphology, and uniformly encompassed the CaP particulates. Matrix vesicles containing calcium and phosphorous budded from the osteoblast cells. CaP powders produced via DCS are a source of biologically active, synthetic, bone graft substitute materials PMID:26034341

  17. Implications for global climate change from microbially-produced acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norlund, K. L.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Microbial catalysis of sulphur cycling in acid mine drainage (AMD) environments is well known but the reaction pathways are poorly characterised. These reaction pathways involve both acid-consuming and acid- generating steps, with important consequences for overall AMD production as well as sulphur and carbon global biogeochemical cycles. Mining-associated sulphuric acid has been implicated in climate change through the weathering of carbonate minerals resulting in the release of 29 Tg C/year as carbon dioxide. Understanding of microbial AMD generation is based predominantly on studies of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans despite the knowledge that other environmentally common strains of bacteria are also active sulphur oxidizers and that microbial consortia are likely very important in environmental processes. Using an integrated experimental approach including geochemical experimentation, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), we document a novel syntrophic sulphur metabolism involving two common mine bacteria: autotrophic sulphur oxidizing Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and heterotrophic Acidiphilium spp. The proposed sulphur geochemistry associated with this bacterial consortium produces 40-90% less acid than expected based on abiotic AMD models, with significant implications for both AMD mitigation and AMD carbon flux modelling. The two bacterial strains are specifically spatially segregated within a macrostructure of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that provides the necessary microgeochemical conditions for coupled sulphur oxidation and reduction reactions. STXM results identify multiple sulphur oxidation states associated with the pods, indicating that they are the sites of active sulphur disproportionation and recycling. Recent laboratory experimentation using type culture strains of the bacteria involved in pod-formation suggesting that this phenomenon is likely to be widespread in environments

  18. Novel extremely acidic lipases produced from Bacillus species using oil substrates.

    PubMed

    Saranya, P; Kumari, H Sukanya; Jothieswari, M; Rao, B Prasad; Sekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The extremely acidophilic microorganisms Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from soil collected from the commercial edible oil and fish oil extraction industry. Optimization of conditions for acidic lipase production from B. pumilus and B. subtilis using palm oil and fish oil, respectively, was carried out using response surface methodology. The extremely acidic lipases, thermo-tolerant acidic lipase (TAL) and acidic lipase (AL), were produced by B. pumilus and B. subtilis, respectively. The optimum conditions for B. pumilus obtaining the maximum activity (1,100 U/mL) of TAL were fermentation time, 96 h; pH, 1; temperature, 50 °C; concentration of palm oil, 50 g/L. After purification, a 7.1-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 5,173 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the TAL was 55 kDa. The AL from B. subtilis activity was 214 U/mL at a fermentation time of 72 h; pH, 1; temperature, 35 °C; concentration of fish oil, 30 g/L; maltose concentration, 10 g/L. After purification, an 11.4-fold purity of lipase with specific activity of 2,189 U/mg protein was obtained. The molecular weight of the extremely acidic lipase was 22 kDa. The functional groups of lipases were determined by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. PMID:24185617

  19. Thioredoxin and dihydrolipoic acid are required for 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase to produce hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshinori; Shibuya, Norihiro; Kimura, Yuka; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Ogasawara, Yuki; Kimura, Hideo

    2011-11-01

    H2S (hydrogen sulfide) has recently been recognized as a signalling molecule as well as a cytoprotectant. We recently demonstrated that 3MST (3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase) produces H2S from 3MP (3-mercaptopyruvate). Although a reducing substance is required for an intermediate persulfide at the active site of 3MST to release H2S, the substance has not been identified. In the present study we show that Trx (thioredoxin) and DHLA (dihydrolipoic acid) associate with 3MST to release H2S. Other reducing substances, such as NADPH, NADH, GSH, cysteine and CoA, did not have any effect on the reaction. We also show that 3MST produces H2S from thiosulfate. The present study provides a new insight into a mechanism for the production of H2S by 3MST. PMID:21732914

  20. Use of sustainable chemistry to produce an acyl amino acid surfactant.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Gabriel O; Vishwanath, Prashanth; Pynn, Michelle A; Sitnik, Joy M; Todd, Jeffrey J; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Keenan, Brendan G; Castle, Andrew B; Haskell, Richard F; Smith, Temple F; Somasundaran, Ponisseril; Jarrell, Kevin A

    2010-05-01

    Surfactants find wide commercial use as foaming agents, emulsifiers, and dispersants. Currently, surfactants are produced from petroleum, or from seed oils such as palm or coconut oil. Due to concerns with CO(2) emissions and the need to protect rainforests, there is a growing necessity to manufacture these chemicals using sustainable resources In this report, we describe the engineering of a native nonribosomal peptide synthetase pathway (i.e., surfactin synthetase), to generate a Bacillus strain that synthesizes a highly water-soluble acyl amino acid surfactant, rather than the water insoluble lipopeptide surfactin. This novel product has a lower CMC and higher water solubility than myristoyl glutamate, a commercial surfactant. This surfactant is produced by fermentation of cellulosic carbohydrate as feedstock. This method of surfactant production provides an approach to sustainable manufacturing of new surfactants. PMID:20094712

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Thermus filiformis ATCC 43280, Producer of Carotenoid-(Di)glucoside-Branched Fatty Acid (Di)esters and Source of Hyperthermostable Enzymes of Biotechnological Interest

    PubMed Central

    Mandelli, Fernanda; Oliveira Ramires, Brenda; Couger, Matthew Brian; Paixão, Douglas A. A.; Camilo, Cesar M.; Polikarpov, Igor; Prade, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Thermus filiformis strain ATCC 43280, a thermophile bacterium capable of producing glycosylated carotenoids acylated with branched fatty acids and enzymes of biotechnological potential. PMID:25977443

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Thermus filiformis ATCC 43280, Producer of Carotenoid-(Di)glucoside-Branched Fatty Acid (Di)esters and Source of Hyperthermostable Enzymes of Biotechnological Interest.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Fernanda; Oliveira Ramires, Brenda; Couger, Matthew Brian; Paixão, Douglas A A; Camilo, Cesar M; Polikarpov, Igor; Prade, Rolf; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M; Squina, Fabio M

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Thermus filiformis strain ATCC 43280, a thermophile bacterium capable of producing glycosylated carotenoids acylated with branched fatty acids and enzymes of biotechnological potential. PMID:25977443

  3. Contamination of Bananas with Beauvericin and Fusaric Acid Produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Ruibin; Yang, Qiaosong; Hu, Chunhua; Sheng, Ou; Zhang, Sheng; Ma, Lijun; Wei, Yuerong; Yang, Jing; Liu, Siwen; Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Viljoen, Altus; Yi, Ganjun

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), is one of the most destructive diseases of banana. Toxins produced by Foc have been proposed to play an important role during the pathogenic process. The objectives of this study were to investigate the contamination of banana with toxins produced by Foc, and to elucidate their role in pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty isolates of Foc representing races 1 and 4 were isolated from diseased bananas in five Chinese provinces. Two toxins were consistently associated with Foc, fusaric acid (FA) and beauvericin (BEA). Cytotoxicity of the two toxins on banana protoplast was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The virulence of 20 Foc isolates was further tested by inoculating tissue culture banana plantlets, and the contents of toxins determined in banana roots, pseudostems and leaves. Virulence of Foc isolates correlated well with toxin deposition in the host plant. To determine the natural occurrence of the two toxins in banana plants with Fusarium wilt symptoms, samples were collected before harvest from the pseudostems, fruit and leaves from 10 Pisang Awak ‘Guangfen #1’ and 10 Cavendish ‘Brazilian’ plants. Fusaric acid and BEA were detected in all the tissues, including the fruits. Conclusions/Signficance The current study provides the first investigation of toxins produced by Foc in banana. The toxins produced by Foc, and their levels of contamination of banana fruits, however, were too low to be of concern to human and animal health. Rather, these toxins appear to contribute to the pathogenicity of the fungus during infection of banana plants. PMID:23922960

  4. Bioconverted Products of Essential Fatty Acids as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review deals with the recent findings on the microbial conversion of essential fatty acids (EFAs) through Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 NRRL-B-18602, and the antimicrobial properties of bioconverted essential fatty acids, with particular emphasis on n-3 or n-6 fatty acids. The first section deals...

  5. Deposition of Lignin Droplets Produced During Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Maize Stems Retards Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. J.; Viamajala, S.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Himmel, M. E.; Vinzant, T. B.

    2007-01-01

    Electron microscopy of lignocellulosic biomass following high-temperature pretreatment revealed the presence of spherical formations on the surface of the residual biomass. The hypothesis that these droplet formations are composed of lignins and possible lignin carbohydrate complexes is being explored. Experiments were conducted to better understand the formation of these lignin droplets and the possible implications they might have on the enzymatic saccharification of pretreated biomass. It was demonstrated that these droplets are produced from corn stover during pretreatment under neutral and acidic pH at and above 130C, and that they can deposit back onto the surface of residual biomass. The deposition of droplets produced under certain pretreatment conditions (acidic pH; T > 150C) and captured onto pure cellulose was shown to have a negative effect (5-20%) on the enzymatic saccharification of this substrate. It was noted that droplet density (per unit area) was greater and droplet size more variable under conditions where the greatest impact on enzymatic cellulose conversion was observed. These results indicate that this phenomenon has the potential to adversely affect the efficiency of enzymatic conversion in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

  6. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria: from health-promoting benefits to stress tolerance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Caggianiello, Graziano; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is able to produce capsular or extracellular polysaccharides, with various chemical compositions and properties. Polysaccharides produced by LAB alter the rheological properties of the matrix in which they are dispersed, leading to typically viscous and "ropy" products. Polysaccharides are involved in several mechanisms such as prebiosis and probiosis, tolerance to stress associated to food process, and technological properties of food. In this paper, we summarize the beneficial properties of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by LAB with particular attention to prebiotic properties and to the effect of exopolysaccharides on the LAB-host interaction mechanisms, such as bacterial tolerance to gastrointestinal tract conditions, ability of ESP-producing probiotics to adhere to intestinal epithelium, their immune-modulatory activity, and their role in biofilm formation. The pro-technological aspect of exopolysaccharides is discussed, focusing on advantageous applications of EPS in the food industry, i.e., yogurt and gluten-free bakery products, since it was found that these microbial biopolymers positively affect the texture of foods. Finally, the involvement of EPS in tolerance to stress conditions that are commonly encountered in fermented beverages such as wine is discussed. PMID:27020288

  7. The Organellar Genome and Metabolic Potential of the Hydrogen-Producing Mitochondrion of Nyctotherus ovalis

    PubMed Central

    de Graaf, Rob M.; Ricard, Guenola; van Alen, Theo A.; Duarte, Isabel; Dutilh, Bas E.; Burgtorf, Carola; Kuiper, Jan W. P.; van der Staay, Georg W. M.; Tielens, Aloysius G. M.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H. P.

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that hydrogenosomes (hydrogen-producing organelles) evolved from a mitochondrial ancestor. However, until recently, only indirect evidence for this hypothesis was available. Here, we present the almost complete genome of the hydrogen-producing mitochondrion of the anaerobic ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis and show that, except for the notable absence of genes encoding electron transport chain components of Complexes III, IV, and V, it has a gene content similar to the mitochondrial genomes of aerobic ciliates. Analysis of the genome of the hydrogen-producing mitochondrion, in combination with that of more than 9,000 genomic DNA and cDNA sequences, allows a preliminary reconstruction of the organellar metabolism. The sequence data indicate that N. ovalis possesses hydrogen-producing mitochondria that have a truncated, two step (Complex I and II) electron transport chain that uses fumarate as electron acceptor. In addition, components of an extensive protein network for the metabolism of amino acids, defense against oxidative stress, mitochondrial protein synthesis, mitochondrial protein import and processing, and transport of metabolites across the mitochondrial membrane were identified. Genes for MPV17 and ACN9, two hypothetical proteins linked to mitochondrial disease in humans, were also found. The inferred metabolism is remarkably similar to the organellar metabolism of the phylogenetically distant anaerobic Stramenopile Blastocystis. Notably, the Blastocystis organelle and that of the related flagellate Proteromonas lacertae also lack genes encoding components of Complexes III, IV, and V. Thus, our data show that the hydrogenosomes of N. ovalis are highly specialized hydrogen-producing mitochondria. PMID:21378103

  8. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  9. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Raju, Muralikrishna; Watson, Valerie J.; Stack, Andrew G.; van Duin, Adri C. T.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-11-03

    We report that the amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10–5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g–1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in themore » LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g–1) had a negative rise potential (₋31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to ₋6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. In conclusion, these results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.« less

  10. Antimicrobial potential of bioconverted products of omega-3 fatty acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioconverted omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (bEPA) and docosahexanoic acid (bDHA), obtained from the microbial conversion of non-bioconverted eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. bEPA and bDHA at 5 µl/...

  11. Astatine standard redox potentials and speciation in acidic medium.

    PubMed

    Champion, J; Alliot, C; Renault, E; Mokili, B M; Chérel, M; Galland, N; Montavon, G

    2010-01-14

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to define astatine (At) speciation in acidic aqueous solution and to answer the two main questions raised from literature data: does At(0) exist in aqueous solution and what is the chemical form of At(+III), if it exists. The experimental approach considers that a given species is characterized by its distribution coefficient (D) experimentally determined in a biphasic system. The change in speciation arising from a change in experimental conditions is observed by a change in D value. The theoretical approach involves quasi-relativistic quantum chemistry calculations. The results show that At at the oxidation state 0 cannot exist in aqueous solution. The three oxidation states present in the range of water stability are At(-I), At(+I), and At(+III) and exist as At(-), At(+), and AtO(+), respectively, in the 1-2 pH range. The standard redox potentials of the At(+)/At(-) and AtO(+)/At(+) couples have been determined, the respective values being 0.36 +/- 0.01 and 0.74 +/- 0.01 V vs NHE. PMID:20014840

  12. Improving Phosphorus Availability in an Acid Soil Using Organic Amendments Produced from Agroindustrial Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  13. Improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil using organic amendments produced from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Huck Ywih; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab

    2014-01-01

    In acid soils, soluble inorganic phosphorus is fixed by aluminium and iron. To overcome this problem, acid soils are limed to fix aluminium and iron but this practice is not economical. The practice is also not environmentally friendly. This study was conducted to improve phosphorus availability using organic amendments (biochar and compost produced from chicken litter and pineapple leaves, resp.) to fix aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus. Amending soil with biochar or compost or a mixture of biochar and compost increased total phosphorus, available phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus fractions (soluble inorganic phosphorus, aluminium bound inorganic phosphorus, iron bound inorganic phosphorus, redundant soluble inorganic phosphorus, and calcium bound phosphorus), and organic phosphorus. This was possible because the organic amendments increased soil pH and reduced exchangeable acidity, exchangeable aluminium, and exchangeable iron. The findings suggest that the organic amendments altered soil chemical properties in a way that enhanced the availability of phosphorus in this study. The amendments effectively fixed aluminium and iron instead of phosphorus, thus rendering phosphorus available by keeping the inorganic phosphorus in a bioavailable labile phosphorus pool for a longer period compared with application of Triple Superphosphate without organic amendments. PMID:25032229

  14. Identification of innovative potential quality markers in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Cavaiuolo, Marina; Cocetta, Giacomo; Bulgari, Roberta; Spinardi, Anna; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Ready-to-eat fresh cut produce are exposed to pre- and postharvest abiotic stresses during the production chain. Our work aimed to identify stress responsive genes as new molecular markers of quality that can be widely applied to leaves and fruits and easily determined at any stage of the production chain. Stress responsive genes associated with quality losses were isolated in rocket and melon fresh-cut produce and their expression levels analyzed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) at different time points after harvest at 20 °C and 4 °C. qRT-PCR results were supported by correlation analysis with physiological and biochemical determinations evaluated at the same conditions such as chlorophyll a fluorescence indices, total, reducing sugars, sucrose, ethylene, ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species. In both species the putative molecular markers increased their expression soon after harvest suggesting a possible use as novel and objective quality markers of fresh-cut produces. PMID:26041186

  15. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. PMID:25306090

  16. Drug Resistance Reversal Potential of Ursolic Acid Derivatives against Nalidixic Acid- and Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gaurav Raj; Maurya, Anupam; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Khan, Feroz; Darokar, Mahendra P; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    As a part of our drug discovery program, ursolic acid was chemically transformed into six semi-synthetic derivatives, which were evaluated for their antibacterial and drug resistance reversal potential in combination with conventional antibiotic nalidixic acid against the nalidixic acid-sensitive and nalidixic acid-resistant strains of Escherichia coli. Although ursolic acid and its all semi-synthetic derivatives did not show antibacterial activity of their own, but in combination, they significantly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration of nalidixic acid up to eightfold. The 3-O-acetyl-urs-12-en-28-isopropyl ester (UA-4) and 3-O-acetyl-urs-12-en-28-n-butyl ester (UA-5) derivatives of ursolic acid reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration of nalidixic acid by eightfold against nalidixic acid-resistant and four and eightfold against nalidixic acid-sensitive, respectively. The UA-4 and UA-5 were further evaluated for their synergy potential with another antibiotic tetracycline against the multidrug-resistant clinical isolate of Escherichia coli-KG4. The results showed that both these derivatives in combination with tetracycline reduced the cell viability in concentration-dependent manner by significantly inhibiting efflux pump. This was further supported by the in silico binding affinity of UA-4 and UA-5 with efflux pump proteins. These ursolic acid derivatives may find their potential use as synergistic agents in the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections. PMID:25476148

  17. Coal is a potential source of naphthenic acids in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Scott, Angela C; Whittal, Randy M; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2009-03-15

    Naphthenic acids, with the general formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2), are found in conventional petroleums and oil sands ores. These acids are toxic to aquatic life, so their discharge from petroleum processing into receiving waters must be avoided. In a previous study, naphthenic acids were putatively identified in groundwaters from two domestic wells that were distant from petroleum sources. However, coal deposits were near these wells. In this study, waters from the two wells were extracted and analyzed by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to unequivocally confirm the presence of naphthenic acids and other organic acids. In addition, distilled water was percolated through three crushed coal samples and the leachates were shown to contain a variety of organic acids, including naphthenic acids. These results clearly demonstrate that coal is a source of naphthenic acids and that the naphthenic acids can leach into groundwaters. Thus, the presence of naphthenic acids in waters cannot be solely attributed to petroleum or petroleum industry activities. PMID:19185332

  18. Temporal variations of mineral character of acid-producing pyritic coastal sediments, Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Preda, Micaela; Cox, Malcolm E

    2004-06-29

    The lower Pimpama River catchment possesses many features of morphology, geology and landuse, typical for Southeast Queensland. Pimpama River and its main tributary Hotham Creek meander over a coastal plain which developed during the last several thousand years as a result of sea level fluctuations and changing fluvial and estuarine regimes which provided ideal conditions for the formation of sedimentary pyrite. A complex mixture of natural and human factors triggers and controls the oxidation and hydrolysis of this pyrite. The consequent production of sulfuric acid and leaching of metals from the pyrite-rich sediments represent main environmental issues of this coastal setting. This study aimed to determine the lithological character of the coastal unconsolidated sediments, and identify changes produced by acidity over a long period of time in a natural system and over a short period of time in a laboratory system. The mineral composition of the estuarine sediments of the coastal plain reflects the lithology of their source, the geological basement, and also the enhanced weathering rate due to acid production. The primary minerals present in the sediments consist of quartz and feldspars (primarily albite, K-feldspars to a lesser extent and minor anorthite) the product of physical weathering of bedrock material, mainly sandstone. Kaolinite is the dominant clay mineral and represents the product of intense leaching of feldspars promoted by acid conditions. Kaolinite is fairly ordered in structure in fresh and weathered bedrock and it becomes disordered in the estuarine sediments. Illite is mainly present in bedrock-related samples and the highest amounts are associated with muscovite. In the tidal sediments, illite is present to a lesser extent and is not found in the lower estuary. The distribution of mixed layers of smectite-illite is highly variable and their deposition is mainly controlled by the hydrodynamic conditions of the environment. Only low energy tidal

  19. The reactions of hypochlorous acid, the reactive oxygen species produced by myeloperoxidase, with lipids.

    PubMed

    Spickett, C M; Jerlich, A; Panasenko, O M; Arnhold, J; Pitt, A R; Stelmaszyńska, T; Schaur, R J

    2000-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant enzyme in phagocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases including atherosclerosis. The major oxidant produced by MPO, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), is able to modify a great variety of biomolecules by chlorination and/or oxidation. In this paper the reactions of lipids (preferentially unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol) with either reagent HOCl or HOCl generated by the MPO-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system are reviewed. One of the major issues has been whether the reaction of HOCl with lipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL) yields predominantly chlorohydrins or lipid hydroperoxides. Electrospray mass spectrometry provided direct evidence that chlorohydrins rather than peroxides are the major products of HOCl- or MPO-treated LDL phosphatidylcholines. Nevertheless lipid peroxidation is a possible alternative reaction of HOCl with polyunsaturated fatty acids if an additional radical source such as pre-formed lipid hydroperoxides is available. In phospholipids carrying a primary amino group such as phosphatidylethanolamine chloramines are the preferred products compared to chlorohydrins. Cholesterol can be converted by HOCl to great variety of oxysterols besides three isomers of chlorohydrins. For the situation in vivo it appears that the type of reaction occurring between HOCl and lipids would very much depend on the circumstances, e.g. the pH and the presence of radical initiators. The biological effects of lipid chlorohydrins are not yet well understood. It has been shown that chlorohydrins of both unsaturated fatty acids as well as of cholesterol may cause lysis of target cells, possibly by disruption of membrane structures. PMID:11996112

  20. No role for bacterially produced salicylic Acid in rhizobacterial induction of systemic resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ran, L X; van Loon, L C; Bakker, P A H M

    2005-11-01

    ABSTRACT The role of bacterially produced salicylic acid (SA) in the induction of systemic resistance in plants by rhizobacteria is far from clear. The strong SA producer Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r induces resistance in radish but not in Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas application of SA leads to induction of resistance in both plant species. In this study, we compared P. fluorescens WCS374r with three other SA-producing fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, P. fluorescens WCS417r and CHA0r, and P. aeruginosa 7NSK2 for their abilities to produce SA under different growth conditions and to induce systemic resistance in A. thaliana against bacterial speck, caused by P. syringae pv. tomato. All strains produced SA in vitro, varying from 5 fg cell(-1) for WCS417r to >25 fg cell(-1) for WCS374r. Addition of 200 muM FeCl(3) to standard succinate medium abolished SA production in all strains. Whereas the incubation temperature did not affect SA production by WCS417r and 7NSK2, strains WCS374r and CHA0r produced more SA when grown at 33 instead of 28 degrees C. WCS417r, CHA0r, and 7NSK2 induced systemic resistance apparently associated with their ability to produce SA, but WCS374r did not. Conversely, a mutant of 7NSK2 unable to produce SA still triggered induced systemic resistance (ISR). The possible involvement of SA in the induction of resistance was evaluated using SA-nonaccumulating transgenic NahG plants. Strains WCS417r, CHA0r, and 7NSK2 induced resistance in NahG Arabidopsis. Also, WCS374r, when grown at 33 or 36 degrees C, triggered ISR in these plants, but not in ethylene-insensitive ein2 or in non-plant pathogenesis- related protein-expressing npr1 mutant plants, irrespective of the growth temperature of the bacteria. These results demonstrate that, whereas WCS374r can be manipulated to trigger ISR in Arabidopsis, SA is not the primary determinant for the induction of systemic resistance against bacterial speck disease by this bacterium. Also, for the other

  1. Gassericin A: a circular bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus gasseri.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Neha; Malik, R K; Kaushik, J K; Singroha, Garima

    2013-11-01

    During the recent years extensive efforts have been made to find out bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) active against various food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, and superior stabilities against heat treatments and pH variations. Bacteriocins isolated from LAB have been grouped into four classes. Circular bacteriocins which were earlier grouped among the four groups of bacteriocins, have recently been proposed to be classified into a different class, making it class V bacteriocins. Circular bacteriocins are special molecules, whose precursors must be post translationally modified to join the N to C termini with a head-to-tail peptide bond. Cyclization appears to make them less susceptible to proteolytic cleavage, high temperature and pH, and, therefore, provides enhanced stability as compared to linear bacteriocins. The advantages of circularization are also reflected by the fact that a significant number of macrocyclic natural products have found pharmaceutical applications. Circular bacteriocins were unknown two decades ago, and even to date, only a few circular bacteriocins from a diverse group of Gram positive organisms have been reported. The first example of a circular bacteriocin was enterocin AS-48, produced by Enterococcus faecalis AS-48. Gassereccin A, produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, Reutericin 6 produced by Lactobacillus reuteri LA6 and Circularin A, produced by Clostridium beijerinickii ATCC 25,752, are further examples of this group of antimicrobial peptides. In the present scenario, Gassericin A can be an important tool in the food preservation owing to its properties of high pH and temperature tolerance and the fact that it is produced by LAB L. gasseri, whose many strains are proven probiotic. PMID:23712477

  2. Chlorella zofingiensis as an Alternative Microalgal Producer of Astaxanthin: Biology and Industrial Potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Sun, Zheng; Gerken, Henri; Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione), a high-value ketocarotenoid with a broad range of applications in food, feed, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries, has been gaining great attention from science and the public in recent years. The green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chlorella zofingiensis represent the most promising producers of natural astaxanthin. Although H. pluvialis possesses the highest intracellular astaxanthin content and is now believed to be a good producer of astaxanthin, it has intrinsic shortcomings such as slow growth rate, low biomass yield, and a high light requirement. In contrast, C. zofingiensis grows fast phototrophically, heterotrophically and mixtrophically, is easy to be cultured and scaled up both indoors and outdoors, and can achieve ultrahigh cell densities. These robust biotechnological traits provide C. zofingiensis with high potential to be a better organism than H. pluvialis for mass astaxanthin production. This review aims to provide an overview of the biology and industrial potential of C. zofingiensis as an alternative astaxanthin producer. The path forward for further expansion of the astaxanthin production from C. zofingiensis with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:24918452

  3. Chlorella zofingiensis as an alternative microalgal producer of astaxanthin: biology and industrial potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Sun, Zheng; Gerken, Henri; Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4'-dione), a high-value ketocarotenoid with a broad range of applications in food, feed, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries, has been gaining great attention from science and the public in recent years. The green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis and Chlorella zofingiensis represent the most promising producers of natural astaxanthin. Although H. pluvialis possesses the highest intracellular astaxanthin content and is now believed to be a good producer of astaxanthin, it has intrinsic shortcomings such as slow growth rate, low biomass yield, and a high light requirement. In contrast, C. zofingiensis grows fast phototrophically, heterotrophically and mixtrophically, is easy to be cultured and scaled up both indoors and outdoors, and can achieve ultrahigh cell densities. These robust biotechnological traits provide C. zofingiensis with high potential to be a better organism than H. pluvialis for mass astaxanthin production. This review aims to provide an overview of the biology and industrial potential of C. zofingiensis as an alternative astaxanthin producer. The path forward for further expansion of the astaxanthin production from C. zofingiensis with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. PMID:24918452

  4. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  5. Evaluation of the Synthetic Potential of an AHBA Knockout Mutant of the Rifamycin Producer Amycolatopsis mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Bułyszko, Ilona; Dräger, Gerald; Klenge, Anja; Kirschning, Andreas

    2015-12-21

    Supplementing an AHBA(-) mutant strain of Amycolatopsis mediterranei, the rifamycin producer, with a series of benzoic acid derivatives yielded new tetraketides containing different phenyl groups. These mutasynthetic studies revealed unique reductive properties of A. mediterranei towards nitro- and azidoarenes, leading to the corresponding anilines. In selected cases, the yields of mutaproducts (fermentation products isolated after feeding bacteria with chemically prepared analogs of natural building blocks) obtained are in a range (up to 118 mg L(-1)) that renders them useful as chiral building blocks for further synthetic endeavors. The configuration of the stereogenic centers at C6 and C7 was determined to be 6R,7S for one representative tetraketide. Importantly, processing beyond the tetraketide stage is not always blocked when the formation of the bicyclic naphthalene precursor cannot occur. This was proven by formation of a bromo undecaketide, an observation that has implications regarding the evolutionary development of rifamycin biosynthesis. PMID:26559164

  6. Hyicin 3682, a bioactive peptide produced by Staphylococcus hyicus 3682 with potential applications for food preservation.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, Patrícia Carlin; Ceotto, Hilana; Potter, Amina; Vasconcelos de Paiva Brito, Maria Aparecida; Brede, Dag; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2011-12-01

    Bacteriocins are peptides produced by bacteria and having inhibitory activity against other bacteria. Many of these substances may be useful as antibacterial agents for practical applications. In this study, 21 Staphylococcus spp. isolated from pigs, dogs and bovine milk in different states of Brazil were investigated for staphylococcin production. Hyicin 3682, a bacteriocin produced by one such strain, inhibited almost all strains tested, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. PCR experiments showed that hyicin 3682 is lantibiotic-related, but not identical, to both epidermin and Bsa. The maximum production of hyicin 3682 (6,400 AU/ml) was observed after 24 h of growth in BHI medium at 37 °C. Hyicin 3682 proved to be a cationic, small antimicrobial peptide with a molecular mass of 2,139 Da. It exhibited resistance to low pH and to heating at 65 °C, and partial sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes. Taken together, these results suggest that hyicin 3682, the first bacteriocin characterized in Staphylococcus hyicus, has potential biotechnological applications as a food preservative. Moreover, hyicin 3682 was able to inhibit its producer strain, suggesting that an effective immune system for specific protection against hyicin 3682 is not found in its producer strain, a characteristic not described thus far for other staphylococcins. PMID:22019494

  7. Kinetic modeling, production and characterization of an acidic lipase produced by Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 from fish waste.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Vrinda; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Halami, Prakash M; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2015-03-01

    Enterococcus durans NCIM5427 (ED-27), capable of producing an intracellular acid stable lipase, was isolated from fish processing waste. Its growth and subsequent lipase production was optimized by Box Behneken design (optimized conditions: 5 % v/v fish waste oil (FWO), 0.10 mg/ml fish waste protein hydrolysates (FWPH) at 48 h of fermentation time). Under optimized conditions, ED-27 showed a 3.0 fold increase (207.6 U/ml to 612.53 U/ml) in lipase production, as compared to un-optimized conditions. Cell growth and lipase production was modeled using Logistic and Luedeking-Piret model, respectively; and lipase production by ED-27 was found to be growth-associated. Lipase produced by ED-27 showed stability at low pH ranges from 2 to 5 with its optimal activity at 30 °C , pH 4.6; showed metal ion dependent activity wherein its catalytic activity was activated by barium, sodium, lithium and potassium (10 mM); reduced by calcium and magnesium (10 mM). However, iron and mercury (5 mM) completely inactivated the enzyme. In addition, modifying agents like SDS, DTT, β-ME (1%v/v) increased activity of lipase of ED-27; while, PMSF, DEPC and ascorbic acid resulted in a marked decrease. ED-27 had maximum cell growth of 9.90309 log CFU/ml under optimized conditions as compared to 13 log CFU/ml in MRS. The lipase produced has potential application in poultry and slaughterhouse waste management. PMID:25745201

  8. Hypochlorous Acid as a Potential Wound Care Agent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Bassiri, M; Najafi, R; Najafi, K; Yang, J; Khosrovi, B; Hwong, W; Barati, E; Belisle, B; Celeri, C; Robson, MC

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a major inorganic bactericidal compound of innate immunity, is effective against a broad range of microorganisms. Owing to its chemical nature, HOCl has never been used as a pharmaceutical drug for treating infection. In this article, we describe the chemical production, stabilization, and biological activity of a pharmaceutically useful formulation of HOCl. Methods: Stabilized HOCl is in the form of a physiologically balanced solution in 0.9% saline at a pH range of 3.5 to 4.0. Chlorine species distribution in solution is a function of pH. In aqueous solution, HOCl is the predominant species at the pH range of 3 to 6. At pH values less than 3.5, the solution exists as a mixture of chlorine in aqueous phase, chlorine gas, trichloride (Cl3−), and HOCl. At pH greater than 5.5, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) starts to form and becomes the predominant species in the alkaline pH. To maintain HOCl solution in a stable form, maximize its antimicrobial activities, and minimize undesirable side products, the pH must be maintained at 3.5 to 5. Results: Using this stabilized form of HOCl, the potent antimicrobial activities of HOCl are demonstrated against a wide range of microorganisms. The in vitro cytotoxicity profile in L929 cells and the in vivo safety profile of HOCl in various animal models are described. Conclusion: On the basis of the antimicrobial activity and the lack of animal toxicity, it is predicted that stabilized HOCl has potential pharmaceutical applications in the control of soft tissue infection. PMID:17492050

  9. Poly(lactic) acid fibers loaded with mesoporous silica for potential applications in the active food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciotti, Ilaria; Nanni, Francesca

    2016-06-01

    Multifunctional fibrous systems based on poly(lactic) acid (PLA), mesoporous silica (SiO2) and ascorbic acid (AA) were produced by means of electrospinning technique, for potential applications in the active food packaging sector, as platform for the controlled release of antioxidant and/or antimicrobial agents with the additional filtering function. The ascorbic acid was physisorbed on the surface of mesoporous silica in order to stabilize it and to extend its antioxidant action. The influence of mesoporous silica and ascorbic acid on the microstructural and mechanical properties was investigated, revealing a revelant mechanical reinforcement in the case of fibers loaded only with SiO2 and a decrement in the case of SiO2 with physisorbed ascorbic acid, due to the worse interface between the fillers and the polymeric matrix.

  10. Potential heat exchange fluids for use in sulfuric acid vaporizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A series of perhalocarbons are proposed as candidate heat exchange fluids for service in thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production that involve direct contact of the fluid with sulfuric acid and vaporization of the acid. The required chemical and physical criteria of the liquids are described and the results of some preliminary high temperature test data are presented.

  11. EPA releases study describing potential acid rain damage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acid rain researchers on August 24 offered evidence that if sulfur emissions are not reduced in the future, aquatic systems in the South will suffer damage from acid rain. Evidence also indicates that reductions in sulfur emissions could improve the health of damaged lakes in the Northeast. The study Future Effects of Long-Term Sulfur Deposition on Surface Water Chemistry: The Direct/Delayed Response Project, developed 50-year projections of watershed quality under three plausible acidic deposition, or acid rain, scenarios. Three areas were studied - the Northeast, comprising all of New England and parts of New York and Pennsylvania; the Mid-Appalachian Region, covering much of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the Southern Blue Ridge Province, an area covering parts of North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina and Georgia. The study is a key element in the closing months of the 10-year National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program.

  12. Siderophore as a potential plant growth-promoting agent produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25.

    PubMed

    Sulochana, M B; Jayachandra, S Y; Kumar, S Anil; Parameshwar, A B; Reddy, K Mohan; Dayanand, A

    2014-09-01

    Siderophores scavenges Fe(+3) from the vicinity of the roots of plants, and thus limit the amount of iron required for the growth of pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium ultimum, and Fusarium udum, which cause wilt and root rot disease in crops. The ability of Pseudomonas to grow and to produce siderophore depends upon the iron content, pH, and temperature. Maximum yield of siderophore of 130 μM was observed at pH 7.0 ± 0.2 and temperature of 30 °C at 30 h. The threshold level of iron was 50 μM, which increases up to 150 μM, favoring growth but drastically affecting the production of siderophore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa JAS-25. The seeds of agricultural crops like Cicer arietinum (chick pea), Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea), and Arachis hypogaea (ground nut) were treated with P. aeruginosa JAS-25, which enhanced the seed germination, root length, shoot length, and dry weight of chick pea, pigeon pea, and ground nut plants under pot studies. The efficient growth of the plants was not only due to the biocontrol activity of the siderophore produced by P. aeruginosa JAS-25 but also may be by the production of indole acetic acid (IAA), which influences the growth of the plants as phytohormones. PMID:25062779

  13. Bio-electro catalytic treatment of petroleum produced water: Influence of cathode potential upliftment.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pratiksha; Srikanth, Sandipam; Kumar, Manoj; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Singh, M P; Lal, Banwari

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of petroleum produced water (PPW) was studied using bioelectrochemical system (BES) under uplifted cathode potential. The treatment efficiency in terms of COD and hydrocarbon removal was observed at 91.25% and 76.60% respectively, along with the reduction in TDS during BES operation under 400mV of cathode potential. There was also a reduction in concentration of sulfates, however, it was not significant at, since oxidative conditions are being maintained at anode. Improved oxidation of PPW at anode also resulted in good power output (-20.47mA) and also depicted improved fuel cell behaviour. The electrochemical analysis in terms of cyclic/linear sweep voltammetry also showed well correlation with the observed treatment efficiencies. The microbial dynamics of the BES after loading real field wastewater showed the dominance of species that are reported to be effective for petroleum crude oil degradation. PMID:27544915

  14. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-01

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263±0.02 g cellulose L-1 for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  15. Utilization of Vinegar for Isolation of Cellulose Producing Acetic Acid Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Aydin, Y. Andelib; Aksoy, Nuran Deveci

    2010-06-17

    Wastes of traditionally fermented Turkish vinegar were used in the isolation of cellulose producing acetic acid bacteria. Waste material was pre-enriched in Hestrin-Schramm medium and microorganisms were isolated by plating dilution series on HS agar plates The isolated strains were subjected to elaborate biochemical and physiological tests for identification. Test results were compared to those of reference strains Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM 46604, Gluconacetobacter hansenii DSM 5602 and Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens DSM 5603. Seventeen strains, out of which only three were found to secrete the exopolysaccharide cellulose. The highest cellulose yield was recorded as 0.263+-0.02 g cellulose L{sup -1} for the strain AS14 which resembled Gluconacetobacter hansenii in terms of biochemical tests.

  16. Characterization of a bioflocculant produced by Citrobacter sp. TKF04 from acetic and propionic acids.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Ike, M; Tachibana, S; Kitada, G; Kim, S M; Inoue, Z

    2000-01-01

    A bacterial strain, TKF04, capable of producing a bioflocculant from acetic and/or propionic acids was isolated from a biofilm formed in inside a kitchen drain. It was identified as a Citrobacter based on its morphological and physiological characteristics and the partial sequences of its 16S rRNA. TKF04 produced the bioflocculant during the logarithmic phase of growth, and the optimum temperature and pH for the bioflocculant production were 30 degrees C and 7.2-10.0, respectively. It could utilize some organic acids and sugars for its growth as the sole carbon sources when yeast extract was supplemented; however, only acetate and propionate were found to be good substrates for the bioflocculant production. The crude bioflocculant could be recovered from the supernatant of the culture broth by ethanol precipitation and dialysis against deionized water. It was found to be effective for flocculation of a kaolin suspension, when added at a final concentration of 1-10 mg/l, over a wide range of pHs (2-8) and temperatures (approximately 3-95 degrees C), while the co-presence of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Al3+ or Fe3+) did not enhance the flocculating activity. It could efficiently flocculate a variety of inorganic and organic suspended particles, including kaolin, diatomite, bentonite, activated carbon, soil and activated sludge. It contained glucosamine as the major component, and the molecular weight was estimated to be between 232 and 440 kDa by gel filtration. The observation that the flocculating activity was completely lost following chitinase treatment and its analysis with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer suggested that the bioflocculant is a biopolymer structurally-similar to chitin or chitosan. PMID:16232696

  17. The Potential of Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) for Producing Important Components of Renewable Energy and Agricultural Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwata, E.

    2012-04-01

    In agricultural systems, sustainable crop production is critical in meeting both environmental requirements and the limitations of drought imposed by the effects of global warming. The inputs for crop production and end use of the products should determine the choice of a crop particularly in environments prone to droughts. The objective of this paper is to highlight why a multi-purpose grain legume such as pigeonpea is an ideal crop that can be utilized for producing renewable energy. Firstly, it is highly tolerant to drought and does not require additional soil moisture after the seedling growth stage. The deep tape root extracts moisture and nutrients from deep layers of the soil concomitantly allowing for efficient nutrient recycling. The piscidic acid which is exuded from the roots enhances the solubilization of phosphorus in order to make it available for plant uptake. Secondly, the grain of pigeonpea is suitable for both human food and feedstocks. The grain is rich in oil, vitamins, minerals and protein. The grain can also be used for producing biofuel. In many countries particularly in the developing world, the stover is used as fuel wood or building (roofing) material, thus alleviating pressure on forest products. The crop is grown without the application of inorganic fertilizers as it can fix atmospheric nitrogen symbiotically in its root nodules. Pigeonpea is also ratoonable, producing two or more harvests per season. In addition, it is grown in mixed cropping systems thus optimizing land use. In these regards, pigeonpea is sustainable and environmentally friendly choice for agricultural production of food and energy balance.

  18. Accumulation and perchlorate exposure potential of lettuce produced in the Lower Colorado River region.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C A; Krieger, R I; Khandaker, N; Moore, R C; Holts, K C; Neidel, L L

    2005-06-29

    The Colorado River is contaminated with perchlorate concentrations of 1.5-8 microg/L, an anion linked to thyroid dysfunction. Over 90% of the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) consumed during the winter months in the United States is produced in the Lower Colorado River region. Studies were conducted in this region to survey the potential for lettuce perchlorate accumulation and estimate potential human exposure to perchlorate from lettuce. Total uptake of perchlorate in the above-ground plant of iceberg lettuce was approximately 5 g/ha. Exposure estimates ranged from 0.45 to 1.8 microg/day depending on lettuce types and trimming. For all lettuce types, hypothetical exposures were less than 4% of the reference dose recommended by the National Academy of Sciences. Results show the relative iodide uptake inhibition potential because of lettuce nitrate was 2 orders of magnitude greater than that associated with the corresponding trace levels of perchlorate. These data support the conclusion that potential perchlorate exposures from lettuce irrigated with Colorado River water are negligible relative to acute or long-term harmful amounts. PMID:15969537

  19. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation. PMID:27071053

  20. Proteome analysis of the hyaluronic acid-producing bacterium, Streptococcus zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    Marcellin, Esteban; Gruber, Christian W; Archer, Colin; Craik, David J; Nielsen, Lars K

    2009-01-01

    Background Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a commensal of horses and an opportunistic pathogen in many animals and humans. Some strains produce copious amounts of hyaluronic acid, making S. zooepidemicus an important industrial microorganism for the production of this valuable biopolymer used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Encapsulation by hyaluronic acid is considered an important virulence factor in other streptococci, though the importance in S. zooepidemicus remains poorly understood. Proteomics may provide a better understanding of virulence factors in S. zooepidemicus, facilitate the design of better diagnostics and treatments, and guide engineering of superior production strains. Results Using hyaluronidase to remove the capsule and by optimising cellular lysis, a reference map for S. zooepidemicus was completed. This protocol significantly increased protein recovery, allowing for visualisation of 682 spots and the identification of 86 proteins using mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF); of which 16 were membrane proteins. Conclusion The data presented constitute the first reference map for S. zooepidemicus and provide new information on the identity and characteristics of the more abundantly expressed proteins. PMID:19327162

  1. Simple and accurate modelling of the gravitational potential produced by thick and thin exponential discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.; Flynn, C.; Candlish, G. N.; Fellhauer, M.; Gibson, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    We present accurate models of the gravitational potential produced by a radially exponential disc mass distribution. The models are produced by combining three separate Miyamoto-Nagai discs. Such models have been used previously to model the disc of the Milky Way, but here we extend this framework to allow its application to discs of any mass, scalelength, and a wide range of thickness from infinitely thin to near spherical (ellipticities from 0 to 0.9). The models have the advantage of simplicity of implementation, and we expect faster run speeds over a double exponential disc treatment. The potentials are fully analytical, and differentiable at all points. The mass distribution of our models deviates from the radial mass distribution of a pure exponential disc by <0.4 per cent out to 4 disc scalelengths, and <1.9 per cent out to 10 disc scalelengths. We tabulate fitting parameters which facilitate construction of exponential discs for any scalelength, and a wide range of disc thickness (a user-friendly, web-based interface is also available). Our recipe is well suited for numerical modelling of the tidal effects of a giant disc galaxy on star clusters or dwarf galaxies. We consider three worked examples; the Milky Way thin and thick disc, and a discy dwarf galaxy.

  2. Effect of acid hydrolysis on regenerated kenaf core membrane produced using aqueous alkaline-urea systems.

    PubMed

    Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah Syed; Kaco, Hatika; Gan, Sinyee; Ng, Peivun

    2015-06-25

    Bleached kenaf core pulps (BKC) were hydrolyzed in H2SO4 (0.5M) at different time (0min to 90min) at room temperature. After the hydrolysis process, the viscosity average molecular weight (Mŋ) for BKC sample has reduced from 14.5×10(4) to 2.55×10(4). The hydrolyzed BKC was then dissolved in NaOH:urea:water and in LiOH:urea:water mixed solvent at the ratio of 7:12:81 and 4.6:15:80.4, respectively. The increased in hydrolysis time has decreased Mŋ of cellulose leading to easy dissolution process. Higher porosity and transparency with lower crystallinity index (CrI) of regenerated membrane produced can be achieved as the Mŋ reduced. The properties of membrane were observed through FESEM, UV-vis spectrophotometer and XRD. This study has proven that acid hydrolysis has reduced the Mŋ of cellulose, thus, enhanced the properties of regenerated membrane produced with assisted by alkaline/urea system. PMID:25839807

  3. Characterization of a novel galactan produced by Weissella confusa KR780676 from an acidic fermented food.

    PubMed

    Kavitake, Digambar; Devi, Palanisamy Bruntha; Singh, Sanjay Pratap; Shetty, Prathapkumar Halady

    2016-05-01

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain PUFSTM055 isolated from Idli batter (an Indian traditional cereal-legume based fermented food) was identified as Weissella confusa KR780676. The strain was shown to produce 17.2g/L (dry weight) of EPS in 2% sucrose supplemented MRS broth and the EPS was characterized. HPTLC analysis confirmed the presence of galactose monomers, indicating the homopolysaccharide nature of EPS. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the EPS was found to be a novel linear galactan containing α-(1→6)-linked galactose units. Scanning electron microscopy of the EPS revealed the presence of porous and spongy starch-like granules. Topographical examination of EPS by atomic force microscopy revealed that the EPS formed densely packed mesh-like structure with irregular spherical lumps. The EPS also showed high thermal stability with a degradation temperature of 287.5 °C and melting point at 274.65 °C. EPS was semi-crystalline with crystallinity index of 0.23 and showed 100% water solubility index. These characteristics of the EPS would make it a promising hydrocolloid for food industries as bio-thickeners, stabilizers and also as an encapsulating material for delivery of food bioactive compounds. This is the first study reporting the galactan compose of the EPS from lactic acid bacteria. PMID:26836614

  4. A review on protocatechuic Acid and its pharmacological potential.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Sahil; Bais, Souravh

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and polyphenols are heterocyclic molecules that have been associated with beneficial effects on human health, such as reducing the risk of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and brain diseases. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. More than 500 plants contain PCA as active constituents imparting various pharmacological activity and these effects are due to their antioxidant activities, along with other possible mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory properties and interaction with several enzymes. Over the past two decades, there have been an increasing number of publications on polyphenols and flavonoids, which demonstrate the importance of understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of both natural and synthesized compounds, considering the benefits from their dietary ingestion as well as pharmacological use. This work aims to review the pharmacological effects of PCA molecules in humans and the structural aspects that contribute to these effects. PMID:25006494

  5. A Review on Protocatechuic Acid and Its Pharmacological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Sahil; Bais, Souravh

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids and polyphenols are heterocyclic molecules that have been associated with beneficial effects on human health, such as reducing the risk of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and brain diseases. Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid. PCA has structural similarity with gallic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid which are well-known antioxidant compounds. More than 500 plants contain PCA as active constituents imparting various pharmacological activity and these effects are due to their antioxidant activities, along with other possible mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory properties and interaction with several enzymes. Over the past two decades, there have been an increasing number of publications on polyphenols and flavonoids, which demonstrate the importance of understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of both natural and synthesized compounds, considering the benefits from their dietary ingestion as well as pharmacological use. This work aims to review the pharmacological effects of PCA molecules in humans and the structural aspects that contribute to these effects. PMID:25006494

  6. Understanding Potential Air Emissions from a Cellulosic Biorefinery Producing Renewable Diesel Blendstock.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yimin; Heath, Garvin A.; Renzaglia, Jason; Thomas, Mae

    2015-06-22

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, through the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), mandates increased use of biofuels, including cellulosic biofuels. The RFS is expected to spur the development of advanced biofuel technologies (e.g., new and innovative biofuel conversion pathways) as well as the construction of biorefineries (refineries that produce biofuels) using these technologies. To develop sustainable cellulosic biofuels, one of the goals of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) at the Department of Energy is to minimize air pollutants from the entire biofuel supply chain, as stated in their 2014 Multi-Year Program Plan (2014). Although biofuels in general have been found to have lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum fuels on an energy basis, biomass feedstock production, harvesting, transportation, processing and conversion are expected to emit a wide range of other air pollutants (e.g., criteria air pollutants, hazardous air pollutants), which could affect the environmental benefits of biofuels when displacing petroleum fuels. While it is important for policy makers, air quality planners and regulators, biofuel developers, and investors to understand the potential implications on air quality from a growing biofuel industry, there is a general lack of information and knowledge about the type, fate and magnitude of potential air pollutant emissions from the production of cellulosic biofuels due to the nascent stage of this emerging industry. This analysis assesses potential air pollutant emissions from a hypothetical biorefinery, selected by BETO for further research and development, which uses a biological conversion process of sugars to hydrocarbons to produce infrastructural-compatible renewable diesel blendstock from cellulosic biomass.

  7. Behavioral evaluation of the neurotoxicity produced by dichloroacetic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Moser, V C; Phillips, P M; McDaniel, K L; MacPhail, R C

    1999-01-01

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is commonly found in drinking water as a by-product of chlorination disinfection. It is a known neurotoxicant in rats, dogs, and humans. We have characterized DCA neurotoxicity in rats using a neurobehavioral screening battery under varying exposure durations (acute, subchronic, and chronic) and routes of administration (oral gavage and drinking water). Studies were conducted in both weanling and adult rats, and comparisons were made between Long-Evans and Fischer-344 rats. DCA produced neuromuscular toxicity comprised of limb weakness and deficits in gait and righting reflex; altered gait and decreased hindlimb grip strength were the earliest indicators of toxicity. Other effects included mild tremors, ocular abnormalities, and a unique chest-clasping response (seen in Fischer-344 rats only). Neurotoxicity was permanent (i.e., through 2 years) following a 6-month exposure to high dose levels, whereas the effects of intermediate dose levels with exposures of 3 months or less were slowly reversible. The severity, specificity, and recovery of neurological changes were route, duration, and strain dependent. Fischer-344 rats were more sensitive than Long-Evans rats, and weanling rats may be somewhat more sensitive than adults. Oral gavage produced significantly less toxicity compared to the same intake level received in drinking water. Neurotoxicity was progressive with continued exposure, and was observed at exposure levels as low as 16 mg/kg/day (lowest dose level tested) when administered via drinking water in subchronic studies. The data from these studies characterize the neurotoxicity produced by DCA, and show it to be more pronounced, persistent, and occurring at lower exposures than has been previously reported. Further research should take into account these marked route, age, and strain differences. PMID:10560779

  8. The Microbiota of Freshwater Fish and Freshwater Niches Contain Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Producing Shewanella Species

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, Joseph E.; Jensen, Brittany J.; Bishop, Sydney S.; Lokken, James P.; Dorff, Kellen J.; Ripley, Michael P.; Munro, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also harbor these producers. Thus, we undertook a study to see if these niches also contained omega-3 fatty acid producers. We were successful in isolating and characterizing unique EPA-producing strains of Shewanella from three strictly freshwater native fish species, i.e., lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and walleye (Sander vitreus), and from two other freshwater nonnative fish, i.e., coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and seeforellen brown trout (Salmo trutta). We were also able to isolate four unique free-living strains of EPA-producing Shewanella from freshwater habitats. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses suggest that one producer is clearly a member of the Shewanella morhuae species and another is sister to members of the marine PUFA-producing Shewanella baltica species. However, the remaining isolates have more ambiguous relationships, sharing a common ancestor with non-PUFA-producing Shewanella putrefaciens isolates rather than marine S. baltica isolates despite having a phenotype more consistent with S. baltica strains. PMID:26497452

  9. The Microbiota of Freshwater Fish and Freshwater Niches Contain Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Producing Shewanella Species.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Frank E; McGraw, Joseph E; Jensen, Brittany J; Bishop, Sydney S; Lokken, James P; Dorff, Kellen J; Ripley, Michael P; Munro, James B

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30 years ago, it was discovered that free-living bacteria isolated from cold ocean depths could produce polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), two PUFA essential for human health. Numerous laboratories have also discovered that EPA- and/or DHA-producing bacteria, many of them members of the Shewanella genus, could be isolated from the intestinal tracts of omega-3 fatty acid-rich marine fish. If bacteria contribute omega-3 fatty acids to the host fish in general or if they assist some bacterial species in adaptation to cold, then cold freshwater fish or habitats should also harbor these producers. Thus, we undertook a study to see if these niches also contained omega-3 fatty acid producers. We were successful in isolating and characterizing unique EPA-producing strains of Shewanella from three strictly freshwater native fish species, i.e., lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and walleye (Sander vitreus), and from two other freshwater nonnative fish, i.e., coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and seeforellen brown trout (Salmo trutta). We were also able to isolate four unique free-living strains of EPA-producing Shewanella from freshwater habitats. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses suggest that one producer is clearly a member of the Shewanella morhuae species and another is sister to members of the marine PUFA-producing Shewanella baltica species. However, the remaining isolates have more ambiguous relationships, sharing a common ancestor with non-PUFA-producing Shewanella putrefaciens isolates rather than marine S. baltica isolates despite having a phenotype more consistent with S. baltica strains. PMID:26497452

  10. Isolation and characterization of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)-producing Streptomyces sp. S161 from sheep (Ovis aries) faeces.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Wang, J; Deng, Z; Wu, H; Deng, Q; Tan, H; Cao, L

    2013-09-01

    An actinomycete producing oil-like mixtures was isolated and characterized. The strain was isolated from sheep faeces and identified as Streptomyces sp. S161 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The strain showed cellulase and xylanase activities. The (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the mixtures showed that the mixtures were composed of fatty acid methyl esters (52·5), triglycerides (13·7) and monoglycerides (9·1) (mol.%). Based on the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the fatty acid methyl esters were mainly composed of C14-C16 long-chain fatty acids. The results indicated that Streptomyces sp. S161 could produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) directly from starch. To our knowledge, this is the first isolated strain that can produce biodiesel (FAME) directly from starch. PMID:23692633

  11. Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid (PGA)-Producing Bacillus Species Isolated from Kinema, Indian Fermented Soybean Food

    PubMed Central

    Chettri, Rajen; Bhutia, Meera O.; Tamang, Jyoti P.

    2016-01-01

    Kinema, an ethnic fermented, non-salted and sticky soybean food is consumed in the eastern part of India. The stickiness is one of the best qualities of good kinema preferred by consumers, which is due to the production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Average load of Bacillus in kinema was 107 cfu/g and of lactic acid bacteria was 103 cfu/g. Bacillus spp. were screened for PGA-production and isolates of lactic acid bacteria were also tested for degradation of PGA. Only Bacillus produced PGA, none of lactic acid bacteria produced PGA. PGA-producing Bacillus spp. were identified by phenotypic characterization and also by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. sonorensis. PMID:27446012

  12. Potential application of a bioemulsifier-producing actinobacterium for treatment of vinasse.

    PubMed

    Colin, Verónica L; Cortes, Álvaro A Juárez; Aparicio, Juan D; Amoroso, María J

    2016-02-01

    Vinasse is a complex effluent created during production of ethyl alcohol, which can present serious pollution hazard in areas where it is discharged. A variety of technologies, many based upon recovery of the effluent via microbial pathways, are continually being evaluated in order to mitigate the pollution potential of vinasse. The present work reports on initial advances related to the effectiveness of the actinobacterium Streptomyces sp. MC1 for vinasse treatment. Alternative use of raw vinasse as a substrate for producing metabolites of biotechnological interest such as bioemulsifiers, was also evaluated. The strain was able to grow at very high vinasse concentrations (until 50% v/v) and remove over 50% of the biodegradable organic matter in a time period as short as 4 d. Potentially toxic metals such as Mn, Fe, Zn, As, and Pb were also effectively removed during bacterial growth. Decrease in the pollution potential of treated vinasse compared to raw effluent, was reflected in a significant increase in the vigour index of Lactuca sativa (letucce) used as bioremediation indicator. Finally, significant bioemulsifier production was detected when this strain was incubated in a vinasse-based culture medium. These results represent the first advances on the recovery and re-valuation of an actual effluent, by using an actinobacterium from our collection of cultures. PMID:26421623

  13. Prolactin potentiates the activity of acid-sensing ion channels in female rat primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Qu, Zu-Wei; Ren, Cuixia; Gan, Xiong; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone produced and released from the pituitary and extrapituitary tissues. It regulates activity of nociceptors and causes hyperalgesia in pain conditions, but little is known the molecular mechanism. We report here that PRL can exert a potentiating effect on the functional activity of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), key sensors for extracellular protons. First, PRL dose-dependently increased the amplitude of ASIC currents with an EC50 of (5.89 ± 0.28) × 10(-8) M. PRL potentiation of ASIC currents was also pH dependent. Second, PRL potentiation of ASIC currents was blocked by Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL, a PRL receptor antagonist, and removed by intracellular dialysis of either protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X, protein interacting with C-kinase 1(PICK1) inhibitor FSC-231, or PI3K inhibitor AS605240. Third, PRL altered acidosis-evoked membrane excitability of DRG neurons and caused a significant increase in the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Four, PRL exacerbated nociceptive responses to injection of acetic acid in female rats. Finally, PRL displayed a stronger effect on ASIC mediated-currents and nociceptive behavior in intact female rats than OVX female and male rats and thus modulation of PRL may be gender-dependent. These results suggest that PRL up-regulates the activity of ASICs and enhances ASIC mediated nociceptive responses in female rats, which reveal a novel peripheral mechanism underlying PRL involvement in hyperalgesia. PMID:26188144

  14. Microcystin-producing and non-producing cyanobacterial blooms collected from the Central India harbor potentially pathogenic Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Prashant; Kumar Agrawal, Manish; Nath Bagchi, Suvendra

    2015-05-01

    On the basis of relative abundance, frequency and biovolume, the important value index ranks were assigned to individual cyanobacteria in phytoplankton samples collected from fourteen water resources of Central India. The mcyABDE genes were detected in all the blooms with Microcystis (-aeruginosa, -viridis, -panniformis, -botrys) as being the major constituent morphospecies. On the other hand, blooms composed of primarily Oscillatoria (-limosa,-agardhii, -laetevirens) along with Anabaena, Nostoc, Phormidium and Spirulina as sub-dominant forms exhibited quite a patchy distribution of one or the other mcy genes. Fifty percent of Microcystis- but none of the Oscillatoria dominant blooms produced microcystins-RR and desmethyl-RR at 0.03-0.41mgg(-1) bloom dry mass. Traces of dissolved microcystin was detected in lake water, which is well below the WHO guideline. Irrespective of cyanobacterial composition and microcystin production ability, during the study period 43-64% of the cyanobacterial bloom samples exhibited association of viable but nonculturable forms of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, as evident from amplification of the antigen genes. We believe that spread of endemic cholera is the major threat associated with harmful algal blooms. PMID:25682583

  15. Monosilicic acid potential in phytoremediation of the contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xionghui; Liu, Saihua; Huang, Juan; Bocharnikova, Elena; Matichenkov, Vladimir

    2016-08-01

    The contamination of agricultural areas by heavy metals has a negative influence on food quality and human health. Various remediation techniques have been developed for the removal and/or immobilization of heavy metals (HM) in contaminated soils. Phytoremediation is innovative technology, which has advantages (low cost, easy monitoring, high selectivity) and limitations, including long time for procedure and negative impact of contaminants on used plants. Greenhouse investigations have shown that monosilicic acid can be used for regulation of the HM (Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn) mobility in the soil-plant system. If the concentration of monosilicic acid in soil was increased from 0 to 20 mg L(-1) of Si in soil solution, the HM bioavailability was increased by 30-150%. However, the negative influence on the barley by HM was reduced under monosilicic acid application. If the concentration of monosilicic acid was increased more than 20 mg L(-1), the HM mobility in the soil was decreased by 40-300% and heavy metal uptake by plants was reduced 2-3 times. The using of the monosilicic acid may increase the phytoremediation efficiency. However the technique adaptation will be necessary for phytoremediation on certain areas. PMID:27213242

  16. Complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, a potential probiotic strain producing B-group vitamins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhou, Qingqing; Gu, Qing

    2016-09-20

    B-group vitamins play an important role in human metabolism, whose deficiencies are associated with a variety of disorders and diseases. Certain microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to have capacities for B-group vitamin production and thus could potentially replace chemically synthesized vitamins for food fortification. A potential probiotic strain named Lactobacillus plantarum LZ227, which was isolated from raw cow milk in this study, exhibits the ability to produce B-group vitamins. Complete genome sequencing of LZ227 was performed to gain insights into the genetic elements involved in B-group vitamin production. The genome of LZ227 contains a circular 3,131,750-bp chromosome, three circular plasmids and two predicted linear plasmids. LZ227 also contains gene clusters for biosynthesis of both riboflavin and folate. This genome sequence provides a basis for further elucidation of its molecular genetics and probiotic functions, and will facilitate its applications as starter cultures in food industry. PMID:27480344

  17. Bile Acid Responses in Methane and Non-Methane Producers to Standard Breakfast Meals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bile acids and their conjugates are important regulators of glucose homeostasis. Previous research has revealed the ratio of cholic acid to deoxycholic acid to affect insulin resistance in humans. Bile acid de-conjugation and intestinal metabolism depend on gut microbes which may be affected by hos...

  18. Geometric properties of nucleic acids with potential for autobuilding

    PubMed Central

    Gruene, Tim; Sheldrick, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Medium- to high-resolution X-ray structures of DNA and RNA molecules were investigated to find geometric properties useful for automated model building in crystallographic electron-density maps. We describe a simple method, starting from a list of electron-density ‘blobs’, for identifying backbone phosphates and nucleic acid bases based on properties of the local electron-density distribution. This knowledge should be useful for the automated building of nucleic acid models into electron-density maps. We show that the distances and angles involving C1′ and the P atoms, using the pseudo-torsion angles and that describe the …P—C1′—P—C1′… chain, provide a promising basis for building the nucleic acid polymer. These quantities show reasonably narrow distributions with asymmetry that should allow the direction of the phosphate backbone to be established. PMID:21173468

  19. Acid/vanadium-containing saponite for the conversion of propene into coke: potential flame-retardant filler for nanocomposite materials.

    PubMed

    Ostinelli, Luca; Recchia, Sandro; Bisio, Chiara; Carniato, Fabio; Guidotti, Matteo; Marchese, Leonardo; Psaro, Rinaldo

    2012-10-01

    Vanadium-containing saponite samples were synthesized in a one-pot synthetic procedure with the aim of preparing samples for potential application as fillers for polymeric composites. These vanadium-modified materials were prepared from an acid support by adopting a synthetic strategy that allowed us to introduce isolated structural V species (H/V-SAP). The physicochemical properties of these materials were investigated by XRD analysis and by DR-UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy of CO that was adsorbed at 100 K; these data were compared to those of a V-modified saponite material that did not contain any Brønsted acid sites (Na/V-SAP). The surface-acid properties of both samples (together with the fully acidic H-SAP material and the Na-SAP solid) were studied in the catalytic isomerization of α-pinene oxide. The V-containing solids were tested in the oxidative dehydrogenation reaction of propene to evaluate their potential use as flame-retardant fillers for polymer composites. The effect of tuning the presence of Lewis/Brønsted acid sites was carefully studied. The V-containing saponite sample that contained a marked presence of Brønsted acid sites showed the most interesting performance in the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reactions because they produced coke, even at 773 K. The catalytic data presented herein indicate that the H/V-SAP material is potentially active as a flame-retardant filler. PMID:22791515

  20. System-level understanding of the potential acid-tolerance components of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 under extreme acid stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2015-09-01

    In previous study, two extremely acidophilic strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ZJJN-3 (collection site: bioleaching leachate) and ZJJN-5 (collection site: bioleaching wastewater) were isolated from a typical industrial bio-heap in China. Here, we unraveled the potential acid-tolerance components of ZJJN-3 by comparing the physiological differences with ZJJN-5 under different acid stresses. The parameters used for comparison included intracellular pH (pHin), capsule morphology, fatty acid composition of cell membrane, transcription of key molecular chaperones, H(+)-ATPase activities and NAD(+)/NADH ratio. It was indicated that the acid-tolerance of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 was systematically regulated. Capsule first thickened and then shed off along with increased acid stress. Cell membrane maintained the intracellular stability by up-regulating the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acids. Meanwhile, the transcription of key repair molecular chaperones (GrpE-DnaK-DnaJ) was up-regulated by 2.2-3.5 folds for ensuring the proper folding of peptide. Moreover, low pHin promoted ZJJN-3 to biosynthesize more H(+)-ATPase for pumping H(+) out of cells. Furthermore, the NAD(+)/NADH ratio increased due to the decreased H(+) concentration. Based on the above physiological analysis, the potential acid-tolerance components of A. thiooxidans ZJJN-3 were first proposed and it would be useful for better understanding how these extremophiles responded to the high acid stress. PMID:26264736

  1. Co-culturing a novel Bacillus strain with Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 to produce butyric acid from sucrose

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Currently, the most promising microorganism used for the bio-production of butyric acid is Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T; however, it is unable to use sucrose as a sole carbon source. Consequently, a newly isolated strain, Bacillus sp. SGP1, that was found to produce a levansucrase enzyme, which hydrolyzes sucrose into fructose and glucose, was used in a co-culture with this strain, permitting C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to ferment sucrose to butyric acid. Results B. sp. SGP1 alone did not show any butyric acid production and the main metabolite produced was lactic acid. This allowed C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T to utilize the monosaccharides resulting from the activity of levansucrase together with the lactic acid produced by B. sp. SGP1 to generate butyric acid, which was the main fermentative product within the co-culture. Furthermore, the final acetic acid concentration in the co-culture was significantly lower when compared with pure C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T cultures grown on glucose. In fed-batch fermentations, the optimum conditions for the production of butyric acid were around pH 5.50 and a temperature of 37°C. Under these conditions, the final butyrate concentration was 34.2±1.8 g/L with yields of 0.35±0.03 g butyrate/g sucrose and maximum productivity of 0.3±0.04 g/L/h. Conclusions Using this co-culture, sucrose can be utilized as a carbon source for butyric acid production at a relatively high yield. In addition, this co-culture offers also the benefit of a greater selectivity, with butyric acid constituting 92.8% of the acids when the fermentation was terminated. PMID:23452443

  2. Coexistence of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Potential Spoilage Microbiota in a Dairy Processing Environment.

    PubMed

    Stellato, Giuseppina; De Filippis, Francesca; La Storia, Antonietta; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-11-01

    Microbial contamination in food processing plants can play a fundamental role in food quality and safety. In this study, the microbiota in a dairy plant was studied by both 16S rRNA- and 26S rRNA-based culture-independent high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Environmental samples from surfaces and tools were studied along with the different types of cheese produced in the same plant. The microbiota of environmental swabs was very complex, including more than 200 operational taxonomic units with extremely variable relative abundances (0.01 to 99%) depending on the species and sample. A core microbiota shared by 70% of the samples indicated a coexistence of lactic acid bacteria with a remarkable level of Streptococcus thermophilus and possible spoilage-associated bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Psychrobacter, with a relative abundance above 50%. The most abundant yeasts were Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yamadazyma triangularis, Trichosporon faecale, and Debaryomyces hansenii. Beta-diversity analyses showed a clear separation of environmental and cheese samples based on both yeast and bacterial community structure. In addition, predicted metagenomes also indicated differential distribution of metabolic pathways between the two categories of samples. Cooccurrence and coexclusion pattern analyses indicated that the occurrence of potential spoilers was excluded by lactic acid bacteria. In addition, their persistence in the environment can be helpful to counter the development of potential spoilers that may contaminate the cheeses, with possible negative effects on their microbiological quality. PMID:26341209

  3. Coexistence of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Potential Spoilage Microbiota in a Dairy Processing Environment

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, Giuseppina; De Filippis, Francesca; La Storia, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    Microbial contamination in food processing plants can play a fundamental role in food quality and safety. In this study, the microbiota in a dairy plant was studied by both 16S rRNA- and 26S rRNA-based culture-independent high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Environmental samples from surfaces and tools were studied along with the different types of cheese produced in the same plant. The microbiota of environmental swabs was very complex, including more than 200 operational taxonomic units with extremely variable relative abundances (0.01 to 99%) depending on the species and sample. A core microbiota shared by 70% of the samples indicated a coexistence of lactic acid bacteria with a remarkable level of Streptococcus thermophilus and possible spoilage-associated bacteria, including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Psychrobacter, with a relative abundance above 50%. The most abundant yeasts were Kluyveromyces marxianus, Yamadazyma triangularis, Trichosporon faecale, and Debaryomyces hansenii. Beta-diversity analyses showed a clear separation of environmental and cheese samples based on both yeast and bacterial community structure. In addition, predicted metagenomes also indicated differential distribution of metabolic pathways between the two categories of samples. Cooccurrence and coexclusion pattern analyses indicated that the occurrence of potential spoilers was excluded by lactic acid bacteria. In addition, their persistence in the environment can be helpful to counter the development of potential spoilers that may contaminate the cheeses, with possible negative effects on their microbiological quality. PMID:26341209

  4. Isolation and characterization of potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebreyohannes, Gebreselema; Moges, Feleke; Sahile, Samuel; Raja, Nagappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate, evaluate and characterize potential antibiotic producing actinomycetes from water and sediments of Lake Tana, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 31 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and tested against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains by primary screening. In the primary screening, 11 promising isolates were identified and subjected to solid state and submerged state fermentation methods to produce crude extracts. The fermented biomass was extracted by organic solvent extraction method and tested against bacterial strains by disc and agar well diffusion methods. The isolates were characterized by using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods. Results The result obtained from agar well diffusion method was better than disc diffusion method. The crude extract showed higher inhibition zone against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. One-way analysis of variance confirmed most of the crude extracts were statistically significant at 95% confidence interval. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of crude extracts were 1.65 mg/mL and 3.30 mg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, and 1.84 mg/mL and 3.80 mg/mL against Escherichia coli respectively. The growth of aerial and substrate mycelium varied in different culture media used. Most of the isolates were able to hydrolysis starch and urea; able to survive at 5% concentration of sodium chloride; optimum temperature for their growth was 30 °C. Conclusions The results of the present study revealed that freshwater actinomycetes of Lake Tana appear to have immense potential as a source of antibacterial compounds. PMID:23730554

  5. Potential usefulness of a video printer for producing secondary images from digitized chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio; Bosworth, Eric

    1991-05-01

    Communication between radiologists and clinicians could be improved if a secondary image (copy of the original image) accompanied the radiologic report. In addition, the number of lost original radiographs could be decreased, since clinicians would have less need to borrow films. The secondary image should be simple and inexpensive to produce, while providing sufficient image quality for verification of the diagnosis. We are investigating the potential usefulness of a video printer for producing copies of radiographs, i.e. images printed on thermal paper. The video printer we examined (Seikosha model VP-3500) can provide 64 shades of gray. It is capable of recording images up to 1,280 pixels by 1,240 lines and can accept any raster-type video signal. The video printer was characterized in terms of its linearity, contrast, latitude, resolution, and noise properties. The quality of video-printer images was also evaluated in an observer study using portable chest radiographs. We found that observers could confirm up to 90 of the reported findings in the thorax using video- printer images, when the original radiographs were of high quality. The number of verified findings was diminished when high spatial resolution was required (e.g. detection of a subtle pneumothorax) or when a low-contrast finding was located in the mediastinal area or below the diaphragm (e.g. nasogastric tubes).

  6. Potential heat exchange fluids for use in sulfuric acid vaporizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Petersen, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of liquids have been screened as candidate heat exchange fluids for service in thermochemical cycles that involve the vaporization of sulfuric acid. The required chemical and physical criteria of the liquids is described with the results of some preliminary high temperature test data presented.

  7. The safety assessment of Pythium irregulare as a producer of biomass and eicosapentaenoic acid for use in dietary supplements and food ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Roe, Charles L; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-09-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3), and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4 n-6), have multiple beneficial effects on human health and can be used as an important ingredient in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. A variety of microorganisms has been used for commercial production of these fatty acids. The microorganisms in the Pythium family, particularly Pythium irregulare, are potential EPA producers. The aim of this work is to provide a safety assessment of P. irregulare so that the EPA derived from this species can be potentially used in various commercial applications. The genus Pythium has been widely recognized as a plant pathogen by infecting roots and colonizing the vascular tissues of various plants such as soybeans, corn and various vegetables. However, the majority of the Pythium species (including P. irregulare) have not been reported to infect mammals including humans. The only species among the Pythium family that infects mammals is P. insidiosum. There also have been no reports showing P. irregulare to contain mycotoxins or cause potentially allergenic responses in humans. Based on the safety assessment, we conclude that P. irregulare can be considered a safe source of biomass and EPA-containing oil for use as ingredients in dietary supplements, food, feed and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23900800

  8. Water administration of medium-chain fatty acid caprylic acid produced variable efficacy against cecal Campylobacter jejuni concentrations in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, and poultry is considered a primary source of Campylobacter infections. Caprylic acid, an eight-carbon fatty acid, has been shown in previous studies to reduce enteric cecal Campylobacter concentrations in poultry when administere...

  9. Promising Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Assay Plus PCR for Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Terao, Yoshitaka; Takeshita, Kana; Nishiyama, Yasutaka; Morishita, Naoki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Morimatsu, Fumiki

    2015-08-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a frequent cause of foodborne infections, and methods for rapid and reliable detection of STEC are needed. A nucleic acid lateral flow assay (NALFA) plus PCR was evaluated for detecting STEC after enrichment. When cell suspensions of 45 STEC strains, 14 non-STEC strains, and 13 non-E. coli strains were tested with the NALFA plus PCR, all of the STEC strains yielded positive results, and all of the non-STEC and non-E. coli strains yielded negative results. The lower detection limit for the STEC strains ranged from 0.1 to 1 pg of genomic DNA (about 20 to 200 CFU) per test, and the NALFA plus PCR was able to detect Stx1- and Stx2-producing E. coli strains with similar sensitivities. The ability of the NALFA plus PCR to detect STEC in enrichment cultures of radish sprouts, tomato, raw ground beef, and beef liver inoculated with 10-fold serially diluted STEC cultures was comparable to that of a real-time PCR assay (at a level of 100 to 100,000 CFU/ml in enrichment culture). The bacterial inoculation test in raw ground beef revealed that the lower detection limit of the NALFA plus PCR was also comparable to that obtained with a real-time PCR assay that followed the U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines. Although further evaluation is required, these results suggest that the NALFA plus PCR is a specific and sensitive method for detecting STEC in a food manufacturing plant. PMID:26219371

  10. Screening of Diatom Strains and Characterization of Cyclotella cryptica as A Potential Fucoxanthin Producer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bingbing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Bo; Sun, Peipei; Lu, Xue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Fucoxanthin has been receiving ever-increasing interest due to its broad health beneficial effects. Currently, seaweeds are the predominant source of natural fucoxanthin. However, the disappointingly low fucoxanthin content has impeded their use, driving the exploration of alternative fucoxanthin producers. In the present study, thirteen diatom strains were evaluated with respect to growth and fucoxanthin production potential. Cyclotella cryptica (CCMP 333), which grew well for fucoxanthin production under both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions, was selected for further investigation. The supply of nitrate and light individually or in combination were all found to promote growth and fucoxanthin accumulation. When transferring heterotrophic cultures to light, fucoxanthin responded differentially to light intensities and was impaired by higher light intensity with a concomitant increase in diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin, indicative of the modulation of Diadinoxanthin Cycle to cope with the light stress. Taken together, we, for the first time, performed the screening of diatom strains for fucoxanthin production potential and investigated in detail the effect of nutritional and environmental factors on C. cryptica growth and fucoxanthin accumulation. These results provide valuable implications into future engineering of C. cryptica culture parameters for improved fucoxanthin production and C. cryptica may emerge as a promising microalgal source of fucoxanthin. PMID:27399729

  11. Screening of Diatom Strains and Characterization of Cyclotella cryptica as A Potential Fucoxanthin Producer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bingbing; Liu, Bin; Yang, Bo; Sun, Peipei; Lu, Xue; Liu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Fucoxanthin has been receiving ever-increasing interest due to its broad health beneficial effects. Currently, seaweeds are the predominant source of natural fucoxanthin. However, the disappointingly low fucoxanthin content has impeded their use, driving the exploration of alternative fucoxanthin producers. In the present study, thirteen diatom strains were evaluated with respect to growth and fucoxanthin production potential. Cyclotella cryptica (CCMP 333), which grew well for fucoxanthin production under both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic growth conditions, was selected for further investigation. The supply of nitrate and light individually or in combination were all found to promote growth and fucoxanthin accumulation. When transferring heterotrophic cultures to light, fucoxanthin responded differentially to light intensities and was impaired by higher light intensity with a concomitant increase in diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin, indicative of the modulation of Diadinoxanthin Cycle to cope with the light stress. Taken together, we, for the first time, performed the screening of diatom strains for fucoxanthin production potential and investigated in detail the effect of nutritional and environmental factors on C. cryptica growth and fucoxanthin accumulation. These results provide valuable implications into future engineering of C. cryptica culture parameters for improved fucoxanthin production and C. cryptica may emerge as a promising microalgal source of fucoxanthin. PMID:27399729

  12. A tank experiment with self-potential signals produced by a subsurface bioelectrochemical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachin, S. D.; Vasconcelos, S.; Mendonça, C.

    2010-12-01

    Self-potential (SP) anomalies are observed in contaminated sites. Geobattery models valid for conductive mineral orebodies cannot be applied to contaminated sites where massive concentrations of conductive minerals are not expected. The possibility of active bioelectrical processes working as large-scale “biogeobatteries” was recently proposed to explain SP signals observed in field and in laboratory conditions. In many aspects the biogeobattery model share properties with has been termed as bioelectrochemical system (BES), well studied in environmental technology. In a BES microbial communities assume active roles either in catalyzing redox reactions leading to biodegradation and pollutant removal as well as structure makers (or substance producers) in charge transfer reactions. Polarization curves describing current yielding for a variable external load usually are used to characterize a BES. In our experiment it was used as a criterion to recognize a system working as a BES. We present preliminary results from a tank experiment in which a BES was established in a tank and self-potential anomalies were simultaneously observed at the top surface. To do this, a narrow (4 cm wide) rectangular (80 x 35 cm) plexiglass tank was partially filled with organic waste matter from a treatment plant. To simulate a capped landfill the organic material was covered by a 12 cm thick layer of bentonite mud. A graphite plug (area of 19 cm2) was inserted in the middle depth of the organic layer and a similar one buried 2 cm below the top surface. The system was left to rest for 80 days when polarization curves for the graphite electrodes revealed a response compatible with a BES. Variations in the BES external load produced a consistent response in the self-potential anomaly measured by a set of 19 non-polarizable (Pb/PbCl2) electrodes at the top surface. Our results suggest that natural BES’s are able to generate measurable SP signals at the ground surface, which makes

  13. Molecular and Therapeutic Potential and Toxicity of Valproic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Chateauvieux, Sébastien; Morceau, Franck; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a branched short-chain fatty acid, is widely used as an antiepileptic drug and a mood stabilizer. Antiepileptic properties have been attributed to inhibition of Gamma Amino Butyrate (GABA) transaminobutyrate and of ion channels. VPA was recently classified among the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, acting directly at the level of gene transcription by inhibiting histone deacetylation and making transcription sites more accessible. VPA is a widely used drug, particularly for children suffering from epilepsy. Due to the increasing number of clinical trials involving VPA, and interesting results obtained, this molecule will be implicated in an increasing number of therapies. However side effects of VPA are substantially described in the literature whereas they are poorly discussed in articles focusing on its therapeutic use. This paper aims to give an overview of the different clinical-trials involving VPA and its side effects encountered during treatment as well as its molecular properties. PMID:20798865

  14. Acid hydrolysis of crude tannins from infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc to produce ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Wang, Yongmei; Xu, Man

    2014-01-01

    The infructescence of Platycarya strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc is a well-known traditional medicine in China, Japan and Korea. The infructescence of P. strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc is a rich source of ellagitannins that are composed of ellagic acid (EA) and gallic acid, linked to a sugar moiety. The aim of this study was to prepare EA by acid hydrolysis of crude tannins from the infructescence of P. strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc, and establish a new technological processing method for EA. The natural antioxidant EA was prepared by using the water extraction of infructescence of P. strobilacea Sieb. et Zucc, evaporation, condensation, acid hydrolysis and prepared by the process of crystallisation. The yield percentage of EA from crude EA was more than 20% and the purity of the product was more than 98%, as identified by using HPLC. The structure was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound. PMID:24911045

  15. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic potential of high β-glucosidase-producing Trichoderma from decaying biomass.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Benedict C

    2014-10-01

    Availability, cost, and efficiency of microbial enzymes for lignocellulose bioconversion are central to sustainable biomass ethanol technology. Fungi enriched from decaying biomass and surface soil mixture displayed an array of strong cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Strains SG2 and SG4 produced a promising array of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes including β-glucosidase, usually low in cultures of Trichoderma species. Nucleotide sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rRNA gene revealed that strains SG2 and SG4 are closely related to Trichoderma inhamatum, Trichoderma piluliferum, and Trichoderma aureoviride. Trichoderma sp. SG2 crude culture supernatant correspondingly displayed as much as 9.84 ± 1.12, 48.02 ± 2.53, and 30.10 ± 1.11 units mL(-1) of cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase in 30 min assay. Ten times dilution of culture supernatant of strain SG2 revealed that total activities were about 5.34, 8.45, and 2.05 orders of magnitude higher than observed in crude culture filtrate for cellulase, xylanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, indicating that more enzymes are present to contact with substrates in biomass saccharification. In parallel experiments, Trichoderma species SG2 and SG4 produced more β-glucosidase than the industrial strain Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Results indicate that strains SG2 and SG4 have potential for low cost in-house production of primary lignocellulose-hydrolyzing enzymes for production of biomass saccharides and biofuel in the field. PMID:25129039

  16. Aureocins 4185, bacteriocins produced by Staphylococcus aureus 4185: potential application in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Hilana; Brede, Dag; Salehian, Zhian; Nascimento, Janaína dos Santos; Fagundes, Patricia Carlin; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, the bacteriocins produced by Staphylococcus aureus 4185, a strain isolated from bovine mastitis, were purified and partially characterized. After purification by ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, and five runs of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antimicrobial activity was recovered with 40% and 80% isopropanol, suggesting that more than one antimicrobial peptide, named aureocins 4185, is produced by S. aureus 4185. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed three peptides eluted with 40% isopropanol: peptide A (2,305.3 +/-1.5 Da), peptide B (2,327.3 +/-1.5 Da), and peptide C (3,005.5 +/-1.5 Da), and two peptides eluted with 80% isopropanol: peptide D (6,413.5 +/-1.5 Da) and peptide E (12,834.5 +/-1.5 Da). Although five peptides have been detected, only four small peptide sequences were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF)/TOF mass spectrometry analyses: SLLEQFTGK (eluted with 40% isopropanol), ALLYDER, NNTSHNLPLGWFNVK, and NNLAQGTFNATK (eluted with 80% isopropanol). The sequences SLLEQFTGK and ALLYDER revealed identity with hypothetical peptides with unknown function. The sequences NNTSHNLPLGWFNVK and NNLAQGTFNATK showed similarity to a segment of a precursor of staphylococcal autolysins. The antimicrobial activity detected in the supernatant of strain 4185 proved to be resistant to heat treatment at 65°C; however, treatment at 80°C abolished completely its antimicrobial properties. The concentrated supernatant containing aureocins 4185 exhibited a strong bacteriolytic activity toward Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698. Additionally, aureocins 4185 exhibited antagonistic activity against important foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, thus showing a potential application in food preservation. PMID:20618078

  17. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed. PMID:18639982

  18. Aerobic biodegradation of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid produced from dibenzothiophene metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.F.; Cheng, S.M.; Fedorak, P.M.

    2006-01-15

    Dibenzothiophene is a sulfur heterocycle found in crude oils and coal. The biodegradation of dibenzothiophene through the Kodama pathway by Pseudomonas sp. strain BT1d leads to the formation of three disulfides: 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid disulfide, 2-oxo-2-(2-thiophenyl)ethanoic acid-2-benzoic acid disulfide, and 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid. When provided as the carbon and sulfur source in liquid medium, 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid was degraded by soil enrichment cultures. Two bacterial isolates, designated strains RM1 and RM6, degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid when combined in the medium. Isolate RM6 was found to have an absolute requirement for vitamin B{sub 12}, and it degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in pure culture when the medium was supplemented with this vitamin. Isolate RM6 also degraded 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid in medium containing sterilized supernatants from cultures of isolate RM1 grown on glucose or benzoate. Isolate RM6 was identified as a member of the genus Variovorax using the Biolog system and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Although the mechanism of disulfide metabolism could not be determined, benzoic acid was detected as a transient metabolite of 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid biodegradation by Variovorax sp. strain RM6. In pure culture, this isolate mineralized 2,2'-dithiodibenzoic acid, releasing 59% of the carbon as carbon dioxide and 88% of the sulfur as sulfate.

  19. Δ12-Fatty acid desaturase from Candida parapsilosis is a multifunctional desaturase producing a range of polyunsaturated and hydroxylated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Sychrová, Hana; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Δ12-, Δ15- and multifunctional membrane fatty acid desaturases (FADs) have been identified in fungi, revealing great variability in the enzymatic specificities of FADs involved in biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Here, we report gene isolation and characterization of novel Δ12/Δ15- and Δ15-FADs named CpFad2 and CpFad3, respectively, from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida parapsilosis. Overexpression of CpFad3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains supplemented with linoleic acid (Δ9,Δ12-18:2) and hexadecadienoic acid (Δ9,Δ12-16:2) leads to accumulation of Δ15-PUFAs, i.e., α-linolenic acid (Δ9,Δ12,Δ15-18:3) and hexadecatrienoic acid with an unusual terminal double bond (Δ9,Δ12,Δ15-16:3). CpFad2 produces a range of Δ12- and Δ15-PUFAs. The major products of CpFad2 are linoleic and hexadecadienoic acid (Δ9,Δ12-16:2), accompanied by α-linolenic acid and hexadecatrienoic acid (Δ9,Δ12,Δ15-16:3). Using GC/MS analysis of trimethylsilyl derivatives, we identified ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid) as an additional product of CpFad2. These results demonstrate that CpFAD2 is a multifunctional FAD and indicate that detailed analysis of fatty acid derivatives might uncover a range of enzymatic selectivities in other Δ12-FADs from budding yeasts (Ascomycota: Saccharomycotina). PMID:24681902

  20. Exopolysaccharides Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria as Fermentable Substrates by the Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Nuria; Gueimonde, Miguel; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    The functional food market, including products formulated to maintain a "healthy" gut microbiota, i.e. probiotics and prebiotics, has increased enormously since the end of the last century. In order to favor the competitiveness of this sector, as well as to increase our knowledge of the mechanisms of action upon human health, new probiotic strains and prebiotic substrates are being studied. This review discusses the use of exopolysaccharides (EPS), both homopolysaccharides (HoPS) and heteropolysaccharides (HePS), synthesized by lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria as potential prebiotics. These extracellular carbohydrate polymers synthesized by some gut inhabitants seem to be resistant to gastrointestinal digestion; these are susceptible as well to biodegradability by the intestinal microbiota depending on both the physicochemical characteristics of EPS and the pool of glycolytic enzymes harbored by microbiota. Therefore, although the chemical composition of these HoPS and HePS is different, both can be fermentable substrates by intestinal inhabitants and good candidates as prebiotic substrates. However, there are limitations for their use as additives in the food industry due to, on the one hand, their low production yield and, on the other hand, a lack of clinical studies demonstrating the functionality of these biopolymers. PMID:25675369

  1. Isolation of potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains from traditional fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tala; Nishiyama, Keita; Nakamata, Koichi; Aryantini, Ni Putu Desy; Mikumo, Dai; Oda, Yuji; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao; Sujaya, I Nengah; Urashima, Tadasu; Fukuda, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    To explore potential probiotics in the traditional foods of Indonesia, fermented mare milk produced in Sumbawa Island was investigated in this study. Gram stain, catalase activity, gas production, cell morphology, carbohydrate utilization pattern, and 16S rDNA sequencing were performed to identify isolated lactic acid bacteria. To assess their probiotic ability, tolerance of low pH, bile salts, artificial gastrointestinal fluids, and adhesion properties to extracellular matrices, were examined. In total 27 strains, 25 Lactobacillus rhamnosus and two Lactobacillus fermentum, were obtained. Among the isolated lactobacilli, three Lb. rhamnosus strains, FSMM15, FSMM22, and FSMM26, were selected as candidates for probiotics, using Lb. rhamnosus GG as index. In vitro binding assay of the three strains against several extracellular matrix proteins revealed that FSMM15 and FSMM26 gave greater binding ratios of mucin/bovine serum albumin (BSA) and significantly higher adhesive abilities to fibronectin than Lb. rhamnosus GG. FSMM22 showed significantly higher adhesion to laminin than Lb. rhamnosus GG. PMID:23047104

  2. High Protein- and High Lipid-Producing Microalgae from Northern Australia as Potential Feedstock for Animal Feed and Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Van Thang; Ahmed, Faruq; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Quigley, Simon; Nowak, Ekaterina; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 μg mL−1 culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed. PMID:26042215

  3. Anthranilic Acid: A Potential Biomarker and Treatment Target for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Oxenkrug, Gregory; van der Hart, Marieke; Roeser, Julien; Summergrad, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of Trp-Kyn pathway is the most recent hypothesis of mechanisms of schizophrenia. In particular, over-production of kynurenic acid (KYNA), one of the three immediate downstream metabolites of kynurenine (Kyn) along tryptophan (Trp): Kyn pathway, has been considered as a new target for therapeutic intervention in schizophrenia. Up-regulation of KYNA formation was suggested to occur at the expense of down-regulated production of 3-hydroxyKyn (3-HK), the second immediate downstream metabolite of Kyn. We were interested to assess the third immediate downstream Kyn metabolite, anthranilic acid (AA). Serum AA concentrations were evaluated in schizophrenia patients and control subjects by HPLC-mass spectrometry method. We found 2-fold increase of AA and 3-fold decrease of 3-HK concentrations in serum of schizophrenia patients. Up regulated formation of AA might contribute to mechanisms of schizophrenia considering experimental evidences of AA augmentation of autoimmune processes in rat and mice; clinical findings of AA elevation in rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, autoimmune diseases diametrical to schizophrenia; and involvement of autoimmunity in development of schizophrenia. Present data warrant further studies of AA as biological marker in, at least, a subgroup (associated with autoimmune mechanisms) of schizophrenia patients and as a new target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27042691

  4. Amiodarone inhibits the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and produces microvesicular steatosis of the liver in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fromenty, B.; Fisch, C.; Labbe, G.; Degott, C.; Deschamps, D.; Berson, A.; Letteron, P.; Pessayre, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Amiodarone has been shown to produce microvesicular steatosis of the liver in some recipients. We have determined the effects of amiodarone on the mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids in mice. In vitro, the formation of 14C-acid-soluble beta-oxidation products from (U-14C)palmitic acid by mouse liver mitochondria was decreased by 92% in the presence of 125 microM amiodarone and by 94% in the presence of 125 microM N-desethylamiodarone. Inhibition due to 100 or 150 microM amiodarone persisted in the presence of 5 mM acetoacetate, whereas acetoacetate totally relieved inhibition due to 15 microM rotenone. In vivo, exhalation of (14C)CO2 from (U-14C)palmitic acid was decreased by 31, 40, 58 and 78%, respectively, in mice receiving 19, 25, 50 and 100 mg.kg-1 of amiodarone hydrochloride 1 hr before the administration of (U-14C)palmitic acid. One hour after 100 mg.kg-1, the exhalation of (14C)CO2 from (1-14C)palmitic acid, (1-14C)octanoic acid or (1-14C)butyric acid was decreased by 78, 72 and 53%, respectively. Exhalation of (14C)CO2 from (1-14C)palmitic acid was normal between 6 and 9 hr after administration of 100 mg.kg-1 of amiodarone hydrochloride, but was still inhibited by 71 and 37%, 24 and 48 hr after 600 mg.kg-1. Twenty four hours after the latter dose of amiodarone, hepatic triglycerides were increased by 150%, and there was microvesicular steatosis of the liver. We conclude that amiodarone inhibits the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids and produces microvesicular steatosis of the liver in mice.

  5. Antibacterial activity and genotypic-phenotypic characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Bacillus subtilis KKU213: potential as a probiotic strain.

    PubMed

    Khochamit, Nalisa; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Sukon, Peerapol; Siripornadulsil, Wilailak

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties of Bacillus subtilis strain KKU213, isolated from local soil, were investigated. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of a KKU213 culture containing crude bacteriocins exhibited inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity of the CFS precipitated with 40% ammonium sulfate (AS) remained even after treatment at 60 and 100 °C, at pH 4 and 10 and with proteolytic enzymes, detergents and heavy metals. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE and overlaid with the indicator strains B. cereus and S. aureus, the 40% AS precipitate exhibited inhibitory activity on proteins smaller than 10 kDa. However, proteins larger than 25 kDa and smaller than 10 kDa were still observed on a native protein gel. Purified subtilosin A was prepared by Amberlite XAD-16 bead extraction and HPLC and analyzed by Nano-LC-QTOF-MS. Its molecular mass was found to be 3.4 kDa, and it retained its antibacterial activity. These results are consistent with the detection of the anti-listerial subtilosin A gene of the sbo/alb cluster in the KKU213 strain, which is 100% identical to that of B. subtilis subsp. subtilis 168. In addition to stable and cyclic subtilosin A, a mixture of many extracellular antibacterial peptides was also detected in the KKU213 culture. The KKU213 strain produced extracellular amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease, is highly acid-resistant (pH 2) when cultured in inulin and promotes health and reduces infection of intestinally colonized broiler chickens. Therefore, we propose that bacteriocin-producing B. subtilis KKU213 could be used as a potential probiotic strain or protective culture. PMID:25440998

  6. Biocide effects of volatile organic compounds produced by potential biocontrol rhizobacteria on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    PubMed Central

    Giorgio, Annalisa; De Stradis, Angelo; Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    Six rhizobacteria isolated from common bean and able to protect bean plants from the common bacterial blight (CBB) causal agent, were in vitro evaluated for their potential antifungal effects toward different plant pathogenic fungi, mostly soil-borne. By dual culture assays, the above bacteria resulted producing diffusible and volatile metabolites which inhibited the growth of the majority of the pathogens under study. In particular, the latter substances highly affected the mycelium growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains, one of which was selected for further studies either on mycelium or sclerotia. Gas chromatographic analysis of the bacterial volatiles led to the identification of an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Time course studies showed the modification of the VOCs profile along a period of 5 days. In order to evaluate the single detected VOC effects on fungal growth, some of the pure compounds were tested on S. sclerotiorum mycelium and their minimal inhibitory quantities were determined. Similarly, the minimal inhibitory quantities on sclerotia germination were also defined. Moreover, observations by light and transmission electron microscopes highlighted hyphae cytoplasm granulation and ultrastructural alterations at cell organelles, mostly membranes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. The membranes appeared one of the primary targets of bacterial volatiles, as confirmed by hemolytic activity observed for the majority of pure VOCs. However, of interest is the alteration observed on mitochondria as well. PMID:26500617

  7. Biocide effects of volatile organic compounds produced by potential biocontrol rhizobacteria on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Giorgio, Annalisa; De Stradis, Angelo; Lo Cantore, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    Six rhizobacteria isolated from common bean and able to protect bean plants from the common bacterial blight (CBB) causal agent, were in vitro evaluated for their potential antifungal effects toward different plant pathogenic fungi, mostly soil-borne. By dual culture assays, the above bacteria resulted producing diffusible and volatile metabolites which inhibited the growth of the majority of the pathogens under study. In particular, the latter substances highly affected the mycelium growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains, one of which was selected for further studies either on mycelium or sclerotia. Gas chromatographic analysis of the bacterial volatiles led to the identification of an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Time course studies showed the modification of the VOCs profile along a period of 5 days. In order to evaluate the single detected VOC effects on fungal growth, some of the pure compounds were tested on S. sclerotiorum mycelium and their minimal inhibitory quantities were determined. Similarly, the minimal inhibitory quantities on sclerotia germination were also defined. Moreover, observations by light and transmission electron microscopes highlighted hyphae cytoplasm granulation and ultrastructural alterations at cell organelles, mostly membranes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum. The membranes appeared one of the primary targets of bacterial volatiles, as confirmed by hemolytic activity observed for the majority of pure VOCs. However, of interest is the alteration observed on mitochondria as well. PMID:26500617

  8. Glucosamine as carbon source for amino acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Uhde, Andreas; Youn, Jung-Won; Maeda, Tomoya; Clermont, Lina; Matano, Christian; Krämer, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F; Seibold, Gerd M; Marin, Kay

    2013-02-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum grows with a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate derivatives as sole carbon sources; however, growth with glucosamine has not yet been reported. We isolated a spontaneous mutant (M4) which is able to grow as fast with glucosamine as with glucose as sole carbon source. Glucosamine also served as a combined source of carbon, energy and nitrogen for the mutant strain. Characterisation of the M4 mutant revealed a significantly increased expression of the nagB gene encoding the glucosamine-6P deaminase NagB involved in degradation of glucosamine, as a consequence of a single mutation in the promoter region of the nagAB-scrB operon. Ectopic nagB overexpression verified that the activity of the NagB enzyme is in fact the growth limiting factor under these conditions. In addition, glucosamine uptake was studied, which proved to be unchanged in the wild-type and M4 mutant strains. Using specific deletion strains, we identified the PTS(Glc) transport system to be responsible for glucosamine uptake in C. glutamicum. The affinity of this uptake system for glucosamine was about 40-fold lower than that for its major substrate glucose. Because of this difference in affinity, glucosamine is efficiently taken up only if external glucose is absent or present at low concentrations. C. glutamicum was also examined for its suitability to use glucosamine as substrate for biotechnological purposes. Upon overexpression of the nagB gene in suitable C. glutamicum producer strains, efficient production of both the amino acid L-lysine and the diamine putrescine from glucosamine was demonstrated. PMID:22854894

  9. Distribution and Stable Isotopic Composition of Amino Acids from Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing the Potential for Meteoritic Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Brückner, Hans

    2011-03-01

    The presence of nonprotein α-dialkyl-amino acids such as α-aminoisobutyric acid (α-AIB) and isovaline (Iva), which are considered to be relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids. However, recent work showing the presence of α-AIB and Iva in peptides produced by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the α-AIB observed in some meteorites. We measured the amino acid distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of four α-AIB-containing fungal peptides and compared this data to similar meteoritic measurements. We show that the relatively simple distribution of the C4 and C5 amino acids in fungal peptides is distinct from the complex distribution observed in many carbonaceous chondrites. We also identify potentially diagnostic relationships between the stable isotopic compositions of pairs of amino acids from the fungal peptides that may aid in ruling out fungal contamination as a source of meteoritic amino acids.

  10. Gelation properties of spent duck meat surimi-like material produced using acid-alkaline solubilization methods.

    PubMed

    Nurkhoeriyati, T; Huda, N; Ahmad, R

    2011-01-01

    The gelation properties of spent duck meat surimi-like material produced using acid solubilization (ACS) or alkaline solubilization (ALS) were studied and compared with conventionally processed (CON) surimi-like material. The ACS process yielded the highest protein recovery (P < 0.05). The ALS process generated the highest lipid reduction, and the CON process yielded the lowest reduction (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced by the CON process had the highest gel strength, salt extractable protein (SEP), and water holding capacity (WHC), followed by materials produced via the ALS and ACS processes and untreated duck meat (P < 0.05). The material produced by the CON process also had the highest cohesiveness, hardness, and gumminess values and the lowest springiness value. Material produced by the ACS and ALS processes had higher whiteness values than untreated duck meat gels and gels produced by the CON method (P < 0.05). Surimi-like material produced using the ACS and CON processes had significantly higher myoglobin removal (P < 0.05) than that produced by the ALS method and untreated duck meat. Among all surimi-like materials, the highest Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was found in conventionally produced gels (P < 0.05). This suggests that protein oxidation was induced by acid-alkaline solubilization. The gels produced by ALS had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) total SH content than the other samples. This result showed that the acid-alkaline solubilization clearly improved gelation and color properties of spent duck and possibly applied for other high fat raw material. PMID:21535715

  11. Structure and polymer form of poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid.

    PubMed

    Ho, I-Ching; Yang, Sheng-Pin; Chiu, Wen-Yen; Huang, Shih-Yow

    2007-01-30

    PHAs (poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates) obtained by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixed carbon sources were investigated. Mixed carbon sources were sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid and sodium octanoate/5-phenylvaleric acid. Effect of carbon source in pre-culture on PHAs structure was investigated. Main fermentation was conducted with mixture of sodium octanoate/undecylenic acid, and PHA contained both saturated and unsaturated units. When more undecylenic acid was used in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated unit increased and the T(g) of the products also changed. The PHA grown with mixture of sodium octanoate and undecylenic acid was a random copolymer, which was determined by DSC analysis. Using mixed carbon sources of sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, highest dry cell weight and PHA concentration were obtained when 0.02g or 0.04g of 5-phenylvaleric acid were added in 50mL medium. Cultured with sodium octanoate and 5-phenylvaleric acid, PHA containing HO (3-hydroxyoctanoate) unit and HPV (3-hydroxy-5-phenylvalerate) unit was produced. T(g) of the products fell between those of pure PHO and pure PHPV. By means of DSC analysis and fractionation method, the PHA obtained was regarded as a random copolymer. PMID:16919325

  12. Probiotic potential of selected lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from Brazilian kefir grains.

    PubMed

    Leite, A M O; Miguel, M A L; Peixoto, R S; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Paschoalin, V M F; Mayo, B; Delgado, S

    2015-06-01

    A total of 34 lactic acid bacteria isolates from 4 different Brazilian kefir grains were identified and characterized among a group of 150 isolates, using the ability to tolerate acidic pH and resistance to bile salts as restrictive criteria for probiotic potential. All isolates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of representative amplicons. Eighteen isolates belonged to the species Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 11 to Lactococcus lactis (of which 8 belonged to subspecies cremoris and 3 to subspecies lactis), and 5 to Lactobacillus paracasei. To exclude replicates, a molecular typing analysis was performed by combining repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and random amplification of polymorphic DNA techniques. Considering a threshold of 90% similarity, 32 different strains were considered. All strains showed some antagonistic activity against 4 model food pathogens. In addition, 3 Lc. lactis strains and 1 Lb. paracasei produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances against at least 2 indicator organisms. Moreover, 1 Lc. lactis and 2 Lb. paracasei presented good total antioxidative activity. None of these strains showed undesirable enzymatic or hemolytic activities, while proving susceptible or intrinsically resistant to a series of clinically relevant antibiotics. The Lb. paracasei strain MRS59 showed a level of adhesion to human Caco-2 epithelial cells comparable with that observed for Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Taken together, these properties allow the MRS59 strain to be considered a promising probiotic candidate. PMID:25841972

  13. Assessment of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis potentialities to recover metals, sulfuric acid, and recycled water from acid gold mining effluent.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Bárbara C; Ferreira, Carolina D; Marques, Larissa S; Martins, Sofia S; Amaral, Míriam C S

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the potential of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat acid streams contaminated with metals, such as effluent from the pressure oxidation process (POX) used in refractory gold ore processing. NF and RO were evaluated in terms of rejections of sulfuric acid and metals. Regarding NF, high sulfuric acid permeation (∼100%), was observed, while metals were retained with high efficiencies (∼90%), whereas RO led to high acid rejections (<88%) when conducted in pH values higher than 1. Thus, sequential use of NF and RO was proved to be a promising treatment for sulfuric acid solutions contaminated by metals, such as POX effluent. In this context, a purified acid stream could be recovered in NF permeate, which could be further concentrated in RO. Recovered acid stream could be reused in the gold ore processing or commercialized. A metal-enriched stream could be also recovered in NF retentate and transferred to a subsequent metal recovery stage. In addition, considering the high acid rejection obtained through the proposed system, RO permeate could be used as recycling water. PMID:27438241

  14. Identification and characterization of a long-chain fatty acid transporter in the sophorolipid-producing strain Starmerella bombicola.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiashan; Xia, Chengqiang; Fang, Xiaoran; Xue, Haizhao; Song, Xin

    2016-08-01

    The sophorolipid-producing strain Starmerella bombicola CGMCC 1576 has a remarkable ability to produce sophorolipids (SLs) under the acidic and lactonic forms with almost equal proportion. In this study, we found the gene encoding for the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ALCS). This enzyme was putatively identified as a membrane-bound long-chain fatty acid transport protein and contributed to the uptake of long-chain fatty acids. Disruption of the alcs gene resulted in an impaired growth of the alcs-deleted mutant in minimal media containing different fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C22:0, and C24:0) as the sole carbon source and led to a dramatic decrease in the uptake of the fluorescent-tagged long-chain fatty acid analogue-boron dipyrromethene difluoride dodecanoic acid (BODIPY-3823). The absence of this alcs gene caused obvious phenotype changes. Compared with the wild-type strain, the yield and compositions of the SLs produced by the gene-deleted mutant of ∆alcs::six showed almost no lactonic form of SLs, and the acidic SLs were composed of medium-chain. The ALCS enzyme was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3) with pMAL-c2x-alcs. The enzyme was purified through a maltose-binding protein (MBP) affinity chromatography column and was confirmed to be homogeneous by SDS-PAGE. The recombinant enzyme could catalyze the formation of the long-chain acyl-CoA when the long-chain fatty acids and the coenzyme A were used as substrates. PMID:27183996

  15. Amino derivatives of glycyrrhetinic acid as potential inhibitors of cholinesterases.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Lucas, Susana Dias; Sommerwerk, Sven; Csuk, René

    2014-07-01

    The development of remedies against the Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the biggest challenges in medicinal chemistry nowadays. Although not completely understood, there are several strategies fighting this disease or at least bringing some relief. During the progress of AD, the level of acetylcholine (ACh) decreases; hence, a therapy using inhibitors should be of some benefit to the patients. Drugs presently used for the treatment of AD inhibit the two ACh controlling enzymes, acetylcholinesterase as well as butyrylcholinesterase; hence, the design of selective inhibitors is called for. Glycyrrhetinic acid seems to be an interesting starting point for the development of selective inhibitors. Although its glycon, glycyrrhetinic acid is known for being an AChE activator, several derivatives, altered in position C-3 and C-30, exhibited remarkable inhibition constants in micro-molar range. Furthermore, five representative compounds were subjected to three more enzyme assays (on carbonic anhydrase II, papain and the lipase from Candida antarctica) to gain information about the selectivity of the compounds in comparison to other enzymes. In addition, photometric sulforhodamine B assays using murine embryonic fibroblasts (NiH 3T3) were performed to study the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Two derivatives, bearing either a 1,3-diaminopropyl or a 1H-benzotriazolyl residue, showed a BChE selective inhibition in the single-digit micro-molar range without being cytotoxic up to 30μM. In silico molecular docking studies on the active sites of AChE and BChE were performed to gain a molecular insight into the mode of action of these compounds and to explain the pronounced selectivity for BChE. PMID:24853320

  16. New beauveriolides produced by amino acid-supplemented fermentation of Beauveria sp. FO-6979.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Daisuke; Namatame, Ichiji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Zocher, Rainer; Kleinkauf, Horst; Omura, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Five new beauveriolides were isolated from the acetone extracts of Beauveria sp. FO-6979 mycelia fermented in amino acid-supplemented media. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic studies including NMR experiments and chemical degradation. All the beauveriolides are cyclodepsipeptides consisting of one 3-hydroxy-4-methyl fatty acid, two L-amino acids and one D-amino acid in common. Beauveriolide VII with the structure of cyclo-[3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-alanyl-D-valyl] inhibited lipid droplet formation and cholesteryl ester synthesis in macrophages, but the other beauveriolides showed only slight or almost no effect on lipid droplet formation. PMID:15032479

  17. Survival and expression of acid resistance genes in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli acid adapted in pineapple juice and exposed to synthetic gastric fluid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The aim of this research was to examine relative transcriptional expression of acid resistance (AR) genes, rpoS, gadA and adiA, in O157:H7 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotypes after adaptation to pineapple juice (PJ) and subsequently to determine survival with e...

  18. Bacterial production of short-chain organic acids and trehalose from levulinic acid: a potential cellulose-derived building block as a feedstock for microbial production.

    PubMed

    Habe, Hiroshi; Sato, Shun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2015-02-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) is a platform chemical derived from cellulosic biomass, and the expansion of LA utilization as a feedstock is important for production of a wide variety of chemicals. To investigate the potential of LA as a substrate for microbial conversion to chemicals, we isolated and identified LA-utilizing bacteria. Among the six isolated strains, Pseudomonas sp. LA18T and Rhodococcus hoagie LA6W degraded up to 70 g/L LA in a high-cell-density system. The maximal accumulation of acetic acid by strain LA18T and propionic acid by strain LA6W was 13.6 g/L and 9.1 g/L, respectively, after a 4-day incubation. Another isolate, Burkholderia stabilis LA20W, produced trehalose extracellularly in the presence of 40 g/L LA to approximately 2 g/L. These abilities to produce useful compounds supported the potential of microbial LA conversion for future development and cellulosic biomass utilization. PMID:25479689

  19. In vitro evaluation of new functional properties of poly-γ-glutamic acid produced by Bacillus subtilis D7

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Ri; Go, Tae-Hun; Lee, Sang-Mee; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Park, Geun-Tae; Hong, Chang-Oh; Son, Hong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the functionality of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), which is produced by Bacillus subtilis D7, for its potential applications in medicine and cosmetics. The γ-PGA had angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activity. ACE inhibition activity was dependent on the γ-PGA concentration; the highest ACE inhibition activity was observed at 1.25 mg/l of γ-PGA. IC50 (0.108 mg/ml) of the γ-PGA was lower than that of standard ACE inhibitory drug, N-[(S)-mercapto-2-methylpropionyl]-L-proline (0.247 mg/ml). The γ-PGA also had water-holding capacity and hygroscopicity. Furthermore, the γ-PGA inhibited growth of some pathogenic bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Esherichia coli. The γ-PGA exhibited a good metal adsorption capacity; Cr (VI) adsorption capacity of γ-PGA increased with decreasing pH, and the maximal adsorption was observed at pH 2. Our results suggest that γ-PGA may be expected to be widely applied in cosmetics, biomedical and environmental industries with the feature of being less harmful to humans and the environment. PMID:24600308

  20. Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-15

    Succinic acid (SA) was recently shown to be the major pH determining metabolite produced by yeast during straight-dough fermentation (Jayaram et al., 2013), reaching levels as high as 1.6 mmol/100 g of flour. Here, the impact of such levels of SA (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mmol/100 g flour) on yeastless dough properties was investigated. SA decreased the development time and stability of dough significantly. Uniaxial extension tests showed a consistent decrease in dough extensibility upon increasing SA addition. Upon biaxial extension in the presence of 2.4 mmol SA/100 g flour, a dough extensibility decrease of 47-65% and a dough strength increase of 25-40% were seen. While the SA solvent retention capacity of flour increased with increasing SA concentration in the solvent, gluten agglomeration decreased with gluten yield reductions of over 50%. The results suggest that SA leads to swelling and unfolding of gluten proteins, thereby increasing their interaction potential and dough strength, but simultaneously increasing intermolecular electrostatic repulsive forces. These phenomena lead to the reported changes in dough properties. Together, our results establish SA as an important yeast metabolite for dough rheology. PMID:24423552

  1. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream-flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid-forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Streamwater pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by calcium, magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southeast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site.

  2. Natural acidity of waters in podzolized soils and potential impacts from acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Stednick, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Nutrient movements through sites in southeast Alaska and Washington were documented to determine net changes in chemical composition of precipitation water as it passed through a forest soil and became stream flow. These sites were not subject to acid precipitation (rainfall pH 5.8 to 7.2), yet soil water was acidified to 4.2 by natural organic acid forming processes in the podzol soils. Organic acids precipitated in the subsoils, allowing a pH increase. Stream water pH ranged from 6.5 to 7.2 indicating a natural buffering capacity that may exceed any additional acid input from acid rain. Precipitation composition was dominated by magnesium, sodium, and chloride due to the proximity of the ocean at the southeast Alaska site. Anionic constituents of the precipitation were dominated by bicarbonate at the Washington site. Soil podzolization processes concurrently increased solution color and iron concentrations in the litter and surface horizons leachates. The anion flux through the soil profile was dominated by chloride and sulfate at the southwast Alaska site, whereas at the Washington site anion flux appeared to be dominated by organic acids. Electroneutrality calculations indicated a cation deficit for the southeast Alaska site. 10 references, 2 tables.

  3. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  4. Genome Sequence of Schizochytrium sp. CCTCC M209059, an Effective Producer of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Rich Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Kai-Qiang; Ren, Lu-Jing; Li, Gan-Lu; Huang, Jian-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Schizochytrium is an effective species for producing omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here, we report a genome sequence of Schizochytrium sp. CCTCC M209059, which has a genome size of 39.09 Mb. It will provide the genomic basis for further insights into the metabolic and regulatory mechanisms underlying the DHA formation. PMID:26251485

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto Strain CGMCC 2108, a High Producer of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siyuan; Su, Anping; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of γ-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108. PMID:27231363

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 (Formerly Cryptococcus curvatus), an Oleaginous Yeast Producing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyer, Thomas; Hackenschmidt, Silke; Nadler, Florian; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Kabisch, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 is an oleaginous yeast that can be isolated from various habitats and is capable of producing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of any C. curvatus species. PMID:27174275

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia stabilis LA20W, a Trehalose Producer That Uses Levulinic Acid as a Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yuya; Koike, Hideaki; Kondo, Susumu; Hori, Tomoyuki; Kanno, Manabu; Kimura, Nobutada; Morita, Tomotake; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia stabilis LA20W produces trehalose using levulinic acid (LA) as a substrate. Here, we report the 7.97-Mb draft genome sequence of B. stabilis LA20W, which will be useful in investigations of the enzymes involved in LA metabolism and the mechanism of LA-induced trehalose production. PMID:27491978

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Acetobacter tropicalis Type Strain NBRC16470, a Producer of Optically Pure d-Glyceric Acid.

    PubMed

    Koike, Hideaki; Sato, Shun; Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Habe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Here we report the 3.7-Mb draft genome sequence of Acetobacter tropicalis NBRC16470(T), which can produce optically pure d-glyceric acid (d-GA; 99% enantiomeric excess) from raw glycerol feedstock derived from biodiesel fuel production processes. PMID:25523780

  9. Hops (Humulus lupulus) ß-acid as an inhibitor of caprine rumen hyper-ammonia-producing bacteria in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial plant secondary metabolites increase rumen efficiency and decrease waste products (i.e. ammonia, methane) in some cases. A promising source of bioactive secondary metabolites is the hops plant (Humulus lupulus L.), which produces '-acid, a suite of structurally similar, potent antibact...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia stabilis LA20W, a Trehalose Producer That Uses Levulinic Acid as a Substrate.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuya; Koike, Hideaki; Kondo, Susumu; Hori, Tomoyuki; Kanno, Manabu; Kimura, Nobutada; Morita, Tomotake; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Habe, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia stabilis LA20W produces trehalose using levulinic acid (LA) as a substrate. Here, we report the 7.97-Mb draft genome sequence of B. stabilis LA20W, which will be useful in investigations of the enzymes involved in LA metabolism and the mechanism of LA-induced trehalose production. PMID:27491978

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 (Formerly Cryptococcus curvatus), an Oleaginous Yeast Producing Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeyer, Thomas; Hackenschmidt, Silke; Nadler, Florian; Thürmer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus DSM 101032 is an oleaginous yeast that can be isolated from various habitats and is capable of producing substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of any C. curvatus species. PMID:27174275

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto Strain CGMCC 2108, a High Producer of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siyuan; Meng, Yonghong; Su, Anping; Zhang, Chen; Ren, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the 4.1-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108, a high producer of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). This sequence will provide further help for the biosynthesis of γ-PGA and will greatly facilitate research efforts in metabolic engineering of B. subtilis subsp. natto strain CGMCC 2108. PMID:27231363

  13. Gene characterized for membrane desaturase that produces (E)-11 isomers of mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitian; Jiao, Hongmei; Murray, Nancy C; O'Connor, Marion; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2002-01-22

    Moth species have evolved integral membrane desaturases that exhibit a wide diversity in substrate specificity, as well as in regiospecificity and stereospecificity of the unsaturated products. We report here the cloning and expression of a single desaturase from the sex pheromone gland of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, that makes E11 isomers of monounsaturated (E11-16 and E11-14) fatty acids and a diunsaturated (E9,E11-14) fatty acid. In the pheromone gland, the monoene precursor is made available by beta oxidation of E11-16 acid with a subsequent two-carbon loss to E9-14 acid. A functional assay using a baculovirus expression system required addition of myristic acid and E9-14 acid precursors to demonstrate the unusual regiospecificity and stereospecificity of this desaturase. The amino acid sequence of this desaturase has approximately 61% identity to that of Z11-desaturases from two other insect species, and only approximately 48% identity to the metabolic Z9-desaturases in those species. A pheromone-gland Z9-desaturase gene also was found with the light brown apple moth that differed in its deduced amino acid sequence (66% identity) with the metabolic Z9-desaturase from fat body in this species. PMID:11805319

  14. Quantity, composition and water contamination potential of ash produced under different wildfire severities.

    PubMed

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Otero, Xosé L; Chafer, Chris J

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires frequently threaten water quality through the transfer of eroded ash and soil into rivers and reservoirs. The ability to anticipate risks for water resources from wildfires is fundamental for implementing effective fire preparedness plans and post-fire mitigation measures. Here we present a new approach that allows quantifying the amount and characteristics of ash generated under different wildfire severities and its respective water contamination potential. This approach is applied to a wildfire in an Australian dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest, but can be adapted for use in other environments. The Balmoral fire of October 2013 affected 12,694 ha of Sydney's forested water supply catchment. It produced substantial ash loads that increased with fire severity, with 6, 16 and 34 Mg ha(-1) found in areas affected by low, high and extreme fire severity, respectively. Ash bulk density was also positively related to fire severity. The increase with fire severity in the total load and bulk density of the ash generated is mainly attributed to a combination of associated increases in (i) total amount of fuel affected by fire and (ii) contribution of charred mineral soil to the ash layer. Total concentrations of pollutants and nutrients in ash were mostly unrelated to fire severity and relatively low compared to values reported for wildfire ash in other environments (e.g. 4.0-7.3mg As kg(-1); 2.3-4.1 B mg kg(-1); 136-154 P mg kg(-1)). Solubility of the elements analysed was also low, less than 10% of the total concentration for all elements except for B (6-14%) and Na (30-50%). This could be related to a partial loss of soluble components by leaching and/or wind erosion before the ash sampling (10 weeks after the fire and before major ash mobilisation by water erosion). Even with their relatively low concentrations of potential pollutants, the substantial total ash loads found here represent a water contamination risk if transported into the hydrological network

  15. Trans- and cis-urocanic acid, biogenic amine and amino acid contents in ikan pekasam (fermented fish) produced from Javanese carp (Puntius gonionotus) and black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Ezzat, M A; Zare, D; Karim, R; Ghazali, H M

    2015-04-01

    Ikan pekasam is a fermented fish product produced in Malaysia and is usually made from freshwater fish with ground roasted uncooked rice as the main source of carbohydrate. In this study, the amino acid, biogenic amine, and trans- and cis-urocanic acid (UCA) contents of fifteen commercial samples of Ikan pekasam made from Javanese carp and black tilapia, that had undergone either natural or acid-assisted fermentation, were quantified. The latter includes either tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pulp or dried slices of Garcinia atroviridis fruit in the fermentation process. Results showed that there are no significant differences in most of the biogenic amines including histamine, while there are significant differences in total UCA content, and trans- and cis-UCA contents between the two samples. Differences in the amino acid contents were largely fish-dependent. PMID:25442635

  16. Analysis of microbial community variation during the mixed culture fermentation of agricultural peel wastes to produce lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Gliniewicz, Karol; Gerritsen, Alida T; McDonald, Armando G

    2016-05-01

    Mixed cultures fermentation can be used to convert organic wastes into various chemicals and fuels. This study examined the fermentation performance of four batch reactors fed with different agricultural (orange, banana, and potato (mechanical and steam)) peel wastes using mixed cultures, and monitored the interval variation of reactor microbial communities with 16S rRNA genes using Illumina sequencing. All four reactors produced similar chemical profile with lactic acid (LA) as dominant compound. Acetic acid and ethanol were also observed with small fractions. The Illumina sequencing results revealed the diversity of microbial community decreased during fermentation and a community of largely lactic acid producing bacteria dominated by species of Lactobacillus developed. PMID:26913642

  17. Fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect: evaluating pharmacokinetic and brain fatty acid-related aspects in rodents.

    PubMed

    Laino, Carlos Horacio; Garcia, Pilar; Podestá, María Fernanda; Höcht, Christian; Slobodianik, Nora; Reinés, Analía

    2014-10-01

    We previously reported that combined fluoxetine administration at antidepressant doses renders additive antidepressant effects, whereas non-antidepressant doses potentiate the omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate putative pharmacokinetic and brain omega-3 fatty acid-related aspects for fluoxetine potentiation of omega-3 fatty acid antidepressant effect in rats. Coadministration of omega-3 fatty acids with a non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg day) failed to affect both brain fluoxetine concentration and norfluoxetine plasma concentration profile. Fluoxetine plasma concentrations remained below the sensitivity limit of the detection method. Either antidepressant (10 mg/kg day) or non-antidepressant (1 mg/kg day) doses of fluoxetine in combination with omega-3 fatty acids increased hippocampal docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 omega-3) levels. Although individual treatments had no effects on DPA concentration, DPA increase was higher when omega-3 were combined with the non-antidepressant dose of fluoxetine. Chronic DPA administration exerted antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test while increasing hippocampal docosahexaenoic (22:6 omega-3) and DPA levels. Our results suggest no pharmacokinetic interaction and reveal specific hippocampal DPA changes after fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments in our experimental conditions. The DPA role in the synergistic effect of fluoxetine and omega-3 combined treatments will be for sure the focus of future studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3316-3325, 2014. PMID:25174836

  18. Chitosan grafted monomethyl fumaric acid as a potential food preservative.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Ullah, Shafi; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims at in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activity evaluation of chitosan modified with monomethyl fumaric acid (MFA) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as mediator. Three different kinds of chitosan derivatives Ch-Ds-1,Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were synthesized by feeding different concentration of MFA. The chemical structures of resulting materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HR-XRD, FT-IR and TNBS assay. The results showed that Ch-Ds-1, Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were successfully synthesized. The % amino groups of chitosan modified by MFA were evaluated by TNBS assay and ranging from 1.82±0.05% to 7.88±0.04%. All the chitosan derivatives are readily soluble in water and swelled by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), toluene and dimethyl formamide (DMF). The antioxidant activity for all the chitosan derivatives have been significantly improved (P<0.05) compared to the chitosan. Upon antibacterial activity at pH 4.0, all the chitosan derivatives showed significant (P<0.05) antibacterial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes strains and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis strains compared to chitosan. In conclusion, MFA modified chitosan has shown enhanced activities along with solubility, and could be used as a novel food preservative and packaging material for long time food safety and security. PMID:27516253

  19. Ferulic Acid: Therapeutic Potential Through Its Antioxidant Property

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Marimuthu; Sudheer, Adluri R.; Menon, Venugopal P.

    2007-01-01

    There has been considerable public and scientific interest in the use of phytochemicals derived from dietary components to combat human diseases. They are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phytochemical commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, sweet corn and rice bran. It arises from metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine by Shikimate pathway in plants. It exhibits a wide range of therapeutic effects against various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. A wide spectrum of beneficial activity for human health has been advocated for this phenolic compound, at least in part, because of its strong antioxidant activity. FA, a phenolic compound is a strong membrane antioxidant and known to positively affect human health. FA is an effective scavenger of free radicals and it has been approved in certain countries as food additive to prevent lipid peroxidation. It effectively scavenges superoxide anion radical and inhibits the lipid peroxidation. It possesses antioxidant property by virtue of its phenolic hydroxyl group in its structure. The hydroxy and phenoxy groups of FA donate electrons to quench the free radicals. The phenolic radical in turn forms a quinone methide intermediate, which is excreted via the bile. The past few decades have been devoted to intense research on antioxidant property of FA. So, the present review deals with the mechanism of antioxidant property of FA and its possible role in therapeutic usage against various diseases. PMID:18188410

  20. Effect of carbonaceous soil amendments on potential mobility of weak acid herbicides in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of carbonaceous amendments in soil has been proposed to decrease potential offsite transport of weak acid herbicides and metabolites by increasing their sorption to soil. The effects of organic olive mill waste, biochars from different feed stocks, and humic acid bound to clay on sorption of MCP...

  1. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers.

    PubMed

    Pethybridge, Heidi R; Parrish, Christopher C; Morrongiello, John; Young, Jock W; Farley, Jessica H; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M; Nichols, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT) of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 fatty acids (EFA) measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chla), and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes) were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems. PMID:26135308

  2. Spatial Patterns and Temperature Predictions of Tuna Fatty Acids: Tracing Essential Nutrients and Changes in Primary Producers

    PubMed Central

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Parrish, Christopher C.; Morrongiello, John; Young, Jock W.; Farley, Jessica H.; Gunasekera, Rasanthi M.; Nichols, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids are among the least understood nutrients in marine environments, despite their profile as key energy components of food webs and that they are essential to all life forms. Presented here is a novel approach to predict the spatial-temporal distributions of fatty acids in marine resources using generalized additive mixed models. Fatty acid tracers (FAT) of key primary producers, nutritional condition indices and concentrations of two essential long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 fatty acids (EFA) measured in muscle of albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, sampled in the south-west Pacific Ocean were response variables. Predictive variables were: location, time, sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chla), and phytoplankton biomass at time of catch and curved fork length. The best model fit for all fatty acid parameters included fish length and SST. The first oceanographic contour maps of EFA and FAT (FATscapes) were produced and demonstrated clear geographical gradients in the study region. Predicted changes in all fatty acid parameters reflected shifts in the size-structure of dominant primary producers. Model projections show that the supply and availability of EFA are likely to be negatively affected by increases in SST especially in temperate waters where a 12% reduction in both total fatty acid content and EFA proportions are predicted. Such changes will have large implications for the availability of energy and associated health benefits to high-order consumers. Results convey new concerns on impacts of projected climate change on fish-derived EFA in marine systems. PMID:26135308

  3. Grouping newly isolated docosahexaenoic acid-producing thraustochytrids based on their polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and comparative analysis of 18S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianzhong; Aki, Tsunehiro; Yokochi, Toshihiro; Nakahara, Toro; Honda, Daiske; Kawamoto, Seiji; Shigeta, Seiko; Ono, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Seven strains of marine microbes producing a significant amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n-3) were screened from seawater collected in coastal areas of Japan and Fiji. They accumulate their respective intermediate fatty acids in addition to DHA. There are 5 kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles which can be described as (1) DHA/docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; C22:5, n-6), (2) DHA/DPA/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n-3), (3) DHA/EPA, (4) DHA/DPA/EPA/arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4, n-6), and (5) DHA/DPA/EPA/AA/docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4, n-6). These isolates are proved to be new thraustochytrids by their specific insertion sequences in the 18S rRNA genes. The phylogenetic tree constructed by molecular analysis of 18S rRNA genes from the isolates and typical thraustochytrids shows that strains with the same PUFA profile form each monophyletic cluster. These results suggest that the C20-22 PUFA profile may be applicable as an effective characteristic for grouping thraustochytrids. PMID:14730428

  4. Evaluating Healthful Properties of Cereals and Cereal Fractions by Their Bile-Acid-Binding Potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The healthful, cholesterol-lowering (atherosclerosis amelioration) or detoxification of harmful metabolites (cancer prevention) potential of cereals and cereal fractions could be predicted by evaluating their in vitro bile acid binding under physiological conditions. Using equal dry matter per incu...

  5. In vitro potentiation of carbapenems with ME1071, a novel metallo-beta-lactamase inhibitor, against metallo-beta-lactamase- producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yoshikazu; Eto, Maki; Mano, Yoko; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2010-09-01

    ME1071, a maleic acid derivative, is a novel specific inhibitor for metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL). In this study, the potentiation of ME1071 in combination with several beta-lactams was evaluated using MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. The rates of susceptibility of MBL producers to carbapenems (imipenem, biapenem, and doripenem) and ceftazidime were increased by 8 to 27% in the presence of 32 microg/ml of ME1071. The corresponding resistance rates were decreased by 13 to 46%, respectively. On the other hand, ME1071 showed weaker or no potentiation with non-MBL producers. The K(i) value of ME1071 for IMP-1 was 0.4 microM, significantly lower than the K(m) values of carbapenems for the IMP-1 enzyme. On the other hand, the K(i) value of ME1071 for VIM-2 was 120 microM, higher than the K(m) values of carbapenems for the VIM-2 enzyme. Results of this study indicate that ME1071 can potentiate the activity of ceftazidime and carbapenems against MBL-producing strains of P. aeruginosa. PMID:20606062

  6. Targeting Prolyl Endopeptidase with Valproic Acid as a Potential Modulator of Neutrophilic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Roda, Mojtaba; Sadik, Mariam; Gaggar, Amit; Hardison, Matthew T.; Jablonsky, Michael J.; Braber, Saskia; Blalock, James Edwin; Redegeld, Frank A.; Folkerts, Gert; Jackson, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    A novel neutrophil chemoattractant derived from collagen, proline-glycine-proline (PGP), has been recently characterized in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This peptide is derived via the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP's)-8/9 and PE, enzymes produced by neutrophils and present in COPD serum and sputum. Valproic acid (VPA) is an inhibitor of PE and could possibly have an effect on the severity of chronic inflammation. Here the interaction site of VPA to PE and the resulting effect on the secondary structure of PE is investigated. Also, the potential inhibition of PGP-generation by VPA was examined in vitro and in vivo to improve our understanding of the biological role of VPA. UV- visible, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD and NMR were used to determine kinetic information and structural interactions between VPA and PE. In vitro, PGP generation was significantly inhibited by VPA. In vivo, VPA significantly reduced cigarette-smoke induced neutrophil influx. Investigating the molecular interaction between VPA and PE showed that VPA modified the secondary structure of PE, making substrate binding at the catalytic side of PE impossible. Revealing the molecular interaction VPA to PE may lead to a better understanding of the involvement of PE and PGP in inflammatory conditions. In addition, the model of VPA interaction with PE suggests that PE inhibitors have a great potential to serve as therapeutics in inflammatory disorders. PMID:24835793

  7. Lactic acid bacteria--20 years exploring their potential as live vectors for mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Kobierecka, Patrycja; Bardowski, Jacek; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules. LAB enable immunization via the mucosal route, which increases effectiveness against pathogens that use the mucosa as the major route of entry into the human body. In this review, we concentrate on the encouraging application of Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera for the development of live mucosal vaccines. First, we present the progress that has recently been made in the field of developing tools for LAB genetic manipulations, which has resulted in the successful expression of many bacterial, parasitic, and viral antigens in LAB strains. Next, we discuss the factors influencing the efficacy of the constructed vaccine prototypes that have been tested in various animal models. Apart from the research focused on an application of live LABs as carriers of foreign antigens, a lot of work has been recently done on the potential usage of nonliving, nonrecombinant L. lactis designated as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM), as a delivery system for mucosal vaccination. The advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are also presented. PMID:25750046

  8. Potential in vivo roles of nucleic acid triple-helices

    PubMed Central

    Buske, Fabian A

    2011-01-01

    The ability of double-stranded DNA to form a triple-helical structure by hydrogen bonding with a third strand is well established, but the biological functions of these structures remain largely unknown. There is considerable albeit circumstantial evidence for the existence of nucleic triplexes in vivo and their potential participation in a variety of biological processes including chromatin organization, DNA repair, transcriptional regulation and RNA processing has been investigated in a number of studies to date. There is also a range of possible mechanisms to regulate triplex formation through differential expression of triplex-forming RNAs, alteration of chromatin accessibility, sequence unwinding and nucleotide modifications. With the advent of next generation sequencing technology combined with targeted approaches to isolate triplexes, it is now possible to survey triplex formation with respect to their genomic context, abundance and dynamical changes during differentiation and development, which may open up new vistas in understanding genome biology and gene regulation. PMID:21525785

  9. Evidence for the complex relationship between free amino acid and sugar concentrations and acrylamide-forming potential in potato

    PubMed Central

    Muttucumaru, N; Powers, SJ; Elmore, JS; Briddon, A; Mottram, DS; Halford, NG

    2014-01-01

    Free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results not only in the formation of colour, aroma and flavour compounds, but also undesirable contaminants, including acrylamide, which forms when the amino acid that participates in the reaction is asparagine. In this study, tubers of 13 varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which had been produced in a field trial in 2010 and sampled immediately after harvest or after storage for 6 months, were analysed to show the relationship between the concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, sugars and acrylamide-forming potential. The varieties comprised five that are normally used for crisping, seven that are used for French fry production and one that is used for boiling. Acrylamide formation was measured in heated flour, and correlated with glucose and fructose concentration. In French fry varieties, which contain higher concentrations of sugars, acrylamide formation also correlated with free asparagine concentration, demonstrating the complex relationship between precursor concentration and acrylamide-forming potential in potato. Storage of the potatoes for 6 months at 9°C had a significant, variety-dependent impact on sugar and amino acid concentrations and acrylamide-forming potential. PMID:25540460

  10. Rosmarinic acid is a homoserine lactone mimic produced by plants that activates a bacterial quorum-sensing regulator.

    PubMed

    Corral-Lugo, Andrés; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Ortega, Alvaro; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel; Krell, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a bacterial communication mechanism that controls genes, enabling bacteria to live as communities, such as biofilms. Homoserine lactone (HSL) molecules function as quorum-sensing signals for Gram-negative bacteria. Plants also produce previously unidentified compounds that affect quorum sensing. We identified rosmarinic acid as a plant-derived compound that functioned as an HSL mimic. In vitro assays showed that rosmarinic acid bound to the quorum-sensing regulator RhlR of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and competed with the bacterial ligand N-butanoyl-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). Furthermore, rosmarinic acid stimulated a greater increase in RhlR-mediated transcription in vitro than that of C4-HSL. In P. aeruginosa, rosmarinic acid induced quorum sensing-dependent gene expression and increased biofilm formation and the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and elastase. Because P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection induces rosmarinic acid secretion from plant roots, our results indicate that rosmarinic acid secretion is a plant defense mechanism to stimulate a premature quorum-sensing response. P. aeruginosa is a ubiquitous pathogen that infects plants and animals; therefore, identification of rosmarinic acid as an inducer of premature quorum-sensing responses may be useful in agriculture and inform human therapeutic strategies. PMID:26732761

  11. Relative Catalytic Efficiency of ldhL- and ldhD-Encoded Products Is Crucial for Optical Purity of Lactic Acid Produced by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Sheng, Binbin; Zhang, Haiwei; Gao, Chao; Su, Fei

    2012-01-01

    NAD-dependent l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases coexist in Lactobacillus genomes and may convert pyruvic acid into l-lactic acid and d-lactic acid, respectively. Our findings suggest that the relative catalytic efficiencies of ldhL- and ldhD-encoded products are crucial for the optical purity of lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus strains. PMID:22344644

  12. Phenolic acid composition, antiatherogenic and anticancer potential of honeys derived from various regions in Greece.

    PubMed

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  13. Phenolic Acid Composition, Antiatherogenic and Anticancer Potential of Honeys Derived from Various Regions in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Spilioti, Eliana; Jaakkola, Mari; Tolonen, Tiina; Lipponen, Maija; Virtanen, Vesa; Chinou, Ioanna; Kassi, Eva; Karabournioti, Sofia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    The phenolic acid profile of honey depends greatly on its botanical and geographical origin. In this study, we carried out a quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract of 12 honeys collected from various regions in Greece. Our findings indicate that protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid are the major phenolic acids of the honeys examined. Conifer tree honey (from pine and fir) contained significantly higher concentrations of protocatechuic and caffeic acid (mean: 6640 and 397 µg/kg honey respectively) than thyme and citrus honey (mean of protocatechuic and caffeic acid: 437.6 and 116 µg/kg honey respectively). p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was the dominant compound in thyme honeys (mean: 1252.5 µg/kg honey). We further examined the antioxidant potential (ORAC assay) of the extracts, their ability to influence viability of prostate cancer (PC-3) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cells as well as their lowering effect on TNF- α-induced adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells (HAEC). ORAC values of Greek honeys ranged from 415 to 2129 µmol Trolox equivalent/kg honey and correlated significantly with their content in protocatechuic acid (p<0.001), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p<0.01), vanillic acid (p<0.05), caffeic acid (p<0.01), p-coumaric acid (p<0.001) and their total phenolic content (p<0.001). Honey extracts reduced significantly the viability of PC-3 and MCF-7 cells as well as the expression of adhesion molecules in HAEC. Importantly, vanillic acid content correlated significantly with anticancer activity in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells (p<0.01, p<0.05 respectively). Protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid and total phenolic content correlated significantly with the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01 respectively). In conclusion, Greek honeys are rich in phenolic acids, in particular protocatechuic and p-hydroxybenzoic acid and exhibit significant antioxidant, anticancer and

  14. Characterization of fatty acid-producing wastewater microbial communities using next generation sequencing technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    While wastewater represents a viable source of bacterial biodiesel production, very little is known on the composition of these microbial communities. We studied the taxonomic diversity and succession of microbial communities in bioreactors accumulating fatty acids using 454-pyro...

  15. Bacillus spp. produce antibacterial activities against lactic acid bacteria that contaminate fuel ethanol plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) frequently contaminate commercial fuel ethanol fermentations, reducing yields and decreasing profitability of biofuel production. Microorganisms from environmental sources in different geographic regions of Thailand were tested for antibacterial activity against LAB. Fou...

  16. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  17. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Choi, Yong Ho; Shin, Teak Soo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Hun; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Kim, In Seon; Myung, Eul Jae; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s) and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP) formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10%) and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%), were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate). These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease. PMID:27258452

  18. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 - an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides.

    PubMed

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E; Bailey, Andrew M; Mulholland, Nicholas P; Vincent, Jason L; Willis, Christine L; Cox, Russell J; Simpson, Thomas J

    2015-12-14

    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthesis. Acid 5 undergoes facile decarboxylation to anhydride 6. The generic term maleidrides is proposed to encompass biosynthetically-related compounds containing maleic anhydride moieties fused to an alicyclic ring, varying in size and substituents. PMID:26452099

  19. Antimicrobial Property of Lauric Acid Against Propionibacterium acnes: Its Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Kao, Mandy C.; Fang, Jia-You; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Zhang, Liangfang; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The strong bactericidal properties of lauric acid (C12:0), a middle chain-free fatty acid commonly found in natural products, have been shown in a number of studies. However, it has not been demonstrated whether lauric acid can be used for acne treatment as a natural antibiotic against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), which promotes follicular inflammation (inflammatory acne). This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of lauric acid against P. acnes both in vitro and in vivo. Incubation of the skin bacteria P. acnes, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) with lauric acid yielded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against the bacterial growth over 15 times lower than those of benzoyl peroxide (BPO). The lower MIC values of lauric acid indicate stronger antimicrobial properties than that of BPO. The detected values of half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of lauric acid on P. acnes, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis growth indicate that P. acnes is the most sensitive to lauric acid among these bacteria. In addition, lauric acid did not induce cytotoxicity to human sebocytes. Notably, both intradermal injection and epicutaneous application of lauric acid effectively decreased the number of P. acnes colonized with mouse ears, thereby relieving P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. The obtained data highlight the potential of using lauric acid as an alternative treatment for antibiotic therapy of acne vulgaris. PMID:19387482

  20. Isolation and characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing Thraustochytrium species: screening of strains and optimization of omega-3 production.

    PubMed

    Burja, Adam M; Radianingtyas, Helia; Windust, Anthony; Barrow, Colin J

    2006-10-01

    An isolation program targeting Thraustochytrids (marine fungoid protists) from 19 different Atlantic Canadian locations was performed. Sixty-eight isolates were screened for biomass, total fatty acid (TFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content. Analysis of fatty acid methyl ester results discerned four distinctive clusters based on fatty acid profiles, with biomass ranging from 0.1 to 2.3 g L(-1), and lipid, EPA, and DHA contents ranging from 27.1 to 321.14, 2.97 to 21.25, and 5.18 to 83.63 mg g(-1) biomass, respectively. ONC-T18, was subsequently chosen for further manipulations. Identified using 18S rRNA gene sequencing techniques as a Thraustochytrium sp., most closely related to Thraustochytrium striatum T91-6, ONC-T18 produced up to 28.0 g L(-1) biomass, 81.7% TFA, 31.4% (w/w biomass) DHA, and 4.6 g L(-1) DHA under optimal fermentation conditions. Furthermore, this strain was found to produce the carotenoids and xanthophylls astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, echinenone, and beta-carotene. Given this strain's impressive productivity when compared to commercial strains, such as Schizochytrium sp. SR21 (which has only 50% TFA), coupled with its ability to grow at economical nitrogen and very low salt concentrations (2 g L(-1)), ONC-T18 is seen as an ideal candidate for both scale-up and commercialization. PMID:16625394

  1. In vitro Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Nem Chua, a Traditional Vietnamese Fermented Pork.

    PubMed

    Pilasombut, Komkhae; Rumjuankiat, Kittaporn; Ngamyeesoon, Nualphan; Duy, Le Nguyen Doan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and In vitro characterize the properties of bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Vietnamese fermented pork (Nem chua). One hundred and fifty LAB were isolated from ten samples of Nem chua and screened for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin was carried out by spot on lawn method against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. One isolate, assigned as KL-1, produced bacteriocin and showed inhibitory activity against Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Enterococcus faecalis. To characterize the bacteriocin-producing strain, optimum temperature, incubation period for maximum bacteriocin production and identification of bacteriocin-producing strain were determined. It was found that the optimum cultivation temperature of the strain to produce the maximum bacteriocin activity (12,800 AU/mL) was obtained at 30℃. Meanwhile, bacteriocin production at 6,400 AU/mL was found when culturing the strain at 37℃ and 42℃. The isolate KL-1 was identified as L. plantarum. Antimicrobial activity of cell-free supernatant was completely inhibited by proteolytic enzyme of trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. Bacteriocin activity was stable at high temperature up to 100℃ for 10 min and at 4℃ storage for 2 d. However, the longer heating at 100℃ and 4℃ storage, its activity was reduced. PMID:26761868

  2. In vitro Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Nem Chua, a Traditional Vietnamese Fermented Pork

    PubMed Central

    Rumjuankiat, Kittaporn; Ngamyeesoon, Nualphan; Duy, Le Nguyen Doan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and In vitro characterize the properties of bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Vietnamese fermented pork (Nem chua). One hundred and fifty LAB were isolated from ten samples of Nem chua and screened for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin was carried out by spot on lawn method against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. One isolate, assigned as KL-1, produced bacteriocin and showed inhibitory activity against Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Enterococcus faecalis. To characterize the bacteriocin-producing strain, optimum temperature, incubation period for maximum bacteriocin production and identification of bacteriocin-producing strain were determined. It was found that the optimum cultivation temperature of the strain to produce the maximum bacteriocin activity (12,800 AU/mL) was obtained at 30℃. Meanwhile, bacteriocin production at 6,400 AU/mL was found when culturing the strain at 37℃ and 42℃. The isolate KL-1 was identified as L. plantarum. Antimicrobial activity of cell-free supernatant was completely inhibited by proteolytic enzyme of trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and proteinase K. Bacteriocin activity was stable at high temperature up to 100℃ for 10 min and at 4℃ storage for 2 d. However, the longer heating at 100℃ and 4℃ storage, its activity was reduced. PMID:26761868

  3. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a donnan potential model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marinsky, J.A.; Mathuthu, A.; Ephraim, J.H.; Reddy, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 X 10-4 moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log ??app) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log ??app = 2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential corrrection term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log??= 1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, Mu??nchen.

  4. A new physiological role for Pdr12p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: export of aromatic and branched-chain organic acids produced in amino acid catabolism.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, Lucie A; Tai, Siew Leng; Boer, Viktor M; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean Marc

    2006-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use a broad range of compounds as sole nitrogen source. Many amino acids, such as leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and methionine, are utilized through the Ehrlich pathway. The fusel acids and alcohols produced from this pathway, along with their derived esters, are important contributors to beer and wine flavor. It is unknown how these compounds are exported from the cell. Analysis of nitrogen-source-dependent transcript profiles via microarray analysis of glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures revealed a common upregulation of PDR12 in cultures grown with leucine, methionine or phenylalanine as sole nitrogen source. PDR12 encodes an ABC transporter involved in weak-organic-acid resistance, which has hitherto been studied in the context of resistance to exogenous organic acids. The hypothesis that PDR12 is involved in export of natural products of amino acid catabolism was evaluated by analyzing the phenotype of null mutants in PDR12 or in WAR1, its positive transcriptional regulator. The hypersensitivity of the pdr12Delta and war1Delta strains for some of these compounds indicates that Pdr12p is involved in export of the fusel acids, but not the fusel alcohols derived from leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine and tryptophan. PMID:16911515

  5. Candida zemplinina Can Reduce Acetic Acid Produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sweet Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ∼0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response. PMID:22247148

  6. The Antibacterial Activity of Acetic Acid against Biofilm-Producing Pathogens of Relevance to Burns Patients

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Fenella D.; Rauf, Maryam; Moiemen, Naiem S.; Bamford, Amy; Wearn, Christopher M.; Fraise, Adam P.; Lund, Peter A.; Oppenheim, Beryl A.; Webber, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Localised infections, and burn wound sepsis are key concerns in the treatment of burns patients, and prevention of colonisation largely relies on biocides. Acetic acid has been shown to have good antibacterial activity against various planktonic organisms, however data is limited on efficacy, and few studies have been performed on biofilms. Objectives We sought to investigate the antibacterial activity of acetic acid against important burn wound colonising organisms growing planktonically and as biofilms. Methods Laboratory experiments were performed to test the ability of acetic acid to inhibit growth of pathogens, inhibit the formation of biofilms, and eradicate pre-formed biofilms. Results Twenty-nine isolates of common wound-infecting pathogens were tested. Acetic acid was antibacterial against planktonic growth, with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.16–0.31% for all isolates, and was also able to prevent formation of biofilms (at 0.31%). Eradication of mature biofilms was observed for all isolates after three hours of exposure. Conclusions This study provides evidence that acetic acid can inhibit growth of key burn wound pathogens when used at very dilute concentrations. Owing to current concerns of the reducing efficacy of systemic antibiotics, this novel biocide application offers great promise as a cheap and effective measure to treat infections in burns patients. PMID:26352256

  7. Genomewide expression analysis in amino acid-producing bacteria using DNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Wendisch, Volker F

    2004-01-01

    DNA microarray technology has become an important research tool for biotechnology and microbiology. It is now possible to characterize genetic diversity and gene expression in a genomewide manner. DNA microarrays have been applied extensively to study the biology of many bacteria including Escherichia coli, but only recently have they been developed for the Gram-positive Corynebacterium glutamicum. Both bacteria are widely used for biotechnological amino acid production. In this article, in addition to the design and generation of microarrays as well as their use in hybridization experiments and subsequent data analysis, we describe recent applications of DNA microarray technology regarding amino acid production in C. glutamicum and E. coli. We also discuss the impact of functional genomics studies on fundamental as well as applied aspects of amino acid production with C. glutamicum and E. coli. PMID:15304751

  8. A Detailed Study of the Amino Acids Produced from the Vacuum UV Irradiation of Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Auger, Geneviève; Blanot, Didier; D'Hendecourt, Louis

    2008-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the variety, quantity and distribution of the amino acids detected in organic residues after acid hydrolysis. Such organic residues are produced in the laboratory after the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation of several astrophysically relevant ice mixtures containing H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4 and NH3 at low temperature (10-80 K), and subsequent warm-up to room temperature. We explore five experimental parameters: the irradiation time, the temperature, the ice mixture composition, the photon dose per molecule and the substrate for the ice deposition. The amino acids were detected and identified by ex-situ liquid chromatography analysis of the organic residues formed after warming the photolysed ices up to room temperature. This study shows that in all experiments amino acids are formed. Their total quantities and distribution depend slightly on the experimental parameters explored in the present work, the important requirement to form such molecules being that the starting ice mixtures must contain the four elements C, H, O and N. We also discuss the effects of the chemical treatment needed to detect and identify the amino acids in the organic residues. Finally, these results are compared with meteoritic amino acid data from the carbonaceous chondrite Murchison, and the formation processes of such compounds under astrophysical conditions are discussed.

  9. Purification and characterization of two forms of cytochrome b5 from an arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella hygrophila.

    PubMed

    Kouzaki, N; Kawashima, H; Chung, M C; Shimizu, S

    1995-06-01

    Two forms of cytochrome b5 have been purified from the microsomes of an arachidonic acid-producing fungus, Mortierella hygrophila IFO 5941, after detergent solubilization. They have monomeric molecular masses of about 16 kDa and 19 kDa. Their absorption spectra are similar to those of mammalian cytochrome b5s. Their amino acid compositions show some similarity to those of mammalian cytochrome b5s, but the contents of some amino acids (glycine, alanine, aspartic acid + asparagine, glutamic acid + glutamine, arginine, proline, histidine, leucine and lysine) are unique to the cytochrome b5s of M. hygrophila. Some of their internal peptide sequences also show close homology with those of some mammals (approx. 65 to 67%), while some others show no or little homology. The addition of various acyl-CoAs to NADH-reduced microsomes caused an abrupt shiftdown of the steady state reduction level of cytochrome b5. This indicates the increased utilization of electrons for the desaturation process and may suggest that the cytochrome b5s of this fungus actually take part in its microsomal desaturation system for polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis as electron carriers. PMID:7786894

  10. Deletion of a Chitin Synthase Gene in a Citric Acid Producing Strain of Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, Torri E.; Baker, Scott E.

    2007-01-29

    Citric acid production by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is carried out in a process that causes the organism to drastically alter its morphology. This altered morphology includes hyphal swelling and highly limited polar growth resulting in clumps of swollen cells that eventually aggregate into pellets of approximately 100 microns in diameter. In this pelleted form, A. niger has increased citric acid production as compared to growth in filamentous form. Chitin is a crucial component of the cell wall of filamentous fungi. Alterations in the deposition or production of chitin may have profound effects on the morphology of the organism. In order to study the role of chitin synthesis in pellet formation we have deleted a chitin synthase gene (csmA) in Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 11414 using a PCR based deletion construct. This class of chitin synthases is only found in filamentous fungi and is not present in yeasts. The csmA genes contain a myosin motor domain at the N-terminus and a chitin synthesis domain at the C-terminus. They are believed to contribute to the specialized polar growth observed in filamentous fungi that is lacking in yeasts. The csmA deletion strain (csmAΔ) was subjected to minimal media with and without osmotic stabilizers as well as tested in citric acid production media. Without osmotic stabilizers, the mutant germlings were abnormally swollen, primarily in the subapical regions, and contained large vacuoles. However, this swelling is ultimately not inhibitory to growth as the germlings are able to recover and undergo polar growth. Colony formation was largely unaffected in the absence of osmotic stabilizers. In citric acid production media csmAΔ was observed to have a 2.5 fold increase in citric acid production. The controlled expression of this class of chitin synthases may be useful for improving production of organic acids in filamentous fungi.

  11. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  12. Butyric acid stimulates bovine neutrophil functions and potentiates the effect of platelet activating factor.

    PubMed

    Carretta, M D; Hidalgo, A I; Burgos, J; Opazo, L; Castro, L; Hidalgo, M A; Figueroa, C D; Taubert, A; Hermosilla, C; Burgos, R A

    2016-08-01

    Increased short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production is associated with subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and activation of inflammatory processes. In humans and rodents, SCFAs modulate inflammatory responses in the gut via free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2). In bovines, butyric acid is one of the most potent FFA2 agonists. Its expression in bovine neutrophils has recently been demonstrated, suggesting a role in innate immune response in cattle. This study aimed to evaluate if butyric acid modulates oxidative and non-oxidative functions or if it can potentiate other inflammatory mediators in bovine neutrophils. Our results showed that butyric acid can activate bovine neutrophils, inducing calcium (Ca(2+)) influx and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, two second messengers involved in FFA2 activation. Ca(2+) influx induced by butyric acid was dependent on the extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+) source and phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Butyric acid alone had no significant effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and chemotaxis; however, a priming effect on platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent inflammatory mediator, was observed. Butyric acid increased CD63 expression and induced the release of neutrophil granule markers matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and lactoferrin. Finally, we observed that butyric acid induced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation without affecting cellular viability. These findings suggest that butyric acid, a component of the ruminal fermentative process, can modulate the innate immune response of ruminants. PMID:27288853

  13. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K.; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  14. Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Todd, Neil P M; Bell, Steven L; Paillard, Aurore C; Griffin, Michael J

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms(-2) (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

  15. Contributions of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the electrooculogram to periocular potentials produced by whole-body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Steven L.; Paillard, Aurore C.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of an experiment to investigate the emergence of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) during the linear vestibular ocular reflex (LVOR) evoked by whole-body vibration (WBV). OVEMP and electrooculogram (EOG) montages were employed to record periocular potentials (POPs) from six subjects during WBV in the nasooccipital (NO) axis over a range of frequencies from 0.5 to 64 Hz with approximately constant peak head acceleration of 1.0 ms−2 (i.e., 0.1 g). Measurements were made in two context conditions: a fixation context to examine the effect of gaze eccentricity (0 vs. 20°), and a visual context, where a target was either head-fixed or earth-fixed. The principal results are that from 0.5 to 2 Hz POP magnitude in the earth-fixed condition is related to head displacement, so with constant acceleration at all frequencies it reduces with increasing frequency, but at frequencies greater than 2 Hz both POP magnitude and POP gain, defined as the ratio of POP magnitude at 20 and 0°, increase with increasing frequency. By exhibiting this high-pass characteristic, a property shared with the LVOR, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that the OVEMP, as commonly employed in the clinical setting, is a high-frequency manifestation of the LVOR. However, we also observed low-frequency acceleration following POPs in head-fixed conditions, consistent with a low-frequency OVEMP, and found evidence of a high-frequency visual context effect, which is also consistent with the OVEMP being a manifestation of the LVOR. PMID:22984251

  16. Development of an Unnatural Amino Acid Incorporation System in the Actinobacterial Natural Product Producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439.

    PubMed

    He, Jingxuan; Van Treeck, Briana; Nguyen, Han B; Melançon, Charles E

    2016-02-19

    Many Actinobacteria, most notably Streptomyces, produce structurally diverse bioactive natural products, including ribosomally synthesized peptides, by multistep enzymatic pathways. The use of site-specific genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids to investigate and manipulate the functions of natural product biosynthetic enzymes, enzyme complexes, and ribosomally derived peptides in these organisms would have important implications for drug discovery and development efforts. Here, we have designed, constructed, and optimized unnatural amino acid systems capable of incorporating p-iodo-l-phenylalanine and p-azido-l-phenylalanine site-specifically into proteins in the model natural product producer Streptomyces venezuelae ATCC 15439. We observed notable differences in the fidelity and efficiency of these systems between S. venezuelae and previously used hosts. Our findings serve as a foundation for using an expanded genetic code in Streptomyces to address questions related to natural product biosynthesis and mechanism of action that are relevant to drug discovery and development. PMID:26562751

  17. Techno-economic analysis of an improved process for producing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils provide a source of environmentally desirable lubricants, but they are not widely utilized because of their poor oxidative stability. Branched-chain fatty acid isomers are desirable products because they have excellent thermostabilities and lubricities when compared to the parent veg...

  18. Short chain fatty acid production and glucose responses by methane producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fermentation by gut microbiota has been linked to physiologic responses in the host. Methanogenic gut bacteria may remove more carbon from indigestible food matrices especially poorly digested carbohydrates. We sought to assess the effects of methane production on short chain fatty acid (SCFA) con...

  19. Exploring the Genome of a Butyric Acid Producer, Clostridium butyricum INCQS635

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Miranda, Milene; Pereira, Nei; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. The genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications. PMID:25414496

  20. Exploring the Genome of a Butyric Acid Producer, Clostridium butyricum INCQS635.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Thiago; Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Miranda, Milene; Pereira, Nei; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. The genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications. PMID:25414496

  1. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  2. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce feruloyl esterase for the release of ferulic acid from switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase gene (faeA) was cloned into Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a yeast expression vector, resulting in efficient expression and secretion of the enzyme in the medium. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange and hydrophobic interactio...

  3. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) as a net producer of long-chain marine ω-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Sanden, Monica; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Berntssen, Marc H G; Lie, Øyvind; Torstensen, Bente E

    2011-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of replacing high levels of marine ingredients with vegetable raw materials and with emphasis on lipid metabolism and net production of long-chain polyunsaturated ω-3 fatty acids (EPA + DHA). Atlantic salmon were fed three different replacement vegetable diets and one control marine diet before sensory attributes, β-oxidation capacity, and fatty acid productive value (FAPV) of ingested fatty acids (FAs) were evaluated. Fish fed the high replacement diet had a net production of 0.8 g of DHA and a FAPV of 142%. Fish fed the marine diet had a net loss of DHA. The present work shows that Atlantic salmon can be a net producer of marine DHA when dietary fish oil is replaced by vegetable oil with minor effects on sensory attributes and lipid metabolism. PMID:22017199

  4. Increased Rat Placental Fatty Acid, but Decreased Amino Acid and Glucose Transporters Potentially Modify Intrauterine Programming.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Gellhaus, Alexandra; Kühnel, Elisabeth; Swoboda, Isabelle; Wohlfarth, Maria; Vohlen, Christina; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of placental nutrient transport significantly affects fetal development and may modify intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and fetal programming. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by utero-placental insufficiency and prenatal surgical stress. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine artery and vein ligation (LIG), sham operation (SOP) or no operation (controls, C) on gestational day E19. Placentas were obtained by caesarean section 4 h (LIG, n=20 placentas; SOP, n=24; C, n=12), 24 h (LIG, n=28; SOP, n=20; C, n=12) and 72 h (LIG, n=20; SOP, n=20; C, n=24) after surgery. Gene and protein expression of placental nutrient transporters for fatty acids (h-FABP, CD36), amino acids (SNAT1, SNAT2) and glucose (GLUT-1, Connexin 26) were examined by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, the mean protein expression of h-FABP was doubled in placentas of LIG and SOP animals 4, 24 (SOP significant) and 72 h (SOP significant) after surgery. CD36 protein was significantly increased in LIG after 72 h. SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein and gene expressions were significantly reduced in LIG and SOP after 24 h. Further significantly reduced proteins were GLUT-1 in LIG (4 h, 72 h) and SOP (24 h), and Connexin 26 in LIG (72 h). In conclusion, placental nutrient transporters are differentially affected both by reduced blood flow and stress, probably modifying the already disturbed intrauterine milieu and contributing to IUGR and fetal programming. Increased fatty acid transport capacity may affect energy metabolism and could be a compensatory reaction with positive effects on brain development. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1594-1603, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26590355

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain VKPM B-10182, Producing the Enzyme for Synthesis of Cephalosporin Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mardanov, Andrey V.; Eldarov, Mikhail A.; Sklyarenko, Anna V.; Dumina, Maria V.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Yarotsky, Sergey V.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain VKPM B-10182, obtained by chemical mutagenesis from E. coli strain ATCC 9637, produces cephalosporin acid synthetase employed in the synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics, such as cefazolin. The draft genome sequence of strain VKPM B-10182 revealed 32 indels and 1,780 point mutations that might account for the improvement in antibiotic synthesis that we observed. PMID:25414512

  6. Lipase-catalyzed process in an anhydrous medium with enzyme reutilization to produce biodiesel with low acid value.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Muñoz, Robinson; Navia, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    One major problem in the lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is the high acidity of the product, mainly caused by water presence, which produces parallel hydrolysis and esterification reactions instead of transesterification to FAME. Therefore, the use of reaction medium in absence of water (anhydrous medium) was investigated in a lipase-catalyzed process to improve FAME yield and final product quality. FAME production catalyzed by Novozym 435 was carried out using waste frying oil (WFO) as raw material, methanol as acyl acceptor, and 3Å molecular sieves to extract the water. The anhydrous conditions allowed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from feedstock at the initial reaction time. However, after the initial esterification process, water absence avoided the consecutives reactions of hydrolysis and esterification, producing FAME mainly by transesterification. Using this anhydrous medium, a decreasing in both the acid value and the diglycerides content in the product were observed, simultaneously improving FAME yield. Enzyme reuse in the anhydrous medium was also studied. The use of the moderate polar solvent tert-butanol as a co-solvent led to a stable catalysis using Novozym 435 even after 17 successive cycles of FAME production under anhydrous conditions. These results indicate that a lipase-catalyzed process in an anhydrous medium coupled with enzyme reuse would be suitable for biodiesel production, promoting the use of oils of different origin as raw materials. PMID:21889401

  7. Conjugal Strategy for Construction of Fast Acid-Producing, Bacteriophage-Resistant Lactic Streptococci for Use in Dairy Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, M. E.; Leonhard, P. J.; Sing, W. D.; Klaenhammer, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    Bacteriophage-resistant dairy streptococci were obtained following conjugal transfer of pTR2030 from a lactose-negative donor, Streptococcus lactis TEK12, to lactose-positive recipient strains, Streptococcus cremoris LMA13 and 924 and S. lactis LMA12. Fast acid-producing, phage-resistant transconjugants were selected by challenge with homologous phage on fast-slow differential agar or lactose indicator agar. Acquisition of pTR2030 by the transconjugants was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization. Resistance of transconjugants to homologous phage was complete. Curing or deletion of pTR2030 in the transconjugants confirmed that phage resistance was due to pTR2030 acquisition and not to coincident background mutation. Phage-sensitive pTR2030 deletion derivatives of LMA12 transconjugants were isolated in vivo. The HindIII fragment B of pTR2030 was subcloned into pBR322 to yield a recombinant plasmid, pMET2, useful as a source of pTR2030 DNA. A specific, chemically synthesized oligomer useful as a pTR2030 probe was derived from the sequence of a small portion of pTR2030. The conjugal strategy presented here was effective in yielding fast acid-producing, phage-resistant S. cremoris and S. lactis strains without the use of antibiotic resistance markers and without interfering with the acid-producing ability of the recipient strain. Images PMID:16347196

  8. Potential for Producing Hydrogen from Key Renewable Resources in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrandt, A.; Mann, M.

    2006-02-01

    This study estimates the potential for hydrogen production from key renewable resources (onshore wind, solar photovoltaic, and biomass) by county in the United States. It includes maps that allow the reader to easily visualize the results.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium aceticum DSM 1496, a Potential Butanol Producer through Syngas Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoseb; Hwang, Soonkyu

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium aceticum DSM 1496 is a Gram-negative anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic acetogenic bacterium that is capable of producing commodity chemicals from syngas fermentation. In this study, we report the draft genome sequence of the C. aceticum DSM 1496 strain (4.16 Mb) to elucidate the syngas fermentation metabolic pathway. PMID:25931594

  10. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    PubMed

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid. PMID:27431730

  11. Quantitative analysis of the lactic acid and acetaldehyde produced by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains isolated from traditional Turkish yogurts using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Gezginc, Y; Topcal, F; Comertpay, S; Akyol, I

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the lactic acid- and acetaldehyde-producing abilities of lactic acid bacterial species isolated from traditionally manufactured Turkish yogurts using HPLC. The lactic acid bacterial species purified from the yogurts were the 2 most widely used species in industrial yogurt production: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria have the ability to ferment hexose sugars homofermentatively to generate lactic acid and some carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde through pyruvate metabolism. The levels of the compounds produced during fermentation influence the texture and the flavor of the yogurt and are themselves influenced by the chemical composition of the milk, processing conditions, and the metabolic activity of the starter culture. In the study, morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics were employed to identify the bacteria obtained from homemade yogurts produced in different regions of Turkey. A collection of 91 Strep. thermophilus and 35 L. bulgaricus strains were investigated for their lactic acid- and acetaldehyde-formation capabilities in various media such as cow milk, LM17 agar, and aerobic-anaerobic SM17 agar or de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar. The amounts of the metabolites generated by each strain in all conditions were quantified by HPLC. The levels were found to vary depending on the species, the strain, and the growth conditions used. Whereas lactic acid production ranged between 0 and 77.9 mg/kg for Strep. thermophilus strains, it ranged from 0 to 103.5 mg/kg for L. bulgaricus. Correspondingly, the ability to generate acetaldehyde ranged from 0 to 105.9 mg/kg in Strep. thermophilus and from 0 to 126.9 mg/kg in L. bulgaricus. Our study constitutes the first attempt to determine characteristics of the wild strains isolated from traditional Turkish yogurts, and the approach presented here, which reveals the differences in metabolite production abilities of the

  12. UVB Radiation as a Potential Selective Factor Favoring Microcystin Producing Bloom Forming Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yi; Song, Lirong; Sedmak, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, several organisms will become exposed to increased biologically active UVB (280–320 nm) radiation, not only at polar but also at temperate and tropical latitudes. Bloom forming cyanobacteria are exposed to UVB radiation on a mass scale, particularly during the surface bloom and scum formation that can persist for long periods of time. All buoyant species of cyanobacteria are at least periodically exposed to higher irradiation during their vertical migration to the surface that usually occurs several times a day. The aim of this study is to assess the influence on cyanobacteria of UVB radiation at realistic environmental intensities. The effects of two UVB intensities of 0.5 and 0.99 W/m2 in up to 0.5 cm water depth were studied in vitro on Microcystis aeruginosa strains, two microcystin producing and one non-producing. After UVB exposure their ability to proliferate was estimated by cell counting, while cell fitness and integrity were evaluated using light microscopy, autofluorescence and immunofluorescence. Gene damage was assessed by TUNEL assay and SYBR Green staining of the nucleoide area. We conclude that UVB exposure causes damage to the genetic material, cytoskeletal elements, higher sedimentation rates and consequent cell death. In contrast to microcystin producers (PCC7806 and FACHB905), the microcystin non-producing strain PCC7005 is more susceptible to the deleterious effects of radiation, with weak recovery ability. The ecological relevance of the results is discussed using data from eleven years’ continuous UVB radiation measurements within the area of Ljubljana city (Slovenia, Central Europe). Our results suggest that increased solar radiation in temperate latitudes can have its strongest effect during cyanobacterial bloom formation in spring and early summer. UVB radiation in this period may significantly influence strain composition of cyanobacterial blooms in favor of microcystin producers. PMID

  13. Superhydrophobic poly(L-lactic acid) surface as potential bacterial colonization substrate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophobicity is a very important surface property and there is a growing interest in the production and characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces. Accordingly, it was recently shown how to obtain a superhydrophobic surface using a simple and cost-effective method on a polymer named poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA). To evaluate the ability of such material as a substrate for bacterial colonization, this work assessed the capability of different bacteria to colonize a biomimetic rough superhydrophobic (SH) PLLA surface and also a smooth hydrophobic (H) one. The interaction between these surfaces and bacteria with different morphologies and cell walls was studied using one strain of Staphylococcus aureus and one of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed that both bacterial strains colonized the surfaces tested, although significantly higher numbers of S. aureus cells were found on SH surfaces comparing to H ones. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy images showed an extracellular matrix produced by P. aeruginosa on SH PLLA surfaces, indicating that this bacterium is able to form a biofilm on such substratum. Bacterial removal through lotus leaf effect was also tested, being more efficient on H coupons than on SH PLLA ones. Overall, the results showed that SH PLLA surfaces can be used as a substrate for bacterial colonization and, thus, have an exceptional potential for biotechnology applications. PMID:22018163

  14. Evaluaiton of a novel antimicrobial solution and its potential for control E. coli O157:H7, non-O157:H7 shiga toxin-producing E. coli, Salmononella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel antimicrobial solution made with chitosan, lauric arginate ester, and organic acids on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli cocktails and to test its potential to b...

  15. Acid-neutralizing potential of minerals in intrusive rocks of the Boulder batholith in northern Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desborough, George A.; Briggs, Paul H.; Mazza, Nilah; Driscoll, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Experimental studies show that fresh granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith in the Boulder River headwaters near Basin, Montana have significant acid-neutralizing potential and are capable of neutralizing acidic water derived from metal-mining related wastes or mine workings. Laboratory studies show that in addition to the acidneutralizing potential (ANP) of minor amounts of calcite in these rocks, biotite, tremolite, and feldspars will contribute significantly to long-term ANP. We produced 0.45 micrometer-filtered acidic (pH = 2.95) leachate for use in these ANP experiments by exposing metal-mining related wastes to deionized water in a waste:leachate ratio of 1:20. We then exposed these leachates to finely-ground and sized fractions of batholith rocks, and some of their mineral fractions for extended and repeated periods, for which results are reported here. The intent was to understand what reactions of metal-rich acidic water and fresh igneous rocks would produce. The reactions between the acidic leachates and the bulk rocks and mineral fractions are complex. Factors such as precipitation of phases like Fe-hydroxides and Alhydroxides and the balance between dissolved cations and anions that are sulfate dominated complicate analysis of the results. Research by others of acid neutralization by biotite and tremolite attributed a rise in pH to proton (H+) adsorption in sites vacated by K, Mg, and Ca. Destruction of the silicate framework and liberation of associated structural hydroxyl ions may contribute to ANP. Studies by others have indicated that the conversion of biotite to a vermiculite-type structure by removal of K at a pH of 4 consumes about six protons for every mole of biotite, but at a pH of 3 there is pronounced dissolution of the tetrahedral lattice. The ANP of fresh granitic rocks is much higher than anticipated. The three bulk Boulder igneous rock samples studied have minimum ANP equivalent to about 10-14 weight percent calcite. This ANP is in

  16. Purification and characterization of a carbohydrate: acceptor oxidoreductase from Paraconiothyrium sp. that produces lactobionic acid efficiently.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Nakano, Hirofumi; Kiso, Taro; Murakami, Hiromi

    2008-03-01

    A carbohydrate:acceptor oxidoreductase from Paraconiothyrium sp. was purified and characterized. The enzyme efficiently oxidized beta-(1-->4) linked sugars, such as lactose, xylobiose, and cellooligosaccharides. The enzyme also oxidized maltooligosaccharides, D-glucose, D-xylose, D-galactose, L-arabinose, and 6-deoxy-D-glucose. It specifically oxidized the beta-anomer of lactose. Molecular oxygen and 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol were reduced by the enzyme as electron acceptors. The Paraconiothyrium enzyme was identified as a carbohydrate:acceptor oxidoreductase according to its specificity for electron donors and acceptors, and its molecular properties, as well as the N-terminal amino acid sequence. Further comparison of the amino acid sequences of lactose oxidizing enzymes indicated that carbohydrate:acceptor oxidoreductases belong to the same group as glucooligosaccharide oxidase, while they differ from cellobiose dehydrogenases and cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductases. PMID:18323642

  17. Isolation and characterization of a novel thraustochytrid-like microorganism that efficiently produces docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Zakia; Ando, Hitomi; Ueno, Akio; Ito, Yukiya; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Yamada, Yohko; Takagi, Tomoko; Kaneko, Takako; Kogame, Kazuhiro; Okuyama, Hidetoshi

    2006-02-01

    A thraustochytrid-like microorganism (strain 12B) was isolated from the mangrove area of Okinawa, Japan. On the basis of its ectoplasmic net structure and biflagellate zoospores we determined strain 12B to be a novel member of the phylum Labyrinthulomycota in the kingdom Protoctista. When grown on glucose/seawater at 28 degrees C, it had a lipid content of 58% with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n-3) at 43% of the total fatty acids. It had a growth rate of 0.38 h(-1). The DHA production rate of 2.8 +/- 0.7 g l(-1) day(-1) is the highest value reported for any microorganism. PMID:16489498

  18. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  19. Lipid Classes, Fatty Acid Composition, and Glycerolipid Molecular Species of the Red Alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla, a Prostaglandin-Producing Seaweed.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki; Ishimaru, Takashi; Itabashi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The red alga Gracilaria vermiculophylla is a well-known producer of prostaglandins, such as PGE2 and PGF2α. In this study, the characteristics of glycerolipids as substrates of prostaglandin production were clarified, and the lipid classes, fatty acid composition, and glycerolipid molecular species were investigated in detail. The major lipid classes were monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), as well as phosphatidylcholine (PC), which accounted for 43.0% of the total lipid profile. Arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), a prostaglandin precursor, and palmitic acid (16:0) were the predominant fatty acids in the total lipid profile. The 20:4n-6 content was significantly high in MGDG and PC (more than 60%), and the 16:0 content was significantly high in DGDG and SQDG (more than 50%). Chiral-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determined that fatty acids were esterified at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of those lipids. The main glycerolipid molecular species were 20:4n-6/20:4n-6 (sn-1/sn-2) for MGDG (56.5%) and PC (40.0%), and 20:4n-6/16:0 for DGDG (75.4%) and SQDG (58.4%). Thus, it was considered that the glycerolipid molecular species containing one or two 20:4n-6 were the major substrates for prostaglandin production in G. vermiculophylla. PMID:27581490

  20. Human platelets produce 14,15-oxido-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid from phosphatidylinositol

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, L.R.; Lam, B.K.; Wong, P.Y.K.; Cheung, W.Y.

    1987-05-01

    Human platelets contain a soluble enzyme or enzyme system which catalyzes the formation of a compound more polar than arachidonate from 2-arachidonyl-sn-phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns). The C-value and mass spectrum of the compound appears similar to the reported values of 14,15-oxido-5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid (EET). 2-Arachidonyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine, 2-arachidonyl-sn-phosphatidylethanolamine and arachidonic acid were not substrates for EET production. The reaction was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and insensitive to aspirin, mepacrin and indomethacin. EET formation was greatly reduced under nitrogen or carbon monoxide, however, exposure to atmospheric air rapidly restored EET production to a rate comparable to that under air. Further, neither NADPH nor cyanide affected EET formation, suggesting that a cytochrome P-450 system was not involved. Intact platelets prelabeled with (/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid generated at least 0.5 nmole of EET/10/sup 9/ platelets in response to thrombin; other agonists such as collagen, epinephrine, ADP or ionophore A23187 were not effective. Collectively, these data suggest that human platelets possess an enzyme system which appears to catalyze epoxidation of the arachidonyl moiety of PtdIns and its subsequent hydrolysis to yield EET.

  1. From microalgae oil to produce novel structured triacylglycerols enriched with unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Liu, Xi; Dong, Tao; Wu, Fu-An

    2015-05-01

    Novel structured triacylglycerols (STAGs) enriched with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and low palmitic acid (PA) content were firstly synthesized from Schizochytrium sp. oil and oleic acid (OA) via solvent-free acidolysis catalyzed by Lipozyme RM IM. The results indicated that, the PA content decreased from 24.49% to 6.95%, while the UFAs content increased from 70.20% to 90.9% at the sn-1,3 positions in the STAGs under the optimal condition (i.e., lipase load of 7%, molar ratio of microalgae oil TAGs to OA of 1:3, and temperature of 65 °C). The lipase Lipozyme RM IM could be reused 16 times without significant loss of activity. The improved plastic and storage ranges of STAGs are useful for infant formula formulations, by which a possible method is blending of this product and 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol enriched fats and minor lipids based on the corresponding chemical compositions of human milk fat. PMID:25451776

  2. Photocatalytic decomposition of humic acids in anoxic aqueous solutions producing hydrogen, oxygen and light hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Klauson, Deniss; Budarnaja, Olga; Beltran, Ignacio Castellanos; Krichevskaya, Marina; Preis, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen and oxygen production requires sacrificial electron donors, for example, organic compounds. Titanium dioxide catalysts doped with platinum, cobalt, tungsten, copper and iron were experimentally tested for the production of hydrogen, oxygen and low molecular weight hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions of humic substances (HS). Platinum-doped catalyst showed the best results in hydrogen generation, also producing methane, ethene and ethane, whereas the best oxygen production was exhibited by P25, followed by copper--and cobalt-containing photocatalysts. Iron-containing photocatalyst produced carbon monoxide as a major product. HS undergoing anoxic photocatalytic degradation produce hydrogen with minor hydrocarbons, and/or oxygen. It appears that better hydrogen yield is achieved when direct HS splitting takes place, as opposed to HS acting as electron donors for water splitting. PMID:25145176

  3. Acidization of a Direct Heat Hydrothermal Well and its Potential in Developing Additional Direct Heat Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Dolenc, M.R.; Strawn, J. A.; Prestwich, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A matrix acid treatment on a limestone formation in a low temperature hydrothermal production well in South Dakota has resulted in a 40% increase in heat (BTU) available for use in space heating a hospital. The results of this experimental treatment on the Madison Limestone suggest a significant potential may exist for similar applications, particularly throughout the western United States. This paper presents the results of the acid treatment, suggests other possible areas for similar application, and analyzes the economics for successful treatments.

  4. Use of superoxide dismutase and catalase producing lactic acid bacteria in TNBS induced Crohn's disease in mice.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jean Guy; del Carmen, Silvina; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Sesma, Fernando; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Watterlot, Laurie; Perdigon, Gabriela; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra

    2011-02-10

    Reactive oxygen species are involved in various aspects of intestinal inflammation and tumor development. Decreasing their levels using antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) could therefore be useful in the prevention of certain diseases. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are ideal candidates to deliver these enzymes in the gut. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of CAT or SOD producing LAB were evaluated using a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced Crohn's disease murine model. Engineered Lactobacillus casei BL23 strains producing either CAT or SOD, or the native strain were given to mice before and after intrarectal administration of TNBS. Animal survival, live weight, intestinal morphology and histology, enzymatic activities, microbial translocation to the liver and cytokines released in the intestinal fluid were evaluated. The mice that received CAT or SOD-producing LAB showed a faster recovery of initial weight loss, increased enzymatic activities in the gut and lesser extent of intestinal inflammation compared to animals that received the wild-type strain or those that did not receive bacterial supplementation. Our findings suggest that genetically engineered LAB that produce antioxidant enzymes could be used to prevent or decrease the severity of certain intestinal pathologies. PMID:21167883

  5. Liquid State Forging: Novel Potentiality to Produce High Performance Components, Process, Plant and Tooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, M.; Zago, A.; Claus, P.; Motoiu, P.

    2007-04-01

    The paper deals about a new patented process able to the production of high resistance and high toughness parts, taking into consideration also the tooling need. The molten alloy is introduced into the die cavity at low pressure, then the alloy is forged. The forging action takes place during the alloy solidification process, favouring the reduction of the duration of the process and the production of parts characterised by very high mechanical and ductility properties. The very high mechanical characteristics of the produced parts are obtained thank to their very low porosity content, as well as to their unique microstructure features. Moreover, the process allow the optimisation of the yield of the alloy, in fact the feeding system and the risers are practically absent, this means minimum production of scraps to be recycled. After a short description of the main features of the equipment and of the process, the work take into consideration the aluminium based produced parts, in their as cast state and after T6 heat treatment, comparing their characteristics with those obtainable by the most traditional low pressure and gravity casting processes. In particular, samples for the evaluation of the mechanical properties have been machined from the produced parts to obtain their tensile strength, together with their ductility characteristics. The maximum attained hardness values have also been evaluated. Tensile strength higher than 440 MPa, with elongation up to 18% with hardness higher than 125 HB are easily attainable on Al alloys type A356. Light microscopy observations performed on the transverse section of polished samples and the analysis of the fracture surfaces after mechanical tests allowed to focus the attention on the microstructure details and to highlight the ductile aspects of the fracture to confirm the high quality and high performance of the produced parts.

  6. Tapping the Molecular Potential of Microalgae to Produce Biomass (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Sayre, Richard [LANL

    2013-01-22

    Richard Sayre, from Los Alamos National Laboratory, presents a talk titled "Tapping the Molecular Potential of Microalgae to Produce Biomass" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  7. Tapping the Molecular Potential of Microalgae to Produce Biomass (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, Richard

    2012-03-22

    Richard Sayre, from Los Alamos National Laboratory, presents a talk titled "Tapping the Molecular Potential of Microalgae to Produce Biomass" at the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  8. Genomic analysis reveals the biotechnological and industrial potential of levan producing halophilic extremophile, Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T.

    PubMed

    Diken, Elif; Ozer, Tugba; Arikan, Muzaffer; Emrence, Zeliha; Oner, Ebru Toksoy; Ustek, Duran; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2015-01-01

    Halomonas smyrnensis AAD6T is a gram negative, aerobic, and moderately halophilic bacterium, and is known to produce high levels of levan with many potential uses in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its outstanding properties. Here, the whole-genome analysis was performed to gain more insight about the biological mechanisms, and the whole-genome organization of the bacterium. Industrially crucial genes, including the levansucrase, were detected and the genome-scale metabolic model of H. smyrnensis AAD6T was reconstructed. The bacterium was found to have many potential applications in biotechnology not only being a levan producer, but also because of its capacity to produce Pel exopolysaccharide, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and osmoprotectants. The genomic information presented here will not only provide additional information to enhance our understanding of the genetic and metabolic network of halophilic bacteria, but also accelerate the research on systematical design of engineering strategies for biotechnology applications. PMID:26251777

  9. Valproic acid potentiates both typical and atypical antipsychotic-induced prefrontal cortical dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Junji; Chung, Young-Chul; Dai, Jin; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2005-08-01

    Antipsychotic drugs (APD)s and anticonvulsant mood-stabilizers are now frequently used in combination with one another in treating both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We have recently reported that the atypical APDs, e.g. clozapine and risperidone, as well as the anticonvulsant mood-stabilizers, valproic acid (VPA), zonisamide, and carbamazepine, but not the typical APD haloperidol, increase dopamine (DA) release in rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The increased DA release was partially (atypical APDs) or completely (mood-stabilizers) blocked by the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor antagonist WAY100635. Diminished prefrontal cortical DA activity may contribute to cognitive impairment in virtually all the patients with schizophrenia and, perhaps, bipolar disorder. Thus, the enhanced release of cortical DA by these agents may be beneficial in this regard. It is, therefore, of considerable interest to determine whether combined administration of these agents augments prefrontal cortical DA release, and if so, whether the increase is dependent upon 5-HT1A receptor activation. VPA (50 mg/kg), which was insufficient by itself to increase prefrontal cortical DA release, potentiated the ability of clozapine (20 mg/kg) and risperidone (1 mg/kg) to increase DA release in the mPFC, but not in the nucleus accumbens (NAC). VPA (50 mg/kg) also potentiated haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg)-induced DA release in the mPFC; this increase was completely abolished by WAY100635 (0.2 mg/kg). These results suggest that, in combination with VPA, both typical and atypical APDs produce greater increases in prefrontal cortical DA release than either type of drug alone via a mechanism dependent upon 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Furthermore, they provide a strong rationale for testing for possible clinical synergism of an APD and anticonvulsant mood-stabilizer in improving the cognitive deficits present in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:16061211

  10. Unusual Fatty Acids Produced by Microbial Expression of Enzymes from the Tung Tree

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tung oil, produced by fruit of the tung tree (Aleurites fordii), is a valuable industrial oil used in formulations of inks, dyes, coatings, and resins. The fruit contains all of the genes and enzymes required for synthesis of the oil, and such enzymes could be used for conversion of low-cost veget...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Ustilago trichophora RK089, a Promising Malic Acid Producer

    PubMed Central

    Zambanini, Thiemo; Buescher, Joerg M.; Meurer, Guido; Blank, Lars M.

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous smut fungus Ustilago trichophora RK089 produces malate from glycerol. De novo genome sequencing revealed a 20.7-Mbp genome (301 gap-closed contigs, 246 scaffolds). A comparison to the genome of Ustilago maydis 521 revealed all essential genes for malate production from glycerol contributing to metabolic engineering for improving malate production. PMID:27469969

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Ustilago trichophora RK089, a Promising Malic Acid Producer.

    PubMed

    Zambanini, Thiemo; Buescher, Joerg M; Meurer, Guido; Wierckx, Nick; Blank, Lars M

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous smut fungus Ustilago trichophora RK089 produces malate from glycerol. De novo genome sequencing revealed a 20.7-Mbp genome (301 gap-closed contigs, 246 scaffolds). A comparison to the genome of Ustilago maydis 521 revealed all essential genes for malate production from glycerol contributing to metabolic engineering for improving malate production. PMID:27469969

  13. Insect pests and yield potential of vegetable soybean (Endamame) produced in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of replicated field experiments was conducted with vegetable soybean (edamame), Glycine max (L.) Merrill, to assess the impacts of cultivars, planting dates, and insecticidal controls on insect pest abundance, crop damage and yield potential. The velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatali...

  14. A short latency vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) produced by bone-conducted acoustic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAngus Todd, Neil P.; Rosengren, Sally M.; Colebatch, James G.

    2003-12-01

    In this paper data are presented from an experiment which provides evidence for the existence of a short latency, acoustically evoked potential of probable vestibular origin. The experiment was conducted in two phases using bone-conducted acoustic stimulation. In the first phase subjects were stimulated with 6-ms, 500-Hz tone bursts in order to obtain the threshold VT for vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). It was confirmed that the difference between bone-conducted auditory and acoustic vestibular thresholds was slightly over 30 dB. The estimated threshold was then used as a reference value in the second part of the experiment to stimulate subjects over a range of intensities from -6 to +18 dB (re:VT). Averaged EEG recordings were made with eight Ag/AgCl electrodes placed on the scalp at Fpz, F3, F4, F7, F8, Cz, T3, and T4 according to the 10-20 system. Below VT auditory midlatency responses (MLRs) were observed. Above VT two additional potentials appeared: a positivity at about 10 ms (P10) which was maximal at Cz, and a negativity at about 15 ms (N15) which was maximal at Fpz. Extrapolation of the growth functions for the P10 and N15 indicated a threshold close to VT, consistent with a vestibular origin of these potentials. Given the low threshold of vestibular acoustic sensitivity it is possible that this mode may make a contribution to the detection of and affective responses to loud low frequency sounds. The evoked potentials may also have application as a noninvasive and nontraumatic test of vestibular projections to the cortex.

  15. LE135, a retinoid acid receptor antagonist, produces pain through direct activation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Yu, Weihua; Hu, Hongzhen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeRetinoids, through their activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors, regulate diverse cellular processes, and pharmacological intervention in their actions has been successful in the treatment of skin disorders and cancers. Despite the many beneficial effects, administration of retinoids causes irritating side effects with unknown mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that LE135 [4-(7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-5,7,7,10,10-pentamethyl-5H-benzo[e]naphtho[2,3-b][1,4]diazepin-13-yl)benzoic acid], a selective antagonist of RARβ, is a potent activator of the capsaicin (TRPV1) and wasabi (TRPA1) receptors, two critical pain-initiating cation channels. Experimental ApproachWe performed to investigate the excitatory effects of LE135 on TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels expressed in HEK293T cells and in dorsal root ganglia neurons with calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings. We also used site-directed mutagenesis of the channels to determine the structural basis of LE135-induced activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels and behavioural testing to examine if pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of the channels affected LE135-evoked pain-related behaviours. Key ResultsLE135 activated both the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) and the allyl isothiocyanate receptor (TRPA1) heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells and endogenously expressed by sensory nociceptors. Mutations disrupting the capsaicin-binding site attenuated LE135 activation of TRPV1 channels and a single mutation (K170R) eliminated TRPA1 activity evoked by LE135. Intraplantar injection of LE135 evoked pain-related behaviours. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels were involved in LE135-elicited pain-related responses, as shown by pharmacological and genetic ablation studies. Conclusions and ImplicationsThis blocker of retinoid acid signalling also exerted non-genomic effects through activating the pain-initiating TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. PMID:24308840

  16. Draft genome sequence of the docosahexaenoic acid producing thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. T66.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Ertesvåg, Helga; Aasen, Inga Marie; Vadstein, Olav; Brautaset, Trygve; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan

    2016-06-01

    Thraustochytrids are unicellular, marine protists, and there is a growing industrial interest in these organisms, particularly because some species, including strains belonging to the genus Aurantiochytrium, accumulate high levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Aurantiochytrium sp. T66 (ATCC PRA-276), with a size of 43 Mbp, and 11,683 predicted protein-coding sequences. The data has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank under the accession LNGJ00000000. The genome sequence will contribute new insight into DHA biosynthesis and regulation, providing a basis for metabolic engineering of thraustochytrids. PMID:27222814

  17. Potential Factors for the Differentiation of ESCs/iPSCs Into Insulin-Producing Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsugata, Takako; Nikoh, Naruo; Kin, Tatsuya; Saitoh, Issei; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Ueki, Hideo; Watanabe, Masami; James Shapiro, Andrew M; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2015-02-01

    The low efficiency of in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into insulin-producing cells thus creates a crucial hurdle for the clinical implementation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). In this study, we investigated the key factors for the differentiation of PSCs into insulin-producing cells. We obtained microarray data of HUES8 and HUES6 from two GeneChips (GPL3921: Affymetrix HT Human Genome U133A Array, GPL570: Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array) in a database of GEO (NCBI), since HUES8 can differentiate into pancreatic cells, while HUES6 hardly demonstrates any differentiation at all. The genes with more than fourfold higher expressions in HUES8 compared to HUES6 included RPS4Y1, DDX3Y, EIF1AY, GREM1, GATA6, and NLGN4Y. Since there were four genes, RPS4Y1, DDX3Y, EIF1AY, and NLGN4Y, on the Y chromosome and HUES8 was a male cell line and HUES6 was a female cell line, we excluded these genes in this study. On the other hand, genes with more than fourfold higher expressions in HUES6 compared to HUES8 included NLRP2, EGR1, and SMC3. We next compared iPSCs derived from pancreatic cells (PiPSCs) and iPSCs derived from fibroblasts (FiPSCs). PiPSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells more easily than FiPSCs because of their epigenetic memory. The gene expressions of GREM1, GATA6, NLRP2, EGR1, and SMC3 in PiPSCs and FiPSCs were also investigated. The expression level of GREM1 and GATA6 in PiPSCs were higher than in FiPSCs. On the other hand, EGR1, which was lower in HUES8 than in HUES6, was predictably lower in PiPSCs than FiPSCs, while NLRP2 and SMC3 were higher in PiPSCs than FiPSCs. These data suggest that the expression of GATA6 and GREM1 and the inhibition of EGR1 may be important factors for the differentiation of PSCs into insulin-producing cells. PMID:26858897

  18. Assessment of the antioxidant potential and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea L. taxa from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Guler, Gokalp Ozmen; Cakmak, Yavuz Selim; Duran, Ahmet

    2013-11-01

    This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant property and fatty acid composition of four Centaurea species. The antioxidant activity of its methanol extract was evaluated by several in vitro experiments including phosphomolybedum assay, DPPH assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid, ferric and cupric reducing power. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. The methanol extract of Centaurea pulcherrima var. pulcherrima showed the superior free radical scavenging activity, linoleic acid inhibition capacity, reducing power and also had the highest total phenolic content. A significant relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic components was found. The oils of Centaurea taxa were also analysed for fatty acid concentration by gas chromatography. The principal fatty acids in the species were palmitic acid (23.38-30.49%) and linoleic acid (20.19-29.93%). These findings suggest that the Centaurea species could be used as a potential source of new natural antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids in food industry, cosmetics and pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:23768332

  19. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Is Produced by Emiliania huxleyi Coccolith-Bearing Cells and Triggers a Physiological Response in Bald Cells

    PubMed Central

    Labeeuw, Leen; Khey, Joleen; Bramucci, Anna R.; Atwal, Harjot; de la Mata, A. Paulina; Harynuk, James; Case, Rebecca J.

    2016-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an auxin produced by terrestrial plants which influences development through a variety of cellular mechanisms, such as altering cell orientation, organ development, fertility, and cell elongation. IAA is also produced by bacterial pathogens and symbionts of plants and algae, allowing them to manipulate growth and development of their host. They do so by either producing excess exogenous IAA or hijacking the IAA biosynthesis pathway of their host. The endogenous production of IAA by algae remains contentious. Using Emiliania huxleyi, a globally abundant marine haptophyte, we investigated the presence and potential role of IAA in algae. Homologs of genes involved in several tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis pathways were identified in E. huxleyi. This suggests that this haptophyte can synthesize IAA using various precursors derived from tryptophan. Addition of L-tryptophan to E. huxleyi stimulated IAA production, which could be detected using Salkowski's reagent and GC × GC-TOFMS in the C cell type (coccolith bearing), but not in the N cell type (bald). Various concentrations of IAA were exogenously added to these two cell types to identify a physiological response in E. huxleyi. The N cell type, which did not produce IAA, was more sensitive to it, showing an increased variation in cell size, membrane permeability, and a corresponding increase in the photosynthetic potential quantum yield of Photosystem II (PSII). A roseobacter (bacteria commonly associated with E. huxleyi) Ruegeria sp. R11, previously shown to produce IAA, was co-cultured with E. huxleyi C and N cells. IAA could not be detected from these co-cultures, and even when stimulated by addition of L-tryptophan, they produced less IAA than axenic C type culture similarly induced. This suggests that IAA plays a novel role signaling between different E. huxleyi cell types, rather than between a bacteria and its algal host. PMID:27375567

  20. The chain length of biologically produced (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acid affects biological activity and structure of anti-cancer peptides.

    PubMed

    Szwej, Emilia; Devocelle, Marc; Kenny, Shane; Guzik, Maciej; O'Connor, Stephen; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Radivojevic, Jelena; Maslak, Veselin; Byrne, Annete T; Gallagher, William M; Zulian, Qun Ren; Zinn, Manfred; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-06-20

    Conjugation of DP18L peptide with (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, derived from the biopolymer polyhydroxyalkanoate, enhances its anti-cancer activity (O'Connor et al., 2013. Biomaterials 34, 2710-2718). However, it is unknown if other (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R3HAs) can enhance peptide activity, if chain length affects enhancement, and what effect R3HAs have on peptide structure. Here we show that the degree of enhancement of peptide (DP18L) anti-cancer activity by R3HAs is carbon chain length dependent. In all but one example the R3HA conjugated peptides were more active against cancer cells than the unconjugated peptides. However, R3HAs with 9 and 10 carbons were most effective at improving DP18L activity. DP18L peptide variant DP17L, missing a hydrophobic amino acid (leucine residue 4) exhibited lower efficacy against MiaPaCa cells. Circular dichroism analysis showed DP17L had a lower alpha helix content and the conjugation of any R3HA ((R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid to (R)-3-hydroxydodecanoic acid) to DP17L returned the helix content back to levels of DP18L. However (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic did not enhance the anti-cancer activity of DP17L and at least 7 carbons were needed in the R3HA to enhance activity of D17L. DP17L needs a longer chain R3HA to achieve the same activity as DP18L conjugated to an R3HA. As a first step to assess the synthetic potential of polyhydroxyalkanoate derived R3HAs, (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid was synthetically converted to (±)3-chlorodecanoic acid, which when conjugated to DP18L improved its antiproliferative activity against MiaPaCa cells. PMID:25820126

  1. Detection of free radicals produced from the reaction of cytochrome P-450 with linoleic acid hydroperoxide.

    PubMed Central

    Rota, C; Barr, D P; Martin, M V; Guengerich, F P; Tomasi, A; Mason, R P

    1997-01-01

    The ESR spin-trapping technique was employed to investigate the reaction of rabbit cytochrome P-450 1A2 (P450) with linoleic acid hydroperoxide. This system was compared with chemical systems where FeSO4 or FeCl3 was used in place of P450. The spin trap 5, 5'-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) was employed to detect and identify radical species. The DMPO adducts of hydroxyl, O2-., peroxyl, methyl and acyl radicals were detected in the P450 system. The reaction did not require NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase or NADPH. The same DMPO-radical adducts were detected in the FeSO4 system. Only DMPO-.OH radical adduct and carbon-centred radical adducts were detected in the FeCl3 system. Peroxyl radical production was completely O2-dependent. We propose that polyunsaturated fatty acids are initially reduced to form alkoxyl radicals, which then undergo intramolecular rearrangement to form epoxyalkyl radicals. Each epoxyalkyl radical reacts with O2, forming a peroxyl radical. Subsequent unimolecular decomposition of this peroxyl radical eliminates O2-. radical. PMID:9371716

  2. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Binding Proteins Elevates Brain Anandamide Levels and Produces Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kaczocha, Martin; Rebecchi, Mario J.; Ralph, Brian P.; Teng, Yu-Han Gary; Berger, William T.; Galbavy, William; Elmes, Matthew W.; Glaser, Sherrye T.; Wang, Liqun; Rizzo, Robert C.; Deutsch, Dale G.; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) is an antinociceptive lipid that is inactivated through cellular uptake and subsequent catabolism by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers that deliver AEA and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) to FAAH for hydrolysis. The mammalian brain expresses three FABP subtypes: FABP3, FABP5, and FABP7. Recent work from our group has revealed that pharmacological inhibition of FABPs reduces inflammatory pain in mice. The goal of the current work was to explore the effects of FABP inhibition upon nociception in diverse models of pain. We developed inhibitors with differential affinities for FABPs to elucidate the subtype(s) that contributes to the antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors. Inhibition of FABPs reduced nociception associated with inflammatory, visceral, and neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors mirrored their affinities for FABP5, while binding to FABP3 and FABP7 was not a predictor of in vivo efficacy. The antinociceptive effects of FABP inhibitors were mediated by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and FABP inhibition elevated brain levels of AEA, providing the first direct evidence that FABPs regulate brain endocannabinoid tone. These results highlight FABPs as novel targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:24705380

  3. Growth and Survival of Acid-Resistant and Non-Acid-Resistant Shiga-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains during the Manufacture and Ripening of Camembert Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Montet, M. P.; Jamet, E.; Ganet, S.; Dizin, M.; Miszczycha, S.; Dunière, L.; Thevenot, D.; Vernozy-Rozand, C.

    2009-01-01

    Growth and survival of acid-resistant (AR) and non-acid-resistant (NAR) Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were investigated during the manufacture and ripening of microfiltered milk Camembert cheeses. The induction of acid resistance of the STEC strains in cheeses was also studied. Six different mixtures of AR and/or NAR STEC strains were inoculated separately into microfiltered milk at a level of 103 CFU mL−1. The STEC counts (AR and NAR) initially increased by 1 to 2 log10 CFU g−1 during cheese-making. Thereafter, the populations stabilized during salting/drying and then decreased during the early stages of ripening. Exposing the STEC strains in artificially inoculated cheeses to simulated gastric fluid (SGF - pH: 2.0) reduced the number of NAR strains to undetectable levels within 40 minutes, versus 120 minutes for the AR STEC strains. AR and NAR STEC were able to survive during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert cheese prepared from microfiltered milk with no evidence of induced acid tolerance in NAR STEC strains. PMID:20016668

  4. Growth and Survival of Acid-Resistant and Non-Acid-Resistant Shiga-Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains during the Manufacture and Ripening of Camembert Cheese.

    PubMed

    Montet, M P; Jamet, E; Ganet, S; Dizin, M; Miszczycha, S; Dunière, L; Thevenot, D; Vernozy-Rozand, C

    2009-01-01

    Growth and survival of acid-resistant (AR) and non-acid-resistant (NAR) Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were investigated during the manufacture and ripening of microfiltered milk Camembert cheeses. The induction of acid resistance of the STEC strains in cheeses was also studied. Six different mixtures of AR and/or NAR STEC strains were inoculated separately into microfiltered milk at a level of 10(3) CFU mL(-1). The STEC counts (AR and NAR) initially increased by 1 to 2 log(10) CFU g(-1) during cheese-making. Thereafter, the populations stabilized during salting/drying and then decreased during the early stages of ripening. Exposing the STEC strains in artificially inoculated cheeses to simulated gastric fluid (SGF - pH: 2.0) reduced the number of NAR strains to undetectable levels within 40 minutes, versus 120 minutes for the AR STEC strains. AR and NAR STEC were able to survive during the manufacture and ripening of Camembert cheese prepared from microfiltered milk with no evidence of induced acid tolerance in NAR STEC strains. PMID:20016668

  5. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Phenolic Lipid for Use as Potential Lipophilic Antioxidant and as a Prodrug of Butyric Acid.

    PubMed

    Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Kunduru, Konda Reddy; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Narayana Prasad, Rachapudi Badari

    2015-01-01

    Ferulic acid was modified to produce a novel phenolipid containing butyl chains. Ferulic acid was esterified with butanol to produce butyl ferulate which was further dihydroxylated followed by esterification with butyric anhydride to produce the phenolipid containing butyric acid. IR, NMR and MS techniques confirmed the structure of the synthesized structured lipophilic phenolic compound. The synthesized compound was tested for in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The produced phenolipid showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay but in linoleic acid oxidation method, it exhibited good activity compared with the parent compound and the reference compounds. The prepared derivative could find applications as antioxidant in lipophilic systems and also as a potential prodrug of butyric acid. It also showed antibacterial effect against the four bacterial strains studied. The drug-likeness properties of the prepared molecule calculated were in the acceptable ranges according to Lipinski's rule of 5 and suggest that it has potential to cross the blood-brain barrier. PMID:26179002

  7. Cleavage pattern predicts developmental potential of day 3 human embryos produced by IVF.

    PubMed

    Yang, S T; Shi, J X; Gong, F; Zhang, S P; Lu, C F; Tan, K; Leng, L Z; Hao, M; He, H; Gu, Y F; Lu, G X; Lin, G

    2015-06-01

    Time-lapse technique provides opportunities to observe the dynamic process of human early development. Previous studies have suggested several abnormal division patterns were associated with decreased developmental potential, but no systematic results are currently available. In this study, seven abnormal division patterns were observed during early cleavage, and these had different effects on the further development potential of daughter blastomeres. According to the severity and occurrence of abnormal division patterns during the initial three cleavages, an embryo hierarchical classification model was developed and day 3 embryos were classified into six grades (from A to F). The good-quality blastocyst formation rate for these grades decreased from 70.8-3.8% (P < 0.001). In a prospective observational study, 139 IVF cycles were recruited to assess the efficiency of this classification model. In the embryos that had confirmed implantation results, the implantation rate decreased from 67.0% (Grade A) to 0% (Grade D;P < 0.001). These results indicated that cleavage patterns can predict the developmental potential of day 3 human embryos. PMID:25892500

  8. Steady Potential Changes and Spreading Depression in Rat Brains Produced by Focused Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vykhodtseva, Natalia I.; Koroleva, Valeria I.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that focused ultrasound (FUS) can locally induce direct current (DC) potential changes and elicit spreading depression (SD) in the cerebral cortex and deep brain structures. Methods: Focused ultrasound transducer (4.6 MHz; D/R=16/27 mm) was used to induced DC potential changes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and caudate nucleus of brains of rats. Pulsed sonications (burst length=10-100 ms, PRF=5-10 Hz, total exposure=10-40 s, peak pressure amplitude=0.9-3.5 MPa) were delivered through the skull window or in several cases, through the intact skull. Results: FUS exposure evoked DC potential changes and elicited SD in each structure separately or simultaneously depending on the focal point targeting and exposure parameters. The effects were reversible: up to thirty SD waves could be evoked with FUS exposure repeated at 7-10 min intervals after the end of previous SD wave. Conclusion: A practical method for induction of SD in the targeted structures of the brain by FUS might offer a new therapeutic method to induce infarct tolerance in patients at high risk of ischemic stroke as well as for increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to deliver therapeutic agents.

  9. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We lso report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  10. Investigation of Pyridine Carboxylic Acids in CM2 Carbonaceous Chondrites: Potential Precursor Molecules for Ancient Coenzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  11. Investigation of pyridine carboxylic acids in CM2 carbonaceous chondrites: Potential precursor molecules for ancient coenzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Karen E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; House, Christopher H.

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and abundances of pyridine carboxylic acids (including nicotinic acid) in eight CM2 carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 85013, DOM 03183, DOM 08003, EET 96016, LAP 02333, LAP 02336, LEW 85311, and WIS 91600) were investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to UV detection and high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry. We find that pyridine monocarboxylic acids are prevalent in CM2-type chondrites and their abundance negatively correlates with the degree of pre-terrestrial aqueous alteration that the meteorite parent body experienced. We also report the first detection of pyridine dicarboxylic acids in carbonaceous chondrites. Additionally, we carried out laboratory studies of proton-irradiated pyridine in carbon dioxide-rich ices (a 1:1 mixture) to serve as a model of the interstellar ice chemistry that may have led to the synthesis of pyridine carboxylic acids. Analysis of the irradiated ice residue shows that a comparable suite of pyridine mono- and dicarboxylic acids was produced, although aqueous alteration may still play a role in the synthesis (and ultimate yield) of these compounds in carbonaceous meteorites. Nicotinic acid is a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a likely ancient molecule used in cellular metabolism in all of life, and its common occurrence in CM2 chondrites may indicate that meteorites may have been a source of molecules for the emergence of more complex coenzymes on the early Earth.

  12. Characterization of Fluorescent and Nonfluorescent Peptide Siderophores Produced by Pseudomonas syringae Strains and Their Potential Use in Strain Identification

    PubMed Central

    Bultreys, Alain; Gheysen, Isabelle; Maraite, Henri; de Hoffmann, Edmond

    2001-01-01

    Nonfluorescent highly virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata isolated in different European countries and in Uruguay produce a nonfluorescent peptide siderophore, the production of which is iron repressed and specific to these strains. The amino acid composition of this siderophore is identical to that of the dominant fluorescent peptide siderophore produced by fluorescent P. syringae strains, and the molecular masses of the respective Fe(III) chelates are 1,177 and 1,175 atomic mass units. The unchelated nonfluorescent siderophore is converted into the fluorescent siderophore at pH 10, and colors and spectral characteristics of the unchelated siderophores and of the Fe(III)-chelates in acidic conditions are similar to those of dihydropyoverdins and pyoverdins, respectively. The nonfluorescent siderophore is used by fluorescent and nonfluorescent P. syringae strains. These results and additional mass spectrometry data strongly suggest the presence of a pyoverdin chromophore in the fluorescent siderophore and a dihydropyoverdin chromophore in the nonfluorescent siderophore, which are both ligated to a succinamide residue. When chelated, the siderophores behave differently from typical pyoverdins and dihydropyoverdins in neutral and alkaline conditions, apparently because of the ionization occurring around pH 4.5 of carboxylic acids present in β-hydroxyaspartic acid residues of the peptide chains. These differences can be detected visually by pH-dependent changes of the chelate colors and spectrophotochemically. These characteristics and the electrophoretic behavior of the unchelated and chelated siderophores offer new tools to discriminate between saprophytic fluorescent Pseudomonas species and fluorescent P. syringae and P. viridiflava strains and to distinguish between the two siderovars in P. syringae pv. aptata. PMID:11282626

  13. [Cephalosporin-Acid Synthetase of Escherichia coli Strain VKPM B-10182: Genomic Context, Gene Identification, Producer Strain Production].

    PubMed

    Eldarov M, A; Sklyarenko, A V; Mardanov, A V; Beletsky, A V; Zhgun, A A; Dumina, M V; Medvedeva, N V; Satarova, D E; Ravin, N V; Yarockii, S V

    2015-01-01

    An enzyme of cephalosporin-acid synthetase produced by the E. coli strain VKPM B-10182 has specificity for the synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics of the cephalosporin acids class (cefazolin, cefalotin, cefezole etc.). A comparison of the previously determined genomic sequence of E. coli VKPM B-10182 with a genome of the parent E. coli strain ATCC 9637 was performed. Multiple mutations indicating the long selection history of the strain were detected, including mutations in the genes of RNase and β-lactamases that could enhance the level of enzyme synthesis and reduce the degree of degradation of the synthesized cephalosporin acids. The CASA gene--a direct homolog of the penicillin G-acylase gene--was identified by bioinformatics methods. The homology of the gene was confirmed by gene cloning and the expression and determination of its enzymatic activity in the reaction of cefazolin synthesis. The CASA gene was isolated and cloned into the original expression vector, resulting in an effective E. coli BL2l(DE3) pMD0107 strain producing CASA. PMID:26596082

  14. Nicotinic Acid Activates the Capsaicin Receptor TRPV1 – A Potential Mechanism for Cutaneous Flushing

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Linlin; Lee, Bo Hyun; Mao, Rongrong; Cai, Anping; Jia, Yunfang; Clifton, Heather; Schaefer, Saul; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nicotinic acid (a.k.a. niacin or vitamin B3), widely used to treat dyslipidemias, represents an effective and safe means to reduce the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, a substantial fraction of patients discontinue treatment due to a strong side effect of cutaneous vasodilation, commonly termed flushing. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that nicotinic acid causes flushing partially by activating the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, a polymodal cellular sensor that mediates the flushing response upon consumption of spicy food. Approach and Results We observed that the nicotinic acid-induced increase in blood flow was substantially reduced in Trpv1−/− knockout mice, indicating involvement of the channel in flushing response. Using exogenously expressed TRPV1, we confirmed that nicotinic acid at sub-millimolar to millimolar concentrations directly and potently activates TRPV1 from the intracellular side. Binding of nicotinic acid to TRPV1 lowers its activation threshold for heat, causing channel opening at physiological temperatures. Activation of TRPV1 by voltage or ligands (capsaicin and 2-APB) is also potentiated by nicotinic acid. We further demonstrated that nicotinic acid does not compete directly with capsaicin but may activate TRPV1 through the 2-APB activation pathway. Using live-cell fluorescence imaging, we observed that nicotinic acid can quickly enter the cell through a transporter-mediated pathway to activate TRPV1. Conclusions Direct activation of TRPV1 by nicotinic acid may lead to cutaneous vasodilation that contributes to flushing, suggesting a potential novel pathway to inhibit flushing and improve compliance. PMID:24675661

  15. Enzymatic Synthesis of Refined Olive Oil-Based Structured Lipid Containing Omega -3 and -6 Fatty Acids for Potential Application in Infant Formula.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruoyu; Sabir, Jamal S M; Baeshen, Nabih A; Akoh, Casimir C

    2015-11-01

    Structured lipids (SLs) containing palmitic, docosahexaenoic (DHA), and gamma-linolenic (GLA) acids were produced using refined olive oil, tripalmitin, and ethyl esters of DHA single cell oil and GLA ethyl esters. Immobilized Lipozyme TL IM lipase was used as the biocatalyst. The SLs were characterized for fatty acid profile, triacylglycerol (TAG) molecular species, solid fat content, oxidative stability index, and melting and crystallization profiles and compared to physical blend of substrates, extracted fat from commercial infant formula (IFF), and milk fat. 49.28 mol% of palmitic acid was found at the sn-2 position of SL TAG and total DHA and GLA composition were 0.73 and 5.00 mol%, respectively. The total oleic acid content was 36.13 mol% which was very close to the 30.49% present in commercial IFF. Comparable solid fat content profiles were also found between SLs and IFF. The SLs produced have potential for use in infant formulas. PMID:26408984

  16. Inhibition of protein synthesis may explain the bactericidal properties of hypochlorous acid produced by phagocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, S.M.; Davies, K.J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The authors find that hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) inhibit protein synthesis in E. coli: HOCl is similarly ordered 10x more efficient than H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. This result may underlie the mechanism of bacterial killing by phagocytes, which use H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and myeloperoxidase (MPO) to oxidize Cl/sup -/ to HOCl. Protein synthesis (/sup 3/H-leu incorporation) was completely inhibited by 50..mu..M HOCl, whereas 50..mu..M H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ only gave similarly ordered 10% inhibition. Complete inhibition by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ was only observed at concentrations < 0.5 mM. HOCl was also a more potent inhibitor of cell growth (cultured in M9 medium + glucose) than was H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. No growth occurred at 50..mu..M HOCl: in contrast 0.5 mM H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ was required for similar results. During time-course experiments it was found that the inhibition of cell growth by both HOCl and H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ reached a maximum within 30 min (at any concentration used). HOCl reacts avidly with amino groups to form N-chloroamines but H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is unreactive. Amino acids (ala, lys, met, trp) or taurine (all at 10 mM) prevented the effects of HOCl but did not affect H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ results. There was an excellent correlation between decreased protein synthesis and diminished cell growth. Inhibition of cell growth was not explained by proteolysis (release of acid-soluble counts), or by loss of membrane integrity. They propose that inhibition of protein synthesis may be a fundamental aspect of the bactericidal functions of phagocytes, and that the production of HOCl by MPO represents a quantitative advantage over H/sub 2/O/sub 2/.

  17. Potential effects of Plasma on the Development of Laser Produced Craters

    SciTech Connect

    Batani, Dimitri; Desai, Tara; Rossetti, Stefano; Lucchini, Gianni

    2006-04-07

    Laser ablation and crater formation have been studied on a copper target using a 10 Hz, Nd:YAG laser system delivering pulses up to 100 mJ in 40 ps with a flux on target F{<=} 5000 J/cm2. Crater dimensions were measured using optical microscope or SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). In order to understand the process of crater formation, we considered various theoretical models present in the literature and revised them taking into account the occurrence of plasma phenomena, which are important at the intensities used in this experiment. We also compared our experimental results with other results obtained at the PALS laboratory, using a 0.44 {mu}m wavelength laser and much higher laser intensities. Finally we explore the possibility of extending the information derived from laser produced craters to other types of craters.

  18. Composite ECM-alginate microfibers produced by microfluidics as scaffolds with biomineralization potential.

    PubMed

    Angelozzi, Marco; Miotto, Martina; Penolazzi, Letizia; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Keane, Timothy; Badylak, Stephen F; Piva, Roberta; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    A novel approach to produce artificial bone composites (microfibers) with distinctive features mimicking natural tissue was investigated. Currently proposed inorganic materials (e.g. apatite matrixes) lack self-assembly and thereby limit interactions between cells and the material. The present work investigates the feasibility of creating "bio-inspired materials" specifically designed to overcome certain limitations inherent to current biomaterials. We examined the dimensions, morphology, and constitutive features of a composite hydrogel which combined an alginate based microfiber with a gelatin solution or a particulate form of urinary bladder matrix (UBM). The effectiveness of the composite microfibers to induce and modulate osteoblastic differentiation in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds without altering the viability and morphological characteristics of the cells was investigated. The present study describes a novel alginate microfiber production method with the use of microfluidics. The microfluidic procedure allowed for precise tuning of microfibers which resulted in enhanced viability and function of embedded cells. PMID:26249575

  19. HF echoes from ionization potentially produced by high-altitude discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.A.; Blanc, E.

    1997-03-01

    The presence of ionization associated with high-altitude discharges has been detected using an HF radar operating at 2.2, 2.5, and 2.8 MHz. On several occasions, oblique echoes lasting several hundred ms at night and 1{r_arrow}10s during the day were observed. The echoes turned on in several interpulse times of 70 ms and were generally correlated with strong lightning activity prior to onset. The angles of arrival of sferics detected at three goniometer stations were used to determine the distance to thunderstorms. The data are consistent with specular reflections from columns of ionization produced at 55{endash}65 km altitude and having minimum electron densities of 6{times}10{sup 4}{endash}10{sup 5}cm{sup {minus}3}. The source of the ionization is believed to be high-altitude discharges.{copyright} 1997 American Geophysical Union

  20. Synthesis and emulsifying properties of carbohydrate fatty acid esters produced from Agave tequilana fructans by enzymatic acylation.

    PubMed

    Casas-Godoy, Leticia; Arrizon, Javier; Arrieta-Baez, Daniel; Plou, Francisco J; Sandoval, Georgina

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrate fatty acid esters are non-ionic surfactants with a broad spectrum of applications. These molecules are generally synthesized using short carbohydrates or linear fructans; however in this research carbohydrate fatty acid esters were produced for the first time with branched fructans from Agave tequilana. Using immobilized lipases we successfully acylated A. tequilana fructans with vinyl laurate, obtaining products with different degrees of polymerization (DP). Lipozyme 435 was the most efficient lipase to catalyze the transesterification reaction. HPLC and ESI-MS analysis proved the presence of a mixture of acylated products as a result of the chemical complexity of fructans in the A. tequilana. The ESI-MS spectra showed a molecular mass shift between 183 and 366g/mol for fructooligosaccharides with a DP lower than 6, which indicated the presence of Agave fructans that had been mono- and diacylated with lauric acid. The carbohydrate fatty acid esters (CFAE) obtained showed good emulsifying properties in W/O emulsions. PMID:26988522

  1. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate-producing bacteria that release ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Russell, Wendy R; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Walker, Alan W; Flint, Harry J

    2016-07-01

    Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis that providing amylase-pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to Eubacterium xylanophilum and Butyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5-fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate-producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi-species pathway. PMID:26636660

  2. Wheat bran promotes enrichment within the human colonic microbiota of butyrate‐producing bacteria that release ferulic acid

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sylvia H.; Russell, Wendy R.; Quartieri, Andrea; Rossi, Maddalena; Parkhill, Julian; Flint, Harry J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cereal fibres such as wheat bran are considered to offer human health benefits via their impact on the intestinal microbiota. We show here by 16S rRNA gene‐based community analysis that providing amylase‐pretreated wheat bran as the sole added energy source to human intestinal microbial communities in anaerobic fermentors leads to the selective and progressive enrichment of a small number of bacterial species. In particular, OTUs corresponding to uncultured Lachnospiraceae (Firmicutes) related to E ubacterium xylanophilum and B utyrivibrio spp. were strongly enriched (by five to 160 fold) over 48 h in four independent experiments performed with different faecal inocula, while nine other Firmicutes OTUs showed > 5‐fold enrichment in at least one experiment. Ferulic acid was released from the wheat bran during degradation but was rapidly converted to phenylpropionic acid derivatives via hydrogenation, demethylation and dehydroxylation to give metabolites that are detected in human faecal samples. Pure culture work using bacterial isolates related to the enriched OTUs, including several butyrate‐producers, demonstrated that the strains caused substrate weight loss and released ferulic acid, but with limited further conversion. We conclude that breakdown of wheat bran involves specialist primary degraders while the conversion of released ferulic acid is likely to involve a multi‐species pathway. PMID:26636660

  3. Novel Bacterial Isolate from Permian Groundwater, Capable of Aggregating Potential Biofuel-Producing Microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Laughinghouse, Haywood D.; Anderson, Matthew A.; Chen, Feng; Willliams, Ernest; Place, Allen R.; Zmora, Odi; Zohar, Yonathan

    2012-01-01

    Increasing petroleum costs and climate change have resulted in microalgae receiving attention as potential biofuel producers. Little information is available on the diversity and functions of bacterial communities associated with biofuel-producing algae. A potential biofuel-producing microalgal strain, Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1, was grown in Permian groundwater. Changes in the bacterial community structure at three temperatures were monitored by two culture-independent methods, and culturable bacteria were characterized. After 9 days of incubation, N. oceanica IMET1 began to aggregate and precipitate in cultures grown at 30°C, whereas cells remained uniformly distributed at 15°C and 25°C. The bacterial communities in cultures at 30°C changed markedly. Some bacteria isolated only at 30°C were tested for their potential for aggregating microalgae. A novel bacterium designated HW001 showed a remarkable ability to aggregate N. oceanica IMET1, causing microalgal cells to aggregate after 3 days of incubation, while the total lipid content of the microalgal cells was not affected. Direct interaction of HW001 and N. oceanica is necessary for aggregation. HW001 can also aggregate the microalgae N. oceanica CT-1, Tetraselmis suecica, and T. chuii as well as the cyanobacterium Synechococcus WH8007. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons indicated the great novelty of this strain, which exhibited only 89% sequence similarity with any previously cultured bacteria. Specific primers targeted to HW001 revealed that the strain originated from the Permian groundwater. This study of the bacterial communities associated with potential biofuel-producing microalgae addresses a little-investigated area of microalgal biofuel research and provides a novel approach to harvest biofuel-producing microalgae by using the novel bacterium strain HW001. PMID:22194289

  4. Volatile fatty acids produced by co-fermentation of waste activated sludge and henna plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingang; Zhou, Rongbing; Chen, Jianjun; Han, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Tang, Junhong

    2016-07-01

    Anaerobic co-fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) and henna plant biomass (HPB) for the enhanced production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was investigated. The results indicated that VFAs was the main constituents of the released organics; the accumulation of VFAs was much higher than that of soluble carbohydrates and proteins. HPB was an advantageous substrate compared to WAS for VFAs production; and the maximum VFAs concentration in an HPB mono-fermentation system was about 2.6-fold that in a WAS mono-fermentation system. In co-fermentation systems, VFAs accumulation was positively related to the proportion of HPB in the mixed substrate, and the accumulated VFAs concentrations doubled when HPB was increased from 25% to 75%. HPB not only adjust the C/N ratio; the associated and/or released lawsone might also have a positive electron-shuttling effect on VFAs production. PMID:27003793

  5. Hairy Root Cultures of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. to Produce Gymnemic Acid.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, J; Kumar, Vadlapudi; Veerashree, V; Poornima, D V; Sannabommaji, Torankumar; Gajula, Hari; Giridhara, B

    2016-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae) is an endangered species extensively used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and treatment of various diseases. Uncontrolled exploitation to meet the increasing demand and low seed viability hastens the disappearance of the plant from its natural habitat. Hairy root culture provides a suitable alternative for the enhanced production of active principles. The current protocol provides the optimized culture conditions for the establishment of hairy root cultures and elicitation studies and also confirmation of stable integration of A. rhizogenes plasmid T-DNA into host genetic material by PCR and RT-PCR. Furthermore, it also discusses the suitable methods for the extraction procedures, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of gymnemic acid by HPTLC and HPLC. PMID:27108334

  6. Medical and Personal Care Applications of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, L. M. T.; Heunis, T. D. J.; van Staden, D. A.; Brand, A.; Noll, K. Sutyak; Chikindas, M. L.

    The frequent use of antibiotics has led to a crisis in the antibiotic ­resistance of pathogens associated with humans and animals. Antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiresistant bacterial pathogens have led to the investigation of alternative antimicrobial agents to treat and prevent infections in both humans and animals. Research on antimicrobial peptides, with a special interest on bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, is entering a new era with novel applications other than food preservation. Many scientists are now focusing on the application of these peptides in medicinal and personal care products. However, it is difficult to assess the success of such ventures due to the dearth of information that has been published and the lack of clinical trials.

  7. Is the quality and cost of food affected if industrially produced trans fatty acids are removed?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karsten

    2006-05-01

    Since the start in Italy and Denmark more than 10 years ago the application of fats and oils without trans fatty acids (TFA) has increased all over the world. Today the food industry uses enormous resources to decrease the content of TFA in existing and new products. The food industry has in most cases succeeded in making consumer accepted products without TFA-most of the quality issues have been related to the technological properties of the fat- and oil-based ingredients. The change from the traditional process of selective hydrogenation to fractionation and interesterification has caused a change in the demand of vegetable oils and process capacities in the market, but until now most of these changes has been absorbed by the market without significant changes in the cost of the raw materials. PMID:16716765

  8. Effects of honeydew-producing hemipteran denial on local argentine ant distribution and boric acid bait performance.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, R J; Silverman, J

    2009-06-01

    The Argentine ant is well known for its affinity for honeydew and is often associated with hemipteran outbreaks in agricultural and urban environments. It has been suggested that Argentine ants may be controlled by restricting access to honeydew, thereby forcing the ants to move or by encouraging increased liquid toxicant intake. We tested this possible control strategy by restricting Argentine ant access to the honeydew-producing terrapin scale within the canopy of red maple trees and monitoring ant numbers with pitfall traps and nest counts in the mulch around the tree base. Argentine ant nest numbers fell dramatically in the mulch around ant-excluded trees; however, there was no reduction in Argentine ant numbers caught in pitfalls around trees with or without canopy access. We added 0.5% boric acid bait stations at the base of the red maples and monitored bait consumption. Pitfall and nest counts were not affected by the addition of boric acid, although bait consumption was lower around ant-excluded trees, suggesting that restricting access to honeydew-producing Hemiptera did not enhance bait performance. We attribute this result to the increased distance Argentine ant workers had to trail from nest to bait station when not tending nearby terrapin scale. We suggest an alternative management strategy concentrating direct insecticidal control of Argentine ants around a few host plants infested with honeydew-producing Hemiptera by controlling Hemiptera in nearby host plants. PMID:19610434

  9. Morphological effects of porous poly-d,l-lactic acid/hydroxyapatite scaffolds produced by supercritical CO2 foaming on their mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Rouholamin, Davood; van Grunsven, William; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Smith, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    A novel supercritical CO2 foaming technique was used to fabricate scaffolds of controllable morphology and mechanical properties, with the potential to tailor the scaffolds to specific tissue engineering applications. Biodegradable scaffolds are widely used as temporary supportive structures for bone regeneration. The scaffolds must provide a sufficient mechanical support while allowing cell attachment and growth as well as metabolic activities. In this study, supercritical CO2 foaming was used to prepare fully interconnected porous scaffolds of poly-d,l-lactic acid and poly-d,l-lactic acid/hydroxyapatite. The morphological, mechanical and cell behaviours of the scaffolds were measured to examine the effect of hydroxyapatite on these properties. These scaffolds showed an average porosity in the range of 86%-95%, an average pore diameter of 229-347 µm and an average pore interconnection of 103-207 µm. The measured porosity, pore diameter, and interconnection size are suitable for cancellous bone regeneration. Compressive strength and modulus of up to 36.03 ± 5.90 and 37.97 ± 6.84 MPa were measured for the produced porous scaffolds of various compositions. The mechanical properties presented an improvement with the addition of hydroxyapatite to the structure. The relationship between morphological and mechanical properties was investigated. The matrices with different compositions were seeded with bone cells, and all the matrices showed a high cell viability and biocompatibility. The number of cells attached on the matrices slightly increased with the addition of hydroxyapatite indicating that hydroxyapatite improves the biocompatibility and proliferation of the scaffolds. The produced poly-d,l-lactic acid/hydroxyapatite scaffolds in this study showed a potential to be used as bone graft substitutes. PMID:27226064

  10. pH-Dependent Reduction Potentials and Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Mechanisms in Hydrogen-Producing Nickel Molecular Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, Samantha; Fernandez, Laura; Appel, Aaron M.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-04-01

    The nickel-based Ph Bz 2 2 P N electrocatalysts, which are comprised of a nickel atom and two 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane ligands, have been shown to effectively catalyze H2 production in acetonitrile. Recent electrochemical experiments revealed a linear dependence of the NiII/I reduction potential on pH, suggesting a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reaction. In the proposed mechanism, the catalytic cycle begins with a PCET process involving electrochemical electron transfer to the nickel center and intermolecular proton transfer from an acid to the pendant amine ligand. This paper presents quantum mechanical calculations of this PCET process to examine the thermodynamics of the sequential mechanisms, in which either the electron or the proton transfers first (ET–PT and PT–ET, respectively), and the concerted mechanism (EPT). The favored mechanism depends on a balance among many factors, including the acid strength, association free energy for the acid–catalyst complex, PT free energy barrier, and ET reduction potential. The ET reduction potential is less negative after PT, favoring the PT–ET mechanism, and the association free energy is less positive after reduction, favoring the ET–PT mechanism. The calculations, along with analysis of the experimental data, indicate that the sequential ET–PT mechanism is favored for weak acids because of the substantial decrease in the association free energy after reduction. For strong acids, however, the PT–ET mechanism may be favored because the association free energy is somewhat smaller and PT is more thermodynamically favorable. The concerted mechanism could also occur, particularly for intermediate acid strengths. In the context of the entire catalytic cycle for H2 production, the initial PCET process involving intermolecular PT has a more negative reduction potential than the subsequent PCET process involving intramolecular PT. As a result, the second PCET should

  11. Use of dry-milling derived thin stillage for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Strait, Megan; Wen, Zhiyou

    2012-05-01

    This study was to explore the use of thin stillage, a major byproduct in dry milling corn-ethanol plants, for production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare. Thin stillage contains various compounds that were ideal for fungal growth. Thin stillage concentration and temperature played important roles in fungal growth and EPA production. When 50% thin stillage was used in a stepwise temperature shift culture process, the cell density reached 23 g/L at day 9 with EPA yield and productivity of 243 and 27 mg/L day, respectively. The fungal biomass contained 39% lipid, 28% protein, 30% carbohydrate, and 3% ash. The fungal culture also generated a nutrient-depleted liquid by removing organic compounds in the raw thin stillage. The results collectively showed a new use of thin stillage by feeding to the fungus P. irregulare for producing omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:22386467

  12. [Identification of phenylacetic acid produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of bayoud, using GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Ait Kettout, T; Rahmania, F

    2010-01-01

    These studies are concerned with the isolation and identification of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (F. o. a.), the causal agent of bayoud, the wilt disease of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Fungal secondary metabolites are chemical compounds identified in a limited number of species. They consist of toxins, antibiotics and antifungal agents. Among the metabolites we could isolate from the pathogen grown in a liquid medium, and then identify by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), phenylacetic acid has been distinguished. This compound is widely described in the literature as having antimicrobial, antifungal, phytotoxic properties and also endowed with hormonal activity similar to that of indole acetic acid (IAA). To date, this metabolite has never been reported in F. o. a. PMID:21146137

  13. NMDA receptor hypofunction produces concomitant firing rate potentiation and burst activity reduction in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Mark E.; Homayoun, Houman; Moghaddam, Bita

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive deficits associated with frontal lobe dysfunction are a determinant of long-term disability in schizophrenia and are not effectively treated with available medications. Clinical studies show that many aspects of these deficits are transiently induced in healthy individuals treated with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists. These findings and recent genetic linkage studies strongly implicate NMDA receptor deficiency in schizophrenia and suggest that reversing this deficiency is pertinent to treating the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Despite the wealth of behavioral data on the effects of NMDA antagonist treatment in humans and laboratory animals, there is a fundamental lack of understanding about the mechanisms by which a general state of NMDA deficiency influences the function of cortical neurons. Using ensemble recording in freely moving rats, we found that NMDA antagonist treatment, at doses that impaired working memory, potentiated the firing rate of most prefrontal cortex neurons. This potentiation, which correlated with expression of behavioral stereotypy, resulted from an increased number of irregularly discharged single spikes. Concurrent with the increase in spike activity, there was a significant reduction in organized bursting activity. These results identify two distinct mechanisms by which NMDA receptor deficiency may disrupt frontal lobe function: an increase in disorganized spike activity, which may enhance cortical noise and transmission of disinformation; and a decrease in burst activity, which reduces transmission efficacy of cortical neurons. These findings provide a physiological basis for the NMDA receptor deficiency model of schizophrenia and may clarify the nature of cortical dysfunction in this disease. PMID:15159546

  14. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-01-01

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10−4. The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents. PMID:26670240

  15. Contamination of common spices in Saudi Arabia markets with potential mycotoxin-producing fungi

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Mohamed; Alamri, Saad

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen spices obtained from common markets were examined for their mould profile. A total of 520 fungal isolates, representing 57 species, were recovered and identified from dried and ground spice samples on three different media using standard dilution plate method. The most heavily contaminated spice samples examined were observed in ginger in order of magnitude of 5325–6800 cfu/g. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus. Relative occurrence values of taxa disclosed ranged between 80% for Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusniger and Penicilliumarenicola, and 10% for some species. Samples obtained from sumac encountered very rare colony counts indicating its antifungal prosperities. The present magnitude of contamination and spectra of mycobiota approximate those reported for similar spice samples. Several potentially mycotoxigenic fungi were isolated from the majority of samples. The present study attracts the attention to potential risk for mycotoxins contamination may be caused as a result of using these spices, especially in great quantities. The study strongly recommends reduction in application of heavily contaminated spices like ginger in food processing and using some others like clove and sumac due to their antimicrobial properties. PMID:23961074

  16. Branched-chain fatty acids produced by mutants of Streptomyces fradiae, putative precursors of the lactone ring of tylosin.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, M L; Paschal, J W; Leeds, J P; Kirst, H A; Wind, J A; Miller, F D; Turner, J R

    1990-01-01

    Three branched-chain fatty acids (7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylnona-2,4-dienoic acid [compound 1], its 7-epimer [compound 2], and 7-keto-4,6-dimethylnona-2,4-dienoic acid [compound 3]) and a ketone (9-hydroxy-6,8-dimethylundeca-4,6-dien-3-one [compound 4]) were isolated from the culture broth of mutants of Streptomyces fradiae which were blocked in the biosynthesis of the macrolide antibiotic tylosin. Two phenotypic classes of mutants of this organism which were blocked in the addition of mycaminose to tylactone (compound 6) accumulated these compounds. These compounds were not produced by mutants which were blocked in lactone synthesis, in steps beyond mycaminose addition, or by the wild-type strain. Synthesis of these compounds, like synthesis of tylosin, was inhibited by the addition of cerulenin. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 were partially interconvertible by these mutants; but they were not produced from the degradation of tylactone and they were not directly incorporated into tylosin by intact cells. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were equivalent to that of a predicted intermediate (S. Yue, J. S. Duncan, Y. Yamamoto, and C. R. Hutchinson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109:1253-1255, 1987) in the biosynthesis of tylactone. The ketone (compound 4) reported previously (N. D. Jones, M. O. Chaney, H. A. Kirst, G. M. Wild, R. H. Baltz, R. L. Hamill, and J. W. Paschal, J. Antibiot. 35:420-425, 1982) appears to be the decarboxylation product of the intermediate following that represented by compound 1. This represents the first report of the isolation of putative precursors of tylactone from tylosin-producing organisms. PMID:2221862

  17. Communication: Physical origins of ionization potential shifts in mixed carboxylic acids and water complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Quanli; Tang, Zhen; Su, Peifeng; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhijun; Trindle, Carl O.; Knee, Joseph L.

    2016-08-01

    The ionization potential (IP) of the aromatic alpha hydroxy carboxylic acid, 9-hydroxy-9-fluorene carboxylic acid (9HFCA), is shifted by complexation with hydrogen bonding ligands such as water and formic acid. Generalized Kohn-Sham energy decomposition analysis decomposes the intermolecular binding energies into a frozen energy term, polarization, correlation, and/or dispersion energy terms, as well as terms of geometric relaxation and zero point energy. We observe that in each dimer the attractive polarization always increases upon ionization, enhancing binding in the cation and shifting the IP toward the red. For 9HFCA—H2O, a substantial decrease of the repulsive frozen energy in cation further shifts the IP toward red. For 9HFCA—HCOOH, the increase of the frozen energy actually occurs in the cation and shifts the IP toward blue. Consistent with the experimental measurements, our analysis provides new, non-intuitive perspectives on multiple hydrogen bonds interactions in carboxylic acids and water complexes.

  18. Potential human health effects of acid rain: report of a workshop

    PubMed Central

    Goyer, Robert A.; Bachmann, John; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Ferris, Benjamin G.; Graham, Judith; Mushak, Paul; Perl, Daniel P.; Rall, David P.; Schlesinger, Richard; Sharpe, William; Wood, John M.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the potential impact of the acid precipitation phenomenon on human health. There are two major components to this phenomenon: the predepositional phase, during which there is direct human exposure to acidic substances from ambient air, and the post-depositional phase, in which the deposition of acid materials on water and soil results in the mobilization, transport, and even chemical transformation of toxic metals. Acidification increases bioconversion of mercury to methylmercury, which accumulates in fish, increasing the risk to toxicity in people who eat fish. Increase in water and soil content of lead and cadmium increases human exposure to these metals which become additive to other sources presently under regulatory control. The potential adverse health effects of increased human exposure to aluminum is not known at the present time. PMID:3896772

  19. Synthesis, activity, and docking study of phenylthiazole acids as potential agonists of PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liang; Wang, Taijin; Shi, Min; Ye, Haoyu

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-mediated transcription factor playing key roles in glucose and lipid homeostasis, and PPARγ ligands possess therapeutic potential in these as well as other areas. In this study, a series of phenylthiazole acids have been synthesized and evaluated for agonistic activity by a convenient fluorescence polarization-based PPARγ ligand screening assay. Compound 4t, as a potential PPARγ agonist with half maximal effective concentration (EC50) 0.75±0.20 μM, exhibited in vitro potency comparable with a 0.83±0.14 μM of the positive control rosiglitazone. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that phenylthiazole acid 4t interacted with the amino acid residues of the active site of the PPARγ complex in a stable manner, consistent with the result of the in vitro ligand assay. PMID:27313447

  20. Screening of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria based on gastrointestinal properties and perfluorooctanoate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Fan; Xu, Qi; Yin, Boxing; Fang, Dongsheng; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Wang, Gang; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The consumption of lactic acid bacteria capable of binding or degrading food-borne carcinogens may reduce human exposure to these deleterious compounds. In this study, 25 Lactobacillus strains isolated from human, plant, or dairy environments were investigated for their potential probiotic capacity against perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) toxicity. The PFOA binding, tolerance ability, and acid and bile salt tolerance were investigated and assessed by principal component analysis. Additionally, the effect of different pH levels and binding times was assessed. These strains exhibited different degrees of PFOA binding; the strain with the highest PFOA binding capability was Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM738, which bound to 49.40 ± 1.5 % of available PFOA. This strain also exhibited relatively good cellular antioxidative properties, acid and bile salt tolerance, and adhesion to Caco-2 cells. This study suggests that L. plantarum CCFM738 could be used as a potential probiotic in food applications against PFOA toxicity. PMID:27094185

  1. Neuraminidase inhibition of Dietary chlorogenic acids and derivatives - potential antivirals from dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Mohamed; Matei, Marius-Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Illenberger, Susanne; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Plants rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs), caffeic acids and their derivatives have been found to exert antiviral effects against influenza virus neuroaminidase. In this study several dietary naturally occurring chlorogenic acids, phenolic acids and derivatives were screened for their inhibitory activity against neuroaminidases (NAs) from C. perfringens, H5N1 and recombinant H5N1 (N-His)-Tag using a fluorometric assay. There was no significant difference in inhibition between the different NA enzymes. The enzyme inhibition results indicated that chlorogenic acids and selected derivatives, exhibited high activities against NAs. It seems that the catechol group from caffeic acid was important for the activity. Dietary CGA therefore show promise as potential antiviral agents. However, caffeoyl quinic acids show low bioavailibility and are intensly metabolized by the gut micro flora, only low nM concentrations are observed in plasma and urine, therefore a systemic antiviral effect of these compounds is unlikely. Nevertheless, gut floral metabolites with a catechol moiety or structurally related dietary phenolics with a catechol moiety might serve as interesting compounds for future investigations. PMID:27010419

  2. Burkholderia: an update on taxonomy and biotechnological potential as antibiotic producers.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, Eliza; Bull, Matt J; Peeters, Charlotte; Coenye, Tom; Vandamme, Peter; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar

    2016-06-01

    Burkholderia is an incredibly diverse and versatile Gram-negative genus, within which over 80 species have been formally named and multiple other genotypic groups likely represent new species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and core genome ribosomal multilocus sequence typing analysis indicates the presence of at least three major clades within the genus. Biotechnologically, Burkholderia are well-known for their bioremediation and biopesticidal properties. Within this review, we explore the ability of Burkholderia to synthesise a wide range of antimicrobial compounds ranging from historically characterised antifungals to recently described antibacterial antibiotics with activity against multiresistant clinical pathogens. The production of multiple Burkholderia antibiotics is controlled by quorum sensing and examples of quorum sensing pathways found across the genus are discussed. The capacity for antibiotic biosynthesis and secondary metabolism encoded within Burkholderia genomes is also evaluated. Overall, Burkholderia demonstrate significant biotechnological potential as a source of novel antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites. PMID:27115756

  3. The potential of transgenic green microalgae; a robust photobioreactor to produce recombinant therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Fariba; Eskandani, Morteza; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae have been used in food, cosmetic, and biofuel industries as a natural source of lipids, vitamins, pigments and antioxidants for a long time. Green microalgae, as potent photobioreactors, can be considered as an economical expression system to produce recombinant therapeutical proteins at large-scale due to low cost of production and scaling-up capitalization owning to the inexpensive medium requirement, fast growth rate, and the ease of manipulation. These microalgae possess all benefit eukaryotic expression systems including the ability of post-translational modifications required for proper folding and stability of active proteins. Among the many items regarded as recombinant protein production, this review compares the different expression systems with green microalgae like Dunaliella by viewing the nuclear/chloroplast transformation challenges/benefits, related selection markers/reporter genes, and crucial factors/strategies affecting the increase of foreign protein expression in microalgae transformants. Some important factors were discussed regarding the increase of protein yielding in microalgae transformants including: transformation-associated genotypic modifications, endogenous regulatory factors, promoters, codon optimization, enhancer elements, and milking of recombinant protein. PMID:25115849

  4. POTENTIAL ABATEMENT PRODUCTION AND MARKETING OF BYPRODUCT SULFURIC ACID IN THE U.S

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the market potential for sulfur and sulfuric acid byproducts of combustion in power plant boilers. (Air quality regulations require control of SOx emissions from power plant boilers. Recovery of sulfur in useful form would avoid waste ...

  5. Effects of Nitrogen Sources and C/N Ratios on the Lipid-Producing Potential of Chlorella sp. HQ.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jingjing; Hong, Yu; Hu, Hongying

    2016-07-28

    Microalgae are being researched for their potential as attractive biofuel feedstock, particularly for their lipid production. For maximizing biofuel production, it is necessary to explore the effects of environmental factors on algal lipid-producing potential. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) sources (NO2-N, NO3-N, urea-N, NH4-N, and N-deficiency) and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios (C/N= 0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0) on algal lipid-producing potential of Chlorella sp. HQ were investigated. The results showed that for Chlorella growth and lipid accumulation potential, NO2-N was the best amongst the nitrogen sources, and NO3-N and urea-N also contributed to algal growth and lipid accumulation potential, but NH4-N and N-deficiency instead caused inhibitory effects. Moreover, the results indicated that algal lipid-producing potential was related to C/N ratios. With NO2-N treatment and carbon addition (C/N = 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0), total lipid yield was enhanced by 12.96-20.37%, but triacylglycerol (TAG) yields decreased by 25.52-94.31%. As for NO3-N treatment, carbon addition led to a 17.82-57.43%/ 25.86-82.67% reduction of total lipid/TAG yields. When NH4-N was used as the nitrogen source, total lipid/TAG yields were increased by 46.67-113.33%/28.99-74.76% with carbon addition. The total lipid/TAG yields of urea-N treatment varied with C/N ratios. Overall, the highest TAG yield (TAG yield: 38.75 ± 5.21 mg/l; TAG content: 44.16 ± 4.35%) was achieved under NO2-N treatment without carbon addition (C/N = 0), the condition that had merit for biofuel production. PMID:27090186

  6. Jasmonic Acid, Abscisic Acid, and Salicylic Acid Are Involved in the Phytoalexin Responses of Rice to Fusarium fujikuroi, a High Gibberellin Producer Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Spadaro, Davide; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-09-23

    Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of bakanae disease, is the main seedborne pathogen on rice. To understand the basis of rice resistance, a quantitative method to simultaneously detect phytohormones and phytoalexins was developed by using HPLC-MS/MS. With this method dynamic profiles and possible interactions of defense-related phytohormones and phytoalexins were investigated on two rice cultivars, inoculated or not with F. fujikuroi. In the resistant cultivar Selenio, the presence of pathogen induced high production of phytoalexins, mainly sakuranetin, and symptoms of bakanae were not observed. On the contrary, in the susceptible genotype Dorella, the pathogen induced the production of gibberellin and abscisic acid and inhibited jasmonic acid production, phytoalexins were very low, and bakanae symptoms were observed. The results suggested that a wide range of secondary metabolites are involved in plant defense against pathogens and phytoalexin synthesis could be an important factor for rice resistance against bakanae disease. PMID:26323788

  7. Substantial Humic Acid Adsorption to Activated Carbon Air Cathodes Produces a Small Reduction in Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wulin; Watson, Valerie J; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-08-16

    Long-term operation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can result in substantial degradation of activated carbon (AC) air-cathode performance. To examine a possible role in fouling from organic matter in water, cathodes were exposed to high concentrations of humic acids (HA). Cathodes treated with 100 mg L(-1) HA exhibited no significant change in performance. Exposure to 1000 mg L(-1) HA decreased the maximum power density by 14% (from 1310 ± 30 mW m(-2) to 1130 ± 30 mW m(-2)). Pore blocking was the main mechanism as the total surface area of the AC decreased by 12%. Minimization of external mass transfer resistances using a rotating disk electrode exhibited only a 5% reduction in current, indicating about half the impact of HA adsorption was associated with external mass transfer resistance and the remainder was due to internal resistances. Rinsing the cathodes with deionized water did not restore cathode performance. These results demonstrated that HA could contribute to cathode fouling, but the extent of power reduction was relatively small in comparison to large mass of humics adsorbed. Other factors, such as biopolymer attachment, or salt precipitation, are therefore likely more important contributors to long-term fouling of MFC cathodes. PMID:27414751

  8. Okadaic Acid Toxin at Sublethal Dose Produced Cell Proliferation in Gastric and Colon Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    del Campo, Miguel; Toledo, Héctor; Lagos, Néstor

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of Okadaic Acid (OA) on the proliferation of gastric and colon epithelial cells, the main target tissues of the toxin. We hypothesized that OA, at sublethal doses, activates multiple signaling pathways, such as Erk and Akt, through the inhibition of PP2A. To demonstrate this, we carried out curves of doses and time response against OA in AGS, MKN-45 and Caco 2 cell lines, and found an increase in the cell proliferation at sublethal doses, at 24 h or 48 h exposure. Indeed, cells can withstand high concentrations of the toxin at 4 h exposure, the time chosen considering the maximum time before total gastric emptying. We have proved that this increased proliferation is due to an overexpression of Cyclin B, a cyclin that promotes the passage from G2 to mitosis. In addition, we have demonstrated that OA induces activation of Akt and Erk in the three cells lines, showing that OA can activate pathways involved in oncogenesis. In conclusion, this study contributes to the knowledge about the possible effects of chronic OA consumption. PMID:24317467

  9. An amino acid substitution (Gly853-->Glu) in the collagen alpha 1(II) chain produces hypochondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, R; Tiller, G E; Weis, M A; Gruber, H E; Rimoin, D L; Cohn, D H; Eyre, D R

    1992-11-01

    The spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia subclassification of bone dysplasias includes achondrogenesis, hypochondrogenesis, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. The phenotypic expression of these disorders ranges from mild to perinatal lethal forms. We report the detection and partial characterization of a defect in type II collagen in a perinatal lethal form of hypochondrogenesis. Electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide of CB peptides (where CB represents cyanogen bromide) from type II collagen of the diseased cartilage showed a doublet band for peptide alpha 1(II)CB10 and evidence for post-translational overmodification of the major peptides (CB8, CB10, and CB11) seen as a retarded electrophoretic mobility. Peptide CB10 was digested by endoproteinase Asp-N; and on reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography, fragments of abnormal mobility were noted. Sequence analysis of a unique peptide D12 revealed a single amino acid substitution (Gly-->Glu) at position 853 of the triple helical domain. This was confirmed by sequence analysis of amplified COL2A1 cDNA, which revealed a single nucleotide substitution (GGA-->GAA) in 5 of 10 clones. Electron micrographs of the diseased cartilage showed a sparse extracellular matrix and chondrocytes containing dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, which suggested impaired assembly and secretion of the mutant protein. This case further documents the molecular basis of the spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia spectrum of chondrodysplasias as mutations in COL2A1. PMID:1429602

  10. Effect of thiosemicarbazones on corrosion of steel in phosphoric acid produced by wet process

    SciTech Connect

    Khamis, E.; Ameer, M.A.; AlAndis, N.M.; Al-Senani, G.

    2000-02-01

    Corrosion inhibition of steel in phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) by thiosemicarbazide derivatives was studied using different chemical and electrochemical techniques. Protection efficiency up to 99% was obtained with small amounts (10{sup {minus}4} M) of cinnamaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (CTSCN). The order of increasing inhibition efficiency was correlated with the modification of the molecular structure of the inhibitors. Empirical kinetic relationship was obtained describing the experimental data obtained from the different compounds used in this investigation. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the compounds acted primarily as mixed-type inhibitors. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge-transfer resistance increased and the capacitance of the double layer decreased with increasing the concentration of the inhibitor in the medium, confirming adsorption process mechanism. At high concentrations (>10{sup 4} M), the capacitance of the double layer leveled off since maximum double-layer thickness was attained. Kinetic-thermodynamic model and Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm described the experimental findings. Number of active sites, binding constant, and change of free energy were computed for all inhibitors studied. Based on the inhibitor, it was found that each organic molecule replaced one or more adsorbed water molecule from the steel surface. The influence of exposure time on the performance of crotonaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (CrTSCN) was studied. Results showed that the inhibitor performed better with time and at a critical concentration of 5 x 10{sup {minus}4} M.

  11. Antimicrobial Hyaluronic Acid-Cefoxitin Sodium Thin Films Produced by Electrospraying.

    PubMed

    Ahire, Jayesh J; Dicks, Leon M T

    2016-08-01

    The healing properties of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the recovery of wounds are well known. Cefoxitin (Cef), a cephalosporin antibiotic, is generally used to prevent and treat postoperative infections. In this study, we describe the incorporation of Cef in HA thin films (Cef-HAF) by using electrospraying. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that HA-containing thin films (HAF) were composed of numerous nanoparticles (255 ± 177 nm in diameter) with irregular surfaces, connected to each other with nanofibers of 50 ± 11 nm in diameter. Cef-HAF contained fewer, but larger, particles (551 ± 293 nm) with smooth surfaces and were interconnected with nanofibers of 61 ± 13 nm in diameter. Differences in surface morphology between HAF and Cef-HAF were confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that Cef was not modified when incorporated into Cef-HAF and remained active against Klebsiella pneumoniae Xen 39, Staphylococcus aureus Xen 36 and Listeria monocytogenes EDGe. Nanofiber scaffolds of HA-containing Cef may be used in dressings to control postoperative infections. PMID:27146506

  12. Simultaneous determination of intracellular UDP-sugars in hyaluronic acid-producing Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Franke, Lukáš; Čožíková, Dagmar; Smirnou, Dzianis; Hermannová, Martina; Hanová, Tereza; Růžičková, Andrea; Velebný, Vladimír

    2015-08-01

    Two chromatographic methods for the quantitative analysis of uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars involved in hyaluronan pathway of Streptococcus zooepidemicus (SEZ) were developed and compared. The sample preparation protocol using centrifugation and extraction in hot ethanol was employed prior to the analyses. Separation was achieved using an anion exchange Spherisorb SAX column or a Shodex QA-825 column connected with a photodiode array (PDA) detector. To increase the throughput of the chromatography method employing the Spherisorb SAX column, the solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was introduced. Method validation results displayed that limits of detection (LODs) of UDP-glucose (UDP-Glc), UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) and UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) calculated according to QC Expert software were in the low micromolar range and the coefficient of correlation (R(2)) was above 0.997. However, the analytical technique using the Spherisorb SAX column resulted in 80-90% recoveries and low LODs (≤6.19μM), the Shodex QA-825 column showed better long-term stability and reproducible chromatographic properties (RSD≤5.60%). The Shodex QA-825 column was successfully used to monitor UDP-sugar levels during the growth rate of SEZ cells. PMID:26114654

  13. A novel multi-phase bioreactor for fermentations to produce organic acids from dairy wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Silva, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    A novel, fibrous bed bioreactor is developed for multi-phase fermentation processes. The microbial cells are immobilized in a spiral-wound, fibrous matrix packed in the bioreactor. This innovative, structured packing design allows good contact between two different moving phases (e.g., gas-liquid or liquid-solid) and has many advantages over conventional immobilized cell bioreactors. Because the reactor bed is not completely filled with the solid matrix, the bioreactor can be operated for a long period without developing problems such as clogging and high pressure drop usually associated with conventional packed bed and membrane bioreactors. This novel bioreactor was studied for its use in several organic acid fermentations. Production of propionate, acetate, and lactate from whey permeate was studied. In all cases studied, use of the fibrous bioreactor resulted in superior reactor performance-indicated by a more than tenfold increase in productivity, reduction or elimination of the requirement for nutrient supplementation to whey permeate, and resistance to contamination-as compared to conventional batch fermentation processes. Also, the reactor maintained high productivity throughout long-term continuous operation. No contamination, degeneration, or clogging problems were experienced during a 10-month period of continuous operation. This new bioreactor is thus suitable for industrial uses to improve fermentation processes which currently use conventional bioreactors.

  14. Impact of a new glucose utilization pathway in amino acid-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Steffen N; Seibold, Gerd M; Krämer, Reinhard; Wendisch, Volker F

    2011-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum imports and phosphorylates glucose, fructose and sucrose by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase carbohydrate uptake system (PTS). Recently, we have discovered how glucose can be utilized by C. glutamicum in a PTS-independent manner. PTS-independent glucose uptake is mediated by one of two inositol permeases (IolT1 or IolT2) and the second function of PTS, substrate phosphorylation, is catalyzed by one of two glucokinases (Glk or PpgK). PTS-deficient C. glutamicum strains exclusively utilizing glucose via this system grew comparably well on glucose minimal media as the parental strain. Furthermore, PTS-deficient L-lysine producing C. glutamicum strains overexpressing genes for inositol permease and glucokinase showed increased L-lysine production and reduced formation of by-products derived from pyruvate. Here, we discuss the impact of our findings on engineering strategies of C. glutamicum strains used in various biotechnological production processes. PMID:22008639

  15. Monthly and seasonal occurrences of potential flash flood-producing rains determined from Manually Digitized Radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of a small 4-year climatological data base of Manually Digitized Radar (MDR) data to infer the monthly and seasonal distributions of the relative frequency of occurrence of potential flash flood-producing rains over the Central and Eastern U.S. Some possible meteorological mechanisms for producing potential flash flooding rains are discussed in terms of the relative maxima and minima in the monthly and seasonal frequency distributions over the MDR network. Frequencies were found to be generally higher in more southern locations and lower farther north in all months and seasons. However, most locations experienced an annual cycle in the frequency of occurrence with maxima in summer and minima in winter. In given seasons and months, local areas of maximum and minimum occurrences may be related to quasi-stationary meteorological processes that trigger and organize intense convection over a common area.

  16. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-01

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0 CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes. PMID:25847186

  17. L-amino acid ligase from Pseudomonas syringae producing tabtoxin can be used for enzymatic synthesis of various functional peptides.

    PubMed

    Arai, Toshinobu; Arimura, Yasuhiro; Ishikura, Shun; Kino, Kuniki

    2013-08-01

    Functional peptides are expected to be beneficial compounds that improve our quality of life. To address the growing need for functional peptides, we have examined peptide synthesis by using microbial enzymes. l-Amino acid ligase (Lal) catalyzes the condensation of unprotected amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner and is applicable to fermentative production. Hence, Lal is a promising enzyme to achieve cost-effective synthesis. To obtain a Lal with novel substrate specificity, we focused on the putative Lal involved in the biosynthesis of the dipeptidic phytotoxin designated tabtoxin. The tabS gene was cloned from Pseudomonas syringae NBRC14081 and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant TabS protein produced showed the broadest substrate specificity of any known Lal; it detected 136 of 231 combinations of amino acid substrates when dipeptide synthesis was examined. In addition, some new substrate specificities were identified and unusual amino acids, e.g., l-pipecolic acid, hydroxy-l-proline, and β-alanine, were found to be acceptable substrates. Furthermore, kinetic analysis and monitoring of the reactions over a short time revealed that TabS showed distinct substrate selectivity at the N and C termini, which made it possible to specifically synthesize a peptide without by-products such as homopeptides and heteropeptides with the reverse sequence. TabS specifically synthesized the following functional peptides, including their precursors: l-arginyl-l-phenylalanine (antihypertensive effect; yield, 62%), l-leucyl-l-isoleucine (antidepressive effect; yield, 77%), l-glutaminyl-l-tryptophan (precursor of l-glutamyl-l-tryptophan, which has antiangiogenic activity; yield, 54%), l-leucyl-l-serine (enhances saltiness; yield, 83%), and l-glutaminyl-l-threonine (precursor of l-glutamyl-l-threonine, which enhances saltiness; yield, 96%). Furthermore, our results also provide new insights into tabtoxin biosynthesis. PMID:23770908

  18. Characterizing Properties of Biochar Produced from Simulated Human Feces and Its Potential Applications.

    PubMed

    Ilango, Ajaykannan; Lefebvre, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a comprehensive characterization of biochar obtained from simulated human feces (SHF) with a view to improve human waste sanitization and stabilization before usage as a resource. The possible applications of SHF are as a fuel, as a soil amendment, or for emerging applications (e.g., activated carbon precursor and odor control), depending on the charring conditions. Simulated human feces were charred under different conditions of peak temperature (200-800°C), heating rate (2-50°C min), and holding time (0.5-6.0 h); these parameters have been shown to have the largest influence on the thermal and physicochemical characteristics of the final product. The peak temperature was shown to have a higher impact than the heating rate or the holding time. At 200°C, the very mild structural changes of the product were characteristic of dry torrefaction, a process useful to remove moisture and sterilize the product. At 400°C the carbon content (76.2 ± 0.4) and the calorific heat value (30.6 ± 0.4 MJ kg) of the product increased by 60%. From 600°C onward, the improved degree of aromatization verified by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (alkene [C=C] stretching around 1680-1450 cm) and C nuclear magnetic resonance (C=C stretching at 140-110 ppm) made the biochar increasingly suitable for carbon sequestration or commercial fabrication of briquettes of charcoal. In conclusion, SHF proved to be a suitable feedstock to produce a biochar whose characteristics depended mostly on the peak charring temperature. Ultimately, the selection of a suitable application may depend on local and sociological considerations. PMID:27065422

  19. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Renata H.; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

  20. The human potential of a recombinant pandemic influenza vaccine produced in tobacco plants

    PubMed Central

    Jul-Larsen, Åsne; Madhun, Abdullah S.; Brokstad, Karl A.; Montomoli, Emanuele; Yusibov, Vidadi; Cox, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid production of influenza vaccine antigen is an important challenge when a new pandemic occurs. Production of recombinant antigens in plants is a quick, cost effective and up scalable new strategy for influenza vaccine production. In this study, we have characterized a recombinant influenza haemagglutinin antigen (HAC1) that was derived from the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) virus and expressed in tobacco plants. Volunteers vaccinated with the 2009 pdmH1N1 oil-in-water adjuvanted vaccine provided serum and lymphocyte samples that were used to study the immunogenic properties of the HAC1 antigen in vitro. By 7 d post vaccination, the vaccine fulfilled the licensing criteria for antibody responses to the HA detected by haemagglutination inhibition and single radial hemolysis. By ELISA and ELISPOT analysis we showed that HAC1 was recognized by specific serum antibodies and antibody secreting cells, respectively. We conducted a kinetic analysis and found a peak of serum HAC1 specific antibody response between day 14 and 21 post vaccination by ELISA. We also detected elevated production of IL-2 and IFNγ and low frequencies of CD4+ T cells producing single or multiple Th1 cytokines after stimulating PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) with the HAC1 antigen in vitro. This indicates that the antigen can interact with T cells, although confirming that an effective adjuvant would be required to improve the T-cell stimulation of plant based vaccines. We conclude that the tobacco derived recombinant HAC1 antigen is a promising vaccine candidate recognized by both B and T cells. PMID:22634440