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Sample records for acid production furnaces

  1. Increasing blast furnace productivity. Is there a universal solution for all blast furnaces?

    SciTech Connect

    Chaubal, P.C.; Ranade, M.G.

    1997-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a major effort in the integrated plants in the US to increase blast furnace productivity. Record production levels have been reported by AK Steel using direct reduced/hot briquetted iron (DRI/HBI) and high levels of natural gas (NG)-oxygen injection at their Middletown blast furnace. Similarly, US Steel-Gary No. 13 reported high productivity levels with PCI and oxygen enrichment. A productivity of 6 NTHM/day/100 ft{sup 3}WV was the norm in the past, but today levels higher than 11 NTHM/day/100ft{sup 3}WV have been reached on a sustained basis. These high productivity levels have been an important aspect of facility rationalization efforts, as companies seek to maximize their throughput while reducing costs. Hot metal demand in a particular plant depends on downstream capabilities in converting hot metal to saleable steel. Single vs. multi-furnace plants may have different production requirements for each facility. Business cycles may influence productivity requirements from different furnaces of a multiple furnace plant, more so for those considered as swing furnaces. Therefore, the production requirement for individual blast furnaces is different for different plants. In an effort to understand productivity improvement methods, calculations were made for a typical 8 m hearth diameter furnace using data and experience gathered on Inland`s operation. Here the authors present the results obtained in the study.

  2. Redesigned Electron-Beam Furnace Boosts Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    1995-01-01

    Redesigned electron-beam furnace features carousel of greater capacity so more experiments conducted per loading, and time spent on reloading and vacuum pump-down reduced. Common mounting plate for electron source and carousel simplifies installation and reduces vibration.

  3. Tube-Furnace Production of Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrier, E. G.; Rexer, J.; Timmel, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Packed-bed reactor produces silicon by decomposing ultrapure silane gas in temperature gradient. Based on previous experiments with relatively low decomposition temperatures and with temperature gradients, heterogeneous decomposition will produce few fines. Fines produced are screened out and reinserted into furnace.

  4. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  5. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  6. Semicoke production and quality at Chinese vertical SJ furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    V.M. Strakhov; I.V. Surovtseva; A.V. D'yachenko; V.M. Men'shenin

    2007-05-15

    In Russia there has been little interest on the thermal processing of non-sintering coal. However it may be used to obtain many special types of coke and semicoke that are necessary for processes other than blast furnace smelting and employing small metallurgical coke fractions that do not meet the relevant quality requirements. China has recently made great progress in developing the thermal processing of coal (mainly energy coal) to obtain a highly effective product, semicoke, primarily used in metallurgy and adsorption process. The article considers the operation of a Chinese semicoking plant equipped with vertical SJ furnaces. The plant is in the Shenmu district of Shanxi province (Inner Mongolia). The enterprise includes two furnaces of total output of about 100,000 t/yr of semicoke.

  7. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  9. 75 FR 64621 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...-AB89 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and... procedures for residential furnaces and boilers to include provisions for measuring standby mode and off mode... Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential furnaces and boilers (all of which are...

  10. 76 FR 61999 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode); Correction AGENCY: Office of... for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers. This correction provides... `` FurnaceBoiler-IEC-2011-TP@ee.doe.gov '' Issued in Washington, DC, on September 29, 2011. Kathleen B....

  11. Prototype Furnace for Automatic Production of Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Stickel, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    Single-crystal material grown under precise control. New furnace permits sustained growth of single-crystal silicon ribbon by dendritic-web growth process. Furnace brings together mechanisms necessary for continuous automatic operation.

  12. Porcelain enameling furnaces retrofitted with ceramic fiber to increase fuel savings and production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    Appliance manufacturers and companies supplying porcelainized parts have done considerable revamping and modernizing of their furnaces. As a result, economy of production has been improved through either substantial fuel savings or increased productivity or both. Coinciding with this industry furnace upgrading, a refractory engineering and contracting firm, Ronalco Inc., Louisville, KY has emerged, within a few years, as experts in porcelain enameling furnace renovations devising their own innovative methodology for lining and heating these units.

  13. Smelting furnace melt zone wall modification to cope higher production rate operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayoga, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    PT Smelting adopted the Mitsubishi Continuous Technology for its copper smelter plant which has been operating since 1998. Through a series of expansion projects, the plant annual production capacity increased gradually from 200,000 to 300,000 tons of copper. There were no significant modification works for smelter plant to reach the 50% additional capacity. It was mostly achieved by intensifying the furnaces operation by increasing oxygen content in the furnaces blowing-air. Intensive smelting furnace operation has caused shorter campaign life of some furnace refractory, especially the melt zone wall on the furnace outlet side. During each furnace relining, which is done once in every two years, severe wall erosion was found. The worst condition occurred in year 2007 when the smelting furnace experienced a melt leak through the eroded wall beneath the bath-line coolers. During the 2008 furnace relining, a modification was performed by installing vertical coolers behind the melt zone wall The additional vertical coolers were installed during the 2012 furnace relining to extend the coverage area. The modification improved melt zone wall healthiness significantly by keeping them safely within the two-year campaign life. Recently a modeling study was done to estimate the influences of molten waves on furnace wall erosion. The study was aimed to predict the impact of blowing parameters such as blowing air velocity, on the melt wave character and wall erosion.

  14. 78 FR 53625 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...-AC96 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...) published a final rule in the Federal Register that amended the test procedure for residential furnaces and... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 586-6590. Email:...

  15. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  16. Recovery of Zn from acid mine water and electric arc furnace dust in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Francisco; Romero, Rafael; Mazuelos, Alfonso; Iglesias, Nieves

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the purification of acid mine water and the treatment of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) are integrated into one process with the aim of recovering the Zn content of both effluent and waste. Zinc recovery can reduce the cost of their environmental management: purified acid mine water is discharged after removing all metals; EAFD ceases to be hazardous waste; and Zn is valorised. The process consists of the recovery of Zn as zinc oxide and its purification into commercial products. First, EAFD is leached with acid water and the dissolved metals are selectively precipitated as hydroxides. After EADF leaching, ferrous iron is bio-oxidized and Fe and Al are then precipitated; in the following stage, Cu, Ni, Co and Cd are cemented and finally Zn is precipitated as ZnO. In order to purify water that finally is discharged to a river, lime is used as the neutralizing agent, which results in a precipitate of mainly gypsum, MnO, and ZnO. From the impure zinc oxide produced, various alternatives for the attainment of commercial products, such as basic zinc carbonate and electrolytic zinc, are studied in this work.

  17. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  18. Automatically controlled high temperature furnace for the first firing of porcelain products

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Davidenko, V.K.; Oliyarnik, P.N.

    1987-11-01

    A computer-controlled gas furnace, intended for the first firing of porcelain products, is described. The design specifications include measures taken for protecting the firing products from contamination by combustion products and structural imhomogeneities caused by nonuniform temperature distributions, as well as temperature and combustion control regimes to ensure maximum energy utilization during firing. Burner and fuel system configurations are described, performance data on fuel economy, quality control, and productivity are determined, and results of a cost benefit analysis on the implementation of the furnace in industry are given.

  19. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  20. Thermal-destruction products of coal in the blast-furnace gas-purification system

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Amdur; M.V. Shibanova; E.V. Ental'tsev

    2008-10-15

    The lean, poorly clinkering coal and anthracite used to replace coke in blast furnaces has a considerable content of volatile components (low-molecular thermaldestruction products), which enter the water and sludge of the blast-furnace gas-purification system as petroleum products. Therefore, it is important to study the influence of coal on the petroleum-product content in the water and sludge within this system. The liberation of primary thermal-destruction products is investigated for anthracite with around 4 wt % volatiles, using a STA 449C Jupiter thermoanalyzer equipped with a QMC 230 mass spectrometer. The thermoanalyzer determines small changes in mass and thermal effects with high accuracy (weighing accuracy 10{sup -8} g; error in measuring thermal effects 1 mV). This permits experiments with single layers of coal particles, eliminating secondary reactions of its thermal-destruction products.

  1. Kinetics of Hydrochloric Acid Leaching of Titanium from Titanium-Bearing Electric Furnace Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fuqiang; Chen, Feng; Guo, Yufeng; Jiang, Tao; Travyanov, Andrew Yakovlevich; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2016-05-01

    The hydrochloric acid leaching of titanium from titanium-bearing electric furnace slag was investigated under different experimental conditions. The results indicate that particle size, hydrochloric acid concentration and reaction temperature were of significance to the leaching kinetics. Specifically, reaction temperature was the most important factor followed by hydrochloric acid concentration and particle size. The shrinking core model was used to describe the leaching process which was controlled by surface chemical reaction. The kinetic equation was obtained and the activation energy was found to be 43.16 kJ/mol. Iron and calcium species were almost completely dissolved in the acid when the extraction degree of titanium reached 99.84%. MgO (19.34 wt.%) and Al2O3 (32.45 wt.%) in the spinel were still in the leaching residue and SiO2 (43.53 wt.%) in the form of quartz remained in the leaching residue.

  2. BELL ANNEALING FURNACES FOR LIGHT GAUGE PRODUCTS (LESS THE 10/1000" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BELL ANNEALING FURNACES FOR LIGHT GAUGE PRODUCTS (LESS THE 10/1000" THICKNESS). COILS INSIDE COVERING SHELLS ARE HEATED BY GAS-FIRED JETS TO TEMPERATURES OF 280-400C., OVER 3-4 HOURS. AFTER COMPLETION OF THE HEATING CYCLE, COILS ARE COOLED SLOWLY TO BELOW 100 DEGREES CELSIUS BEFORE THE SHELL IS REMOVED AND THE COILS REMOVED. THE ENTIRE PROCESS TAKES 24 HOURS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Production of shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2012-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed.

  4. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  5. Production and blast-furnace smelting of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Akberdin; A.S. Kim

    2008-08-15

    Industrial test data are presented regarding the production (at Sokolovsk-Sarbaisk mining and enrichment enterprise) and blast-furnace smelting (at Magnitogorsk metallurgical works) of boron-alloyed iron-ore pellets (500000 t). It is shown that, thanks to the presence of boron, the compressive strength of the roasted pellets is increased by 18.5%, while the strength in reduction is doubled; the limestone consumption is reduced by 11%, the bentonite consumption is halved, and the dust content of the gases in the last section of the roasting machines is reduced by 20%. In blast-furnace smelting, the yield of low-sulfur (<0.02%) hot metal is increased from 65-70 to 85.1% and the furnace productivity from 2.17-2.20 to 2.27 t/(m{sup 3} day); coke consumption is reduced by 3-8 kg/t of hot metal. The plasticity and stamping properties of 08IO auto-industry steel are improved by microadditions of boron.

  6. [Development of a ballistic furnace for shell production]. Annual report 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R; Isakov, A I

    1998-12-31

    During the fourth contract year, the authors continued to develop Ballistic technology of shell formation. A new upgraded version of Ballistic Furnace with longer hot zone (1.56m) and cooling one (1.2m) had been finally assembled, and a lot of shell formation experiments had been carried out. The change of the Ballistic Furnace configuration has led to significant changing in operational conditions suitable for shells production. They had found optimal operational conditions for some grades of initial granules giving them high yield of good shells. Serious attention was paid on initial granules preparation. In the experiments some unexpected results were obtained--first of all it was a strong influence of temperature profile, an initial granule velocity and a trajectory angle on good quality shells yield. Those observations made them consider some additional physical phenomena (initial granule defragmentation and gas convection inside hot zone) to explain good shell formation. Appropriate estimations of the velocity of possible convectional gas currents in the hot zone, strength of formed shells, thermal stress in an initial granule caused by its fast heating in the ballistic furnace etc. were made. Good quality shells up to 2mm in diameters with high yield were produced. Although a production of good quality shells in diameter range > 1.8 mm stays an easy job, their experience led them to declare that Ballistic technology hasn't reach its boundaries, and future development will allow them to obtain perfect results.

  7. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  8. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  9. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  10. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  11. 40 CFR 270.66 - Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.66 Section 270.66 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROGRAM Special Forms of Permits § 270.66 Permits for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous... fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements...

  12. Ultra-high injection of natural gas to increase blast furnace production: A white paper. Topical report, November 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.K.

    1994-11-01

    Analysis of the possibility and the economic justification of improvements in blast furnace productivity through the use of natural gas injection at high rates are presented. The paper describes the effects of blast enrichment accompanied by natural gas fuel injection on the thermal profile and hydrodynamic parameters in a blast furnace. This technique promises significant increases in productivity with no loss of flexibility or operational stability. The hydrogen content of the supplemental fuel plays a key role in determining both the coke replacement rate and the extent to which the furnace thermal profile is altered. Obtaining the maximum benefits from blast enrichment and supplemental fuel injection will require the development of new techniques to set aim values. For a given production rate, efficient utilization of hydrogen in the blast furnace stack is more cost-effective than the reduction of iron ore by an external process to produce reduced iron feeds.

  13. Application of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag in Cement Composites Exposed to Biogenic Acid Attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalcikova, M.; Estokova, A.; Luptakova, A.

    2015-11-01

    The deterioration of cement-based materials used for the civil infrastructure has led to the realization that cement-based materials, such as concrete, must be improved in terms of their properties and durability. Leaching of calcium ions increases the porosity of cement- based materials, consequently resulting in a negative effect on durability since it provides an entry for aggressive harmful ions, causing corrosion of concrete. The use supplementary cementing composite materials have been reported to improve the resistance of concrete to deterioration by aggressive chemicals. The paper is focused on the investigation of the influence of biogenic acid attack on the cement composites affected by bacteria Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. The concrete specimens with 65 wt. % addition of antimicrobial activated granulated blast furnace slag as durability increasing factor as well as without any addition were studied. The experiments proceeded during 150 days under model laboratory conditions. The pH values and chemical composition of leachates were measured after each 30- day cycle. The calcium and silicon contents in leachates were evaluated using X - ray fluorescence method (XRF). Summarizing the results, the 65% wt. addition of antimicrobial activated granulated blast furnace slag was not confirmed to be more resistant.

  14. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  15. Processing of wastes from lead/acid battery production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivianny, I. R.; Rusin, A. I.; Lata, V. A.; Khegay, L. D.; Nourjigitov, S. T.

    Experience in the recovery of scrap and wastes from lead/acid battery production suggests that an electrothermal method has good prospects. This process is characterized by a high degree of lead and antimony (approx 98%) extraction, by effective gas cleaning and dust collection, and by full dust returning to the furnace. The electrothermal method is also distinguished by the high reliability of electric furnaces, the useability of any type of secondary lead battery scrap and wastes, and the possibility of process mechanization and control. In this paper, a description is given of the main technical and economical factors of soda-reduction smelting in an electric furnace, a technological scheme for wastes recovery, and the charge composition and features of the process.

  16. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... procedures for residential furnaces and boilers to include provisions for measuring the standby mode and off... Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, and provide the docket number EERE-2011-BT- TP-0007 and/or...

  17. Hydrometallurgical process for zinc recovery from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD): part I: Characterization and leaching by diluted sulphuric acid.

    PubMed

    Oustadakis, P; Tsakiridis, P E; Katsiapi, A; Agatzini-Leonardou, S

    2010-07-15

    The present paper is the first of a series of two articles dealing with the development of an integrated process for the recovery of zinc from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), a hazardous industrial waste generated in the collection of particulate material during steelmaking process via electric arc furnace. Part I presents the EAFD characterization and its leaching process by diluted sulphuric acid, whereas Part II deals with the purification of the leach liquor and the recovery of zinc by solvent extraction/electrowinning. The characterization of the examined electric arc furnace dust was carried out by using granulometry analysis, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The leaching process was based on the Zn extraction with diluted sulphuric acid from EAFD under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The zinc recovery efficiency on the basis of EAFD weight reached 80%. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the leached residues.

  18. Refractory Corrosion Mechanisms in a Novel High Carbon Ferromanganese Production Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregurek, D.; Wenzl, C.; Kreuzer, D.; Spanring, A.; Kirschen, M.; Zeelie, D.; Groenewald, J.

    2016-12-01

    The present paper presents the refractory design for a novel HCFeMn smelting furnace that, other than standard submerged arc furnaces, allows the processing of fine ores. A combination of basic and non-basic materials, comprising bricks, castables and ramming was chosen, under consideration of the unique furnace design and process conditions. Post-mortem investigations on refractory samples from the different furnace zones were carried out and provided information about the main wear mechanism. Additionally, investigations of the process slag and metal were carried out both practically and theoretically using thermodynamic calculations, to better understand the corrosion phenomena observed in the post mortem samples.

  19. Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas's Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

  20. Rohm and Haas: Furnace Replacement Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Rohm and Haas’s Deer Park, Texas, chemical plant reduced natural gas usage and energy costs by replacing inefficient furnace equipment.

  1. Integrated hydrometallurgical process for production of zinc from electric arc furnace dust in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Youcai, Z; Stanforth, R

    2000-12-30

    In this study, a novel and integrated hydrometallurgical process for the production of zinc powder from electric arc furnace (EAF) dust in alkaline medium is reported. The dust is firstly hydrolysed in water, and then fused in caustic soda at 350 degrees C for 1h, followed by leaching in alkaline solution in which both zinc and lead are effectively extracted. Zinc powder is then produced by electrowinning from the leach solution after the lead is selectively removed by precipitation using sodium sulphide as precipitant. The EAF dust tested contained 25% Zn, 1.8% Pb and 33% Fe. It was found that 38% of zinc and 68% of lead could be extracted from the dust when leached directly in caustic soda solution. Leaching of zinc increased to 80% when dust was directly fused with caustic soda followed by alkaline leaching. However, the leaching further increased to 95% when the dust was hydrolysed first with water before fusion. Zinc powder with a purity of 99.95% was then produced by electrowinning from the lead depleted solution. Stainless electrodes were used as both anode and cathode.

  2. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  3. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  4. 78 FR 41265 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... current DOE test procedure, lacks equations necessary for the calculation of the heating seasonal... reference the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and... residential furnaces and boilers lacked the equations necessary to calculate the heating seasonal...

  5. Passive neutralization of acid mine drainage using basic oxygen furnace slag as neutralization material: experimental and modelling.

    PubMed

    Zvimba, John N; Siyakatshana, Njabulo; Mathye, Matlhodi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated passive neutralization of acid mine drainage using basic oxygen furnace slag as neutralization material over 90 days, with monitoring of the parameters' quality and assessment of their removal kinetics. The quality was observed to significantly improve over time with most parameters removed from the influent during the first 10 days. In this regard, removal of acidity, Fe(II), Mn, Co, Ni and Zn was characterized by fast kinetics while removal kinetics for Mg and SO4(2-) were observed to proceed slowly. The fast removal kinetics of acidity was attributed to fast release of alkalinity from slag minerals under mildly acidic conditions of the influent water. The removal of acidity through generation of alkalinity from the passive treatment system was also observed to generally govern the removal of metallic parameters through hydroxide formation, with overall percentage removals of 88-100% achieved. The removal kinetics for SO4(2-) was modelled using two approaches, yielding rate constant values of 1.56 and 1.53 L/(day mol) respectively, thereby confirming authenticity of SO4(2-) removal kinetics experimental data. The study findings provide insights into better understanding of the potential use of slags and their limitations, particularly in mine closure, as part of addressing this challenge in South Africa.

  6. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  7. Organic Acid Production by Basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Shoichi

    1965-01-01

    Sixty-seven strains belonging to 47 species of Basidiomycetes were examined for their acid-producing abilities in glucose media, in both the presence and absence of CaCO3, in stationary and shake cultures. Some strains were found to produce large quantities of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid-producing strains could be separated into two groups. Strains of one group (mostly brown-rot fungi) were able to produce oxalic acid, regardless of whether CaCO3 was present in the medium. Strains of the other group (mostly white-rot fungi) were characterized by their ability to produce oxalic acid only when CaCO3 was added to the medium. With the latter group, shake-culturing was generally more effective than stationary culturing in respect to acid production. In the CaCO3-containing media, Schizophyllum commune, Merulius tremellosus, and Porodisculus pendulus were found to produce substantial amounts of L-malic acid as a main metabolic product, along with small quantities of oxalic and other acids in shake cultures. Especially, S. commune and M. tremellosus may be employed as malic acid-producing species. PMID:5867653

  8. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  9. Toward Sustainable Amino Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Yoshihiro; Hara, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Hiroyuki

    2016-11-22

    Because the global amino acid production industry has been growing steadily and is expected to grow even more in the future, efficient production by fermentation is of great importance from economic and sustainability viewpoints. Many systems biology technologies, such as genome breeding, omics analysis, metabolic flux analysis, and metabolic simulation, have been employed for the improvement of amino acid-producing strains of bacteria. Synthetic biological approaches have recently been applied to strain development. It is also important to use sustainable carbon sources, such as glycerol or pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass, instead of conventional carbon sources, such as glucose or sucrose, which can be used as food. Furthermore, reduction of sub-raw substrates has been shown to lead to reduction of environmental burdens and cost. Recently, a new fermentation system for glutamate production under acidic pH was developed to decrease the amount of one sub-raw material, ammonium, for maintenance of culture pH. At the same time, the utilization of fermentation coproducts, such as cells, ammonium sulfate, and fermentation broth, is a useful approach to decrease waste. In this chapter, further perspectives for future amino acid fermentation from one-carbon compounds are described.

  10. Removal of hexavalent chromium in carbonic acid solution by oxidizing slag discharged from steelmaking process in electric arc furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Seiji; Okazaki, Kohei; Sasano, Junji; Izaki, Masanobu

    2014-02-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is well-known to be a strong oxidizer, and is recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, it is regulated for drinking water, soil, groundwater and sea by the environmental quality standards all over the world. In this study, it was attempted to remove Cr(VI) ion in a carbonic acid solution by the oxidizing slag that was discharged from the normal steelmaking process in an electric arc furnace. After the addition of the slag into the aqueous solution contained Cr(VI) ion, concentrations of Cr(VI) ion and total chromium (Cr(VI) + trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ions decreased to lower detection limit of them. Therefore, the used slag could reduce Cr(VI) and fix Cr(III) ion on the slag. While Cr(VI) ion existed in the solution, iron did not dissolve from the slag. From the relation between predicted dissolution amount of iron(II) ion and amount of decrease in Cr(VI) ion, the Cr(VI) ion did not react with iron(II) ion dissolved from the slag. Therefore, Cr(VI) ion was removed by the reductive reaction between Cr(VI) ion and the iron(II) oxide (FeO) in the slag. This reaction progressed on the newly appeared surface of iron(II) oxide due to the dissolution of phase composed of calcium etc., which existed around iron(II) oxide grain in the slag.

  11. Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This teacher's guide contains activities to use in conjunction with a site visit to the Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (Elverson, Pennsylvania). The guide provides diagrams of the furnace, a cold-blast smelting operation, and the furnace operation. It presents a timeline of iron production from ancient times through contemporary times.…

  12. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  13. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  14. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  15. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  16. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  17. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  18. Method for the determination of cobalt from biological products with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, Oana-Liliana; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Caragea, Genica; Radu, Simona; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27 and atomic weight 58.93. 59 Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope to exist naturally on Earth. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamin or cyanocobalamin the most common example of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system in the form of fatigue, depression and poor memory or even mania and psychosis. In order to study the degree of deficiency of the population with Co or the correctness of treatment with vitamin B12, a modern optoelectronic method for the determination of metals and metalloids from biological samples has been developed, Graphite Furnace - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF- AAS) method is recommended. The technique is based on the fact that free atoms will absorb light at wavelengths characteristic of the element of interest. Free atoms of the chemical element can be produced from samples by the application of high temperatures. The system GF-AAS Varian used as biological samples, blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. For the investigations was used a high - performance GF-AAS with D2 - background correction system and a transversely heated graphite atomizer. As result of the use of the method are presented the concentration of Co in the blood or urine of a group of patient in Bucharest. The method is sensitive, reproducible relatively easy to apply, with a moderately costs.

  19. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  20. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... devices that circulate air through ductwork in HVAC systems with heating input capacities less than 225... heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) products to circulate air through ductwork, hereafter... Energy Consumption F. Reference System Product Types IV. Procedural Issues and Regulatory Review...

  1. 77 FR 76831 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Comments 2. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Comments IV. Effective Date and... issued similar test procedure amendments for other heating products (water heaters, direct heating... as applied to the other heating products. The second edition of IEC Standard 62301 has now...

  2. Rebuilding of Rautaruukki blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kallo, S.; Pisilae, E.; Ojala, K.

    1997-12-31

    Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel rebuilt its blast furnaces in 1995 (BF1) and 1996 (BF2) after 10 year campaigns and production of 9,747 THM/m{sup 3} (303 NTHM/ft{sup 3}) and 9,535 THM/m{sup 3} (297 NTHM/ft{sup 3}), respectively. At the end of the campaigns, damaged cooling system and shell cracks were increasingly disturbing the availability of furnaces. The goal for rebuilding was to improve the cooling systems and refractory quality in order to attain a 15 year campaign. The furnaces were slightly enlarged to meet the future production demand. The blast furnace control rooms and operations were centralized and the automation and instrumentation level was considerably improved in order to improve the operation efficiency and to reduce manpower requirements. Investments in direct slag granulation and improved casthouse dedusting improved environmental protection. The paper describes the rebuilding.

  3. Microbial production of amino acids in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, H

    2000-01-01

    The microbial biotechnology of amino acids production which was developed and industrialized in Japan have been summarized. The amino acids include L-glutamic acid, L-lysine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid, L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, D-p-hydroxyphenyl-glycine, and hydroxy-L-proline.

  4. Maintaining vacuum furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalewski, J.

    2000-04-01

    A preventive maintenance program is essential for safe and consistent vacuum furnace operation. The program should be developed in cooperation with safety, maintenance, and furnace operators, implemented as soon as the furnace is commissioned, and adhered to throughout the life of the furnace. This article serves as an introduction to the topic of vacuum furnace preventive maintenance. Basic information about installing a new vacuum furnace also is provided.

  5. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  6. Blast furnace repairs, relines and modernizations

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.A.; Swanson, D.E; Chango, R.F. . Burns Harbor Div.)

    1994-09-01

    Bethlehem Steel's Burns Harbor Div. operates two 89,000-cu ft blast furnaces, D and C, built in 1969 and 1972. These furnaces have been in the forefront of blast furnace performance since they were blown-in. To maintain a credible operation throughout the past 25 years their performance has been improved continuously. Production was increased approximately 3%/year while fuel rate decreased 1%/year. This presentation summarizes the early repairs, relines and improvements that have sustained and enhanced the furnace's performance. The fourth reline of both furnaces will be discussed in detail. As part of the 1991 reline of D furnace its lines were improved and modern penstocks installed. The bosh, tuyere jacket, hearth jacket and both cast floors were replaced. The furnace now has a larger hearth making it easier to control and, liquid level is no longer a problem when pulling the wind to shut down. The new cast floor with its increased trough length has much improved separation of slag from iron and lowered refractory consumption. Since the cast floors on D furnace were changed, there has been a reduction in accidents and absenteeism. This may be related to the change in work practices on the new cast floors. The 1994 reline of C furnace incorporates those improvements made on D furnace in 1991. In addition, C furnace will have high-density cooling which is expected to double its campaign from 6 to 12 years, without interim repairs.

  7. [Progress in microbial production of succinic acid].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Wu, Mingke; Jiang, Min

    2013-10-01

    Succinic acid is one of the key intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)and has huge potentials in biopolymer, food, medicine applications. This article reviews recent research progress in the production of succinic acid by microbial fermentation, including discovery and screening of the succinic-acid-producing microbes, the progress of genetic engineering strategy and metabolic engineering technology for construction of succinic acid-producing strains, and fermentation process control and optimization. Finally, we discussed the limitation of current progress and proposed the future research needs for microbial production of succinic acid.

  8. Industrial furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Shostak, V.M.; Tolochko, A.I.; Volkov, V.P.; Maradudin, G.I.; Schekin, N.G.; Popov, M.I.; Shepelev, D.N.; Matveev, A.I.; Butnyakov, A.I.; Rzhavichev, A.P.

    1986-09-02

    An industrial furnace is described which consists of: a bath made of a refractory material for filling with a melt; a direct current source; main current-carrying elements having free ends extending to an operating area of the refractory material of the bath below and above the melt, and the main current-carrying elements extending to the operating area below the melt being connected with opposite terminals of the current source from the main current-carrying elements extending to the operating area above the melt; and additional current-carrying elements having free ends sunk in the refractory material of the bath below and above the melt and the additional current-carrying elements being connected with the terminals of the power source of opposite polarity with respect to the connection of the main current-carrying elements of a corresponding part of the operating area.

  9. Pediatric poisonings from household products: hydrofluoric acid and methacrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Perry, H E

    2001-04-01

    Household products continue to be a cause of poisoning morbibidity and mortality. Young children frequently are exposed to cleaning products and cosmetics in the course of exploring their environment. Most of these exposures are insignificant, but some result in death or permanent disability. This review discusses two products that have been responsible for serious injury and death in children: hydrofluoric acid and methacrylic acid. It also discusses federal initiatives designed to protect children from these and other household hazards.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  11. Acid and base degraded products of ketorolac.

    PubMed

    Salaris, Margherita; Nieddu, Maria; Rubattu, Nicola; Testa, Cecilia; Luongo, Elvira; Rimoli, Maria Grazia; Boatto, Gianpiero

    2010-06-05

    The stability of ketorolac tromethamine was investigated in acid (0.5M HCl) and alkaline conditions (0.5M NaOH), using the same procedure reported by Devarajan et al. [2]. The acid and base degradation products were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

  12. Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Laopaiboon, Pattana; Thani, Arthit; Leelavatcharamas, Vichean; Laopaiboon, Lakkana

    2010-02-01

    In order to use sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for lactic acid production, optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis of the bagasse were investigated. After lignin extraction, the conditions were varied in terms of hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric (H(2)SO(4)) concentration (0.5-5%, v/v), reaction time (1-5h) and incubation temperature (90-120 degrees C). The maximum catalytic efficiency (E) was 10.85 under the conditions of 0.5% of HCl at 100 degrees C for 5h, which the main components (in gl(-1)) in the hydrolysate were glucose, 1.50; xylose, 22.59; arabinose, 1.29; acetic acid, 0.15 and furfural, 1.19. To increase yield of lactic acid production from the hydrolysate by Lactococcus lactis IO-1, the hydrolysate was detoxified through amberlite and supplemented with 7 g l(-1) of xylose and 7 g l(-1) of yeast extract. The main products (in gl(-1)) of the fermentation were lactic acid, 10.85; acetic acid, 7.87; formic acid, 6.04 and ethanol, 5.24.

  13. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  14. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  15. Silicon smelting in a closed furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

  16. Silicon smelting in a closed furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.; Brumels, M.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.

    1991-12-31

    Dow Corning has been working towards the advancement of silicon smelting in a closed furnace over the past four years. A 200 kVA closed furnace pilot plant unit was built to investigate the operating parameters for smelting silicon. The single electrode furnace is operated under totally sealed conditions. The feed from the feed hoppers is fed through air locks to the furnace. The off-gas from the furnace, consisting of by-product CO as well as volatiles from the feeds, pass through a venturi scrubber, where water is introduced to scrub out the fume from the furnace and cool the gas. The mixed scrubber water and off-gas pass into a centrifugal mist eliminator where the water and fume disengage from the gas. The fume slurry is passed through bag filters where the fume is separated from the water. The clean off-gas from the furnace was evaluated for its calorific value and evaluated for conversion to useful products. A number of silicon smelting tests were conducted during this program. Various levels of charcoal and coal mixtures were evaluated to determine the optimum mix. A low volatile coal was preferred over typical Blue Gem coal. The coal amount in the mix was maximized without compromising the smelting performance. A raw material mix consisting of 30% charcoal and 70% low volatile coal was determined to be an optimum mix for closed furnace operation. Silicon recoveries in the low nineties were demonstrated using this mix. Four quartz sources were also evaluated in the closed furnace. The closed furnace operation for silicon smelting was identified to offer significant advantages over an open furnace from the standpoint of reduced carbon oxidation losses, electrode consumption, electrical energy consumption and silicon yield improvement. Other advantages in addition to process off-gas recovery included improved safety from reduced heat and fume exposure, and improved pollution control to the environment. 1 ref.

  17. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  18. Production of organic acids from kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Loh, C W; Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Hassan, M A; Karim, M I

    1999-01-01

    This study involves the production of short-chain organic acids from kitchen wastes as intermediates for the production of biodegradable plastics. Flasks, without mixing were used for the anaerobic conversion of the organic fraction of kitchen wastes into short-chain organic acids. The influence of pH, temperature and addition of sludge cake on the rate of organic acids production and yield were evaluated. Fermentations were carried out in an incubator at different temperatures controlled at 30 degrees C. 40 degrees C, 50 degrees C, 60 degrees C and uncontrolled at room temperature. The pH was also varied at pH 5, 6, 7, and uncontrolled pH. 1.0 M phosphate buffer was used for pH control, and 1.0 M HCl and 1.0 M NaOH were added when necessary. Sludge cake addition enhanced the rate of maximum acids production from 4 days to 1 day. The organic acids produced were maximum at pH 7 and 50 degrees C i.e., 39.84 g/l on the fourth day of fermentation with a yield of 0.87 g/g soluble COD consumed, and 0.84 g/g TVS. The main organic acid produced was lactic acid (65-85%), with small amounts of acetic (10-30%), propionic (5-10%), and butyric (5-20%) acids. The results of this study showed that kitchen wastes could be fermented to high concentration of organic acids, which could be used as substrates for the production of biodegradable plastics.

  19. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  20. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  1. Process, optimized acidizing reduce production facility upsets

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Hill, D.G.; McConnell, S.B.; Johnson, M.R.

    1997-02-10

    The filtration/absorption process, coupled with optimum treatments, prevent facility upsets that increase the time and resources required for bringing a well back on-line following an acid stimulation. Surface active agents, required in acidizing to improve well productivity, can form oil/water emulsions and cause unacceptable oil and grease levels during acid flowback. But recent offshore experiences after acidizing show that operators can achieve oil and grease discharge limits without facility upsets. To minimize oil and grease, the additives need to be optimized by adding a mutual breakout solvent (MBS). MBS has the dual function of being a mutual solvent and a sludge and emulsion control additive. The paper discusses acidizing problems, acid additives, handling options, and a case history of the Main Pass A field.

  2. Production of polymalic acid and malic acid by Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-08-01

    Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. However, microbial fermentation for direct malic acid production is limited by low product yield, titer, and productivity due to end-product inhibition. In this work, a novel process for malic acid production from polymalic acid (PMA) fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis was developed. First, a PMA-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain ZX-10 was screened and isolated. This microbe produced PMA as the major fermentation product at a high-titer equivalent to 87.6 g/L of malic acid and high-productivity of 0.61 g/L h in free-cell fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. Fed-batch fermentations with cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) achieved the highest product titer of 144.2 g/L and productivity of 0.74 g/L h. The fermentation produced PMA was purified by adsorption with IRA-900 anion-exchange resins, achieving a ∼100% purity and a high recovery rate of 84%. Pure malic acid was then produced from PMA by hydrolysis with 2 M sulfuric acid at 85°C, which followed the first-order reaction kinetics. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application.

  3. Separate vaporisation of boric acid and inorganic boron from tungsten sample cuvette-tungsten boat furnace followed by the detection of boron species by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-AES).

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroko; Okamoto, Yasuaki; Tsukahara, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Terufumi; Ito, Kazuaki

    2008-03-10

    Utilising extremely different vaporisation properties of boron compounds, the determination procedures of volatile boric acid and total boron using tungsten boat furnace (TBF) ICP-MS and TBF-ICP-AES have been investigated. For the determination of volatile boric acid by TBF-ICP-MS, tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, Me(4)NOH) was used as a chemical modifier to retain it during drying and ashing stages. As for the total boron, not only non-volatile inorganic boron such as boron nitride (BN), boron carbide (B(4)C), etc. but also boric acid (B(OH)(3)) was decomposed by a furnace-fusion digestion with NaOH to produce sodium salt of boron, a suitable species for the electrothermal vaporisation (ETV) procedure. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of various standard reference materials. The analytical results for various biological and steel samples are described.

  4. Folic Acid Production by Engineered Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Amatriain, Cristina; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros, Gaspar; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2016-10-28

    Folic acid (vitamin B9) is the common name of a number of chemically related compounds (folates), which play a central role as cofactors in one-carbon transfer reactions. Folates are involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of nucleotides and amino acids, as well as supplying methyl groups to a broad range of substrates, such as hormones, DNA, proteins, and lipids, as part of the methyl cycle. Humans and animals cannot synthesize folic acid and, therefore, need them in the diet. Folic acid deficiency is an important and underestimated problem of micronutrient malnutrition affecting billions of people worldwide. Therefore, the addition of folic acid as food additive has become mandatory in many countries thus contributing to a growing demand of the vitamin. At present, folic acid is exclusively produced by chemical synthesis despite its associated environmental burdens. In this work, we have metabolically engineered the industrial fungus Ashbya gossypii in order to explore its potential as a natural producer of folic acid. Overexpression of FOL genes greatly enhanced the synthesis of folates and identified GTP cyclohydrolase I as the limiting step. Metabolic flux redirection from competing pathways also stimulated folic acid production. Finally, combinatorial engineering synergistically increased the production of different bioactive forms of the folic vitamin. Overall, strains were constructed which produce 146-fold (6595µg/L) more vitamin than the wild-type and by far represents the highest yield reported.

  5. Heat treatment furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  6. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  7. Enhanced humification by carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag--I. Characterization of humic-like acids produced from humic precursors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Fukushima, Masami; Fukuchi, Shigeki; Nie, Yongfeng

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated basic oxygen furnace steel slag (hereinafter referred to as "steel slag") is generated during iron and steel manufacturing and is often classified as waste. The effect of steel slag on humification process was investigated. Catechol, glycine and glucose were used as model humic precursors from degraded biowastes. To verify that humification occurred in the system, humic-like acids (HLAs) were isolated and characterized structurally by elemental analysis, FTIR spectra, solid-state CP-MAS (13)C NMR spectra, and TMAH-Py-GC/MS. Characteristics of the steel slag-HLA were compared with those of HLAs formed in the presence of zeolite and birnessite, and with that of mature compost humic acid. The results showed that steel slag-HLA, like zeolite- and birnessite-HLA, is complex organic material containing prominent aromatic structures. Steel slag substantially accelerated the humification process, which would be highly significant for accelerating the stabilization of biowastes during composting (e.g. municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and food waste).

  8. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  9. Oral hygiene products and acidic medicines.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, E; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against an erosive attack. However, when the pH is too low or when no fluoride is present these protecting effects are replaced by direct softening of the tooth surface. Xerostomia or oral dryness can occur as a consequence of medication such as tranquilizers, anti-histamines, anti-emetics and anti-parkinsonian medicaments or of salivary gland dysfunction e.g. due to radiotherapy of the oral cavity and the head and neck region. Above all, these patients should be aware of the potential demineralization effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids. Acetyl salicylic acid taken regularly in the form of multiple chewable tablets or in the form of headache powder as well chewing hydrochloric acids tablets for treatment of stomach disorders can cause erosion. There is most probably no direct association between asthmatic drugs and erosion on the population level. Consumers, patients and health professionals should be aware of the potential of tooth damage not only by oral hygiene products and salivary substitutes but also by chewable and effervescent tablets. Additionally, it can be assumed that patients suffering from xerostomia should be aware of the potential effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids.

  10. Process control techniques for the Sidmar blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberghe, D.; Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. van

    1995-12-01

    The major challenge for modern blast furnace operation is the achievement of a very high productivity, excellent hot metal quality, low fuel consumption and longer blast furnace campaigns. The introduction of predictive models, decision supporting software and expert systems has reduced the standard deviation of the hot metal silicon content. The production loss due to the thermal state of the blast furnace has decreased three times since 1990. An appropriate control of the heat losses with high pulverized coal injection rates, is of the utmost importance for the life of the blast furnace. Different rules for the burden distribution of both blast furnaces are given. At blast furnace A, a peripheral gas flow is promoted, while at blast furnace B a more central gas flow is promoted.

  11. 6. Photocopied August 1978. LINEUP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied August 1978. LINE-UP OF HORRY ROTARY FURNACES ON THE SECOND FLOOR OF THE MICHIGAN LAKE SUPERIOR POWER COMPANY POWER HOUSE. THE HOPPERS WHICH FED THE RAW MATERIALS INTO THE FURNACES ARE SHOWN ABOVE THE FURNACES. AS THE 'SPOOL' OF THE FURNACE ROTATED PAST THE ELECTRODES PLATES WERE ADDED TO HOLD THE FINISHED PRODUCT AND THE DESCENDING RAW MATERIALS IN PLACE. THE DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THE FURNACES SHOWN IN THIS PHOTO IS CLOCKWISE, (M). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  13. Triacetic acid lactone production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical produced from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by the Gerbera hybrida 2-pyrone synthase (2PS) gene. Studies are ongoing to optimize production, purification, and chemical modification of TAL, which can be used to create the commercial chemicals...

  14. Production of amino acids by yogurt bacteria.

    PubMed

    Beshkova, D M; Simova, E D; Frengova, G I; Simov, Z I; Adilov, E F

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of free amino acid production by the selected strains Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 2-11 were studied in pure and mixed cultivations during yogurt starter culture manufacture. L. bulgaricus 2-11 showed the highest activity for producing free amino acids with high individual concentrations over the first hour of growth (50% of the total amount). By the end of milk's full coagulation (4.5 h), 70% of the total amount of amino acids was released. S. thermophilus 13a showed poor proteolytic properties and consumed up to 70% of the free amino acids produced by L. bulgaricus 2-11 in the process of coagulation of milk with the mixed culture.

  15. Activated electric arc furnace slag as an effective and reusable Fenton-like catalyst for the photodegradation of methylene blue and acid blue 29.

    PubMed

    Nasuha, N; Ismail, S; Hameed, B H

    2017-03-14

    In this work, an activated electric arc furnace slag (A-EAFS) was investigated as an effective Fenton catalyst for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 29 (AB29). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption analyses indicated that A-EAFS offers additional Fe3O4 because of the changes in the iron oxide phase and the favorable response to visible light. It has been found that the highest degradation efficiency can reach up to 94% for MB under optimal conditions of 1 g L(-1) of A-EAFS, 20 mM H2O2, and pH 3. The optimal conditions for AB29 were 0.1 g L(-1) A-EAFS, 4 mM H2O2, and pH 3 to reach 98% degradation efficiency. Visible light enhanced the degradation of both dyes. In addition, A-EAFS, could be easily separated magnetically, exhibited good chemical stability after seven successive photodegradation cycles.

  16. Biotechnological production and application of ganoderic acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2010-06-01

    Ganoderic acids (GAs), a kind of highly oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids, are important bioactive constituents of the famous medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. They have received wide attention in recent years due to extraordinarily pharmacological functions. Submerged fermentation of G. lucidum is viewed as a promising technology for production of GAs, and substantial efforts have been devoted to process development for enhancing GA production in the last decade. This article reviews recent publication about fermentative production of GAs and their potential applications, especially the progresses toward manipulation of fermentation conditions and bioprocessing strategies are summarized. The biosynthetic pathway of GAs is also outlined.

  17. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

  18. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimann, G. A.; Welch, J. M.

    1981-09-01

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high.

  19. EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BLAST FURNACE NO. 3 (JANE FURNACE) CENTER, NO. 3 CAST HOUSE TO THE LEFT, WEST ORE BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 3, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. A Standard Reference Material for Calibration of the Cup Furnace Smoke Toxicity Method for Assessing the Acute Inhalation Toxicity of Combustion Products.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barbara C; Paabo, Maya; Schiller, Susannah B

    1991-01-01

    A standard reference material (SRM 1048) has been developed for use with the cup furnace smoke toxicity method. This SRM is to be used to calibrate the apparatus and to enable the user to have confidence that the method is being conducted in a correct manner and that the equipment is functioning properly. The toxicological results from this SRM should not be used to compare with those of other materials (i.e., to determine if the combustion products of a test material are more or less toxic than those from this SRM). SRM 1048 is an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and is the same as SRM 1007B which is used for calibrating the flaming mode of the Smoke Density Chamber test method (ASTM E-662 and NFPA 258). For the purposes of calibrating the cup furnace smoke toxicity method, LC50 and N-Gas values plus their respective 95% confidence limits have been determined and certified for two combustion modes (flaming and nonflaming) and two observation periods (for the 30 min exposure only and for the 30 min exposure plus a 14 d post-exposure period). The certified LC50 values plus 95% confidence intervals (in g/m(3)) are 27 ± 3 (30 min, flaming); 25 ± 3 (30 min+ 14 d, flaming); 58 ± 15 (30 min, nonflaming); and 53 + 12 (30 min+ 14 d, nonflaming). The certified N-Gas values plus 95% confidence intervals are 1.4 ± 0.2 (30 min, flaming); 1.5 ± 0.2 (30 min+ 14 d, flaming); 1.2 ± 0.2 (30 min, nonflaming); and 1.4 ± 0.2 (30 min+ 14 d, nonflaming). It is recommended that this SRM be used with the N-Gas approach to calibrate the cup furnace smoke toxicity method rather than to determine the complete LC50 values. The N-Gas approach has the advantage of providing information on the gases responsible for the lethalities as well as the toxic potency of the smoke. In addition, the N-Gas approach reduces the number of experimental animals, the time necessary to complete the calibration, and the expense.

  1. Production of fusaric acid by Fusarium species.

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, C W; Porter, J K; Norred, W P; Leslie, J F

    1996-01-01

    Fusaric acid is a mycotoxin with low to moderate toxicity, which is of concern since it might be synergistic with other cooccurring mycotoxins. Fusaric acid is widespread on corn and corn-based food and feeds and is frequently found in grain, where Fusarium spp. are also isolated. We surveyed 78 strains of Fusarium moniliforme, F. crookwellense, F. subglutinans, F. sambucinum, F. napiforme, F. heterosporum, F. oxysporum, F. solani, and F. proliferatum for their ability to produce fusaric acid. Strains in Fusarium section Liseola also were assigned to mating population of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. The fungi could be divided into three classes, low (< 100 micrograms/g), moderate (100 to 500 micrograms/g), and high (> 500 micrograms/g), based on the amounts of this mycotoxin produced in culture on autoclaved corn. Strains of mating populations C from rice consistently produced moderate to high concentrations of fusaric acid. Two isolates, one each from mating populations C and D, produced fusaric acid in excess of 1,000 micrograms/g of corn. No isolates of any of the Fusarium species examined were negative for the production of fusaric acid on autoclaved corn. PMID:8899996

  2. Comparison of predictive control methods for high consumption industrial furnace.

    PubMed

    Stojanovski, Goran; Stankovski, Mile

    2013-01-01

    We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn.

  3. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  4. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathways and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase.

  5. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei-Kao; Debski, Paul

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  6. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  7. Effects of phosphoric acid sprayed into an incinerator furnace on the flue gas pressure drop at fabric filters.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigetoshi; Hwang, In-Hee; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2016-06-01

    Fabric filters are widely used to remove dust from flue gas generated by waste incineration. However, a pressure drop occurs at the filters, caused by growth of a dust layer on the filter fabric despite regular cleaning by pulsed-jet air. The pressure drop at the fabric filters leads to energy consumption at induced draft fan to keep the incinerator on negative pressure, so that its proper control is important to operate incineration facility efficiently. The pressure drop at fabric filters decreased whenever phosphoric acid wastewater (PAW) was sprayed into an incinerator for treating industrial waste. Operational data obtained from the incineration facility were analyzed to determine the short- and long-term effects of PAW spraying on the pressure drop. For the short-term effect, it was confirmed that the pressure drop at the fabric filters always decreased to 0.3-1.2kPa within about 5h after spraying PAW. This effect was expected to be obtained by about one third of present PAW spraying amount. However, from the long-term perspective, the pressure drop showed an increase in the periods of PAW spraying compared with periods for which PAW spraying was not performed. The pressure drop increase was particularly noticeable after the initial PAW spraying, regardless of the age and type of fabric filters used. These results suggest that present PAW spraying causes a temporary pressure drop reduction, leading to short-term energy consumption savings; however, it also causes an increase of the pressure drop over the long-term, degrading the overall operating conditions. Thus, appropriate PAW spraying conditions are needed to make effective use of PAW to reduce the pressure drop at fabric filters from a short- and long-term point of view.

  8. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of blast furnace plant, with blast furnace "A" (built in 1907) to the left; in the foreground is the turbo-blower and blast furnace gas-powered electric generating station (built in 1919), looking northwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Blast Furnace "A", Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  10. Production of hydroxycinnamoyl-shikimates and chlorogenic acid in Escherichia coli: production of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydroxycinnamates (HCs) are mainly produced in plants. Caffeic acid (CA), p-coumaric acid (PA), ferulic acid (FA) and sinapic acid (SA) are members of the HC family. The consumption of HC by human might prevent cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. The solubility of HCs is increased through thioester conjugation to various compounds such as quinic acid, shikimic acid, malic acid, anthranilic acid, and glycerol. Although hydroxycinnamate conjugates can be obtained from diverse plant sources such as coffee, tomato, potato, apple, and sweet potato, some parts of the world have limited availability to these compounds. Thus, there is growing interest in producing HC conjugates as nutraceutical supplements. Results Hydroxycinnamoyl transferases (HCTs) including hydroxycinnamate-CoA shikimate transferase (HST) and hydroxycinnamate-CoA quinate transferase (HQT) were co-expressed with 4-coumarateCoA:ligase (4CL) in Escherichia coli cultured in media supplemented with HCs. Two hydroxycinnamoyl conjugates, p-coumaroyl shikimates and chlorogenic acid, were thereby synthesized. Total 29.1 mg/L of four different p-coumaroyl shikimates (3-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 4-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 3,4-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate, 3,5-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate, and 4,5-di-p-coumaroyl shikimate) was obtained and 16 mg/L of chlorogenic acid was synthesized in the wild type E. coli strain. To increase the concentration of endogenous acceptor substrates such as shikimate and quinate, the shikimate pathway in E. coli was engineered. A E. coli aroL and aroK gene were mutated and the resulting mutants were used for the production of p-coumaroyl shikimate. An E. coli aroD mutant was used for the production of chlorogenic acid. We also optimized the vector and cell concentration optimization. Conclusions To produce p-coumaroyl-shikimates and chlorogenic acid in E. coli, several E. coli mutants (an aroD mutant for chlorogenic acid production; an aroL, aroK, and aroKL mutant for p

  11. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Nghiem, Nhuan Phu; Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

  12. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Nghiem, N.P.; Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1999-02-09

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of (a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; (b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; (c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; (d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/l up to about 1 g/l; (e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; (f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of {>=}1 g/l; and (g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. 7 figs.

  13. [Studies on arachidonic acid production by Mortierella].

    PubMed

    Bao, S; Zhu, F; Lin, W; Yao, R

    1997-10-01

    The effects of the incubation temperature, initial pH of the medium, carbon source and nitrogen source on the production of arachidonic acid by Mortierella sp. M10 were studied. Thought orthogonal experiments, the optimum culture medium was obtained (g/L): glucose, 100; yeast extract, 10; KNO3, 4.0; KH2PO4, 2.0; CaCl2.2H2O, 0.1; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5; FeCl3.6H2O, 0.015; ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.0075; CuSO4.5H2O, 0.0005. Under the optimum culture conditions, the dry cell weight and arachidonic acid was 33.51 g/L and 0.827 g/L, respectively. The flask culture process was analysed.

  14. Exposure to sulfuric acid in zinc production.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Haaland, Inger Margrethe; Moen, Bente E; Målsnes, Agnar

    2004-03-01

    This study characterized workers' exposure to sulfuric acid in two cell houses of a zinc production plant. We also aimed at estimating previous exposure to sulfuric acid by simulating the process conditions from before 1975 to produce exposure data for an epidemiological study on cancer in this industry. Further, we compared different sampling methods for aerosols in the cell houses. Personal sampling with a 37 mm Millipore cassette showed that the geometric means of the exposure levels for the workers in the two cell houses were 0.07 mg/m3 (range 0.01-0.48 mg/m3) and 0.04 mg/m3 (range 0.01-0.15 mg/m3). Norway's newly revised limit value of 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded in 39.0 and 12.9% of the samples in the two cell houses. After the foam layer was removed from the electrolyte surface to simulate the production process from before 1975, the concentration of sulfuric acid increased from 0.11 to 6.04 mg/m3 in stationary measurement by the Millipore sampler. Stationary sampling showed that the Millipore sampler and the inhalable fraction of the Respicon impactor underestimated the sulfuric acid concentration by factors of 1.5 and 2.1 compared with the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler. Sampling with the Respicon impactor showed that the respirable, tracheobronchial and extrathoracic fractions constituted 3.0, 18.7 and 71.7% of the inhalable sulfuric acid aerosol, respectively. Today's exposure levels are lower than those reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of laryngeal cancer in other industries, but the levels prior to 1975 seem to have been much higher. By mass, most of the inhalable aerosol was in the size fractions considered to be highly relevant for the effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system. The risk of cancer among the cell house workers should be investigated in an epidemiological study.

  15. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  16. 5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied August 1978. FRONT OF A HORRY ROTARY FURNACE, SHOWING INTERIOR ELECTRODES. THE RAW MATERIALS FOR CALCIUM CARBIDE PRODUCTION--LIMESTONE AND COKE--WERE FED BY HOPPERS PLACED BETWEEN THESE ELECTRODES INTO THE ELECTRIC ARC. THE REMOVABLE PLATES ON THE EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCE OF THE HORRY FURNACE ARE SHOWN ON THE FIRST THREE FURNACES. (M) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  17. Vitrification of electric arc furnace dusts.

    PubMed

    Pelino, M; Karamanov, A; Pisciella, P; Crisucci, S; Zonetti, D

    2002-01-01

    Electric arc furnace baghouse dust (EAFD), a waste by-product of the steelmaking process, contains the elements that are volatilized from the charge during the melting (Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd). The results of leaching tests show that the concentration of these elements exceeds the regulatory limits. Consequently, EAFD cannot be disposed of in ordinary landfill sites without stabilization of the heavy metals. In this work, the vitrification of EAFD, from both carbon and stainless steel productions, were studied. The vitrification process was selected as the inertizing process because it permits the immobilization of the hazardous elements in the glass network and represents an environmentally acceptable method for the stabilization of this waste. Classes of various compositions were obtained by mixing EAFD with glass cullet and sand. The EAFD and the glass products were characterized by DTA, TG, X-ray analysis and by the TCLP test. The results show that the stability of the product is influenced by the glass structure, which mainly depends on the Si/O ratio. Secondary crystallization heat-treatment were carried out on some samples. The results highlighted the formation of spinel phases, which reduced the chemical durability in acid media. The possibility to recover Zn from carbon steel production EAFD was investigated and about 60-70% of metal recovery was obtained. The resulting glass show higher chemical stability than glasses obtained without metal recovery.

  18. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  19. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goals are to design, develop, and evaluate the scalability and commercial feasibility of the PSH Paired Straight Hearth Furnace alternative ironmaking process.

  20. Natural products as potential anticonvulsants: caffeoylquinic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Oh, Myung Sook

    2012-03-01

    Current anticonvulsant therapies are generally directed at symptomatic treatment by suppressing excitability within the brain. Consequently, they have adverse effects such as cognitive impairment, dependence, and abuse. The need for more effective and less toxic anticonvulsants has generated renewed interest in natural products for the treatment of convulsions. Caffeoylquinic acids (CQs) are naturally occurring phenolic acids that are distributed widely in plants. There has been increasing interest in the biological activities of CQs in diseases of the central nervous system. In this issue, Nugroho et al. give evidence for the anticonvulsive effect of a CQ-rich extract from Aster glehni Franchet et Sckmidt. They optimized the extract solvent conditions, resulting in high levels of CQs and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. Then, they investigated the sedative and anticonvulsive effects in pentobarbital- and pentylenetetrazole-induced models in mice. The CQ-rich extract significantly inhibited tonic convulsions as assessed by onset time, tonic extent, and mortality. They suggested that the CQ-rich extract from A. glehni has potential for treating convulsions. This report provides preclinical data which may be used for the development of anticonvulsants from natural products.

  1. Lactic acid bacteria production from whey.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Parada, María Elena; Nájera-Martínez, Minerva; Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2006-09-01

    The main purpose of this work was to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to be used for biomass production using a whey-based medium supplemented with an ammonium salt and with very low levels of yeast extract (0.25 g/L). Five strains of LAB were isolated from naturally soured milk after enrichment in whey-based medium. One bacterial isolate, designated MNM2, exhibited a remarkable capability to utilize whey lactose and give a high biomass yield on lactose. This strain was identified as Lactobacillus casei by its 16S rDNA sequence. A kinetic study of cell growth, lactose consumption, and titratable acidity production of this bacterial strain was performed in a bioreactor. The biomass yield on lactose, the percentage of lactose consumption, and the maximum increase in cell mass obtained in the bioreactor were 0.165 g of biomass/g of lactose, 100%, and 2.0 g/L, respectively, which were 1.44, 1.11, and 2.35 times higher than those found in flask cultures. The results suggest that it is possible to produce LAB biomass from a whey-based medium supplemented with minimal amounts of yeast extract.

  2. High temperature furnace

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  3. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, Allen J.; Conner, Cliff; Quigley, Kevin; Vandegrift, George F.

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  4. Ground Control Setup of the (LIF) Large Isothermal Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Large Isothermal Furnace (LIF) was flown on a mission in cooperation with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. LIF is a vacuum-heating furnace designed to heat large samples uniformly. The furnace consists of a sample container and heating element surrounded by a vacuum chamber. A crewmemeber will insert a sample cartridge into the furnace. The furnace will be activated and operations will be controlled automatically by a computer in response to an experiment number entered on the control panel. At the end of operations, helium will be discharged into the furnace, allowing cooling to start. Cooling will occur through the use of a water jacket while rapid cooling of samples can be accomplished through a controlled flow of helium. Data from experiments will help scientists better understand this important process which is vital to the production of high-quality semiconductor crystals.

  5. Biological Kraft Chemical Recycle for Augmentation of Recovery Furnace Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart E. Strand

    2001-12-06

    The chemicals used in pulping of wood by the kraft process are recycled in the mill in the recovery furnace, which oxidizes organics while simultaneously reducing sulfate to sulfide. The recovery furnace is central to the economical operation of kraft pulp mills, but it also causes problems. The total pulp production of many mills is limited by the recovery furnace capacity, which cannot easily be increased. The furnace is one of the largest sources of air pollution (as reduced sulfur compounds) in the kraft pulp mill.

  6. Microbial Production of Amino Acid-Related Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2016-11-22

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is the workhorse of the production of proteinogenic amino acids used in food and feed biotechnology. After more than 50 years of safe amino acid production, C. glutamicum has recently also been engineered for the production of amino acid-derived compounds, which find various applications, e.g., as synthons for the chemical industry in several markets including the polymer market. The amino acid-derived compounds such as non-proteinogenic ω-amino acids, α,ω-diamines, and cyclic or hydroxylated amino acids have similar carbon backbones and functional groups as their amino acid precursors. Decarboxylation of amino acids may yield ω-amino acids such as β-alanine, γ-aminobutyrate, and δ-aminovalerate as well as α,ω-diamines such as putrescine and cadaverine. Since transamination is the final step in several amino acid biosynthesis pathways, 2-keto acids as immediate amino acid precursors are also amenable to production using recombinant C. glutamicum strains. Approaches for metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for production of amino acid-derived compounds will be described, and where applicable, production from alternative carbon sources or use of genome streamline will be referred to. The excellent large-scale fermentation experience with C. glutamicum offers the possibility that these amino acid-derived speciality products may enter large-volume markets.

  7. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented.

  8. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  9. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  10. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature

  11. Stimulatory effect of phytin on acid production by Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, A

    1997-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of phytin added to skim milk on acid production of Lactobacillus casei was examined. Phytin stimulated acid production of L. casei fairly well. The stimulatory effect of phytin on acid production was not shown when phytin was treated with Dowex 50 (H+) and neutralized by NaOH solution. The incinerated product of phytin maintained almost equal stimulatory effect on acid production as that before processing. The addition of Mn2+ in the amount contained in a reagent phytin augmented the stimulatory effect on acid production markedly. The further addition of Fe3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and PO4(3-) in amounts corresponding to their contents in the preparation of phytin as well as Mn2+ increased the effect slightly. The four preparations of phytin contained 0.045-0.20% of Mn, and the greater the Mn content was, the greater the potentiation of acid production.

  12. Refractories for lining blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoruk, R.M.; Baksheeva, V.S.; Karyakina, E.L.; Khmelenko, T.P.; Pitak, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors develop and introduce a technology for the production of chamotte kaolin refractories with a porosity of not more than 12% and a mass proportion of not less than 42% A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ on the basis of chamotte from high-grade Polozhe kaolin, and also additions to the batch of finely milled mullite-corundum chamotte. Using the new technology, a batch of goods designated ShPD-42 was produced for lining the shafts, bosh, and upper parts of blast furnaces of large capacity.

  13. Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Northwest at Furnace Control Panels and Gas Control Furnace in Red Room Within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  14. Potential of Different Coleus blumei Tissues for Rosmarinic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Vuković, Rosemary; Likić, Saša; Jelaska, Sibila

    2015-01-01

    Summary Rosmarinic acid is one of the main active components of Coleus blumei and is known to have numerous health benefits. The pharmacological significance of rosmarinic acid and its production through in vitro culture has been the subject of numerous studies. Here, the ability of different tissues to accumulate rosmarinic acid and sustainability in production over long cultivation have been tested. Calli, tumours, normal roots and hairy roots were established routinely by application of plant growth regulators or by transformation with agrobacteria. The differences among the established tumour lines were highly heterogeneous. Hairy root lines showed the highest mean growth rate and consistency in rosmarinic acid production. Although some tumour lines produced more rosmarinic acid than the hairy root lines, over a long cultivation period their productivity was unstable and decreased. Further, the effects of plant growth regulators on growth and rosmarinic acid accumulation were tested. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid significantly reduced tumour growth and rosmarinic acid production. 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid strongly stimulated hairy root growth whilst abscisic acid strongly enhanced rosmarinic acid production. Hairy roots cultured in an airlift bioreactor exhibited the highest potential for mass production of rosmarinic acid. PMID:27904326

  15. Recent advances in amino acid production by microbial cells.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Amino acids have been utilized for the production of foods, animal feeds and pharmaceuticals. After the discovery of the glutamic acid-producing bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum by Japanese researchers, the production of amino acids, which are primary metabolites, has been achieved using various microbial cells as hosts. Recently, metabolic engineering studies on the rational design of amino acid-producing microbial cells have been successfully conducted. Moreover, the technology of systems biology has been applied to metabolic engineering for the creation of amino acid-producing microbial cells. Currently, new technologies including synthetic biology, single-cell analysis, and evolutionary engineering have been utilized to create amino acid-producing microbial cells. In addition, useful compounds from amino acids have been produced by microbial cells. Here, current researches into the metabolic engineering of microbial cells toward production of amino acids and amino acid-related compounds are reviewed.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Oleic Acid on Octanoylated Ghrelin Production.

    PubMed

    Oiso, Shigeru; Nobe, Miyuki; Iwasaki, Syuhei; Nii, Wakana; Goto, Natsumi; Seki, Yukari; Nakajima, Kensuke; Nakamura, Kazuo; Kariyazono, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone-releasing peptide that also displays orexigenic activity. Since serine-3 acylation with octanoylate (octanoylation) is essential for the orexigenic activity of ghrelin, suppression of octanoylation could lead to amelioration or prevention of obesity. To enable the exploration of inhibitors of octanoylated ghrelin production, we developed a cell-based assay system using AGS-GHRL8 cells, in which octanoylated ghrelin concentration increases in the presence of octanoic acid. Using this assay system, we investigated whether fatty acids contained in foods or oils, such as acetic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid, have inhibitory effects on octanoylated ghrelin production. Acetic acid did not suppress the increase in octanoylated ghrelin production in AGS-GHRL8 cells, which was induced by the addition of octanoic acid. However, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid significantly suppressed octanoylated ghrelin production, with the effect of oleic acid being the strongest. Additionally, oleic acid decreased the serum concentration of octanoylated ghrelin in mice. The serum concentration of des-acyl ghrelin (without acyl modification) was also decreased, but the decrease was smaller than that of octanoylated ghrelin. Decreased octanoylated ghrelin production likely resulted from post-translational ghrelin processing, as there were no significant differences in gene expression in the stomach between oleic acid-treated mice and controls. These results suggest that oleic acid is a potential inhibitor of octanoylated ghrelin production and that our assay system is a valuable tool for screening compounds with suppressive effects on octanoylated ghrelin production.

  17. Electrode Arrangement As Substitute Bottom For An Electrothermic Slag Smelting Furnace.

    DOEpatents

    Aune, Jan Arthur; Brinch, Jon Christian; Johansen, Kai

    2005-12-27

    The electrode arrangement uses vertically oriented electrodes with side wall contacts for an electrothermic smelting furnace for aluminum production. The side wall contacts are radially moveable into the furnace to compensate for wear on the contacts. The side wall contacts can be hollow to allow a slag forming charge to be fed to the furnace.

  18. An improved gas extraction furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkin, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Design of glass furnace for analysis of rocks to determine nature and amount of trapped gas is described. Furnace heats specimen in vacuum conditions by radio frequency induction. Diagram of apparatus to show construction and operation is provided.

  19. Considerations for Scale-Up of Ferronickel Electric Smelting Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundermark, R. J.; Nelson, L. R.

    2017-02-01

    In ferronickel smelting, the selective carbothermic reduction of calcined nickel laterite ores in large electric furnaces yields a crude ferronickel product. The optimal process for nickel laterite smelting requires a fine balance between the metallurgical requirements of the process (feed composition, nickel recovery, energy consumption, product quality) and the capabilities of the feeding, tapping and off-gas systems, and especially of the furnace crucible and electrical system. The scale-up of nickel laterite smelting operations over the last 50 years has seen a tenfold increase in furnace power input. Furnace operations within the industry are examined to identify common trends and some new metrics are proposed which incorporate the combination of electrode power densities and the impact of alloy nickel grade on gas generation rates, and hence local electrode gas fluxes, which may impact on future scale-up of ferronickel furnaces.

  20. Recent improvements in casthouse practices at the Kwangyang blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Y.S.; Han, K.W.; Kim, K.Y.; Cho, B.R.; Hur, N.S.

    1997-12-31

    POSCO`s Kwangyang blast furnaces have continuously carried out high production and low fuel operation under a high pulverized coal injection rate without complications since the Kwangyang No. 1 blast furnace was blown-in in 1987. The Kwangyang blast furnaces have focused on improving the work environment for the increase of competitive power in terms of increased production, cost savings, and management of optimum manpower through use of low cost fuel and raw material. At this time, the casthouse work lags behind most work in the blast furnace. Therefore, the Kwangyang blast furnaces have adopted a remote control system for the casthouse equipment to solve complications in the casthouse work due to high temperature and fumes. As the result, the casthouse workers can work in clean air and the number of workers has been reduced to 9.5 personnel per shift by reduction of the workload.

  1. Improved graphite furnace atomizer

    DOEpatents

    Siemer, D.D.

    1983-05-18

    A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

  2. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  3. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    DOEpatents

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  4. High temp vacuum furnace offers new option

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-11

    Vacuum furnaces operating up to 2,350 F are commonly used for metallurgical processes such as hardening tool steels, treating super alloys, power metal sintering, and brazing. Traditionally electric, these furnaces are costly to operate and maintain. They are often sensitivity to impurities driven off work pieces in the heating chamber because the vapors condense on the walls of the heating chamber and negatively effect operation. The gas-fired vacuum furnace now in development by Surface Combustion, with support from the Gas Research Institute (GRI) will, however, have none of the drawbacks of the electric models while maintaining or improving on performance. Costly electric operating and demand charges will be avoided through the use of natural gas as a fuel. Its ``hot wall`` furnace design means that impurities driven off the work piece can be pulled out of the chamber before they condense. Because ceramic radiant tubes will be used in conjunction with the hot wall design, temperature uniformity and productivity are expected to equal, or surpass, that of the electric furnaces.

  5. Carbon monoxide exposure in blast furnace workers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S; Mason, C; Srna, J

    1992-09-01

    This study investigated the occupational exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) of a group of blast furnace workers from an integrated steelworks, compared to a control group having no significant occupational CO exposure from other areas in the same works. The study was undertaken in 1984 at Port Kembla, New South Wales. Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels before and after an eight-hour work shift were measured in 98 male steelworkers: 52 from two CO-exposed iron blast furnaces and 46 controls from production areas in the same steelworks. The sample was stratified by smoking habits. Environmental air CO levels had been found to be consistently higher on one furnace than on the other. Absorption of CO from the working environment occurred in workers on the blast furnace with higher CO levels, regardless of smoking habits. On this blast furnace, some readings of COHb levels after a workshift in nonsmokers approached the proposed Australian occupational limit of 5 per cent COHb saturation. Overall, workers with the highest occupational exposure who smoked most heavily had the highest absorption of CO over a work shift. Biological monitoring gives an accurate measure of individual worker 'dose' of CO from all sources. Both environmental monitoring and biological monitoring need to be included as part of a program for controlling occupational CO exposure.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle...

  11. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungmin; Scagel, Carolyn F.

    2013-01-01

    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification, and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed. PMID:24790967

  12. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungmin; Scagel, Carolyn

    2013-12-01

    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed.

  13. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungmin; Scagel, Carolyn F

    2013-01-01

    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification, and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed.

  14. CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CHARGING SIDE OF #130 ELECTRIC FURNACE CO. REHEAT FURNACE IN REROLL BAY. CAKES FROM THE CASTING SHOP ARE BROUGHT UP TO ROLLING TEMPERATURE IN ONE OF TWO (#130 AND 146) GAS-FIRED FURNACES. A RADIO-CONTROLLED OVERHEAD CRANE TRANSFERS CAKES FROM FLATCARS TO THE ROLLER LINE LEADING INTO THE FURNACE. CAKES ARE HEATED AT 900-1000 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT FOR THREE TO FOUR HOURS. RATED FURNACE CAPACITY IS 100,000 LBS.\\HOUR. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  15. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  16. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  17. Method for producing 3-hydroxypropionic acid and other products

    DOEpatents

    Lynch, Michael D.; Gill, Ryan T.; Lipscomb, Tanya E.W.

    2016-08-30

    This invention relates to metabolically engineered microorganism strains, such as bacterial strains, in which there is an increased utilization of malonyl-CoA for production of a chemical product, which includes 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  18. Methods for producing 3-hydroxypropionic acid and other products

    DOEpatents

    Lynch, Michael D.; Gill, Ryan T.; Lipscomb, Tanya E. W.

    2016-07-12

    This invention relates to metabolically engineered microorganism strains, such as bacterial strains, in which there is an increased utilization of malonyl-CoA for production of a chemical product, which includes 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  19. Strengthen flame stability during the furnace`s load decrease

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiguo; Sun Xuexin; Li Fujin; Qiu Jihua; Chen Gang

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the result of the study of the coal combustion characteristic and flame stability during the load decrease of PCFF (corner burner arrangement). Considering the relation between flame stability and furnace load during the furnace load change, some method must be used to strengthen the pulverized coal ignition and combustion for the furnace to maintain the flame stability especially for the furnace which fires low rank anthracite. Experimental results show that when the furnace load decreased, the temperature distribution in furnace decreased and the flame stability in furnace had changed because of the load changing. This paper also introduces a new pulverized coal burner: Bluff-body with cavity burner. According to the result of application of this burner, this kind of pulverized coal burner can improve the coal ignition and combustion efficiency. Especially for low load operation of furnace the bluff-body with cavity burner has demonstrated its ability in strengthening coal ignition and improving the flame stability for furnace operation. Experimental results show that using bluff-body with cavity burner, the lowest load for furnace fired bituminous is 40% MCR and 50% MCr for low rank anthracite (V{sup r} < 12%, A{sup f} > 45%). This burner has simple structure and is very easy to set up for furnace.

  20. Analysis of peroxytrifluoroacetic acid oxidation products from Victorian brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Verheyen, T.V.; Johns, R.B.

    1983-08-01

    A method is described for the detailed quantitative structural identification of the components present in the oxidation product mixtures of a highly aliphatic brown coal. The results showed them to be predominantly long chain diols, hydroxy acids, dicarboxylic acids and short chain polycarboxylic acids.

  1. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  2. Computer systems for controlling blast furnace operations at Rautaruukki

    SciTech Connect

    Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A.; Seppanen, M.

    1995-08-01

    Energy accounts for a significant portion of the total blast furnace production costs and, to minimize energy consumption, both technical and economical aspects have to be considered. Thus, considerable attention has been paid to blast furnace energy consumption and productivity. The most recent furnace relines were in 1985 and 1986. At that time, the furnaces were modernized and instrumentation was increased. After the relines, operation control and monitoring of the process is done by a basic automation systems (DCS`s and PLC`s) and a supervision system (process computer). The supervision system is the core of the control system combining reports, special displays, trends and mathematical models describing in-furnace phenomena. Low energy consumption together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation have been achieved due to an improvement in raw materials quality and implementation of automation and computer systems to control blast furnace operation. Currently, the fuel rate is low and productivity is in excess of 3.0 tonnes/cu meter/day, which is one of the highest values achieved anywhere for long-term operation.

  3. Modeling the continuous lactic acid production process from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Karen; Tebbani, Sihem; Lopes, Filipa; Thorigné, Aurore; Givry, Sébastien; Dumur, Didier; Pareau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    A kinetic model of the simultaneous saccharification, protein hydrolysis, and fermentation (SSPHF) process for lactic acid production from wheat flour has been developed. The model describes the bacterial growth, substrate consumption, lactic acid production, and maltose hydrolysis. The model was fitted and validated with data from SSPHF experiments obtained under different dilution rates. The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Steady state concentrations of biomass, lactic acid, glucose, and maltose as function of the dilution rate were predicted by the model. This steady state analysis is further useful to determine the operating conditions that maximize lactic acid productivity.

  4. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael

    2013-08-20

    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid.

  5. New uses of bioglycerin: production of arachidonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filamentous fungi of the genus Mortierella are known to produce arachidonic acid from glucose and M. alpina is currently used in industrial scale production of arachidonic acid in Japan. In anticipation of a large excess of co-product bioglycerin from the national biodiesel program, we would like ...

  6. Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

  7. [Hydrocyanic acid content in cerals and cereal products].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Zinsmeister, H D; Erb, N; Neunhoeffer, O

    1979-03-01

    In the above paper for the first time a systematic study of the amount of hydrocyanic acid in grains and cereal products is reported. Among 24 analysed wheat, rye, maize and oats types, the presence of hydrocyanic acid could be identified in 19 cases in their Karyopses. Similar is the result with 28 among 31 analysed cereal products. The content of hydrocyanic acid lies between 0.1 and 45 microgram/100 gr dried mass.

  8. Microbial production of lactic acid: the latest development.

    PubMed

    Juturu, Veeresh; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Lactic acid is an important platform chemical for producing polylactic acid (PLA) and other value-added products. It is naturally produced by a wide spectrum of microbes including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. In general, bacteria ferment C5 and C6 sugars to lactic acid by either homo- or hetero-fermentative mode. Xylose isomerase, phosphoketolase, transaldolase, l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases are the key enzymes that affect the ways of lactic acid production. Metabolic engineering of microbial strains are usually needed to produce lactic acid from unconventional carbon sources. Production of d-LA has attracted much attention due to the demand for producing thermostable PLA, but large scale production of d-LA has not yet been commercialized. Thermophilic Bacillus coagulans strains are able to produce l-lactic acid from lignocellulose sugars homo-fermentatively under non-sterilized conditions, but the lack of genetic tools for metabolically engineering them severely affects their development for industrial applications. Pre-treatment of agriculture biomass to obtain fermentable sugars is a pre-requisite for utilization of the huge amounts of agricultural biomass to produce lactic acid. The major challenge is to obtain quality sugars of high concentrations in a cost effective-way. To avoid or minimize the use of neutralizing agents during fermentation, genetically engineering the strains to make them resist acidic environment and produce lactic acid at low pH would be very helpful for reducing the production cost of lactic acid.

  9. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D.; Li, X.

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  10. SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

  11. 11. GASFIRED CRUCIBLE FURNACES WERE USED TO MELT SMALL, BATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GAS-FIRED CRUCIBLE FURNACES WERE USED TO MELT SMALL, BATCH QUANTITIES OF BRONZE IN STOCKHAM'S BRASS FOUNDRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BRONZE VALVES, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine).

  13. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3) improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL) produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain p

  14. By-products of electrochemical synthesis of suberic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shirobokova, O.I.; Adamov, A.A.; Freidlin, G.N.; Antonenko, N.S.; Grudtsyn, Yu.D.

    1988-05-10

    By-products of the electrochemical synthesis of dimethyl suberate from glutaric anhydride were studied. This is isolated by thermal dehydration of a mixture of lower dicarboxylic acids that are wastes from the production of adipic acid. To isolate the by-products, they used the methods of vacuum rectification and preparative gas-liquid chromatography, and for their identification, PMR, IR spectroscopy, gas-liquid chromatography, and other known physicochemical methods of investigation.

  15. Metabolic engineering as a tool for enhanced lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Bikram P; DeVeaux, Linda C; Christopher, Lew P

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful biotechnological tool that finds, among others, increased use in constructing microbial strains for higher lactic acid productivity, lower costs and reduced pollution. Engineering the metabolic pathways has concentrated on improving the lactic acid fermentation parameters, enhancing the acid tolerance of production organisms and their abilities to utilize a broad range of substrates, including fermentable biomass-derived sugars. Recent efforts have focused on metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria as they produce high yields and have a small genome size that facilitates their genetic manipulation. We summarize here the current trends in metabolic engineering techniques and strategies for manipulating lactic acid producing organisms developed to address and overcome major challenges in the lactic acid production process.

  16. Heterologous production of caffeic acid from tyrosine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J L; Araújo, R G; Prather, K L J; Kluskens, L D; Rodrigues, L R

    2015-04-01

    Caffeic acid is a plant secondary metabolite and its biological synthesis has attracted increased attention due to its beneficial effects on human health. In this study, Escherichia coli was engineered for the production of caffeic acid using tyrosine as the initial precursor of the pathway. The pathway design included tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) from Rhodotorula glutinis to convert tyrosine to p-coumaric acid and 4-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) from Saccharothrix espanaensis or cytochrome P450 CYP199A2 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris to convert p-coumaric acid to caffeic acid. The genes were codon-optimized and different combinations of plasmids were used to improve the titer of caffeic acid. TAL was able to efficiently convert 3mM of tyrosine to p-coumaric acid with the highest production obtained being 2.62mM (472mg/L). CYP199A2 exhibited higher catalytic activity towards p-coumaric acid than C3H. The highest caffeic acid production obtained using TAL and CYP199A2 and TAL and C3H was 1.56mM (280mg/L) and 1mM (180mg/L), respectively. This is the first study that shows caffeic acid production using CYP199A2 and tyrosine as the initial precursor. This study suggests the possibility of further producing more complex plant secondary metabolites like flavonoids and curcuminoids.

  17. High efficiency furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K. S.; Koestler, D. J.

    1985-12-31

    Disclosed is a dwelling furnace having at least one clam-shell type primary heat exchanger in parallel orientation with a secondary heat exchanger, both the primary and secondary heat exchangers being vertically oriented relative to a furnace housing and parallel to the flow of air to be heated. The primary heat exchanger has a combustion chamber in the lower end thereof, and the lower end of the secondary heat exchanger exhausts into a tertiary heat exchanger oriented approximately perpendicular to the primary and secondary heat exchangers and horizontally relative to the housing, below the combustion chambers of the primary heat exchangers and below the exhaust outlet of the secondary heat exchanger. The tertiary heat exchanger includes a plurality of condensation tubes for retrieving the latent heat of condensation of the combustion gases. The furnace further comprises an induced draft blower for drawing combustion gases through the heat exchangers and inducting sufficient air to the combustion chamber of the primary heat exchanger for efficient combustion.

  18. Experiences with computer systems in blast furnace operation control at Rautaruukki

    SciTech Connect

    Inkala, P.; Karppinen, A. . Raahe Steel Works); Seppanen, M. )

    1994-09-01

    Low energy consumption, together with high productivity and stable blast furnace operation, has been achieved at Rautaruukki's Raahe Steel Works as a result of the efficient use of computer technology in process control and improvements in raw materials quality. The blast furnace supervision system is designed to support the decision-making in medium and long-term process control. The information presenting the blast furnace operation phenomena is grouped so that little time is needed to obtain the current state of the process. Due to the complexity of the blast furnace process, an expert system to guide and diagnose the short and medium-term blast furnace operation has been developed.

  19. Citric acid: emerging applications of key biotechnology industrial product.

    PubMed

    Ciriminna, Rosaria; Meneguzzo, Francesco; Delisi, Riccardo; Pagliaro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Owing to new biotechnological production units mostly located in China, global supply of citric acid in the course of the last two decades rose from less than 0.5 to more than 2 million tonnes becoming the single largest chemical obtained via biomass fermentation and the most widely employed organic acid. Critically reviewing selected research achievements and production trends, we identify the reasons for which this polycarboxylic acid will become a key chemical in the emerging bioeconomy.Graphical abstractPalermo's Fabbrica Chimica Italiana Goldenberg today. In 1930 it was Europe's largest citric acid plant (photo courtesy of Aldo Ferrande).

  20. Malic acid production from thin stillage by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2011-12-01

    The ability of Aspergillus strains to utilize thin stillage to produce malic acid was compared. The highest malic acid was produced by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 at 17 g l(-1). Biomass production from thin stillage was similar with all strains but ATCC 10577 was the highest at 19 g l(-1). The highest malic acid yield (0.8 g g(-1)) was with A. niger ATCC 9142 and ATCC 10577 on the stillage. Thus, thin stillage has the potential to act as a substrate for the commercial production of food-grade malic acid by the A. niger strains.

  1. Reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Li, An; Pfelzer, Nina; Zuijderwijk, Robbert; Brickwedde, Anja; van Zeijl, Cora; Punt, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. Previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cadA) from Aspergillus terreus converted A. niger into an itaconic acid producer (Li et al., Fungal Genet Bio 48: 602-611, 2011). After some initial steps in production optimization in the previous research (Li et al., BMC biotechnol 12: 57, 2012), this research aims at modifying host strains and fermentation conditions to further improve itaconic acid production. Expression of two previously identified A. terreus genes encoding putative organic acid transporters (mttA, mfsA) increased itaconic acid production in an A. niger cis-aconitate decarboxylase expressing strain. Surprisingly, the production did not increase further when both transporters were expressed together. Meanwhile, oxalic acid was accumulated as a by-product in the culture of mfsA transformants. In order to further increase itaconic acid production and eliminate by-product formation, the non-acidifying strain D15#26 and the oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (oahA) deletion strain AB 1.13 ∆oahA #76 have been analyzed for itaconic acid production. Whereas cadA expression in AB 1.13 ∆oahA #76 resulted in higher itaconic acid production than strain CAD 10.1, this was not the case in strain D15#26. As expected, oxalic acid production was eliminated in both strains. In a further attempt to increase itaconic acid levels, an improved basal citric acid-producing strain, N201, was used for cadA expression. A selected transformant (N201CAD) produced more itaconic acid than strain CAD 10.1, derived from A. niger strain AB1.13. Subsequently, we have focused on the influence of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) on itaconic acid production. Interestingly, reduced D.O. levels (10-25 %) increased itaconic acid production using strain N201 CAD. Similar results were obtained in strain AB 1.13 CAD + HBD2

  2. Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi

    PubMed Central

    El-Kady, Ismael A.; Zohri, Abdel Naser A.; Hamed, Shimaa R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5 L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5 g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation. PMID:24778881

  3. Carbon-free induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Masters, David R.; Pfeiler, William A.

    1985-01-01

    An induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of carbon free materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloy. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an RF induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650.degree. C. for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  4. Non-carbon induction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  5. Industrial production of amino acids by coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Thomas

    2003-09-04

    In the 1950s Corynebacterium glutamicum was found to be a very efficient producer of L-glutamic acid. Since this time biotechnological processes with bacteria of the species Corynebacterium developed to be among the most important in terms of tonnage and economical value. L-Glutamic acid and L-lysine are bulk products nowadays. L-Valine, L-isoleucine, L-threonine, L-aspartic acid and L-alanine are among other amino acids produced by Corynebacteria. Applications range from feed to food and pharmaceutical products. The growing market for amino acids produced with Corynebacteria led to significant improvements in bioprocess and downstream technology as well as in molecular biology. During the last decade big efforts were made to increase the productivity and to decrease the production costs. This review gives an overview of the world market for amino acids produced by Corynebacteria. Significant improvements in bioprocess technology, i.e. repeated fed batch or continuous production are summarised. Bioprocess technology itself was improved furthermore by application of more sophisticated feeding and automatisation strategies. Even though several amino acids developed towards commodities in the last decade, side aspects of the production process like sterility or detection of contaminants still have increasing relevance. Finally one focus of this review is on recent developments in downstream technology.

  6. Photolysis of Cyclopiazonic Acid to Fluorescent Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), which is produced by certain species of Aspergillus and Penicillium, can co-occur with aflatoxins under certain conditions. A large proportion of A. flavus strains can produce CPA and it has been found as a natural contaminant in cheeses, corn, rice, peanuts, millet and fe...

  7. Photolysis of Cyclopiazonic Acid to Fluorescent Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) is a mycotoxin produced by some of the same species of fungi that produce the more widely known aflatoxins. As a consequence it has been found previously that CPA and the aflatoxins may co-occur in commodities under certain conditions. CPA, which is a substituted indole, h...

  8. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 60 genera have been found to contain chicoric...

  9. HIGH TEMPERATURE MICROSCOPE AND FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Olson, D.M.

    1961-01-31

    A high-temperature microscope is offered. It has a reflecting optic situated above a molten specimen in a furnace and reflecting the image of the same downward through an inert optic member in the floor of the furnace, a plurality of spaced reflecting plane mirrors defining a reflecting path around the furnace, a standard microscope supported in the path of and forming the end terminus of the light path.

  10. Biohydrogen and carboxylic acids production from wheat straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chandolias, Konstantinos; Pardaev, Sindor; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrolyzed wheat straw was converted into carboxylic acids and biohydrogen using digesting bacteria. The fermentations were carried out using both free and membrane-encased thermophilic bacteria (55°C) at various OLRs (4.42-17.95g COD/L.d), in semi-continuous conditions using one or two bioreactors in a series. The highest production of biohydrogen and acetic acid was achieved at an OLR of 4.42g COD/L.d, whilst the highest lactic acid production occurred at an OLR of 9.33g COD/L.d. Furthermore, the bioreactor with both free and membrane-encased cells produced 60% more lactic acid compared to the conventional, free-cell bioreactor. In addition, an increase of 121% and 100% in the production of acetic and isobutyric acid, respectively, was achieved in the 2nd-stage bioreactor compared to the 1st-stage bioreactor.

  11. A new approach to microbial production of gallic acid

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Bhakti; Patil, Shridhar

    2008-01-01

    In a new approach to microbial gallic acid production by Aspergillus fischeri MTCC 150, 40gL−1 of tannic acid was added in two installments during the bioconversion phase of the process (25gL−1 and 15gL−1 at 32 and 44h respectively). The optimum parameters for the bioconversion phase were found to be temperature: 35°C, pH: slightly acidic (3.3–3.5), aeration: nil and agitation: 250 rpm. A maximum of 71.4% conversion was obtained after 71h fermentation with 83.3% product recovery. The yield was 7.35 g of gallic acid per g of biomass accumulated and the fermenter productivity was 0.56 g of gallic acid produced per liter of medium per hour. PMID:24031294

  12. Metabolic diversity in biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by lactic acid bacteria involving conjugated fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2009-08-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum AKU 1009a effectively transforms linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acids of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) and trans-9,trans-11-18:2. The transformation of various polyunsaturated fatty acids by washed cells of L. plantarum AKU 1009a was investigated. Besides linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid [cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (18:3)], gamma-linolenic acid (cis-6,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), columbinic acid (trans-5,cis-9,cis-12-18:3), and stearidonic acid [cis-6,cis-9,cis-12,cis-15-octadecatetraenoic acid (18:4)] were found to be transformed. The fatty acids transformed by the strain had the common structure of a C18 fatty acid with the cis-9,cis-12 diene system. Three major fatty acids were produced from alpha-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, trans-9,trans-11,cis-15-18:3, and trans-10,cis-15-18:2. Four major fatty acids were produced from gamma-linolenic acid, which were identified as cis-6,cis-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-9,trans-11-18:3, cis-6,trans-10-18:2, and trans-10-octadecenoic acid. The strain transformed the cis-9,cis-12 diene system of C18 fatty acids into conjugated diene systems of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-9,trans-11. These conjugated dienes were further saturated into the trans-10 monoene system by the strain. The results provide valuable information for understanding the pathway of biohydrogenation by anaerobic bacteria and for establishing microbial processes for the practical production of conjugated fatty acids, especially those produced from alpha-linolenic acid and gamma-linolenic acid.

  13. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  14. Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

  15. Enhanced Production of Carboxylic Acids by Engineering of Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  16. Genetic Engineering of Rhizopus for Enhancing Lactic Acid Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  17. Production of dicarboxylic acids from novel unsaturated fatty acids by laccase-catalyzed oxidative cleavage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Michiki; Kishino, Shigenobu; Park, Si-Bum; Kitamura, Nahoko; Watanabe, Hiroko; Saika, Azusa; Hibi, Makoto; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Ogawa, Jun

    2016-06-27

    The establishment of renewable biofuel and chemical production is desirable because of global warming and the exhaustion of petroleum reserves. Sebacic acid (decanedioic acid), the material of 6,10-nylon, is produced from ricinoleic acid, a carbon-neutral material, but the process is not eco-friendly because of its energy requirements. Laccase-catalyzing oxidative cleavage of fatty acid was applied to the production of dicarboxylic acids using hydroxy and oxo fatty acids involved in the saturation metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids in Lactobacillus plantarum as substrates. Hydroxy or oxo fatty acids with a functional group near the carbon-carbon double bond were cleaved at the carbon-carbon double bond, hydroxy group, or carbonyl group by laccase and transformed into dicarboxylic acids. After 8 h, 0.58 mM of sebacic acid was produced from 1.6 mM of 10-oxo-cis-12,cis-15-octadecadienoic acid (αKetoA) with a conversion rate of 35% (mol/mol). This laccase-catalyzed enzymatic process is a promising method to produce dicarboxylic acids from biomass-derived fatty acids.

  18. D-amino acid oxidase: its potential in the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.

    PubMed

    Mujawar, S K

    1999-01-01

    D-Amino acid oxidase (DAAO) used in the preparation of alpha-keto acids, in the determination of D-amino acids and in the resolution of racemic mixture of amino acids is produced by a wide range of microorganisms. In the recent past this enzyme is being recognized for its potential in the commercial production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), a starting material for various semisynthetic cephalosporins. Though this enzyme is widespread among microorganisms, very few microbial species have been explored for the production of 7-ACA; this is because cephalosporin C is quantitatively deaminated by limited microbial DAAOs. Comparison of physico-chemical properties of enzyme preparations indicate wide variations, however in general DAAOs are specific for D-configuration of amino acids. Both immobilized enzyme and cell preparations are developed for its various applications. The advantages of DAAO in the production of 7-ACA are discussed.

  19. Inland Steel's No. 7 blast furnace third reline

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II ); Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L. )

    1994-09-01

    The background information, investigation and benchmarking that led to a decision by Inland Steel to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace is covered. This approach reduced actual downtime on the furnace and extended the current campaign. This alternative allowed for the rebalancing of the physical plant of No. 7 blast furnace. Areas of scope covered are hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Included are highlights of the execution of the project including schedules, blowdown, salamander tap, quench, dig out/descale, scaffolding used and brick installation. A summary of the actual results of the work is presented along with information on production planned, blow-in and the first 20 days of production.

  20. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids.

  1. Metabolic engineering strategies to bio-adipic acid production.

    PubMed

    Kruyer, Nicholas S; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela

    2017-03-30

    Adipic acid is the most industrially important dicarboxylic acid as it is a key monomer in the synthesis of nylon. Today, adipic acid is obtained via a chemical process that relies on petrochemical precursors and releases large quantities of greenhouse gases. In the last two years, significant progress has been made in engineering microbes for the production of adipic acid and its immediate precursors, muconic acid and glucaric acid. Not only have the microbial substrates expanded beyond glucose and glycerol to include lignin monomers and hemicellulose components, but the number of microbial chassis now goes further than Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to include microbes proficient in aromatic degradation, cellulose secretion and degradation of multiple carbon sources. Here, we review the metabolic engineering and nascent protein engineering strategies undertaken in each of these chassis to convert different feedstocks to adipic, muconic and glucaric acid. We also highlight near term prospects and challenges for each of the metabolic routes discussed.

  2. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    PubMed

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  3. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limits provided by paragraph (a)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas..., except for an area source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess..., except for an area source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the... as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the levels... source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paragraph (a)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of... source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the levels... source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limits provided by paragraph (a)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas..., except for an area source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess..., except for an area source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(5) of this section; (2) For mercury, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the... as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the levels... source as defined under § 63.2, hydrogen chloride and chlorine gas emissions in excess of the...

  8. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  9. Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Magnetically Damped Furnace (MDF) breadboard is being developed in response to NASA's mission and goals to advance the scientific knowledge of microgravity research, materials science, and related technologies. The objective of the MDF is to dampen the fluid flows due to density gradients and surface tension gradients in conductive melts by introducing a magnetic field during the sample processing. The MDF breadboard will serve as a proof of concept that the MDF performance requirements can be attained within the International Space Station resource constraints.

  10. No. 5 blast furnace 1995 reline and upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Kakascik, T.F. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The 1995 reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is an undertaking which has never been approached in previous relines of any blast furnace in the history of Wheeling Pittsburgh Steel Corporation. The scope of the project is such that it represents a radical departure from W.P.S.C.`s traditional methods of ironmaking. The reline of No. 5 Blast Furnace is one of the largest capital improvements performed at W.P.S.C. Blast Furnaces. The improvements made at one single time are taking a furnace from 1960`s technology into the 21st century. With this in mind, employee training was one of the largest parts of the project. Training for the automated stockhouse, castfloor, new skip drive, new instrumentation, new castfloor equipment, hydraulics and overall furnace operation were an absolute necessity. The reline has laid the ground work to give the Corporation an efficient, higher productive, modern Blast Furnace which will place W.P.S.C. in the world class category in ironmaking well into the 21st century.

  11. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  12. Comparison of epitaxial graphene on Si-face and C-face 4H SiC formed by ultrahigh vacuum and RF furnace production.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, Glenn G; VanMil, Brenda L; Tedesco, Joseph L; Tischler, Joseph G; Glaser, Evan R; Davidson, Anthony; Campbell, Paul M; Gaskill, D Kurt

    2009-07-01

    We present X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, van der Pauw Hall mobilities, low-temperature far-infrared magneto transmission (FIR-MT), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results from graphene films produced by radiative heating in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber or produced by radio frequency (RF) furnace annealing in a high vacuum chemical vapor deposition system on Si- and C-face 4H SiC substrates at 1200-1600 degrees C. Although the vacuum level and heating methods are different, graphene films produced by the two methods are chemically similar with the RF furnace annealing typically producing thicker graphene films than UHV. We observe, however, that the formation of graphene on the two faces is different with the thicker graphene films on the C-face RF samples having higher mobility. The FIR-MT showed a 0(-1) --> 1(0) Landau level transition with a square root B dependence and a line width consistent with a Dirac fermion with a mobility >250,000 cm(2) x V(-1) x s(-1) at 4.2 K in a C-face RF sample having a Hall-effect carrier mobility of 425 cm(2) x V(-1) x s(-1) at 300 K. AFM shows that graphene grows continuously over the varying morphology of both Si and C-face substrates.

  13. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  14. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  15. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  16. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement... production furnace becomes subject to RCRA permit requirements after October 12, 2005, or when an owner...

  17. Metabolic engineering of biocatalysts for carboxylic acids production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Fermentation of renewable feedstocks by microbes to produce sustainable fuels and chemicals has the potential to replace petrochemical-based production. For example, carboxylic acids produced by microbial fermentation can be used to generate primary building blocks of industrial chemicals by either enzymatic or chemical catalysis. In order to achieve the titer, yield and productivity values required for economically viable processes, the carboxylic acid-producing microbes need to be robust and well-performing. Traditional strain development methods based on mutagenesis have proven useful in the selection of desirable microbial behavior, such as robustness and carboxylic acid production. On the other hand, rationally-based metabolic engineering, like genetic manipulation for pathway design, has becoming increasingly important to this field and has been used for the production of several organic acids, such as succinic acid, malic acid and lactic acid. This review investigates recent works on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli, as well as the strategies to improve tolerance towards these chemicals. PMID:24688671

  18. Biotechnological production of enantiomerically pure d-lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Silvia; Kaufmann, Norman; Kuenz, Anja; Prüße, Ulf

    2016-11-01

    The fermentation process of l-lactic acid is well known. Little importance was attached to d-lactic acid, but in the past 10 years, d-lactic acid gained significantly in importance. d-Lactic acid is an interesting precursor for manufacturing heat-resistant polylactic acid (PLA) bioplastics which can be widely used, for example as packaging material, coatings, for textiles or in the automotive industry.This review provides a comprehensive overview of the most recent developments, including a spectrum of studied microorganisms and their capabilities for the production of d-lactic acid. Additionally, the technological achievements in biotechnological d-lactic acid production including fermentation techniques like fed batch, simultaneous saccharification, and fermentation and continuous techniques are presented. Attention is also turned to suitable alternative substrates and their applicability in fermentation processes. Furthermore, advantages and disadvantages of product recovery and purification are discussed. Economic aspects of PLA are pointed out, and the present industrial producers of lactic acid are briefly introduced.

  19. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  1. Succinic acid production with Actinobacillus succinogenes ZT-130 in the presence of succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Corona-Gonzalez, Rosa Isela; Bories, Andre; González-Alvarez, Víctor; Snell-Castro, Raul; Toriz-González, Guillermo; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Glucose fermentation with Actinobacillus succinogenes was carried out at different initial concentrations of succinic acid (SA(0)) to determine its effect on growth and on the production of succinic acid itself. The specific rates of biomass production, succinic, formic and acetic acids decreased with SA(0) (0-40 g/l). The partially dissociated form of succinic acid had a higher effect on cell growth and production of succinic acid as compared to the non-dissociated forms of the acids, a fact that has not been reported until now. Cell growth fitted the Jerusalimski model, and the Aiba-Shoda model was suitable for quantification of the inhibition for the production of succinic acid. The growth inhibition constants K(is) and K(ip) and their summatory were consistent with the experimental values obtained, i.e., 22 g/l for the produced acids and 38 g/l for total acids that were the limits at which the biomass formation ceased.

  2. Blast furnace injection symposium: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    These proceedings contain 14 papers related to blast furnace injection issues. Topics include coal quality, coal grinding, natural gas injection, stable operation of the blast furnace, oxygen enrichment, coal conveying, and performance at several steel companies. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Klinke, T; Kneist, S; de Soet, J J; Kuhlisch, E; Mauersberger, S; Forster, A; Klimm, W

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed, pure resting-cell suspensions were obtained by culturing a total of 28 oral isolates comprising the species C. albicans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei paracasei, Lactobacillus paracasei tolerans and Lactobacillus delbrueckii lactis. Acid production from glucose was determined at a constant pH of 7.0, 5.5, 5.0 and 4.0 by repeated titrations with NaOH in an automated pH-stat system. Acid formation rates of yeast and lactobacilli proved to be similar at both neutral and low pH, while in a moderately acidic environment C. albicans produced less acid than the lactobacilli. Ion chromatographic analysis of the cell-free medium after titration revealed pyruvate to be the predominant organic acid anion secreted by C. albicans. The proportion of organic acids to overall acid production by the yeast was below 10% at neutral conditions, in contrast to 42-66% at pH 4.0. Compared to lactobacilli, yeast required a concentration of glucose that was about 50 times higher to allow acid production at half the maximum speed. Considering the clinical data in the literature about the frequency and proportions of microorganisms present in early childhood caries lesions, the contribution of oral lactobacilli as well as C. albicans to overall microbial acid formation appears to be important.

  4. Fuel stoker and furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, T.L.; Schafer, G.L.; Swett, H.D.

    1984-02-14

    A furnace having a primary heat exchange unit also providing a combustion chamber, a secondary heat exchange unit connected by an upper crossover conduit to the primary heat exchange unit, and a tertiary heat exchange unit connected by a lower V-shaped crossover conduit to the secondary heat exchange unit. A third crossover conduit connects the V-shaped crossover conduit with the primary heat exchange unit. Vibrating means are provided between the secondary and tertiary heat exchange units to vibrate the walls thereof and dislodge clinging fly ash so that it falls into the V-shaped crossover conduit for removal by the screw conveyor. A burner assembly of a furnace includes a combustion air housing carrying a circular, stationary grate with an annular valley for carrying fuel during combustion. A central opening is connected to a fuel conveyor for introduction of fuel to the grate through the lower portion of the housing. Combustion air introduction conduits on the housing are remote from the fuel introduction passages and introduce air under pressure at the lower portion of the grate. An agitator and discharge ring is provided on the grate and is rotated on the grate by a suitable drive sprocket mechanism to agitate the fuel for more complete burning thereof and to remove burned ash. A horizontal burner plate is supported by a plurality of legs connected to the agitator and discharge ring over the grate to promote more complete combustion of the fuel.

  5. Production of Gluconic Acid by Some Local Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Shindia, A. A.; El-Esawy, A. E.; Sheriff, Y. M. M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera isolated from Egyptian soil and sugar cane waste samples were tested for their capacity of producing acidity and gluconic acid. For the tests, the fungi were grown on glucose substrate and culture filtrates were examined using paper chromatography analysis. Most of the tested fungi have a relative wide potentiality for total acid production in their filtrates. Nearly 51% of them showed their ability of producing gluconic acid. Aspergillus niger was distinguishable from other species by its capacity to produce substantial amounts of gluconic acid when it was cultivated on a selective medium. The optimized cultural conditions for gluconic acid yields were using submerged culture at 30℃ at initial pH 6.0 for 7 days of incubation. Among the various concentrations of substrate used, glucose (14%, w/v) was found to be the most suitable carbon source for maximal gluconic acid during fermentation. Maximum values of fungal biomass (10.02 g/l) and gluconic acid (58.46 g/l) were obtained when the fungus was grown with 1% peptone as sole nitrogen source. Influence of the concentration of some inorganic salts as well as the rate of aeration on the gluconic acid and biomass production is also described. PMID:24039465

  6. Utilization of by-products derived from bioethanol production process for cost-effective production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Moon, Se-Kwon; Wee, Young-Jung; Choi, Gi-Wook

    2014-10-01

    The by-products of bioethanol production such as thin stillage (TS) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) were used as a potential nitrogen source for economical production of lactic acid. The effect of those by-products and their concentrations on lactic acid fermentation were investigated using Lactobacillus paracasei CHB2121. Approximately, 6.7 g/L of yeast extract at a carbon source to nitrogen source ratio of 15 was required to produce 90 g/L of lactic acid in the medium containing 100 g/L of glucose. Batch fermentation of TS medium resulted in 90 g/L of lactic acid after 48 h, and the medium containing 10 % CDS resulted in 95 g/L of lactic acid after 44 h. Therefore, TS and CDS could be considered as potential alternative fermentation medium for the economical production of lactic acid. Furthermore, lactic acid fermentation was performed using only cassava and CDS for commercial production of lactic acid. The volumetric productivity of lactic acid [2.94 g/(L·h)] was 37 % higher than the productivity obtained from the medium with glucose and CDS.

  7. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  8. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources.

  9. Partial reline of Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lowrance, K.F. II; Johansson, J.; Carter, W.L.

    1995-10-01

    The background for the decision to partially reline No. 7 blast furnace that would achieve the same results as a complete reline is discussed. This approach was designed to reduce actual downtime on the furnace at a critical production period. Areas of work included the hearth, stack, stoves, gas cleaning and furnace top. Highlights of the project execution were: schedules; blowdown; salamander tap; quench; dig out/descale; scaffolding used; and brick installation. The furnace was blown-in 29 days after the blowdown and producing in excess of 9,000 tons/day after 12 days of operation. Inland has adopted a new definition for establishing campaign life based on refractory wear that includes a hearth monitoring system.

  10. D-lactic acid production by metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Tomiko; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Nagamori, Eiji; Onishi, Toru; Saitoh, Satoshi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2006-02-01

    Poly D-lactic acid is an important polymer because it improves the thermostability of poly L-lactic acid by the stereo complex formation. We constructed a metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae that produces D-lactic acid efficiently. In this recombinant, the coding region of pyruvate decarboxylase 1 (PDC1) was completely deleted, and two copies of the D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) gene from Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strain NBRC3426 were introduced into the genome. The D-lactate production reached 61.5 g/l, the amount of glucose being transformed into D-lactic acid being 61.2% under neutralizing conditions. Additionally, the yield of free D-lactic acid was also shown to be 53.0% under non-neutralizing conditions. It was confirmed that D-lactic acid of extremely high optical purity of 99.9% or higher. Our finding obtained the possibility of a new approach for pure d-lactic acid production without a neutralizing process compared with other techniques involving lactic acid bacteria and transgenic Escherichia coli.

  11. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  12. Membrane engineering via trans unsaturated fatty acids production improves Escherichia coli robustness and production of biorenewables.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zaigao; Yoon, Jong Moon; Nielsen, David R; Shanks, Jacqueline V; Jarboe, Laura R

    2016-05-01

    Constructing microbial biocatalysts that produce biorenewables at economically viable yields and titers is often hampered by product toxicity. For production of short chain fatty acids, membrane damage is considered the primary mechanism of toxicity, particularly in regards to membrane integrity. Previous engineering efforts in Escherichia coli to increase membrane integrity, with the goal of increasing fatty acid tolerance and production, have had mixed results. Herein, a novel approach was used to reconstruct the E. coli membrane by enabling production of a novel membrane component. Specifically, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) were produced and incorporated into the membrane of E. coli MG1655 by expression of cis-trans isomerase (Cti) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While the engineered strain was found to have no increase in membrane integrity, a significant decrease in membrane fluidity was observed, meaning that membrane polarization and rigidity were increased by TUFA incorporation. As a result, tolerance to exogenously added octanoic acid and production of octanoic acid were both increased relative to the wild-type strain. This membrane engineering strategy to improve octanoic acid tolerance was found to require fine-tuning of TUFA abundance. Besides improving tolerance and production of carboxylic acids, TUFA production also enabled increased tolerance in E. coli to other bio-products, e.g. alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds, a variety of adverse industrial conditions, e.g. low pH, high temperature, and also elevated styrene production, another versatile bio-chemical product. TUFA permitted enhanced growth due to alleviation of bio-product toxicity, demonstrating the general effectiveness of this membrane engineering strategy towards improving strain robustness.

  13. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1993-09-14

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum)). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 19 figures.

  14. High pressure furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E.

    1993-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure furnace has a hybrid partially externally heated construction. A metallic vessel fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 or 2 inch, 32 mm or 50 mm bar stock and has a length of about 22 inches, 56 cm. This bar stock has an aperture formed therein to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the vessel is provided with a small blind aperture into which a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the vessel is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  15. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  16. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  17. Optimization of anthracite calcination process in a vertical electric arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Perron, J.; Bouvette, J.F.; Dupuis, M.

    1996-10-01

    Anthracite is used for cathode block manufacturing must be calcined prior to its use to eliminate volatile matter and reduce its electrical resistivity. Anthracite calcination in vertical electric arc furnaces is widely used in the industry. It is well known that this technology leads to a radial temperature gradient in the furnace which results in non-homogeneous calcined anthracite properties. Also, operation experience has shown that production of calcination furnaces can be difficult to stabilize if process changes occur, which may lead to variable quality of the calcined material. To optimize the calcination process, an improved control strategy and a mathematical model of Elkem-type electric arc furnace were developed. Using these, it was successfully demonstrated that temperature gradient in the furnace can be reduced and that furnace productivity can be substantially increased.

  18. Heat treatment of nuclear reactor pump part in integrated furnace facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    A flexible heat treating system is meeting strict work specifications while accommodating the production flow pattern requirements and floor space needs of Advanced Metal Treating, Inc., Butler, Wis. Modular design and appropriate furnace configurations allow realization of the most efficient heat treat processing and energy use in a relatively small production area. The totally-integrated system (Pacemaker--manufactured by Lindberg, A Unit of General Signal, Chicago) consists of an electric integral-quench furnace with companion draw furnaces, washer unit and a material transfer car. With its one-side, inout configuration, the furnace operates with a minimum of drawing and washing equipment. The integral-quench furnace has a work chamber dimension of 30 by 48 by 30 inches (76.2 x 122 x 76.2 cm). The firm has two of these units, plus three in-out draw furnaces, one washer, one transfer car and two endothermic gas generators.

  19. Molecular products from the thermal degradation of glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2013-08-14

    The thermal behavior of glutamic acid was investigated in N2 and 4% O2 in N2 under flow reactor conditions at a constant residence time of 0.2 s, within a total pyrolysis time of 3 min at 1 atm. The identification of the main pyrolysis products has been reported. Accordingly, the principal products for pyrolysis in order of decreasing abundance were succinimide, pyrrole, acetonitrile, and 2-pyrrolidone. For oxidative pyrolysis, the main products were succinimide, propiolactone, ethanol, and hydrogen cyanide. Whereas benzene, toluene, and a few low molecular weight hydrocarbons (propene, propane, 1-butene, and 2-butene) were detected during pyrolysis, no polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected. Oxidative pyrolysis yielded low molecular weight hydrocarbon products in trace amounts. The mechanistic channels describing the formation of the major product succinimide have been explored. The detection of succinimide (major product) and maleimide (minor product) from the thermal decomposition of glutamic acid has been reported for the first time in this study. Toxicological implications of some reaction products (HCN, acetonitrile, and acyrolnitrile), which are believed to form during heat treatment of food, tobacco burning, and drug processing, have been discussed in relation to the thermal degradation of glutamic acid.

  20. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of blast-furnace sludge from an abandoned landfill.

    PubMed

    Mansfeldt, Tim; Dohrmann, Reiner

    2004-11-15

    Blast-furnace sludge is generated during the production of pig iron and is disposed of in the environment in large surface landfills. We investigated blast-furnace sludge samples of an abandoned landfill in order to determine its chemical and mineralogical nature and to evaluate some environmental hazards that may arise from this industrial waste. The mineralogical inventory, which was quantified by Rietveld refinement of XRD analyses using the fundamental-parameter approach, revealed that blast-furnace sludge is dominated by X-ray amorphous substances (with a mean of 590 g kg(-1)) including coke and (hydr)oxides of Fe, Si, Al, Zn, and Pb. Calcite (CaCO3) (136 g kg(-1)), dolomite (Ca,Mg[CO3]2) (14 g kg(-1)), quartz (SiO2) (55 g kg(-1)), kaolinite (Al2[OH]4Si2O5) (40 g kg(-1)), graphite (C) (27 g kg(-1)), and chemically not specified layered double hydroxides (28 g kg(-1)) were identified in almost all samples. Iron is present as magnetite (Fe3O4) (34 g kg(-1)), hematite (Fe2O3) (38 g kg(-1)), wuestite (FeO) (20 g kg(-1)) and alpha-iron (Fe0) (6 g kg(-1)). Chemically, blast-furnace sludge is dominated by C (190 g kg(-1)) and Fe (158 g kg(-1)) reflecting the process of pig-iron production. On the basis of total contents, environmentally problematic metals (including As) are Zn (32.6 g kg(-1)), Pb (10.3 g kg(-1)), Cd (81 mg kg(-1)), and As (129 mg kg(-1)). As the forested landfill is used by residents for leisure activities, the exposure assessment by pathway oral uptake of blast-furnace sludge particles by humans has to be critically evaluated, particularly as significant proportions of metals are acid-soluble. However, under the prevailing slightly alkaline pH values of the sludge (pH 7.6-9.2), the solubility of the metals is very low as indicated by low pore water concentrations. Currently, groundwater monitoring should be focused mainly on F- since the F- concentrations in the pore water of blast-furnace sludge are at high level (2.65-24.1 mg of F- L(-1)).

  1. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B.; Moore, Jonathan C.

    2009-12-08

    The present invention provides derivatives of ethanologenic Escherichia coli K011 constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  2. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B; Moore, Jonathan C

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides derivatives of Escherichia coli constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  3. Means for reducing oxalic acid to a product

    SciTech Connect

    Morduchowitz, A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes an apparatus for reducing oxalic acid to a product comprising: a cell including a separator for separating the cell into two chambers, a catholyte chamber and an anolyte chamber, each chamber having an inlet and an outlet; a porous anode arranged within the anolyte section in a manner so that an electrolyte entering through the inlet of the anolyte section will pass through the anode and exit through the outlet of the anolyte section; means for providing an electrolyte to the inlet of the anolyte chamber in a manner so that it will exit through the outlet of the anolyte chamber; means for providing a mixture of oxalic acid and an electrolyte to the inlet of the catholyte chamber; porous cathode means located in the catholyte chamber for reducing the oxalic acid in the oxalic acid-electrolyte mixture to the product within the cathode means when a d.c. voltage provided across the anode and the cathode means, the product exiting the cell by way of the catholyte chamber's outlet; and means for providing a d.c. voltage across the cathode means and the anode so as to cooperate in the reduction of the oxalic acid; and in which the cathode means includes a porous cathode having discrete sites of platinum and mercury as catalysts and the product is ethylene glycol.

  4. Ultrasonic pretreatment and acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yong-lan; Dai, Wen-yu; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Jiu-hua; Chen, Ke-quan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Ping-kai

    2013-11-01

    Immense interest has been devoted to the production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulose biomass. Diluted sulfuric acid treatment is currently one of the main pretreatment methods. However, the low total sugar concentration obtained via such pretreatment limits industrial fermentation systems that use lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate is used as the carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve a green and economical production of succinic acid in this study. Sugarcane bagasse was ultrasonically pretreated for 40 min, with 43.9 g/L total sugar obtained after dilute acid hydrolysis. The total sugar concentration increased by 29.5 %. In a 3-L fermentor, using 30 g/L non-detoxified total sugar as the carbon source, succinic acid production increased to 23.7 g/L with a succinic acid yield of 79.0 % and a productivity of 0.99 g/L/h, and 60 % yeast extract in the medium could be reduced. Compared with the detoxified sugar preparation method, succinic acid production and yield were improved by 20.9 and 20.2 %, respectively.

  5. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  6. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  7. Multicriteria optimization of gluconic acid production using net flow.

    PubMed

    Halsall-Whitney, H; Taylor, D; Thibault, J

    2003-03-01

    The biochemical process industry is often confronted with the challenge of making decisions in an atmosphere of multiple and conflicting objectives. Recent innovations in the field of operations research and systems science have yielded rigorous multicriteria optimization techniques that can be successfully applied to the field of biochemical engineering. These techniques incorporate the expert's experience into the optimization routine and provide valuable information about the zone of possible solutions. This paper presents a multicriteria optimization strategy that generates a Pareto domain, given a set of conflicting objective criteria, and determines the optimal operating region for the production of gluconic acid using the net flow method (NFM). The objective criteria include maximizing the productivity and concentration of gluconic acid, while minimizing the residual substrate. Three optimization strategies are considered. The first two strategies identify the optimal operating region for the process inputs. The results yielded an acceptable compromise between productivity, gluconic acid concentration and residual substrate concentration. Fixing the process inputs representing the batch time, initial substrate concentration and initial biomass equal to their optimal values, the remaining simulations were used to study the sensitivity of the optimum operating region to changes in the oxygen mass transfer coefficient, K(L) a, by utilizing a multi-level K(L) a strategy. The results show that controlling K(L) a during the reaction reduced the production of biomass, which in turn resulted in increased productivity and concentration of gluconic acid above that of a fixed K(L) a.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic)....

  9. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic)....

  10. Production of docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. ATCC PRA-276.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Valcenir Júnior Mendes; Maus, Victor; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2017-01-20

    The high costs and environmental concerns associated with using marine resources as sources of oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have prompted searches for alternative sources of such oils. Some microorganisms, among them members of the genus Aurantiochytrium, can synthesize large amounts of these biocompounds. However, various parameters that affect the polyunsaturated fatty acids production of these organisms, such as the carbon and nitrogen sources supplied during their cultivation, require further elucidation. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of different concentrations of carbon and total nitrogen on the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, by Aurantiochytrium sp. ATCC PRA-276. We performed batch system experiments using an initial glucose concentration of 30g/L and three different concentrations of total nitrogen, including 3.0, 0.44, and 0.22g/L, and fed-batch system experiments in which 0.14g/L of glucose and 0.0014g/L of total nitrogen were supplied hourly. To assess the effects of these different treatments, we determined the biomass, glucose, total nitrogen and polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration. The maximum cell concentration (23.9g/L) was obtained after 96h of cultivation in the batch system using initial concentrations of 0.22g/L total nitrogen and 30g/L glucose. Under these conditions, we observed the highest level of polyunsaturated fatty acids production (3.6g/L), with docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid ω6 concentrations reaching 2.54 and 0.80g/L, respectively.

  11. Volatile fatty acids production from marine macroalgae by anaerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Nhan; Nam, Woo Joong; Jeon, Young Joong; Yoon, Hyon Hee

    2012-11-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced from the marine macroalgae, Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinite by anaerobic fermentation using a microbial community derived from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Methanogen inhibitor (iodoform), pH control, substrate concentration, and alkaline and thermal pretreatments affected VFA productivity. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids were the main products. A maximum VFA concentration of 15.2g/L was obtained from 50 g/L of L. japonica in three days at 35°C and pH 6.5-7.0. Pretreatment with 0.5 N NaOH improved VFA productivity by 56% compared to control. The result shows the applicability of marine macroalgae as biomass feedstock for the production of VFAs which can be converted to mixed alcohol fuels.

  12. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  13. Prescription omega-3 fatty acid products containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).

    PubMed

    Brinton, Eliot A; Mason, R Preston

    2017-01-31

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has multiple actions potentially conferring cardiovascular benefit, including lowering serum triglyceride (TG) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels and potentially reducing key steps in atherogenesis. Dietary supplements are a common source of omega-3 fatty acids in the US, but virtually all contain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in addition to EPA, and lipid effects differ between DHA and EPA. Contrary to popular belief, no over-the-counter omega-3 products are available in the US, only prescription products and dietary supplements. Among the US prescription omega-3 products, only one contains EPA exclusively (Vascepa); another closely related prescription omega-3 product also contains highly purified EPA, but is approved only in Japan and is provided in different capsule sizes. These high-purity EPA products do not raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, even in patients with TG levels >500 mg/dL, in contrast to the increase in LDL-C levels with prescription omega-3 products that also contain DHA. The Japanese prescription EPA product was shown to significantly reduce major coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients when added to statin therapy in the Japan EPA Lipid Intervention Study (JELIS). The effects of Vascepa on cardiovascular outcomes are being investigated in statin-treated patients with high TG levels in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events With EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT).

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC VERNEUIL FURNACE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HIGH TEMPERATURE, *PLASMA JETS, *REFRACTORY MATERIALS, ALTERNATING CURRENT, CELLULOSE ACETATES, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, CRYSTALS , GAS DISCHARGES, GROWTH ...PHYSIOLOGY), LABORATORY FURNACES, PLASMAS(PHYSICS), RADIOFREQUENCY GENERATORS, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, SINGLE CRYSTALS , THEORY.

  15. Furnace brazing under partial vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckown, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Brazing furnace utilizing partial-vacuum technique reduces tooling requirements and produces better bond. Benefit in that partial vacuum helps to dissociate metal oxides that inhibit metal flow and eliminates heavy tooling required to hold parts together during brazing.

  16. Ionic liquid supported acid/base-catalyzed production of biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lapis, Alexandre A M; de Oliveira, Luciane F; Neto, Brenno A D; Dupont, Jairton

    2008-01-01

    The transesterification (alcoholysis) reaction was successfully applied to synthesize biodiesel from vegetable oils using imidazolium-based ionic liquids under multiphase acidic and basic conditions. Under basic conditions, the combination of the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMINTf2), alcohols, and K2CO3 (40 mol %) results in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil in high yields (>98%) and purity. H2SO4 immobilized in BMINTf2 efficiently promotes the transesterification reaction of soybean oil and various primary and secondary alcohols. In this multiphase process the acid is almost completely retained in the ionic liquid phase, while the biodiesel forms a separate phase. The recovered ionic liquid containing the acid could be reused at least six times without any significant loss in the biodiesel yield or selectivity. In both catalytic processes (acid and base), the reactions proceed as typical multiphasic systems in which the formed biodiesel accumulates as the upper phase and the glycerol by-product is selectively captured by the alcohol-ionic liquid-acid/base phase. Classical ionic liquids such as 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and hexafluorophosphate are not stable under these acidic or basic conditions and decompose.

  17. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

    1987-04-16

    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A virtual crystallization furnace for solar silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, I.; Franke, D.; Krumbe, W.; Liebermann, J.

    1994-12-31

    Blocks of silicon for photovoltaic applications are economically crystallized in large casting furnaces. The quality of the material is determined by the velocity of the crystallization front, the flatness of the liquid-solid interface and the thermal gradients in the solid during cooling. The process cycle time, which is determined by the rate of crystallization and cooling, has a large effect on the process economic viability. Traditionally trial and error was used to determine the process control parameters, the success of which depended on the operator`s experience and intuition. This paper presents a numerical model, which when completed by a fitted data set, constitutes a virtual model of a real crystallization furnace, the Virtual Crystallization Furnace (VCF). The time-temperature distribution during the process cycle is the main output, which includes a display of actual liquid-solid front position. Moreover, solidification velocity, temperature gradients and thermal stresses can be deduced from this output. The time needed to run a simulation on a modern work-station is approximately 1/6 of real process time, thereby allowing the user to make many process variations at very reasonable costs. Therefore the VCF is a powerful tool for optimizing the process in order to reduce cycle time and to increase product quality.

  19. Formation of Amino Acid Thioesters for Prebiotic Peptide Synthesis: Catalysis By Amino Acid Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The origin of life can be described as a series of events in which a prebiotic chemical process came increasingly under the control of its catalytic products. In our search for this prebiotic process that yielded catalytic takeover products (such as polypeptides), we have been investigating a reaction system that generates peptide-forming amino acid thioesters from formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and ammonia in the presence of thiols. As shown below, this model process begins by aldol condensation of formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde to give trioses and releases. These sugars then undergo beta-dehydration yielding their respective alpha-ketoaldehydes. Addition of ammonia to the alpha-ketoaldehydes yields imines which can either: (a) rearrange in the presence of thesis to give amino acid thioesters or (be react with another molecule of aldehyde to give imidazoles. This 'one-pot' reaction system operates under mild aqueous conditions, and like modem amino acid biosynthesis, uses sugar intermediates which are converted to products by energy-yielding redox reactions. Recently, we discovered that amino acids, such as the alanine reaction product, catalyze the first and second steps of the process. In the presence of ammonia the process also generates other synthetically useful products, like the important biochemical -- pyruvic acid.

  20. Succinic acid production from sucrose by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Dai, Wenyu; Xi, Yonglan; Wu, Mingke; Kong, Xiangping; Ma, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Min; Chen, Kequan; Wei, Ping

    2014-02-01

    In this study, sucrose, a reproducible disaccharide extracted from plants, was used as the carbon source for the production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113. During serum bottle fermentation, the succinic acid concentration reached 57.1g/L with a yield of 71.5%. Further analysis of the sucrose utilization pathways revealed that sucrose was transported and utilized via a sucrose phosphotransferase system, sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase, and a fructose PTS. Compared to glucose utilization in single pathway, more pathways of A. succinogenes NJ113 are dependent on sucrose utilization. By changing the control strategy in a fed-batch culture to alleviate sucrose inhibition, 60.5g/L of succinic acid was accumulated with a yield of 82.9%, and the productivity increased by 35.2%, reaching 2.16g/L/h. Thus utilization of sucrose has considerable potential economics and environmental meaning.

  1. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of transgenic switchgrass for sugar production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu; Xu, Jiele; Wang, Ziyu; Cheng, Jay J; Li, Ruyu; Qu, Rongda

    2012-01-01

    Conventional Alamo switchgrass and its transgenic counterparts with reduced/modified lignin were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment for improved sugar production. At 150 °C, the effects of acid concentration (0.75%, 1%, 1.25%) and residence time (5, 10, 20, 30 min) on sugar productions in pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated, with the optimal pretreatment conditions determined for each switchgrass genotype based on total sugar yield and the amounts of sugar degradation products generated during the pretreatment. The results show that genetic engineering, although did not cause an appreciable lignin reduction, resulted in a substantial increase in the ratio of acid soluble lignin:acid insoluble lignin, which led to considerably increased sugar productions in both pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. At an elevated threshold concentration of combined 5-hydroxyfuranmethal and furfural (2.0 g/L), the overall carbohydrate conversions of conventional switchgrass and its transgenic counterparts, 10/9-40 and 11/5-47, reached 75.9%, 82.6%, and 82.2%, respectively.

  2. Production of gaba (γ - Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods.

  3. Towards large scale fermentative production of succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Mickel L A; van Gulik, Walter M

    2014-12-01

    Fermentative production of succinic acid (SA) from renewable carbohydrate feed-stocks can have the economic and sustainability potential to replace petroleum-based production in the future, not only for existing markets, but also new larger volume markets. To accomplish this, extensive efforts have been undertaken in the field of strain construction and metabolic engineering to optimize SA production in the last decade. However, relatively little effort has been put into fermentation process development. The choice for a specific host organism determines to a large extent the process configuration, which in turn influences the environmental impact of the overall process. In the last five years, considerable progress has been achieved towards commercialization of fermentative production of SA. Several companies have demonstrated their confidence about the economic feasibility of fermentative SA production by transferring their processes from pilot to production scale.

  4. Lip-hung retort furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, P.B.

    1986-08-05

    A fluidized bed furnace is described which consists of: a furnace housing including an outer shell; a furnace base and an outer top plate secured to the respective lower and upper ends of the furnace housing; a vertical retort having an opened upper end and an opened lower end, the retort being disposed in an opening formed in the outer top plate and extending downwardly into the center of the furnace housing; heat insulating material disposed between the outer shell and the vertical retort; a retort base assembly being adapted for closing the lower end of the vertical retort; upper support means for supporting the upper end of the vertical retort on top of the outer top plate so as to permit downward growth only during thermal expansion; the upper support means including an annular flange formed integrally with the sidewalls of the retort at the upper end thereof and being adapted to be fixedly mounted to the outer surface of the outer top plate; lower support means interposed between the lower surface of the retort base assembly and the upper surface of the furnace base for supporting substantially all the weight of the retort, the weight of the load of a fluidizable media, and the weight of a load of material to be heat treated.

  5. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  6. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  7. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  8. [Recovery of Staphylococcus aureus after acid injury in milk products].

    PubMed

    Assis, E M; De Carvalho, E P; Asquieri, E R; Robbs, P G

    1994-01-01

    The growth behavior of Staphylococcus aureus in fresh Cheese (Minas and Muzzarella) during their shelf-life was studied. The possible injury of this microorganism caused by the increasing acidity was also investigated. Raw milk was inoculated with 10(6) cells/ml (S. aureus FRIA-100) and the cheese production was performed according to normal procedures. Minas and muzzarella cheese were stored at 7 degrees C for 40 and 60 days, respectively. At 2-3 days intervals, the following analysis were performed: acidity, pH, S. aureus counting using agar Baird Parker by the traditional methods and by the method recommended by the American Public Health Association to evaluate the reparation of injured cells. We had a secure indication of the presence of injured S. aureus when acidity was in the range of 0.7 to 0.8% expressed in lactic acid and when the cycle was 1.3 log higher than the traditional one.

  9. Lactic acid production from xylose by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Maas, Ronald H W; Bakker, Robert R; Eggink, Gerrit; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2006-10-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is considered nowadays to be an economically attractive carbohydrate feedstock for large-scale fermentation of bulk chemicals such as lactic acid. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae is able to grow in mineral medium with glucose as sole carbon source and to produce optically pure L(+)-lactic acid. Less is known about the conversion by R. oryzae of pentose sugars such as xylose, which is abundantly present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. This paper describes the conversion of xylose in synthetic media into lactic acid by ten R. oryzae strains resulting in yields between 0.41 and 0.71 g g(-1). By-products were fungal biomass, xylitol, glycerol, ethanol and carbon dioxide. The growth of R. oryzae CBS 112.07 in media with initial xylose concentrations above 40 g l(-1) showed inhibition of substrate consumption and lactic acid production rates. In case of mixed substrates, diauxic growth was observed where consumption of glucose and xylose occurred subsequently. Sugar consumption rate and lactic acid production rate were significantly higher during glucose consumption phase compared to xylose consumption phase. Available xylose (10.3 g l(-1)) and glucose (19.2 g l(-1)) present in a mild-temperature alkaline treated wheat straw hydrolysate was converted subsequently by R. oryzae with rates of 2.2 g glucose l(-1) h(-1) and 0.5 g xylose l(-1) h(-1). This resulted mainly into the product lactic acid (6.8 g l(-1)) and ethanol (5.7 g l(-1)).

  10. Inhibition of succinic acid production in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli by neutralizing agent, organic acids, and osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Christian; Helmerius, Jonas; Hodge, David; Berglund, Kris A; Rova, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The economical viability of biochemical succinic acid production is a result of many processing parameters including final succinic acid concentration, recovery of succinate, and the volumetric productivity. Maintaining volumetric productivities >2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) is important if production of succinic acid from renewable resources should be competitive. In this work, the effects of organic acids, osmolarity, and neutralizing agent (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3), and Na2CO3) on the fermentative succinic acid production by Escherichia coli AFP184 were investigated. The highest concentration of succinic acid, 77 g L(-1), was obtained with Na2CO3. In general, irrespective of the base used, succinic acid productivity per viable cell was significantly reduced as the concentration of the produced acid increased. Increased osmolarity resulting from base addition during succinate production only marginally affected the productivity per viable cell. Addition of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine to cultures resulted in an increased aerobic growth rate and anaerobic glucose consumption rate, but decreased succinic acid yield. When using NH4OH productivity completely ceased at a succinic acid concentration of approximately 40 g L(-1). Volumetric productivities remained at 2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) for up to 10 h longer when K- or Na-bases where used instead of NH4OH. The decrease in cellular succinic acid productivity observed during the anaerobic phase was found to be due to increased organic acid concentrations rather than medium osmolarity.

  11. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production.

  12. Alternative respiration and fumaric acid production of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shuai; Xu, Qing; Huang, He; Li, Shuang

    2014-06-01

    Under the conditions of fumaric acid fermentation, Rhizopus oryzae ME-F14 possessed at least two respiratory systems. The respiration of mycelia was partially inhibited by the cytochrome respiration inhibitor antimycin A or the alternative respiration inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid and was completely inhibited in the presence of both antimycin A and salicylhydroxamic acid. During fumaric acid fermentation process, the activity of alternative respiration had a great correlation with fumaric acid productivity; both of them reached peak at the same time. The alternative oxidase gene, which encoded the mitochondrial alternative oxidase responsible for alternative respiration in R. oryzae ME-F14, was cloned and characterized in Escherichia coli. The activity of alternative respiration, the alternative oxidase gene transcription level, as well as the fumaric acid titer were measured under different carbon sources and different carbon-nitrogen ratios. The activity of alternative respiration was found to be comparable to the transcription level of the alternative oxidase gene and the fumaric acid titer. These results indicated that the activity of the alternative oxidase was regulated at the transcription stage under the conditions tested for R. oryzae ME-F14.

  13. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  14. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    PubMed

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs.

  15. Comparison of closed-vessel and focused open-vessel microwave dissolution for determination of cadmium, copper, lead, and selenium in wheat, wheat products, corn bran, and rice flour by transverse-heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gawalko, E J; Nowicki, T W; Babb, J; Tkachuk, R; Wu, S

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Se in cereal samples. An atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transverse-heated graphite furnace with Zeeman background correction was used for all determinations. Sample preparation was performed by closed-vessel microwave digestion using nitric acid and focused openvessel microwave digestion using nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide. Both techniques were evaluated by using 15 cereal reference materials and comparing results with certified or reference values for each element. Cereal reference standards obtained from the Community Bureau of Reference (Europe), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA), the National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan), the National Research Centre for Certified Reference Materials (People's Republic of China), and the Canadian Grain Commission were used. Application of a series of t-tests, conducted according to Sidak's modified Bonerroni t-procedure, showed that both techniques yielded accurate results for cereal reference materials. Some differences from certified and reference values, however, were found for each element.

  16. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOEpatents

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  17. Wood burning furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Lillo, A.D.

    1986-03-25

    An improved furnace for burning wood is described which is resistant to creosote deposits from smoke. It consists of: an upright frame; a fire box carried by the frame and having a door for the insertion of the wood; a heat exchanger carried on the fire box and having an interior chamber with a top and bottom; means connecting the fire box and the heat exchanger and directing smoke from the fire box into the exchanger chamber; a chimney stack fixed to and extending upwardly from the exchanger to discharge smoke, the stack also extending substantially downwardly within the exchanger chamber to receive smoke from adjacent the bottom of the chamber to thereby retain hot smoke adjacent the top of the exchanger for an increased time interval to allow additional heat transfer from the smoke to the exchanger; an insulative housing carried on the frame to define an air plenum within the housing and about the fire box and exchanger to permit air in the plenum to be heated by contact with the fire box and the exchanger; and an air inlet for cold air to enter the plenum and an air outlet by which heated air may leave the plenum.

  18. Glucose-stimulated acrolein production from unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Medina-Navarro, R; Duran-Reyes, G; Diaz-Flores, M; Hicks, J J; Kumate, J

    2004-02-01

    Glucose auto-oxidation may be a significant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also be important in the lipid peroxidation process, accompanied by the release of toxic reactive products. We wanted to demonstrate that acrolein can be formed directly and actively from free fatty acids in a hyperglycemic environment. A suspension of linoleic and arachidonic acids (2.5 mM) was exposed to different glucose concentrations (5, 10 and 15 mmol/L) in vitro. The samples were extracted with organic solvents, partitioned, followed at 255-267 nm, and analysed using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. The total release of aldehydes significantly (P < 0.01) increased from 1.0 to 5.1, 8.3 and 13.1 micromol/L after 6 hours of incubation, proportional to glucose concentrations. It was possible to verify a correlate hydroperoxide formation as well. Among the lipid peroxidation products, acrolein (5% of total) and its condensing product, 4-hydroxy-hexenal, were identified. From the results presented here, it was possible to demonstrate the production of acrolein, probably as a fatty acid product, due to free radicals generated from the glucose auto-oxidation process. The results led us to propose that acrolein, which is one of the most toxic aldehydes, is produced during hyperglycemic states, and may lead to tissue injury, as one of the initial problems to be linked to high levels of glucose in vivo.

  19. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons. With excellent viscoelasticity, high moisture retention capacity, and high biocompatibility, HA finds a wide-range of applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Traditionally HA was extracted from rooster combs, and now it is mainly produced via streptococcal fermentation. Recently the production of HA via recombinant systems has received increasing interest due to the avoidance of potential toxins. This work summarizes the research history and current commercial market of HA, and then deeply analyzes the current state of microbial production of HA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant systems, and finally discusses the challenges facing microbial HA production and proposes several research outlines to meet the challenges. PMID:22088095

  20. Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by Basfia succiniciproducens.

    PubMed

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Smith, Holly; St John, Peter C; Mohagheghi, Ali; Peterson, Darren J; Black, Brenna A; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T

    2016-08-01

    The production of chemicals alongside fuels will be essential to enhance the feasibility of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Succinic acid (SA), a naturally occurring C4-diacid, is a primary intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a promising building block chemical that has received significant industrial attention. Basfia succiniciproducens is a relatively unexplored SA-producing bacterium with advantageous features such as broad substrate utilization, genetic tractability, and facultative anaerobic metabolism. Here B. succiniciproducens is evaluated in high xylose-content hydrolysates from corn stover and different synthetic media in batch fermentation. SA titers in hydrolysate at an initial sugar concentration of 60g/L reached up to 30g/L, with metabolic yields of 0.69g/g, and an overall productivity of 0.43g/L/h. These results demonstrate that B. succiniciproducens may be an attractive platform organism for bio-SA production from biomass hydrolysates.

  1. Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by Basfia succiniciproducens

    SciTech Connect

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Smith, Holly; St. John, Peter C.; Mohagheghi, Ali; Peterson, Darren J.; Black, Brenna A.; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-05-09

    The production of chemicals alongside fuels will be essential to enhance the feasibility of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Succinic acid (SA), a naturally occurring C4-diacid, is a primary intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a promising building block chemical that has received significant industrial attention. Basfia succiniciproducens is a relatively unexplored SA-producing bacterium with advantageous features such as broad substrate utilization, genetic tractability, and facultative anaerobic metabolism. Here B. succiniciproducens is evaluated in high xylose-content hydrolysates from corn stover and different synthetic media in batch fermentation. SA titers in hydrolysate at an initial sugar concentration of 60 g/L reached up to 30 g/L, with metabolic yields of 0.69 g/g, and an overall productivity of 0.43 g/L/h. These results demonstrate that B. succiniciproducens may be an attractive platform organism for bio-SA production from biomass hydrolysates.

  2. Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by Basfia succiniciproducens

    DOE PAGES

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Smith, Holly; St. John, Peter C.; ...

    2016-05-09

    The production of chemicals alongside fuels will be essential to enhance the feasibility of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Succinic acid (SA), a naturally occurring C4-diacid, is a primary intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a promising building block chemical that has received significant industrial attention. Basfia succiniciproducens is a relatively unexplored SA-producing bacterium with advantageous features such as broad substrate utilization, genetic tractability, and facultative anaerobic metabolism. Here B. succiniciproducens is evaluated in high xylose-content hydrolysates from corn stover and different synthetic media in batch fermentation. SA titers in hydrolysate at an initial sugar concentration of 60 g/L reached up tomore » 30 g/L, with metabolic yields of 0.69 g/g, and an overall productivity of 0.43 g/L/h. These results demonstrate that B. succiniciproducens may be an attractive platform organism for bio-SA production from biomass hydrolysates.« less

  3. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  4. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH SIDE OF SINGLE FURNACE, SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  5. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound.

  6. Microbial products trigger amino acid exudation from plant roots.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald A; Fox, Tama C; King, Maria D; Bhuvaneswari, T V; Teuber, Larry R

    2004-09-01

    Plants naturally cycle amino acids across root cell plasma membranes, and any net efflux is termed exudation. The dominant ecological view is that microorganisms and roots passively compete for amino acids in the soil solution, yet the innate capacity of roots to recover amino acids present in ecologically relevant concentrations is unknown. We find that, in the absence of culturable microorganisms, the influx rates of 16 amino acids (each supplied at 2.5 microm) exceed efflux rates by 5% to 545% in roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Medicago truncatula, maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Several microbial products, which are produced by common soil microorganisms such as Pseudomonas bacteria and Fusarium fungi, significantly enhanced the net efflux (i.e. exudation) of amino acids from roots of these four plant species. In alfalfa, treating roots with 200 microm phenazine, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, or zearalenone increased total net efflux of 16 amino acids 200% to 2,600% in 3 h. Data from (15)N tests suggest that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol blocks amino acid uptake, whereas zearalenone enhances efflux. Thus, amino acid exudation under normal conditions is a phenomenon that probably reflects both active manipulation and passive uptake by microorganisms, as well as diffusion and adsorption to soil, all of which help overcome the innate capacity of plant roots to reabsorb amino acids. The importance of identifying potential enhancers of root exudation lies in understanding that such compounds may represent regulatory linkages between the larger soil food web and the internal carbon metabolism of the plant.

  7. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Dodge, Cleveland; Chendrayan, Krishnachetty; Quinby, Helen L.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  10. Production of Fumaric Acid in 20-Liter Fermentors

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, R. A.; Lagoda, A. A.; Misenheimer, T. J.; Smith, M. L.; Anderson, R. F.; Jackson, R. W.

    1962-01-01

    The conditions necessary for the production of fumaric acid in 20-liter fermentors by fermentation of glucose with Rhizopus arrhizus strain NRRL 2582 were determined. Continuous neutralization of fumaric acid was necessary for optimal yields. Yields of the calcium salt were in excess of 65 g of fumaric acid from 100 g of sugar consumed during fermentation of sugar concentrations of 10 to 16%. Conditions established for calcium fumarate production include a simple mineral salts medium, 0.5 v:v:min aeration rate, 300 rev/min agitation rate in a baffled tank, 33 C incubation temperature, CaCO3 to neutralize the acid formed, and a 4 to 5% (v/v) vegetative inoculum. A suitable procedure and medium for the preparation of a vigorous vegetative inoculum were established. The tendency for calcium fumarate fermentations to foam excessively was controlled with a proper antifoam agent added prior to sterilization of the medium and again at daily intervals during fermentation. The production of soluble sodium or potassium fumarates was inhibited when the concentration of fumarates reached 3.5 to 4.0%. No means of overcoming this inhibition was found. Starches and certain other grain-derived carbohydrates were fermented to form calcium fumarate in flask experiments with approximately the same efficiency as was glucose. PMID:16349614

  11. Production of Fumaric Acid in 20-Liter Fermentors.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, R A; Lagoda, A A; Misenheimer, T J; Smith, M L; Anderson, R F; Jackson, R W

    1962-01-01

    The conditions necessary for the production of fumaric acid in 20-liter fermentors by fermentation of glucose with Rhizopus arrhizus strain NRRL 2582 were determined. Continuous neutralization of fumaric acid was necessary for optimal yields. Yields of the calcium salt were in excess of 65 g of fumaric acid from 100 g of sugar consumed during fermentation of sugar concentrations of 10 to 16%. Conditions established for calcium fumarate production include a simple mineral salts medium, 0.5 v:v:min aeration rate, 300 rev/min agitation rate in a baffled tank, 33 C incubation temperature, CaCO(3) to neutralize the acid formed, and a 4 to 5% (v/v) vegetative inoculum. A suitable procedure and medium for the preparation of a vigorous vegetative inoculum were established. The tendency for calcium fumarate fermentations to foam excessively was controlled with a proper antifoam agent added prior to sterilization of the medium and again at daily intervals during fermentation. The production of soluble sodium or potassium fumarates was inhibited when the concentration of fumarates reached 3.5 to 4.0%. No means of overcoming this inhibition was found. Starches and certain other grain-derived carbohydrates were fermented to form calcium fumarate in flask experiments with approximately the same efficiency as was glucose.

  12. Valproic Acid Induces Antimicrobial Compound Production in Doratomyces microspores

    PubMed Central

    Zutz, Christoph; Bacher, Markus; Parich, Alexandra; Kluger, Bernhard; Gacek-Matthews, Agnieszka; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Strauss, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in public health is the rising number of antibiotic resistant pathogens and the lack of novel antibiotics. In recent years there is a rising focus on fungi as sources of antimicrobial compounds due to their ability to produce a large variety of bioactive compounds and the observation that virtually every fungus may still contain yet unknown so called “cryptic,” often silenced, compounds. These putative metabolites could include novel bioactive compounds. Considerable effort is spent on methods to induce production of these “cryptic” metabolites. One approach is the use of small molecule effectors, potentially influencing chromatin landscape in fungi. We observed that the supernatant of the fungus Doratomyces (D.) microsporus treated with valproic acid (VPA) displayed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and two methicillin resistant clinical S. aureus isolates. VPA treatment resulted in enhanced production of seven antimicrobial compounds: cyclo-(L-proline-L-methionine) (cPM), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, cyclo-(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), indole-3-carboxylic acid, phenylacetic acid (PAA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The production of the antimicrobial compound phenyllactic acid was exclusively detectable after VPA treatment. Furthermore three compounds, cPM, cFP, and PAA, were able to boost the antimicrobial activity of other antimicrobial compounds. cPM, for the first time isolated from fungi, and to a lesser extent PAA, are even able to decrease the minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin in MRSA strains. In conclusion we could show in this study that VPA treatment is a potent tool for induction of “cryptic” antimicrobial compound production in fungi, and that the induced compounds are not exclusively linked to the secondary metabolism. Furthermore this is the first discovery of the rare diketopiperazine cPM in fungi. Additionally we could demonstrate that cPM and PAA boost antibiotic activity

  13. Combinatorial Effects of Fatty Acid Elongase Enzymes on Nervonic Acid Production in Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Dongxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production. PMID:26121034

  14. Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Leys, E.J.; Kellems, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The authors used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm) increased threefold after growth stimulation and was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative steady-state level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid in the nucleus. However, the increase in the nuclear level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid was not accompanied by a significant increase in the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes. These data indicated that the relative rate of appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm depends on the relative stability of the dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid sequences in the nucleus and is not dependent on the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes.

  15. [Metabolic engineering of wild acid-resistant yeast for L-lactic acid production].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhongyang; Wang, Zhengxiang; Shi, Guiyang

    2011-07-01

    In order to obtain a yeast strain able to produce L-lactic acid under the condition of low pH and high lactate content, one wild acid-resistant yeast strain isolated from natural samples, was found to be able to grow well in YEPD medium (20 g/L glucose, 20 g/L tryptone, 10 g/L yeast extract, adjusted pH 2.5 with lactic acid) without consuming lactic acid. Based on further molecular biological tests, the strain was identified as Candida magnolia. Then, the gene ldhA, encoding a lactate dehydrogenase from Rhizopus oryzae, was cloned into a yeast shuttle vector containing G418 resistance gene. The resultant plasmid pYX212-kanMX-ldhA was introduced into C. magnolia by electroporation method. Subsequently, a recombinant L-lactic acid producing yeast C. magnolia-2 was obtained. The optimum pH of the recombinant yeast is 3.5 for lactic acid production. Moreover, the recombinant strain could grow well and produce lactic acid at pH 2.5. This recombinant yeast strain could be useful for producing L-lactic acid.

  16. Lactide Synthesis and Chirality Control for Polylactic acid Production.

    PubMed

    Van Wouwe, Pieter; Dusselier, Michiel; Vanleeuw, Evelien; Sels, Bert

    2016-05-10

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a very promising biodegradable, renewable, and biocompatible polymer. Aside from its production, its application field is also increasing, with use not only in commodity applications but also as durables and in biomedicine. In the current PLA production scheme, the most expensive part is not the polymerization itself but obtaining the building blocks lactic acid (LA) and lactide, the actual cyclic monomer for polymerization. Although the synthesis of LA and the polymerization have been studied systematically, reports of lactide synthesis are scarce. Most lactide synthesis methods are described in patent literature, and current energy-intensive, aselective industrial processes are based on archaic scientific literature. This Review, therefore, highlights new methods with a technical comparison and description of the different approaches. Water-removal methodologies are compared, as this is a crucial factor in PLA production. Apart from the synthesis of lactide, this Review also emphasizes the use of chemically produced racemic lactic acid (esters) as a starting point in the PLA production scheme. Stereochemically tailored PLA can be produced according to such a strategy, giving access to various polymer properties.

  17. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for riboflavin production

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kiran; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of their health and nutritional requirements, and in this context, vitamins produced in situ by microbes may suit their needs and expectations. B groups vitamins are essential components of cellular metabolism and among them riboflavin is one of the vital vitamins required by bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Here, we focus on the importance of microbial production of riboflavin over chemical synthesis. In addition, genetic abilities for riboflavin biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria are discussed. Genetically modified strains by employing genetic engineering and chemical analogues have been developed to enhance riboflavin production. The present review attempts to collect the currently available information on riboflavin production by microbes in general, while placing greater emphasis on food grade lactic acid bacteria and human gut commensals. For designing riboflavin‐enriched functional foods, proper selection and exploitation of riboflavin‐producing lactic acid bacteria is essential. Moreover, eliminating the in situ vitamin fortification step will decrease the cost of food production. PMID:26686515

  19. Metabolic engineering of acid resistance elements to improve acid resistance and propionic acid production of Propionibacterium jensenii.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ningzi; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    2016-06-01

    Propionic acid (PA) and its salts are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Microbial production of PA by propionibacteria is a typical product-inhibited process, and acid resistance is crucial in the improvement of PA titers and productivity. We previously identified two key acid resistance elements-the arginine deaminase and glutamate decarboxylase systems-that protect propionibacteria against PA stress by maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis. In this study, we attempted to improve the acid resistance and PA production of Propionibacterium jensenii ATCC 4868 by engineering these elements. Specifically, five genes (arcA, arcC, gadB, gdh, and ybaS) encoding components of the arginine deaminase and glutamate decarboxylase systems were overexpressed in P. jensenii. The activities of the five enzymes in the engineered strains were 26.7-489.0% higher than those in wild-type P. jensenii. The growth rates of the engineered strains decreased, whereas specific PA production increased significantly compared with those of the wild-type strain. Among the overexpressed genes, gadB (encoding glutamate decarboxylase) increased PA resistance and yield most effectively; the PA resistance of P. jensenii-gadB was more than 10-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain, and the production titer, yield, and conversion ratio of PA reached 10.81 g/L, 5.92 g/g cells, and 0.56 g/g glycerol, representing increases of 22.0%, 23.8%, and 21.7%, respectively. We also investigated the effects of introducing these acid resistance elements on the transcript levels of related enzymes. The results showed that the expression of genes in the engineered pathways affected the expression of the other genes. Additionally, the intracellular pools of amino acids were altered as different genes were overexpressed, which may further contribute to the enhanced PA production. This study provides an effective strategy for improving PA production in propionibacteria; this

  20. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  1. 76 FR 37407 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... ] b. Standby Mode and Off Mode for Electric Furnaces c. Standby Mode and Off Mode for Mobile Home Oil... product that provides cooling only. It is often paired with a separate electric or gas furnace...%........ AFUE = 75%. . Weatherized oil-fired AFUE = 78%........ AFUE = 78%. . Electric ....... AFUE =...

  2. Carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain via mixed culture fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaobo; Wan, Caixia

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating carboxylic acid production from brewer's spent grain (BSG) via mixed culture fermentation. The results showed that the distribution of fermentation products was significantly affected by pH conditions and the addition of electron donors. Lactic acid was the dominant component under acidic and alkaline conditions while volatile fatty acids (VFAs) became dominant under the neutral condition. Furthermore, the neutral condition favored the chain elongation of carboxylic acids, especially with ethanol as the electron donor. Ethanol addition enhanced valeric acid and caproic acid production by 44% and 167%, respectively. Lactic acid addition also had positive effects on VFAs production under the neutral condition but limited to C2-C4 products. As a result, propionic acid and butyric acid production was increased by 109% and 152%, respectively. These findings provide substantial evidence for regulating carboxylic acid production during mixed culture fermentation of BSG by controlling pH and adding electron donors.

  3. Towards sustainable sources for omega-3 fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-04-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docohexaenoic acid (DHA), provide significant health benefits for brain function/development and cardiovascular conditions. However, most EPA and DHA for human consumption is sourced from small fatty fish caught in coastal waters and, with depleting global fish stocks, recent research has been directed towards more sustainable sources. These include aquaculture with plant-based feeds, krill, marine microalgae, microalgae-like protists and genetically-modified plants. To meet the increasing demand for EPA and DHA, further developments are needed towards land-based sources. In particular large-scale cultivation of microalgae and plants is likely to become a reality with expected reductions in production costs, yield increasese and the adequate addressing of genetically modified food acceptance issues.

  4. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss.

  5. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  6. Control of product selectivity using solid acids for the catalytic addition of phenol to hydroxy fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid catalyzed reactions of hydroxy fatty acids, such as ricinoleic and lesquerolic, in the presence of phenolics can lead to four products or product groups. These include simple dehydration to dienoic acids, cyclization to epoxides, Friedel-Crafts alkylations of the double bonds, or ether for...

  7. Spectral characterization of acid weathering products on Martian basaltic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yant, Marcella; Rogers, A. Deanne; Nekvasil, Hanna; Zhao, Yu-Yan Sara; Bristow, Tom

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, direct infrared spectral analyses of glasses with Martian compositions, altered under controlled conditions, are presented in order to assess surface weathering and regolith development on Mars. Basaltic glasses of Irvine and Backstay composition were synthesized and altered using H2SO4-HCl acid solutions (pH 0-4). Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman, and infrared spectral measurements were acquired for each reaction product. Infrared spectra were also acquired from previously synthesized and altered glasses with Pathfinder-measured compositions. Acid alteration on particles in the most acidic solutions (pH ≤ 1) yielded sulfate-dominated visible near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) spectra with some silica influence. Spectral differences between alteration products from each starting material were present, reflecting strong sensitivity to changes in mineral assemblage. In the TIR, alteration features were preserved after reworking and consolidation. In the VNIR, hydrated sulfate features were present along with strong negative spectral slopes. Although such signatures are found in a few isolated locations on Mars with high-resolution spectrometers, much of the Martian surface lacks these characteristics, suggesting the following: acid alteration occurred at pH ≥ 2; small amounts of sulfates were reworked with unaltered material; there is a prevalence of intermediate-to-high silica glass in Martian starting materials (more resistant to acid alteration); primary or added sulfur were lacking; alteration features are obscured by dust; and/or large-scale, pervasive, acid sulfate weathering of the Martian surface did not occur. These results highlight the need to better understand the spectral properties of altered Martian surface material in order to enhance the interpretation of remote spectra for altered terrains.

  8. Microbiological Production of Gibberellic Acid in Glucose Media1

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Marroquin, A.

    1963-01-01

    Gibberellic acid production from various substrates was studied in 43 strains of Fusarium, among which F. moniliforme strain IOC-3326 was selected as the best producer. Experiments were carried out in shaker flasks and pilot plant fermentors. The results indicate that the best substrate for gibberellic acid production with this strain is composed of the following: glucose, 20 g; corn steep liquor, 25 g; ammonium nitrate, 2.6 g; monopotassium phosphate, 0.5 g; potassium sulfate, 0.2 g; and water, 1000 ml. Glucose, ammonium nitrate, and corn steep liquor were found to be critical. With this medium, maximal yields of 1196 mg per liter in shaker flasks and 997 mg per liter in fermentors were produced. PMID:14075053

  9. Current advances in biological production of propionic acid.

    PubMed

    Eş, Ismail; Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Koubaa, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    Propionic acid and its derivatives are considered "Generally Recognized As Safe" food additives and are generally used as an anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory agent, herbicide, and artificial flavor in diverse industrial applications. It is produced via biological pathways using Propionibacterium and some anaerobic bacteria. However, its commercial chemical synthesis from the petroleum-based feedstock is the conventional production process bit results in some environmental issues. Novel biological approaches using microorganisms and renewable biomass have attracted considerable recent attention due to economic advantages as well as great adaptation with the green technology. This review provides a comprehensive overview of important biotechnological aspects of propionic acid production using recent technologies such as employment of co-culture, genetic and metabolic engineering, immobilization technique and efficient bioreactor systems.

  10. Oxalic acid production by citric acid-producing Aspergillus niger overexpressing the oxaloacetate hydrolase gene oahA.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Keiichi; Hattori, Takasumi; Honda, Yuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2014-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is used worldwide in the industrial production of citric acid. However, under specific cultivation conditions, citric acid-producing strains of A. niger accumulate oxalic acid as a by-product. Oxalic acid is used as a chelator, detergent, or tanning agent. Here, we sought to develop oxalic acid hyperproducers using A. niger as a host. To generate oxalic acid hyperproducers by metabolic engineering, transformants overexpressing the oahA gene, encoding oxaloacetate hydrolase (OAH; EC 3.7.1.1), were constructed in citric acid-producing A. niger WU-2223L as a host. The oxalic acid production capacity of this strain was examined by cultivation of EOAH-1 under conditions appropriate for oxalic acid production with 30 g/l glucose as a carbon source. Under all the cultivation conditions tested, the amount of oxalic acid produced by EOAH-1, a representative oahA-overexpressing transformant, exceeded that produced by A. niger WU-2223L. A. niger WU-2223L and EOAH-1 produced 15.6 and 28.9 g/l oxalic acid, respectively, during the 12-day cultivation period. The yield of oxalic acid for EOAH-1 was 64.2 % of the maximum theoretical yield. Our method for oxalic acid production gave the highest yield of any study reported to date. Therefore, we succeeded in generating oxalic acid hyperproducers by overexpressing a single gene, i.e., oahA, in citric acid-producing A. niger as a host.

  11. Properties of steel foundry electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized with Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Guray; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil; Karaca, Gizem

    2007-10-01

    Electric arc furnace dust from steel production is generated in considerable amounts worldwide and needs to be treated as hazardous waste. The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of electric arc furnace dust solidified/stabilized by using Portland cement. Mortar and paste samples were prepared with varying waste-to-binder ratios between 0% and 90%. A comprehensive experimental program was designed including XRF characterization, setting time, unconfined compressive strength, and toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and acid neutralization capacity (ANC) tests. The results were evaluated in order to determine if the solidified /stabilized product can be disposed of at a landfill site with domestic waste or at a segregated landfill. The effect of using sand on S/S performance was also investigated. The results indicated that the solidification /stabilization process using PC helps the heavy metals to be bound in the cement matrix, but the TCLP leaching results exceeded the EPA landfilling limits. The SPLP leaching results conformed to the limits implying that the waste or S/S products can be disposed of at a segregated landfill; however the low ANC of the S/S products reveals that there may be leaching in the long-term. The sand used in the mortar samples adversely affected the S/S performance, causing higher heavy metal leaching levels, and lower pH levels in the leachate after the TCLP extraction than those measured in the leachate of the paste samples.

  12. Engineering fungal de novo fatty acid synthesis for short chain fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Jan; Pavlovic, Renata; Fischer, Manuel; Boles, Eckhard; Grininger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are considered strategically important platform compounds that can be accessed by sustainable microbial approaches. Here we report the reprogramming of chain-length control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase (FAS). Aiming for short-chain FAs (SCFAs) producing baker's yeast, we perform a highly rational and minimally invasive protein engineering approach that leaves the molecular mechanisms of FASs unchanged. Finally, we identify five mutations that can turn baker's yeast into a SCFA producing system. Without any further pathway engineering, we achieve yields in extracellular concentrations of SCFAs, mainly hexanoic acid (C6-FA) and octanoic acid (C8-FA), of 464 mg l−1 in total. Furthermore, we succeed in the specific production of C6- or C8-FA in extracellular concentrations of 72 and 245 mg l−1, respectively. The presented technology is applicable far beyond baker's yeast, and can be plugged into essentially all currently available FA overproducing microorganisms. PMID:28281527

  13. Yeast Acid Phosphatases and Phytases: Production, Characterization and Commercial Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Parvinder; Satyanarayana, T.

    The element phosphorus is critical to all life forms as it forms the basic component of nucleic acids and ATP and has a number of indispensable biochemical roles. Unlike C or N, the biogeochemical cycling of phosphorus is very slow, and thus making it the growth-limiting element in most soils and aquatic systems. Phosphohydrolases (e.g. acid phosphatases and phytases) are enzymes that break the C-O-P ester bonds and provide available inorganic phosphorus from various inassimilable organic forms of phosphorus like phytates. These enzymes are of significant value in effectively combating phosphorus pollution. Although phytases and acid phosphatases are produced by various plants, animals and micro organisms, microbial sources are more promising for the production on a commercial scale. Yeasts being the simplest eukaryotes are ideal candidates for phytase and phos-phatase research due to their mostly non-pathogenic and GRAS status. They have not, however, been utilized to their full potential. This chapter focuses attention on the present state of knowledge on the production, characterization and potential commercial prospects of yeast phytases and acid phosphatases.

  14. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  15. Production of ascorbic acid releasing biomaterials for pelvic floor repair

    PubMed Central

    Mangır, Naşide; Bullock, Anthony J.; Roman, Sabiniano; Osman, Nadir; Chapple, Christopher; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Objective An underlying abnormality in collagen turnover is implied in the occurrence of complications and recurrences after mesh augmented pelvic floor repair surgeries. Ascorbic acid is a potent stimulant of collagen synthesis. The aim of this study is to produce ascorbic acid releasing poly-lactic acid (PLA) scaffolds and evaluate them for their effects on extracellular matrix production and the strength of the materials. Materials and methods Scaffolds which contained either l-ascorbic acid (AA) and Ascorbate-2-Phosphate (A2P) were produced with emulsion electrospinning. The release of both drugs was measured by UV spectrophotometry. Human dermal fibroblasts were seeded on scaffolds and cultured for 2 weeks. Cell attachment, viability and total collagen production were evaluated as well as mechanical properties. Results No significant differences were observed between AA, A2P, Vehicle and PLA scaffolds in terms of fibre diameter and pore size. The encapsulation efficiency and successful release of both AA and A2P were demonstrated. Both AA and A2P containing scaffolds were significantly more hydrophilic and stronger in both dry and wet states compared to PLA scaffolds. Fibroblasts produced more collagen on scaffolds containing either AA or A2P compared to cells grown on control scaffolds. Conclusion This study is the first to directly compare the two ascorbic acid derivatives in a tissue engineered scaffold and shows that both AA and A2P releasing electrospun PLA scaffolds increased collagen production of fibroblasts to similar extents but AA scaffolds seemed to be more hydrophilic and stronger compared to A2P scaffolds. Statement of significance Mesh augmented surgical repair of the pelvic floor currently relies on non-degradable materials which results in severe complications in some patients. There is an unmet and urgent need for better pelvic floor repair materials. Our current understanding suggests that the ideal material should be able to better

  16. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-03

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), to be located at the Savannah River Site SRS, is a combined development and testing effort by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Australian National Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulating package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces types considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment.

  17. Anti-Atherosclerotic Actions of Azelaic acid, an End Product of Linoleic Acid Peroxidation, in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Dmitry; Selvarajan, Krithika; Garelnabi, Mahdi; Brophy, Larissa; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2009-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with the accumulation of oxidized lipids in arterial lesions. Recently we studied the degradation of peroxidized linoleic acid and suggested that oxidation is an essential process that results in the generation of terminal products, namely mono- and dicarboxylic acids that may lack the pro-atherogenic effects of peroxidized lipids. In continuation of that study, we tested the effects of azelaic acid (AzA), one of the end products of linoleic acid peroxidation, on the development of atherosclerosis using low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr−/−) mice. Methods and results LDLr−/− mice were fed with a high fat and high cholesterol Western diet (WD group). Another group of animals were fed the same diet with AzA supplementation (WD+AzA group). After four months of feeding, mice were sacrificed and atherosclerotic lesions were measured. The results showed that the average lesion area in WD+AzA group was 38% (p<0.001) less as compared to WD group. The athero-protective effect of AzA was not related to changes in plasma lipid content. AzA supplementation decreased the level of CD68 macrophage marker by 34% (p<0.05). Conclusions The finding that AzA exhibits an anti-atherogenic effect suggests that oxidation of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes into carboxylic acids could be an important step in the body’s defense against oxidative damage. PMID:19880116

  18. The sugar model: catalysis by amines and amino acid products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia and amines (including amino acids) were shown to catalyze the formation of sugars from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, and the subsequent conversion of sugars to carbonylcontaining products under the conditions studied (pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C). Sterically unhindered primary amines were better catalysts than ammonia, secondary amines, and sterically hindered primary amines (i.e. alpha-aminoisobutyric acid). Reactions catalyzed by primary amines initially consumed formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde about 15-20 times faster than an uncatalyzed control reaction. The amine-catalyzed reactions yielded aldotriose (glyceraldehyde), ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone), aldotetroses (erythrose and threose), ketotetrose (erythrulose), pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, pyruvate, glyoxylate, and several unindentified carbonyl products. The concentrations of the carbonyl products, except pyruvate and ketotetrose, initially increased and then declined during the reaction, indicating their ultimate conversion to other products (like larger sugars or pyruvate). The uncatalyzed control reaction yielded no pyruvate or glyoxylate, and only trace amounts of pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde and glyoxal. In the presence of 15 mM catalytic primary amine, such as alanine, the rates of triose and pyruvaldehyde of synthesis were about 15-times and 1200-times faster, respectively, than the uncatalyzed reaction. Since previous studies established that alanine is synthesized from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde via pyruvaldehyde as its direct precursor, the demonstration that the alanine catalyzes the conversion of glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde to pyruvaldehyde indicates that this synthetic pathway is capable of autocatalysis. The relevance of this synthetic process, named the Sugar Model, to the origin of life is discussed.

  19. Effects of Dietary Potential Acid Production Value on Productivity in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Kim, E. T.; Lee, S. S.; Kim, H. J.; Song, J. Y.; Kim, C.-H.; Ha, Jong K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the potential acid production value (PAPV) of major diets and to determine the relationship between dietary PAPV and dairy production traits. Estimation of PAPV of major cattle feeds was based on an in vitro technique, which determined the degree of Ca dissociation from CaCO3. Data on feeds and production traits were collected on 744 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows from five different farms. Grains had high PAPV with variable protein sources and by-products. High PAPV feedstuffs had a higher total gas production and lower pH compared to those with low PAPV. Dietary PAPV had a positive correlation with intake of dry matter, NDF, ADF, milk yield and milk solid production but a negative correlation with milk protein and milk fat concentration. Current results indicate that dietary PAPV can be utilized in predicting dairy production traits. PMID:25049610

  20. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  1. Trial injection of prereduced fine ore through blast furnace tuyere

    SciTech Connect

    Okuno, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi; Takamoto, Yasushi; Kunitomo, Kazuya

    1996-12-31

    There is a growing demand for greatly raising the productivity of hot metal which is produced with low cost at the existing blast furnace because large investments for installing a new blast furnace is required nowadays. In this connection, the injection of fine ore through the blast furnace tuyere is available as one of the techniques meeting the demand. There was a case where an attempt had ever been made to inject crude fine ore even in the past. In this case, it was aimed primarily at reducing Si content of hot metal. However, this was not put to practical use by the reason that the lower part of blast furnace was sensitively affected by heat fluctuation resulted from the endothermic reduction reaction of injected crude fine ore. The increase of heat fluctuation gave difficulty in maintenance of stable operation of the furnace. This presentation devotes discussions on the effect of injection of prereduced fine ore and some technical questions to be worked out for injection.

  2. A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2013-09-11

    More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale.

  3. Production of Jatropha biodiesel fuel over sulfonic acid-based solid acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Yuan; Lao-Ubol, Supranee; Mochizuki, Takehisa; Abe, Yohko; Toba, Makoto; Yoshimura, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized platelet SBA-15 mesoporous silica with an acid capacity of 2.44mmol H(+) g-cat(-1) (shortly termed 15SA-SBA-15-p) was one-pot synthesized by co-condensation method. When applied as solid acid catalyst in synthesis of Jatropha biodiesel fuel (BDF), the 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst showed higher activity and resistances to water and free fatty acid (FFA) than commercial sulfonic resins of Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13. For the continuous Jatropha BDF production, a steady 75-78wt% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content was obtained over 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst at 150°C for 75h, whereas the Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13 catalysts were quickly deactivated due to the decomposition of thermally unstable framework and serious leaching of sulfonic acids. More importantly, the quality, stability and cold flow characteristic of Jatropha BDF synthesized by 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst were better than those synthesized by Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13 catalysts, making the blending with petro-diesel an easy task.

  4. Blast furnaces make way for new steel technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrey, G.; Parkinson, G.; Moore, S.

    1995-03-01

    Increasingly stringent environmental regulations, aging production units, and a competitive market are forcing iron and steelmakers to improve the environmental performance and cost efficiencies of their processes. The traditional integrated steel unit isn`t obsolete -- yet. Blast furnaces will be around for at least another 15 years. However, traditional technology is in for some changes, and stepped up rivalry from electric arc furnace minimills and ironmaking processes that use gas or coal. The paper discusses direct iron making processes, the DRI-minimill connection, the iron carbide process, and reclaiming iron from waste.

  5. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  6. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  7. 10 CFR 429.18 - Residential furnaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Residential furnaces. 429.18 Section 429.18 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.18 Residential furnaces. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential furnaces;...

  8. Recycling of an electric arc furnace flue dust to obtain high grade ZnO.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Oscar; Clemente, Carmen; Alonso, Manuel; Alguacil, Francisco Jose

    2007-03-06

    The production of steel in electric arc furnace (EAF) generates a by-product called EAF dusts. These steelmaking flue dusts are classified in most industrialized countries as hazardous residues because the heavy metals contained in them, tend to leach under slightly acidic rainfall conditions. However, and at the same time they contain zinc species which can be used as a source to obtain valuable by-products. The present investigation shows results on the processing of an EAF flue dust using ammonium carbonate solutions. Once zinc is dissolved: ZnO + 4NH3 + H2O --> Zn(NH3)4(2+) + 2OH- with other impurities (i.e. cadmium and copper), these are eliminated from the zinc solution via cementation with metallic zinc. The purified zinc solution was evaporated (distilled) until precipitation of a zinc carbonate species, which then was calcined to yield a zinc oxide of a high grade. For the unattacked dust residue from the leaching operation, mainly composed of zinc ferrite, several options can be considered: back-recycling to the furnace, further treatment by sodium hydroxide processing or a more safely dumping due to its relatively inertness.

  9. 9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF FOUNDRY FURNACE, DEPLETED URANIUM INGOTS, BERYLLIUM INGOTS, AND ALUMINUM SHAPES WERE PRODUCED IN THE FOUNDRY. (10/30/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Interaction effects of lactic acid and acetic acid at different temperatures on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in corn mash.

    PubMed

    Graves, Tara; Narendranath, Neelakantam V; Dawson, Karl; Power, Ronan

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of lactic acid and acetic acid on ethanol production by S. cerevisiae in corn mash, as influenced by temperature, were examined. Duplicate full factorial experiments (three lactic acid concentrations x three acetic acid concentrations) were performed to evaluate the interaction between lactic and acetic acids on the ethanol production of yeast at each of the three temperatures, 30, 34, and 37 degrees C. Corn mash at 30% dry solids adjusted to pH 4 after lactic and acetic acid addition was used as the substrate. Ethanol production rates and final ethanol concentrations decreased (P<0.001) progressively as the concentration of combined lactic and acetic acids in the corn mash increased and the temperature was raised from 30 to 37 degrees C. At 30 degrees C, essentially no ethanol was produced after 96 h when 0.5% w/v acetic acid was present in the mash (with 0.5, 2, and 4% w/v lactic acid). At 34 and 37 degrees C, the final concentrations of ethanol produced by the yeast were noticeably reduced by the presence of 0.3% w/v acetic acid and >or=2% w/v lactic acid. It can be concluded that, as in previous studies with defined media, lactic acid and acetic acid act synergistically to reduce ethanol production by yeast in corn mash. In addition, the inhibitory effects of combined lactic and acetic acid in corn mash were more apparent at elevated temperatures.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine...

  16. Microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an attractive route to produce liquid transportation fuels and commodity oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recently, genes and enzymes, which comprise metabolic pathways for producing fatty acid-derived compounds (e.g. esters, alkanes, olefins, ketones, alcohols, polyesters) have been elucidated and used in engineered microbial hosts. The resulting strains often generate products at low percentages of maximum theoretical yields, leaving significant room for metabolic engineering. Economically viable processes will require strains to approach theoretical yields, particularly for replacement of petroleum-derived fuels. This review will describe recent progress toward this goal, highlighting the scientific discoveries of each pathway, ongoing biochemical studies to understand each enzyme, and metabolic engineering strategies that are being used to improve strain performance. PMID:23541503

  17. Maximization of volatile fatty acids production from alginate in acidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong Duc; Seon, Jiyun; Lee, Seong Chan; Song, Minkyung; Woo, Hee-Chul

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimum fermentative condition of alginate with the respect to the simultaneous effects of alginate concentration and initial pH to maximize the production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) and alcohols. The results showed that the alginate fermentation was significantly affected by initial pH than by alginate concentration and there was no interaction between the two variables. The optimum condition was 6.2g alginate/L and initial pH 7.6 with a maximum TVFAs yield of 37.1%. Acetic acids were the main constituents of the TVFAs mixtures (i.e., 71.9-95.5%), while alcohols (i.e., ethanol, butanol, and propanol) were not detected.

  18. Training Guidelines: Glass Furnace Operators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    Technological development in the glass industry is constantly directed towards producing high quality glass at low operating costs. Particularly, changes have taken place in melting methods which mean that the modern furnace operator has greater responsibilities than any of his predecessors. The complexity of control systems, melting rates, tank…

  19. Acoustical Measurement Of Furnace Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Shakkottai; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Simple probes withstand severe conditions, yet give spatially-resolved temperature readings. Prototype acoustical system developed to measure temperatures from ambient to 1,800 degree F in such structures as large industrial lime kilns and recovery-boiler furnaces. Pulses of sound reflected from obstructions in sensing tube. Speed of sound and temperature in each segment deduced from travel times of pulses.

  20. Continuous cultivation of photosynthetic bacteria for fatty acids production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Ji-Hye; Hwang, Yuhoon; Kang, Seoktae; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, we introduced a novel approach for microbial fatty acids (FA) production. Photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131, were cultivated in a continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor (CFSTR) at various substrate (lactate) concentrations. At hydraulic retention time (HRT) 4d, cell concentration continuously increased from 0.97 g dcw/L to 2.05 g dcw/L as lactate concentration increased from 30 mM to 60mM. At 70 mM, however, cell concentration fluctuated with incomplete substrate degradation. By installing a membrane unit to CFSTR, a stable performance was observed under much higher substrate loading (lactate 100mM and HRT 1.5d). A maximum cell concentration of 16.2g dcw/L, cell productivity of 1.9 g dcw/L/d, and FA productivity of 665 mg FA/L/d were attained, and these values were comparable with those achieved using microalgae. The FA content of R. sphaeroides was around 35% of dry cell weight, mainly composed of vaccenic acid (C18:1, omega-7).

  1. Engineering a Cyanobacterial Cell Factory for Production of Lactic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Angermayr, S. Andreas; Paszota, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has become a versatile tool to facilitate production of bulk chemicals, fuels, etc. Accordingly, CO2 has been exploited via cyanobacterial metabolism as a sustainable carbon source of biofuel and bioplastic precursors. Here we extended these observations by showing that integration of an ldh gene from Bacillus subtilis (encoding an l-lactate dehydrogenase) into the genome of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 leads to l-lactic acid production, a phenotype which is shown to be stable for prolonged batch culturing. Coexpression of a heterologous soluble transhydrogenase leads to an even higher lactate production rate and yield (lactic acid accumulating up to a several-millimolar concentration in the extracellular medium) than those for the single ldh mutant. The expression of a transhydrogenase alone, however, appears to be harmful to the cells, and a mutant carrying such a gene is rapidly outcompeted by a revertant(s) with a wild-type growth phenotype. Furthermore, our results indicate that the introduction of a lactate dehydrogenase rescues this phenotype by preventing the reversion. PMID:22865063

  2. Engineering a cyanobacterial cell factory for production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Angermayr, S Andreas; Paszota, Michal; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2012-10-01

    Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has become a versatile tool to facilitate production of bulk chemicals, fuels, etc. Accordingly, CO(2) has been exploited via cyanobacterial metabolism as a sustainable carbon source of biofuel and bioplastic precursors. Here we extended these observations by showing that integration of an ldh gene from Bacillus subtilis (encoding an l-lactate dehydrogenase) into the genome of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC6803 leads to l-lactic acid production, a phenotype which is shown to be stable for prolonged batch culturing. Coexpression of a heterologous soluble transhydrogenase leads to an even higher lactate production rate and yield (lactic acid accumulating up to a several-millimolar concentration in the extracellular medium) than those for the single ldh mutant. The expression of a transhydrogenase alone, however, appears to be harmful to the cells, and a mutant carrying such a gene is rapidly outcompeted by a revertant(s) with a wild-type growth phenotype. Furthermore, our results indicate that the introduction of a lactate dehydrogenase rescues this phenotype by preventing the reversion.

  3. Exporters for Production of Amino Acids and Other Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Eggeling, Lothar

    2016-11-11

    Microbes are talented catalysts to synthesize valuable small molecules in their cytosol. However, to make full use of their skills - and that of metabolic engineers - the export of intracellularly synthesized molecules to the culture medium has to be considered. This step is as essential as is each step for the synthesis of the favorite molecule of the metabolic engineer, but is frequently not taken into account. To export small molecules via the microbial cell envelope, a range of different types of carrier proteins is recognized to be involved, which are primary active carriers, secondary active carriers, or proteins increasing diffusion. Relevant export may require just one carrier as is the case with L-lysine export by Corynebacterium glutamicum or involve up to four carriers as known for L-cysteine excretion by Escherichia coli. Meanwhile carriers for a number of small molecules of biotechnological interest are recognized, like for production of peptides, nucleosides, diamines, organic acids, or biofuels. In addition to carriers involved in amino acid excretion, such carriers and their impact on product formation are described, as well as the relatedness of export carriers which may serve as a hint to identify further carriers required to improve product formation by engineering export.

  4. Putrescine production from different amino acid precursors by lactic acid bacteria from wine and cider.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Antonella; Pietroniro, Roberta; Doria, Francesca; Pessione, Enrica; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the production of biogenic amines and particularly putrescine in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) related to wine and cider. We applied an analytical protocol that involves the use of PCR and TLC techniques to determine the production of putrescine from different precursors. Moreover, we also studied the ability of the Lactobacillus and Pediococcus tested to produce histamine and tyramine. The results showed that the majority of the Lactobacillus brevis analyzed harbour both AgDI and tdc genes and are tyramine and putrescine producers. Conversely, among the other LAB tested, only one Lactobacillus hilgardii and one Pediococcus pentosaceus produced putrescine. The AgDI gene was also detected in two other LAB (Lactobacillus mali and Pediococcus parvulus), but no putrescine production was observed. Finally, hdc gene and histamine production were found in strains (L. hilgardii 5211, isolated from wine, and Lactobacillus casei 18, isolated from cider) that were not putrescine producers.

  5. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  6. Enhanced volatile fatty acid production from excess sludge by combined free nitrous acid and rhamnolipid treatment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing-Lian; Guo, Wan-Qian; Bao, Xian; Zheng, He-Shan; Yin, Ren-Li; Feng, Xiao-Chi; Luo, Hai-Chao; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-01-01

    VFA production from excess sludge (ES) was greatly enhanced by a low-cost and high-efficient treatment: 0.67mg/L free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment combined with 0.04g/g TSS rhamnolipid (RL) addition (FNA+RL), which significantly shortened fermentation time to 3days and increased VFA production to 352.26mgCOD/g VSS (5.42 times higher than raw ES). Propionic and acetic acids were the two leading components (71.86% of the total VFA). Mechanism investigation manifested FNA+RL improved the biodegradability of ES, achieved positive synergetic effect on solubilization, hydrolysis and acidification efficiencies, and inhibited methanation. Microbial community distribution further explained the above phenomena. The bacteria related to polysaccharides/protein utilization and VFA generation, including Clostridium, Megasphaera and Proteiniborus, were mainly observed in FNA+RL, whereas gas-forming bacteria Anaerolineae and acid-consuming bacteria Proteobacteria were assuredly suppressed. Besides, Propionibacterineae associated with propionic acid generation was exclusively enriched in sole RL and FNA+RL.

  7. Radical-derived oxidation products of 5-aminosalicylic acid and N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Klotz, U

    1994-11-04

    5-Aminosalicylic acid is an agent effective in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Its ability to scavenge radicals is considered to be a major factor responsible for its therapeutic efficacy. In this study oxidation products of aminosalicylates with hydroxyl radicals were produced. The compounds that could be discovered by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis originate from a 1,4-benzoquinone monoimine intermediate which subsequently undergoes multiple reactions such as hydrolysis, reductive 1,4-Michael addition, reoxidation and decarboxylation. Some of these products could represent metabolites formed under in vivo conditions and thus provide a tool for screening biological material from subjects under different clinical conditions.

  8. Perspectives of engineering lactic acid bacteria for biotechnological polyol production.

    PubMed

    Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-04-01

    Polyols are sugar alcohols largely used as sweeteners and they are claimed to have several health-promoting effects (low-caloric, low-glycemic, low-insulinemic, anticariogenic, and prebiotic). While at present chemical synthesis is the only strategy able to assure the polyol market demand, the biotechnological production of polyols has been implemented in yeasts, fungi, and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of microorganisms particularly suited for polyol production as they display a fermentative metabolism associated with an important redox modulation and a limited biosynthetic capacity. In addition, LAB participate in food fermentation processes, where in situ production of polyols during fermentation may be useful in the development of novel functional foods. Here, we review the polyol production by LAB, focusing on metabolic engineering strategies aimed to redirect sugar fermentation pathways towards the synthesis of biotechnologically important sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Furthermore, possible approaches are presented for engineering new fermentation routes in LAB for production of arabitol, ribitol, and erythritol.

  9. A Concise Synthesis of Berkelic Acid Inspired by Combining the Natural Products Spicifernin and Pulvilloric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Christopher F.; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Paradise, Christopher L.; De Brabander, Jef K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a concise synthesis of the structurally novel fungal extremophile metabolite berkelic acid – an effort leading to an unambiguous assignment of C22 stereochemistry. Our synthetic approach was inspired by the recognition that berkelic acid displays structural characteristics reminiscent of two other fungal metabolites, spicifernin and pulvilloric acid. Based on this notion, we executed a synthesis that features a Ag-catalyzed cascade dearomatization-cycloisomerization-cycloaddition sequence to couple two natural product inspired fragments. Notably, a spicifernin-like synthon was prepared with defined C22 stereochemistry in seven steps and three purifications (24–28% overall yield). A potentially useful anti-selective conjugate propargylation reaction was developed to introduce the vicinal stereodiad. An enantioconvergent synthesis of the other coupling partner, the aromatic precursor to pulvilloric acid methyl ester, was achieved in eight steps and 48% overall yield. The total synthesis of berkelic acid and its C22 epimer was thus completed in 10 steps longest linear sequence and 11–27% overall yield. PMID:19722648

  10. The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids on threo-Ds-isocitric acid production from rapeseed oil by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Allayarov, Ramil K; Lunina, Julia N; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-04-01

    The effect of oxalic and itaconic acids, the inhibitors of the isocitrate lyase, on the production of isocitric acid by the wild strain Yarrowia lipolytica VKM Y-2373 grown in the medium containing rapeseed oil was studied. In the presence of oxalic and itaconic acids, strain Y. lipolytica accumulated in the medium isocitric acid (70.0 and 82.7 g/L, respectively) and citric acid (23.0 and 18.4 g/L, respectively). In control experiment, when the inhibitors were not added to the medium, the strain accumulated isocitric and citric acids at concentrations of 62.0 and 28.0 g/L, respectively. Thus, the use of the oxalic and itaconic acids as additives to the medium is a simple and convenient method of isocitric acid production with a minimum content of citric acid.

  11. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  12. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10251 - Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10251 Fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-09-366) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10464 - Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid, reaction products with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10464 Fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acid, reaction products with alkanolamine (PMN P-03-461) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4461 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4461 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane... identified generically as a hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with octane (PMN P-99-0052) is subject...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4385 - Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4385 Hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane. (a) Chemical... hydrofluoric acid, reaction products with heptane (PMN P-98-1036; CAS No. 207409-71-0) is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... boric acid production subcategory. 415.280 Section 415.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric...

  8. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Jonathan E.

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  9. Relationship between morphology and itaconic acid production by Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Liu, Jie; Liu, Liming

    2014-02-28

    The morphology of filamentous fungi closely correlates with the productivity in submerged culture. Using itaconic acid (IA) production by Aspergillus terreus as a research model, the quantitative relationship between the growth form of A. terreus and IA production was investigated. IA fermentation was scaled up from shake flasks to a 7 L stirred tank bioreactor based on the quantitative relationship. Our results demonstrated the following: (1) Three morphologies of A. terreus were formed by changing the inoculum level and shape of the flask. (2) Investigation of the effects of the three morphologies on broth rheology and IA production revealed the higher yield of IA on dry cell weight (DCW, IA/DCW) and yield of glucose on DCW (consumed glucose/DCW) were achieved during clump growth of A. terreus. (3) By varying the KH2PO4 concentration and culture temperature, the relationships between clump diameter and IA production were established, demonstrating that the yield of IA on DCW (R(2) = 0.9809) and yield of glucose on DCW (R(2) = 0.9421) were closely correlated with clump diameter. The optimum clump diameter range for higher IA production was 0.40-0.50 mm. (4) When the clump diameter was controlled at 0.45 mm by manipulating the mechanical stress in a 7 L fermentor, the yield of IA on DCW and yield of glucose on DCW were increased by 25.1% and 16.3%, respectively. The results presented in this study provide a potential approach for further enhancement of metabolite production by filamentous fungi.

  10. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  11. Direct current, closed furnace silicon technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.; Arvidson, A.N.

    1994-05-01

    The dc closed furnace technology for smelting silicon offers technical operating challenges, as well as, economic opportunities for off-gas recovery, reduced electrode consumption, reduced reductant oxidation losses, reduced energy consumption, and improved silicon recovery. The 10 mva dc closed furnace is located in East Selkirk, Manitoba. Construction of this pilot plant was started in September 1990. Following successful commissioning of the furnace in 1992, a number of smelting tests have been conducted aimed at optimization of the furnace operation and the raw material mix. The operation of a closed furnace is significantly different from an open furnace operation. The major difference being in the mechanical movement of the mix, off-gas recovery, and inability to observe the process. These differences made data collection and analysis critical in making operating decisions. This closed furnace was operated by computer control (state of the art in the smelling industry).

  12. Nutrient deficiency in the production of artemisinin, dihydroartemisinic acid, and artemisinic acid in Artemisia annua L.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S

    2007-03-07

    Artemisia annua became a valuable agricultural crop after the World Health Organization recommended artemisinin as a component of ACT (artemisinin-combination based therapies) for malaria in 2001. A cloned, greenhouse-grown, A. annua (Artemis) subjected to an acidic soil and macronutrient deficit was evaluated for artemisinin production. Lack of lime (L) and macronutrients (N, P, and K) reduced leaf biomass accumulation. When L was provided (pH 5.1), the highest average leaf biomass was achieved with the "complete" (+N, +P, +K, and +L) treatment (70.3 g/plant), and the least biomass was achieved with the untreated (-N, -P, -K, and -L) treatment (6.18 g/plant). The nutrient least required for biomass accumulation per plant (g) was K (49.0 g), followed by P (36.5 g) and N (14.3 g). The artemisinin concentration (g/100 g) was significantly higher (75.5%) in -K plants when compared to plants under the complete treatment (1.62 vs 0.93%). Although the artemisinin total yield (g/plant) was 21% higher in -K plants, it was not significantly different from plants under the complete treatment (0.80 vs 0.66 g/plant). There were no marked treatment effects for concentration (g/100 g) or yield (g/plant) of both dihydroartemisinic acid and artemisinic acid, although higher levels were achieved in plants under the complete or -K treatments. There was a positive and significant correlation between artemisinin and both artemisinic acid and dihydroartemisin acid, in g/100 g and g/plant. This is the first report where potassium deficiency significantly increases the concentration (g/100 g) of artemisinin. Thus, under a mild potassium deficiency, A. annua farmers could achieve similar gains in artemisinin/ha, while saving on potassium fertilization, increasing the profitability of artemisinin production.

  13. Euscaphic acid, a new hypoglycemic natural product from Folium Eriobotryae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Li, Wei-Lin; Wu, Ju-Lan; Ren, Bing-Ru; Zhang, Han-Qing

    2008-10-01

    Folium Eriobotryae has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time, and it is known to have many physiological actions such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tussive, expectorant and anti-diabetic. We have reported that the 70% ethanol extract of Folium Eriobotryae exerted a significant hypoglycemic effect to alloxan-diabetic mice. In this study, we isolated euscaphic acid, a natural product from Folium Eriobotryae, and investigated its hypoglycemic effect in normoglycemic and alloxan-diabetic mice. All effects had been compared with those of gliclazide. The plasma glucose levels were significantly lowered in normoglycemic mice treated with euscaphic acid compared to mice treated with 0.5% CMC-Na solution only. Moreover, the dosage of 50 mg/kg exerted a significant (P < 0.05) hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-diabetic mice after orally administration. The research proved that euscaphic acid is one of the active hypoglycemic constituents in Folium Eriobotryae, but the details of the mechanism need to be investigated further.

  14. Iron-catalyzed hydrogen production from formic acid.

    PubMed

    Boddien, Albert; Loges, Björn; Gärtner, Felix; Torborg, Christian; Fumino, Koichi; Junge, Henrik; Ludwig, Ralf; Beller, Matthias

    2010-07-07

    Hydrogen represents a clean energy source, which can be efficiently used in fuel cells generating electricity with water as the only byproduct. However, hydrogen generation from renewables under mild conditions and efficient hydrogen storage in a safe and reversible manner constitute important challenges. In this respect formic acid (HCO(2)H) represents a convenient hydrogen storage material, because it is one of the major products from biomass and can undergo selective decomposition to hydrogen and carbon dioxide in the presence of suitable catalysts. Here, the first light-driven iron-based catalytic system for hydrogen generation from formic acid is reported. By application of a catalyst formed in situ from inexpensive Fe(3)(CO)(12), 2,2':6'2''-terpyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline, and triphenylphosphine, hydrogen generation is possible under visible light irradiation and ambient temperature. Depending on the kind of N-ligands significant catalyst turnover numbers (>100) and turnover frequencies (up to 200 h(-1)) are observed, which are the highest known to date for nonprecious metal catalyzed hydrogen generation from formic acid. NMR, IR studies, and DFT calculations of iron complexes, which are formed under reaction conditions, confirm that PPh(3) plays an active role in the catalytic cycle and that N-ligands enhance the stability of the system. It is shown that the reaction mechanism includes iron hydride species which are generated exclusively under irradiation with visible light.

  15. Occurrence and role of lactic acid bacteria in seafood products.

    PubMed

    Françoise, Leroi

    2010-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fish flesh has long been disregarded because the high post-mortem pH, the low percentage of sugars, the high content of low molecular weight nitrogenous molecules and the low temperature of temperate waters favor the rapid growth of pH-sensitive psychrotolerant marine Gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium. In seafood packed in both vacuum (VP) and modified atmosphere (MAP) packaging commonly CO(2) enriched, the growth of the Gram-negative aerobic bacteria group (predominantly pseudomonads) is effectively inhibited and the number reached by LAB during storage is higher than that achieved in air but always several log units lower than the trimethylamine oxide (TMA-O) reducing and CO(2)-resistant organisms (Shewanella putrefaciens and Photobacterium phosphoreum). Accordingly, LAB are not of much concern in seafood neither aerobically stored nor VP and MAP. However, they may acquire great relevance in lightly preserved fish products (LPFP), including those VP or MAP. Fresh fish presents a very high water activity (aw) value (0.99). However, aw is reduced to about 0.96 when salt (typically 6% WP) is added to the product. As a result, aerobic Gram-negative bacteria are inhibited, which allows the growth of other organisms more resistant to reduced aw, i.e. LAB, and then they may acquire a central role in the microbial events occurring in the product. Changes in consumers' habits have led to an increase of convenient LPFP with a relative long shelf-life (at least 3 weeks) which, on the other hand, may constitute a serious problem from a safety perspective since Listeria monocytogenes and sometimes Clostridium botulinum (mainly type E) may able to grow. In any case the LAB function in marine products is complex, depending on species, strains, interaction with other bacteria and the food matrix. They may have no particular effect or they may be responsible for spoilage and, in certain cases, they may even exert

  16. Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge.

    PubMed

    Földi, Corinna; Dohrmann, Reiner; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.097mgkg(-1). In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8mgkg(-1) with a median of 1.63mgkg(-1), which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n=31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r=0.695; n=31; p<0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r=0.496; n=27; p=0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Finally, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

  17. Soluble phosphate fertilizer production using acid effluent from metallurgical industry.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Resende Filho, Itamar D P; Barreto, Matheus S; Soares, Aline R; Silva, Ivo R da; Vergütz, Leonardus; Melo, Leônidas C A; Soares, Emanuelle M B

    2016-01-15

    Preventive and effective waste management requires cleaner production strategies and technologies for recycling and reuse. Metallurgical industries produce a great amount of acid effluent that must be discarded in a responsible manner, protecting the environment. The focus of this study was to examine the use of this effluent to increase reactivity of some phosphate rocks, thus enabling soluble phosphate fertilizer production. The effluent was diluted in deionized water with the following concentrations 0; 12.5; 25; 50; 75% (v v(-1)), which were added to four natural phosphate rocks: Araxá, Patos, Bayovar and Catalão and then left to react for 1 h and 24 h. There was an increase in water (PW), neutral ammonium citrate (PNAC) and citric acid (PCA) soluble phosphorus fractions. Such increases were dependent of rock type while the reaction time had no significant effect (p < 0.05) on the chemical and mineralogical phosphate characteristics. Phosphate fertilizers with low toxic metal concentrations and a high level of micronutrients were produced compared to the original natural rocks. The minimum amount of total P2O5, PNAC and PW, required for national legislation for phosphate partially acidulated fertilizer, were met when using Catalão and the effluent at the concentration of 55% (v v(-1)). Fertilizer similar to partially acidulated phosphate was obtained when Bayovar with effluent at 37.5% (v v(-1)) was used. Even though fertilizers obtained from Araxá and Patos did not contain the minimum levels of total P2O5 required by legislation, they can be used as a nutrient source and for acid effluent recycling and reuse.

  18. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  19. Production of (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid by Arxula adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Biernacki, Mateusz; Riechen, Jan; Hähnel, Urs; Roick, Thomas; Baronian, Kim; Bode, Rüdiger; Kunze, Gotthard

    2017-12-01

    (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid can be used in industrial and health applications. The synthesis pathway comprises two enzymes, β-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase which convert cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA to (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid [(R)-3-HB] which is released into the culture medium. In the present study we used the non-conventional yeast, Arxula adeninivorans, for the synthesis enantiopure (R)-3-HB. To establish optimal production, we investigated three different endogenous yeast thiolases (Akat1p, Akat2p, Akat4p) and three bacterial thiolases (atoBp, thlp, phaAp) in combination with an enantiospecific reductase (phaBp) from Cupriavidus necator H16 and endogenous yeast reductases (Atpk2p, Afox2p). We found that Arxula is able to release (R)-3-HB used an existing secretion system negating the need to engineer membrane transport. Overexpression of thl and phaB genes in organisms cultured in a shaking flask resulted in 4.84 g L(-1) (R)-3-HB, at a rate of 0.023 g L(-1) h(-1) over 214 h. Fed-batch culturing with glucose as a carbon source did not improve the yield, but a similar level was reached with a shorter incubation period [3.78 g L(-1) of (R)-3-HB at 89 h] and the rate of production was doubled to 0.043 g L(-1) h(-1) which is higher than any levels in yeast reported to date. The secreted (R)-3-HB was 99.9% pure. This is the first evidence of enantiopure (R)-3-HB synthesis using yeast as a production host and glucose as a carbon source.

  20. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant.

  1. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing sources for their potential use as directional solidification furnaces. The research concentrated on a commercially available high temperature furnace using a zirconia ceramic tube as the heating element and an Arc Furnace based on a tube welder. The first objective was to assemble the zirconia furnace and construct parts needed to successfully perform experiments. The 2nd objective was to evaluate the zirconia furnace performance as a directional solidification furnace element. The 3rd objective was to establish a data base on materials used in the furnace construction, with particular emphasis on emissivities, transmissivities, and absorptivities as functions of wavelength and temperature. A 1-D and 2-D spectral radiation heat transfer model was developed for comparison with standard modeling techniques, and were used to predict wall and crucible temperatures. The 4th objective addressed the development of a SINDA model for the Arc Furnace and was used to design sample holders and to estimate cooling media temperatures for the steady state operation of the furnace. And, the 5th objective addressed the initial performance evaluation of the Arc Furnace and associated equipment for directional solidification. Results of these objectives are presented.

  2. Microbial production of itaconic acid: developing a stable platform for high product concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kuenz, Anja; Gallenmüller, Yvonne; Willke, Thomas; Vorlop, Klaus-Dieter

    2012-12-01

    Biotechnologically produced itaconic acid (IA) is a promising organic acid with a wide range of applications and the potential to open up new application fields in the area of polymer chemistry, pharmacy, and agriculture. In this study, a systematic process optimization was performed with an own isolated strain of Aspergillus terreus and transferred from a 250-mL to a 15-L scale. An IA concentration of 86.2 g/L was achieved within 7 days with an overall productivity of 0.51 g/(L h), a maximum productivity of 1.2 g/(L h), and a yield of 86 mol%. A cultivation of other well-known A. terreus strains with the developed process showed no significant differences. Based on this, a process is developed providing a high final IA concentration independent of the used strain combined with high reproducibility.

  3. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Production of Mixed-Acid Fermentation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Andreas H.; Gescher, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-acid fermentation end products have numerous applications in biotechnology. This is probably the main driving force for the development of multiple strains that are supposed to produce individual end products with high yields. The process of engineering Escherichia coli strains for applied production of ethanol, lactate, succinate, or acetate was initiated several decades ago and is still ongoing. This review follows the path of strain development from the general characteristics of aerobic versus anaerobic metabolism over the regulatory machinery that enables the different metabolic routes. Thereafter, major improvements for broadening the substrate spectrum of E. coli toward cheap carbon sources like molasses or lignocellulose are highlighted before major routes of strain development for the production of ethanol, acetate, lactate, and succinate are presented. PMID:25152889

  4. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    PubMed

    Röttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis.

  5. Biohydrogenation of Linoleic Acid by Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Cultured Dairy Products: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Gabriela Christina; De Dea Lindner, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have attracted significant attention due to their important physiological properties, which have been observed in humans. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) demonstrate the ability to produce CLA isomers (C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:2 trans-10, cis-12) from the linoleic acid (LA) present in milk or in synthetic media. CLA isomers can be synthesized in vitro by LAB using vegetable oils rich in LA. The aim of this review is to present an update on the studies that have been conducted on the production of CLA isomers from LA mainly by LAB and of the factors that influence this conversion (source and concentration of LA and fermentation conditions). In addition, this review presents the relationship between the consumption of CLA isomers and their health benefits in humans such as anti-atherosclerosis and anti-carcinogenic effects. There is considerable variation between the studies concerning the beneficial effects of CLA in animal models, which have not been reflected in human studies. This can be attributed to the differences in the doses of CLA isomers used and to the different sources of CLA. Furthermore, the regulatory and scientific information classifying the physiological properties of CLA, which serve as support for the claims of its potential as a functional ingredient, are presented. More research is needed to determine whether CLA production by LAB can be enhanced and to determine the optimal requirements for these microbial cultures. Furthermore, safety and efficacy of CLA consumption have to be investigated in the future. PMID:28231108

  6. Production of gluconic acid using Micrococcus sp.: optimisation of carbon and nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Joshi, V D; Sreekantiah, K R; Manjrekar, S P

    1996-01-01

    A process for production of gluconic acid from glucose by a Micrococcus sp. is described. More than 400 bacterial cultures isolated from local soil were tested for gluconic acid production. Three isolates, were selected on basis of their ability to produce gluconic acid and high titrable acidity. These were identified as Micrococcus sp. and were named M 27, M 54 and M 81. Nutritional and other parameters for maximum production of gluconic acid by the selected isolates were optimised. It was found that Micrococcus sp. isolate M 27 gave highest yield of 8.19 g gluconic acid from 9 g glucose utilised giving 91% conversion effeciency.

  7. Origin of haloacetic acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the process of water disinfection. Therefore their presence in foods can be correlated with the addition of or contact with treated water. To determine the origin of HAAs in milk and dairy products, firstly a chromatographic method was developed for their determination. The sample treatment involves deproteination of milk followed by derivatization/extraction of the HAAs in the supernatant. About 20% of the foods analyzed contained two HAAs - which in no case exceeded 2 μg L(-1), that can be ascribed to contamination from sanitizers usually employed in the dairy industry. The process of boiling tap water (containing HAAs) for the preparation of powdered infant formula did not remove them; therefore it would be advisable to prepare this type of milk with mineral water (free of HAAs). In addition, it is possible to establish if the milk has been adulterated with treated water through the determination of HAAs.

  8. Decomposition products of glycidyl esters of fatty acids by heating.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Wataru; Endo, Yasushi

    2017-03-01

    In this study, decomposition products of glycidyl palmitate (GP) of fatty acids heated at high temperature such as deep frying were investigated. When GP and tripalmitin (TP) were heated at 180 and 200 °C, they were decreased with heating time. The weight of GP was less than that of TP, although both GP and TP were converted to polar compounds after heating. The decomposition rate of GP was higher than TP. Both GP and TP produced considerable amounts of hydrocarbons and aldehydes during heating. Aldehydes produced from GP and TP included saturated aldehydes with carbon chain length of 3-10, while hydrocarbons consisted of carbon chain length of 8-15. It was observed that major hydrocarbons produced from GP during heating were pentadecane. Moreover, the level of carbon dioxide (CO2) released from GP was higher than that of TP. It was suggested that fatty acids in GE might be susceptible to decarboxylation. From these results, GP might be quickly decomposed to hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO2 besides polar compounds by heating, in comparison with TP.

  9. Production of oxalic acid by some fungi infected tubers.

    PubMed

    Faboya, O; Ikotun, T; Fatoki, O S

    1983-01-01

    Oxalic acid (as oxalate) was detected in four tubers commonly used for food in Nigeria-Dioscorea rotundata (White yam), Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato), Ipomoea batatas (Sweet potato), and Manihot esculenta (cassava). Whereas healthy I. batata had the highest oxalic acid content, healthy M. esculenta contained the lowest. When all tubers were artifically inoculated with four fungi-Penicillium oxalicum CURIE and THOM, Aspergillus niger VAN TIEGH, A. flavus and A. tamarii KITA, there was an increase in oxalate content/g of tuber tissue. The greatest amount of oxalate was produced by P. oxalicum in D. rotundata tuber. Consistently higher amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in infected sweet potato tuber than in any other tuber and consistently lower amounts of oxalate were produced by the four fungi in Irish potato tuber. Differences in the carbohydrate type present in the tubers and in the biosynthesis pathway are thought to be responsible for variation in the production of oxalate in the different tubers by the four fungi used.

  10. Vine Trimming Shoots as Substrate for Ferulic Acid Esterases Production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, N; Outeiriño, D; Torrado Agrasar, A; Domínguez, J M

    2017-02-01

    Ferulic acid esterases (FAE) possess a large variety of biotechnological applications mainly based on their ability to release ferulic acid from lignocellulosic matrixes. The use of vine trimming shoots (VTS), an agricultural waste, as substrate for the generation of this kind of esterases represents an attractive alternative to change the consideration of VTS from residue to resource. Furthermore, xylanase, cellobiase, and cellulase activities were quantified. Six microorganisms were screened for FAE production by solid-state fermentation, and the effects of the additional supplementation and substrate size were also tested. Finally, the process was scaled-up to a horizontal bioreactor where the influence of aeration in enzymatic activities was evaluated. Thus, the optimal FAE activity (0.44 U/g dry VTS) was attained by Aspergillus terreus CECT 2808, in non-additional supplementation media, using the larger particles size of substrate (≤ 5 mm) and at a flow rate of 0.7 L/min.

  11. Surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using Candida rugosa lipase.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Debajyoti; Sen, Ramkrishna; Basu, Jayanta Kumar; De, Sirshendu

    2010-01-01

    In this study, ricinoleic acid was produced on surfactant enhanced castor oil hydrolysis using Candida rugosa lipase. The most effective surfactant was Span 80. Employing fractional factorial design, the most suitable temperature and surfactant concentration were found to be 31 degrees C and 0.257% (w/w in buffer) respectively whereas pH, enzyme concentration, buffer concentration and agitation were identified as the most significant independent variables. A 2(4) full factorial central composite design was applied and the optimal conditions were found to be pH 7.0, enzyme concentration 7.42 mg/g oil, buffer concentration 0.20 g/g oil and agitation 1400 rpm with the maximum response of 76% in 4 h. The most important variable was pH, whereas enzyme and buffer concentrations also showed pronounced effect on response. This is the first report on the application of response surface methodology for optimizing surfactant enhanced ricinoleic acid production using C. rugosa lipase.

  12. Large-scale production of anhydrous nitric acid and nitric acid solutions of dinitrogen pentoxide

    DOEpatents

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Quong, Roland; Rigdon, Lester P.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for a large scale, electrochemical production of anhydrous nitric acid and N.sub.2 O.sub.5. The method includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous-HNO.sub.3 at the anode, while reducing aqueous HNO.sub.3 at the cathode, in a flow electrolyzer constructed of special materials. N.sub.2 O.sub.4 is produced at the cathode and may be separated and recycled as a feedstock for use in the anolyte. The process is controlled by regulating the electrolysis current until the desired products are obtained. The chemical compositions of the anolyte and catholyte are monitored by measurement of the solution density and the concentrations of N.sub.2 O.sub.4.

  13. Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the Δgox mutants. PMID:25401063

  14. Bacterial production of free fatty acids from freshwater macroalgal cellulose.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Spencer W; Marner, Wesley D; Brownson, Amy K; Lennen, Rebecca M; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Yoshitani, Jun; Zulkifly, Shahrizim; Graham, Linda E; Chaston, Sheena D; McMahon, Katherine D; Pfleger, Brian F

    2011-07-01

    The predominant strategy for using algae to produce biofuels relies on the overproduction of lipids in microalgae with subsequent conversion to biodiesel (methyl-esters) or green diesel (alkanes). Conditions that both optimize algal growth and lipid accumulation rarely overlap, and differences in growth rates can lead to wild species outcompeting the desired lipid-rich strains. Here, we demonstrate an alternative strategy in which cellulose contained in the cell walls of multicellular algae is used as a feedstock for cultivating biofuel-producing microorganisms. Cellulose was extracted from an environmental sample of Cladophora glomerata-dominated periphyton that was collected from Lake Mendota, WI, USA. The resulting cellulose cake was hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes to release fermentable glucose. The hydrolysis mixture was used to formulate an undefined medium that was able to support the growth, without supplementation, of a free fatty acid (FFA)-overproducing strain of Escherichia coli (Lennen et. al 2010). To maximize free fatty acid production from glucose, an isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible vector was constructed to express the Umbellularia californica acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase. Thioesterase expression was optimized by inducing cultures with 50 μM IPTG. Cell density and FFA titers from cultures grown on algae-based media reached 50% of those (∼90 μg/mL FFA) cultures grown on rich Luria-Bertani broth supplemented with 0.2% glucose. In comparison, cultures grown in two media based on AFEX-pretreated corn stover generated tenfold less FFA than cultures grown in algae-based media. This study demonstrates that macroalgal cellulose is a potential carbon source for the production of biofuels or other microbially synthesized compounds.

  15. Bacterial production of free fatty acids from freshwater macroalgal cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Hoovers, Spencer W.; Marner, Wesley D.; Brownson, Amy K.; Lennen, Rebecca M.; Wittkopp, Tyler M.; Yoshitani, Jun; Zulkifly, Shahrizim; Graham, Linda E.; Chaston, Sheena D.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant strategy for using algae to produce biofuels relies on the overproduction of lipids in microalgae with subsequent conversion to biodiesel (methyl-esters) or green diesel (alkanes). Conditions that both optimize algal growth and lipid accumulation rarely overlap, and differences in growth rates can lead to wild species outcompeting the desired lipid-rich strains. Here, we demonstrate an alternative strategy in which cellulose contained in the cell walls of multicellular algae is used as a feedstock for cultivating biofuel-producing micro-organisms. Cellulose was extracted from an environmental sample of Cladophora glomerata-dominated periphyton that was collected from Lake Mendota, WI, USA. The resulting cellulose cake was hydrolyzed by commercial enzymes to release fermentable glucose. The hydrolysis mixture was used to formulate an undefined medium that was able to support the growth, without supplementation, of a free fatty acid (FFA)-overproducing strain of Escherichia coli (Lennen et. al 2010). To maximize free fatty acid production from glucose, an isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible vector was constructed to express the Umbellularia californica acyl–acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase. Thioesterase expression was optimized by inducing cultures with 50 μM IPTG. Cell density and FFA titers from cultures grown on algae-based media reached 50% of those (~90 μg/mL FFA) cultures grown on rich Luria–Bertani broth supplemented with 0.2% glucose. In comparison, cultures grown in two media based on AFEX-pretreated corn stover generated tenfold less FFA than cultures grown in algae-based media. This study demonstrates that macroalgal cellulose is a potential carbon source for the production of biofuels or other microbially synthesized compounds. PMID:21643704

  16. Lactic acid production from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae without PDC or ADH deletion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of lactic acid from renewable sugars has received growing attention as lactic acid can be used for making renewable and bio-based plastics. However, most prior studies have focused on production of lactic acid from glucose despite cellulosic hydrolysates contain xylose as well as glucose....

  17. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9484 - Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9484 Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (generic). (a... generically as Dimer acid/rosin amidoamine reaction product (PMN P-99-0143) is subject to reporting under...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10211 - Octadecanoic acid, reaction products with diethylenetriamine and urea, acetates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Octadecanoic acid, reaction products... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10211 Octadecanoic acid, reaction... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as octadecanoic acid, reaction products...

  6. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  7. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  8. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  9. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  10. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  11. Wastes from bioethanol and beer productions as substrates for l(+) lactic acid production - A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra; Mladenović, Dragana; Radosavljević, Miloš; Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Pejin, Jelena; Mojović, Ljiljana

    2016-02-01

    Waste substrates from bioethanol and beer productions are cheap, abundant and renewable substrates for biorefinery production of lactic acid (LA) and variability in their chemical composition presents a challenge in their valorisation. Three types of waste substrates, wasted bread and wasted potato stillage from bioethanol production and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate from beer production were studied as substrates for the production of l(+) LA and probiotic biomass by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. The correlation of the content of free alpha amino nitrogen and the production of LA was determined as a critical characteristic of the waste media for efficient LA production by L. rhamnosus on the substrates which contained equal amount of fermentable sugars. A maximal LA productivity of 1.54gL(-1)h(-1) was obtained on wasted bread stillage media, whilst maximal productivities achieved on the potato stillage and brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media were 1.28gL(-1)h(-1)and 0.48gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. A highest LA yield of 0.91gg(-1) was achieved on wasted bread stillage media, followed by the yield of 0.81gg(-1) on wasted potato stillage and 0.34gg(-1) on brewers' spent grain hydrolysate media. The kinetics of sugar consumption in the two stillage substrates were similar while the sugar conversion in brewers' spent grain hydrolysate was slower and less efficient due to significantly lower content of free alpha amino nitrogen. The lignocellulosic hydrolysate from beer production required additional supplementation with nitrogen.

  12. Co-production of caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid from p-coumaric acid by Streptomyces caeruleus MTCC 6638.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Ashish; Ghosh, Shashwati; Sen, Sukanta Kumar; Mitra, Adinpunya

    2006-08-01

    In a culture medium of Streptomyces caeruleus MTCC 6638 grown with p-coumaric acid (5 mM) as the sole source of carbon, co-production of caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid was observed. Both caffeic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid are important phenolic compounds with pharmaceutical importance. These biotransformed products were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Obtained data suggest that p-coumaric acid was possibly utilized by two different routes, resulting in the formation of a hydroxycinnamate and a hydroxybenzoate compound. However, higher concentration of p-coumaric acid (10 mM) favoured caffeic acid formation. Addition of 5 mM p-coumaric acid into S. caeruleus cultures pre-grown on minimal medium with 1.0 g/l glucose resulted in the production of 65 mg/l caffeic acid. Furthermore, S. caeruleus cells were able to produce the maximum amount of caffeic acid when pre-grown on nutrient broth for 16 h. Under this condition, the addition of 5 mM p-coumaric acid was sufficient for the S. caeruleus culture to produce 150 mg/l caffeic acid, with a molar yield of 16.6% after 96 h of incubation.

  13. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, John J.; McConnell, John F.; Henry, Vincent I.; MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B.; Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C.; Adams, Michael E.; Leadbetter, James M.; Tomasewski, Jack W.; Operacz, Walter J.; Houf, William G.; Davis, James W.; Marvin, Bart G.; Gunner, Bruce E.; Farrell, Rick G.; Bivins, David P.; Curtis, Warren; Harris, James E.

    2004-08-01

    solution of proprietary glass production problems. As a consequence of the substantial increase in scale and scope of the initial furnace concept in response to industry recommendations, constraints on funding of industrial programs by DOE, and reorientation of the Department's priorities, the OIT Glass Program is unable to provide the support for construction of such a facility. However, it is the present investigators' hope that a group of industry partners will emerge to carry the project forward, taking advantage of the detailed furnace design presented in this report. The engineering, including complete construction drawings, bill of materials, and equipment specifications, is complete. The project is ready to begin construction as soon as the quotations are updated. The design of the research melter closely follows the most advanced industrial practice, firing by natural gas with oxygen. The melting area is 13 ft x 6 ft, with a glass depth of 3 ft and an average height in the combustion space of 3 ft. The maximum pull rate is 25 tons/day, ranging from 100% batch to 100% cullet, continuously fed, with variable batch composition, particle size distribution, and raft configuration. The tank is equipped with bubblers to control glass circulation. The furnace can be fired in three modes: (1) using a single large burner mounted on the front wall, (2) by six burners in a staggered/opposed arrangement, three in each breast wall, and (3) by down-fired burners mounted in the crown in any combination with the front wall or breast-wall-mounted burners. Horizontal slots are provided between the tank blocks and tuck stones and between the breast wall and skewback blocks, running the entire length of the furnace on both sides, to permit access to the combustion space and the surface of the glass for optical measurements and sampling probes. Vertical slots in the breast walls provide additional access for measurements and sampling. The furnace and tank are to be fully instrumented

  14. Effect of surfactants on production of oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids by Bacillus megaterium ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus megaterium ALA2 produces many oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids from linoleic acid. Its major product, 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,17-THOA) inhibits the growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. Because hydrophobic fatty acids need to be evenly dispersed in culture for...

  15. Effect of Surfactants on Production of Oxygenated Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Bacillus megaterium ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus megaterium ALA2 (NRRL B-21660) produces many oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids from linoleic acid. Its major product, 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,17-THOA), inhibits the growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. Because hydrophobic fatty acids need to be evenly disperse...

  16. OCCURRENCE OF IODO-ACID AND IODO-THM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo- prope...

  17. OCCURRENCE AND TOXICITY OF IODO-ACID DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a recent Nationwide Disinfection By-Product (DBP) Occurrence Study, iodo-acids were identified for the first time as DBPs in drinking water disinfected with chloramines. The iodo-acids identified included iodoacetic acid (IAA), bromoiodoacetic acid, (E)-3-bromo-3-iodo...

  18. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  19. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, Vishu D.; May, James B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode.

  20. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanual M.; Mackintosh, Brian H.

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  1. Ferrosilicon smelting in a direct current furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; May, J.B.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for smelting ferrosilicon alloy. The process comprises adding a carbon source and tailings comprising oxides of silicon and iron to a substantially closed furnace. Heat is supplied to the furnace by striking a direct current arc between a cathode electrode and an anode functional hearth. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the cathode electrode is hollow and feed to the substantially closed furnace is through the hollow electrode. 1 figure.

  2. Hydration and temperature development of concrete made with blast-furnace slag cement

    SciTech Connect

    Schutter, G. de

    1999-01-01

    In Europe, massive concrete elements often are made with blast-furnace slag cements. To better deal with the problem of early-age thermal cracking in these cases, a new hydration model for blast-furnace slag cements is developed, which is based on isothermal and adiabatic hydration tests. In the hydration model, the heat production rate is calculated as a function of the degree of hydration and the temperature. The accuracy of temperature simulations using this new hydration model is evaluated by tests on hardening massive concrete cylinders made with blast-furnace slag cement.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a glass melting furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Egelja, A.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-05-09

    The glass production industry is one of the major users of natural gas in the US, and approximately 75% of the energy produced from natural gas is used in the melting process. Industrial scale glass melting furnaces are large devices, typically 5 or more meters wide, and twice as long. To achieve efficient heat transfer to the glass melt below, the natural gas flame must extend over a large portion of the glass melt. Therefore modern high efficiency burners are not used in these furnaces. The natural gas is injected as a jet, and a jet flame forms in the flow of air entering the furnace. In most current glass furnaces the energy required to melt the batch feed stock is about twice the theoretical requirement. An improved understanding of the heat transfer and two phase flow processes in the glass melt and solid batch mix offers a substantial opportunity for energy savings and consequent emission reductions. The batch coverage form and the heat flux distribution have a strong influence on the glass flow pattern. This flow pattern determines to a significant extent the melting rate and the quality of glass.

  4. TPV Tube Generators for Apartment Building and Industrial Furnace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraas, Lewis M.; Avery, James E.; Daniels, Wilbert E.; Huang, Huang X.; Malfa, Enrico; Venturino, Matteo; Testi, Giandomenico; Mascalzi, Gianni; Wuenning, Joachim G.

    2003-01-01

    Major changes in the regulation of electric and natural gas industries during recent years have forced energy companies to explore opportunities in small-size Combined Heat and Power systems. These differ fundamentally from the traditional model of central generation and delivery since small, modular electric generators can be located very close to end-users inside a building or a single house within an industrial area, combined with the production of heat and cold. In particular, interest is growing in the new technologies for sub-100kWe units, including systems based on thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology. TPV generator tubes can be inserted into hot furnaces to generate electricity and low-grade heat. In this generator tube, a water-cooled GaSb photovoltaic converter array inside the tube faces outward toward an infrared emitter liner mounted on the inside surface of the closed-end tube. Each tube can be sized to generate several kW and a given furnace can heat several tubes. We have conducted pilot experiments on key components in order to develop the concept just described. This includes a pilot scale array tested in an electrical furnace that heat a 3″ diameter alumina tube with an infrared emitting liner. Also, a silicon carbide tube with a water-cooling system was tested in a ceramic fiber lined furnace equipped with a commercial 200 kW flameless regenerative burner, simulating a TPV generator tube in such a system.

  5. Enzymatic production of bioactive docosahexaenoic acid phenolic ester.

    PubMed

    Roby, Mohamed H; Allouche, Ahmad; Dahdou, Layal; De Castro, Vanessa C; da Silva, Paulo H Alves; Targino, Brenda N; Huguet, Marion; Paris, Cédric; Chrétien, Françoise; Guéant, Rosa-Maria; Desobry, Stéphane; Oster, Thierry; Humeau, Catherine

    2015-03-15

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is increasingly considered for its health benefits. However, its use as functional food ingredient is still limited by its instability. In this work, we developed an efficient and solvent-free bioprocess for the synthesis of a phenolic ester of DHA. A fed-batch process catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B was optimised, leading to the production of 440 g/L vanillyl ester (DHA-VE). Structural characterisation of the purified product indicated acylation of the primary OH group of vanillyl alcohol. DHA-VE exhibited a high radical scavenging activity in acellular systems. In vivo experiments showed increased DHA levels in erythrocytes and brain tissues of mice fed DHA-VE-supplemented diet. Moreover, in vitro neuroprotective properties of DHA-VE were demonstrated in rat primary neurons exposed to amyloid-β oligomers. In conclusion, DHA-VE synergized the main beneficial effects of two common natural biomolecules and therefore appears a promising functional ingredient for food applications.

  6. By-products from the biodiesel chain as a substrate to citric acid production by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Manuella; Zimmer, Gabriela F; Cremonese, Ezequiel B; de C de S Schneider, Rosana; Corbellini, Valeriano A

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we propose the use of tung cake for the production of organic acids, with an emphasis on citric acid by solid-state fermentation. We evaluated the conditions of production and the by-products from the biodiesel chain as raw materials involved in this bioprocess. First, we standardized the conditions of solid-state fermentation in tung cake with and without residual fat and with different concentrations of glycerine using the fungus Aspergillus niger The solid-state fermentation process was monitored for 7 days considering the biomass growth and pH level. Citric acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fungal development was better in the crude tung cake, consisting of 20% glycerine. The highest citric acid yield was 350 g kg(-1) of biomass. Therefore, the solid-state fermentation of the tung cake with glycerine led to citric acid production using the Aspergillus niger fungus.

  7. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Dick, W A; Nelson, S

    2001-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are created when coal is burned and SO2 is removed from the flue gases. These FGD by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha(-1). Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  9. Pre-fired, refractory block slag dams for wet bottom furnace floors

    SciTech Connect

    Vihnicka, R.S.; Meskimen, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Slagging (wet bottom), utility boilers count on a refractory coating over the furnace floor tube structure for protection from corrosion damage from both the harsh, hot gas atmosphere from the burning fuel and the acidic coal slag. To protect and extend the life of this protective refractory coating the boiler original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) utilized a water-cooled monkey ring or slag chill ring (typically a 6--8 inch high ring of small diameter tubes) surrounding the slag tap locations on most wet bottom furnace floors (both utility and package boilers). The old water-cooled tube ring was such a high maintenance item, however, that it`s use has been discontinued in all but the most extreme environments throughout both utility and industrial applications. Where the use of the ring was discontinued, there has been a corresponding shortening of life on the protective floor refractory coatings (high maintenance cost), further aggravated by recent OSHA restrictions limiting the use of chrome oxide refractory materials in these types of boilers. This paper describes the developmental process and the final resultant product (a non-watercooled, slag dam made from pre-fired refractory shapes), undertaken by the inventors. Derived operational benefits a concept 2 project, with NO{sub x} Title 4 and Title 1 significance (which is currently underway) will also be detailed.

  10. A Simple Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Fixation and Acid Production in CAM Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John R. L.; McWha, James A.

    1976-01-01

    Described is an experiment investigating carbon dioxide fixation in the dark and the diurnal rhythm of acid production in plants exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. Included are suggestions for four further investigations. (SL)

  11. Physical and sensory properties of dairy products from cows with various milk fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Chen, She; Bobe, Gerd; Zimmerman, Shelly; Hammond, Earl G; Luhman, Cindie M; Boylston, Terri D; Freeman, Albert E; Beitz, Donald C

    2004-06-02

    Dairy products from milk of cows fed diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a more health-promoting fatty acid composition and are softer but often have oxidized flavors. Dairy products made from cow's milk that has more- or less-unsaturated fatty acid compositions were tested for differences in texture and flavor from those made from bulk-tank milk. The milk was manufactured into butter, vanilla ice cream, yogurt, Provolone cheese, and Cheddar cheese. The products were analyzed for fatty acid composition, physical properties, and flavor. Milk of cows with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition yielded products with a more monounsaturated fatty acid composition that were softer and had a satisfactory flavor. Thus, selection of cows for milk fatty acid composition can be used to produce dairy products that are probably more healthful and have a softer texture.

  12. Anaerobic Fermentation for Production of Carboxylic Acids as Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jufang; Lin, Meng; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Shang-Tian

    Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource which can be converted to bulk chemicals to replace petrochemicals. Carboxylic acids have wide applications in the chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter provides an overview of recent advances and challenges in the industrial production of various types of carboxylic acids, including short-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, butyric), hydroxy acids (lactic, 3-hydroxypropionic), dicarboxylic acids (succinic, malic, fumaric, itaconic, adipic, muconic, glucaric), and others (acrylic, citric, gluconic, pyruvic) by anaerobic fermentation. For economic production of these carboxylic acids as bulk chemicals, the fermentation process must have a sufficiently high product titer, productivity and yield, and low impurity acid byproducts to compete with their petrochemical counterparts. System metabolic engineering offers the tools needed to develop novel strains that can meet these process requirements for converting biomass feedstock to the desirable product.

  13. Study on the kinetics and transformation products of salicylic acid in water via ozonation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruikang; Zhang, Lifeng; Hu, Jiangyong

    2016-06-01

    As salicylic acid is one of widely used pharmaceuticals, its residue has been found in various environmental water systems e.g. wastewater, surface water, treated water and drinking water. It has been reported that salicylic acid can be efficiently removed by advanced oxidation processes, but there are few studies on its transformation products and ozonation mechanisms during ozonation process. The objective of this study is to characterize the transformation products, investigate the degradation mechanisms at different pH, and propose the ozonation pathways of salicylic acid. The results showed that the rate of degradation was about 10 times higher at acidic condition than that at alkaline condition in the first 1 min when 1 mg L(-1) of ozone solution was added into 1 mg L(-1) of salicylic acid solution. It was proposed that ozone direct oxidation mechanism dominates at acidic condition, while indirect OH radical mechanism dominates at alkaline condition. A two stages pseudo-first order reaction was proposed at different pH conditions. Various hydroxylation products, carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids, such as 2,5-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, catechol, formaldehyde, glyoxal, acetaldehyde, maleic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid etc. were identified as ozonation transformation products. In addition, acrylic acid was identified, for the first time, as ozonation transformation products through high resolution liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometer. The information demonstrated in this study will help us to better understand the possible effects of ozonation products on the water quality. The degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed. As both O3 and OH radical were important in the reactions, the degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed at acidic and basic conditions. To our knowledge, there was no integrated study reported on the ozonation of

  14. Overexpression of ESBP6 improves lactic acid resistance and production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Minetaka; Akase, Shin-Pei; Nakanishi, Ryota; Kaneko, Yoshinobu; Harashima, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Polylactic acid plastics are receiving increasing attention for the control of atmospheric CO2 emissions. Lactic acid, the building block for polylactic acid, is produced by fermentation technology from renewable carbon sources. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, harboring the lactate dehydrogenases gene (LDH), produces lactic acid at a large scale due to its strong acid resistance, to its simple nutritional requirements and to its ease of genetic engineering. Since improvement of lactic acid resistance is correlated with an increase of lactic acid production under non-neutralizing condition, we isolated a novel gene that enhances lactic acid resistance using a multi-copy yeast genomic DNA library. In this study, we identified the ESBP6 gene, which increases lactic acid resistance when overexpressed and which encodes a protein with similarity to monocarboxylate permeases. Although ESBP6 was not induced in response to lactic acid stress, it caused weak but reproducible sensitivity to lactic acid when disrupted. Furthermore, intracellular pH in the ESBP6 overexpressing strain was higher than that in the wild-type strain under lactic acid stressed condition, suggesting that Esbp6 plays some roles in lactic acid adaptation response. The ESBP6 overexpressing strain carrying the LDH gene induced 20% increase in lactic acid production compared with the wild-type strain carrying the LDH gene under non-neutralizing conditions. These results indicate that overexpression of ESBP6 provides a novel and useful tool to improve lactic acid resistance and lactic acid production in yeast.

  15. Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF DUQUESNE'S RAIL LINES AND BLAST FURNACE PLANT LOOKING NORTH. DOROTHY SIX IS THE CLOSEST FURNACE IN THE PHOTOGRAPH. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRIC FURNACE BUILDING AND ELECTRIC FURNACE OFFICE & CHEMICAL LABORATORY BUILDING. INGOT MOLDS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Electric Furnace Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  18. 56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. LOOKING NORTH AT DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE WITH CAST HOUSE IN FOREGROUND AND DUSTCATCHER AT RIGHT OF FURNACE (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  19. Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast at blast furnaces no. 5 and no. 6 with blast furnace trestle and Gondola Railroad cars in foreground. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Casting floor, "B" furnace, pour in progress; mudgun is to right of furnace; photo taken from furnace operator's booth. Looking south/southwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  1. 19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Inside the cast house at Furnace A. Molten iron flowed into eight ladles. The furnace was cast (or tapped) six times each day. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2, DRAWING ROOM, SHOWING A FLOOR INDICATING FOURCAULT DRAWING MACHINE AND FURNACE. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  3. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, CAST HOUSE OF BLAST FURNACE NO. 1 AND BLAST FURNACE NO. 2. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Blast Furnace No. 1 & No. 2, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. 50. Taken from highline; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Taken from high-line; "B" furnace slag pots, pipe is main blast furnace gas line from "C" furnace dust catcher; levy, slag hauler, removing slag. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  5. List of EPA Certified Forced-Air Furnaces

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA-Certified Forced-Air Furnace list contains EPA-certified forced-air furnaces that meet the 2015 NSPS for New Residential Wood Heaters, New Residential Hydronic Heaters and Forced-Air Furnaces.

  6. A rotary arc furnace for aluminum dross processing

    SciTech Connect

    Drouet, M.G.; Meunier, J.; Laflamme, C.B.; Handfield, M.D.; Biscaro, A.; Lemire, C.

    1995-12-31

    Dross, a major by-product of all processes involving molten aluminum, forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. It generally represents 1 to 5 wt% of the melt, depending on the process, and contains on average about 50% free aluminum dispersed in an oxide layer. Since aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally non-acceptable because of the production of salt slags. Hydro-Quebec has developed and patented a new salt-free technology using a rotary furnace heated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes, called DROSCAR{reg_sign}. A 600-kW pilot plant in operation at LTEE is in use to demonstrate the process. This process provides aluminum recovery rates over 90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method. In 1994, 400 tonnes of aluminum dross were treated in this facility and several tests on various types of dross have also been conducted in early 1995. A report on the results will be presented.

  7. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-03-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H-isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high-temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H-isotope measurements.

  8. VAPOR SHIELD FOR INDUCTION FURNACE

    DOEpatents

    Reese, S.L.; Samoriga, S.A.

    1958-03-11

    This patent relates to a water-cooled vapor shield for an inductlon furnace that will condense metallic vapors arising from the crucible and thus prevent their condensation on or near the induction coils, thereby eliminating possible corrosion or shorting out of the coils. This is accomplished by placing, about the top, of the crucible a disk, apron, and cooling jacket that separates the area of the coils from the interior of the cruclbIe and provides a cooled surface upon whlch the vapors may condense.

  9. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  10. Gibberellic acid production by free and immobilized cells in different culture systems.

    PubMed

    Durán-Páramo, Enrique; Molina-Jiménez, Héctor; Brito-Arias, Marco A; Robles-Martínez, Fabián

    2004-01-01

    Gibberellic acid production was studied in different fermentation systems. Free and immobilized cells of Gibberella fujikuroi cultures in shake-flask, stirred and fixed-bed reactors were evaluated for the production of gibberellic acid (GA3). Gibberellic acid production with free cells cultured in a stirred reactor reached 0.206 g/L and a yield of 0.078 g of GA3/g biomass.

  11. Production of 14-oxo-cis-11-eicosenoic acid from lesquerolic acid by genetically variable Sphingobacterium multivorum strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to explore the extent of microbial conversion of lesquerolic acid (LQA; 14-hydroxy-cis-11-eicosenoic acid) by whole cell catalysis and to identify the newly converted product. Among 17 environmental isolates selected from compost amended with soybean oil and unsatura...

  12. Glass-ceramic materials from electric arc furnace dust.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, P; Kehagias, T; Tsilika, I; Kaimakamis, G; Chrissafis, K; Kokkou, S; Papadopoulos, D; Karakostas, Th

    2007-01-31

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was vitrified with SiO2, Na2CO3 and CaCO3 powders in an electric furnace at ambient atmosphere. Vitreous products were transformed into glass-ceramic materials by two-stage heat treatment, at temperatures determined by differential thermal analysis. Both vitreous and glass-ceramic materials were chemically stable. Wollastonite (CaSiO3) was separated from the parent matrix as the dominant crystalline phase, verified by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wollastonite crystallizes mainly in its monoclinic form. Knoop microhardness was measured with the static indentation test method in all initial vitreous products and the microhardness values were in the region of 5.0-5.5 GPa. Devitrification resulted in glass-ceramic materials with microhardness values strongly dependent on the morphology and orientation of the separated crystal phase.

  13. Application of robotics in a nuclear-fuel-furnace operation. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, W.W.

    1981-10-01

    Automated and remotely operated fuel manufacturing operations from receipt of powder through fabrication of welded fuel pins will be performed in the FMEF. Assembly of the fuel pins into fuel bundles will be performed in other HEDL facilities. A small pneumatically operated industrial robot will be used for loading and unloading product into/out of batch furnaces. The fuel fabrication process and furnace design and operational sequence are described.

  14. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  15. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of fumaric acid.

    PubMed

    Song, Chan Woo; Kim, Dong In; Choi, Sol; Jang, Jae Won; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-07-01

    Fumaric acid is a naturally occurring organic acid that is an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fungal species belonging to Rhizopus have traditionally been employed for the production of fumaric acid. In this study, Escherichia coli was metabolically engineered for the production of fumaric acid under aerobic condition. For the aerobic production of fumaric acid, the iclR gene was deleted to redirect the carbon flux through the glyoxylate shunt. In addition, the fumA, fumB, and fumC genes were also deleted to enhance fumaric acid formation. The resulting strain was able to produce 1.45 g/L of fumaric acid from 15 g/L of glucose in flask culture. Based on in silico flux response analysis, this base strain was further engineered by plasmid-based overexpression of the native ppc gene, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC), from the strong tac promoter, which resulted in the production of 4.09 g/L of fumaric acid. Additionally, the arcA and ptsG genes were deleted to reinforce the oxidative TCA cycle flux, and the aspA gene was deleted to block the conversion of fumaric acid into L-aspartic acid. Since it is desirable to avoid the use of inducer, the lacI gene was also deleted. To increase glucose uptake rate and fumaric acid productivity, the native promoter of the galP gene was replaced with the strong trc promoter. Fed-batch culture of the final strain CWF812 allowed production of 28.2 g/L fumaric acid in 63 h with the overall yield and productivity of 0.389 g fumaric acid/g glucose and 0.448 g/L/h, respectively. This study demonstrates the possibility for the efficient production of fumaric acid by metabolically engineered E. coli.

  16. Fact Sheet - Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants NESHAP

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet summarizing National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Phosphate Fertilizer Production Plants and Phosphoric Acid Manufacturing Plants (40 CFR 63 Subparts AA and BB).

  17. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  18. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank; Boddupalli, Sekhar S.

    2005-08-30

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  19. Mercury in dumped blast furnace sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Földi, Corinna

    2014-05-01

    Blast furnace sludge (BFS) is a waste generated in the production of pig iron and was dumped in sedimentation ponds. As these wastes often contain high contents of zinc, lead, cadmium, and arsenic, significant hazards to environmental surroundings may arise from former BFS sedimentation ponds. Sixty-five samples from seven BFS locations in Europe were investigated regarding the toxic element mercury (Hg) for the first time. The charge material of the blast furnace operations (coke, iron ores, and additives such as olivine, bauxite, ilmenite and gravels) revealed Hg contents from 0.015 to 0.093 mg kg-1. In comparison, the Hg content of BFS varied between 0.006 and 20.8 mg kg-1 with a median of 1.63 mg kg-1, which indicates enrichment with Hg. For one site with a larger sample set (n = 31), Hg showed a stronger correlation with the total non-calcareous carbon (C) including coke and graphite (r = 0.695; n = 31; p < 0.001). It can be assumed that these C-rich compounds are hosting phases for Hg. The solubility of Hg was rather low and did not exceed 0.43% of total Hg. The correlation between the total Hg concentration and total amount of NH4NO3-soluble Hg was relatively poor (r = 0.496; n = 27; p = 0.008) indicating varying hazard potentials of the different BFS. Consequently, BFS is a mercury-containing waste and dumped BFS should be regarded as potentially mercury-contaminated sites.

  20. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    DOEpatents

    Dumesic, James A.; West; Ryan M.

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  1. Mammalian Cell Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of the Haloacetic Acids, A Major Class of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The haloacetic acids (HAAs) are disinfection by-products (DBPs) that are formed during the disinfection of drinking water, wastewaters and recreational pool waters. Currently, five HAAs [bromoacetic acid (BAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA), chloroacetic acid (CAA), dichloroacetic ac...

  2. SOUTH END OF FURNACE WITH CAST AND ENGINE SHED IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH END OF FURNACE WITH CAST AND ENGINE SHED IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  3. GENERAL VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) OF DOUBLE FURNACE FROM ACROSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF EAST (FRONT) OF DOUBLE FURNACE FROM ACROSS THE CREEK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  4. WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (FRONT) OF FURNACE COMPLEX, INCLUDING STACKS, WITH CHARGING BRIDGE AND TRESSLE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  5. Microbial production of amino acids and derived chemicals: synthetic biology approaches to strain development.

    PubMed

    Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-12-01

    Amino acids are produced at the multi-million-ton-scale with fermentative production of l-glutamate and l-lysine alone being estimated to amount to more than five million tons in the year 2013. Metabolic engineering constantly improves productivities of amino acid producing strains, mainly Corynebacterium glutamicum and Escherichia coli strains. Classical mutagenesis and screening have been accelerated by combination with intracellular metabolite sensing. Synthetic biology approaches have allowed access to new carbon sources to realize a flexible feedstock concept. Moreover, new pathways for amino acid production as well as fermentative production of non-native compounds derived from amino acids or their metabolic precursors were developed. These include dipeptides, α,ω-diamines, α,ω-diacids, keto acids, acetylated amino acids and ω-amino acids.

  6. Energy Saving Devices on Gas Furnaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AO-A082 0715 JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORP DENVER CO RESEARCH AND DEV--ETC FIG 1311 ENERGY SAVING DEVICES ON GAS FURNACES.(U) MAR B0 T E BRISBANE, P B...DEVICES FOR GAS FURNACES THOMAS E. BRISBANE ,o"’ P. B. SHEPHERD JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORPORATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER KEN-CARYL RANCH, DENVER

  7. Existing and prospective blast-furnace conditions

    SciTech Connect

    I.G. Tovarovskii; V.I. Bol'shakov; V.P. Lyalyuk; A.E. Merkulov; D. V. Pinchuk

    2009-07-15

    Blast-furnace conditions are investigated by means of a multizone model. The expected performance of prospective technologies is assessed, as well as the trends in blast-furnace processes. The model permits the identification of means of overcoming practical difficulties.

  8. Developmental testing of a programmable multizone furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, E. Y.; Larson, D. J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A multizone furnace was evaluated for its potential utilization for process experimentation on board the Space Shuttle. A temperature gradient can be created through the use of a series of connected temperature zones and can be translated by the coordinated sequencing of zone temperatures. The Bridgman-Stockbarger thermal configuration for directional solidification was implemented so that neither the sample nor furnace was translated. The thermal behavior of the furnace was measured and characterized. Limitations due to both thermal and electronic (computer) factors are identified. The results indicate that the multizone design is limited to low temperature gradients because of the indirect furnace-to-sample thermal coupling needed to blend the discrete thermal zones. The multizone furnace design inherently consumes more power than a similar (two temperature) conventional Bridgman type directional solidification furnace because every zone must be capable of the high cooling rates needed to produce the maximum desired temperature drop. Typical achievable static temperature gradients for the furnace tested were between 6 and 75 C/in. The maximum gradient velocity was approximately 10 in./hr. Several aspects of the tested system could be improved, but the dependence of the multizone design on high heat loss will limit Space Shuttle applications in the form tested unless additional power is available. The multizone furnace offers great flexibility but requires a high level of operator understanding for full advantage to be obtained.

  9. Crystal growth furnace safety system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

  10. Blast furnace injection developments in British Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jukes, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    British Steel has four integrated steel works, i.e., Llanwern, Port Talbot, Scunthorpe, Teesside, with a total of ten blast furnaces, nine of which are currently operating. The furnaces range in size from the 14 meters (45 feet 11 inches) hearth diameter Redcar No. 1 furnace at Teesside (a single furnace works) to the 8.33 meters (27 feet 4 inches) hearth Queen Mary and Queen Bess furnaces at Schunthorpe, with a total of four furnaces at that works. All have injection systems installed, those at Scunthorpe being equipped with granular coal injection and all others currently working with oil injection. The driving force behind the development of blast furnace injection has been as a means for introducing reducing agents (British Steel now refers to coke plus hydrocarbon injectants as total reductants) into the process as a part substitute/supplement for top charged coke and the technology is still being developed and used for that purpose. By utilizing practical experience and observing the work of others, British Steel has been assessing blast furnace injection technology experimentally for purposes other than the introduction of reducing agents.

  11. Production of lactic acid using a new homofermentative Enterococcus faecalis isolate.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Mohan Raj; Talluri, Suvarna; Christopher, Lew P

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid is an intermediate-volume specialty chemical for a wide range of food and industrial applications such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and chemical syntheses. Although lactic acid production has been well documented, improved production parameters that lead to reduced production costs are always of interest in industrial developments. In this study, we describe the production of lactic acid at high concentration, yield and volumetric productivity utilizing a novel homofermentative, facultative anaerobe Enterococcus faecalis CBRD01. The highest concentration of 182 g lactic acid l(-1) was achieved after 38 h of fed-batch fermentation on glucose. The bacterial isolate utilized only 2-13% of carbon for its growth and energy metabolism, while 87-98% of carbon was converted to lactic acid at an overall volumetric productivity of 5 g l(-1)  h(-1). At 13 h of fermentation, the volumetric productivity of lactate production reached 10.3 g l(-1)  h(-1), which is the highest ever reported for microbial production of lactic acid. The lactic acid produced was of high purity as formation of other metabolites was less than 0.1%. The present investigation demonstrates a new opportunity for enhanced production of lactic acid with potential for reduced purification costs.

  12. Enhanced phenylpyruvic acid production with Proteus vulgaris in fed-batch and continuous fermentation.

    PubMed

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid is a deaminated form of phenylalanine and is used in various areas such as development of cheese and wine flavors, diagnosis of phenylketonuria, and to decrease excessive nitrogen accumulation in the manure of farm animals. However, reported phenylpyruvic acid fermentation studies in the literature have been usually performed at shake-flask scale with low production. In this study, phenylpyruvic acid production was evaluated in bench-top bioreactors by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation for the first time. As a result, maximum phenylpyruvic acid concentrations increased from 1350 mg/L (batch fermentation) to 2958 mg/L utilizing fed-batch fermentation. Furthermore, phenylpyruvic acid productivity was increased from 48 mg/L/hr (batch fermentation) to 104 and 259 mg/L/hr by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrated that fed-batch and continuous fermentation significantly improved phenylpyruvic acid production in bench-scale bioreactor production.

  13. Combined biomimetic and inorganic acids hydrolysis of hemicellulose in Miscanthus for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Zhang, Yuanhui; Ha, Suk-Jin; Jin, Yong-Su; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2012-04-01

    Combined acid catalysis was employed as a pretreatment alternative with combined acid catalysts blending sulfuric acid with two biomimetic acids, trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and maleic acid (MA), respectively. The influences of acid blending ratio, temperature, and acid dosage on pretreatment performance were investigated. A synergistic effect on hemicellulose decomposition was observed in the combined acid hydrolysis, which greatly increased xylose yield, although TFA/MA would induce more total phenols. Besides, combined TFA pretreatment could efficiently prevent xylose degradation. Fermentation tests of the acid-catalyzed hydrolysates with overliming showed that compared to H(2)SO(4) pretreatment, TFA and MA pretreatments improved overall ethanol yield with an increase by 27-54%. Combined acid catalysis was shown as a feasible pretreatment method for its improved sugar yield, reduced phenols production and catalyst costs.

  14. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    DOEpatents

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  15. High temperature furnace modeling and performance verifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical, numerical and experimental studies were performed on two classes of high temperature materials processing furnaces. The research concentrates on a commercially available high temperature furnace using zirconia as the heating element and an arc furnace based on a ST International tube welder. The zirconia furnace was delivered and work is progressing on schedule. The work on the arc furnace was initially stalled due to the unavailability of the NASA prototype, which is actively being tested aboard the KC-135 experimental aircraft. A proposal was written and funded to purchase an additional arc welder to alleviate this problem. The ST International weld head and power supply were received and testing will begin in early November. The first 6 months of the grant are covered.

  16. A multi-zone muffle furnace design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Neil D.; Kisel, Martin

    1993-01-01

    A Multi-Zone Muffle-Tube Furnace was designed, built, and tested for the purpose of providing an in-house experience base with tubular furnaces for materials processing in microgravity. As such, it must not only provide the desired temperatures and controlled thermal gradients at several discrete zones along its length but must also be capable of sustaining the rigors of a Space Shuttle launch. The furnace is insulated to minimize radial and axial heat losses. It is contained in a water-cooled enclosure for purposes of dissipating un-wanted residual heat, keeping the outer surfaces of the furnace at a 'touch-safe' temperature, and providing a rugged housing. This report describes the salient features of the furnace, testing procedures and results, and concluding remarks evaluating the overall design.

  17. Detection of melamine and cyanuric acid in vegetable protein products used in food production.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Lawrence R; Gilbride, Kimberley A

    2011-05-01

    The multitude of food recalls in 2007 clearly demonstrated that total nitrogen-content (ΣN) determination by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Kjeldahl-based measurements can be deceived, and should no longer be regarded as a complete quality assurance program for nutritive-protein evaluations. Furthermore, contemporary Canadian-employed analytical tools are precariously limited in their ability to effectively assure a product where there is no a priori knowledge of the environmental toxin(s) involved. In light of these challenges, this study explored a number of analytical techniques used to assess and furthermore assure the quality of vegetable protein products (VPPs). Using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) technologies, a combination of VPP-based samples was analyzed for the presence of nitrogen-bearing environmental toxicants. Of the 52 samples tested, involving an assortment of matrices, melamine and cyanuric acid were positively identified (>1 ng/mL) in 22 and 17 samples, respectively. Subsequent high pressure liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible (HPLC-UV) amino acid profiling further confirmed the adulteration of those materials contaminated with melamine and melamine-related compounds. Based on the evidence presented herein, LC/MS/MS in combination with HPLC-UV provides for a reliable food safety detection system as applied to VPPs. Moreover, HPLC-UV is indispensable as a stand-alone 1st level of screening to assess the integrity of a VPP or any nutritive protein-based sample.

  18. Lipid and fatty acid metabolism in Ralstonia eutropha: relevance for the biotechnological production of value-added products.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Sebastian L; Lu, Jingnan; Stahl, Ulf; Brigham, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Lipid and fatty acid metabolism has been well studied in model microbial organisms like Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The major precursor of fatty acid biosynthesis is also the major product of fatty acid degradation (β-oxidation), acetyl-CoA, which is a key metabolite for all organisms. Controlling carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis and from β-oxidation allows for the biosynthesis of natural products of biotechnological importance. Ralstonia eutropha can utilize acetyl-CoA from fatty acid metabolism to produce intracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). R. eutropha can also be engineered to utilize fatty acid metabolism intermediates to produce different PHA precursors. Metabolism of lipids and fatty acids can be rerouted to convert carbon into other value-added compounds like biofuels. This review discusses the lipid and fatty acid metabolic pathways in R. eutropha and how they can be used to construct reagents for the biosynthesis of products of industrial importance. Specifically, how the use of lipids or fatty acids as the sole carbon source in R. eutropha cultures adds value to these biotechnological products will be discussed here.

  19. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of acid-pretreated rapeseed meal for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kequan; Zhang, Han; Miao, Yelian; Wei, Ping; Chen, Jieyu

    2011-04-07

    Rapeseed meal was evaluated for succinic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Actinobacillus succinogenes ATCC 55618. Diluted sulfuric acid pretreatment and subsequent hydrolysis with pectinase was used to release sugars from rapeseed meal. The effects of culture pH, pectinase loading and yeast extract concentration on succinic acid production were investigated. When simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of diluted acid pretreated rapeseed meal with a dry matter content of 12.5% (w/v) was performed at pH 6.4 and a pectinase loading of 2% (w/w, on dry matter) without supplementation of yeast extract, a succinic acid concentration of 15.5 g/L was obtained at a yield of 12.4 g/100g dry matter. Fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was carried out with supplementation of concentrated pretreated rapeseed meal and pectinase at 18 and 28 h to yield a final dry matter content of 20.5% and pectinase loading of 2%, with the succinic acid concentration enhanced to 23.4 g/L at a yield of 11.5 g/100g dry matter and a productivity of 0.33 g/(Lh). This study suggests that rapeseed meal may be an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes without requiring nitrogen source supplementation.

  20. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, David E.; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2005-08-25

    as a chemical are at $3.00 per gallon – wholesaling in 55 gallon drums for $6.80, with a worldwide market of 1.4 billion gallon per year. The market demand is expected to increase dramatically since butanol can now be produced economically from low-cost biomass. Butanol’s application as a replacement for gasoline will outpace ethanol, biodiesel and hydrogen when its safety and simplicity of use are seen. Butanol’s application for the Department of Defense as a clean-safe replacement for batteries when used in conjunction with fuel cell technology is seen as an application for the future. Disposable canisters made of PLA that carry butanol to be reformed and used to generate electricity for computers, night vision and stealth equipment can be easily disposed of. In a typical ABE fermentation, butyric, propionic and acetic acids are produced first by C. acetobutylicum; the culture then undergoes a metabolic shift and solvents (butanol, acetone, and ethanol) are formed (Fond et al., 1985). In conventional ABE fermentations, the butanol yield from glucose is low, typically at ~15% (w/w) and rarely exceeds 25% (0.77–1.3 gallons per bushel corn respectfully). The production of butanol is also limited by severe product inhibition. Butanol at a concentration of 10 g/L can significantly inhibit cell growth and the fermentation. Consequently, butanol titers in conventional ABE fermentations are usually lower than 13 g/L. The low butanol yield and butanol concentration made butanol production from glucose by ABE fermentation uneconomical.

  1. Production and applications of carbohydrate-derived sugar acids as generic biobased chemicals.

    PubMed

    Mehtiö, Tuomas; Toivari, Mervi; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Harlin, Ali; Penttilä, Merja; Koivula, Anu

    2016-10-01

    This review considers the chemical and biotechnological synthesis of acids that are obtained by direct oxidation of mono- or oligosaccharide, referred to as sugar acids. It focuses on sugar acids which can be readily derived from plant biomass sources and their current and future applications. The three main classes of sugar acids are aldonic, aldaric and uronic acids. Interest in organic acids derived from sugars has recently increased, as part of the interest to develop biorefineries which produce not only biofuels, but also chemicals to replace those currently derived from petroleum. More than half of the most desirable biologically produced platform chemicals are organic acids. Currently, the only sugar acid with high commercial production is d-gluconic acid. However, other sugar acids such as d-glucaric and meso-galactaric acids are being produced at a lower scale. The sugar acids have application as sequestering agents and binders, corrosion inhibitors, biodegradable chelators for pharmaceuticals and pH regulators. There is also considerable interest in the use of these molecules in the production of synthetic polymers, including polyamides, polyesters and hydrogels. Further development of these sugar acids will lead to higher volume production of the appropriate sugar acids and will help support the next generation of biorefineries.

  2. Genotype, production system and sex effects on fatty acid composition of meat from goat kids.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mustafa; Demirel, Gulcan; Yakan, Akın; Ekiz, Bülent; Tölü, Cemil; Savaş, Türker

    2015-02-01

    Two trials were performed to assess the meat fatty acid profile of goat kids from different genotypes, production systems and sex. In the first trial, genotype effect was determined in 24 suckling male kids from Turkish Saanen, Maltese and Gokceada breeds. In the second trial, male and female Gokceada Goat kids were used to compare the effect of extensive and semi-intensive production systems on fatty acid composition of meat. Significant genotype effect was observed in the percentages of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1 n-9), linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3), arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3), despite no differences on the ratios of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (PUFA/SFA) and n-6/n-3 (P > 0.05). The effect of production system had also significant effects on fatty acids, but sex only influenced significantly stearic acid (C18:0), C18:1 n-9 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids and total PUFA level and PUFA/SFA ratio. This study confirms that dairy breeds are prone to produce higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in their muscle. Meanwhile, meat from Gokceada goat kids, which is one of the indigenous breeds in Turkey, had similar PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios to Turkish Saanen and Maltase.

  3. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS), have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene. PMID:22433663

  4. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  5. Blast-furnace ironmaking -- Existing capital and continued improvements are a winning formula for a bright future

    SciTech Connect

    Oshnock, T.W.; Colinear, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the years the blast-furnace process has been improved upon significantly. Increases to the hot-blast temperature, improvements to the physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties of coke and burden materials, the use of more fuel injectants, and improvements to the design of the furnace facilities have led to significant decreases in furnace coke rate, increases in productivity, and increases in furnace campaign life. As a result, many of the alternative cokeless reduction processes have not replaced blast-furnace hot-metal production in North America. In the future, these continued blast-furnace improvements will potentially result in coke rates decreasing to 400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM) as more pulverized coal is injected. These improvements, coupled with the fact that existing blast furnaces and coke plants can be refurbished for approximately $110 per annual ton of hot metal [$100 per annual net ton of hot metal (NTHM)], will result in extending the life of the North American blast furnaces well into the twenty-first century.

  6. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  7. Using SPL (Spent Pot-Lining) as an Alternative Fuel in Metallurgical Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Mostaghel, Sina; Ray, Shamik; Chattopadyay, Kinnor

    2016-09-01

    Replacing coke (coal) in a metallurgical furnace with other alternative fuels is beneficial for process economics and environmental friendliness. Coal injection is a common practice in blast furnace ironmaking, and spent pot-lining (SPL) was conceptualized as an alternative to coal. SPL is a resourceful waste from primary Aluminum production, with high carbon value. Equilibrium thermodynamics was used to calculate the energy content of SPL, and the compositional changes during SPL combustion. In order to capture the kinetics and mass transfer aspects, a blast furnace tuyere region CFD model was developed. The results of SPL combustion were compared with standard PCI coals, which are commonly used in blast furnaces. The CFD model was validated with experimental results for standard high volatile coals.

  8. Developing and testing a vertical sintering furnace for remote nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Ryer, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Horizontal-type furnaces used to sinter fuel pellets on a production basis are large and thus impractical for remote applications. However, research has shown that vertical-type furnaces are adaptable for use and are cheaper to operate and maintain. In 1979, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, working under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Fuel Refabrication and Development (FRAD) Program, began developing an advanced concept for a remotely operated furnace designed specifically to sinter nuclear fuel pellets. The FRAD Program at PNL ended before the sintering of nuclear fuels could be completely verified. However during 1979, PNL performed a sufficient number and variety of tests to establish that nuclear fuel pellets can be sintered in a vertical furnace.

  9. Emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, itaconic acid (IA), an unsaturated C5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. It is produced industrially (> 80 g L**-1) from glucose by fermentation with Aspergillus terreus. The titer is low compared with citric acid production (> 200 g L**-...

  10. Effect of Surfactant on Production of Oxygenated Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Bacillus megaterium ALA2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus megaterium ALA2 NRRL B-21660 was well studied to produce many oxygenated unsaturated fatty acids from linoleic acid. Its major product, 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (12,13,17-THOA) inhibited the growth of many plant pathogenic fungi [1]. We were not able to demonstrate 12,13...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  16. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  17. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  18. Production of branched-chain volatile fatty acids by certain anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, M J

    1978-01-01

    Net production of isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, and 2-methylbutyric acid by cultures of Bacteroides ruminicola and Megasphaera elsdenii on media that contained Trypticase or casein hydrolysate continued (up to 5 days) after growth had ceased. Only trace quantities of these acids were produced in a medium that contained a mixture of amino acids that did not include the branched-chain amino acids. M. elsdenii produced increased quantities of the branched-chain fatty acids in a medium that contained Trypticase when glucose was reduced or eliminated from the culture medium. However, B. ruminicola produced increased quantities of branched-chain fatty acids and of phenylacetic acid from Trypticase when glucose was supplied at 3 mg/ml rather than at 1 mg/ml. Single strains of Streptococcus bovis, Selenomonas ruminantium, Bacteroides amylophilus, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens did not produce branched-chain fatty acids. PMID:566082

  19. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  20. Detection and Quantification of Valerenic Acid in Commercially Available Valerian Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ruth H.; Muldowney, Ciaran A.; Mohamed, Rabab; Keohane, Fiona; Shanahan, Catherine; Walsh, John J.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.

    2007-01-01

    Several valerian-containing products sold in pharmacies were evaluated to verify the presence of Valeriana officinalis by identifying the presence of valerenic acid found only in species of Valeriana. The content of valerenic acid was found to vary considerably in the products analyzed, thus emphasizing the importance of standardizing herbal…