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Sample records for acid production process

  1. Recent advances in lactic acid production by microbial fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Fermentative production of optically pure lactic acid has roused interest among researchers in recent years due to its high potential for applications in a wide range of fields. More specifically, the sharp increase in manufacturing of biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) materials, green alternatives to petroleum-derived plastics, has significantly increased the global interest in lactic acid production. However, higher production costs have hindered the large-scale application of PLA because of the high price of lactic acid. Therefore, reduction of lactic acid production cost through utilization of inexpensive substrates and improvement of lactic acid production and productivity has become an important goal. Various methods have been employed for enhanced lactic acid production, including several bioprocess techniques facilitated by wild-type and/or engineered microbes. In this review, we will discuss lactic acid producers with relation to their fermentation characteristics and metabolism. Inexpensive fermentative substrates, such as dairy products, food and agro-industrial wastes, glycerol, and algal biomass alternatives to costly pure sugars and food crops are introduced. The operational modes and fermentation methods that have been recently reported to improve lactic acid production in terms of concentrations, yields, and productivities are summarized and compared. High cell density fermentation through immobilization and cell-recycling techniques are also addressed. Finally, advances in recovery processes and concluding remarks on the future outlook of lactic acid production are presented. PMID:23624242

  2. Modeling the continuous lactic acid production process from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Karen; Tebbani, Sihem; Lopes, Filipa; Thorigné, Aurore; Givry, Sébastien; Dumur, Didier; Pareau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    A kinetic model of the simultaneous saccharification, protein hydrolysis, and fermentation (SSPHF) process for lactic acid production from wheat flour has been developed. The model describes the bacterial growth, substrate consumption, lactic acid production, and maltose hydrolysis. The model was fitted and validated with data from SSPHF experiments obtained under different dilution rates. The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Steady state concentrations of biomass, lactic acid, glucose, and maltose as function of the dilution rate were predicted by the model. This steady state analysis is further useful to determine the operating conditions that maximize lactic acid productivity.

  3. Development of an industrializable fermentation process for propionic acid production.

    PubMed

    Stowers, Chris C; Cox, Brad M; Rodriguez, Brandon A

    2014-05-01

    Propionic acid (PA) is a short-chain fatty acid with wide industrial application including uses in pharmaceuticals, herbicides, cosmetics, and food preservatives. As a three-carbon building block, PA also has potential as a precursor for high-volume commodity chemicals such as propylene. Currently, most PA is manufactured through petrochemical routes, which can be tied to increasing prices and volatility due to difficulty in demand forecasting and feedstock availability. Herein described are research advancements to develop an industrially feasible, renewable route to PA. Seventeen Propionibacterium strains were screened using glucose and sucrose as the carbon source to identify the best platform strain. Propionibacterium acidipropionici ATCC 4875 was selected as the platform strain and subsequent fermentation optimization studies were performed to maximize productivity and yield. Fermentation productivity was improved three-fold to exceed 2 g/l/h by densifying the inoculum source. Byproduct levels, particularly lactic and succinic acid, were reduced by optimizing fermentor headspace pressure and shear. Following achievement of commercially viable productivities, the lab-grade medium components were replaced with industrial counterparts to further reduce fermentation costs. A pure enzymatically treated corn mash (ECM) medium improved the apparent PA yield to 0.6 g/g (PA produced/glucose consumed), but it came at the cost of reduced productivity. Supplementation of ECM with cyanocobalamin restored productivity to near lab-grade media levels. The optimized ECM recipe achieved a productivity of 0.5 g/l/h with an apparent PA yield of 0.60 g/g corresponding to a media cost <1 USD/kg of PA. These improvements significantly narrow the gap between the fermentation and incumbent petrochemical processes, which is estimated to have a manufacturing cost of 0.82 USD/kg in 2017. PMID:24627047

  4. Phosphatidic acid production in the processing of cabbage leaves.

    PubMed

    Urikura, Mai; Morishige, Jun-Ichi; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Satouchi, Kiyoshi

    2012-11-14

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator involved in various physiological responses, including wound healing. Evidence of the antiulcer activity of LPA has been reported, and soybean LPA at a concentration of 10 μM is effective in reducing stress-induced gastric ulcer. Because LPA can be formed from phosphatidic acid (PA) by digestive phospholipase A₂, dietary PA can be considered a potential antiulcer phospholipid. In this study, PA production in cut processing of cabbage leaves was examined. The amounts of PA in sliced, minced, and homogenized cabbage leaves were 107 ± 5, 134 ± 19, and 286 ± 29 nmol PA/g (wet weight), respectively, all being significantly higher than the amount of PA found in intact leaves. Mixing mayonnaise with sliced cabbage dramatically increased the PA content (1586 ± 393 nmol/3 g), indicating phospholipase D activity leaked raw cabbage produced PA. These results indicate that fine cutting raw cabbage leaves and mixing them with foods rich in phospholipids resulted in an abundant production of PA. PMID:23098184

  5. Process for chemical reaction of amino acids and amides yielding selective conversion products

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Jonathan E.

    2006-05-23

    The invention relates to processes for converting amino acids and amides to desirable conversion products including pyrrolidines, pyrrolidinones, and other N-substituted products. L-glutamic acid and L-pyroglutamic acid provide general reaction pathways to numerous and valuable selective conversion products with varied potential industrial uses.

  6. Production of organic acids by electrodialysis/pervaporation process.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S. P.; Datta, R.; Henry, M.; Halpern, Y.; Frank, J. R.; Energy Systems

    1999-05-01

    Lactate esters produced from carbohydrates have potential markets as nontoxic replacements for halogenated and toxic solvents and as feedstocks for large-volume chemicals and polymers. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a novel process for the production of high-purity lactate esters from carbohydrates. The process uses advanced electrodialysis and pervaporation technologies to overcome major technical barriers in product separation; more specifically, the process involves cation elimination without the generation of salt waste and efficient esterification for final purification. This patented process requires little energy input, is highly efficient and selective, avoids the large volumes of salt waste produced by conventional processes, and significantly reduces manufacturing costs. The enabling membrane separation technologies make it technically and commercially feasible for lactate esters to penetrate the potential markets.

  7. Monosaccharide production in an acid sulfite process: kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Rueda, C; Fernández-Rodríguez, J; Ruiz, G; Llano, T; Coz, A

    2015-02-13

    Spent sulfite liquor is a lignocellulosic waste obtained after the sulfite pulping process. It is mainly formed by sugars and lignosulfonates which are isolated from the pulp during the cooking process. The current work investigates the kinetic modeling of the sulfite process from a biorefinery point of view since monosaccharides present in the spent liquor can be used as a raw material in further biorefinery processes to produce other value-added products. Kinetic parameters of carbohydrate degradation have been determined following sugar and inhibitors from wood to spent liquor, using laboratory scale reactors and different temperatures, 130, 140 and 150 °C. Three types of reaction schemes were developed. Kinetic parameters were obtained for each one using first and n order reactions, using Aspen Custom Modeler. Results show that the best temperature to be used in the process is 130 °C, giving the maximum sugar conversion, 33.91 mol% and obtaining 13.81 mol% of decomposition products.

  8. Fermentation and recovery process for lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.; Coleman, R.

    1995-11-07

    A method is described for converting starch to glucose and fermenting glucose to lactic acid, including simultaneous saccharification and fermentation through use of a novel consortium of bacterial strains. 2 figs.

  9. An integrated bioconversion process for the production of L-lactic acid from starchy feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.P.; Moon, S.H.

    1997-07-01

    The potential market for lactic acid as the feedstock for biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, and specialty chemicals is significant. L-lactic acid is often the desired enantiomer for such applications. However, stereospecific lactobacilli do not metabolize starch efficiently. In this work, Argonne researchers have developed a process to convert starchy feedstocks into L-lactic acid. The processing steps include starch recovery, continuous liquefaction, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Over 100 g/L of lactic acid was produced in less than 48 h. The optical purity of the product was greater than 95%. This process has potential economical advantages over the conventional process.

  10. High-yield production of biosugars from Gracilaria verrucosa by acid and enzymatic hydrolysis processes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Won; Hong, Chae-Hwan; Jeon, Sung-Wan; Shin, Hyun-Jae

    2015-11-01

    Gracilaria verrucosa, the red alga, is a suitable feedstock for biosugar production. This study analyzes biosugar production by the hydrolysis of G. verrucosa conducted under various conditions (i.e., various acid concentrations, substrate concentrations, reaction times, and enzyme dosages). The acid hydrolysates of G. verrucosa yielded a total of 7.47g/L (37.4%) and 10.63g/L (21.26%) of reducing sugars under optimal small (30mL) and large laboratory-scale (1L) hydrolysis processes, respectively. Reducing sugar obtained from acid and enzymatic hydrolysates were 10% higher, with minimum by-products, than those reported in other studies. The mass balance for the small laboratory-scale process showed that the acid and enzymatic hydrolysates had a carbohydrate conversion of 57.2%. The mass balance approach to the entire hydrolysis process of red seaweed for biosugar production can be applied to other saccharification processes.

  11. Production of organic acid esters from biomass - novel processes and concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.

    1981-01-01

    After low cost, low energy pretreatment, lignocellulose can be converted directly to volatile (C/sub 2/-C/sub 6/) organic acids by mixed-culture acidogenic fermentation. The principal components of lignocellulose (pectins, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) are all converted to organic acids in high yields. Esterification from dilute aqueous solutions using novel techniques based on adsorption, solvent extraction, or biochemical conversion could be an important method for recovering these acids and simultaneously producing liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Uses of organic acid esters and conceptual biomass conversion processes are outlined. The significance of these processes for substantially increasing liquid fuel productivity from biomass feedstocks are discussed.

  12. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry.

  13. Production of lactic acid and fungal biomass by Rhizopus fungi from food processing waste streams.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Yin, Pinghe; Ma, Yihong; Zhao, Ling

    2005-12-01

    This study proposed a novel waste utilization bioprocess for production of lactic acid and fungal biomass from waste streams by fungal species of Rhizopus arrhizus 36017 and R. oryzae 2062. The lactic acid and fungal biomass were produced in a single-stage simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process using potato, corn, wheat and pineapple waste streams as production media. R. arrhizus 36017 gave a high lactic acid yield up to 0.94-0.97 g/g of starch or sugars associated with 4-5 g/l of fungal biomass produced, while 17-19 g/l fungal biomass with a lactic acid yield of 0.65-0.76 g/g was produced by the R. oryzae 2062 in 36-48 h fermentation. Supplementation of 2 g/l of ammonium sulfate, yeast extract and peptone stimulated an increase in 8-15% lactic acid yield and 10-20% fungal biomass. PMID:16208461

  14. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed. PMID:27556042

  15. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  16. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed. PMID:27556042

  17. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  18. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  19. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield. PMID:27570139

  20. Development of a highly specific and productive process for n-caproic acid production: applying lessons from methanogenic microbiomes.

    PubMed

    Agler, M T; Spirito, C M; Usack, J G; Werner, J J; Angenent, L T

    2014-01-01

    High productivity and specificity in anaerobic digesters arise because complex microbiomes organize into a metabolic cascade to maximize energy recovery and to utilize the advantage that the gaseous end product methane freely bubbles out of the system. These lessons were applied to ascertain whether a reactor microbiome could be shaped to produce a different end product. The liquid product n-caproic acid was chosen, which is a 6-carbon-chain carboxylic acid that is valuable and that has a relatively low maximum solubility concentration for product recovery. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was inhibited by pH control and a route was provided for n-caproic acid extraction by implementing selective, in-line recovery. Next, ethanol was supplemented to promote chain elongation, which is a pathway in which short-chain carboxylic acids are elongated sequentially into medium-chain carboxylic acids with two-carbon units derived from ethanol. The reactor microbiome developed accordingly with the terminal process catalyzed by chain-elongating bacteria. As a result, n-caproic acid production rates increased to levels comparable to anaerobic digestion systems for solid waste treatment. PMID:24434969

  1. Acidic processing of hemicellulosic saccharides from pine wood: product distribution and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Sandra; González-Muñoz, María Jesús; Santos, Valentín; Parajó, Juan Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Water soluble compounds were removed from Pinus pinaster wood by a mild aqueous extraction, and the treated wood was subjected to hydrothermal processing to convert most hemicelluloses into soluble saccharides (including low molecular weight polymers, oligomers and monosaccharides). The liquid phase containing hemicellulose-derived saccharides was acidified with sulfuric acid and heated up to 130-250°C to obtain furans and levulinic acid as major products. The concentration profiles of the major compounds participating in the reactions were interpreted by a kinetic model. A maximum conversion of pentoses into furfural near 80% was predicted at high temperature and short time, conditions leading to 24% conversion of hexoses into HMF. Production of levulinic acid was favored at low temperatures. Maximum molar conversion of hexoses into levulinic acid (66.7% at 130°C) needed a long reaction time (235 h). A value of 53.0% can be achieved at 170°C after 5 h.

  2. Establishment and assessment of an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industrial production, an improved integrated citric acid-methane production process was established in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was stripped by air to remove ammonia. Followed by solid-liquid separation to remove metal ion precipitation, the supernatant was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. 130U/g glucoamylase was added to medium after inoculation and the recycling process performed for 10 batches. Fermentation time decreased by 20% in recycling and the average citric acid production (2nd-10th) was 145.9±3.4g/L, only 2.5% lower than that with tap water (149.6g/L). The average methane production was 292.3±25.1mL/g CODremoved and stable in operation. Excessive Na(+) concentration in ADE was confirmed to be the major challenge for the proposed process.

  3. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  4. Production of monosaccharides from napier grass by hydrothermal process with phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Takata, Eri; Tsutsumi, Ken; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Tabata, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The production of monosaccharides from napier grass was investigated in the presence of acid catalysts using the hydrothermal process. When the napier grass was treated with 3 wt.% phosphoric acid at 160°C for 15min, the xylose yield reached 10.3 wt.%, corresponding to 72.0% of the xylan in it, whereas glucose was hardly obtained. A combined process was then conducted using an 85 wt.% phosphoric acid treatment at 60 °C for 1h followed by a hydrothermal treatment with 3 wt.% phosphoric acid. In the initial treatment with concentrated phosphoric acid the most of xylan was hydrolyzed to xylose, and the crystalline cellulose was converted to its amorphous form. The hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose was significantly enhanced during the following hydrothermal process with 3 wt.% phosphoric acid at 200 °C for 8 min. Consequently, 77.2% yield of xylose and 50.0% yield of glucose were obtained from the combined process.

  5. Wheat bran biorefinery--an insight into the process chain for the production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Tirpanalan, Özge; Reisinger, Michael; Smerilli, Marina; Huber, Florian; Neureiter, Markus; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Novalin, Senad

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates a wheat bran biorefinery including major processing steps pre-extraction, pre-treatment and lactic acid fermentation. Concerning the dry mass distribution, during the pre-extraction 32% of the feedstock was recovered, offering some perspectives for applications in food area. The pre-treatment (hydrothermal/enzymatic hydrolysis) of the remaining cake solubilized 34% of dry mass and led to a fermentable sugar concentration of 21g/L. The fermentation resulted in a lactic acid yield of 0.73g/g substrate. Concentrating the fermentation feed via nanofiltration did not improve the lactic acid productivity. Taking into account that Lactobacillus pentosus, a heterofermentative microorganism was used, the dry mass balance revealed a product yield of 47% (32% extract, 15% lactic acid). Based on a theoretical consideration involving a cellulolytic enzyme production (10% feedstock allocation) and lignin utilization, under optimized conditions a maximum product yield of around 80% (35% extract, 39% lactic acid, 6% lignin) could be expected.

  6. Improved process for the production of cellulose sulfate using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guo; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Hongwen

    2013-06-01

    An improved process for production of cellulose sulfate (CS) was developed by using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution as sulfonating agent and Na2SO4 as water absorbent. The FTIR, SEM and TG analysis were used to characterize the CS prepared. The total degree of substitution and viscosity of the product solution (2%, w/v) were ranging from 0.28 to 0.77 and from 115 to 907 mPa s, respectively, by changing the process parameters such as the amount of Na2SO4, the reaction time, the temperature, the sulfuric acid/alcohol ratio and liquid/solid ratio. The results indicated that the product with DS (0.28-0.77) and η2% (115-907) mPa s could be produced by using this improved process and more cellulose sulfate could be produced when cellulose was sulfonated for 3-4 h at -2 °C in sulfuric acid/ethanol (1.4-1.6) solution with addition of 0.8 g Na2SO4. The (13)C NMR indicated that the sulfate group of CS produced using sulfuric acid/ethanol solution was at C6 position.

  7. Fungal production of citric and oxalic acid: importance in metal speciation, physiology and biogeochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Gadd, G M

    1999-01-01

    The production of organic acids by fungi has profound implications for metal speciation, physiology and biogeochemical cycles. Biosynthesis of oxalic acid from glucose occurs by hydrolysis of oxaloacetate to oxalate and acetate catalysed by cytosolic oxaloacetase, whereas on citric acid, oxalate production occurs by means of glyoxylate oxidation. Citric acid is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, with metals greatly influencing biosynthesis: growth limiting concentrations of Mn, Fe and Zn are important for high yields. The metal-complexing properties of these organic acids assist both essential metal and anionic (e.g. phosphate) nutrition of fungi, other microbes and plants, and determine metal speciation and mobility in the environment, including transfer between terrestrial and aquatic habitats, biocorrosion and weathering. Metal solubilization processes are also of potential for metal recovery and reclamation from contaminated solid wastes, soils and low-grade ores. Such 'heterotrophic leaching' can occur by several mechanisms but organic acids occupy a central position in the overall process, supplying both protons and a metal-complexing organic acid anion. Most simple metal oxalates [except those of alkali metals, Fe(III) and Al] are sparingly soluble and precipitate as crystalline or amorphous solids. Calcium oxalate is the most important manifestation of this in the environment and, in a variety of crystalline structures, is ubiquitously associated with free-living, plant symbiotic and pathogenic fungi. The main forms are the monohydrate (whewellite) and the dihydrate (weddelite) and their formation is of significance in biomineralization, since they affect nutritional heterogeneity in soil, especially Ca, P, K and Al cycling. The formation of insoluble toxic metal oxalates, e.g. of Cu, may confer tolerance and ensure survival in contaminated environments. In semi-arid environments, calcium oxalate formation is important in the formation and

  8. Improving bioethanol production from olive pruning biomass by deacetylation step prior acid hydrolysis and fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Moya, Alberto J; Peinado, Silvia; Mateo, Soledad; Fonseca, Bruno G; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2016-11-01

    In order to produce bioethanol from olive tree pruning biomass, deacetylation was performed employing sodium hydroxide. Optimal conditions were determined using experimental design techniques. The highest acetic acid removal (3.8g/dm(3)), obtained by response surface methodology, was at optimum pretreatment conditions of temperature 60°C, 0.8% NaOH and residence time 60min. After oxalic acid hydrolysis of pretreated biomass, the hydrolysates were directly used for ethanol production without further detoxification process. Ethanol yields ranged from 0.19 to 0.45g/g, reaching the maximum yield value when pretreatment was carried out at 130°C with 100mM oxalic acid, involving a combined severity factor (CSF) of 1.05. The highest ethanol concentration obtained from pretreated biomass was 6.2g/dm(3) at 150°C, using 75mM of oxalic acid (CSF=1.53). PMID:27579798

  9. Improving bioethanol production from olive pruning biomass by deacetylation step prior acid hydrolysis and fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    Moya, Alberto J; Peinado, Silvia; Mateo, Soledad; Fonseca, Bruno G; Sánchez, Sebastián

    2016-11-01

    In order to produce bioethanol from olive tree pruning biomass, deacetylation was performed employing sodium hydroxide. Optimal conditions were determined using experimental design techniques. The highest acetic acid removal (3.8g/dm(3)), obtained by response surface methodology, was at optimum pretreatment conditions of temperature 60°C, 0.8% NaOH and residence time 60min. After oxalic acid hydrolysis of pretreated biomass, the hydrolysates were directly used for ethanol production without further detoxification process. Ethanol yields ranged from 0.19 to 0.45g/g, reaching the maximum yield value when pretreatment was carried out at 130°C with 100mM oxalic acid, involving a combined severity factor (CSF) of 1.05. The highest ethanol concentration obtained from pretreated biomass was 6.2g/dm(3) at 150°C, using 75mM of oxalic acid (CSF=1.53).

  10. The production of succinic acid by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica through a two-step process.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Vinokurova, Natalia G; Shemshura, Olga N; Bekmakhanova, Nadiya E; Lunina, Julia N; Samoilenko, Vladimir A; Morgunov, Igor G

    2014-09-01

    The production of α-ketoglutaric acid by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica VKMY-2412 from ethanol and its subsequent chemical conversion to succinic acid (SA) were investigated. A highly effective and environmentally friendly process of α-ketoglutaric acid production was developed using a special pH-controlling strategy, in which the titration of the culture broth with KOH in the acid-formation phase was minimal, that allowed accumulation of only low amounts of inorganic wastes in the course of SA recovery. The culture broth filtrate containing α-ketoglutaric acid (88.7 g l(-1)) was directly employed for SA production; the amount of SA produced comprised 71.7 g l(-1) with the yield of 70% from ethanol consumed. SA was isolated from the culture broth filtrate in a crystalline form with the purity of 100%. The yield of isolated SA was as high as 72% of its amount in the culture broth filtrate. The antimicrobial and nematocidic effects of SA of microbial origin on pathogenic organisms that cause human and plant diseases were revealed for the first time. PMID:24972816

  11. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  12. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  13. Behaviour and fluxes of natural radionuclides in the production process of a phosphoric acid plant.

    PubMed

    Bolívar, J P; Martín, J E; García-Tenorio, R; Pérez-Moreno, J P; Mas, J L

    2009-02-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the occupational and public hazards of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries which process materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. These include the industries devoted to the production of phosphoric acid by treating sedimentary phosphate rocks enriched in radionuclides from the uranium series. With the aim of evaluating the radiological impact of a phosphoric acid factory located in the south-western Spain, the distribution and levels of radionuclides in the materials involved in its production process have been analysed. In this way, it is possible to asses the flows of radionuclides at each step and to locate those points where a possible radionuclide accumulation could be produced. A set of samples collected along the whole production process were analysed to determine their radionuclide content by both alpha-particle and gamma spectrometry techniques. The radionuclide fractionation steps and enrichment sources have been located, allowing the establishment of their mass (activity) balances per year.

  14. Oxidized Docosahexaenoic Acid Species and Lipid Peroxidation Products Increase Amyloidogenic Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Marcus O W; Haupenthal, Viola J; Mett, Janine; Stahlmann, Christoph P; Blümel, Tamara; Mylonas, Nadine T; Endres, Kristina; Grimm, Heike S; Hartmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) generated by β- and γ-secretase processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Previously it has been demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with a reduced risk of AD caused by decreased Aβ production. However, in epidemiological studies and nutritional approaches, the outcomes of DHA-dependent treatment were partially controversial. PUFAs are very susceptible to reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, which are increased during disease pathology. In line with published results, lipid peroxidation was elevated in human postmortem AD brains; especially 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE) was increased. To investigate whether lipid peroxidation is only a consequence or might also influence the processes leading to AD, we analyzed 7 different oxidized lipid species including 5 oxidized DHA derivatives and the lipid peroxidation products of ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs, HNE and 4-hydroxy-hexenal, in human neuroblastoma cells and mouse mixed cortical neurons. In the presence of oxidized lipids Aβ and soluble β-secreted APP levels were elevated, whereas soluble α-secreted APP was decreased, suggesting a shift from the nonamyloidogenic to the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing. Furthermore, β- and γ-secretase activity was increased by oxidized lipids via increased gene expression and additionally by a direct effect on β-secretase activity. Importantly, only 1% oxidized DHA was sufficient to revert the protective effect of DHA and to significantly increase Aβ production. Therefore, our results emphasize the need to prevent DHA from oxidation in nutritional approaches and might help explain the divergent results of clinical DHA studies. PMID:26642316

  15. Impact of treatment processes on the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from the drinking water production chain.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Beerendonk, Erwin; Scholte-Veenendaal, Petra; De Voogt, Pim

    2012-02-01

    The behavior of polyfluoralkyl acids (PFAAs) from intake (raw source water) to finished drinking water was assessed by taking samples from influent and effluent of the several treatment steps used in a drinking water production chain. These consisted of intake, coagulation, rapid sand filtration, dune passage, aeration, rapid sand filtration, ozonation, pellet softening, granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration, slow sand filtration, and finished drinking water. In the intake water taken from the Lek canal (a tributary of the river Rhine), the most abundant PFAA were PFBA (perfluorobutanoic acid), PFBS (perfluorobutane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). During treatment, longer chain PFAA such as PFNA (perfluorononanoic acid) and PFOS were readily removed by the GAC treatment step and their GAC effluent concentrations were reduced to levels below the limits of quantitation (LOQ) (0.23 and 0.24 ng/L for PFOS and PFNA, respectively). However, more hydrophilic shorter chain PFAA (especially PFBA and PFBS) were not removed by GAC and their concentrations remained constant through treatment. A decreasing removal capacity of the GAC was observed with increasing carbon loading and with decreasing carbon chain length of the PFAAs. This study shows that none of the treatment steps, including softening processes, are effective for PFAA removal, except for GAC filtration. GAC can effectively remove certain PFAA from the drinking water cycle.The enrichment of branched PFOS and PFOA isomers relative to non branched isomers during GAC filtration was observed during treatment. The finished water contained 26 and 19 ng/L of PFBA and PFBS. Other PFAAs were present in concentrations below 4.2 ng/L The concentrations of PFAA observed in finished waters are no reason for concern for human health as margins to existing guidelines are sufficiently large.

  16. Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect

    Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

    2006-04-19

    Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

  17. Analysis of the production process of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw glycerol using engineered Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed

    Posada, John A; Cardona, Carlos A; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    Glycerol has become an ideal feedstock for producing fuels and chemicals. Here, five technological schemes for optically pure D: -lactic acid production from raw glycerol were designed, simulated, and economically assessed based on five fermentative scenarios using engineered Escherichia coli strains. Fermentative scenarios considered different qualities of glycerol (pure, 98 wt.%, and crude, 85 wt.%) with concentrations ranging from 20 to 60 g/l in the fermentation media, and two fermentation stages were also analyzed. Raw glycerol (60 wt.%) was considered as the feedstock feeding the production process in all cases; then a purification process of raw glycerol up to the required quality was required. Simulation processes were carried out using Aspen Plus, while economic assessments were performed using Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator. D: -Lactic acid recovery and purification processes were based on reactive extraction with tri-n-octylamine using dichloromethane as active extractant agent. The use of raw glycerol represents only between 2.4% and 7.8% of the total production costs. Also, the total production costs obtained of D: -lactic acid in all cases were lower than its sale price indicating that these processes are potentially profitable. Thus, the best configuration process requires the use of crude glycerol diluted at 40 g/l with total glycerol consumption and with D: -lactic acid recovering by reactive extraction. The lowest obtained total production cost was 1.015 US$/kg with a sale price/production cost ratio of 1.53.

  18. Processive Pulses of Retinoic Acid Propel Asynchronous and Continuous Murine Sperm Production1

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Cathryn A.; Arnold, Samuel; Kent, Travis; Mitchell, Debra; Isoherranen, Nina; Griswold, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The asynchronous cyclic nature of spermatogenesis is essential for continual sperm production and is one of the hallmarks of mammalian male fertility. While various mRNA and protein localization studies have indirectly implicated changing retinoid levels along testis tubules, no quantitative evidence for these changes across the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium currently exists. This study utilized a unique mouse model of induced synchronous spermatogenesis, localization of the retinoid-signaling marker STRA8, and sensitive quantification of retinoic acid concentrations to determine whether there are fluctuations in retinoid levels at each of the individual stages of germ cell differentiation and maturation to sperm. These data show that processive pulses of retinoic acid are generated during spermatogonial differentiation and are the likely trigger for cyclic spermatogenesis and allow us, for the first time, to understand how the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium is generated and maintained. In addition, this study represents the first direct quantification of a retinoid gradient controlling cellular differentiation in a postnatal tissue. PMID:25519186

  19. Processive pulses of retinoic acid propel asynchronous and continuous murine sperm production.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Cathryn A; Arnold, Samuel; Kent, Travis; Mitchell, Debra; Isoherranen, Nina; Griswold, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    The asynchronous cyclic nature of spermatogenesis is essential for continual sperm production and is one of the hallmarks of mammalian male fertility. While various mRNA and protein localization studies have indirectly implicated changing retinoid levels along testis tubules, no quantitative evidence for these changes across the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium currently exists. This study utilized a unique mouse model of induced synchronous spermatogenesis, localization of the retinoid-signaling marker STRA8, and sensitive quantification of retinoic acid concentrations to determine whether there are fluctuations in retinoid levels at each of the individual stages of germ cell differentiation and maturation to sperm. These data show that processive pulses of retinoic acid are generated during spermatogonial differentiation and are the likely trigger for cyclic spermatogenesis and allow us, for the first time, to understand how the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium is generated and maintained. In addition, this study represents the first direct quantification of a retinoid gradient controlling cellular differentiation in a postnatal tissue.

  20. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  1. Citric acid production patent review.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G; Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Finogenova, Tatiana V

    2008-01-01

    Current Review article summarizes the developments in citric acid production technologies in East and West last 100 years. Citric acid is commercially produced by large scale fermentation mostly using selected fungal or yeast strains in aerobe bioreactors and still remains one of the runners in industrial production of biotechnological bulk metabolites obtained by microbial fermentation since about 100 years, reflecting the historical development of modern biotechnology and fermentation process technology in East and West. Citric acid fermentation was first found as a fungal product in cultures of Penicillium glaucum on sugar medium by Wehmer in 1893. Citric acid is an important multifunctional organic acid with a broad range of versatile uses in household and industrial applications that has been produced industrially since the beginning of 20(th) century. There is a great worldwide demand for citric acid consumption due to its low toxicity, mainly being used as acidulant in pharmaceutical and food industries. Global citric acid production has reached 1.4 million tones, increasing annually at 3.5-4.0% in demand and consumption. Citric acid production by fungal submerged fermentation is still dominating, however new perspectives like solid-state processes or continuous yeast processes can be attractive for producers to stand in today's strong competition in industry. Further perspectives aiming in the improvement of citric acid production are the improvement of citric acid producing strains by classical and modern mutagenesis and selection as well as downstream processes. Many inexpensive by-products and residues of the agro-industry (e.g. molasses, glycerin etc.) can be economically utilized as substrates in the production of citric acid, especially in solid-state fermentation, enormously reducing production costs and minimizing environmental problems. Alternatively, continuous processes utilizing yeasts which reach 200-250 g/l citric acid can stand in today

  2. [Influence of various thermal processes and microwaves on the amino acid composition of food products: implications on their nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Gayte Sorbier, A; Audibert, M

    1978-01-01

    The cinetic study of free amino nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen of hard wheat semolina, when comparatively treated by thermal processings (convection and microwaves) shows a decrease conditioned by time and strength of heating. Aminograms show the same decrease, which is however different for each amino acid. After thermal treatment, appear ninhydrin-reactive substances, to be identified. In short, micro-wave heating seems to have the same effect as conventional heating, on free amino acids of these cereal products.

  3. An economical biorefinery process for propionic acid production from glycerol and potato juice using high cell density fermentation.

    PubMed

    Dishisha, Tarek; Ståhl, Åke; Lundmark, Stefan; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-05-01

    An economically sustainable process was developed for propionic acid production by fermentation of glycerol using Propionibacterium acidipropionici and potato juice, a by-product of starch processing, as a nitrogen/vitamin source. The fermentation was done as high-cell-density sequential batches with cell recycle. Propionic acid production and glycerol consumption rates were dependent on initial biomass concentration, and reached a maximum of 1.42 and 2.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, from 50 g L(-1) glycerol at initial cell density of 23.7 gCDW L(-1). Halving the concentration of nitrogen/vitamin source resulted in reduction of acetic and succinic acids yields by ~39% each. At glycerol concentrations of 85 and 120 g L(-1), respectively, 43.8 and 50.8 g L(-1) propionic acid were obtained at a rate of 0.88 and 0.29 g L(-1) h(-1) and yield of 84 and 78 mol%. Succinic acid was 13 g% of propionic acid and could represent a potential co-product covering the cost of nitrogen/vitamin source.

  4. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  5. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  6. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

  7. [Aspartic Acid Generated in the Process of Chlorination Disinfection By-product Dichloroacetonitrile].

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun-sheng; Li, Nai-jun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Meng-qing

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a method was developed for the determination of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) in drinking water by liquid- liquid micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ( LLE-GC/MS), which used 1,2-dibromopropane as the internal standard and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the extractant for high accuracy. The aspartic acid was used as the precursor of the DCAN formation during chlorination and the influencing factors were evaluated. The formation mechanism of DCAN was also discussed. The results showed that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of pH value under the neutral and acidic conditions, however, the amount of DCAN decreased with the increase of pH value under the alkali condition. And the final amount of DCAN under the alkali condition was much less than that under the neutral and acidic conditions. It was also found that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of chlorine addition, while the temperature in the range of 10-30°C had little influence on the DCAN formation. The formation process of the DCAN from aspartic acid by chlorination included seven steps, such as substitution, decarboxylation, oxidation, etc and ultimately formed DCAN. PMID:27506037

  8. [Aspartic Acid Generated in the Process of Chlorination Disinfection By-product Dichloroacetonitrile].

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun-sheng; Li, Nai-jun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Meng-qing

    2016-05-15

    In this study, a method was developed for the determination of dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) in drinking water by liquid- liquid micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ( LLE-GC/MS), which used 1,2-dibromopropane as the internal standard and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as the extractant for high accuracy. The aspartic acid was used as the precursor of the DCAN formation during chlorination and the influencing factors were evaluated. The formation mechanism of DCAN was also discussed. The results showed that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of pH value under the neutral and acidic conditions, however, the amount of DCAN decreased with the increase of pH value under the alkali condition. And the final amount of DCAN under the alkali condition was much less than that under the neutral and acidic conditions. It was also found that the DCAN amount increased with the increase of chlorine addition, while the temperature in the range of 10-30°C had little influence on the DCAN formation. The formation process of the DCAN from aspartic acid by chlorination included seven steps, such as substitution, decarboxylation, oxidation, etc and ultimately formed DCAN.

  9. Production of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids From Cull Potato Using an Algae Culture Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhanyou; Hu, Bo; Liu, Yan; Frear, Craig; Wen, Zhiyou; Chen, Shulin

    Algal cultivation for converting cull potato to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was studied. Schizochytrium limacinum SR21 was selected as the better producing strain, compared with Thraustochytrium aureum because of higher cell density and DHA content. Used as both carbon and nitrogen source, an optimal ratio of hydrolyzed potato broth in the culture medium was determined as 50%, with which the highest production of 21.7 g/L dry algae biomass and 5.35 g/L DHA was obtained, with extra glucose supplemented. Repeat culture further improved the cell density but not fed batch culture, suggesting limited growth was most likely caused by metabolites inhibition.

  10. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed.

  11. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. PMID:26761593

  12. Ethanol production from cotton gin trash using optimised dilute acid pretreatment and whole slurry fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Morris, S

    2014-12-01

    Cotton ginning trash (CGT) collected from Australian cotton gins was evaluated for bioethanol production. CGT composition varied between ginning operations and contained high levels of extractives (26-28%), acid-insoluble material (17-22%) and holocellulose (42-50%). Pretreatment conditions of time (4-20 min), temperature (160-220 °C) and sulfuric acid concentration (0-2%) were optimised using a central composite design. Response surface modelling revealed that CGT fibre pretreated at 180 °C in 0.8% H2SO4 for 12 min was optimal for maximising enzymatic glucose recoveries and achieved yields of 89% theoretical, whilst the total accumulated levels of furans and acetic acid remained relatively low at <1 and 2 g/L respectively. Response surface modelling also estimated maximum xylose recovery in pretreated liquors (87% theoretical) under the set conditions of 150 °C in 1.9% H2SO4 for 23.8 min. Yeast fermentations yielded high ethanol titres of 85%, 88% and 70% theoretical from glucose generated from: (a) enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated fibres, (b) enzymatic hydrolysis of whole pretreated slurries and (c) simultaneous saccharification fermentations, respectively. PMID:25280112

  13. Ethanol production from cotton gin trash using optimised dilute acid pretreatment and whole slurry fermentation processes.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Morris, S

    2014-12-01

    Cotton ginning trash (CGT) collected from Australian cotton gins was evaluated for bioethanol production. CGT composition varied between ginning operations and contained high levels of extractives (26-28%), acid-insoluble material (17-22%) and holocellulose (42-50%). Pretreatment conditions of time (4-20 min), temperature (160-220 °C) and sulfuric acid concentration (0-2%) were optimised using a central composite design. Response surface modelling revealed that CGT fibre pretreated at 180 °C in 0.8% H2SO4 for 12 min was optimal for maximising enzymatic glucose recoveries and achieved yields of 89% theoretical, whilst the total accumulated levels of furans and acetic acid remained relatively low at <1 and 2 g/L respectively. Response surface modelling also estimated maximum xylose recovery in pretreated liquors (87% theoretical) under the set conditions of 150 °C in 1.9% H2SO4 for 23.8 min. Yeast fermentations yielded high ethanol titres of 85%, 88% and 70% theoretical from glucose generated from: (a) enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated fibres, (b) enzymatic hydrolysis of whole pretreated slurries and (c) simultaneous saccharification fermentations, respectively.

  14. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  15. Disinfective process of strongly acidic electrolyzed product of sodium chloride solution against Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomoyo Matsushita; Nakano, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Shimizu, Mitsuhide; Wu, Hong; Aoki, Hiroaki; Ota, Rie; Kobayashi, Toyohide; Sano, Kouichi

    2012-12-01

    Electrolyzed acid water (EAW) has been studied for its disinfective potential against pathogenic microbes; however, the bactericidal process against Mycobacteria has not been clearly presented. In this study, to clarify the disinfective process against Mycobacteria, EAW-treated bacteria were examined against laboratory strains of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis), and Mycobacterium terrae (M. terrae) by recovery culture and observation of morphology, enzymatic assay, and the detection of DNA. All experiments were performed with the use of EAW containing 30 ppm free chlorine that kills Mycobacteria, including three pathogenic clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and six isolates of other Mycobacteria, within 5 min. In morphology, the bacterial surface became rough, and a longitudinal concavity-like structure appeared. The intrabacterial enzyme of EAW-contacted bacteria was inactivated, but chromosomal DNA was not totally denatured. These results suggest that the bactericidal effect of EAW against Mycobacteria occurs by degradation of the cell wall, followed by denaturation of cytoplasmic proteins, but degeneration of the nucleic acid is not always necessary.

  16. Disinfective process of strongly acidic electrolyzed product of sodium chloride solution against Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomoyo Matsushita; Nakano, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masaki; Shimizu, Mitsuhide; Wu, Hong; Aoki, Hiroaki; Ota, Rie; Kobayashi, Toyohide; Sano, Kouichi

    2012-12-01

    Electrolyzed acid water (EAW) has been studied for its disinfective potential against pathogenic microbes; however, the bactericidal process against Mycobacteria has not been clearly presented. In this study, to clarify the disinfective process against Mycobacteria, EAW-treated bacteria were examined against laboratory strains of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis), and Mycobacterium terrae (M. terrae) by recovery culture and observation of morphology, enzymatic assay, and the detection of DNA. All experiments were performed with the use of EAW containing 30 ppm free chlorine that kills Mycobacteria, including three pathogenic clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and six isolates of other Mycobacteria, within 5 min. In morphology, the bacterial surface became rough, and a longitudinal concavity-like structure appeared. The intrabacterial enzyme of EAW-contacted bacteria was inactivated, but chromosomal DNA was not totally denatured. These results suggest that the bactericidal effect of EAW against Mycobacteria occurs by degradation of the cell wall, followed by denaturation of cytoplasmic proteins, but degeneration of the nucleic acid is not always necessary. PMID:23224598

  17. Development of a two-step process for production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol using Klebsiella pneumoniae and Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Lin, Jinping; Wang, Hualei; Xie, Jingli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a two-step process was developed for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol. In the first step, glycerol was converted to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumonia. In the second step, the 1,3-propanediol was converted into 3-hydroxypropionic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. In a 7.0 L bioreactor, the whole process took 54 h, consumed 480 g glycerol and produced 242 g 3-hydroxypropionic acid. The conversion rate of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid was 50.4 % (g g(-1)). The final concentration of 3-hydroxypropionic acid arrived 60.5 g L(-1). The process was effective for 3-HP production from glycerol and it might provide a new approach to the biosynthesis of 3-HP from a cheap starting material. Moreover, in this paper, it was first reported that the by-product of 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from 1,3-propandeiol was acrylic acid.

  18. Development of a two-step process for production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol using Klebsiella pneumoniae and Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Lin, Jinping; Wang, Hualei; Xie, Jingli; Wei, Dongzhi

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a two-step process was developed for the production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid from glycerol. In the first step, glycerol was converted to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumonia. In the second step, the 1,3-propanediol was converted into 3-hydroxypropionic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. In a 7.0 L bioreactor, the whole process took 54 h, consumed 480 g glycerol and produced 242 g 3-hydroxypropionic acid. The conversion rate of glycerol to 3-hydroxypropionic acid was 50.4 % (g g(-1)). The final concentration of 3-hydroxypropionic acid arrived 60.5 g L(-1). The process was effective for 3-HP production from glycerol and it might provide a new approach to the biosynthesis of 3-HP from a cheap starting material. Moreover, in this paper, it was first reported that the by-product of 3-hydroxypropionic acid production from 1,3-propandeiol was acrylic acid. PMID:26481922

  19. Enhancement of Biodiesel Production from Marine Alga, Scenedesmus sp. through In Situ Transesterification Process Associated with Acidic Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, WoonYong; Kang, DoHyung; Lee, ShinYoung; Lee, HyeonYong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70°C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp. PMID:24689039

  20. Enhancement of biodiesel production from marine alga, Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification process associated with acidic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ga Vin; Choi, Woonyong; Kang, Dohyung; Lee, Shinyoung; Lee, Hyeonyong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by Scenedesmus sp. through in situ transesterification by optimizing various process parameters. Based on the orthogonal matrix analysis for the acidic catalyst, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of reaction temperature (47.5%) > solvent quantity (26.7%) > reaction time (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). Based on a Taguchi analysis, the effects of the factors decreased in the order of solvent ratio (34.36%) > catalyst (28.62%) > time (19.72%) > temperature (17.32%). The overall biodiesel production appeared to be better using NaOH as an alkaline catalyst rather than using H2SO4 in an acidic process, at 55.07 ± 2.18% (based on lipid weight) versus 48.41 ± 0.21%. However, in considering the purified biodiesel, it was found that the acidic catalyst was approximately 2.5 times more efficient than the alkaline catalyst under the following optimal conditions: temperature of 70 °C (level 2), reaction time of 10 hrs (level 2), catalyst amount of 5% (level 3), and biomass to solvent ratio of 1 : 15 (level 2), respectively. These results clearly demonstrated that the acidic solvent, which combined oil extraction with in situ transesterification, was an effective catalyst for the production of high-quantity, high-quality biodiesel from a Scenedesmus sp.

  1. Strawberry processing does not affect the production and urinary excretion of urolithins, ellagic acid metabolites, in humans.

    PubMed

    Truchado, Pilar; Larrosa, Mar; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Cerdá, Begoña; Vidal-Guevara, María Luisa; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2012-06-13

    The study of fruit and vegetable processing and its effects on the levels of health-promoting constituents and their bioavailability and metabolism is very relevant to understanding the role of these constituents in human health. Strawberry polyphenols, and particularly ellagitannins and ellagic acid, have been associated with the health benefits of this berry for humans. These compounds are transformed into urolithins by the gut microbiota, and these metabolites exert several biological activities that could be responsible for the health effects of strawberries. Processing potentially increases the extraction of ellagitannins from the strawberry achenes and the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins. It is of interest to evaluate the effect of processing on strawberry ellagitannin microbial metabolism compared with fresh strawberries. This study shows that no significant differences in the production and excretion of urolithins were found between the intake of fresh strawberries and that of a thermally processed strawberry puree containing the same amount of strawberries. Processing increases the amount of free ellagic acid 2.5-fold, but this had no effect on the transformation in urolithins by the gut microbiota or in the excretion of urolithin metabolites (urolithin glucuronides) in urine, showing that the release of ellagic acid from ellagitannins is not a relevant factor affecting the microbial metabolism. All of the volunteers produced urolithin A, but only 3 of 20 volunteers produced and excreted urolithin B. It is confirmed that some volunteers were efficient producers of urolithins, whereas other produced much lower amounts. These results show that processing does not modify the potential health effects of strawberry polyphenols.

  2. Uranium control in phosphogypsum. [In wet-process phosphoric acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.; Arnold, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    In wet-process phosphoric acid plants, both previous and recent test results show that uranium dissolution from phosphate rock is significantly higher when the rock is acidulated under oxidizing conditions than under reducing conditions. Excess sulfate and excess fluoride further enhance the distribution of uranium to the cake. Apparently the U(IV) present in the crystal lattice of the apatite plus that formed by reduction of U(IV) by FE(II) during acidulation is trapped or carried into the crystal lattice of the calcium sulfate crystals as they form and grow. The amount of uranium that distributes to hemihydrate filter cake is up to seven times higher than the amount that distributes to the dihydrate cake. About 60% of the uranium in hemihydrate cakes can be readily leached after hydration of the cake, but the residual uranium (20 to 30%) is very difficult to remove economically. Much additional research is needed to develop methods for minimizing uranium losses to calcium filter cakes.

  3. Degradation Kinetics and Mechanism of a β-Lactam Antibiotic Intermediate, 6-Aminopenicillanic Acid, in a New Integrated Production Process.

    PubMed

    Su, Min; Sun, Hua; Zhao, Yingying; Lu, Aidang; Cao, Xiaohui; Wang, Jingkang

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to promote sustainability and to reduce manufacturing costs, the traditional production process for 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) has been modified to include less processing units. The objectives of this study are to investigate the degradation kinetics of 6-APA, to propose a reasonable degradation mechanism, and to optimize the manufacturing conditions within this new process. A series of degradation kinetic studies were conducted in the presence of impurities, as well as at various chemical and physical conditions. The concentrations of 6-APA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. An Arrhenius-type kinetic model was established to give a more accurate prediction on the degradation rates of 6-APA. A hydrolysis degradation mechanism is shown to be the major pathway for 6-APA. The degradation mechanisms and the kinetic models for 6-APA in the new system enable the design of a good manufacturing process with optimized parameters. PMID:26852849

  4. An efficient process for production and purification of hyaluronic acid from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, Vidhya; Jain, Dharmendra

    2008-03-01

    Growth of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in a 10 l bioreactor with 50 g sucrose/l and 10 g casein hydrolysate/l gave 5-6 g hyaluronic acid/l after 24-28 h. Purification of hyaluronic acid gave a recovery of 65% with the final material having an Mr of approximately 4 x 10(6) Da with less than 0.1% protein.

  5. Biotechnological production of citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Max, Belén; Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This work provides a review about the biotechnological production of citric acid starting from the physicochemical properties and industrial applications, mainly in the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Several factors affecting citric acid fermentation are discussed, including carbon source, nitrogen and phosphate limitations, pH of culture medium, aeration, trace elements and morphology of the fungus. Special attention is paid to the fundamentals of biochemistry and accumulation of citric acid. Technologies employed at industrial scale such as surface or submerged cultures, mainly employing Aspergillus niger, and processes carried out with Yarrowia lipolytica, as well as the technology for recovering the product are also described. Finally, this review summarizes the use of orange peels and other by-products as feedstocks for the bioproduction of citric acid. PMID:24031566

  6. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  7. Novel membrane-based biotechnological alternative process for succinic acid production and chemical synthesis of bio-based poly (butylene succinate).

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Ming, Wei; Yan, Daojiang; Zhang, Congcong; Yang, Maohua; Liu, Yilan; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Baohua; Wan, Yinhua; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-03-01

    Succinic acid was produced in a novel membrane-based fermentation and separation integrated system. With this integrated system, product inhibition was alleviated by removing acids and replenishing fresh broth. High cell density maintain for a longer time from 75 to 130h and succinic acid concentration increased from 53 to 73g/L. In the developed separation process, succinic acid was crystallized at a recovery of 85-90%. The purity of the obtained succinic acid crystals reached 99.4% as found by HPLC and (1)H NMR analysis. A crystallization experiment indicated that among by-products glucose had a negative effect on succinic acid crystallization. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) was synthesized using the purified succinic acid and (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that the composition of the synthesized PBS is in agreement with that from petro-based succinic acid.

  8. Novel membrane-based biotechnological alternative process for succinic acid production and chemical synthesis of bio-based poly (butylene succinate).

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Ming, Wei; Yan, Daojiang; Zhang, Congcong; Yang, Maohua; Liu, Yilan; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Baohua; Wan, Yinhua; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-03-01

    Succinic acid was produced in a novel membrane-based fermentation and separation integrated system. With this integrated system, product inhibition was alleviated by removing acids and replenishing fresh broth. High cell density maintain for a longer time from 75 to 130h and succinic acid concentration increased from 53 to 73g/L. In the developed separation process, succinic acid was crystallized at a recovery of 85-90%. The purity of the obtained succinic acid crystals reached 99.4% as found by HPLC and (1)H NMR analysis. A crystallization experiment indicated that among by-products glucose had a negative effect on succinic acid crystallization. Poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) was synthesized using the purified succinic acid and (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that the composition of the synthesized PBS is in agreement with that from petro-based succinic acid. PMID:24472699

  9. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  10. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  11. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-08-03

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead-acid

  12. Health hazards of China's lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts.

    PubMed

    van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Huang, Lei; Cherry, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Despite China's leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children's blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China's lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world's leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries.This review assesses the role of China's rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure.This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China's growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health impacts of the lead-acid

  13. Process characterization and influence of alternative carbon sources and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio on organic acid production by Aspergillus oryzae DSM1863.

    PubMed

    Ochsenreither, Katrin; Fischer, Christian; Neumann, Anke; Syldatk, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    L-Malic acid and fumaric acid are C4 dicarboxylic organic acids and considered as promising chemical building blocks. They can be applied as food preservatives and acidulants in rust removal and as polymerization starter units. Molds of the genus Aspergillus are able to produce malic acid in large quantities from glucose and other carbon sources. In order to enhance the production potential of Aspergillus oryzae DSM 1863, production and consumption rates in an established bioreactor batch-process based on glucose were determined. At 35 °C, up to 42 g/L malic acid was produced in a 168-h batch process with fumaric acid as a by-product. In prolonged shaking flask experiments (353 h), the suitability of the alternative carbon sources xylose and glycerol at a carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 200:1 and the influence of different C/N ratios in glucose cultivations were tested. When using glucose, 58.2 g/L malic acid and 4.2 g/L fumaric acid were produced. When applying xylose or glycerol, both organic acids are produced but the formation of malic acid decreased to 45.4 and 39.4 g/L, respectively. Whereas the fumaric acid concentration was not significantly altered when cultivating with xylose (4.5 g/L), it is clearly enhanced by using glycerol (9.3 g/L). When using glucose as a carbon source, an increase or decrease of the C/N ratio did not influence malic acid production but had an enormous influence on fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentrations were determined at the highest C/N ratio (300:1, 8.44 g/L) and lowest at the lowest C/N ratio (100:1, 0.7 g/L).

  14. High-rate volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by a granular sludge process at low pH.

    PubMed

    Tamis, J; Joosse, B M; Loosdrecht, M C M van; Kleerebezem, R

    2015-11-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are proposed platform molecules for the production of basic chemicals and polymers from organic waste streams. In this study we developed a granular sludge process to produce VFA at high rate, yield and purity while minimizing potential operational costs. A lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was fed with 10 g l(-1) glucose as model substrate. Inclusion of a short (2 min) settling phase before effluent discharge enabled effective granulation and very high volumetric conversion rates of 150-300 gCOD l(-1)  d(-1) were observed during glucose conversion. The product spectrum remained similar at the tested pH range with acetate and butyrate as the main products, and a total VFA yield of 60-70% on chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis. The requirement for base addition for pH regulation could be reduced from 1.1 to 0.6 mol OH(-) (mol glucose)(-1) by lowering the pH from 5.5 to 4.5. Solids concentrations in the effluent were 0.6 ± 0.3 g l(-1) but could be reduced to 0.02 ± 0.01 g l(-1) by introduction of an additional settling period of 5 min. The efficient production of VFA at low pH with a virtually solid-free effluent increases the economic feasibility of waste-based chemicals and polymer production. Biotechnol.

  15. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L.; Lewis, Annette K.; Hildebrand, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  16. Production of acetic acid by hydrothermal two-step process of vegetable wastes for use as a road deicer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, F.; Watanabe, Y.; Kishita, A.; Enomoto, H.; Kishida, H.

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to produce acetic acid from vegetable wastes by a new hydrothermal two-step process. A continuous flow reaction system with a maximum treatment capacity of 2 kg/h of dry biomass developed by us was used. Five kinds of vegetables of carrots, white radish, chinese cabbage, cabbage and potato were selected as the representation of vegetable wastes. First, batch experiments with the selected vegetables were performed under the condition of 300°C, 1 min for the first step, and 300°C, 1 min and 70% oxygen supply for the second step, which is the optimum condition for producing acetic acid in the case of using starch as test material. The highest yields of acetic acid from five vegetables were almost the same as those obtained from starch. Subsequently, similar the highest yield of acetic acid and experimental conditions from vegetables were also obtained successfully using the continuous flow reaction system. These results should be useful for developing an industrial scale process.

  17. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed.

  18. The role of various amino acids in enzymatic browning process in potato tubers, and identifying the browning products.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussein M; El-Gizawy, Ahmed M; El-Bassiouny, Rawia E I; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of five structurally variant amino acids, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine and cysteine were examined as inhibitors and/or stimulators of fresh-cut potato browning. The first four amino acids showed conflict effects; high concentrations (⩾ 100mM for glycine and ⩾ 1.0M for the other three amino acids) induced potato browning while lower concentrations reduced the browning process. Alternatively, increasing cysteine concentration consistently reduced the browning process due to reaction with quinone to give colorless adduct. In PPO assay, high concentrations (⩾ 1.11 mM) of the four amino acids developed more color than that of control samples. Visible spectra indicated a continuous condensation of quinone and glycine to give colored adducts absorbed at 610-630 nm which were separated and identified by LC-ESI-MS as catechol-diglycine adduct that undergoes polymerization with other glycine molecules to form peptide side chains. In lower concentrations, the less concentration the less developed color was observed. PMID:26304424

  19. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%. PMID:27035470

  20. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%.

  1. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  2. Gamma-aminobutyric acid production using immobilized glutamate decarboxylase followed by downstream processing with cation exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungwoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kim, Yeon-Gu; Jung, Joon-Ki; Lee, Hongweon; Lee, Eun Gyo

    2013-01-15

    We have developed a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production technique using his-tag mediated immobilization of Escherichia coli-derived glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to GABA. The GAD was obtained at 1.43 g/L from GAD-overexpressed E. coli fermentation and consisted of 59.7% monomer, 29.2% dimer and 2.3% tetramer with a 97.6% soluble form of the total GAD. The harvested GAD was immobilized to metal affinity gel with an immobilization yield of 92%. Based on an investigation of specific enzyme activity and reaction characteristics, glutamic acid (GA) was chosen over monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a substrate for immobilized GAD, resulting in conversion of 2.17 M GABA in a 1 L reactor within 100 min. The immobilized enzymes retained 58.1% of their initial activities after ten consecutive uses. By using cation exchange chromatography followed by enzymatic conversion, GABA was separated from the residual substrate and leached GAD. As a consequence, the glutamic acid was mostly removed with no detectable GAD, while 91.2% of GABA was yielded in the purification step.

  3. Production and characterization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) generated by Alcaligenes latus using lactose and whey after acid protein precipitation process.

    PubMed

    Berwig, Karina Hammel; Baldasso, Camila; Dettmer, Aline

    2016-10-01

    Whey after acid protein precipitation was used as substrate for PHB production in orbital shaker using Alcaligenes latus. Statistical analysis determined the most appropriate hydroxide for pH neutralization of whey after protein precipitation among NH4OH, KOH and NaOH 10%w/v. The results were compared to those of commercial lactose. A scale-up test in a 4L bioreactor was done at 35°C, 750rpm, 7L/min air flow, and 6.5 pH. The PHB was characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. NH4OH provided the best results for productivity (p), 0.11g/L.h, and for polymer yield, (YP/S), 1.08g/g. The bioreactor experiment resulted in lower p and YP/S. PHB showed maximum degradation temperature (291°C), melting temperature (169°C), and chemical properties similar to those of standard PHB. The use of whey as a substrate for PHB production did not affect significantly the final product quality. PMID:27347795

  4. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  5. Microbial production of lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Eiteman, Mark A; Ramalingam, Subramanian

    2015-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important commodity chemical having a wide range of applications. Microbial production effectively competes with chemical synthesis methods because biochemical synthesis permits the generation of either one of the two enantiomers with high optical purity at high yield and titer, a result which is particularly beneficial for the production of poly(lactic acid) polymers having specific properties. The commercial viability of microbial lactic acid production relies on utilization of inexpensive carbon substrates derived from agricultural or waste resources. Therefore, optimal lactic acid formation requires an understanding and engineering of both the competing pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism, as well as pathways leading to potential by-products which both affect product yield. Recent research leverages those biochemical pathways, while researchers also continue to seek strains with improved tolerance and ability to perform under desirable industrial conditions, for example, of pH and temperature.

  6. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  7. Chemical production processes and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  8. Chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid and chitin/chitosan production using marine waste sources: characteristics, applications and eco-friendly processes: a review.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Amado, Isabel; Montemayor, María Ignacia; Fraguas, Javier; González, María Del Pilar; Murado, Miguel Anxo

    2013-03-11

    In the last decade, an increasing number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chitin and chitosan applications have been reported. Their commercial demands have been extended to different markets, such as cosmetics, medicine, biotechnology, food and textiles. Marine wastes from fisheries and aquaculture are susceptible sources for polymers but optimized processes for their recovery and production must be developed to satisfy such necessities. In the present work, we have reviewed different alternatives reported in the literature to produce and purify chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitin/chitosan (CH/CHs) with the aim of proposing environmentally friendly processes by combination of various microbial, chemical, enzymatic and membranes strategies and technologies.

  9. Chondroitin Sulfate, Hyaluronic Acid and Chitin/Chitosan Production Using Marine Waste Sources: Characteristics, Applications and Eco-Friendly Processes: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Amado, Isabel; Montemayor, María Ignacia; Fraguas, Javier; del Pilar González, María; Murado, Miguel Anxo

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, an increasing number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chitin and chitosan applications have been reported. Their commercial demands have been extended to different markets, such as cosmetics, medicine, biotechnology, food and textiles. Marine wastes from fisheries and aquaculture are susceptible sources for polymers but optimized processes for their recovery and production must be developed to satisfy such necessities. In the present work, we have reviewed different alternatives reported in the literature to produce and purify chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitin/chitosan (CH/CHs) with the aim of proposing environmentally friendly processes by combination of various microbial, chemical, enzymatic and membranes strategies and technologies. PMID:23478485

  10. Acid-Assisted Ball Milling of Cellulose as an Efficient Pretreatment Process for the Production of Butyl Glycosides.

    PubMed

    Boissou, Florent; Sayoud, Nassim; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Barakat, Abdellatif; Marinkovic, Sinisa; Estrine, Boris; Jérôme, François

    2015-10-12

    Ball milling of cellulose in the presence of a catalytic amount of H2SO4 was found to be a promising pre-treatment process to produce butyl glycosides in high yields. Conversely to the case of water, n-butanol has only a slight effect on the recrystallization of ball-milled cellulose. As a result, thorough depolymerization of cellulose prior the glycosylation step is no longer required, which is a pivotal aspect with respect to energy consumption. This process was successfully transposed to wheat straw from which butyl glycosides and xylosides were produced in good yields. Butyl glycosides and xylosides are important chemicals as they can be used as hydrotropes but also as intermediates in the production of valuable amphiphilic alkyl glycosides.

  11. Acid-Assisted Ball Milling of Cellulose as an Efficient Pretreatment Process for the Production of Butyl Glycosides.

    PubMed

    Boissou, Florent; Sayoud, Nassim; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Barakat, Abdellatif; Marinkovic, Sinisa; Estrine, Boris; Jérôme, François

    2015-10-12

    Ball milling of cellulose in the presence of a catalytic amount of H2SO4 was found to be a promising pre-treatment process to produce butyl glycosides in high yields. Conversely to the case of water, n-butanol has only a slight effect on the recrystallization of ball-milled cellulose. As a result, thorough depolymerization of cellulose prior the glycosylation step is no longer required, which is a pivotal aspect with respect to energy consumption. This process was successfully transposed to wheat straw from which butyl glycosides and xylosides were produced in good yields. Butyl glycosides and xylosides are important chemicals as they can be used as hydrotropes but also as intermediates in the production of valuable amphiphilic alkyl glycosides. PMID:26346950

  12. Metabolic engineering of Pediococcus acidilactici BD16 for production of vanillin through ferulic acid catabolic pathway and process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir

    2014-10-01

    Occurrence of feruloyl-CoA synthetase (fcs) and enoyl-CoA hydratase (ech) genes responsible for the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin have been reported and characterized from Amycolatopsis sp., Streptomyces sp., and Pseudomonas sp. Attempts have been made to express these genes in Escherichia coli DH5α, E. coli JM109, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. However, none of the lactic acid bacteria strain having GRAS status was previously proposed for heterologous expression of fcs and ech genes for production of vanillin through biotechnological process. Present study reports heterologous expression of vanillin synthetic gene cassette bearing fcs and ech genes in a dairy isolate Pediococcus acidilactici BD16. After metabolic engineering, statistical optimization of process parameters that influence ferulic acid to vanillin biotransformation in the recombinant strain was carried out using central composite design of response surface methodology. After scale-up of the process, 3.14 mM vanillin was recovered from 1.08 mM ferulic acid per milligram of recombinant cell biomass within 20 min of biotransformation. From LCMS-ESI spectral analysis, a metabolic pathway of phenolic biotransformations was predicted in the recombinant P. acidilactici BD16 (fcs (+)/ech (+)).

  13. Fjords: Processes and products

    SciTech Connect

    Syvitski, J.P.M.; Burrell, D.C.; Skei, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fjords are a major feature of coasts and provide geologists and oceanographers with an excellent environment for studying and modeling coastal processes and products. This book brings together and integrates an enormous amount of information on fjords and provides the reader with a thorough, interdisciplinary account of current research with emphasis on sedimentary processes. The processes demonstrated in fjords are often relevant to the estuarine or open ocean environment.

  14. A New Process for Acrylic Acid Synthesis by Fermentative Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunelli, B. H.; Duarte, E. R.; de Toledo, E. C. Vasco; Wolf Maciel, M. R.; Maciel Filho, R.

    With the synthesis of chemical products through biotechnological processes, it is possible to discover and to explore innumerable routes that can be used to obtain products of high addes value. Each route may have particular advantages in obtaining a desired product, compared with others, especially in terms of yield, productivity, easiness to separate the product, economy, and environmental impact. The purpose of this work is the development of a deterministic model for the biochemical synthesis of acrylic acid in order to explore an alternative process. The model is built-up with the tubular reactor equations together with the kinetic representation based on the structured model. The proposed process makes possible to obtain acrylic acid continuously from the sugar cane fermentation.

  15. Large-scale production of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoic acid) by Pseudomonas putida GPo1 and a simplified downstream process.

    PubMed

    Elbahloul, Yasser; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    The suitability of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 for large-scale cultivation and production of poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) was investigated in this study. Three fed-batch cultivations of P. putida GPo1 at the 350- or 400-liter scale in a bioreactor with a capacity of 650 liters were done in mineral salts medium containing initially 20 mM sodium octanoate as the carbon source. The feeding solution included ammonium octanoate, which was fed at a relatively low concentration to promote PHO accumulation under nitrogen-limited conditions. During cultivation, the pH was regulated by addition of NaOH, NH(4)OH, or octanoic acid, which was used as an additional carbon source. Partial O(2) pressure (pO(2)) was adjusted to 20 to 40% by controlling the airflow and stirrer speed. Under the optimized conditions, P. putida GPo1 was able to grow to cell densities as high as 18, 37, and 53 g cells (dry mass) (CDM) per liter containing 49, 55, and 60% (wt/wt) of PHO, respectively. The resulting 40 kg CDM from these three cultivations was used directly for extraction of PHO. Three different methods of extraction of PHO were applied. From these, only acetone extraction showed better performance and resulted in 94% recovery of the PHO contents of cells. A novel mixture of precipitation solvents composed of 70% (vol/vol) methanol and 70% (vol/vol) ethanol was identified in this study. The ratio of PHO concentrate to the mixture was 0.2:1 (vol/vol) and allowed complete precipitation of PHO as white flakes. However, at a ratio of 1:1 (vol/vol) of the solvent mixture to PHO concentrate, a highly purified PHO was obtained. Precipitation yielded a dough-like polymeric material which was cast into thin layers and then shredded into small strips to allow evaporation of the remaining solvents. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed a purity of about 99% +/- 0.2% (wt/wt) of the polymer, which consisted mainly of 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid (96 mol%). PMID:19047387

  16. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    PubMed

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  17. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, J.B.; Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Somerville, C.R.

    1995-07-04

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid, petroselinic acid, in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a {omega}12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid. 19 figs.

  18. Method for production of petroselinic acid and OMEGA12 hexadecanoic acid in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Ohlrogge, John B.; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Christopher R.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for producing lipids containing the fatty acid petroselinic acid in plants. The production of petroselinic acid is accomplished by genetically transforming plants which do not normally accumulate petroselinic acid with a gene for a .omega.12 desaturase from another species which does normally accumulate petroselinic acid.

  19. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  20. Biotechnological production of gluconic acid: future implications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Om V; Kumar, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Gluconic acid (GA) is a multifunctional carbonic acid regarded as a bulk chemical in the food, feed, beverage, textile, pharmaceutical, and construction industries. The favored production process is submerged fermentation by Aspergillus niger utilizing glucose as a major carbohydrate source, which accompanied product yield of 98%. However, use of GA and its derivatives is currently restricted because of high prices: about US$ 1.20-8.50/kg. Advancements in biotechnology such as screening of microorganisms, immobilization techniques, and modifications in fermentation process for continuous fermentation, including genetic engineering programmes, could lead to cost-effective production of GA. Among alternative carbohydrate sources, sugarcane molasses, grape must show highest GA yield of 95.8%, and banana must may assist reducing the overall cost of GA production. These methodologies would open new markets and increase applications of GA.

  1. Process for forming sulfuric acid

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrode is disclosed for the anode in a sulfur cycle hydrogen generation process where sulfur dioxie is oxidized to form sulfuric acid at the anode. The active compound in the electrode is palladium, palladium oxide, an alloy of palladium, or a mixture thereof. The active compound may be deposited on a porous, stable, conductive substrate.

  2. Feasibility of aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product (salsa con queso) using a continuous flow microwave system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Coronel, P; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P

    2007-04-01

    Aseptic processing of a low-acid multiphase food product using a continuous flow microwave heating system can combine the advantages of an aseptic process along with those of microwave heating. Dielectric properties of 2 different brands of 1 such product (salsa con queso) were measured under continuous flow conditions at a temperature range of 20 to 130 degrees C. At 915 MHz, the dielectric constant ranged from 58.7 at 20 degrees C to 41.3 at 130 degrees C with dielectric loss factor ranging from 41.0 at 20 degrees C to 145.5 at 130 degrees C. The loss tangent at 915 MHz ranged from 0.61 at 20 degrees C to 3.52 at 130 degrees C. The temperature profiles at the outlet during processing of salsa con queso in a 5-kW microwave unit showed a narrow temperature distribution between the center and the wall of the tube. The study showed the feasibility of aseptic processing of salsa con queso using a continuous flow microwave system.

  3. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

  4. A novel production process for optically pure L-lactic acid from kitchen refuse using a bacterial consortium at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Okugawa, Yuki; Pramod, Poudel; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Sakai, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    We investigated L-lactic acid production in static batch fermentation of kitchen refuse using a bacterial consortium from marine-animal-resource (MAR) composts at temperatures ranging from 30 to 65 °C. At relatively low temperatures butyric acid accumulated, whereas at higher temperatures L-lactic acid was produced. In particular, fermentation at 50 °C produced 34.5 g L(-1) L-lactic acid with 90% lactic acid selectivity and 100% optical purity. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that dominant bacteria present in the original MAR composts diminished rapidly and Bacillus coagulans strains became the dominant contributors to L-lactic acid production at 45, 50 and 55 °C. This is the first report of the achievement of 100% optical purity of L-lactic acid using a bacterial consortium.

  5. Health hazards of China’s lead-acid battery industry: a review of its market drivers, production processes, and health impacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite China’s leaded gasoline phase out in 2000, the continued high rates of lead poisoning found in children’s blood lead levels reflect the need for identifying and controlling other sources of lead pollution. From 2001 to 2007, 24% of children in China studied (N = 94,778) were lead poisoned with levels exceeding 100 μg/L. These levels stand well above the global average of 16%. These trends reveal that China still faces significant public health challenges, with millions of children currently at risk of lead poisoning. The unprecedented growth of China’s lead-acid battery industry from the electric bike, automotive, and photovoltaic industries may explain these persistently high levels, as China remains the world’s leading producer, refiner, and consumer of both lead and lead-acid batteries. This review assesses the role of China’s rising lead-acid battery industry on lead pollution and exposure. It starts with a synthesis of biological mechanisms of lead exposure followed by an analysis of the key technologies driving the rapid growth of this industry. It then details the four main stages of lead battery production, explaining how each stage results in significant lead loss and pollution. A province-level accounting of each of these industrial operations is also included. Next, reviews of the literature describe how this industry may have contributed to mass lead poisonings throughout China. Finally, the paper closes with a discussion of new policies that address the lead-acid battery industry and identifies policy frameworks to mitigate exposure. This paper is the first to integrate the market factors, production processes, and health impacts of China’s growing lead-acid battery industry to illustrate its vast public health consequences. The implications of this review are two-fold: it validates calls for a nationwide assessment of lead exposure pathways and levels in China as well as for a more comprehensive investigation into the health

  6. An integrated process for the production of platform chemicals and diesel miscible fuels by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and downstream upgrading of the acid hydrolysis residues with thermal and catalytic pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Girisuta, Buana; Kalogiannis, Konstantinos G; Dussan, Karla; Leahy, James J; Hayes, Michael H B; Stefanidis, Stylianos D; Michailof, Chrysa M; Lappas, Angelos A

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluates an integrated process for the production of platform chemicals and diesel miscible biofuels. An energy crop (Miscanthus) was treated hydrothermally to produce levulinic acid (LA). Temperatures ranging between 150 and 200 °C, sulfuric acid concentrations 1-5 wt.% and treatment times 1-12 h were applied to give different combined severity factors. Temperatures of 175 and 200 °C and acid concentration of 5 wt.% were found to be necessary to achieve good yield (17 wt.%) and selectivities of LA while treatment time did not have an effect. The acid hydrolysis residues were characterized for their elemental, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents, and then tested in a small-scale pyrolyzer using silica sand and a commercial ZSM-5 catalyst. Milder pretreatment yielded more oil (43 wt.%) and oil O(2) (37%) while harsher pretreatment and catalysis led to more coke production (up to 58 wt.%), less oil (12 wt.%) and less oil O(2) (18 wt.%).

  7. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  8. Economic aspects of amino acids production.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Udo; Huebner, Susanna

    2003-01-01

    Amino acids represent basic elements of proteins, which as a main source of nutrition themselves serve as a major reserve for maintaining essential functions of humans as well as animals. Taking the recent state of scientific knowledge into account, the industrial sector of amino acids is a priori "suitable" to a specific kind of an ecologically sound way of production, which is based on biotechnology. The following article may point out characteristics of this particular industrial sector and illustrates the applicability of the latest economic methods, founded on development of the discipline of bionics in order to describe economic aspects of amino acids markets. The several biochemical and technological fields of application of amino acids lead to specific market structures in high developed and permanently evolving systems. The Harvard tradition of industrial economics explains how market structures mould the behaviour of the participants and influences market results beyond that. A global increase in intensity of competition confirms the notion that the supply-side is characterised by asymmetric information in contrast to Kantzenbachs concept of "narrow oligopoly" with symmetrical shared knowledge about market information. Departing from this point, certain strategies of companies in this market form shall be derived. The importance of Research and Development increases rapidly and leads to innovative manufacturing methods which replace more polluting manufacturing processes like acid hydrolysis. In addition to these modifications within the production processes the article deals furthermore with the pricing based on product life cycle concept and introduces specific applications of tools like activity based costing and target costing to the field of amino acid production. The authors come to the conclusion that based on a good transferability of latest findings in bionics and ecological compatibility competitors in amino acids manufacturing are well advised

  9. Microbial production of organic acids: expanding the markets.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo; Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola

    2008-02-01

    Microbial production of organic acids is a promising approach for obtaining building-block chemicals from renewable carbon sources. Although some acids have been produced for some time and in-depth knowledge of these microbial production processes has been gained, further microbial production processes seem to be feasible, but large-scale production has not yet been possible. Citric, lactic and succinic acid production exemplify three processes in different stages of industrial development. Although the questions being addressed by current research on these processes are diverging, a comparison is helpful for understanding microbial organic acid production in general. In this article, through analysis of the current advances in production of these acids, we present guidelines for future developments in this fast-moving field. PMID:18191255

  10. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOEpatents

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  11. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  12. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  13. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  14. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang

    2004-04-28

    In the first year of this project, we have established our experimental and theoretical methodologies for studies of the catalytic decarboxylation process. We have developed both glass and stainless steel micro batch type reactors for the fast screening of various catalysts with reaction substrates of model carboxylic acid compounds and crude oil samples. We also developed novel product analysis methods such as GC analyses for organic acids and gaseous products; and TAN measurements for crude oil. Our research revealed the effectiveness of several solid catalysts such as NA-Cat-1 and NA-Cat-2 for the catalytic decarboxylation of model compounds; and NA-Cat-5{approx}NA-Cat-9 for the acid removal from crude oil. Our theoretical calculations propose a three-step concerted oxidative decarboxylation mechanism for the NA-Cat-1 catalyst.

  15. Acid preservation systems for food products

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberio, J. E.; Cirigiano, M. C.

    1984-10-16

    Fumaric acid is used in combination with critical amounts of acetic acid to preserve acid containing food products from microbiological spoilage in the absence of or at reduced levels of chemical preservative.

  16. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  17. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  18. A new effective process for production of curdlan oligosaccharides based on alkali-neutralization treatment and acid hydrolysis of curdlan particles in water suspension.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Li; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung; Zong, Yu; Li, Wei-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Biologically active β-1,3-oligosaccharides with rapidly growing biomedical applications are produced from hydrolysis of curdlan polysaccharide. The water-insoluble curdlan impedes its hydrolysis efficiency which is enhanced by our newly developed alkali-neutralization treatment process to increase the stability of curdlan suspension to more than 20 days, while the untreated control settled within 5 min. A putative double-layer structure model comprising of a compact core and a hydrated outer layer was proposed to describe the treated curdlan particles based on sedimentation and scanning electron microscopy observation. This model was verified by single- and two-step acid hydrolysis, indicative of the reduced susceptibility to hydrolysis when close to the compact core. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography analyses, and effective HPLC procedure led to the development of improved process to produce purified individual β-1,3-oligosaccharides with degrees of polymerization from 2 to 10 and potential for biomedical applications from curdlan hydrolyzate. Our new curdlan oligosaccharide production process offers an even better alternative to the previously published processes.

  19. Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: comparing petroleum-based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically-based poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Harding, K G; Dennis, J S; von Blottnitz, H; Harrison, S T L

    2007-05-31

    Polymers based on olefins have wide commercial applicability. However, they are made from non-renewable resources and are characterised by difficulty in disposal where recycle and re-use is not feasible. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) provides one example of a polymer made from renewable resources. Before motivating its widespread use, the advantages of a renewable polymer must be weighed against the environmental aspects of its production. Previous studies relating the environmental impacts of petroleum-based and bio-plastics have centred on the impact categories of global warming and fossil fuel depletion. Cradle-to-grave studies report equivalent or reduced global warming impacts, in comparison to equivalent polyolefin processes. This stems from a perceived CO(2) neutral status of the renewable resource. Indeed, no previous work has reported the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) giving the environmental impacts in all major categories. This study investigates a cradle-to-gate LCA of PHB production taking into account net CO(2) generation and all major impact categories. It compares the findings with similar studies of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). It is found that, in all of the life cycle categories, PHB is superior to PP. Energy requirements are slightly lower than previously observed and significantly lower than those for polyolefin production. PE impacts are lower than PHB values in acidification and eutrophication.

  20. Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: comparing petroleum-based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically-based poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Harding, K G; Dennis, J S; von Blottnitz, H; Harrison, S T L

    2007-05-31

    Polymers based on olefins have wide commercial applicability. However, they are made from non-renewable resources and are characterised by difficulty in disposal where recycle and re-use is not feasible. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) provides one example of a polymer made from renewable resources. Before motivating its widespread use, the advantages of a renewable polymer must be weighed against the environmental aspects of its production. Previous studies relating the environmental impacts of petroleum-based and bio-plastics have centred on the impact categories of global warming and fossil fuel depletion. Cradle-to-grave studies report equivalent or reduced global warming impacts, in comparison to equivalent polyolefin processes. This stems from a perceived CO(2) neutral status of the renewable resource. Indeed, no previous work has reported the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) giving the environmental impacts in all major categories. This study investigates a cradle-to-gate LCA of PHB production taking into account net CO(2) generation and all major impact categories. It compares the findings with similar studies of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE). It is found that, in all of the life cycle categories, PHB is superior to PP. Energy requirements are slightly lower than previously observed and significantly lower than those for polyolefin production. PE impacts are lower than PHB values in acidification and eutrophication. PMID:17400318

  1. Recycled fatty acid crude petroleum recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, G. L.; Herter, C.

    1984-11-06

    A method of recovering crude oil for subsequent processing. The method contemplates the step of exposing the source of crude oil such as a subterranean petroleum reservoir or a vessel or container of tar sands, kerogen or the like to aliphatic or carboxylic acid, preferably oleic acid, to produce a solvated crude oil mixture of reduced viscosity. This mixture is saponifyed by reacting it with a nucleophilic base, preferably a hydroxide of potassium or sodium, under pressure whereby to separate the solvated mixture into petroleum crude and an acid soap which migrates to an aqueous phase. The petroleum crude is separated from the aqueous soap through conventional techniques. Afterwards, a desaponification step contemplates recovery of the aliphatic or carboxylic acid for subsequent recycling in the previously mentioned exposing step. Reuse is facilitated by desaponifying aqueous soap within a high pressure containment vessel reacted with an acid suitable for donating a hydrated proton to the aqueous phase of the soap. This reconstituted acid is recycled for injection into the inputting step. Preferably carbonic acid is generated for the desaponifying step by injecting high pressure carbon dioxide within the containment vessel. By-products of the chemical reaction are separated and/or filtered as necessary to effectuate necessary purification sub-steps.

  2. Fermentative production of poly (γ-glutamic acid) from renewable carbon source and downstream purification through a continuous membrane-integrated hybrid process.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2015-02-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out on continuous and direct production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) in a hybrid reactor system that integrated conventional fermentative production step with membrane-based downstream separation and purification. Novelty of the integrated system lies in high degree of purity, conversion, yield and productivity of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) through elimination of substrate-product inhibitions of traditional batch production system. This new system is compact, flexible, eco-friendly and largely fouling-free ensuring steady and continuous production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) directly from a renewable carbon source at the rate of 0.91 g/L/h. Cross-flow microfiltration membrane modules ensured almost complete separation and recycle of cells without much fouling problem. Well-screened ultrafiltration membrane module helped to concentrate poly-(γ-glutamic acid) while ensuring recovery and recycle of 96% unconverted carbon source resulting in yield of 0.6g/g along with high product purity.

  3. The Effects of Mary Rose Conservation Treatment on Iron Oxidation Processes and Microbial Communities Contributing to Acid Production in Marine Archaeological Timbers

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Joanne; Smith, Andrew D.; Schofield, Eleanor J.; Chadwick, Alan V.; Jones, Mark A.; Watts, Joy E. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Tudor warship the Mary Rose has reached an important transition point in her conservation. The 19 year long process of spraying with polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been completed (April 29th 2013) and the hull is air drying under tightly controlled conditions. Acidophilic bacteria capable of oxidising iron and sulfur have been previously identified and enriched from unpreserved timbers of the Mary Rose, demonstrating that biological pathways of iron and sulfur oxidization existed potentially in this wood, before preservation with PEG. This study was designed to establish if the recycled PEG spray system was a reservoir of microorganisms capable of iron and sulfur oxidization during preservation of the Mary Rose. Microbial enrichments derived from PEG impregnated biofilm collected from underneath the Mary Rose hull, were examined to better understand the processes of cycling of iron. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was utilised to demonstrate the biological contribution to production of sulfuric acid in the wood. Using molecular microbiological techniques to examine these enrichment cultures, PEG was found to mediate a shift in the microbial community from a co-culture of Stenotrophomonas and Brevunidimonas sp, to a co-culture of Stenotrophomonas and the iron oxidising Alicyclobacillus sp. Evidence is presented that PEG is not an inert substance in relation to the redox cycling of iron. This is the first demonstration that solutions of PEG used in the conservation of the Mary Rose are promoting the oxidation of ferrous iron in acidic solutions, in which spontaneous abiotic oxidation does not occur in water. Critically, these results suggest PEG mediated redox cycling of iron between valence states in solutions of 75% PEG 200 and 50% PEG 2000 (v/v) at pH 3.0, with serious implications for the future use of PEG as a conservation material of iron rich wooden archaeological artefacts. PMID:24586230

  4. Process for biodiesel production from Cryptococcus curvatus.

    PubMed

    Thiru, Meikandhan; Sankh, Santosh; Rangaswamy, Vidhya

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the current report is process optimization for economical production of lipids by the well known oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus and conversion of the lipids to biodiesel. A high cell density fed-batch cultivation on low cost substrate viz. crude glycerol resulted in a dry biomass and oil yield of up to 69 g/L and 48% (w/w), respectively. The process was scaled up easily to 26 L. The oil extraction process was also optimized using environmentally safe solvents. The oil profile indicated a high oleic acid content followed by palmitic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid. The oil was trans-esterified to biodiesel and thoroughly characterized. This is the first end to end report on production of biodiesel from the C. curvatus oil.

  5. Comparison of process configurations for ethanol production from acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with and without β-glucosidase expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqiang; Liu, Cheng; Hong, Jiefang; Ma, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Xinyu; Zou, Shaolan; Zhang, Minhua

    2013-08-01

    β-Glucosidase was shown to have synergistic effects with commercial cellulase in the hydrolysis of acid- and alkali-pretreated corncob, especially at the dose of 5 U/g biomass and 5 or 10 FPU/g biomass. An integrating yeast strain 45# expressing β-glucosidase was constructed that utilized cellobiose quickly and efficiently. Process configurations were compared under conditions of 10% solid content, 10 FPU cellulase/g biomass, 5 U β-glucosidase/g biomass (only used for parental strain W303-1A), 1g/kg yeast loading and 3.3g/kg urea supplementation. While separate hydrolysis and fermentation was optimal for W303-1A and the ethanol titer and yield reached 3.22 g/100g and 75.6% (expressed as a percentage of the theoretical yield), respectively, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was optimal for strain 45# and the ethanol titer and yield reached 3.31 g/100g and 77.7%, respectively. These results are valuable in optimization of the process configuration and improving the yeast strain selected for cellulosic ethanol production.

  6. Extraction chemistry of fermentation product carboxylic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kertes, A.S.; King, C.J.

    1986-02-01

    Within the framework of a program aiming to improve the existing extractive recovery technology of fermentation products, the state of the art is critically reviewed. The acids under consideration are propionic, lactic, pyruvic, succinic, fumaric, maleic, malic, itaconic, tartaric, citric, and isocitric, all obtained by the aerobic fermentation of glucose via the glycolytic pathway and glyoxylate bypass. With no exception, it is the undissociated monomeric acid that is extracted into carbon-bonded and phosphorus-bonded oxygen donor extractants. In the organic phase, the acids are usually dimerized. The extractive transfer process obeys the Nernst law, and the measured partition coefficients range from about 0.003 for aliphatic hydrocarbons to about 2 to 3 for aliphatic alcohols and ketones to about 10 or more for organophosphates. Equally high distribution ratios are measured when long-chain tertiary amines are employed as extractants, forming bulky salts preferentially soluble in the organic phase. 123 references.

  7. Purification process for succinic acid produced by fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Glassner, D.A.; Elankovan, P.; Beacom, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    Succinic acid is a versatile four-carbon dicarboxylic acid. It can be used commercially as an intermediate chemical for the manufacture of 1,4-butanediol, maleic anhydride, and many other chemicals. Succinic acid can be produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates. A complete process for the production and purification of succinic acid from carbohydrates has been developed. The process includes fermentation, desalting electrodialysis, water-splitting electrodialysis, and crystallization to produce a pure crystalline succinic acid. This article will present experimental work performed in the development of this process.

  8. Process to Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Gary, Ed.; Mirkes, Donna Z., Ed.

    Intended for educators who direct federally funded model projects, the booklet provides a framework for special education product development. In "Making Media Decisions," G. Richman explores procedures for selecting the most appropriate medium to carry the message of a given product. The fundamental questions are addressed: what is the goal; who…

  9. Toward biotechnological production of adipic acid and precursors from biorenewables.

    PubMed

    Polen, Tino; Spelberg, Markus; Bott, Michael

    2013-08-20

    Adipic acid is the most important commercial aliphatic dicarboxylic acid in the chemical industry and is primarily used for the production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. The current adipic acid market volume is about 2.6 million tons/y and the average annual demand growth rate forecast to stay at 3-3.5% worldwide. Hitherto, the industrial production of adipic acid is carried out by petroleum-based chemo-catalytic processes from non-renewable fossil fuels. However, in the past years, efforts were made to find alternative routes for adipic acid production from renewable carbon sources by biotechnological processes. Here we review the approaches and the progress made toward bio-based production of adipic acid. PMID:22824738

  10. Improved Processes to Remove Naphthenic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang; Yongchun Tang; William A. Goddard

    2005-12-09

    In the past three years, we followed the work plan as we suggested in the proposal and made every efforts to fulfill the project objectives. Based on our large amount of creative and productive work, including both of experimental and theoretic aspects, we received important technical breakthrough on naphthenic acid removal process and obtained deep insight on catalytic decarboxylation chemistry. In detail, we established an integrated methodology to serve for all of the experimental and theoretical work. Our experimental investigation results in discovery of four type effective catalysts to the reaction of decarboxylation of model carboxylic acid compounds. The adsorption experiment revealed the effectiveness of several solid materials to naphthenic acid adsorption and acidity reduction of crude oil, which can be either natural minerals or synthesized materials. The test with crude oil also received promising results, which can be potentially developed into a practical process for oil industry. The theoretical work predicted several possible catalytic decarboxylation mechanisms that would govern the decarboxylation pathways depending on the type of catalysts being used. The calculation for reaction activation energy was in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  11. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The chemical engineering analysis of the preliminary process design of a process for producing solar cell grade silicon from dichlorosilane is presented. A plant to produce 1,000 MT/yr of silicon is analyzed. Progress and status for the plant design are reported for the primary activities of base case conditions (60 percent), reaction chemistry (50 percent), process flow diagram (35 percent), energy balance (10 percent), property data (10 percent) and equipment design (5 percent).

  12. Production of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) from waste organics by the two-stage process: focus on the intermediate volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Hu, Hongyou; Ji, Hongfang; Cai, Jiyuan; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2014-08-01

    The two-stage process, coupling volatile fatty acids (VFAs) fermentation and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB/HV)) biosynthesis, was investigated for five waste organic materials. The overall conversion efficiencies were glycerol>starch>molasses>waste sludge>protein, meanwhile the maximum P(HB/HV) (1.674 g/L) was obtained from waste starch. Altering the waste type brought more effects on VFAs composition other than the yield in the first stage, which in turn greatly changed the yield in the second stage. Further study showed that even-number carbon VFAs (or odd-number ones) had a good positive linear relationship with P(HB/HV) content of HB (or HV). Additionally, VFA producing microbiota was analyzed by pyrosequencing methods for five wastes, which indicated that specific species (e.g., Lactobacillus for protein; Ethanoligenens for starch; Ruminococcus and Limnobacter for glycerol) were dominant in the community for VFAs production. Potential competition among acidogenic bacteria specially involved to produce some VFA was proposed as well.

  13. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for producing silicon from dichlorosilane in a 1,000 MT/yr plant was continued. Progress and status for the chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process are reported for the primary process design engineering activities: base case conditions (85%), reaction chemistry (85%), process flow diagram (60%), material balance (60%), energy balance (30%), property data (30%), equipment design (20%) and major equipment list (10%). Engineering design of the initial distillation column (D-01, stripper column) in the process was initiated. The function of the distillation column is to remove volatile gases (such as hydrogen and nitrogen) which are dissolved in liquid chlorosilanes. Initial specifications and results for the distillation column design are reported including the variation of tray requirements (equilibrium stages) with reflux ratio for the distillation.

  14. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  15. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Poole, Loree J.

    1995-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  16. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production. PMID:26658985

  17. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  18. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  19. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-03-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 5 figs.

  20. Process for the recovery of strontium from acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium and technetium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant is a macrocyclic polyether in a diluent which is insoluble in water, but which will itself dissolve a small amount of water. The process will extract strontium and technetium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  1. Lactic acid production from lignocellulose-derived sugars using lactic acid bacteria: overview and limits.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2011-12-20

    Lactic acid is an industrially important product with a large and rapidly expanding market due to its attractive and valuable multi-function properties. The economics of lactic acid production by fermentation is dependent on many factors, of which the cost of the raw materials is very significant. It is very expensive when sugars, e.g., glucose, sucrose, starch, etc., are used as the feedstock for lactic acid production. Therefore, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising feedstock for lactic acid production considering its great availability, sustainability, and low cost compared to refined sugars. Despite these advantages, the commercial use of lignocellulose for lactic acid production is still problematic. This review describes the "conventional" processes for producing lactic acid from lignocellulosic materials with lactic acid bacteria. These processes include: pretreatment of the biomass, enzyme hydrolysis to obtain fermentable sugars, fermentation technologies, and separation and purification of lactic acid. In addition, the difficulties associated with using this biomass for lactic acid production are especially introduced and several key properties that should be targeted for low-cost and advanced fermentation processes are pointed out. We also discuss the metabolism of lignocellulose-derived sugars by lactic acid bacteria.

  2. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analysis was continued for the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) in which solar cell silicon is produced in a 1,000 MT/yr plant. Progress and status are reported for the primary engineering activities involved in the preliminary process engineering design of the plant base case conditions (96%), reaction chemistry (96%), process flow diagram (85%), material balance (85%), energy balance (60%), property data (60%), equipment design (40%), major equipment list (30%) and labor requirements (10%). Engineering design of the second distillation column (D-02, TCS column) in the process was completed. The design is based on a 97% recovery of the light key (TCS, trichlorosilane) in the distillate and a 97% recovery of the heavy key (TET, silicon tetrachloride) in the bottoms. At a reflux ratio of 2, the specified recovery of TCS and TET is achieved with 20 trays (equilibrium stages, N=20). Respective feed tray locations are 9, 12 and 15 (NF sub 1 = 9, NF sub 2 = 12,, and NF sub 3 = 15). A total condenser is used for the distillation which is conducted at a pressure of 90 psia.

  3. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  4. Production of extracellular fatty acid using engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As an alternative for economic biodiesel production, the microbial production of extracellular fatty acid from renewable resources is receiving more concerns recently, since the separation of fatty acid from microorganism cells is normally involved in a series of energy-intensive steps. Many attempts have been made to construct fatty acid producing strains by targeting genes in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, while few studies focused on the cultivation process and the mass transfer kinetics. Results In this study, both strain improvements and cultivation process strategies were applied to increase extracellular fatty acid production by engineered Escherichia coli. Our results showed overexpressing ‘TesA and the deletion of fadL in E. coli BL21 (DE3) improved extracellular fatty acid production, while deletion of fadD didn’t strengthen the extracellular fatty acid production for an undetermined mechanism. Moreover, the cultivation process controls contributed greatly to extracellular fatty acid production with respect to titer, cell growth and productivity by adjusting the temperature, adding ampicillin and employing on-line extraction. Under optimal conditions, the E. coli strain (pACY-‘tesA-ΔfadL) produced 4.8 g L−1 extracellular fatty acid, with the specific productivity of 0.02 g h−1 g−1dry cell mass, and the yield of 4.4% on glucose, while the ratios of cell-associated fatty acid versus extracellular fatty acid were kept below 0.5 after 15 h of cultivation. The fatty acids included C12:1, C12:0, C14:1, C14:0, C16:1, C16:0, C18:1, C18:0. The composition was dominated by C14 and C16 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Using the strain pACY-‘tesA, similar results appeared under the same culture conditions and the titer was also much higher than that ever reported previously, which suggested that the supposedly superior strain did not necessarily perform best for the efficient production of desired product. The strain p

  5. Biotechnological routes based on lactic acid production from biomass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Lactic acid, the most important hydroxycarboxylic acid, is now commercially produced by the fermentation of sugars present in biomass. In addition to its use in the synthesis of biodegradable polymers, lactic acid can be regarded as a feedstock for the green chemistry of the future. Different potentially useful chemicals such as pyruvic acid, acrylic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and lactate ester can be produced from lactic acid via chemical and biotechnological routes. Here, we reviewed the current status of the production of potentially valuable chemicals from lactic acid via biotechnological routes. Although some of the reactions described in this review article are still not applicable at current stage, due to their "greener" properties, biotechnological processes for the production of lactic acid derivatives might replace the chemical routes in the future. PMID:21846500

  6. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  7. Thermodynamic prediction of hydrogen production from mixed-acid fermentations.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Andrea K; Wales, Melinda E; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-10-01

    The MixAlco™ process biologically converts biomass to carboxylate salts that may be chemically converted to a wide variety of chemicals and fuels. The process utilizes lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock (e.g., municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, and agricultural residues), creating an economic basis for sustainable biofuels. This study provides a thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen yield from mixed-acid fermentations from two feedstocks: paper and bagasse. During batch fermentations, hydrogen production, acid production, and sugar digestion were analyzed to determine the energy selectivity of each system. To predict hydrogen production during continuous operation, this energy selectivity was then applied to countercurrent fermentations of the same systems. The analysis successfully predicted hydrogen production from the paper fermentation to within 11% and the bagasse fermentation to within 21% of the actual production. The analysis was able to faithfully represent hydrogen production and represents a step forward in understanding and predicting hydrogen production from mixed-acid fermentations. PMID:21875794

  8. Exposure to sulfuric acid in zinc production.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Haaland, Inger Margrethe; Moen, Bente E; Målsnes, Agnar

    2004-03-01

    This study characterized workers' exposure to sulfuric acid in two cell houses of a zinc production plant. We also aimed at estimating previous exposure to sulfuric acid by simulating the process conditions from before 1975 to produce exposure data for an epidemiological study on cancer in this industry. Further, we compared different sampling methods for aerosols in the cell houses. Personal sampling with a 37 mm Millipore cassette showed that the geometric means of the exposure levels for the workers in the two cell houses were 0.07 mg/m3 (range 0.01-0.48 mg/m3) and 0.04 mg/m3 (range 0.01-0.15 mg/m3). Norway's newly revised limit value of 0.1 mg/m3 was exceeded in 39.0 and 12.9% of the samples in the two cell houses. After the foam layer was removed from the electrolyte surface to simulate the production process from before 1975, the concentration of sulfuric acid increased from 0.11 to 6.04 mg/m3 in stationary measurement by the Millipore sampler. Stationary sampling showed that the Millipore sampler and the inhalable fraction of the Respicon impactor underestimated the sulfuric acid concentration by factors of 1.5 and 2.1 compared with the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler. Sampling with the Respicon impactor showed that the respirable, tracheobronchial and extrathoracic fractions constituted 3.0, 18.7 and 71.7% of the inhalable sulfuric acid aerosol, respectively. Today's exposure levels are lower than those reported to be associated with an increased prevalence of laryngeal cancer in other industries, but the levels prior to 1975 seem to have been much higher. By mass, most of the inhalable aerosol was in the size fractions considered to be highly relevant for the effects of sulfuric acid on the respiratory system. The risk of cancer among the cell house workers should be investigated in an epidemiological study.

  9. Lignor process for acidic rock drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, J M; Walsh, T

    2004-09-01

    The process using lignosulfonates for acidic rock drainage (ARD) treatment is referred to as the Lignor process. Lignosulfonates are waste by-products produced in the sulfite pulping process. The present study has shown lignosulfonates are able to protect lime from developing an external surface coating, and hence to favor its dissociation. Further, the addition of lignosulfonates to ARD solutions increased the dotting and settling rate of the formed sludge. The capability of lignosulfonates to form stable metal-lignin complexes makes them very useful in retaining metal ions and thus improving the long-term stability of the sludge against leaching. The Lignor process involves metal sorption with lignosulfonates, ARD neutralization by lime to about pH 7, pH adjustment with caustic soda to 9.4 - 9.6, air oxidation to lower the pH to a desired level, and addition of a minimum amount of FeCl3 for further removal of dissolved metals. The Lignor process removes all concerned metals (especially Al and Mn) from the ARD of the Britannia Mine (located at Britannia Beach, British Columbia, Canada) to a level lower than the limits of the B.C. Regulations. Compared with the high-density sludge (HDS) process, the Lignor process has many advantages, such as considerable savings in lime consumption, greatly reduced sludge volume, and improved sludge stability. PMID:15515269

  10. Penicillic acid production in submerged culture.

    PubMed

    Lindenfelser, L A; Ciegler, A

    1977-11-01

    Twenty known penicillic acid (PA)-producing Aspergillus and Penicillium cultures were grown under various conditions in shaken flasks to determine the highest yielding strains and their requirements for maximum toxin production. Abilities of the cultures to utilize eight different carbon sources in Raulin-Thom medium for mycotoxin synthesis were determined at four different incubation temperatures: 15, 20, 25, and 28 degrees C. Of the 20 cultures, P. cyclopium NRRL 1888 was superior, yielding up to 4 mg of PG per ml, with mannitol as the carbon source and 25 degrees C as the incubation temperature. Fifteen of the cultures elaborated lesser amounts of PA, whereas four strains yielded none under the test conditions. Whey from the manufacture of cottage cheese by the cultured process was also a satisfactory medium for PA production. In whey medium, yields up to 3 mg/ml were obtained with P. cyclopium NRRL 1888.

  11. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  12. Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production

    SciTech Connect

    Denisova, T.L.; Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Novosel'tsev, S.P.

    1987-09-01

    Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder obtained by neutralizing acid tar with a paste consisting of asphalts from deasphalting operations and slaked lime, followed by oxidation of the mixture with atmospheric air, were determined. The sulfuric acid recovered in the settling process could be burned in order to purify it of organic contaminants.

  13. High-yield production of vanillin from ferulic acid by a coenzyme-independent decarboxylase/oxygenase two-stage process.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Toshiki; Miura, Misa; Kuroiwa, Mari; Kino, Kuniki

    2015-05-25

    Vanillin is one of the world's most important flavor and fragrance compounds in foods and cosmetics. Recently, we demonstrated that vanillin could be produced from ferulic acid via 4-vinylguaiacol in a coenzyme-independent manner using the decarboxylase Fdc and the oxygenase Cso2. In this study, we investigated a new two-pot bioprocess for vanillin production using the whole-cell catalyst of Escherichia coli expressing Fdc in the first stage and that of E. coli expressing Cso2 in the second stage. We first optimized the second-step Cso2 reaction from 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin, a rate-determining step for the production of vanillin. Addition of FeCl2 to the cultivation medium enhanced the activity of the resulting E. coli cells expressing Cso2, an iron protein belonging to the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family. Furthermore, a butyl acetate-water biphasic system was effective in improving the production of vanillin. Under the optimized conditions, we attempted to produce vanillin from ferulic acid by a two-pot bioprocess on a flask scale. In the first stage, E. coli cells expressing Fdc rapidly decarboxylated ferulic acid and completely converted 75 mM of this substrate to 4-vinylguaiacol within 2 h at pH 9.0. After the first-stage reaction, cells were removed from the reaction mixture by centrifugation, and the pH of the resulting supernatant was adjusted to 10.5, the optimal pH for Cso2. This solution was subjected to the second-stage reaction. In the second stage, E. coli cells expressing Cso2 efficiently oxidized 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. The concentration of vanillin reached 52 mM (7.8 g L(-1)) in 24 h, which is the highest level attained to date for the biotechnological production of vanillin using recombinant cells.

  14. Gluconic acid production by Penicillium puberulum.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, M A; Megalla, S E

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-five Penicillium species isolated from Egyptian soil were examined for their ability to produce gluconic acid in surface culture. Of the eight species capable of producing gluconic acid, Penicillium puberulum gave the maximum yield (91% gluconic acid from glucose after 7 days of fermentation with 3% CaCO3). Peptone was the best nitrogen source for acid fermentation and glucose was superior to sucrose. Addition of low concentrations of KH2PO4 and MgSO4 - 7 H2O stimulated acid production. An initial pH of 6.1 was most favourable for acid accumulation and addition of CaCO3 was necessary for maximum acid production.

  15. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungmin; Scagel, Carolyn

    2013-12-01

    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed.

  16. Chicoric acid: chemistry, distribution, and production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungmin; Scagel, Carolyn F.

    2013-01-01

    Though chicoric acid was first identified in 1958, it was largely ignored until recent popular media coverage cited potential health beneficial properties from consuming food and dietary supplements containing this compound. To date, plants from at least 63 genera and species have been found to contain chicoric acid, and while the compound is used as a processing quality indicator, it may also have useful health benefits. This review of chicoric acid summarizes research findings and highlights gaps in research knowledge for investigators, industry stakeholders, and consumers alike. Additionally, chicoric acid identification, and quantification methods, biosynthesis, processing improvements to increase chicoric acid retention, and potential areas for future research are discussed. PMID:24790967

  17. Alternative fermentation pathway of cinnamic acid production via phenyllactic acid.

    PubMed

    Masuo, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Yuta; Oinuma, Ken-Ichi; Takaya, Naoki

    2016-10-01

    Cinnamic acid (CA) is the chemical basis for bulk production of flavoring reagents and chemical intermediates, and it can be fermented from biomass. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) has been used exclusively in the bacterial fermentation of sugar biomass in which the fermentation intermediate phenylalanine is deaminated to CA. Here, we designed an alternative metabolic pathway for fermenting glucose to CA. An Escherichia coli strain that generates phenylalanine in this pathway also produces Wickerhamia fluorescens phenylpyruvate reductase and ferments glucose to D-phenyllactate (D-PhLA) (Fujita et al. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97: 8887-8894, 2013). Thereafter, phenyllactate dehydratase encoded by fldABCI genes in Clostridium sporogenes converts the resulting D-PhLA into CA. The phenyllactate dehydratase expressed by fldABCI in the D-PhLA-producing bacterium fermented glucose to CA, but D-PhLA fermentation and phenyllactate dehydration were aerobic and anaerobic processes, respectively, which disrupted high-yield CA fermentation in single batch cultures. We overcame this disruption by sequentially culturing the two strains under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. We optimized the incubation periods of the respective aeration steps to produce 1.7 g/L CA from glucose, which exceeded the yield from PAL-dependent glucose fermentation to CA 11-fold. This process is a novel, efficient alternative to conventional PAL-dependent CA production.

  18. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... boric acid production subcategory. 415.280 Section 415.280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process....

  19. Metabolic engineering as a tool for enhanced lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Bikram P; DeVeaux, Linda C; Christopher, Lew P

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful biotechnological tool that finds, among others, increased use in constructing microbial strains for higher lactic acid productivity, lower costs and reduced pollution. Engineering the metabolic pathways has concentrated on improving the lactic acid fermentation parameters, enhancing the acid tolerance of production organisms and their abilities to utilize a broad range of substrates, including fermentable biomass-derived sugars. Recent efforts have focused on metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria as they produce high yields and have a small genome size that facilitates their genetic manipulation. We summarize here the current trends in metabolic engineering techniques and strategies for manipulating lactic acid producing organisms developed to address and overcome major challenges in the lactic acid production process.

  20. Trans fatty acids in a range of UK processed foods.

    PubMed

    Roe, Mark; Pinchen, Hannah; Church, Susan; Elahi, Selvarani; Walker, Margaret; Farron-Wilson, Melanie; Buttriss, Judith; Finglas, Paul

    2013-10-01

    A survey to determine the trans fatty acid content of a range of processed foods was carried out in response to recent reformulation work by the food industry to lower the artificial trans fatty acid content of processed products. Sixty two composite samples, made up of between 5 and 12 sub-samples, were collected in 2010 and were analysed for fatty acids, and a range of nutrients. The foods analysed included pizza, garlic bread, breakfast cereals, quiche, fat spreads, a range of fish and meat products, chips, savoury snacks, confectionery and ice cream. Levels of trans fatty acids were reduced considerably compared with previous UK analyses of similar foods where comparisons are possible. Concentrations of trans elaidic acid (t9-C18:1) from hydrogenated oils in all samples were <0.2g/100g food. These results confirm information provided by the food industry in 2007 on the levels of trans fats in key processed food sectors.

  1. Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of sorbic acid-amine reaction products.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, C; Marc, F; Fritsch, P; Cassand, P; de Saint Blanquat, G

    2000-11-01

    Sorbic acid (E200) and its salts (potassium and calcium sorbate: E202 and E203) are allowed for use as preservatives in numerous processed foods. Sorbic acid had a conjugated system of double bonds which makes it susceptible to nucleophilic attack, sometimes giving mutagenic products. Under conditions typical of food processing (50-80 degrees C), we analysed the cyclic derivatives resulting from a double addition reaction between sorbic acid and various amines. Mutagenesis studies, involving Ames' test and genotoxicity studies with HeLa cells and plasmid DNA, showed that none of the products studied presented either mutagenic or genotoxic activities.

  2. Transgenic production of arachidonic acid in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Petrie, James R; Shrestha, Pushkar; Belide, Srinivas; Mansour, Maged P; Liu, Qing; Horne, James; Nichols, Peter D; Singh, Surinder P

    2012-02-01

    We describe a transgenic microalgal Δ9-elongase pathway transformed in both Brassica napus and Arabidopsis thaliana seed resulting in the production of arachidonic acid (ARA). This pathway is noteworthy for both the production of ARA in seed tissue and the low levels of intermediate C20 fatty acids that accumulate. We also demonstrate that the arachidonic acid is naturally enriched at the sn2 position in triacylglycerol. This is the first report of ARA production by the Δ9-elongase pathway in an oilseed.

  3. Products and Processes: Synergistic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Most people agree that products are the culmination of what students have studied. For this article, "product" will refer to students' abilities to create outcomes and design artifacts. Those abilities are guided by four processes: inquiry-based learning, use of a research model, use of Web 2.0 tools, and appropriate assessments.…

  4. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenying; Li, Jianxin; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Cui, Zhenyu; Wu, Kaiwei; Lin, Ligang; Qian, Xiaomin; Cheng, Yu

    2013-07-01

    An integrated process of catalytic composite membranes (CCMs) and sodium methoxide was developed to produce biodiesel from waste chicken fat. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the chicken oil were converted to methyl esters by esterification with methanol using a novel sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/PES/non-woven fabric (NWF) CCMs in a flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. The CCM is that the NWF fibers were fully embedded in SPES/PES with a homogeneous and microporous structure. The oil obtained after esterification was carried out by transesterification of sodium methoxide. The results showed that the FFAs conversion obtained by CCMs with the acid capacity of 25.28 mmol (H(+)) was 92.8% at the residence time 258s. The CCMs present a good stability during the continuous running of 500 h. The conversion of transesterification was 98.1% under the optimum conditions. The quality of the biodiesel met the international standards. PMID:23665693

  5. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenying; Li, Jianxin; He, Benqiao; Yan, Feng; Cui, Zhenyu; Wu, Kaiwei; Lin, Ligang; Qian, Xiaomin; Cheng, Yu

    2013-07-01

    An integrated process of catalytic composite membranes (CCMs) and sodium methoxide was developed to produce biodiesel from waste chicken fat. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the chicken oil were converted to methyl esters by esterification with methanol using a novel sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/PES/non-woven fabric (NWF) CCMs in a flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. The CCM is that the NWF fibers were fully embedded in SPES/PES with a homogeneous and microporous structure. The oil obtained after esterification was carried out by transesterification of sodium methoxide. The results showed that the FFAs conversion obtained by CCMs with the acid capacity of 25.28 mmol (H(+)) was 92.8% at the residence time 258s. The CCMs present a good stability during the continuous running of 500 h. The conversion of transesterification was 98.1% under the optimum conditions. The quality of the biodiesel met the international standards.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10679 - Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester (generic). 721.10679 Section 721... Carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products with inorganic acid tetra alkyl ester... identified generically as carboxylic acid, substituted alkylstannylene ester, reaction products...

  7. Gluconic acid production by gad mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexin; Wang, Chenhong; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Kim, Chul Ho; Jiang, Biao; Han, Zengsheng; Hao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae produces many economically important chemicals. Using glucose as a carbon source, the main metabolic product in K. pneumoniae is 2,3-butanediol. Gluconic acid is an intermediate of the glucose oxidation pathway. In the current study, a metabolic engineering strategy was used to develop a gluconic acid-producing K. pneumoniae strain. Deletion of gad, resulting in loss of gluconate dehydrogenase activity, led to the accumulation of gluconic acid in the culture broth. Gluconic acid accumulation by K. pneumoniae Δgad was an acid-dependent aerobic process, with accumulation observed at pH 5.5 or lower, and at higher levels of oxygen supplementation. Under all other conditions tested, 2,3-butanediol was the main metabolic product of the process. In fed batch fermentation, a final concentration of 422 g/L gluconic acid was produced by K. pneumoniae Δgad, and the conversion ratio of glucose to gluconic acid reached 1 g/g. The K. pneumoniae Δgad described in this study is the first genetically modified strain used for gluconic acid production, and this optimized method for gluconic acid production may have important industrial applications. Gluconic acid is an intermediate of this glucose oxidation pathway. Deletion of gad, resulting in loss of gluconate dehydrogenase activity, led to the accumulation of gluconic acid in the culture broth. In fed batch fermentation, a final concentration of 422 g/L gluconic acid was produced by the K. pneumoniae Δgad strain, and the conversion ratio of glucose to gluconic acid reached 1 g/g.

  8. Gluconic acid production by gad mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexin; Wang, Chenhong; Wei, Dong; Shi, Jiping; Kim, Chul Ho; Jiang, Biao; Han, Zengsheng; Hao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae produces many economically important chemicals. Using glucose as a carbon source, the main metabolic product in K. pneumoniae is 2,3-butanediol. Gluconic acid is an intermediate of the glucose oxidation pathway. In the current study, a metabolic engineering strategy was used to develop a gluconic acid-producing K. pneumoniae strain. Deletion of gad, resulting in loss of gluconate dehydrogenase activity, led to the accumulation of gluconic acid in the culture broth. Gluconic acid accumulation by K. pneumoniae Δgad was an acid-dependent aerobic process, with accumulation observed at pH 5.5 or lower, and at higher levels of oxygen supplementation. Under all other conditions tested, 2,3-butanediol was the main metabolic product of the process. In fed batch fermentation, a final concentration of 422 g/L gluconic acid was produced by K. pneumoniae Δgad, and the conversion ratio of glucose to gluconic acid reached 1 g/g. The K. pneumoniae Δgad described in this study is the first genetically modified strain used for gluconic acid production, and this optimized method for gluconic acid production may have important industrial applications. Gluconic acid is an intermediate of this glucose oxidation pathway. Deletion of gad, resulting in loss of gluconate dehydrogenase activity, led to the accumulation of gluconic acid in the culture broth. In fed batch fermentation, a final concentration of 422 g/L gluconic acid was produced by the K. pneumoniae Δgad strain, and the conversion ratio of glucose to gluconic acid reached 1 g/g. PMID:27339313

  9. A new approach to microbial production of gallic acid

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Bhakti; Patil, Shridhar

    2008-01-01

    In a new approach to microbial gallic acid production by Aspergillus fischeri MTCC 150, 40gL−1 of tannic acid was added in two installments during the bioconversion phase of the process (25gL−1 and 15gL−1 at 32 and 44h respectively). The optimum parameters for the bioconversion phase were found to be temperature: 35°C, pH: slightly acidic (3.3–3.5), aeration: nil and agitation: 250 rpm. A maximum of 71.4% conversion was obtained after 71h fermentation with 83.3% product recovery. The yield was 7.35 g of gallic acid per g of biomass accumulated and the fermenter productivity was 0.56 g of gallic acid produced per liter of medium per hour. PMID:24031294

  10. Multiphase Processing of Isoprene Oxidation Products - Kinetic and Product Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Schoene, L.; Schindelka, J.; Herrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Isoprene represents a significant fraction of NMHC in the troposphere with recently estimated emission rates of 500-750 TgC yr-1 (1). Due to its enormous source strength, the fate of isoprene and its degradation products is important in atmospheric processes. Possible ascendancies of such oxidation processes are the regional ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Some aspects of SOA formation from isoprene and its degradation products have already been studied by chamber studies (2,3). Aqueous phase oxidation processes which may occur after phase transfer of ‘early’ oxidation products are often neglected. But these processes provide a potentially important source for organic particle mass constituents such as carboxylic acids. The majority of existing aqueous phase modelling studies focus only on ‘later’ products such as methylglyoxal and oxalic acid. Yet, a recent field study reports much higher aqueous phase concentrations of some ‘earlier’ isoprene oxidation products including methacrolein (MACR) and methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) than expected (4). This indicates a possibly underestimated importance of multiphase chemical processes in the course of the isoprene oxidation as a source for the production of organic particle mass together with known ‘heterogeneous processes’ such as the direct condensation of low-volatility products from gas phase processes onto existing particle surfaces. In order to implement the isoprene multiphase chemistry in atmospheric models detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies are needed. Hence, the temperature dependence of MACR, MVK, methacrylic acid and acrylic acid exposed to NO3, SO4- and OH radicals in the aqueous phase was investigated. The measurements were performed using a laser-photolysis laser long path absorption technique. The analysis confirmed in all cases the much higher reactivity of the OH radical in comparison to SO4- and NO3 radicals. The temperature dependence is most distinct for NO3

  11. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Formation of Amino Acid Thioesters for Prebiotic Peptide Synthesis: Catalysis By Amino Acid Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The origin of life can be described as a series of events in which a prebiotic chemical process came increasingly under the control of its catalytic products. In our search for this prebiotic process that yielded catalytic takeover products (such as polypeptides), we have been investigating a reaction system that generates peptide-forming amino acid thioesters from formaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, and ammonia in the presence of thiols. As shown below, this model process begins by aldol condensation of formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde to give trioses and releases. These sugars then undergo beta-dehydration yielding their respective alpha-ketoaldehydes. Addition of ammonia to the alpha-ketoaldehydes yields imines which can either: (a) rearrange in the presence of thesis to give amino acid thioesters or (be react with another molecule of aldehyde to give imidazoles. This 'one-pot' reaction system operates under mild aqueous conditions, and like modem amino acid biosynthesis, uses sugar intermediates which are converted to products by energy-yielding redox reactions. Recently, we discovered that amino acids, such as the alanine reaction product, catalyze the first and second steps of the process. In the presence of ammonia the process also generates other synthetically useful products, like the important biochemical -- pyruvic acid.

  13. Discovery Reconceived: Product before Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the question, "What exactly about a mathematical concept should students discover, when they study it via discovery learning?", I present and demonstrate an interpretation of discovery pedagogy that attempts to address its criticism. My approach hinges on decoupling the solution process from its resultant product. Whereas theories of…

  14. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  15. Continuous process of production of pentaerythritol

    SciTech Connect

    Pakulin, V.V.; Rogachev, Y.V.; Gulevich, P.E.; Kruglikov, A.A.

    1982-12-01

    To meet the rising needs of the national economy for pentaerythritol, used in the production of alkyd resins, polyurethane foams, ester lubricants, and so forth, it is necessary to set up large-tonnage continuous production meeting the modern level of technology with a precise system of automatic process control. A continuous method for production of pentaerythritol in the presence of sodium hydroxide has been developed at the Uralkhimplast production association. The technology of the process was tested and developed on an experimental-industrial installation in the present pentaerythritol plant. The basic merit of the continuous process for production of pentaerythritol using NaOH as catalyst over the traditional method based on calcium hydroxide as catalyst, besides the increase of productivity, is the simpler technological scheme of the process. In the continuous production of pentaerythritol, the steps of catalyst preparation (roasting of limestone, slaking of lime, preparation of milk of lime), vacuum filtration of the condensation solution to remove gypsum (elimination of solid wastes in the form of gypsum) are eliminated. In addition, the specific consumption of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, formic acid, electric power and steam is reduced. A characteristic distinction of the process using sodium hydroxide from that using calcium hydroxide is the fact that the condensation solutions produced in the former case are almost colorless and do not change color at the end of the reaction. Therefore, the finished product produced in the presence of NaOH is superior with regard to physicochemical properties to that produced in the presence of Ca(OH)/sub 2/.

  16. Catalytic production of conjugated fatty acids and oils.

    PubMed

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    The reactive double bonds in conjugated vegetable oils are of high interest in industry. Traditionally, conjugated vegetable oils are added to paints, varnishes, and inks to improve their drying properties, while recently there is an increased interest in their use in the production of bioplastics. Besides the industrial applications, also food manufactures are interested in conjugated vegetable oils due to their various positive health effects. While the isomer type is less important for their industrial purposes, the beneficial health effects are mainly associated with the c9,t11, t10,c12 and t9,t11 CLA isomers. The production of CLA-enriched oils as additives in functional foods thus requires a high CLA isomer selectivity. Currently, CLAs are produced by conjugation of oils high in linoleic acid, for example soybean and safflower oil, using homogeneous bases. Although high CLA productivities and very high isomer selectivities are obtained, this process faces many ecological drawbacks. Moreover, CLA-enriched oils can not be produced directly with the homogeneous bases. Literature reports describe many catalytic processes to conjugate linoleic acid, linoleic acid methyl ester, and vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid: biocatalysts, for example enzymes and cells; metal catalysts, for example homogeneous metal complexes and heterogeneous catalysts; and photocatalysts. This Review discusses state-of-the-art catalytic processes in comparison with some new catalytic production routes. For each category of catalytic process, the CLA productivities and the CLA isomer selectivity are compared. Heterogeneous catalysis seems the most attractive approach for CLA production due to its easy recovery process, provided that the competing hydrogenation reaction is limited and the CLA production rate competes with the current homogeneous base catalysis. The most important criteria to obtain high CLA productivity and isomer selectivity are (1) absence of a hydrogen donor, (2

  17. Catalytic production of conjugated fatty acids and oils.

    PubMed

    Philippaerts, An; Goossens, Steven; Jacobs, Pierre A; Sels, Bert F

    2011-06-20

    The reactive double bonds in conjugated vegetable oils are of high interest in industry. Traditionally, conjugated vegetable oils are added to paints, varnishes, and inks to improve their drying properties, while recently there is an increased interest in their use in the production of bioplastics. Besides the industrial applications, also food manufactures are interested in conjugated vegetable oils due to their various positive health effects. While the isomer type is less important for their industrial purposes, the beneficial health effects are mainly associated with the c9,t11, t10,c12 and t9,t11 CLA isomers. The production of CLA-enriched oils as additives in functional foods thus requires a high CLA isomer selectivity. Currently, CLAs are produced by conjugation of oils high in linoleic acid, for example soybean and safflower oil, using homogeneous bases. Although high CLA productivities and very high isomer selectivities are obtained, this process faces many ecological drawbacks. Moreover, CLA-enriched oils can not be produced directly with the homogeneous bases. Literature reports describe many catalytic processes to conjugate linoleic acid, linoleic acid methyl ester, and vegetable oils rich in linoleic acid: biocatalysts, for example enzymes and cells; metal catalysts, for example homogeneous metal complexes and heterogeneous catalysts; and photocatalysts. This Review discusses state-of-the-art catalytic processes in comparison with some new catalytic production routes. For each category of catalytic process, the CLA productivities and the CLA isomer selectivity are compared. Heterogeneous catalysis seems the most attractive approach for CLA production due to its easy recovery process, provided that the competing hydrogenation reaction is limited and the CLA production rate competes with the current homogeneous base catalysis. The most important criteria to obtain high CLA productivity and isomer selectivity are (1) absence of a hydrogen donor, (2

  18. Inhibition of succinic acid production in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli by neutralizing agent, organic acids, and osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Christian; Helmerius, Jonas; Hodge, David; Berglund, Kris A; Rova, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The economical viability of biochemical succinic acid production is a result of many processing parameters including final succinic acid concentration, recovery of succinate, and the volumetric productivity. Maintaining volumetric productivities >2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) is important if production of succinic acid from renewable resources should be competitive. In this work, the effects of organic acids, osmolarity, and neutralizing agent (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3), and Na2CO3) on the fermentative succinic acid production by Escherichia coli AFP184 were investigated. The highest concentration of succinic acid, 77 g L(-1), was obtained with Na2CO3. In general, irrespective of the base used, succinic acid productivity per viable cell was significantly reduced as the concentration of the produced acid increased. Increased osmolarity resulting from base addition during succinate production only marginally affected the productivity per viable cell. Addition of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine to cultures resulted in an increased aerobic growth rate and anaerobic glucose consumption rate, but decreased succinic acid yield. When using NH4OH productivity completely ceased at a succinic acid concentration of approximately 40 g L(-1). Volumetric productivities remained at 2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) for up to 10 h longer when K- or Na-bases where used instead of NH4OH. The decrease in cellular succinic acid productivity observed during the anaerobic phase was found to be due to increased organic acid concentrations rather than medium osmolarity.

  19. Effects of microbial utilization of phenolic acids and their phenolic acid breakdown products on allelopathic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, U.

    1998-04-01

    Reversible sorption of phenolic acids by soils may provide some protection to phenolic acids from microbial degradation. In the absence of microbes, reversible sorption 35 days after addition of 0.5--3 {micro}mol/g of ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid was 8--14% in Cecil A{sub p} horizon and 31--38% in Cecil B{sub t} horizon soil materials. The reversibly sorbed/solution ratios (r/s) for ferulic acid or p-coumaric acid ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 in A{sub p} and 0.65 to 0.85 in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. When microbes were introduced, the r/s ratio for both the A{sub p} and B{sub t} horizon soil materials increased over time up to 5 and 2, respectively, thereby indicating a more rapid utilization of solution phenolic acids over reversibly sorbed phenolic acids. The increase in r/s ratio and the overall microbial utilization of ferulic acid and/or p-coumaric acid were much more rapid in A{sub p} than in B{sub t} horizon soil materials. Reversible sorption, however, provided protection of phenolic acids from microbial utilization for only very short periods of time. Differential soil fixation, microbial production of benzoic acids (e.g., vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid) from cinnamic acids (e.g., ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid, respectively), and the subsequent differential utilization of cinnamic and benzoic acids by soil microbes indicated that these processes can substantially influence the magnitude and duration of the phytotoxicity of individual phenolic acids.

  20. System and process for capture of acid gasses at elevated pressure from gaseous process streams

    DOEpatents

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Linehan, John C.; Rainbolt, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.; Zheng, Feng

    2016-09-06

    A system, method, and material that enables the pressure-activated reversible chemical capture of acid gasses such as CO.sub.2 from gas volumes such as streams, flows or any other volume. Once the acid gas is chemically captured, the resulting product typically a zwitterionic salt, can be subjected to a reduced pressure whereupon the resulting product will release the captures acid gas and the capture material will be regenerated. The invention includes this process as well as the materials and systems for carrying out and enabling this process.

  1. AMINO ACIDS AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION IN ANEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, G. H.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.

    1940-01-01

    Certain individual amino acids when given to standard anemic dogs cause an increase in new hemoglobin production. Occasional negative experiments are recorded. Glycine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cystine, histidine, phenylalanine, and proline when given in 1 gm. doses daily for 2 weeks, increase hemoglobin output on the average 23 to 25 gm. above the control level. This reaction amounts to 25 to 30 per cent of the new hemoglobin produced by the feeding of 300 gm. liver daily for 2 weeks—a standard liver test. Alanine, valine, isoleucine, and arginine in the same dosage increase the hemoglobin output on the average 13 to 17 gm. per 2 weeks over the control level. Leucine, methionine, lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine fall in a middle group with hemoglobin output of about 20 gm. Isovaleric acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, glutaric acid, and asparagine have shown positive effects and the butyrate is unusually potent for hemoglobin production (Table 2). The isomeric and dl-synthetic forms of the amino acids are as effectively utilized in this reaction as are the natural forms. PMID:19870982

  2. Effects of ultrasonic fields in the phosphoric acid process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalska, E.; Mizera, J.; Jakobiec, H.

    1974-01-01

    A process of apatite decomposition with sulfuric acid was studied under the influence of ultrasound in the phosphoric acid production process. The studies were carried out with and without ultrasonic fields in the reaction mixture, which resembled the mixing ratio used in technical production processes. Ultrasound with a frequency of 20 kHz and an intensity of 1 W/sq cm was used in the studies. A very favorable ultrasonic effect upon the degree of apatite decomposition was observed. The ultrasonic field affects the shape of byproduct gypsum crystals. In the H3PO4 production process without ultrasound, the byproduct gypsum crystallizes as long, thin needles which cause problems in filtration. In the trials involving the application of wound, gypsum crystallized in the form of small platelets possessing a favorable ratio of length to width.

  3. Updates on industrial production of amino acids using Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wendisch, Volker F; Jorge, João M P; Pérez-García, Fernando; Sgobba, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    L-Amino acids find various applications in biotechnology. L-Glutamic acid and its salts are used as flavor enhancers. Other L-amino acids are used as food or feed additives, in parenteral nutrition or as building blocks for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. L-amino acids are synthesized from precursors of central carbon metabolism. Based on the knowledge of the biochemical pathways microbial fermentation processes of food, feed and pharma amino acids have been developed. Production strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum, which has been used safely for more than 50 years in food biotechnology, and Escherichia coli are constantly improved using metabolic engineering approaches. Research towards new processes is ongoing. Fermentative production of L-amino acids in the million-ton-scale has shaped modern biotechnology and its markets continue to grow steadily. This review focusses on recent achievements in strain development for amino acid production including the use of CRISPRi/dCas9, genome-reduced strains, biosensors and synthetic pathways to enable utilization of alternative carbon sources. PMID:27116971

  4. Synthesis: Intertwining product and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis is a proposed systematic process for rapidly creating different members of a program family. Family members are described by variations in their requirements. Requirements variations are mapped to variations on a standard design to generate production quality code and documentation. The approach is made feasible by using principles underlying design for change. Synthesis incorporates ideas from rapid prototyping, application generators, and domain analysis. The goals of Synthesis and the Synthesis process are discussed. The technology needed and the feasibility of the approach are also briefly discussed. The status of current efforts to implement Synthesis methodologies is presented.

  5. Metabolic engineering of biocatalysts for carboxylic acids production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Jarboe, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    Fermentation of renewable feedstocks by microbes to produce sustainable fuels and chemicals has the potential to replace petrochemical-based production. For example, carboxylic acids produced by microbial fermentation can be used to generate primary building blocks of industrial chemicals by either enzymatic or chemical catalysis. In order to achieve the titer, yield and productivity values required for economically viable processes, the carboxylic acid-producing microbes need to be robust and well-performing. Traditional strain development methods based on mutagenesis have proven useful in the selection of desirable microbial behavior, such as robustness and carboxylic acid production. On the other hand, rationally-based metabolic engineering, like genetic manipulation for pathway design, has becoming increasingly important to this field and has been used for the production of several organic acids, such as succinic acid, malic acid and lactic acid. This review investigates recent works on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli, as well as the strategies to improve tolerance towards these chemicals. PMID:24688671

  6. [Progress in biotechnological production of pyruvic acid].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Ming; Li, Yin; Du, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Jian

    2002-11-01

    Pyruvate, an important organic acid, is widely used in the industries of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, agrochemicals, food additives and so on. Compared with the chemical method, biotechnological production of pyruvic acid is an alternative approach because of the low cost and high product quality. In this article, biosynthesis of pyruvate, including direct fermentative production and resting cell method as well as enzymatic method, was discussed. Furthermore, a comparison of these different methods was proposed. Since, a multi-vitamin auxotrophic strain of Torulopsis glabrata is the most competitive strain for industrial production of pyruvate, emphasis was therefore placed on the development of strains screening and fermentation optimization. Finally, some suggestions were put forward to improve the research in this field in the near future.

  7. Optimization of poly(L-lactic acid)/segmented polyurethane electrospinning process for the production of bilayered small-diameter nanofibrous tubular structures.

    PubMed

    Montini Ballarin, F; Caracciolo, P C; Blotta, E; Ballarin, V L; Abraham, G A

    2014-09-01

    The present study is focused on the electrospinning process as a versatile technique to obtain nanofibrous tubular structures for potential applications in vascular tissue engineering. A bilayered scaffolding structure composed of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)/bioresorbable segmented polyurethane (SPEU) blends for small-diameter (5mm) vascular bypass grafts was obtained by multilayering electrospinning. Polymer blend ratios were chosen to mimic the media and adventitia layers. The influence of the different electrospinning parameters into the fiber formation, fiber morphology and fiber mean diameter for PLLA, SPEU and two PLLA/SPEU blends were studied. Flat and two-parallel plate collectors were used to analyze the effect of the electrostatic field on the PLLA nanofiber alignment in the rotating mandrel. Membrane topography resulted in random or aligned nanofibrous structures depending on the auxiliary collector setup used. Finally, composition, surface hydrophilicity, thermal properties and morphology of nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized and discussed. Since the development of tissue engineered microvascular prostheses is still a challenge, the prepared scaffolding tubular structures are promising candidates for vascular tissue engineering.

  8. Downstream processing of biotechnological produced succinic acid.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ke-Ke; Zhao, Xue-Bing; Zeng, Jing; Wu, Ru-Chun; Xu, Yun-Zhen; Liu, De-Hua; Zhang, Jian-An

    2012-08-01

    Succinic acid is a promising chemical which has a wide range of applications and can be biologically produced. The separation of succinic acid from fermentation broth makes more than 50 % of the total costs in their microbial production. This review summarizes the present state of methods studied for the recovery and purification of biologically produced succinate. Previous studies on the separation of succinic acid primarily include direct crystallization, precipitation, membrane separation, extraction, chromatography, and in situ separation. No single method has proved to be simple and efficient, and improvements are especially needed with regard to yield, purity, and energy consumption. It is argued that separation technologies coupled with upstream technology, in situ product removal, and biorefining strategy deserve more attentions in the future. PMID:22707056

  9. Fatty acid production in genetically modified cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyao; Sheng, Jie; Curtiss III, Roy

    2011-01-01

    To avoid costly biomass recovery in photosynthetic microbial biofuel production, we genetically modified cyanobacteria to produce and secrete fatty acids. Starting with introducing an acyl–acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene, we made six successive generations of genetic modifications of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 wild type (SD100). The fatty acid secretion yield was increased to 197 ± 14 mg/L of culture in one improved strain at a cell density of 1.0 × 109 cells/mL by adding codon-optimized thioesterase genes and weakening polar cell wall layers. Although these strains exhibited damaged cell membranes at low cell densities, they grew more rapidly at high cell densities in late exponential and stationary phase and exhibited less cell damage than cells in wild-type cultures. Our results suggest that fatty acid secreting cyanobacteria are a promising technology for renewable biofuel production. PMID:21482809

  10. Triacetic acid lactone production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triacetic acid lactone (TAL) is a potential platform chemical produced from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA by the Gerbera hybrida 2-pyrone synthase (2PS) gene. Studies are ongoing to optimize production, purification, and chemical modification of TAL, which can be used to create the commercial chemicals...

  11. Multicriteria optimization of gluconic acid production using net flow.

    PubMed

    Halsall-Whitney, H; Taylor, D; Thibault, J

    2003-03-01

    The biochemical process industry is often confronted with the challenge of making decisions in an atmosphere of multiple and conflicting objectives. Recent innovations in the field of operations research and systems science have yielded rigorous multicriteria optimization techniques that can be successfully applied to the field of biochemical engineering. These techniques incorporate the expert's experience into the optimization routine and provide valuable information about the zone of possible solutions. This paper presents a multicriteria optimization strategy that generates a Pareto domain, given a set of conflicting objective criteria, and determines the optimal operating region for the production of gluconic acid using the net flow method (NFM). The objective criteria include maximizing the productivity and concentration of gluconic acid, while minimizing the residual substrate. Three optimization strategies are considered. The first two strategies identify the optimal operating region for the process inputs. The results yielded an acceptable compromise between productivity, gluconic acid concentration and residual substrate concentration. Fixing the process inputs representing the batch time, initial substrate concentration and initial biomass equal to their optimal values, the remaining simulations were used to study the sensitivity of the optimum operating region to changes in the oxygen mass transfer coefficient, K(L) a, by utilizing a multi-level K(L) a strategy. The results show that controlling K(L) a during the reaction reduced the production of biomass, which in turn resulted in increased productivity and concentration of gluconic acid above that of a fixed K(L) a.

  12. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. PMID:23199277

  13. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  14. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  15. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  16. Microbial granulation for lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Mo-Kwon; Hwang, Yuhoon; Im, Wan-Taek; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Park, Chul; Kim, Mi-Sun

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated the formation of microbial granules to boost the productivity of lactic acid (LA). The flocculated form of LA-producing microbial consortium, dominated by Lactobacillus sp. (91.5% of total sequence), was initially obtained in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), which was fed with 2% glucose and operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12 h and pH 5.0 ± 0.1 under a thermophilic condition (50°C). The mixed liquor in the CSTR was then transferred to an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB). The fermentation performance and granulation process were monitored with a gradual decrease of HRT from 8.0 to 0.17 h, corresponding to an increase in the substrate loading from 60 to 2,880 g glucose L(-1) d(-1) . As the operation continued, the accumulation of biomass in the UASB was clearly observed, which changed from flocculent to granular form with decrease in HRT. Up to the HRT decrease to 0.5 h, the LA concentration was maintained at 19-20 g L(-1) with over 90% of substrate removal efficiency. However, further decrease of HRT resulted in a decrease of LA concentration with increase in residual glucose. Nevertheless, the volumetric LA productivity continuously increased, reaching 67 g L-fermenter (-1) h(-1) at HRT 0.17 h. The size of LA-producing granules and hydrophobicity gradually increased with decrease in HRT, reaching 6.0 mm and 60%, respectively. These biogranules were also found to have high settling velocities and low porosities, ranging 2.69-4.73 cm s(-1) and 0.39-0.92, respectively.

  17. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO.sub.2 ; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO.sub.2 with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0.degree. and 100.degree. C. at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environ-mentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed.

  18. Influence of apple and citrus pectins, processed mango peels, a phenolic mango peel extract, and gallic Acid as potential feed supplements on in vitro total gas production and rumen methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geerkens, Christian Hubert; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; Steingass, Herbert; Boguhn, Jeannette; Rodehutscord, Markus; Carle, Reinhold

    2013-06-19

    Several food processing byproducts were assessed as potential feed and feed supplements. Since their chemical composition revealed a high nutritional potential for ruminants, the Hohenheim in vitro gas test was used to investigate total gas, methane, and volatile fatty acid production as well as protozoal numbers after ruminal digestion of different substrate levels. Processing byproducts used were low- and high-esterified citrus and apple pectins, integral mango peels, and depectinized mango peels. In addition, the effect of a phenolic mango peel extract and pure gallic acid was investigated. The highest decrease in methane production (19%) was achieved by supplementing high levels of low-esterified citrus pectin to the hay-based diet. Interestingly, total gas production was not affected at the same time. Showing valuable nutritional potential, all byproducts exhibited, e.g., high metabolizable energy (11.9-12.8 MJ/kg DM). In conclusion, all byproducts, particularly low-esterified citrus pectin, revealed promising potential as feed and feed supplements. PMID:23687998

  19. Acid phosphatase production by recombinant Arxula adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Neha; Kaur, Parvinder; Satyanarayana, T; Kunze, G

    2007-08-01

    Acid phosphatase production by recombinant Arxula adeninivorans was carried out in submerged fermentation. Using the Plackett-Burman design, three fermentation variables (pH, sucrose concentration, and peptone concentration) were identified to significantly affect acid phosphatase and biomass production, and these were optimized using response surface methodology of central composite design. The highest enzyme yields were attained in the medium with 3.9% sucrose and 1.6% peptone at pH 3.8. Because of optimization, 3.86- and 4.19-fold enhancement in enzyme production was achieved in shake flasks (17,054 U g(-1) DYB) and laboratory fermenter (18,465 U g(-1) DYB), respectively. PMID:17541580

  20. L-Lactic acid production from glycerol coupled with acetic acid metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis without carbon loss.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Nao; Oba, Mana; Iwamoto, Mariko; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Noguchi, Takuya; Bonkohara, Kaori; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed Ali; Zendo, Takeshi; Shimoda, Mitsuya; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol is a by-product in the biodiesel production process and considered as one of the prospective carbon sources for microbial fermentation including lactic acid fermentation, which has received considerable interest due to its potential application. Enterococcus faecalis isolated in our laboratory produced optically pure L-lactic acid from glycerol in the presence of acetic acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis using [1, 2-(13)C2] acetic acid proved that the E. faecalis strain QU 11 was capable of converting acetic acid to ethanol during lactic acid fermentation of glycerol. This indicated that strain QU 11 restored the redox balance by oxidizing excess NADH though acetic acid metabolism, during ethanol production, which resulted in lactic acid production from glycerol. The effects of pH control and substrate concentration on lactic acid fermentation were also investigated. Glycerol and acetic acid concentrations of 30 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, were expected to be appropriate for lactic acid fermentation of glycerol by strain QU 11 at a pH of 6.5. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation with 30 g/L glycerol and 10 g/L acetic acid wholly exhibited the best performance including lactic acid production (55.3 g/L), lactic acid yield (0.991 mol-lactic acid/mol-glycerol), total yield [1.08 mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)]/mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)], and total carbon yield [1.06 C-mol-(lactic acid and ethanol)/C-mol-(glycerol and acetic acid)] of lactic acid and ethanol. In summary, the strain QU 11 successfully produced lactic acid from glycerol with acetic acid metabolism, and an efficient fermentation system was established without carbon loss.

  1. Acid deposition: Processes of Lake Acidification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Panel on Processes of Lake Acidification was assembled by the National Research Council at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency. The panel was charged with discussing the processes that control the rate of acidification of streams and lakes and to suggest how EPA's research program might approach addressing current deficiencies in knowledge. The panel defined the acidification of lakes and streams as a decrease in alkalinity over time. Soil acidification is the decrease in the percent base saturation over time. The panel concurred that in forested watersheds that are underlain by granitic or other highly siliceous bedrock with acidic forest soils not receiving appreciable acid deposition, most lakes and streams have bicarbonate as the dominant anion and pH levels above 5.5. Generally, lakes and streams in similar habitats but in areas receiving appreciable acid deposition have sulfate as the dominant anion.

  2. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  3. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  4. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... Substances § 721.10125 Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and.... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester,...

  9. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  10. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  11. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  12. 40 CFR 415.280 - Applicability; description of the boric acid production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Boric Acid Production Subcategory § 415.280 Applicability; description of the boric acid... production of boric acid from ore-mined borax and from borax produced by the Trona process. ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the...

  13. Industrial production of L-ascorbic Acid (vitamin C) and D-isoascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Pappenberger, Günter; Hohmann, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was first isolated in 1928 and subsequently identified as the long-sought antiscorbutic factor. Industrially produced L-ascorbic acid is widely used in the feed, food, and pharmaceutical sector as nutritional supplement and preservative, making use of its antioxidative properties. Until recently, the Reichstein-Grüssner process, designed in 1933, was the main industrial route. Here, D-sorbitol is converted to L-ascorbic acid via 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2KGA) as key intermediate, using a bio-oxidation with Gluconobacter oxydans and several chemical steps. Today, industrial production processes use additional bio-oxidation steps with Ketogulonicigenium vulgare as biocatalyst to convert D-sorbitol to the intermediate 2KGA without chemical steps. The enzymes involved are characterized by a broad substrate range, but remarkable regiospecificity. This puzzling specificity pattern can be understood from the preferences of these enyzmes for certain of the many isomeric structures which the carbohydrate substrates adopt in aqueous solution. Recently, novel enzymes were identified that generate L-ascorbic acid directly via oxidation of L-sorbosone, an intermediate of the bio-oxidation of D-sorbitol to 2KGA. This opens the possibility for a direct route from D-sorbitol to L-ascorbic acid, obviating the need for chemical rearrangement of 2KGA. Similar concepts for industrial processes apply for the production of D-isoascorbic acid, the C5 epimer of L-ascorbic acid. D-isoascorbic acid has the same conformation at C5 as D-glucose and can be derived more directly than L-ascorbic acid from this common carbohydrate feed stock.

  14. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  15. Production of Succinic Acid from Citric Acid and Related Acids by Lactobacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kaneuchi, Choji; Seki, Masako; Komagata, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus strains produced succinic acid in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth to various extents. Among 86 fresh isolates from fermented cane molasses in Thailand, 30 strains (35%) produced succinic acid; namely, 23 of 39 Lactobacillus reuteri strains, 6 of 18 L. cellobiosus strains, and 1 of 6 unidentified strains. All of 10 L. casei subsp. casei strains, 5 L. casei subsp. rhamnosus strains, 6 L. mali strains, and 2 L. buchneri strains did not produce succinic acid. Among 58 known strains including 48 type strains of different Lactobacillus species, the strains of L. acidophilus, L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. parvus produced succinic acid to the same extent as the most active fresh isolates, and those of L. alimentarius, L. collinoides, L. farciminis, L. fructivorans (1 of 2 strains tested), L. malefermentans, and L. reuteri were also positive, to lesser extents. Diammonium citrate in de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth was determined as a precursor of the succinic acid produced. Production rates were about 70% on a molar basis with two fresh strains tested. Succinic acid was also produced from fumaric and malic acids but not from dl-isocitric, α-ketoglutaric, and pyruvic acids. The present study is considered to provide the first evidence on the production of succinic acid, an important flavoring substance in dairy products and fermented beverages, from citrate by lactobacilli. PMID:16347795

  16. Process design and evaluation of production of bioethanol and β-lactam antibiotic from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bong; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2014-11-01

    To design biorefinery processes producing bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass with dilute acid pretreatment, biorefinery processes were simulated using the SuperPro Designer program. To improve the efficiency of biomass use and the economics of biorefinery, additional pretreatment processes were designed and evaluated, in which a combined process of dilute acid and aqueous ammonia pretreatments, and a process of waste media containing xylose were used, for the production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid. Finally, the productivity and economics of the designed processes were compared.

  17. Production of gluconic acid using Micrococcus sp.: optimisation of carbon and nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Joshi, V D; Sreekantiah, K R; Manjrekar, S P

    1996-01-01

    A process for production of gluconic acid from glucose by a Micrococcus sp. is described. More than 400 bacterial cultures isolated from local soil were tested for gluconic acid production. Three isolates, were selected on basis of their ability to produce gluconic acid and high titrable acidity. These were identified as Micrococcus sp. and were named M 27, M 54 and M 81. Nutritional and other parameters for maximum production of gluconic acid by the selected isolates were optimised. It was found that Micrococcus sp. isolate M 27 gave highest yield of 8.19 g gluconic acid from 9 g glucose utilised giving 91% conversion effeciency.

  18. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Nghiem, N.P.; Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1999-02-09

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of (a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; (b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; (c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; (d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/l up to about 1 g/l; (e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; (f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of {>=}1 g/l; and (g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism. 7 figs.

  19. Method for the production of dicarboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Nghiem, Nhuan Phu; Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an economical fermentation method for the production of carboxylic acids comprising the steps of a) inoculating a medium having a carbon source with a carboxylic acid-producing organism; b) incubating the carboxylic acid-producing organism in an aerobic atmosphere to promote rapid growth of the organism thereby increasing the biomass of the organism; c) controllably releasing oxygen to maintain the aerobic atmosphere; d) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass with a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of about 0.5 g/L up to about 1 g/L; e) depriving the aerobic atmosphere of oxygen to produce an anaerobic atmosphere to cause the organism to undergo anaerobic metabolism; f) controllably feeding the organism having increased biomass a solution containing the carbon source to maintain the concentration of the carbon source within the medium of .gtoreq.1 g/L; and g) converting the carbon source to carboxylic acids using the anaerobic metabolism of the organism.

  20. Amino Acid Degradations Produced by Lipid Oxidation Products.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-06-10

    Differently to amino acid degradations produced by carbohydrate-derived reactive carbonyls, amino acid degradations produced by lipid oxidation products are lesser known in spite of being lipid oxidation a major source of reactive carbonyls in food. This article analyzes the conversion of amino acids into Strecker aldehydes, α-keto acids, and amines produced by lipid-derived free radicals and carbonyl compounds, as well as the role of lipid oxidation products on the reactions suffered by these compounds: the formation of Strecker aldehydes and other aldehydes from α-keto acids; the formation of Strecker aldehydes and olefins from amines; the formation of shorter aldehydes from Strecker aldehydes; and the addition reactions suffered by the olefins produced from the amines. The relationships among all these reactions and the effect of reaction conditions on them are discussed. This knowledge should contribute to better control food processing in order to favor the formation of desirable beneficial compounds and to inhibit the production of compounds with deleterious properties. PMID:25748518

  1. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

    1987-04-16

    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Furfural production by 'acidic steam stripping' of lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Lange, Jean-Paul; Espinosa Alonso, Leticia; Spiering, Wouter; Polmans, Rob F; Haan, Rene J

    2013-11-01

    Furfural and acetic acid are produced with approximately 60 and 90 mol % yield, respectively, upon stripping bagasse with a gaseous stream of HCl/steam and condensing the effluent to water/furfural/acetic acid. The reaction kinetics is 1(st)  order in furfural and 0.5(th)  order in HCl. A process concept with full recycling of the reaction effluents is proposed to reduce the energy demand to <10 tonsteam  tonfurfural (-1) and facilitate the product recovery through a simple liquid/liquid separation of the condensate into a water-rich and a furfural-rich phase.

  3. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION THERMALLY PROCESSED LOW-ACID FOODS PACKAGED IN HERMETICALLY...

  4. 21 CFR 113.100 - Processing and production records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing and production records. 113.100 Section 113.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION THERMALLY PROCESSED LOW-ACID FOODS PACKAGED IN HERMETICALLY...

  5. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  6. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  7. AMERICIUM SEPARATIONS FROM NITRIC ACID PROCESS EFFLUENT STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    M. BARR; G. JARVINEN; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    The aging of the US nuclear stockpile presents a number of challenges, including the ever-increasing radioactivity of plutonium residues from {sup 241}Am. Minimization of this weak gamma-emitter in process and waste solutions is desirable to reduce both worker exposure and the effects of radiolysis on the final waste product. Removal of americium from plutonium nitric acid processing effluents, however, is complicated by the presence of large.quantities of competing metals, particularly Fe and Al, and-strongly oxidizing acidic solutions. The reprocessing operation offers several points at which americium removal maybe attempted, and we are evaluating two classes of materials targeted at different steps in the process. Extraction chromatography resin materials loaded with three different alkylcarbamoyl phosphinates and phosphine oxides were accessed for Am removal efficiency and Am/Fe selectivity from 1-7 molar nitric acid solutions. Commercial and experimental mono- and bifunctional anion-exchange resins were evaluated for total alpha-activity removal from post-evaporator solutions whose composition, relative to the original nitric acid effluent, is reduced in acid and greatly increased in total salt content. With both classes of materials, americium/total alpha emission removal is sufficient to meet regulatory requirements even under sub-optimal conditions. Batch distribution coefficients, column performance data, and the effects of Fe-masking agents will be presented.

  8. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    PubMed

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs.

  9. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2011-12-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  10. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  11. Lactic acid bacteria production from whey.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Parada, María Elena; Nájera-Martínez, Minerva; Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2006-09-01

    The main purpose of this work was to isolate and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to be used for biomass production using a whey-based medium supplemented with an ammonium salt and with very low levels of yeast extract (0.25 g/L). Five strains of LAB were isolated from naturally soured milk after enrichment in whey-based medium. One bacterial isolate, designated MNM2, exhibited a remarkable capability to utilize whey lactose and give a high biomass yield on lactose. This strain was identified as Lactobacillus casei by its 16S rDNA sequence. A kinetic study of cell growth, lactose consumption, and titratable acidity production of this bacterial strain was performed in a bioreactor. The biomass yield on lactose, the percentage of lactose consumption, and the maximum increase in cell mass obtained in the bioreactor were 0.165 g of biomass/g of lactose, 100%, and 2.0 g/L, respectively, which were 1.44, 1.11, and 2.35 times higher than those found in flask cultures. The results suggest that it is possible to produce LAB biomass from a whey-based medium supplemented with minimal amounts of yeast extract.

  12. Stimulation of monokine production by lipoteichoic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Bhakdi, S; Klonisch, T; Nuber, P; Fischer, W

    1991-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTAs) isolated from bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes A, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Listeria monocytogenes, were tested for their ability to stimulate the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in cultured human monocytes. LTAs from S. aureus and S. pneumoniae failed to induce monokine production when applied in the concentration range of 0.05 to 5.0 micrograms/ml. However, LTAs from several enterococcal species (0.5 to 5 micrograms/ml) induced the release of all three monokines at levels similar to those observed after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The kinetics of IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha release elicited by LTAs closely resembled those observed following lipopolysaccharide application. Cytokine production occurred in the presence of both fetal calf serum and autologous human serum. Hence, it was not dependent on complement activation and could not be suppressed by naturally occurring human antibodies. Deacylation caused the total loss of monocyte stimulatory capacity. Deacylated LTAs were unable to prevent monocyte activation by intact LTAs, so primary binding of these molecules probably does not involve a simple interaction of a membrane receptor with the hydrophilic portion of the molecule. The results identify some species of LTAs as inducers of monokine production in human monocytes. PMID:1937822

  13. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed. PMID:26748037

  14. Method for processing wastes resulting from production of phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Alzhanov, T.M.; Bykov, V.I.; Chernogorenko, V.B.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Ishkhanov, E.S.; Kipchakbaev, A.D.; Koverya, V.M.; Lynchak, K.A.; Markovsky, E.A.; Muchnik, S.V.; Pobortsev, M.E.; Sapian, V.G.; Sergienko, V.Y.; Vopilov, A.N.

    1980-03-11

    The method comprises processing slime and off-gases resulting from the production of phosphorus with an aqueous solution of copper sulphate having a concentration of from 15 to 50% at a temperature within the range of from 20* to 80* C. As a result, two products are obtained, i.e., a liquid product and a solid one. The solid product containing mainly copper phosphide as well as fluorides and chlorides of alkali metals and silicon, and silicates of calcium and aluminum, is used as a modifying and refining agent for hypereutectic silumines and for the manufacture of a copper-phosphorus alloy. The liquid product containing phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and copper sulphate is used as starting product for the preparation of a copper-containing fertilizer. The method according to the present invention makes it possible to modify the production of phosphorus so as to eliminate the formation of secondary wastes and improve the environmental control.

  15. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Dodge, Cleveland; Chendrayan, Krishnachetty; Quinby, Helen L.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

  16. Metabolic engineering of acid resistance elements to improve acid resistance and propionic acid production of Propionibacterium jensenii.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ningzi; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Liu, Long

    2016-06-01

    Propionic acid (PA) and its salts are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Microbial production of PA by propionibacteria is a typical product-inhibited process, and acid resistance is crucial in the improvement of PA titers and productivity. We previously identified two key acid resistance elements-the arginine deaminase and glutamate decarboxylase systems-that protect propionibacteria against PA stress by maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis. In this study, we attempted to improve the acid resistance and PA production of Propionibacterium jensenii ATCC 4868 by engineering these elements. Specifically, five genes (arcA, arcC, gadB, gdh, and ybaS) encoding components of the arginine deaminase and glutamate decarboxylase systems were overexpressed in P. jensenii. The activities of the five enzymes in the engineered strains were 26.7-489.0% higher than those in wild-type P. jensenii. The growth rates of the engineered strains decreased, whereas specific PA production increased significantly compared with those of the wild-type strain. Among the overexpressed genes, gadB (encoding glutamate decarboxylase) increased PA resistance and yield most effectively; the PA resistance of P. jensenii-gadB was more than 10-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain, and the production titer, yield, and conversion ratio of PA reached 10.81 g/L, 5.92 g/g cells, and 0.56 g/g glycerol, representing increases of 22.0%, 23.8%, and 21.7%, respectively. We also investigated the effects of introducing these acid resistance elements on the transcript levels of related enzymes. The results showed that the expression of genes in the engineered pathways affected the expression of the other genes. Additionally, the intracellular pools of amino acids were altered as different genes were overexpressed, which may further contribute to the enhanced PA production. This study provides an effective strategy for improving PA production in propionibacteria; this

  17. Electrochemical monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kutyła-Olesiuk, Anna; Wawrzyniak, Urszula E; Ciosek, Patrycja; Wróblewski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Hybrid electronic tongue was developed for the monitoring of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. The system based on various potentiometric/voltammetric sensors and appropriate chemometric techniques provided correct qualitative and quantitative classification of the samples collected during standard Aspergillus niger culture and culture infected with yeast. The performance of the proposed approach was compared with the monitoring of the fermentation process carried out using classical methods. The results obtained proved, that the designed hybrid electronic tongue was able to evaluate the progress and correctness of the fermentation process.

  18. Study on the kinetics and transformation products of salicylic acid in water via ozonation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruikang; Zhang, Lifeng; Hu, Jiangyong

    2016-06-01

    As salicylic acid is one of widely used pharmaceuticals, its residue has been found in various environmental water systems e.g. wastewater, surface water, treated water and drinking water. It has been reported that salicylic acid can be efficiently removed by advanced oxidation processes, but there are few studies on its transformation products and ozonation mechanisms during ozonation process. The objective of this study is to characterize the transformation products, investigate the degradation mechanisms at different pH, and propose the ozonation pathways of salicylic acid. The results showed that the rate of degradation was about 10 times higher at acidic condition than that at alkaline condition in the first 1 min when 1 mg L(-1) of ozone solution was added into 1 mg L(-1) of salicylic acid solution. It was proposed that ozone direct oxidation mechanism dominates at acidic condition, while indirect OH radical mechanism dominates at alkaline condition. A two stages pseudo-first order reaction was proposed at different pH conditions. Various hydroxylation products, carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids, such as 2,5-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, catechol, formaldehyde, glyoxal, acetaldehyde, maleic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid etc. were identified as ozonation transformation products. In addition, acrylic acid was identified, for the first time, as ozonation transformation products through high resolution liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometer. The information demonstrated in this study will help us to better understand the possible effects of ozonation products on the water quality. The degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed. As both O3 and OH radical were important in the reactions, the degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed at acidic and basic conditions. To our knowledge, there was no integrated study reported on the ozonation of

  19. Study on the kinetics and transformation products of salicylic acid in water via ozonation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruikang; Zhang, Lifeng; Hu, Jiangyong

    2016-06-01

    As salicylic acid is one of widely used pharmaceuticals, its residue has been found in various environmental water systems e.g. wastewater, surface water, treated water and drinking water. It has been reported that salicylic acid can be efficiently removed by advanced oxidation processes, but there are few studies on its transformation products and ozonation mechanisms during ozonation process. The objective of this study is to characterize the transformation products, investigate the degradation mechanisms at different pH, and propose the ozonation pathways of salicylic acid. The results showed that the rate of degradation was about 10 times higher at acidic condition than that at alkaline condition in the first 1 min when 1 mg L(-1) of ozone solution was added into 1 mg L(-1) of salicylic acid solution. It was proposed that ozone direct oxidation mechanism dominates at acidic condition, while indirect OH radical mechanism dominates at alkaline condition. A two stages pseudo-first order reaction was proposed at different pH conditions. Various hydroxylation products, carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids, such as 2,5-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxylbenzoic acid, catechol, formaldehyde, glyoxal, acetaldehyde, maleic acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid etc. were identified as ozonation transformation products. In addition, acrylic acid was identified, for the first time, as ozonation transformation products through high resolution liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometer. The information demonstrated in this study will help us to better understand the possible effects of ozonation products on the water quality. The degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed. As both O3 and OH radical were important in the reactions, the degradation pathways of salicylic acid by ozonation in water sample were proposed at acidic and basic conditions. To our knowledge, there was no integrated study reported on the ozonation of

  20. Lactide Synthesis and Chirality Control for Polylactic acid Production.

    PubMed

    Van Wouwe, Pieter; Dusselier, Michiel; Vanleeuw, Evelien; Sels, Bert

    2016-05-10

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a very promising biodegradable, renewable, and biocompatible polymer. Aside from its production, its application field is also increasing, with use not only in commodity applications but also as durables and in biomedicine. In the current PLA production scheme, the most expensive part is not the polymerization itself but obtaining the building blocks lactic acid (LA) and lactide, the actual cyclic monomer for polymerization. Although the synthesis of LA and the polymerization have been studied systematically, reports of lactide synthesis are scarce. Most lactide synthesis methods are described in patent literature, and current energy-intensive, aselective industrial processes are based on archaic scientific literature. This Review, therefore, highlights new methods with a technical comparison and description of the different approaches. Water-removal methodologies are compared, as this is a crucial factor in PLA production. Apart from the synthesis of lactide, this Review also emphasizes the use of chemically produced racemic lactic acid (esters) as a starting point in the PLA production scheme. Stereochemically tailored PLA can be produced according to such a strategy, giving access to various polymer properties.

  1. Direct fermentation route for the production of acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hun Su; Ahn, Jin-Ho; Yun, Jiae; Choi, In Suk; Nam, Tae-Wook; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-11-01

    There have been growing concerns regarding the limited fossil resources and global climate changes resulting from modern civilization. Currently, finding renewable alternatives to conventional petrochemical processes has become one of the major focus areas of the global chemical industry sector. Since over 4.2 million tons of acrylic acid (AA) is annually employed for the manufacture of various products via petrochemical processes, this chemical has been the target of efforts to replace the petrochemical route by ecofriendly processes. However, there has been limited success in developing an approach combining the biological production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) and its chemical conversion to AA. Here, we report the first direct fermentative route for producing 0.12 g/L of AA from glucose via 3-HP, 3-HP-CoA, and Acryloyl-CoA, leading to a strain of Escherichia coli capable of directly producing acrylic acid. This route was developed through extensive screening of key enzymes and designing a novel metabolic pathway for AA. PMID:26319589

  2. Production of hydroxycitric acid by microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuhiro

    2005-08-01

    Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a major acid component of the tropical plants Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa. (2S,3S)-HCA from G. cambogia was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. (2S,3R)-HCA from H. subdariffa inhibits alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, leading to reduction of carbohydrate metabolism. The availability of HCA is limited by the restricted habitat of the plants as well as the difficulty of stereoselective organic synthesis. Hence, we screened microorganisms producing HCA to find an alternative source of optically pure bulk HCA. Two strains, Streptomyces sp. U121 and Bacillus megaterium G45C, were screened by HPLC analysis. Particular metabolites were purified from their culture broths and compared with authentic HCA from plants. NMR studies indicated that the products are identical to Hibiscus-type HCA. This is the first report showing isolation of microorganisms producing HCA. PMID:16116285

  3. Acid sorption regeneration process using carbon dioxide

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; Husson, Scott M.

    2001-01-01

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks onto a solid adsorbent in the presence of carbon dioxide under pressure. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by a suitable regeneration method, one of which is treating them with an organic alkylamine solution thus forming an alkylamine-carboxylic acid complex which thermally decomposes to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

  4. Consolidated processes for product recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, fermentation industries are structured on individual unit operations for production of biofuels such as ethanol, butanol, and 2,3-butanediol which result in increased capital and operational costs. Such increased costs result in low profitability and increased consumer price. With the d...

  5. Gelled acidic well treating composition and process

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, B.L.

    1981-01-13

    Gelled acidic compositions suitable for either matrix-acidizing or fracture-acidizing of subterranean formations comprising water , a water-dispersible polymer selected from cellulose ethers and polymers of acrylamides, an acid, an aldehyde, and a phenolic compound capable of causing gelation of an aqueous dispersion of the polymer, acid, aldehyde, and phenolic compound are provided. In another embodiment, guar gum, polyvinylpyrrolidone and biopolysaccharides can also be used as the polymeric component in said compositions.

  6. Model development for naphthenic acids ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Al Jibouri, Ali Kamel H; Wu, Jiangning

    2015-02-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are toxic constituents of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which is generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. NAs consist mainly of carboxylic acids which are generally biorefractory. For the treatment of OSPW, ozonation is a very beneficial method. It can significantly reduce the concentration of NAs and it can also convert NAs from biorefractory to biodegradable. In this study, a factorial design (2(4)) was used for the ozonation of OSPW to study the influences of the operating parameters (ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, pH, and mixing) on the removal of a model NAs in a semi-batch reactor. It was found that ozone concentration had the most significant effect on the NAs concentration compared to other parameters. An empirical model was developed to correlate the concentration of NAs with ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, and pH. In addition, a theoretical analysis was conducted to gain the insight into the relationship between the removal of NAs and the operating parameters. PMID:25189805

  7. Integrated process for preparing a carboxylic acid from an alkane

    SciTech Connect

    Benderly, Abraham; Chadda, Nitin; Sevon, Douglass

    2011-12-20

    The present invention relates to an integrated process for producing unsaturated carboxylic acids from the corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane. The process begins with performance of thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions which convert a C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkane to its corresponding C.sub.2-C.sub.4 alkene, and which involve exothermically converting a portion of an alkane to its corresponding alkene by oxidative dehydrogenation in an exothermic reaction zone, in the presence of oxygen and a suitable catalyst, and then feeding the products of the exothermic reaction zone to an endothermic reaction zone wherein at least a portion of the remaining unconverted alkane is endothermically dehydrogenated to form an additional quantity of the same corresponding alkene, in the presence of carbon dioxide and an other suitable catalyst. The alkene products of the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions are then provided to a catalytic vapor phase partial oxidation process for conversion of the alkene to the corresponding unsaturated carboxylic acid or nitrile. Unreacted alkene and carbon dioxide are recovered from the oxidation product stream and recycled back to the thermally integrated dehydrogenation reactions.

  8. Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jie

    Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant

  9. By-products from the biodiesel chain as a substrate to citric acid production by solid-state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Manuella; Zimmer, Gabriela F; Cremonese, Ezequiel B; de C de S Schneider, Rosana; Corbellini, Valeriano A

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we propose the use of tung cake for the production of organic acids, with an emphasis on citric acid by solid-state fermentation. We evaluated the conditions of production and the by-products from the biodiesel chain as raw materials involved in this bioprocess. First, we standardized the conditions of solid-state fermentation in tung cake with and without residual fat and with different concentrations of glycerine using the fungus Aspergillus niger The solid-state fermentation process was monitored for 7 days considering the biomass growth and pH level. Citric acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Fungal development was better in the crude tung cake, consisting of 20% glycerine. The highest citric acid yield was 350 g kg(-1) of biomass. Therefore, the solid-state fermentation of the tung cake with glycerine led to citric acid production using the Aspergillus niger fungus.

  10. Enzymatic production of caffeic acid by koji from plant resources containing caffeoylquinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Kurata-Azuma, Rie; Fujii, Makoto; Hou, De-Xing; Ikeda, Kohji; Yoshidome, Tomohisa; Osako, Miho

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a koji (Aspergillus awamori mut.) extract on the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives purified from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves was examined to develop the mass production of caffeic acid. A koji extract hydrolyzed the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, chlorogenic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid, to caffeic acid. Furthermore, the koji extract also converted the major polyphenolic components from sweetpotato, burdock (Arctium lappa L.), and mugwort (Artemisia indica var. maximowiczii) leaves to caffeic acid. These results suggest that the production of caffeic acid from plant resources containing caffeoylquinic acid derivatives is possible.

  11. Generative inspection process planner for integrated production

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.W. . Kansas City Div.); Gyorog, D.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    This work describes the design prototype development of a generative process planning system for dimensional inspection. The system, IPPEX (Inspection Process Planning EXpert), is a rule-based expert system for integrated production. Using as advanced product modeler, relational databases, and artificial intelligence techniques, IPPEX generates the process plan and part program for the dimensional inspection of products using CMMs. Through an application interface, the IPPEX system software accesses product definition from the product modeler. The modeler is a solid geometric modeler coupled with a dimension and tolerance modeler. Resource data regarding the machines, probes, and fixtures are queried from databases. IPPEX represents inspection process knowledge as production rules and incorporates an embedded inference engine to perform decision making. The IPPEX system, its functional architecture, system architecture, system approach, product modeling environment, inspection features, inspection knowledge, hierarchical planning strategy, user interface formats, and other fundamental issues related to inspection planning and part programming for CMMs are described. 27 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Production of levulinic acid and use as a platform chemical for derived products

    SciTech Connect

    Bozell, J.J.; Moens, L.; Elliott, D.C.; Wang, Y.; Neuenscwander, G.G.; Fitzpatrick, S.W.; Bilski, R.J.; Jarnefeld, J.L.

    1999-07-01

    Levulinic acid (LA) can be produced cost effectively and in high yield from renewable feedstocks in a new industrial process. The technology is being demonstrated on a one ton/day scale at a facility in South Glens Falls, New York. Low cost LA can be used as a platform chemical for the production of a wide range of value-added products. This research has demonstrated that LA can be converted to methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF), a solvent and fuel extender. MTHF is produced in {gt}80% molar yield via a single stage catalytic hydrogenation process. A new preparation of {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (DALA), a broad spectrum herbicide from LA has also been developed. Each step in this new process proceeds in high ({gt}80%) yield and affords DALA (as the hydrochloride salt) in greater than 90% purity, giving a process that could be commercially viable. LA is also being investigated as a starting material for the production of diphenolic acid (DPA), a direct replacement for bisphenol A.

  13. Lactobionic and cellobionic acid production profiles of the resting cells of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was produced by acetic acid bacteria to oxidize lactose. Gluconobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp. showed higher lactose-oxidizing activities than Acetobacter spp. Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC3285 produced the highest amount of lactobionic acid per cell, among the strains tested. This bacterium assimilated neither lactose nor lactobionic acid. At high lactose concentration (30%), resting cells of the bacterium showed sufficient oxidizing activity for efficient production of lactobionic acid. These properties may contribute to industrial production of lactobionic acid by the bacterium. The bacterium showed higher oxidizing activity on cellobiose than that on lactose and produced cellobionic acid. PMID:25965080

  14. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, P.V.

    1995-11-28

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) is described. The poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  15. Production of high molecular weight polylactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A degradable high molecular weight poly(lactic acid). A poly(lactic acid) has a terminal end group of one of carboxyl or hydroxyl groups with low molecular weight poly(lactic acid) units coupled with linking agents of di-isocyanates, bis-epoxides, bis-oxazolines and bis-ortho esters. The resulting high molecular weight poly(lactic acid) can be used for applications taking advantage of the improved physical properties.

  16. Business Communication: Its Process and Product.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Joel P.; Branchaw, Bernadine P.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the essential difference between the writing process and its product; namely, that the former is a private and unique activity, whereas the latter is an observable artifact that can be publicly evaluated. Argues that even proponents of the process approach to writing cannot escape basing their discussions on products. (JD)

  17. Valuation of OSA process and folic acid addition as excess sludge minimization alternatives applied in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Martins, C L; Velho, V F; Ramos, S R A; Pires, A S C D; Duarte, E C N F A; Costa, R H R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA)-process and the folic acid addition applied in the activated sludge process to reduce the excess sludge production. The study was monitored during two distinct periods: activated sludge system with OSA-process, and activated sludge system with folic acid addition. The observed sludge yields (Yobs) were 0.30 and 0.08 kgTSS kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), control phase and OSA-process (period 1); 0.33 and 0.18 kgTSS kg(-1) COD, control phase and folic acid addition (period 2). The Yobs decreased by 73 and 45% in phases with the OSA-process and folic acid addition, respectively, compared with the control phases. The sludge minimization alternatives result in a decrease in excess sludge production, without negatively affecting the performance of the effluent treatment. PMID:26901714

  18. Process for the production of lactams

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, M.S.

    1989-01-24

    A process is described for producing a lactam comprising contacting a feedstock selected from the group consisting of acid anhydrides, dicarboxylic acids, lactones, and imides, the feedstock having 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the backbone with a catalyst system comprising palladium and at least one second metal selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium and rhenium under conditions to convert at least a portion of the feedstock to the lactam.

  19. Reading: Product and Process in Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, William D.

    Reading has been viewed both as a product and as a process. The product view of reading is generally associated with static information produced by testing techniques. A major difficulty with the product view seems to be that reading is treated as though it is stopped in time, captured in the static scores of tests. This feature of the product…

  20. The effect of biotin on the production of succinic acid by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.; Davison, B.H.; Thompson, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    Succinic acid is an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and therefore, is found in almost all plant and animal cells, albeit at very low concentrations. It has a very wide usage range, which includes applications in agriculture, food, medicine, plastics, cosmetics, textiles, plating and waste-gas scrubbing. Succinic acid currently is produced commercially by chemical processes. A fermentation process for its production is of great interest because in such process, renewable resources such as corn-derived glucose can be used as starting material. There is not a current biological process for the commercial production of succinic acid. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the isolation and screening of succinic acid-producing microorganisms. The anaerobic bacterium, Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens, is considered among the best direct succinic acid producers. A number of patents concerning the production of succinic acid by this organism have been issued. Our first attempt to develop a biological process for the production of succinic acid by A. succiniciproducens involved fermentation media improvement, in particular the use of supplemented nutrients. In this note, we show that higher yield of succinic acid could be achieved by supplementing the fermentation media with biotin, as a potential nutrient supplement representative.

  1. The pulsar planet production process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, E. S.; Hansen, B. M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Most plausible scenarios for the formation of planets around pulsars end with a disk of gas around the pulsar. The supplicant author then points to the solar system to bolster faith in the miraculous transfiguration of gas into planets. We here investigate this process of transfiguration. We derive analytic sequences of quasi-static disks which give good approximations to exact solutions of the disk diffusion equation with realistic opacity tables. These allow quick and efficient surveys of parameter space. We discuss the outward transfer of mass in accretion disks and the resulting timescale constraints, the effects of illumination by the central source on the disk and dust within it, and the effects of the widely different elemental compositions of the disks in the various scenarios, and their extensions to globular clusters. We point out where significant uncertainties exist in the appropriate grain opacities, and in the effect of illumination and winds from the neutron star.

  2. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application. PMID:26403818

  3. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application.

  4. The sugar model: catalysis by amines and amino acid products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    Ammonia and amines (including amino acids) were shown to catalyze the formation of sugars from formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, and the subsequent conversion of sugars to carbonylcontaining products under the conditions studied (pH 5.5 and 50 degrees C). Sterically unhindered primary amines were better catalysts than ammonia, secondary amines, and sterically hindered primary amines (i.e. alpha-aminoisobutyric acid). Reactions catalyzed by primary amines initially consumed formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde about 15-20 times faster than an uncatalyzed control reaction. The amine-catalyzed reactions yielded aldotriose (glyceraldehyde), ketotriose (dihydroxyacetone), aldotetroses (erythrose and threose), ketotetrose (erythrulose), pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde, glyoxal, pyruvate, glyoxylate, and several unindentified carbonyl products. The concentrations of the carbonyl products, except pyruvate and ketotetrose, initially increased and then declined during the reaction, indicating their ultimate conversion to other products (like larger sugars or pyruvate). The uncatalyzed control reaction yielded no pyruvate or glyoxylate, and only trace amounts of pyruvaldehyde, acetaldehyde and glyoxal. In the presence of 15 mM catalytic primary amine, such as alanine, the rates of triose and pyruvaldehyde of synthesis were about 15-times and 1200-times faster, respectively, than the uncatalyzed reaction. Since previous studies established that alanine is synthesized from glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde via pyruvaldehyde as its direct precursor, the demonstration that the alanine catalyzes the conversion of glycolaldehyde and formaldehyde to pyruvaldehyde indicates that this synthetic pathway is capable of autocatalysis. The relevance of this synthetic process, named the Sugar Model, to the origin of life is discussed.

  5. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, Uday B.; Gazula, Gopala K. M.; Hasham, Ali

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements.

  6. Process for improving metal production in steelmaking processes

    DOEpatents

    Pal, U.B.; Gazula, G.K.M.; Hasham, A.

    1996-06-18

    A process and apparatus for improving metal production in ironmaking and steelmaking processes is disclosed. The use of an inert metallic conductor in the slag containing crucible and the addition of a transition metal oxide to the slag are the disclosed process improvements. 6 figs.

  7. Microbial production of fatty acid-derived fuels and chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Lennen, Rebecca M; Pfleger, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid metabolism is an attractive route to produce liquid transportation fuels and commodity oleochemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recently, genes and enzymes, which comprise metabolic pathways for producing fatty acid-derived compounds (e.g. esters, alkanes, olefins, ketones, alcohols, polyesters) have been elucidated and used in engineered microbial hosts. The resulting strains often generate products at low percentages of maximum theoretical yields, leaving significant room for metabolic engineering. Economically viable processes will require strains to approach theoretical yields, particularly for replacement of petroleum-derived fuels. This review will describe recent progress toward this goal, highlighting the scientific discoveries of each pathway, ongoing biochemical studies to understand each enzyme, and metabolic engineering strategies that are being used to improve strain performance. PMID:23541503

  8. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  9. Methods for producing 3-hydroxypropionic acid and other products

    DOEpatents

    Lynch, Michael D.; Gill, Ryan T.; Lipscomb, Tanya E. W.

    2016-07-12

    This invention relates to metabolically engineered microorganism strains, such as bacterial strains, in which there is an increased utilization of malonyl-CoA for production of a chemical product, which includes 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  10. Method for producing 3-hydroxypropionic acid and other products

    DOEpatents

    Lynch, Michael D.; Gill, Ryan T.; Lipscomb, Tanya E.W.

    2016-08-30

    This invention relates to metabolically engineered microorganism strains, such as bacterial strains, in which there is an increased utilization of malonyl-CoA for production of a chemical product, which includes 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  11. Highly efficient chemical process to convert mucic acid into adipic acid and DFT studies of the mechanism of the rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiukai; Wu, Di; Lu, Ting; Yi, Guangshun; Su, Haibin; Zhang, Yugen

    2014-04-14

    The production of bulk chemicals and fuels from renewable bio-based feedstocks is of significant importance for the sustainability of human society. Adipic acid, as one of the most-demanded drop-in chemicals from a bioresource, is used primarily for the large-volume production of nylon-6,6 polyamide. It is highly desirable to develop sustainable and environmentally friendly processes for the production of adipic acid from renewable feedstocks. However, currently there is no suitable bio-adipic acid synthesis process. Demonstrated herein is the highly efficient synthetic protocol for the conversion of mucic acid into adipic acid through the oxorhenium-complex-catalyzed deoxydehydration (DODH) reaction and subsequent Pt/C-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation. Quantitative yields (99 %) were achieved for the conversion of mucic acid into muconic acid and adipic acid either in separate sequences or in a one-step process.

  12. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  13. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  14. Impact of the diet on net endogenous acid production and acid-base balance.

    PubMed

    Poupin, Nathalie; Calvez, Juliane; Lassale, Camille; Chesneau, Caroline; Tomé, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Net acid production, which is composed of volatile acids (15,000 mEq/day) and metabolic acids (70-100 mEq/day) is relatively small compared to whole-body H⁺ turnover (150,000 mEq/day). Metabolic acids are ingested from the diet or produced as intermediary or end products of endogenous metabolism. The three commonly reported sources of net acid production are the metabolism of sulphur amino acids, the metabolism or ingestion of organic acids, and the metabolism of phosphate esters or dietary phosphoproteins. Net base production occurs mainly as a result of absorption of organic anions from the diet. To maintain acid-base balance, ingested and endogenously produced acids are neutralized within the body by buffer systems or eliminated from the body through the respiratory (excretion of volatile acid in the form of CO₂) and urinary (excretion of fixed acids and remaining H⁺) pathways. Because of the many reactions involved in the acid-base balance, the direct determination of acid production is complex and is usually estimated through direct or indirect measurements of acid excretion. However, indirect approaches, which assess the acid-forming potential of the ingested diet based on its composition, do not take all the acid-producing reactions into account. Direct measurements therefore seem more reliable. Nevertheless, acid excretion does not truly provide information on the way acidity is dealt with in the plasma and this measurement should be interpreted with caution when assessing acid-base imbalance.

  15. The production of unusual fatty acids in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Napier, Johnathan A

    2007-01-01

    The ability to genetically engineer plants has facilitated the generation of oilseeds synthesizing non-native fatty acids. Two particular classes of fatty acids are considered in this review. First, so-called industrial fatty acids, which usually contain functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, or acetylenic bonds, and second, very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids normally found in fish oils and marine microorganisms. For industrial fatty acids, there has been limited progress toward obtaining high-level accumulation of these products in transgenic plants. For very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, although they have a much more complex biosynthesis, accumulation of some target fatty acids has been remarkably successful. In this review, we consider the probable factors responsible for these different outcomes, as well as the potential for further optimization of the transgenic production of unusual fatty acids in transgenic plants.

  16. [Hydrocyanic acid content in cerals and cereal products].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, G; Zinsmeister, H D; Erb, N; Neunhoeffer, O

    1979-03-01

    In the above paper for the first time a systematic study of the amount of hydrocyanic acid in grains and cereal products is reported. Among 24 analysed wheat, rye, maize and oats types, the presence of hydrocyanic acid could be identified in 19 cases in their Karyopses. Similar is the result with 28 among 31 analysed cereal products. The content of hydrocyanic acid lies between 0.1 and 45 microgram/100 gr dried mass.

  17. Process of beneficiating coal and product

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L.E.; Fox, K.M.; McGarry, P.E.

    1981-12-08

    Mine run coal is pulverized and the extended surfaces of the coal particles are rendered hydrophobic and oilophilic by a chemical bonding and graft polymerization reaction with a water unsoluble organic polymerizable monomer under peroxidation influence in a predominantly water reaction medium. The mineral ash present in the coal, particularly the iron pyrites, remains hydrophilic and is separated from the polymeric organic surface bonded coal product in a water washing step wherein the washed coal floats on and is recovered from the water phase and the ash is removed with the separated wash water in a critical wash step. The hydrophobic and oilophilic organic polymeric surface bonded coating about the coal particles is fortified by inclusion of additional unbound free fatty acids by further small additions thereof. Excess water is removed from the beneficiated hydrophobic surface-altered coal product mechanically, and the carboxylic acid groups present in the coal-oil product are thereafter converted to a metal soap. The beneficiated coal product can be used ''dry'', or additional quantities of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be incorporated with the ''dry'' beneficiated coal product to produce a flowable fluid or liquid coal product having the rheological property of marked thixotropy. Introduction of this physically induced property into the liquid coal-oil-mixture prevents settling out of the heavier coal particles from the relatively ash-free fluid fuel composition under extended storage periods.

  18. Bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria: production, purification, and food applications.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Leroy, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In fermented foods, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) display numerous antimicrobial activities. This is mainly due to the production of organic acids, but also of other compounds, such as bacteriocins and antifungal peptides. Several bacteriocins with industrial potential have been purified and characterized. The kinetics of bacteriocin production by LAB in relation to process factors have been studied in detail through mathematical modeling and positive predictive microbiology. Application of bacteriocin-producing starter cultures in sourdough (to increase competitiveness), in fermented sausage (anti-listerial effect), and in cheese (anti-listerial and anti-clostridial effects), have been studied during in vitro laboratory fermentations as well as on pilot-scale level. The highly promising results of these studies underline the important role that functional, bacteriocinogenic LAB strains may play in the food industry as starter cultures, co-cultures, or bioprotective cultures, to improve food quality and safety. In addition, antimicrobial production by probiotic LAB might play a role during in vivo interactions occurring in the human gastrointestinal tract, hence contributing to gut health.

  19. Current topics in the biotechnological production of essential amino acids, functional amino acids, and dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Satoshi

    2014-04-01

    Amino acids play important roles in both human and animal nutrition and in the maintenance of health. Here, amino acids are classified into three groups: first, essential amino acids, which are essential to nutrition; second, functional amino acids, recently found to be important in the promotion of physiological functions; and third, dipeptides, which are used to resolve problematic features of specific free amino acids, such as their instability or insolubility. This review focusses on recent researches concerning the microbial production of essential amino acids (lysine and methionine), functional amino acids (histidine and ornithine), and a dipeptide (L-alanyl-L-glutamine). PMID:24679256

  20. Mariner 9-Image processing and products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levinthal, E.C.; Green, W.B.; Cutts, J.A.; Jahelka, E.D.; Johansen, R.A.; Sander, M.J.; Seidman, J.B.; Young, A.T.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the system for the display, processing, and production of image-data products created to support the Mariner 9 Television Experiment. Of necessity, the system was large in order to respond to the needs of a large team of scientists with a broad scope of experimental objectives. The desire to generate processed data products as rapidly as possible to take advantage of adaptive planning during the mission, coupled with the complexities introduced by the nature of the vidicon camera, greatly increased the scale of the ground-image processing effort. This paper describes the systems that carried out the processes and delivered the products necessary for real-time and near-real-time analyses. References are made to the computer algorithms used for the, different levels of decalibration and analysis. ?? 1973.

  1. Processing prefixes and suffixes in handwriting production.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Sonia; Spinelli, Elsa; Tremblay, Annie; Guerassimovitch, Helena; Álvarez, Carlos J

    2012-07-01

    Previous research showed that handwriting production is mediated by linguistically oriented processing units such as syllables and graphemes. The goal of this study was to investigate whether French adults also activate another kind of unit that is more related to semantics than phonology, namely morphemes. Experiment 1 revealed that letter duration and inter-letter intervals were longer for suffixed words than for pseudo-suffixed words. These results suggest that the handwriting production system chunks the letter components of the root and suffix into morpheme-sized units. Experiment 2 compared the production of prefixed and pseudo-prefixed words. The results did not yield significant differences. This asymmetry between suffix and prefix processing has also been observed in other linguistic tasks. In suffixed words, the suffix would be processed on-line during the production of the root, in an analytic fashion. Prefixed words, in contrast, seem to be processed without decomposition, as pseudo-affixed words. PMID:22664316

  2. Effects of acid deposition on agricultural production

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Oden, N.L.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Coveney, E.A.; Jacobson, J.S.; Rosenthal, R.E.; Evans, L.S.; Lewin, K.F.; Allen, F.L.

    1985-09-01

    A preliminary assessment, both qualitative and quantitative, was carried out on the effects of acid deposition on agriculture. An inventory was made of US crops exposed to different acid deposition levels in 1982. Most crops (valued at more than $50 billion) were exposed to annual average acid deposition levels greater than pH 4.6, but crops worth more than $220 billion were exposed to even lower pH levels. Published results of experiments on crop response to acid deposition have not identified any single crop as being consistently sensitive, and suggest that present levels of acidic precipitation in the US are not significantly affecting growth and yield of crops. Because relatively few experiments appropriate to a quantitative acid deposition assessment have been conducted, the quantitative section is necessarily based on a restricted data set. Corn, potatoes, and soybeans have been studied in experimental environments which simulate agronomic conditions and which have adequate statistical power for yield estimates; only some varieties of soybeans have demonstrated statistically significant sensitivity to acid deposition.

  3. Benchmarking Peer Production Mechanisms, Processes & Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Thomas; Kretschmer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This deliverable identifies key approaches for quality management in peer production by benchmarking peer production practices and processes in other areas. (Contains 29 footnotes, 13 figures and 2 tables.)[This report has been authored with contributions of: Kaisa Honkonen-Ratinen, Matti Auvinen, David Riley, Jose Pinzon, Thomas Fischer, Thomas…

  4. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for Production of Mixed-Acid Fermentation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Andreas H.; Gescher, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-acid fermentation end products have numerous applications in biotechnology. This is probably the main driving force for the development of multiple strains that are supposed to produce individual end products with high yields. The process of engineering Escherichia coli strains for applied production of ethanol, lactate, succinate, or acetate was initiated several decades ago and is still ongoing. This review follows the path of strain development from the general characteristics of aerobic versus anaerobic metabolism over the regulatory machinery that enables the different metabolic routes. Thereafter, major improvements for broadening the substrate spectrum of E. coli toward cheap carbon sources like molasses or lignocellulose are highlighted before major routes of strain development for the production of ethanol, acetate, lactate, and succinate are presented. PMID:25152889

  5. Continuous gluconic acid production by isolated yeast-like mould strains of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, S; Aivasidis, A; Wandrey, C

    2003-04-01

    By extensive microbial screening, about 50 strains with the ability to secrete gluconic acid were isolated from wild flowers. The strains belong to the yeast-like mould Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud. In shake flask experiments, gluconic acid concentrations between 23 and 140 g/l were produced within 2 days using a mineral medium. In batch experiments, various important fermentation parameters influencing gluconic acid production by A. pullulans isolate 70 (DSM 7085) were identified. Continuous production of gluconic acid with free-growing cells of the isolated yeast-like microorganisms was studied. About 260 g/l gluconic acid at total glucose conversion could be achieved using continuous stirred tank reactors in defined media with residence times (RT) of about 26 h. The highest space-time-yield of 19.3 g l(-1) x h(-1)) with a gluconic acid concentration of 207.5 g/l was achieved with a RT of 10.8 h. The possibility of gluconic acid production with biomass retention by immobilised cells on porous sinter glass is discussed. The new continuous gluconate fermentation process provides significant advantages over traditional discontinuous operation employing Aspergillus niger. The aim of this work was the development of a continuous fermentation process for the production of gluconic acid. Process control becomes easier, offering constant product quality and quantity.

  6. Process for defoaming acid gas scrubbing solutions and defoaming solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, E.R.; Robbins, M.L.

    1980-06-17

    The foam in acid gas scrubbing solutions created during an acid gas scrubbing process is reduced or eliminated by the addition of certain polyoxyethylene polyoxypropylene block copolymers as defoaming agents. The defoaming agents are particularly effective when the acid gas scrubbing solution contains an amine having a large hydrophobic moiety.

  7. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4

  8. Perspectives of engineering lactic acid bacteria for biotechnological polyol production.

    PubMed

    Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-04-01

    Polyols are sugar alcohols largely used as sweeteners and they are claimed to have several health-promoting effects (low-caloric, low-glycemic, low-insulinemic, anticariogenic, and prebiotic). While at present chemical synthesis is the only strategy able to assure the polyol market demand, the biotechnological production of polyols has been implemented in yeasts, fungi, and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of microorganisms particularly suited for polyol production as they display a fermentative metabolism associated with an important redox modulation and a limited biosynthetic capacity. In addition, LAB participate in food fermentation processes, where in situ production of polyols during fermentation may be useful in the development of novel functional foods. Here, we review the polyol production by LAB, focusing on metabolic engineering strategies aimed to redirect sugar fermentation pathways towards the synthesis of biotechnologically important sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Furthermore, possible approaches are presented for engineering new fermentation routes in LAB for production of arabitol, ribitol, and erythritol. PMID:20180114

  9. Origin of haloacetic acids in milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are formed during the process of water disinfection. Therefore their presence in foods can be correlated with the addition of or contact with treated water. To determine the origin of HAAs in milk and dairy products, firstly a chromatographic method was developed for their determination. The sample treatment involves deproteination of milk followed by derivatization/extraction of the HAAs in the supernatant. About 20% of the foods analyzed contained two HAAs - which in no case exceeded 2 μg L(-1), that can be ascribed to contamination from sanitizers usually employed in the dairy industry. The process of boiling tap water (containing HAAs) for the preparation of powdered infant formula did not remove them; therefore it would be advisable to prepare this type of milk with mineral water (free of HAAs). In addition, it is possible to establish if the milk has been adulterated with treated water through the determination of HAAs.

  10. Improved oxides for production of lead/acid battery plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, D. P.

    For many years, the plates of lead/acid batteries have been produced from leady oxide, a mixture of finely divided lead (`free-lead') and lead monoxide. Although this material is generally satisfactory, it suffers from the disadvantages that it is variable in composition and requires complicated and lengthy processing after pasting to remove the residual free-lead. Plates made from leady oxide also require cycling before they achieve their full performance, and this can result in either depressed initial capacity or additional processing cost. There is a growing trend towards the use of pure lead monoxide ( β-PbO) for the production of positive plates. This material is particularly valuable in valve-regulated batteries where cell-to-cell uniformity is essential for proper control of battery performance. It also reduces processing cost since it does not require time-consuming curing to remove free-lead. Red lead (Pb 3O 4) is also being more widely used in industrial batteries since it reduces formation time, and improves initial and high-rate performance. The methods of production of leady oxide, β-PbO and red lead are briefly reviewed and the characteristics of battery-grade materials are described. Particular emphasis is placed on optimum particle-size distribution, and how this can affect the battery performance. The benefits in processing and performance are described together with information on how pure litharge and red lead are used in battery plates.

  11. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of the bioethanol process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacteria may compete with yeast for nutrients during bioethanol production process, potentially causing economic losses. This is the first study aiming at the quantification and identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) present in the bioethanol industrial processes in different distilleries of Brazil. Results A total of 489 LAB isolates were obtained from four distilleries in 2007 and 2008. The abundance of LAB in the fermentation tanks varied between 6.0 × 105 and 8.9 × 108 CFUs/mL. Crude sugar cane juice contained 7.4 × 107 to 6.0 × 108 LAB CFUs. Most of the LAB isolates belonged to the genus Lactobacillus according to rRNA operon enzyme restriction profiles. A variety of Lactobacillus species occurred throughout the bioethanol process, but the most frequently found species towards the end of the harvest season were L. fermentum and L. vini. The different rep-PCR patterns indicate the co-occurrence of distinct populations of the species L. fermentum and L. vini, suggesting a great intraspecific diversity. Representative isolates of both species had the ability to grow in medium containing up to 10% ethanol, suggesting selection of ethanol tolerant bacteria throughout the process. Conclusions This study served as a first survey of the LAB diversity in the bioethanol process in Brazil. The abundance and diversity of LAB suggest that they have a significant impact in the bioethanol process. PMID:21092306

  12. Metabolic engineering of Yarrowia lipolytica for itaconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Blazeck, John; Hill, Andrew; Jamoussi, Mariam; Pan, Anny; Miller, Jarrett; Alper, Hal S

    2015-11-01

    Itaconic acid is a naturally produced organic acid with diverse applications as a replacement for petroleum derived products. However, its industrial viability as a bio-replacement has been restricted due to limitations with native producers. In this light, Yarrowia lipolytica is an excellent potential candidate for itaconic acid production due to its innate capacity to accumulate citric acid cycle intermediates and tolerance to lower pH. Here, we demonstrate the capacity to produce itaconic acid in Y. lipolytica through heterologous expression of the itaconic acid synthesis enzyme, resulting in an initial titer of 33 mg/L. Further optimizations of this strain via metabolic pathway engineering, enzyme localization, and media optimization strategies enabled 4.6g/L of itaconic acid to be produced in bioreactors, representing a 140-fold improvement over initial titer. Moreover, these fermentation conditions did not require additional nutrient supplementation and utilized a low pH condition that enabled the acid form of itaconic acid to be produced. Overall yields (0.058 g/g yield from glucose) and maximum productivity of 0.045 g/L/h still provide areas for future strain improvement. Nevertheless, this work demonstrates that Y. lipolytica has the potential to serve as an industrially relevant platform for itaconic acid production.

  13. Production Process for Strong, Light Ceramic Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmquist, G. R.; Cordia, E. R.; Tomer, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Proportions of ingredients and sintering time/temperature schedule changed. Production process for lightweight, high-strength ceramic insulating tiles for Space Shuttle more than just scaled-up version of laboratory process for making small tiles. Boron in aluminum borosilicate fibers allows fusion at points where fibers contact each other during sintering, thereby greatly strengthening tiles structure.

  14. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-01-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination. PMID:9023922

  15. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-02-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination.

  16. Succinic Acid Production from Cheese Whey using Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Xiu, Shuangning

    Actinobacillus succinogenes 130 Z was used to produce succinic acid from cheese whey in this study. At the presence of external CO2 supply, the effects of initial cheese whey concentration, pH, and inoculum size on the succinic acid production were studied. The by-product formation during the fermentation process was also analyzed. The highest succinic acid yield of 0.57 was obtained at initial cheese whey concentration of 50 g/L, while the highest succinic acid productivity of 0.58 g h-1 L-1 was obtained at initial cheese whey concentration of 100 g/L. Increase in pH and inoculum size caused higher succinic acid yield and productivity. At the preferred fermentation condition of pH 6.8, inoculum size of 5% and initial cheese whey concentration of 50 g/L, succinic acid yield of 0.57, and productivity of 0.44 g h-1 L-1 were obtained. Acetic acid and formic acid were the main by-products throughout the fermentation run of 48 h. It is feasible to produce succinic acid using lactose from cheese whey as carbon resource by A. succinogenes 130 Z.

  17. Process optimization of continuous gluconic acid fermentation by isolated yeast-like strains of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Aivasidis, Alexander; Wandrey, Christian; Rehm, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-08-20

    This study was focused on the optimization of a new fermentation process for continuous gluconic acid production by the isolated yeast-like strain Aureobasidium pullulans DSM 7085 (isolate 70). Operational fermentation parameters were optimized in chemostat cultures, using a defined glucose medium. Different optima were found for growth and gluconic acid production for each set of operation parameters. Highest productivity was recorded at pH values between 6.5 and 7.0 and temperatures between 29 and 31 degrees C. A gluconic acid concentration higher than 230 g/L was continuously produced at residence times of 12 h. A steady state extracellular gluconic acid concentration of 234 g/L was measured at pH 6.5. 122% air saturation yielded the highest volumetric productivity and product concentration. The biomass-specific productivity increased steadily upon raising air saturation. An intracellular gluconic acid concentration of about 159 g/L (0.83 mol) was determined at 31 degrees C. This is to be compared with an extracellular concentration of 223 g/L (1.16 mol), which indicates the possible existence of an active transport system for gluconic acid secretion, or the presence of extracellular glucose oxidizing enzymes. The new process provides significant advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi operations. The process control becomes easier, thus offering stable product quality and quantity.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). (a... generically as alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). (a... generically as alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and...

  20. Reaction sequences in simulated neutralized current acid waste slurry during processing with formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Langowski, M.H.; Powell, M.R.; Larson, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize high-level and transuranic wastes as glass for permanent disposal. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is supporting the HWVP design activities by conducting laboratory-scale studies using a HWVP simulated waste slurry. Conditions which affect the slurry processing chemistry were evaluated in terms of offgas composition and peak generation rate and changes in slurry composition. A standard offgas profile defined in terms of three reaction phases, decomposition of H{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, destruction of NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, and production of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} was used as a baseline against which changes were evaluated. The test variables include nitrite concentration, acid neutralization capacity, temperature, and formic acid addition rate. Results to date indicate that pH is an important parameter influencing the N{sub 2}O/NO{sub x} generation ratio; nitrite can both inhibit and activate rhodium as a catalyst for formic acid decomposition to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}; and a separate reduced metal phase forms in the reducing environment. These data are being compiled to provide a basis for predicting the HWVP feed processing chemistry as a function of feed composition and operation variables, recommending criteria for chemical adjustments, and providing guidelines with respect to important control parameters to consider during routine and upset plant operation.

  1. Method for construction of bacterial strains with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark I.; Sanville-Millard, Cynthia; Chatterjee, Ranjini

    2000-01-01

    A fermentation process for producing succinic acid is provided comprising selecting a bacterial strain that does not produce succinic acid in high yield, disrupting the normal regulation of sugar metabolism of said bacterial strain, and combining the mutant bacterial strain and selected sugar in anaerobic conditions to facilitate production of succinic acid. Also provided is a method for changing low yield succinic acid producing bacteria to high yield succinic acid producing bacteria comprising selecting a bacterial strain having a phosphotransferase system and altering the phosphotransferase system so as to allow the bacterial strain to simultaneously metabolize different sugars.

  2. Malic acid production from thin stillage by Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    West, Thomas P

    2011-12-01

    The ability of Aspergillus strains to utilize thin stillage to produce malic acid was compared. The highest malic acid was produced by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142 at 17 g l(-1). Biomass production from thin stillage was similar with all strains but ATCC 10577 was the highest at 19 g l(-1). The highest malic acid yield (0.8 g g(-1)) was with A. niger ATCC 9142 and ATCC 10577 on the stillage. Thus, thin stillage has the potential to act as a substrate for the commercial production of food-grade malic acid by the A. niger strains.

  3. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  4. Semicontinuous Production of Lactic Acid From Cheese Whey Using Integrated Membrane Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yebo; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Coulibaly, Sekou; Mims, Michele M.

    Semicontinuous production of lactic acid from cheese whey using free cells of Bifidobacterium longum with and without nanofiltration was studied. For the semicontinuous fermentation without membrane separation, the lactic acid productivity of the second and third runs is much lower than the first run. The semicontinuous fermentation with nanoseparation was run semicontinuously for 72 h with lactic acid to be harvested every 24 h using a nanofiltration membrane unit. The cells and unutilized lactose were kept in the reactor and mixed with newly added cheese whey in the subsequent runs. Slight increase in the lactic acid productivity was observed in the second and third runs during the semicontinuous fermentation with nanofiltration. It can be concluded that nanoseparation could improve the lactic acid productivity of the semicontinuous fermentation process.

  5. Biotechnological production of alpha-keto acids: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-keto (α-keto) acids are used widely in feeds, food additives, pharmaceuticals, and in chemical synthesis processes. Although most α-keto acids are currently produced by chemical synthesis, their biotechnological production from renewable carbohydrates is a promising new approach. In this mini-review, we first present the different types of α-keto acids as well as their applications; next, we summarize the recent progresses in the biotechnological production of some important α-keto acids; namely, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, α-ketoisovalerate, α-ketoisocaproate, phenylpyruvate, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyrate, and 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate. Finally, we discuss the future prospects as well as favorable directions for the biotechnological production of keto acids that ultimately would be more environment-friendly and simpler compared with the production by chemical synthesis.

  6. Biotechnological production of alpha-keto acids: Current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Alpha-keto (α-keto) acids are used widely in feeds, food additives, pharmaceuticals, and in chemical synthesis processes. Although most α-keto acids are currently produced by chemical synthesis, their biotechnological production from renewable carbohydrates is a promising new approach. In this mini-review, we first present the different types of α-keto acids as well as their applications; next, we summarize the recent progresses in the biotechnological production of some important α-keto acids; namely, pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate, α-ketoisovalerate, α-ketoisocaproate, phenylpyruvate, α-keto-γ-methylthiobutyrate, and 2,5-diketo-d-gluconate. Finally, we discuss the future prospects as well as favorable directions for the biotechnological production of keto acids that ultimately would be more environment-friendly and simpler compared with the production by chemical synthesis. PMID:27575335

  7. NISAR ISRO science data processing and products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Krishna Murari; Mehra, Raghav; Ryali, Usha Sundari

    2016-05-01

    NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) is a Dual Frequency (L & S band) mission which will be operating in SweepSAR mode. As compared to traditional SAR imaging modes in which Swath and resolution are at trade-off, SweepSAR imaging concept can acquire data over large swath (240 Km) without compromising azimuth resolution (6m approximately). NISAR L-band & S-band sensors will be developed by JPL-NASA and ISRO respectively. NISAR science data will be downloaded at both NASA and ISRO ground stations. SAC-ISRO will develop the SAR processor for both L & S band data to generate products in compliance with science requirements. Moreover, JPL will develop L-band SAR processor and all data products will be available to users. Distributed data processing architecture will be used for handling large volume of data resulting from moderate resolution and larger swath in SweepSAR mode. Data products will be available in multiple processing levels like raw signal products, signal processed single-look and multi-look products, ground range products and Geo-Referenced products in HDF5 & GeoTiff formats. Derived Geo-Referenced Polarimetric and Interferometric data products will also be available for dissemination to the users. A rigorous calibration exercise will be performed by acquiring data over reference targets like Amazon rain-forest & corner reflectors sites for the generation of calibrated data products. Furthermore, various science data products (for science applications) will also be derived from basic data products for operational dissemination.

  8. Radiolytic hydrogen production from process vessels in HB line - production rates compared to evolution rates and discussion of LASL reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, N.E.

    1992-11-12

    Hydrogen production from radiolysis of aqueous solutions can create a safety hazard since hydrogen is flammable. At times this production can be significant, especially in HB line where nitric acid solutions containing high concentrations of Pu-238, an intense alpha emitter, are processed. The hydrogen production rates from these solutions are necessary for safety analyses of these process systems. The methods and conclusions of hydrogen production rate tests are provided in this report.

  9. Large-scale production of anhydrous nitric acid and nitric acid solutions of dinitrogen pentoxide

    DOEpatents

    Harrar, Jackson E.; Quong, Roland; Rigdon, Lester P.; McGuire, Raymond R.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for a large scale, electrochemical production of anhydrous nitric acid and N.sub.2 O.sub.5. The method includes oxidizing a solution of N.sub.2 O.sub.4 /aqueous-HNO.sub.3 at the anode, while reducing aqueous HNO.sub.3 at the cathode, in a flow electrolyzer constructed of special materials. N.sub.2 O.sub.4 is produced at the cathode and may be separated and recycled as a feedstock for use in the anolyte. The process is controlled by regulating the electrolysis current until the desired products are obtained. The chemical compositions of the anolyte and catholyte are monitored by measurement of the solution density and the concentrations of N.sub.2 O.sub.4.

  10. Carbon nanotube mass production: principles and processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Qian, Wei-Zhong; Wei, Fei

    2011-07-18

    Our society requires new materials for a sustainable future, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the most important advanced materials. This Review describes the state-of-the-art of CNT synthesis, with a focus on their mass-production in industry. At the nanoscale, the production of CNTs involves the self-assembly of carbon atoms into a one-dimensional tubular structure. We describe how this synthesis can be achieved on the macroscopic scale in processes akin to the continuous tonne-scale mass production of chemical products in the modern chemical industry. Our overview includes discussions on processing methods for high-purity CNTs, and the handling of heat and mass transfer problems. Manufacturing strategies for agglomerated and aligned single-/multiwalled CNTs are used as examples of the engineering science of CNT production, which includes an understanding of their growth mechanism, agglomeration mechanism, reactor design, and process intensification. We aim to provide guidelines for the production and commercialization of CNTs. Although CNTs can now be produced on the tonne scale, knowledge of the growth mechanism at the atomic scale, the relationship between CNT structure and application, and scale-up of the production of CNTs with specific chirality are still inadequate. A multidisciplinary approach is a prerequisite for the sustainable development of the CNT industry.

  11. Metaproteomics and ultrastructure characterization of Komagataeibacter spp. involved in high-acid spirit vinegar production.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Cabello Ferrete, Elena; Bravo, Daniel; Chappuis, Marie-Luise; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Junier, Pilar; Perret, Xavier; Barja, François

    2016-05-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widespread microorganisms in nature, extensively used in food industry to transform alcohols and sugar alcohols into their corresponding organic acids. Specialized strains are used in the production of vinegar through the oxidative transformation of ethanol into acetic acid. The main AAB involved in the production of high-acid vinegars using the submerged fermentation method belong to the genus Komagataeibacter, characterized by their higher ADH stability and activity, and higher acetic acid resistance (15-20%), compared to other AAB. In this work, the bacteria involved in the production of high-acid spirit vinegar through a spontaneous acetic acid fermentation process was studied. The analysis using a culture-independent approach revealed a homogeneous bacterial population involved in the process, identified as Komagataeibacter spp. Differentially expressed proteins during acetic acid fermentation were investigated by using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry. Most of these proteins were functionally related to stress response, the TCA cycle and different metabolic processes. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and specific staining of polysaccharide SDS-PAGE gels confirmed that Komagataeibacter spp. lacked the characteristic polysaccharide layer surrounding the outer membrane that has been previously reported to have an important role in acetic acid resistance in the genus Acetobacter.

  12. Improvement of lactic acid production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a deletion of ssb1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinsuk J; Crook, Nathan; Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2016-01-01

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is an important renewable polymer, but current processes for producing its precursor, lactic acid, suffer from process inefficiencies related to the use of bacterial hosts. Therefore, improving the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce lactic acid is a promising approach to improve industrial production of lactic acid. As one such improvement required, the lactic acid tolerance of yeast must be significantly increased. To enable improved tolerance, we employed an RNAi-mediated genome-wide expression knockdown approach as a means to rapidly identify potential genetic targets. In this approach, several gene knockdown targets were identified which confer increased acid tolerance to S. cerevisiae BY4741, of which knockdown of the ribosome-associated chaperone SSB1 conferred the highest increase (52%). This target was then transferred into a lactic acid-overproducing strain of S. cerevisiae CEN.PK in the form of a knockout and the resulting strain demonstrated up to 33% increased cell growth, 58% increased glucose consumption, and 60% increased L-lactic acid production. As SSB1 contains a close functional homolog SSB2 in yeast, this result was counterintuitive and may point to as-yet-undefined functional differences between SSB1 and SSB2 related to lactic acid production. The final strain produced over 50 g/L of lactic acid in under 60 h of fermentation.

  13. Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi

    PubMed Central

    El-Kady, Ismael A.; Zohri, Abdel Naser A.; Hamed, Shimaa R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5 L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5 g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation. PMID:24778881

  14. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this mission-oriented research program is the production of renewable hydrogen for fossil fuel processing. This program will build upon promising results that have been obtained in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the utilization of intact microalgae for photosynthetic water splitting. In this process, specially adapted algae are used to perform the light-activated cleavage of water into its elemental constituents, molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of their hydrogen-producing capability. These are: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the original development of an evacuated photobiological reactor for real-world engineering applications; (6) the potential for using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. The significance of each of these points in the context of a practical system for hydrogen production is discussed. This program will be enhanced by collaborative research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and senior faculty members at Duke University, the University of Chicago, and Iowa State University. The special contribution that these organizations and faculty members will make is access to strains and mutants of unicellular algae that will potentially have useful properties for hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting.

  15. Biohydrogen and carboxylic acids production from wheat straw hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chandolias, Konstantinos; Pardaev, Sindor; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Hydrolyzed wheat straw was converted into carboxylic acids and biohydrogen using digesting bacteria. The fermentations were carried out using both free and membrane-encased thermophilic bacteria (55°C) at various OLRs (4.42-17.95g COD/L.d), in semi-continuous conditions using one or two bioreactors in a series. The highest production of biohydrogen and acetic acid was achieved at an OLR of 4.42g COD/L.d, whilst the highest lactic acid production occurred at an OLR of 9.33g COD/L.d. Furthermore, the bioreactor with both free and membrane-encased cells produced 60% more lactic acid compared to the conventional, free-cell bioreactor. In addition, an increase of 121% and 100% in the production of acetic and isobutyric acid, respectively, was achieved in the 2nd-stage bioreactor compared to the 1st-stage bioreactor.

  16. IMPROVED PROCESSES TO REMOVE NAPHTHENIC ACIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Aihua Zhang; Qisheng Ma; Kangshi Wang, William A. Goddard, Yongchun Tang

    2005-05-05

    In the second year of this project, we continued our effort to develop low temperature decarboxylation catalysts and investigate the behavior of these catalysts at different reaction conditions. We conducted a large number of dynamic measurements with crude oil and model compounds to obtain the information at different reaction stages, which was scheduled as the Task2 in our work plan. We developed a novel adsorption method to remove naphthenic acid from crude oil using naturally occurring materials such as clays. Our results show promise as an industrial application. The theoretical modeling proposed several possible reaction pathways and predicted the reactivity depending on the catalysts employed. From all of these studies, we obtained more comprehensive understanding about catalytic decarboxylation and oil upgrading based on the naphthenic acid removal concept.

  17. Techno-economic analysis of a food waste valorization process via microalgae cultivation and co-production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed from algal biomass and food waste.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Him; Pleissner, Daniel; Lau, Kin Yan; Venus, Joachim; Pommeret, Aude; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2015-12-01

    A techno-economic study of food waste valorization via fungal hydrolysis, microalgae cultivation and production of plasticizer, lactic acid and animal feed was simulated and evaluated by Super-Pro Designer®. A pilot-scale plant was designed with a capacity of 1 metric ton day(-1) of food waste with 20 years lifetime. Two scenarios were proposed with different products: Scenario (I) plasticizer & lactic acid, Scenario (II) plasticizer & animal feed. It was found that only Scenario I was economically feasible. The annual net profits, net present value, payback period and internal rate of return were US$ 422,699, US$ 3,028,000, 7.56 years and 18.98%, respectively. Scenario II was not economic viable due to a deficit of US$ 42,632 per year. Sensitivity analysis showed that the price of lactic acid was the largest determinant of the profitability in Scenario I, while the impact of the variables was very close in Scenario II.

  18. Acid tolerance response (ATR) of microbial communities during the enhanced biohydrogen process via cascade acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqin; Xia, Yan; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Mingxing

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biohydrogen production via cascade acid stress on microbial communities, structure patterns of the microbial communities revealed by PLFAs, and the succession of biohydrogen related species against cascade acid stress were all investigated. It was found that hydrogen production could be improved from 48.7 to 79.4mL/gVS after cascade acid stress. In addition, the Gram negative (G(-)) bacteria were found to be more tolerant to organic acids than those of the Gram positive (G(+)) bacteria, regardless of the dominance of G(+) bacteria within the microbial communities. Moreover, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium aciditolerans and Azospira oryzae, were proved to be enriched, and then might play indispensable roles for the enhanced biohydrogen production after cascade acid stress, as which were responsible for the biohydrogen accumulation, acid tolerance and nitrogen removal, respectively.

  19. Production of eicosapentaenoic acid by marine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yazawa, K; Araki, K; Okazaki, N; Watanabe, K; Ishikawa, C; Inoue, A; Numao, N; Kondo, K

    1988-01-01

    About 5,000 strains of marine microorganisms were screened for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-producing ability, which was detected in 88 of them. All of the latter were found to be obligate aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, short rod-shaped bacteria. One strain, designated as SCRC-8132, showed a doubling time of 30 min at 25 degrees C and produced 20 mg/liter (4 mg/g dry cells) when cultured in a P-Y-M-Glucose medium for 18 h. The EPA to total fatty acids ratio was 24%. The strain produced 26 mg EPA/liter (15 mg/g dry cells) when cultured at 4 degrees C for 5 days, the EPA ratio being increased to 40%. PMID:2834356

  20. Process redesign of production maintenance operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, M.; Lowe, B.; Disney, V. Spilman, K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a methodology for the systematic redesign of traditional production maintenance operations as they relate to subsurface failures of sucker rod pumped wells. The paper advocates an organized approach to process definition, refinement and redesign such that improvement objectives are clearly communicated, appropriate human and physical resources are brought to bear, and a system of improvement measurements becomes the overriding focus of the operation. Specific examples of the use of statistical process control tools in the production maintenance quality improvement effort are explored.

  1. Production of cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita.

    PubMed Central

    Dorner, J W

    1983-01-01

    Production of the mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid by Aspergillus tamarii Kita is reported for the first time. Examination of 23 isolates of the fungus showed that 22 produced the toxin under the culture conditions utilized. PMID:6660879

  2. Biotechnological production of muconic acid: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Xie, Neng-Zhong; Liang, Hong; Huang, Ri-Bo; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Muconic acid (MA), a high value-added bio-product with reactive dicarboxylic groups and conjugated double bonds, has garnered increasing interest owing to its potential applications in the manufacture of new functional resins, bio-plastics, food additives, agrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. At the very least, MA can be used to produce commercially important bulk chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid and trimellitic acid. Recently, great progress has been made in the development of biotechnological routes for MA production. This present review provides a comprehensive and systematic overview of recent advances and challenges in biotechnological production of MA. Various biological methods are summarized and compared, and their constraints and possible solutions are also described. Finally, the future prospects are discussed with respect to the current state, challenges, and trends in this field, and the guidelines to develop high-performance microbial cell factories are also proposed for the MA production by systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24751381

  3. Very high gravity ethanol and fatty acid production of Zymomonas mobilis without amino acid and vitamin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoyong; Cao, Shangzhi; Wang, William Tianshuo; Wang, Kaven Tianyv; Jia, Xianhui

    2016-06-01

    Very high gravity (VHG) fermentation is the mainstream technology in ethanol industry, which requires the strains be resistant to multiple stresses such as high glucose concentration, high ethanol concentration, high temperature and harsh acidic conditions. To our knowledge, it was not reported previously that any ethanol-producing microbe showed a high performance in VHG fermentations without amino acid and vitamin. Here we demonstrate the engineering of a xylose utilizing recombinant Zymomonas mobilis for VHG ethanol fermentations. The recombinant strain can produce ethanol up to 136 g/L without amino acid and vitamin with a theoretical yield of 90 %, which is significantly superior to that produced by all the reported ethanol-producing strains. The intracellular fatty acids of the bacterial were about 16 % of the bacterial dry biomass, with the ratio of ethanol:fatty acids was about 273:1 (g/g). The recombinant strain was achieved by a multivariate-modular strategy tackles with the multiple stresses which are closely linked to the ethanol productivity of Z. mobilis. The over-expression of metB/yfdZ operon enabled the growth of the recombinant Z. mobilis in a chemically defined medium without amino acid and vitamin; and the fatty acids overproduction significantly increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production. The coupled production of ethanol with fatty acids of the Z. mobilis without amino acid and vitamin under VHG fermentation conditions may permit a significant reduction of the production cost of ethanol and microbial fatty acids.

  4. Thermal acidization and recovery process for recovering viscous petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Poston, Robert S.

    1984-01-01

    A thermal acidization and recovery process for increasing production of heavy viscous petroleum crude oil and synthetic fuels from subterranean hydrocarbon formations containing clay particles creating adverse permeability effects is described. The method comprises injecting a thermal vapor stream through a well bore penetrating such formations to clean the formation face of hydrocarbonaceous materials which restrict the flow of fluids into the petroleum-bearing formation. Vaporized hydrogen chloride is then injected simultaneously to react with calcium and magnesium salts in the formation surrounding the bore hole to form water soluble chloride salts. Vaporized hydrogen fluoride is then injected simultaneously with its thermal vapor to dissolve water-sensitive clay particles thus increasing permeability. Thereafter, the thermal vapors are injected until the formation is sufficiently heated to permit increased recovery rates of the petroleum.

  5. Efficient preparation of (R)-2-chloromandelic acid via a recycle process of resolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu; Wu, Chang; Wu, Xue-Ying; Li, Shao-Lei; Sun, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Ze-Biao

    2015-03-01

    Efficient preparation of (R)-2-chloromandelic acid based on a recycle process of resolution is described. In the process, the desired was obtained by coordination-mediated resolution with D-O,O'-di-(p-toluoyl)-tartaric acid in the presence of Ca(2+) . Meanwhile, the undesired could be racemized in the presence of sodium hydroxide and the product was suitable for further resolution. A carbanion mechanism for the racemization of is proposed.

  6. Enhanced Production of Carboxylic Acids by Engineering of Rhizopus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  7. High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...

  8. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  9. Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

  10. Control of instability in nitric acid evaporators for plutonium processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Improved control of the nitric acid process evaporators requires the detection of spontaneously unstable operating conditions. This process reduces the volume of contaminated liquid by evaporating nitric acid and concentrating salt residues. If a instability is identified quickly, prompt response can avert distillate contamination. An algorithm applied to the runtime data was evaluated to detect this situation. A snapshot of data from a histogram in the old process control software was captured during the unstable conditions and modeled.

  11. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrouz; Maleknia, Shayan; Heydari, Amir; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB) multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44) cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb) titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  12. Optimization of the integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process by air stripping and glucoamylase addition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Ke; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed. In the integrated process, extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. In this study, an Aspergillus niger mutant strain exhibiting resistance to high metal ions concentration was used to eliminate the inhibition of 200 mg/L Na(+) and 300 mg/L K(+) in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) and citric acid production increased by 25.0 %. Air stripping was used to remove ammonium, alkalinity, and part of metal ions in ADE before making mash. In consequence, citric acid production was significantly improved but still lower by 6.1 % than the control. Results indicated that metal ions in ADE synergistically inhibited the activity of glucoamylase, thus reducing citric acid production. When 130 U/g glucoamylase was added before fermentation, citric acid production was 141.5 g/L, which was even higher than the control (140.4 g/L). This process could completely eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  13. Acetic Acid Bacteria and the Production and Quality of Wine Vinegar

    PubMed Central

    Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either “fast” or “traditional”), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties. PMID:24574887

  14. Acetic acid bacteria and the production and quality of wine vinegar.

    PubMed

    Mas, Albert; Torija, María Jesús; García-Parrilla, María del Carmen; Troncoso, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The production of vinegar depends on an oxidation process that is mainly performed by acetic acid bacteria. Despite the different methods of vinegar production (more or less designated as either "fast" or "traditional"), the use of pure starter cultures remains far from being a reality. Uncontrolled mixed cultures are normally used, but this review proposes the use of controlled mixed cultures. The acetic acid bacteria species determine the quality of vinegar, although the final quality is a combined result of technological process, wood contact, and aging. This discussion centers on wine vinegar and evaluates the effects of these different processes on its chemical and sensory properties.

  15. Integrated Production of Xylonic Acid and Bioethanol from Acid-Catalyzed Steam-Exploded Corn Stover.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Rong, Yayun; Yang, Jinlong; Zhou, Xin; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Jiahui; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2015-07-01

    High-efficiency xylose utilization is one of the restrictive factors of bioethanol industrialization. However, xylonic acid (XA) as a new bio-based platform chemical can be produced by oxidation of xylose with microbial. So, an applicable technology of XA bioconversion was integrated into the process of bioethanol production. After corn stover was pretreated with acid-catalyzed steam-explosion, solid and liquid fractions were obtained. The liquid fraction, also named as acid-catalyzed steam-exploded corn stover (ASC) prehydrolyzate (mainly containing xylose), was catalyzed with Gluconobacter oxydans NL71 to prepare XA. After 72 h of bioconversion of concentrated ASC prehydrolyzate (containing 55.0 g/L of xylose), the XA concentration reached a peak value of 54.97 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and XA yield were 94.08 and 95.45 %, respectively. The solid fraction was hydrolyzed to produce glucose with cellulase and then fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae NL22 to produce ethanol. After 18 h of fermentation of concentrated enzymatic hydrolyzate (containing 86.22 g/L of glucose), the ethanol concentration reached its highest value of 41.48 g/L, the sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield were 98.72 and 95.25 %, respectively. The mass balance showed that 1 t ethanol and 1.3 t XA were produced from 7.8 t oven dry corn stover.

  16. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively. PMID:27266630

  17. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. PMID:24432652

  18. l-(+)-Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus B103 from dairy industry waste.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Marcela Piassi; Coelho, Luciana Fontes; Sass, Daiane Cristina; Contiero, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid, which can be obtained through fermentation, is an interesting compound because it can be utilized in different fields, such as in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries as a bio-based molecule for bio-refinery. In addition, lactic acid has recently gained more interest due to the possibility of manufacturing poly(lactic acid), a green polymer that can replace petroleum-derived plastics and be applied in medicine for the regeneration of tissues and in sutures, repairs and implants. One of the great advantages of fermentation is the possibility of using agribusiness wastes to obtain optically pure lactic acid. The conventional batch process of fermentation has some disadvantages such as inhibition by the substrate or the final product. To avoid these problems, this study was focused on improving the production of lactic acid through different feeding strategies using whey, a residue of agribusiness. The downstream process is a significant bottleneck because cost-effective methods of producing high-purity lactic acid are lacking. Thus, the investigation of different methods for the purification of lactic acid was one of the aims of this work. The pH-stat strategy showed the maximum production of lactic acid of 143.7g/L. Following purification of the lactic acid sample, recovery of reducing sugars and protein and color removal were 0.28%, 100% and 100%, respectively.

  19. Succinic acid production from corn stover by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Pu; Fang, Lin; Xu, Yan; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye; Sun, Zhi-Hao

    2010-10-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) technique was applied for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with corn stover as the raw material. The process parameters of SSF, including corn stover pretreatment condition, substrate concentration, enzyme loading and fermentation temperature were investigated. Results indicated that pretreating corn stover with diluted alkaline was beneficial for the succinic acid production, and succinic acid yield could be significantly increased when adding the cellulase supplemented with cellobiase. The maximal succinic acid concentration and yield could reach 47.4 g/l and 0.72 g/g-substrate, respectively. The corresponding operation conditions were summarized as follows: SSF operation at 38 °C for 48 h, diluted alkaline pretreated corn stover as substrate with concentration of 70 g/l, enzyme loading of 20FPU cellulase and 10 U cellobiase per gram substrate. This result suggested an industrial potential of succinic acid production by using SSF and corn stover.

  20. Distribution of D-amino acids in vinegars and involvement of lactic acid bacteria in the production of D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Akano, Hirofumi; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Levels of free D-amino acids were compared in 11 vinegars produced from different sources or through different manufacturing processes. To analyze the D- and L-amino acids, the enantiomers were initially converted into diastereomers using pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde plus N-acethyl-L-cysteine or N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-cysteine. This was followed by separation of the resultant fluorescent isoindol derivatives on an octadecylsilyl stationary phase using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The analyses showed that the total D-amino acid level in lactic fermented tomato vinegar was very high. Furthermore, analysis of the amino acids in tomato juice samples collected after alcoholic, lactic and acetic fermentation during the production of lactic fermented tomato vinegar showed clearly that lactic fermentation is responsible for the D-amino acids production; marked increases in D-amino acids were seen during lactic fermentation, but not during alcoholic or acetic fermentation. This suggests lactic acid bacteria have a greater ability to produce D-amino acids than yeast or acetic acid bacteria.

  1. Production of strange particles in hadronization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, W.

    1987-08-01

    Strange particles provide an important tool for the study of the color confinement mechanisms involved in hadronization processes. We review data on inclusive strange-particle production and on correlations between strange particles in high-energy reactions, and discuss phenomenological models for parton fragmentation. 58 refs., 24 figs.

  2. Syllables as Processing Units in Handwriting Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Alvarez, Carlos J.; Vallee, Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    This research focused on the syllable as a processing unit in handwriting. Participants wrote, in uppercase letters, words that had been visually presented. The interletter intervals provide information on the timing of motor production. In Experiment 1, French participants wrote words that shared the initial letters but had different syllable…

  3. Sustainability Analysis for Products and Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability Analysis for Products and Processes Subhas K. Sikdar National Risk Management Research Laboratory United States Environmental protection Agency 26 W. M.L. King Dr. Cincinnati, OH 45237 Sikdar.subhas@epa.gov ABSTRACT Claims of both sustainable and unsu...

  4. Workplace exposure at nanomaterial production processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhlmann, Carsten; Welter, Johannes; Klenke, Martin; Sander, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Typical nanomaterial production processes from daily practice had been performed in order to determine simultaneously the exposure to nanoparticles. They involve mixing of ZnO powder into a liquid, filling and emptying an oven with indium tin oxide (ITO), spraying a suspension of nanoparticles, flame spraying of silanes, and an outside location as comparison.

  5. Written Composition: Process, Product, Program. Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Charles R., Ed.; Schlawin, Sheila A., Ed.

    Intended for teachers and administrators, this collection of essays focuses on the dual meaning of practice--practice of writing skills, and teaching practices in composition instruction. The process section focuses on the types of activities that build composition skills. The product and program sections shift focus to professional practice, the…

  6. Polyol-acid anhydride-n-alkyl-alkylene diamine reaction product and motor fuel composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.; Jenkins, R.H. Jr.

    1987-02-17

    A fuel composition for an internal combustion engine comprising: (a) a major portion of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel and (b) a minor amount, as a deposit inhibitor additive, of a reaction product of a process comprising: (i) reacting a dibasic acid anhydride with a polyol, thereby forming an ester of maleic acid; (ii) reacting the ester of maleic acid with an N-alkyl-alkylene diamine, thereby forming the reaction product; and (iii) recovering the reaction product.

  7. Thermoradiation processes of energy-carrier production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzantiev, B. G.; Ermakov, A. N.; Zhitomirskii, V. M.; Popov, V. N.

    Thermoradiation processes in the production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from water vapor and CO2 are discussed. An radiolysis experiment was conducted using a one-pass flow system and an electron accelerator (with energy of 3 Me V), according to parameters of dose rate, regent-radiation contact time, and temperature (700 deg). Steady-state concentrations of H2 and CO were found to correspond to 20 and 40 percent radiation energy-product and energy conversion, respectively. The results of the experiment permit an accurate determination of the optimal parameters of the conversion process and an estimate of the relative efficiencies of chemonuclear and electrochemical methods (plasmolysis and electrolysis) of H2 and CO production using nuclear piles.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  10. Use of inexpensive nitrogen sources and starch for L(+) lactic acid production in anaerobic submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Altaf, Md; Naveena, B J; Reddy, Gopal

    2007-02-01

    L(+) Lactic acid fermentation was studied by Lactobacillus amylophilus GV6 under the influence of inexpensive nitrogen sources (red lentil-RL, and Baker's yeast cells-YC) and starch by response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to determine maximum lactic acid production at optimum values for process variables RL, YC and incubation period (IP) and a satisfactory fit model was realized. Lactic acid production was significantly affected by RL and IP interactions as well as by independent variables RL and YC. Maximum lactic acid production of 13.5 g/15.2g starch was obtained with RL 0.8%, YC 1% and IP of 48 h, with 92% lactic acid yield efficiency (g lactic acid produced/g substrate utilized) and 40% increase (from 50 g to 92 g/100 g starch utilized) in lactic acid production. This is the first report on response optimization in direct fermentation of starch to lactic acid using inexpensive nitrogen sources substituting peptone and yeast extract in anaerobic submerged fermentation by amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB).

  11. Aqueous Phase Photo-Oxidation of Succinic Acid: Changes in Hygroscopic Properties and Reaction Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P. K.; Ninokawa, A.; Hofstra, J.; de Lijser, P.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have been identified as important factors in understanding climate change. The extent to which aerosols affect climate is determined, in part, by hygroscopic properties which can change as a result of atmospheric processing. Dicarboxylic acids, components of atmospheric aerosol, have a wide range of hygroscopic properties and can undergo oxidation and photolysis reactions in the atmosphere. In this study, the hygroscopic properties of succinic acid aerosol, a non-hygroscopic four carbon dicarboxylic acid, were measured with a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) and compared to reaction products resulting from the aqueous phase photo-oxidation reaction of hydrogen peroxide and succinic acid. Reaction products were determined and quantified using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) as a function of hydrogen peroxide:succinic acid concentration ratio and photolysis time. Although reaction products include larger non-hygroscopic dicarboxylic acids (e.g. adipic acid) and smaller hygroscopic dicarboxylic acids (e.g. malonic and oxalic acids), comparison of hygroscopic growth curves to Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) predictions suggests that the hygroscopic properties of many of the product mixtures are largely independent of the hygroscopicity of the individual components. This study provides a framework for future investigations to fully understand and predict the role of chemical reactions in altering atmospheric conditions that affect climate.

  12. Production of Diethyl Terephthalate from Biomass-Derived Muconic Acid.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rui; Lu, Fang; Chen, Jiazhi; Yu, Weiqiang; Huang, Qianqian; Zhang, Junjie; Xu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    We report a cascade synthetic route to directly obtain diethyl terephthalate, a replacement for terephthalic acid, from biomass-derived muconic acid, ethanol, and ethylene. The process involves two steps: First, a substituted cyclohexene system is built through esterification and Diels-Alder reaction; then, a dehydrogenation reaction provides diethyl terephthalate. The key esterification reaction leads to improved solubility and modulates the electronic properties of muconic acid, thus promoting the Diels-Alder reaction with ethylene. With silicotungstic acid as the catalyst, nearly 100% conversion of muconic acid was achieved, and the cycloadducts were formed with more than 99.0% selectivity. The palladium-catalyzed dehydrogenation reaction preferentially occurs under neutral or mildly basic conditions. The total yield of diethyl terephthalate reached 80.6% based on the amount of muconic acid used in the two-step synthetic process. PMID:26592149

  13. A Comparative Overview of Prescription Omega-3 Fatty Acid Products

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Matthew K.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 25% of adults in the United States have elevated triglyceride (TG) levels. This is of particular concern given the evidence for a causal role of TG in the pathway of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Approved prescription omega-3 fatty acid products (RxOM3FAs) contain the long-chain fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and are effective options for the treatment of high TG levels. RxOM3FAs that contain both EPA and DHA include omega-3-acid ethyl esters (ethyl esters of EPA and DHA; brand and generic products) and omega-3-carboxylic acids (free fatty acids primarily composed of EPA and DHA), while the RxOM3FA icosapent ethyl (the ethyl ester of EPA) contains EPA only. All RxOM3FA products produce substantial TG reduction and other beneficial effects on atherogenic lipid and inflammation-related parameters, blood pressure, and heart rate variability, but products that contain DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). This commentary provides an overview of hypertriglyceridemia while summarizing the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of prescription RxOM3FAs. PMID:26681905

  14. Mycobiota in the processing areas of two different meat products.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Jacobsen, Tomas; Nielsen, Per Vaeggemose; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Koch, Anette Granly

    2008-05-10

    Mould growth is not accepted on most types of North European meat products and is considered as both an economic and aesthetic problem for the producers. In order to determine the mycobiota in processing areas of fermented sausage and liver pâté, filamentous fungi were isolated from air, equipment and raw materials in the processing areas of two fermented sausage processing plants and two liver pâté processing plants. A total of 336 samples were examined. The diversity of filamentous fungi in the processing areas was high; at least 17 different genera were identified. The main isolated genera were identified as Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Eurotium, Penicillium, Phaeoacremonium and Phoma. Of these, Penicillium and Eurotium were the most important for contamination of fermented sausage, whereas Penicillium and Cladosporium were most important for liver pâté. Cladosporium was isolated more frequently in the processing plants examined in the autumn than in the spring. The seasonal variation indicates that outdoor air is an important source for this contamination. Eurotium was isolated frequently at one of the fermented sausage plants. Penicillium was isolated frequently at all four processing plants and was in addition found on moulded meat products. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified. The most frequently isolated were P. brevicompactum and the closely related P. bialowiezense, P. solitum, P. palitans, P. fagi and a new, not described species named P. "milanense" (ined.; Frisvad, 2007 personal com.). Isolation of a new species illustrates that the mycobiota in the processing areas of North European meat products has not yet been intensively investigated. Several mycotoxin producing species were isolated; the most prevalent were P. brevicompactum/P. bialowiezense and P. palitans. A screening for secondary metabolites showed that isolates of these species consistently produced mycophenolic acid and cyclopiazonic acid, respectively

  15. Systems metabolic engineering design: Fatty acid production as an emerging case study

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Ting Wei; Chowdhury, Anupam; Maranas, Costas D; Shanks, Jacqueline V

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand for petroleum has stimulated industry to develop sustainable production of chemicals and biofuels using microbial cell factories. Fatty acids of chain lengths from C6 to C16 are propitious intermediates for the catalytic synthesis of industrial chemicals and diesel-like biofuels. The abundance of genetic information available for Escherichia coli and specifically, fatty acid metabolism in E. coli, supports this bacterium as a promising host for engineering a biocatalyst for the microbial production of fatty acids. Recent successes rooted in different features of systems metabolic engineering in the strain design of high-yielding medium chain fatty acid producing E. coli strains provide an emerging case study of design methods for effective strain design. Classical metabolic engineering and synthetic biology approaches enabled different and distinct design paths towards a high-yielding strain. Here we highlight a rational strain design process in systems biology, an integrated computational and experimental approach for carboxylic acid production, as an alternative method. Additional challenges inherent in achieving an optimal strain for commercialization of medium chain-length fatty acids will likely require a collection of strategies from systems metabolic engineering. Not only will the continued advancement in systems metabolic engineering result in these highly productive strains more quickly, this knowledge will extend more rapidly the carboxylic acid platform to the microbial production of carboxylic acids with alternate chain-lengths and functionalities. PMID:24481660

  16. Bio-production of lactobionic acid: current status, applications and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2013-12-01

    Lactobionic acid has appeared on the commercial scene as a versatile polyhydroxy acid with numerous promising applications in the food, medicine, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and chemical industries. This high value-added bio-product has recently received growing attention as a bioactive compound, providing an excellent chemical platform for the synthesis of novel potentially biocompatible and biodegradable drug delivery vehicles. Recent advances in tissue engineering and nanomedicine have also underlined the increased importance of this organic acid as a key biofunctionalization agent. The growing commercial relevance of lactobionic acid has therefore prompted the development of novel systems for its biotechnological production that are both sustainable and efficient. The present review explores recent advances and studies related to lactobionic acid bio-production, whether through microbial or enzymatic approaches, highlighting the key bioprocessing conditions for enhanced bio-production. Detailed overviews of the current microbial cell factories as well as downstream processing methodologies for lactobionic acid production are also presented. Furthermore, the potential prospects and current applications of this polyhydroxy acid are also discussed, with an emphasis on the role of lactobionic acid as a key platform in the development of novel drugs, biomaterials, nanoparticles and biopolymer systems.

  17. Optimization process of tribenzoine production as a glycerol derived product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayat, Abdurrakhman, Rifianto, Y.; Abdullah, Hadiyanto, Samsudin, Asep M.; Annisa, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Tribenzoin is a derived product from glycerol that can produce from glycerol conversion via esterification process. The product can be used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and also can be used to improve the properties of adhesive materials and water resistance in the ink printer.In the other hand, it advantages is environmentally friendly andrenewable because it is not derived from petroleum. This paper discusses the effect of temperature and catalyst concentration for tribenzoin production. For the responses, yield and product composition were observed. Results showed that the highest yield achieved at optimal variable data processed using Central Composite Design (CCD) which is 63.64 temperature (°C), mole ratio of benzoic acidto glycerol is 3.644:1, and catalyst concentration 6.25% (wt% glycerol). Yield products produced 58.71%. FTIR analysis results showed that the samples contained the results of IR spectra wavelength 1761 cm-1 in the fingerprint region and 3165 cm-1 frequency region group. The existence of these two adjustments that fixed in the area is strong evidence that the compound is tribenzoin.

  18. Process for the production of fuels and metal values

    SciTech Connect

    Audeh, C.A.

    1983-06-28

    A process for producing liquid fuels and for recovering metal values from crude petroleum by vis-breaking the reduced crude petroleum and dealkylating the vis-broken, reduced crude by treatment with an aromatic compound and an acidic transalkylation catalyst. The liquid product from the dealkylation step is separated and the residue fraction thermally processed with coal to solubilize the coal in the aromatic residue and demetallate the residue with the coal. The coal is partly liquefied in this step and the liquefaction products, together with liquids derived from the petroleum, may be hydrotreated prior to further processing e.g., in an fcc unit. The solid residue from this step may be treated to recover the metal values, especially nickel and vanadium.

  19. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  20. A novel process for recovery of fermentation-derived succinic acid: process design and economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Orjuela, Alvaro; Orjuela, Andrea; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-07-01

    Recovery and purification of organic acids produced in fermentation constitutes a significant fraction of total production cost. In this paper, the design and economic analysis of a process to recover succinic acid (SA) via dissolution and acidification of succinate salts in ethanol, followed by reactive distillation to form succinate esters, is presented. Process simulation was performed for a range of plant capacities (13-55 million kg/yr SA) and SA fermentation titers (50-100 kg/m(3)). Economics were evaluated for a recovery system installed within an existing fermentation facility producing succinate salts at a cost of $0.66/kg SA. For a SA processing capacity of 54.9 million kg/yr and a titer of 100 kg/m(3) SA, the model predicts a capital investment of $75 million and a net processing cost of $1.85 per kg SA. Required selling price of diethyl succinate for a 30% annual return on investment is $1.57 per kg.

  1. Production of gluconic Acid by some local fungi.

    PubMed

    Shindia, A A; El-Sherbeny, G A; El-Esawy, A E; Sheriff, Y M M M

    2006-03-01

    Forty-one fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera isolated from Egyptian soil and sugar cane waste samples were tested for their capacity of producing acidity and gluconic acid. For the tests, the fungi were grown on glucose substrate and culture filtrates were examined using paper chromatography analysis. Most of the tested fungi have a relative wide potentiality for total acid production in their filtrates. Nearly 51% of them showed their ability of producing gluconic acid. Aspergillus niger was distinguishable from other species by its capacity to produce substantial amounts of gluconic acid when it was cultivated on a selective medium. The optimized cultural conditions for gluconic acid yields were using submerged culture at 30℃ at initial pH 6.0 for 7 days of incubation. Among the various concentrations of substrate used, glucose (14%, w/v) was found to be the most suitable carbon source for maximal gluconic acid during fermentation. Maximum values of fungal biomass (10.02 g/l) and gluconic acid (58.46 g/l) were obtained when the fungus was grown with 1% peptone as sole nitrogen source. Influence of the concentration of some inorganic salts as well as the rate of aeration on the gluconic acid and biomass production is also described.

  2. Production of Gluconic Acid by Some Local Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Shindia, A. A.; El-Esawy, A. E.; Sheriff, Y. M. M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one fungal species belonging to 15 fungal genera isolated from Egyptian soil and sugar cane waste samples were tested for their capacity of producing acidity and gluconic acid. For the tests, the fungi were grown on glucose substrate and culture filtrates were examined using paper chromatography analysis. Most of the tested fungi have a relative wide potentiality for total acid production in their filtrates. Nearly 51% of them showed their ability of producing gluconic acid. Aspergillus niger was distinguishable from other species by its capacity to produce substantial amounts of gluconic acid when it was cultivated on a selective medium. The optimized cultural conditions for gluconic acid yields were using submerged culture at 30℃ at initial pH 6.0 for 7 days of incubation. Among the various concentrations of substrate used, glucose (14%, w/v) was found to be the most suitable carbon source for maximal gluconic acid during fermentation. Maximum values of fungal biomass (10.02 g/l) and gluconic acid (58.46 g/l) were obtained when the fungus was grown with 1% peptone as sole nitrogen source. Influence of the concentration of some inorganic salts as well as the rate of aeration on the gluconic acid and biomass production is also described. PMID:24039465

  3. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  4. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Klinke, T; Kneist, S; de Soet, J J; Kuhlisch, E; Mauersberger, S; Forster, A; Klimm, W

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed, pure resting-cell suspensions were obtained by culturing a total of 28 oral isolates comprising the species C. albicans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei paracasei, Lactobacillus paracasei tolerans and Lactobacillus delbrueckii lactis. Acid production from glucose was determined at a constant pH of 7.0, 5.5, 5.0 and 4.0 by repeated titrations with NaOH in an automated pH-stat system. Acid formation rates of yeast and lactobacilli proved to be similar at both neutral and low pH, while in a moderately acidic environment C. albicans produced less acid than the lactobacilli. Ion chromatographic analysis of the cell-free medium after titration revealed pyruvate to be the predominant organic acid anion secreted by C. albicans. The proportion of organic acids to overall acid production by the yeast was below 10% at neutral conditions, in contrast to 42-66% at pH 4.0. Compared to lactobacilli, yeast required a concentration of glucose that was about 50 times higher to allow acid production at half the maximum speed. Considering the clinical data in the literature about the frequency and proportions of microorganisms present in early childhood caries lesions, the contribution of oral lactobacilli as well as C. albicans to overall microbial acid formation appears to be important. PMID:19246906

  5. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Klinke, T; Kneist, S; de Soet, J J; Kuhlisch, E; Mauersberger, S; Forster, A; Klimm, W

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed, pure resting-cell suspensions were obtained by culturing a total of 28 oral isolates comprising the species C. albicans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus paracasei paracasei, Lactobacillus paracasei tolerans and Lactobacillus delbrueckii lactis. Acid production from glucose was determined at a constant pH of 7.0, 5.5, 5.0 and 4.0 by repeated titrations with NaOH in an automated pH-stat system. Acid formation rates of yeast and lactobacilli proved to be similar at both neutral and low pH, while in a moderately acidic environment C. albicans produced less acid than the lactobacilli. Ion chromatographic analysis of the cell-free medium after titration revealed pyruvate to be the predominant organic acid anion secreted by C. albicans. The proportion of organic acids to overall acid production by the yeast was below 10% at neutral conditions, in contrast to 42-66% at pH 4.0. Compared to lactobacilli, yeast required a concentration of glucose that was about 50 times higher to allow acid production at half the maximum speed. Considering the clinical data in the literature about the frequency and proportions of microorganisms present in early childhood caries lesions, the contribution of oral lactobacilli as well as C. albicans to overall microbial acid formation appears to be important.

  6. Aluminum: A neurotoxic product of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.B.

    1994-07-01

    Two separate but converging concerns have resulted in an upsurge in research on aluminum ion in the past 15 years. Acid rain releases Al(III) from soils into fresh waters, where it is for the first time accessible to living organisms. Though long considered benign, Al(III) has recently been found to cause bone and neurological disorders, while its role in Alzheimer`s disease remains uncertain. The greater availability of Al(III), coupled with its demonstrated harmful effects, challenges chemists to describe its chemistry and biochemistry. Many interactions of Al(III) have been described, but several questions remain unsolved. A great deal of work not within the scope of this Account is described in several edited volumes. (This Account uses Al(III) as a generic term for the 3+ ion when a specific form is not indicated). 96 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo substituted phenyl azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  12. Recovery of high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid in toluene nitration process by rectification.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Meng, Qingqiang; Shu, Fan; Ye, Zhengfang

    2013-01-01

    Waste sulfuric acid is a byproduct generated from numerous industrial chemical processes. It is essential to remove the impurities and recover the sulfuric acid from the waste acid. In this study the rectification method was introduced to recover high purity sulfuric acid from the waste acid generated in toluene nitration process by using rectification column. The waste acid quality before and after rectification were evaluated using UV-Vis spectroscopy, GC/MS, HPLC and other physical and chemical analysis. It was shown that five nitro aromatic compounds in the waste acid were substantially removed and high purity sulfuric acid was also recovered in the rectification process at the same time. The COD was removed by 94% and the chrominance was reduced from 1000° to 1°. The recovered sulfuric acid with the concentration reaching 98.2 wt% had a comparable quality with commercial sulfuric acid and could be recycled back into the toluene nitration process, which could avoid waste of resources and reduce the environmental impact and pollution.

  13. Highly efficient production of D-lactic acid from chicory-derived inulin by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianqian; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Peng; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production. Because it prevents fructose inhibition and promotes the complete hydrolysis of inulin, the highest D-lactic acid concentration (123.6 ± 0.9 g/L) with a yield of 97.9 % was obtained from 120 g/L inulin by SSF. Moreover, SSF by L. bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970 offered another distinct advantage with respect to the higher optical purity of D-lactic acid (>99.9 %) and reduced number of residual sugars. The excellent performance of D-lactic acid production from inulin by SSF represents a high-yield method for D-lactic acid production from non-food grains.

  14. Highly efficient production of D-lactic acid from chicory-derived inulin by Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianqian; Zang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Peng; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-11-01

    Inulin is a readily available feedstock for cost-effective production of biochemicals. To date, several studies have explored the production of bioethanol, high-fructose syrup and fructooligosaccharide, but there are no studies regarding the production of D-lactic acid using inulin as a carbon source. In the present study, chicory-derived inulin was used for D-lactic acid biosynthesis by Lactobacillus bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970. Compared with separate hydrolysis and fermentation processes, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) has demonstrated the best performance of D-lactic acid production. Because it prevents fructose inhibition and promotes the complete hydrolysis of inulin, the highest D-lactic acid concentration (123.6 ± 0.9 g/L) with a yield of 97.9 % was obtained from 120 g/L inulin by SSF. Moreover, SSF by L. bulgaricus CGMCC 1.6970 offered another distinct advantage with respect to the higher optical purity of D-lactic acid (>99.9 %) and reduced number of residual sugars. The excellent performance of D-lactic acid production from inulin by SSF represents a high-yield method for D-lactic acid production from non-food grains. PMID:27440161

  15. Transformation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in blueberries during high-temperature processing.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Typek, Rafal

    2014-11-12

    Chlorogenic acid (CQA), an ester of caffeic with quinic acid, is a natural compound found in a wide array of plants. Although coffee beans are most frequently mentioned as plant products remarkably rich in CQAs, their significant amounts can also be found in many berries, for example, blueberries. This paper shows and discusses the thermal stability of the main CQA representative, that is, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), during high-temperature processing of blueberries (as in the production of blueberry foods) in systems containing sucrose in low and high concentration. It has been found that up to 11 components (5-CQA derivatives and its reaction product with water) can be formed from 5-CQA during the processing of blueberries. Their formation speed depends on the sucrose concentration in the processed system, which has been confirmed in the artificial system composed of 5-CQA water solution containing different amounts of the sugar.

  16. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kiran; Tomar, Sudhir Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2016-07-01

    Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of their health and nutritional requirements, and in this context, vitamins produced in situ by microbes may suit their needs and expectations. B groups vitamins are essential components of cellular metabolism and among them riboflavin is one of the vital vitamins required by bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Here, we focus on the importance of microbial production of riboflavin over chemical synthesis. In addition, genetic abilities for riboflavin biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria are discussed. Genetically modified strains by employing genetic engineering and chemical analogues have been developed to enhance riboflavin production. The present review attempts to collect the currently available information on riboflavin production by microbes in general, while placing greater emphasis on food grade lactic acid bacteria and human gut commensals. For designing riboflavin-enriched functional foods, proper selection and exploitation of riboflavin-producing lactic acid bacteria is essential. Moreover, eliminating the in situ vitamin fortification step will decrease the cost of food production.

  17. Comparison of D-gluconic acid production in selected strains of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sainz, F; Navarro, D; Mateo, E; Torija, M J; Mas, A

    2016-04-01

    The oxidative metabolism of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) can be exploited for the production of several compounds, including D-gluconic acid. The production of D-gluconic acid in fermented beverages could be useful for the development of new products without glucose. In the present study, we analyzed nineteen strains belonging to eight different species of AAB to select those that could produce D-gluconic acid from D-glucose without consuming D-fructose. We tested their performance in three different media and analyzed the changes in the levels of D-glucose, D-fructose, D-gluconic acid and the derived gluconates. D-Glucose and D-fructose consumption and D-gluconic acid production were heavily dependent on the strain and the media. The most suitable strains for our purpose were Gluconobacter japonicus CECT 8443 and Gluconobacter oxydans Po5. The strawberry isolate Acetobacter malorum (CECT 7749) also produced D-gluconic acid; however, it further oxidized D-gluconic acid to keto-D-gluconates.

  18. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated. Results The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved. Conclusions The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs. PMID:22145867

  19. THE UPTAKE OF WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS INTO FOODS DURING HOME PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of organic compounds in tap water are produced as a result of disinfection process. Use of chlorine-containing chemicals for disinfection produces many disinfection by-products (DBPs) including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles and haloacetic acid. Ozonation with secon...

  20. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  1. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Palasz, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    A process for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems comprising: adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8-9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids; oxidizing the solution to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes; removing said aldehydes as they are generated; and converting said aldehydes to peracids.

  2. Economical succinic acid production from cane molasses by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Peng; Zheng, Pu; Sun, Zhi-Hao; Ni, Ye; Dong, Jin-Jun; Zhu, Lei-Lei

    2008-04-01

    In this work, production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes CGMCC1593 using cane molasses as a low cost carbon source was developed. In anaerobic bottles fermentation, succinic acid concentration of 50.6+/-0.9 g l(-1) was attained at 60 h using an optimum medium containing molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid, resulting in a succinic acid yield of 79.5+/-1.1% and sugar utilization of 97.1+/-0.6%. When batch fermentation was carried out in a 5-l stirred bioreactor with pretreated molasses, 46.4 g l(-1) of succinic acid was attained at 48 h and faster cells growth was also observed. Fed batch fermentation was performed to minimize the substrate (sugar) inhibition effect, giving 55.2 g l(-1) of succinic acid and 1.15 g l(-1)h(-1) of productivity at 48 h. The present study suggests that the inexpensive cane molasses could be utilized for the economical and efficient production of succinic acid by A. succinogenes.

  3. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  4. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  5. d-lactic acid production from renewable lignocellulosic biomass via genetically modified Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixing; Kumar, Amit; Hardwidge, Philip R; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2016-03-01

    d-lactic acid is of great interest because of increasing demand for biobased poly-lactic acid (PLA). Blending poly-l-lactic acid with poly-d-lactic acid greatly improves PLA's mechanical and physical properties. Corn stover and sorghum stalks treated with 1% sodium hydroxide were investigated as possible substrates for d-lactic acid production by both sequential saccharification and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF). A commercial cellulase (Cellic CTec2) was used for hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and an l-lactate-deficient mutant strain Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 ldhL1 and its derivative harboring a xylose assimilation plasmid (ΔldhL1-pCU-PxylAB) were used for fermentation. The SSCF process demonstrated the advantage of avoiding feedback inhibition of released sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, thus significantly improving d-lactic acid yield and productivity. d-lactic acid (27.3 g L(-1) ) and productivity (0.75 g L(-1) h(-1) ) was obtained from corn stover and d-lactic acid (22.0 g L(-1) ) and productivity (0.65 g L(-1) h(-1) ) was obtained from sorghum stalks using ΔldhL1-pCU-PxylAB via the SSCF process. The recombinant strain produced a higher concentration of d-lactic acid than the mutant strain by using the xylose present in lignocellulosic biomass. Our findings demonstrate the potential of using renewable lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative to conventional feedstocks with metabolically engineered lactic acid bacteria to produce d-lactic acid. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:271-278, 2016. PMID:26700935

  6. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  7. Product assortment and individual decision processes.

    PubMed

    Chernev, Alexander

    2003-07-01

    Research presented in this article examines the impact of product assortment on individuals' decisions. Four experiments report converging evidence that the impact of assortment is moderated by the degree to which individuals have articulated attribute preferences, whereby individuals with an articulated ideal point are more likely to prefer larger assortments than individuals without articulated preferences. The data further show that choices made from large assortments are associated with more selective, alternative-based, and confirmatory processing for individuals with articulated preferences and more comprehensive, attribute-based, and comparative processing for those without articulated preferences.

  8. Process for obtaining silicon from fluosilicic acid

    DOEpatents

    Sanjurjo, Angel

    1984-04-10

    Process for producing low cost, high purity solar grade Si wherein a reduction reaction, preferably the reduction of SiF.sub.4, by an alkali metal (Na preferred) is carried out by jetting a spray of reactants into a reaction chamber at a rate and temperature which causes the reaction to take place far enough away from the entry region to avoid plugging of reactants at the entry region and wherein separation in the melt is carried out continuously from the reaction and the Si can be cast directly from the melt.

  9. The source of carbon dioxide for gastric acid production.

    PubMed

    Steer, Howard

    2009-01-01

    The source of carbon dioxide for the chemical reaction leading to the production of gastric acid is unknown. The decarboxylation of an amino acid releases carbon dioxide. Pepsinogens provide a rich source of the amino acid arginine. Both the source of carbon dioxide, arginine, and the consequence of arginine decarboxylation, agmatine, have been studied. The site of carbon dioxide production has been related to the survival of the parietal cell. An immunohistochemical study has been carried out on glycol methacrylate embedded gastric biopsies from the normal stomach of 38 adult patients. The sections have been stained using polyclonal antibody to pepsinogen II, polyclonal antibody to agmatine, and polyclonal antibody to Helicobacter pylori. Pepsinogen II and agmatine are found in the parietal cell canaliculi. This is consistent with the production of carbon dioxide from arginine in the parietal cell canaliculi. Evidence is presented for the decarboxylation of arginine derived from the activation segment of pepsinogen as the source of carbon dioxide for the production of gastric acid. The production of carbon dioxide by the decarboxylation of arginine in the parietal cell canaliculus enables the extracellular hydration of carbon dioxide at the known site of carbonic anhydrase activity. The extracellular production of acid in the canaliculus together with the presence of agmatine helps to explain why the parietal cells are not destroyed during the formation of gastric acid. Agmatine is found in the mucus secreting cells of the stomach and its role in acid protection of the stomach is discussed. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:18951509

  10. Poly(vinyl chloride) processes and products.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R N

    1981-10-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) resins are produced by four basic processes: suspension, emulsion, bulk and solution polymerization. PVC suspensions resins are usually relatively dust-free and granular with varying degrees of particle porosity. PVC emulsion resins are small particle powders containing very little free monomer. Bulk PVC resins are similar to suspension PVC resins, though the particles tend to be more porous. Solution PVC resins are smaller in particle size than suspension PVC with high porosity particles containing essentially no free monomer. The variety of PVC resin products does not lend itself to broad generalizations concerning health hazards. In studying occupational hazards the particular PVC process and the product must be considered and identified in the study.

  11. Glycemic index of processed wheat products.

    PubMed

    Ross, S W; Brand, J C; Thorburn, A W; Truswell, A S

    1987-10-01

    Our aim was to determine the in vivo glycemic and insulin responses and in vitro starch digestibility of seven processed wheat products (shortbread biscuits, custard, quick-cooking wheat, wholemeal bread, water biscuits, puffed wheat, and puffed crispbread). The degree of starch gelatinization in the foods was measured. Fifty-gram carbohydrate portions of the foods were fed to eight volunteers after an overnight fast. The calculated glycemic indices (GI) (mean +/- SEM) ranged from 43 +/- 10 for custard to 81 +/- 9 for puffed crispbread. Insulin responses paralleled the glycemic responses. The GI correlated positively with the percentage of starch digested in vitro (p less than 0.05). The degree of starch gelatinization ranged from 0.4 to 60% and correlated positively with the percentage starch digested in vitro (p less than 0.05). Differences in the glycemic and insulin responses to wheat products may be explained in part by the extent of processing and the degree of gelatinization achieved.

  12. Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester

    2011-06-01

    As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant

  13. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

  14. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Tanya Y.; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

  15. Binding of bile acids by pastry products containing bioactive substances during in vitro digestion.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Krzysztof; Górecka, Danuta; Szwengiel, Artur; Smoczyńska, Paulina; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Komolka, Patrycja

    2015-03-01

    The modern day consumer tends to choose products with health enhancing properties, enriched in bioactive substances. One such bioactive food component is dietary fibre, which shows a number of physiological properties including the binding of bile acids. Dietary fibre should be contained in everyday, easily accessible food products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine sorption capacities of primary bile acid (cholic acid - CA) and secondary bile acids (deoxycholic - DCA and lithocholic acids - LCA) by muffins (BM) and cookies (BC) with bioactive substances and control muffins (CM) and cookies (CC) in two sections of the in vitro gastrointestinal tract. Variations in gut flora were also analysed in the process of in vitro digestion of pastry products in a bioreactor. Enzymes: pepsin, pancreatin and bile salts: cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were added to the culture. Faecal bacteria, isolated from human large intestine, were added in the section of large intestine. The influence of dietary fibre content in cookies and concentration of bile acids in two stages of digestion were analysed. Generally, pastry goods with bioactive substances were characterized by a higher content of total fibre compared with the control samples. These products also differ in the profile of dietary fibre fractions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the bile acid profile after two stages of digestion depends on the quality and quantity of fibre. The bile acid profile after digestion of BM and BC forms one cluster, and with the CM and CC forms a separate cluster. High concentration of H (hemicellulose) is positively correlated with LCA (low binding effect) and negatively correlated with CA and DCA contents. The relative content of bile acids in the second stage of digestion was in some cases above the content in the control sample, particularly LCA. This means that the bacteria introduced in the 2nd stage of digestion synthesize the LCA.

  16. PROCESS FOR RECOVERING URANIUM FROM AQUEOUS PHOSPHORIC ACID LIQUORS

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1962-09-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions. An acidic aqueous solution containing uranium values is contacted with an organic phase comprising an organic diluent and the reaction product of phosphorous pentoxide and a substantially pure dialkylphosphoric acid. The uranium values are transferred to the organic phase even from aqueous solutions containing a high concentration of strong uranium complexing agents such as phosphate ions. (AEC)

  17. A process model to estimate biodiesel production costs.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; McAloon, Andrew J; Yee, Winnie C; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-03-01

    'Biodiesel' is the name given to a renewable diesel fuel that is produced from fats and oils. It consists of the simple alkyl esters of fatty acids, most typically the methyl esters. We have developed a computer model to estimate the capital and operating costs of a moderately-sized industrial biodiesel production facility. The major process operations in the plant were continuous-process vegetable oil transesterification, and ester and glycerol recovery. The model was designed using contemporary process simulation software, and current reagent, equipment and supply costs, following current production practices. Crude, degummed soybean oil was specified as the feedstock. Annual production capacity of the plant was set at 37,854,118 l (10 x 10(6)gal). Facility construction costs were calculated to be US dollar 11.3 million. The largest contributors to the equipment cost, accounting for nearly one third of expenditures, were storage tanks to contain a 25 day capacity of feedstock and product. At a value of US dollar 0.52/kg (dollar 0.236/lb) for feedstock soybean oil, a biodiesel production cost of US dollar 0.53/l (dollar 2.00/gal) was predicted. The single greatest contributor to this value was the cost of the oil feedstock, which accounted for 88% of total estimated production costs. An analysis of the dependence of production costs on the cost of the feedstock indicated a direct linear relationship between the two, with a change of US dollar 0.020/l (dollar 0.075/gal) in product cost per US dollar 0.022/kg (dollar 0.01/lb) change in oil cost. Process economics included the recovery of coproduct glycerol generated during biodiesel production, and its sale into the commercial glycerol market as an 80% w/w aqueous solution, which reduced production costs by approximately 6%. The production cost of biodiesel was found to vary inversely and linearly with variations in the market value of glycerol, increasing by US dollar 0.0022/l (dollar 0.0085/gal) for every US

  18. Amphoteric surfactants: processing, product composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Leidreiter, H I; Gruning, B; Kaseborn, D

    1997-10-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) has been the most important secondary surfactant for personal-cleansing products for a long time. Its excellent toxicological profile is an important reason for its increasing use in oral-care products. Recently it has gained interest for further applications such as household cleaners, dish-washing liquids, and industrial and technical products. Imidazoline-derived amphoterics such as sodium cocoampho-acetate (SCAA) or diacetate play a more minor role than CAPB. Owing to the low irritation potential of the pure surfactant and its good toxicological properties, ampho-acetates have mainly found applications in cosmetics. Their industrial applications have been relatively small. While CAPB has a well-defined chemical structure from a straightforward production process, most imidazoline-derived amphoterics exhibit a complex composition of compounds with different structures. This depends on the production parameters. Improved processing methods have recently led to the commercial availability of well-defined SCAA with low levels of by-products. Modern production processes and the composition of high-purity amphoterics are reviewed. Raw materials and by-products are described, together with their analytical methods. The cosmetic performance, cleansing and foaming power, rheological effects and mildness-enhancing properties of both CAPB and SCAA are compared. La cocamidopropyl-betaine (CAPB) est, depuis longtemps le tensio-actif secondaire le plus important pour les produits d'hygiene personnelle. L'excellent profil toxicologique de la CAPB est certainement une raison majeure de son usage croissant dans les produits de soin buccaux. La CAPB a suscite depuis peu un interet pour des applications supplementaires telles que les nettoyants menagers, les liquides vaisselle, les produits industriels et techniques. Les derives amphoteres de l'imidazoline tels que le cocoampho-acetate de sodium (SCAA) ou le diacetate occupent une place mineure

  19. Production of gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid by Klebsiella aerogenes NCTA 418.

    PubMed

    Neijssel, O M; Tempest, D W

    1975-10-27

    2-Ketogluconic acid and, to a lesser extent, gluconic acid were found to be major products of glucose catabolism by phosphate-limited cultures of Klebsiella aerogenes NCTC 418, and together accounted for up to 46% of the glucose carbon that was metabolized. Although the concentrations of both acids increased substantially at low growth rates, their specific rates of synthesis decreased markedly, ad did the proportion of glucose converted into these products. Determination of the affinity constant, for glucose, of phosphate-limited organisms showed it ot be not significantly different from that of glucose-limited organisms (KS less than or equal to 50 muM), indicative of the phosphotransferase uptake system. And since these organisms possessed an active glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and had no detectable glucose dehydrogenase activity, it was concluded that gluconic acid and 2-keto-gluconic acid arose from their corresponding phosphorylated metabolites, and not directly from glucose.

  20. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B.; Moore, Jonathan C.

    2009-12-08

    The present invention provides derivatives of ethanologenic Escherichia coli K011 constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  1. Materials and methods for efficient lactic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Shengde; Ingram, Lonnie O& #x27; Neal; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Yomano, Lorraine; Grabar, Tammy B; Moore, Jonathan C

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides derivatives of Escherichia coli constructed for the production of lactic acid. The transformed E. coli of the invention are prepared by deleting the genes that encode competing pathways followed by a growth-based selection for mutants with improved performance. These transformed E. coli are useful for providing an increased supply of lactic acid for use in food and industrial applications.

  2. Cinnamic acid production using Streptomyces lividans expressing phenylalanine ammonia lyase.

    PubMed

    Noda, Shuhei; Miyazaki, Takaya; Miyoshi, Takanori; Miyake, Michiru; Okai, Naoko; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2011-05-01

    Cinnamic acid production was demonstrated using Streptomyces as a host. A gene encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Streptomyces maritimus was introduced into Streptomyces lividans, and its expression was confirmed by Western blot analysis. After 4 days cultivation using glucose as carbon source, the maximal level of cinnamic acid reached 210 mg/L. When glycerol (30 g/L) was used as carbon source, the maximal level of produced cinnamic acid reached 450 mg/L. In addition, using raw starch, xylose or xylan as carbon source, the maximal level of cinnamic acid reached 460, 300, and 130 mg/L, respectively. We demonstrated that S. lividans has great potential to produce cinnamic acid as well as other aromatic compounds.

  3. Ultrasonic pretreatment and acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yong-lan; Dai, Wen-yu; Xu, Rong; Zhang, Jiu-hua; Chen, Ke-quan; Jiang, Min; Wei, Ping; Ouyang, Ping-kai

    2013-11-01

    Immense interest has been devoted to the production of bulk chemicals from lignocellulose biomass. Diluted sulfuric acid treatment is currently one of the main pretreatment methods. However, the low total sugar concentration obtained via such pretreatment limits industrial fermentation systems that use lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose hydrolysate is used as the carbon and nitrogen sources to achieve a green and economical production of succinic acid in this study. Sugarcane bagasse was ultrasonically pretreated for 40 min, with 43.9 g/L total sugar obtained after dilute acid hydrolysis. The total sugar concentration increased by 29.5 %. In a 3-L fermentor, using 30 g/L non-detoxified total sugar as the carbon source, succinic acid production increased to 23.7 g/L with a succinic acid yield of 79.0 % and a productivity of 0.99 g/L/h, and 60 % yeast extract in the medium could be reduced. Compared with the detoxified sugar preparation method, succinic acid production and yield were improved by 20.9 and 20.2 %, respectively. PMID:23649828

  4. Biochemical Studies of Mycobacterial Fatty Acid Methyltransferase: A Catalyst for the Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Petronikolou, Nektaria; Nair, Satish K

    2015-11-19

    Transesterification of fatty acids yields the essential component of biodiesel, but current processes are cost-prohibitive and generate waste. Recent efforts make use of biocatalysts that are effective in diverting products from primary metabolism to yield fatty acid methyl esters in bacteria. These biotransformations require the fatty acid O-methyltransferase (FAMT) from Mycobacterium marinum (MmFAMT). Although this activity was first reported in the literature in 1970, the FAMTs have yet to be biochemically characterized. Here, we describe several crystal structures of MmFAMT, which highlight an unexpected structural conservation with methyltransferases that are involved in plant natural product metabolism. The determinants for ligand recognition are analyzed by kinetic analysis of structure-based active-site variants. These studies reveal how an architectural fold employed in plant natural product biosynthesis is used in bacterial fatty acid O-methylation.

  5. Biochemical Studies of Mycobacterial Fatty Acid Methyltransferase: A Catalyst for the Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Petronikolou, Nektaria; Nair, Satish K

    2015-11-19

    Transesterification of fatty acids yields the essential component of biodiesel, but current processes are cost-prohibitive and generate waste. Recent efforts make use of biocatalysts that are effective in diverting products from primary metabolism to yield fatty acid methyl esters in bacteria. These biotransformations require the fatty acid O-methyltransferase (FAMT) from Mycobacterium marinum (MmFAMT). Although this activity was first reported in the literature in 1970, the FAMTs have yet to be biochemically characterized. Here, we describe several crystal structures of MmFAMT, which highlight an unexpected structural conservation with methyltransferases that are involved in plant natural product metabolism. The determinants for ligand recognition are analyzed by kinetic analysis of structure-based active-site variants. These studies reveal how an architectural fold employed in plant natural product biosynthesis is used in bacterial fatty acid O-methylation. PMID:26526103

  6. Membrane engineering via trans unsaturated fatty acids production improves Escherichia coli robustness and production of biorenewables.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zaigao; Yoon, Jong Moon; Nielsen, David R; Shanks, Jacqueline V; Jarboe, Laura R

    2016-05-01

    Constructing microbial biocatalysts that produce biorenewables at economically viable yields and titers is often hampered by product toxicity. For production of short chain fatty acids, membrane damage is considered the primary mechanism of toxicity, particularly in regards to membrane integrity. Previous engineering efforts in Escherichia coli to increase membrane integrity, with the goal of increasing fatty acid tolerance and production, have had mixed results. Herein, a novel approach was used to reconstruct the E. coli membrane by enabling production of a novel membrane component. Specifically, trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) were produced and incorporated into the membrane of E. coli MG1655 by expression of cis-trans isomerase (Cti) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. While the engineered strain was found to have no increase in membrane integrity, a significant decrease in membrane fluidity was observed, meaning that membrane polarization and rigidity were increased by TUFA incorporation. As a result, tolerance to exogenously added octanoic acid and production of octanoic acid were both increased relative to the wild-type strain. This membrane engineering strategy to improve octanoic acid tolerance was found to require fine-tuning of TUFA abundance. Besides improving tolerance and production of carboxylic acids, TUFA production also enabled increased tolerance in E. coli to other bio-products, e.g. alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds, a variety of adverse industrial conditions, e.g. low pH, high temperature, and also elevated styrene production, another versatile bio-chemical product. TUFA permitted enhanced growth due to alleviation of bio-product toxicity, demonstrating the general effectiveness of this membrane engineering strategy towards improving strain robustness. PMID:26875445

  7. Overview of prescription omega-3 fatty acid products for hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Howard S

    2014-11-01

    Patients with elevated triglycerides (TG) may be at a higher risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs), particularly the long-chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), effectively reduce TG and thus may impact CV outcomes; however, clinical data have been inconsistent. This review discusses the efficacy, safety, and key considerations of currently approved prescription OM3FA products in patients with elevated TG with or without concomitant elevations in other atherogenic parameters. Currently, 6 prescription OM3FA formulations are approved in the United States: omega-3-acid ethyl esters (Lovaza, Omtryg, and 2 generic formulations), omega-3-carboxylic acids (Epanova), which contain both EPA and DHA, and icosapent ethyl (Vascepa), which is an EPA-only formulation. All prescription OM3FA products effectively lower TG, with the magnitude of TG reduction affected by baseline TG level. Products that contain DHA can raise levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is of particular concern in patients with atherosclerosis; Vascepa, however, does not raise these levels and therefore provides these patients with another option. Long-term outcomes trials for Vascepa (ongoing) and Epanova (planned) will help clarify the potential CV benefits in patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia despite statin therapy.

  8. [Research on Raman spectra of benzoic acid during decarboxylic process].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Xia; Zheng, Hai-Fei

    2009-12-01

    The present research studied benzoic acid change in water and its Raman spectra in temperature rising period using hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and Raman spectrum technique. The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell is the most useful instrument to observe sample in-situation under high temperature and high pressure. The authors can get effective results from this instrument and pursue further research. The method of Raman spectra is the most useful measure tool and it can detect the material according to the spectrum. The result showed that there was no change in characteristic vibrational Raman peak of benzoic acid in the lower temperature period and there was no reaction between benzoic acid and water. In the process of temperature rising period, the characteristic vibrational Raman peak of benzoic acid became weaker. During the process, benzoic acid began to dissolve in water, but no chemical reaction happened. The reason for weaker Raman peak of benzoic acid is the dissolution. The characteristic vibrational Raman peak of carboxyl disappeared at 150 degrees C, which showed that decarboxylic reaction occurred on benzoic acid. But the main Raman peak of benzoic acid existed which showed that no chemical reaction existed. And then benzoic acid disappeared when temperature ascended to 170 degrees C. When the temperature of system dropped to room temperature, a kind of crystal appeared. The characteristic vibrational Raman peak of this kind of crystal showed that the crystal contained benzene ring, showing that dutrex appeared. At the same time the authors did not find the characteristic vibrational Raman peak of carboxyl, so the crystal was not benzoic acid. The whole research showed that: dutrex can disappear and be regained in the process of dissolution and recrystallization, but carboxyl cannot.

  9. [Research on Raman spectra of benzoic acid during decarboxylic process].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Xia; Zheng, Hai-Fei

    2009-12-01

    The present research studied benzoic acid change in water and its Raman spectra in temperature rising period using hydrothermal diamond anvil cell and Raman spectrum technique. The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell is the most useful instrument to observe sample in-situation under high temperature and high pressure. The authors can get effective results from this instrument and pursue further research. The method of Raman spectra is the most useful measure tool and it can detect the material according to the spectrum. The result showed that there was no change in characteristic vibrational Raman peak of benzoic acid in the lower temperature period and there was no reaction between benzoic acid and water. In the process of temperature rising period, the characteristic vibrational Raman peak of benzoic acid became weaker. During the process, benzoic acid began to dissolve in water, but no chemical reaction happened. The reason for weaker Raman peak of benzoic acid is the dissolution. The characteristic vibrational Raman peak of carboxyl disappeared at 150 degrees C, which showed that decarboxylic reaction occurred on benzoic acid. But the main Raman peak of benzoic acid existed which showed that no chemical reaction existed. And then benzoic acid disappeared when temperature ascended to 170 degrees C. When the temperature of system dropped to room temperature, a kind of crystal appeared. The characteristic vibrational Raman peak of this kind of crystal showed that the crystal contained benzene ring, showing that dutrex appeared. At the same time the authors did not find the characteristic vibrational Raman peak of carboxyl, so the crystal was not benzoic acid. The whole research showed that: dutrex can disappear and be regained in the process of dissolution and recrystallization, but carboxyl cannot. PMID:20210158

  10. Dynamics of the anaerobic process: effects of volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Pind, Peter F; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-06-30

    A complex and fast dynamic response of the anaerobic biogas system was observed when the system was subjected to pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). It was shown that a pulse of specific VFAs into a well-functioning continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system operating on cow manure affected both CH(4) yield, pH, and gas production and that a unique reaction pattern was seen for the higher VFAs as a result of these pulses. In this study, two thermophilic laboratory reactors were equipped with a novel VFA-sensor for monitoring specific VFAs online. Pulses of VFAs were shown to have a positive effect on process yield and the levels of all VFA were shown to stabilize at a lower level after the biomass had been subjected to several pulses. The response to pulses of propionate or acetate was different from the response to butyrate, iso-butyrate, valerate, or iso-valerate. High concentrations of propionate affected the degradation of all VFAs, while a pulse of acetate affected primarily the degradation of iso-valerate or 2-methylbutyrate. Pulses of n-butyrate, iso-butyrate, and iso-valerate yielded only acetate, while degradation of n-valerate gave both propionate and acetate. Product sensitivity or inhibition was shown for the degradation of all VFAs tested. Based on the results, it was concluded that measurements of all specific VFAs are important for control purposes and increase and decrease in a specific VFA should always be evaluated in close relationship to the conversion of other VFAs and the history of the reactor process. It should be pointed out that the observed dynamics of VFA responses were based on hourly measurements, meaning that the response duration was much lower than the hydraulic retention time, which exceeds several days in anaerobic CSTR systems.

  11. Means for reducing oxalic acid to a product

    SciTech Connect

    Morduchowitz, A.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes an apparatus for reducing oxalic acid to a product comprising: a cell including a separator for separating the cell into two chambers, a catholyte chamber and an anolyte chamber, each chamber having an inlet and an outlet; a porous anode arranged within the anolyte section in a manner so that an electrolyte entering through the inlet of the anolyte section will pass through the anode and exit through the outlet of the anolyte section; means for providing an electrolyte to the inlet of the anolyte chamber in a manner so that it will exit through the outlet of the anolyte chamber; means for providing a mixture of oxalic acid and an electrolyte to the inlet of the catholyte chamber; porous cathode means located in the catholyte chamber for reducing the oxalic acid in the oxalic acid-electrolyte mixture to the product within the cathode means when a d.c. voltage provided across the anode and the cathode means, the product exiting the cell by way of the catholyte chamber's outlet; and means for providing a d.c. voltage across the cathode means and the anode so as to cooperate in the reduction of the oxalic acid; and in which the cathode means includes a porous cathode having discrete sites of platinum and mercury as catalysts and the product is ethylene glycol.

  12. Formic Acid Free Flowsheet Development To Eliminate Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In The Defense Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Dan P.; Stone, Michael E.; Newell, J. David; Fellinger, Terri L.; Bricker, Jonathan M.

    2012-09-14

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during production of plutonium and tritium demanded by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass canisters is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. Testing was initiated to determine whether the elimination of formic acid from the DWPF's chemical processing flowsheet would eliminate catalytic hydrogen generation. Historically, hydrogen is generated in chemical processing of alkaline High Level Waste sludge in DWPF. In current processing, sludge is combined with nitric and formic acid to neutralize the waste, reduce mercury and manganese, destroy nitrite, and modify (thin) the slurry rheology. The noble metal catalyzed formic acid decomposition produces hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Elimination of formic acid by replacement with glycolic acid has the potential to eliminate the production of catalytic hydrogen. Flowsheet testing was performed to develop the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet as an alternative to the nitric-formic flowsheet currently being processed at the DWPF. This new flowsheet has shown that mercury can be reduced and removed by steam stripping in DWPF with no catalytic hydrogen generation. All processing objectives were also met, including greatly reducing the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product yield stress as compared to the baseline nitric/formic flowsheet. Ten DWPF tests were performed with nonradioactive simulants designed to cover a broad compositional range. No hydrogen was generated in testing without formic acid.

  13. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  14. Intersection of RNA Processing and the Type II Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Yeast Mitochondria▿

    PubMed Central

    Schonauer, Melissa S.; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Dieckmann, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinct metabolic pathways can intersect in ways that allow hierarchical or reciprocal regulation. In a screen of respiration-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains for defects in mitochondrial RNA processing, we found that lack of any enzyme in the mitochondrial fatty acid type II biosynthetic pathway (FAS II) led to inefficient 5′ processing of mitochondrial precursor tRNAs by RNase P. In particular, the precursor containing both RNase P RNA (RPM1) and tRNAPro accumulated dramatically. Subsequent Pet127-driven 5′ processing of RPM1 was blocked. The FAS II pathway defects resulted in the loss of lipoic acid attachment to subunits of three key mitochondrial enzymes, which suggests that the octanoic acid produced by the pathway is the sole precursor for lipoic acid synthesis and attachment. The protein component of yeast mitochondrial RNase P, Rpm2, is not modified by lipoic acid in the wild-type strain, and it is imported in FAS II mutant strains. Thus, a product of the FAS II pathway is required for RNase P RNA maturation, which positively affects RNase P activity. In addition, a product is required for lipoic acid production, which is needed for the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which feeds acetyl-coenzyme A into the FAS II pathway. These two positive feedback cycles may provide switch-like control of mitochondrial gene expression in response to the metabolic state of the cell. PMID:18779316

  15. In situ vitrification: Process and products

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.; Koegler, S.

    1991-06-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is an electrically powered thermal treatment process that converts soil into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. It is similar in concept to bringing a simplified glass manufacturing process to a site and operating it in the ground, using the soil as a glass feed stock. Gaseous emissions are contained, scrubbed, and filtered. When the process is completed, the molten volume cools producing a block of glass and crystalline material that resembles natural obsidian commingled with crystalline phases. The product passes US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) leach resistance tests, and it can be classified as nonhazardous from a chemical hazard perspective. ISV was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) for application to contaminated soils. It is also being adapted for applications to buried waste, underground tanks, and liquid seepage sites. ISV's then-year development period has included tests on many different site conditions. As of January 1991 there have been 74 tests using PNL's ISV equipment; these tests have ranged from technology development tests using nonhazardous conditions to hazardous and radioactive tests. 2 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Fatty acid profile of Canadian dairy products with special attention to the trans-octadecenoic acid and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Sanjaya; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Ratnayake, Walisundera M N

    2008-01-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) produced via partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils increases the risk of coronary heart disease. However, some studies have suggested that ruminant TFA, especially vaccenic acid (VA or 11t-18:1) and rumenic acid (RA or 9c,11t-18:2), which is a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer, may have potential beneficial health effects for humans. To date, no concerted effort has been made to provide detailed isomer composition of ruminant TFA and CLA of Canadian dairy products, information that is required to properly assess their nutritional impacts. To this end, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of popular brands of commercial cheese (n = 17), butter (n = 12), milk (n = 8), and cream (n = 4) sold in retail stores in Ottawa, Canada, in 2006-2007 by silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. The average total TFA content of cheese, butter, milk, and cream samples were 5.6, 5.8, 5.8, and 5.5% of total fatty acids, respectively. VA was the major trans-octadecenoic acid (18:1) isomer in all the Canadian dairy samples with average levels of (as % total trans-18:1) 33.9% in cheese, 35.6% in butter, 31.0% milk, and 30.1% in cream. The different dairy products contained very similar levels of CLA, which ranged from 0.5 to 0.9% of total fat. RA was the major CLA isomer of all the dairy products, accounting for 82.4-83.2% of total CLA. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the fatty acid profile between the 4 different dairy groups, which suggests lack of processing effects on the fatty acid profile of dairy fat.

  17. Power Ultrasound to Process Dairy Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez-Aguirre, Daniela; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.

    Conventional methods of pasteurizing milk involve the use of heat regardless of treatment (batch, high temperature short time - HTST or ultra high temperature - UHT sterilization), and the quality of the milk is affected because of the use of high temperatures. Consequences of thermal treatment are a decrease in nutritional properties through the destruction of vitamins or denaturation of proteins, and sometimes the flavor of milk is undesirably changed. These changes are produced at the same time that the goal of the pasteurization process is achieved, which is to have a microbiological safe product, free of pathogenic bacteria, and to reduce the load of deteriorative microorganisms and enzymes, resulting in a product with a longer storage life.

  18. High conversion TAME and MTBE production process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owens, H.

    1991-01-29

    This patent describes isopentene, or isoamylene, conversion to methyl tertamyl ether that can be substantially improved while high conversion of isobutylene to methyl tert-butyl ether can be maintained by carrying out the overall etherification process with alkanol in a staged manner, wherein the first stage is methanol etherification of a C{sub 5+}, or C{sub 5}, hydrocarbon feedstream rich in isoamylene and the second stage is etherification to produce MTBE and additional TAME from a C{sub 4+}, or C{sub 4}, feedstream. Unreacted methanol and hydrocarbons from the first etherification are uniquely separated by fractionation from the TAME product by using the second stage C{sub 4+} feedstream as a reflux stream to the fractionator and passed to the second etherification zone. Products from the second etherification zone are separated by distillation to produce MTBE, TAME and C{sub 5+}, or C{sub 5}, hydrocarbons as a bottom stream.

  19. Diaromatic sulphur-containing 'naphthenic' acids in process waters.

    PubMed

    West, Charles E; Scarlett, Alan G; Tonkin, Andrew; O'Carroll-Fitzpatrick, Devon; Pureveen, Jos; Tegelaar, Erik; Gieleciak, Rafal; Hager, Darcy; Petersen, Karina; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Rowland, Steven J

    2014-03-15

    Polar organic compounds found in industrial process waters, particularly those originating from biodegraded petroleum residues, include 'naphthenic acids' (NA). Some NA have been shown to have acute toxicity to fish and also to produce sub-lethal effects. Whilst some of these toxic effects are produced by identifiable carboxylic acids, acids such as sulphur-containing acids, which have been detected, but not yet identified, may produce others. Therefore, in the present study, the sulphur-containing acids in oil sands process water were studied. A fraction (ca 12% by weight of the total NA containing ca 1.5% weight sulphur) was obtained by elution of methylated NA through an argentation solid phase extraction column with diethyl ether. This was examined by multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) in both nominal and high resolution mass accuracy modes and by GCxGC-sulphur chemiluminescence detection (GCxGC-SCD). Interpretation of the mass spectra and retention behaviour of methyl esters of several synthesised sulphur acids and the unknowns allowed delimitation of the structures, but not complete identification. Diaromatic sulphur-containing alkanoic acids were suggested. Computer modelling of the toxicities of some of the possible acids suggested they would have similar toxicities to one another and to dehydroabietic acid. However, the sulphur-rich fraction was not toxic or estrogenic to trout hepatocytes, suggesting the concentrations of sulphur acids in this sample were too low to produce any such effects in vitro. Further samples should probably be examined for these compounds. PMID:24252453

  20. Lactic acid production on liquid distillery stillage by Lactobacillus rhamnosus immobilized onto zeolite.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra P; Mojović, Ljiljana V; Jokić, Bojan M; Nikolić, Svetlana B; Pejin, Jelena D

    2013-05-01

    In this study, lactic acid and biomass production on liquid distillery stillage from bioethanol production with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was studied. The cells were immobilized onto zeolite, a microporous aluminosilicate mineral and the lactic acid production with free and immobilized cells was compared. The immobilization allowed simple cell separation from the fermentation media and their reuse in repeated batch cycles. A number of viable cells of over 10(10) CFU g(-1) of zeolite was achieved at the end of fourth fermentation cycle. A maximal process productivity of 1.69 g L(-1), maximal lactic acid concentration of 42.19 g L(-1) and average yield coefficient of 0.96 g g(-1) were achieved in repeated batch fermentation on the liquid stillage without mineral or nitrogen supplementation. PMID:23186681

  1. Lactic acid production on liquid distillery stillage by Lactobacillus rhamnosus immobilized onto zeolite.

    PubMed

    Djukić-Vuković, Aleksandra P; Mojović, Ljiljana V; Jokić, Bojan M; Nikolić, Svetlana B; Pejin, Jelena D

    2013-05-01

    In this study, lactic acid and biomass production on liquid distillery stillage from bioethanol production with Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 was studied. The cells were immobilized onto zeolite, a microporous aluminosilicate mineral and the lactic acid production with free and immobilized cells was compared. The immobilization allowed simple cell separation from the fermentation media and their reuse in repeated batch cycles. A number of viable cells of over 10(10) CFU g(-1) of zeolite was achieved at the end of fourth fermentation cycle. A maximal process productivity of 1.69 g L(-1), maximal lactic acid concentration of 42.19 g L(-1) and average yield coefficient of 0.96 g g(-1) were achieved in repeated batch fermentation on the liquid stillage without mineral or nitrogen supplementation.

  2. Laboratory Studies of the Tropospheric Loss Processes for Acetic and Peracetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

    2002-12-01

    Organic acids are ubiquitous components of tropospheric air and contribute to acid precipitation, particularly in remote regions. These species are present in the troposphere as the result of direct emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, and as the result of photochemical processing of hydrocarbons. Production of organic acids can occur following ozonolysis of unsaturated hydrocarbons, while both organic acids and peroxyacids are formed from the reactions of HO2 with acylperoxy radicals. For example, both acetic and peracetic acid are known products of the reaction of HO2 with acetylperoxy radicals. In this paper, data relevant to the gas-phase tropospheric destruction of both acetic and peracetic acid are reported, including studies of their UV absorption spectra and of their rate coefficients for reaction with OH radicals. The data, the first of their kind for peracetic acid, show that the gas-phase lifetime of this species will be on the order of 10 days, with OH reaction occurring more rapidly than photolysis. Data on the rate coefficient for reaction of OH with acetic acid appear to resolve some conflicting data in the previous literature, and show 1) that reaction of OH with the acetic acid dimer is slow compared to the monomer and 2) that the rate coefficient possesses a negative temperature dependence near room temperature.

  3. Investigation of malic acid production in Aspergillus oryzae under nitrogen starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Knuf, Christoph; Nookaew, Intawat; Brown, Stephen H; McCulloch, Michael; Berry, Alan; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Malic acid has great potential for replacing petrochemical building blocks in the future. For this application, high yields, rates, and titers are essential in order to sustain a viable biotechnological production process. Natural high-capacity malic acid producers like the malic acid producer Aspergillus flavus have so far been disqualified because of special growth requirements or the production of mycotoxins. As A. oryzae is a very close relative or even an ecotype of A. flavus, it is likely that its high malic acid production capabilities with a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status may be combined with already existing large-scale fermentation experience. In order to verify the malic acid production potential, two wild-type strains, NRRL3485 and NRRL3488, were compared in shake flasks. As NRRL3488 showed a volumetric production rate twice as high as that of NRRL3485, this strain was selected for further investigation of the influence of two different nitrogen sources on malic acid secretion. The cultivation in lab-scale fermentors resulted in a higher final titer, 30.27 ± 1.05 g liter(-1), using peptone than the one of 22.27 ± 0.46 g liter(-1) obtained when ammonium was used. Through transcriptome analysis, a binding site similar to the one of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast transcription factor Msn2/4 was identified in the upstream regions of glycolytic genes and the cytosolic malic acid production pathway from pyruvate via oxaloacetate to malate, which suggests that malic acid production is a stress response. Furthermore, the pyruvate carboxylase reaction was identified as a target for metabolic engineering, after it was confirmed to be transcriptionally regulated through the correlation of intracellular fluxes and transcriptional changes.

  4. Entropy production in irreversible processes with friction.

    PubMed

    Bizarro, João P S

    2008-08-01

    Established expressions for entropy production in irreversible processes are generalized to include friction explicitly, as a source of irreversibility in the interaction between a system and its surroundings. The net amount of heat delivered to the system does not come now only from the reservoir, but may have an additional component coming from the work done against friction forces and dissipated as heat. To avoid ambiguities in interpreting the different contributions to entropy increase, the latter is also written in terms of the heat directly exchanged between the system and surroundings and of the fraction of frictional work that is lost in the system. PMID:18850816

  5. 40 CFR 158.330 - Description of production process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... production (reaction) processes used to produce the active ingredients in the product. The applicant must... from an EPA-registered product. If the production process is not continuous (a single reaction process... chemical equations of each intended reaction occurring at each step of the process, and of the duration...

  6. Process for production of a metal hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  7. Cellulase production by the anaerobic digestion process

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.W.; van den Berg, L.

    1981-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion process is described for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using a methanogenic cellulose-enrichment culture. After a heat treatment designed to destroy all but spore-forming bacteria, this culture produced cellulase from a variety of cellulosic materials as well as from cellobiose. The enzyme system contained endo- and exoglucanase, acted on filter paper, and showed cellobiase and xylanase activities. It was stable at 2/sup 0/C under aerobic conditions and showed a pH optimum at 5 and a temperature optimum at 50/sup 0/C. Endoglucanase and filter paper activities were mostly exogenic, whereas cellobiase and xylanase activities were cell associated. The cellulolytic activity produced by this mixed culture was comparable to that of commercially available fungal preparations, and the process could be useful as an alternate source for these enzymes.

  8. Microbial lipid production from potato processing wastewater using oleaginous filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Iniya Kumar; Xiao, Liwen; Hu, Zhenhu; Zhan, Xinmin; Shi, Jianghong

    2013-06-15

    Use of potato processing wastewater for microbial lipid production by oleaginous filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was studied with the purpose of recycling potato processing wastewater for biodiesel production. The wastewater contained high concentrations of solids, starch and nutrients. Sterilization of the potato processing wastewater resulted in a thick gelatinized medium, causing the fungi to grow slow. In order to overcome this problem, the wastewater was diluted with tap water at three dilution ratios (25%, 50% and 75% before fermentation). Dilution of the wastewater not only enhanced lipid production, starch utilization and amylase secretion but also COD and nutrient removal. The dilution ratio of 25% was found to be optimum for lipid production and the maximum lipid concentration obtained was 3.5 g/L. Lipid accumulation was influenced by amylase secretion, and the amylase activity was up to 53.5 IU/mL at 25% dilution. The results show that phosphate limitation may be the mechanism to stimulate the lipid accumulation. In addition to lipid production, removals of COD, total soluble nitrogen and total soluble phosphorus up to 91%, 98% and 97% were achieved, respectively. Microbial lipids of A. oryzae contained major fatty acids such as palmitic acid (11.6%), palmitolic acid (15.6%), stearic acid (19.3%), oleic acid (30.3%), linolenic acid (5.5%) and linoleic acid (6.5%) suggesting that the lipids be suitable for second generation biodiesel production.

  9. Effect of fermentation conditions on the production of citric acid from cheese whey by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    el-Samragy, Y A; Khorshid, M A; Foda, M I; Shehata, A E

    1996-04-01

    The effect of pH value, methanol, and salt concentration on the production of citric acid from cheese whey by two strains of Aspergillus niger, i.e. CAIM 111 and CAIM 167, was investigated. Lactose concentration, utilized lactose, citric acid concentration, conversion coefficient of lactose to citric acid, and mycelial dry weight were measured during the fermentation process. The maximum citric acid concentration (1.06 and 0.82 g/l), and conversion coefficient (5.58 and 7.45%) were obtained at pH 3.5 after 9 days of fermentation for A. niger CAIM 111 and A. niger CAIM 167, respectively. The presence of 4% (v/v) methanol in the fermentation medium increased the amount of citric acid produced by A. niger CAIM 111 and A. niger CAIM 167 by 23% and 18%, respectively. Both strains showed a high ability to utilize lactose for the production of citric acid when grown in the presence of 10% (w/v) salt. The conversion coefficient of lactose to citric acid was 28.24% for A. niger CAIM 111 and 25.60% for A. niger CAIM 167 when the fermentation medium had a 10% (w/v) level of salt. The cumulative effect of fermentation medium pH (3.5), methanol concentration (4%, v/v) and salt concentration (10%, w/v) during the fermentation process of whey did not enhance the production of citric acid by A. niger CAIM 111, while it did increase the production of citric acid by A. niger CAIM 167 by about 4-fold.

  10. Process and apparatus for electrolysis of hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Minz, F.; Wiechers, H.

    1980-12-02

    In the production of chlorine and hydrogen from hydrochloric acid by electrolysis in an electrolysis cell comprising a plurality of vertically arranged bipolar electrodes, a diaphragm arranged between each two electrodes to divide the electrolysis chambers formed between them into an anolyte chamber and a catholyte chamber, and outlet and inlet devices for the electrolyte, the improvement which comprises electrolyzing the hydrochloric acid in at least two successive stages, and degassing the hydrochloric acid. Advantageously the hydrochloric acid moves from bottom to top, first through an upper stage and then through a lower stage. As a result less electrode surface is needed, a higher current density and/or voltage is possible so existing apparatus can be modified to connect more bipolar electrodes in series.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  12. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Bifidobacteria: Screening, Kinetic, and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Quartieri, Andrea; Gozzoli, Caterina; Rossi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid involved in a number of health aspects. In humans, CLA production is performed by gut microbiota, including some species of potential probiotic bifidobacteria. 128 strains of 31 Bifidobacterium species were screened with a spectrophotometric assay to identify novel CLA producers. Most species were nonproducers, while producers belonged to B. breve and B. pseudocatenulatum. GC-MS revealed that CLA producer strains yielded 9cis,11trans-CLA and 9trans,11trans-CLA, without any production of other isomers. Hydroxylated forms of LA were absent in producer strains, suggesting that the myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein that exerts hydratase activity is not involved in LA isomerization. Moreover, both CLA producer and nonproducer species bear a MCRA homologue. The strain B. breve WC 0421 was the best CLA producer, converting LA into 68.8% 9cis,11trans-CLA and 25.1% 9trans,11trans-CLA. Production occurred mostly during the lag and the exponential phase. For the first time, production and incorporation of CLA in biomass were assessed. B. breve WC 0421 stored CLA in the form of free fatty acids, without changing the composition of the esterified fatty acids, which mainly occurred in the plasmatic membrane. PMID:27429985

  13. Evaluating risks to agricultural production from acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Oden, N.L.; Medeiros, W.H.; Coveney, E.A.

    1986-10-01

    Although it has been established that agricultural yields can be affected adversely by ozone and other air pollutants, the effects of existing levels of acid deposition on crops are less well understood. Evaluations of potential effects from growth chamber, greenhouse and field experiments have not identified any single crop as being consistently sensitive to acid deposition. Quantitative analysis of one crop (soybeans), which has demonstrated some sensitivity to acid deposition treatments in field settings, suggest that if current acid deposition levels are reduced by 50%, then US soybean production would increase by approximately 1%. These estimates are based on the fundamental assumption that estimated dose-response functions are homogeneous across biologic, geographic and temporal space; an assumption not supported by recently developed experimental data. As a result, confidence in this conclusion is weak.

  14. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3770 Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen...

  15. Efficient production of free fatty acids from soybean meal carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Thakker, Chandresh; Liu, Ping; Bennett, George N; San, Ka-Yiu

    2015-11-01

    Conversion of biomass feedstock to chemicals and fuels has attracted increasing attention recently. Soybean meal, containing significant quantities of carbohydrates, is an inexpensive renewable feedstock. Glucose, galactose, and fructose can be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of soluble carbohydrates of soybean meal. Free fatty acids (FFAs) are valuable molecules that can be used as precursors for the production of fuels and other value-added chemicals. In this study, free fatty acids were produced by mutant Escherichia coli strains with plasmid pXZ18Z (carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE) and (3R)-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase) using individual sugars, sugar mixtures, and enzymatic hydrolyzed soybean meal extract. For individual sugar fermentations, strain ML211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) )/pXZ18Z showed the best performance, which produced 4.22, 3.79, 3.49 g/L free fatty acids on glucose, fructose, and galactose, respectively. While the strain ML211/pXZ18Z performed the best with individual sugars, however, for sugar mixture fermentation, the triple mutant strain XZK211 (MG1655 fadD(-) fabR(-) ptsG(-) )/pXZ18Z with an additional deletion of ptsG encoding the glucose-specific transporter, functioned the best due to relieved catabolite repression. This strain produced approximately 3.18 g/L of fatty acids with a yield of 0.22 g fatty acids/g total sugar. Maximum free fatty acids production of 2.78 g/L with a high yield of 0.21 g/g was achieved using soybean meal extract hydrolysate. The results suggested that soybean meal carbohydrates after enzymatic treatment could serve as an inexpensive feedstock for the efficient production of free fatty acids.

  16. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Natalia A; Valdez, Alejandra L; Fariña, Julia I

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259

  17. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Natalia A.; Valdez, Alejandra L.; Fariña, Julia I.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a β-1,3-β-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length, and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc.), and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc.) applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high exopolysaccharide concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined. PMID:26528259

  18. Thraustochytrids as production organisms for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), squalene, and carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Aasen, Inga Marie; Ertesvåg, Helga; Heggeset, Tonje Marita Bjerkan; Liu, Bin; Brautaset, Trygve; Vadstein, Olav; Ellingsen, Trond E

    2016-05-01

    Thraustochytrids have been applied for industrial production of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic (DHA) since the 1990s. During more than 20 years of research on this group of marine, heterotrophic microorganisms, considerable increases in DHA productivities have been obtained by process and medium optimization. Strains of thraustochytrids also produce high levels of squalene and carotenoids, two other commercially interesting compounds with a rapidly growing market potential, but where yet few studies on process optimization have been reported. Thraustochytrids use two pathways for fatty acid synthesis. The saturated fatty acids are produced by the standard fatty acid synthesis, while DHA is synthesized by a polyketide synthase. However, fundamental knowledge about the relationship between the two pathways is still lacking. In the present review, we extract main findings from the high number of reports on process optimization for DHA production and interpret these in the light of the current knowledge of DHA synthesis in thraustochytrids and lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms in general. We also summarize published reports on squalene and carotenoid production and review the current status on strain improvement, which has been hampered by the yet very few published genome sequences and the lack of tools for gene transfer to the organisms. As more sequences now are becoming available, targets for strain improvement can be identified and open for a system-level metabolic engineering for improved productivities. PMID:27041691

  19. Ferric chloride based downstream process for microalgae based biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Sung, Mina; Kim, Bohwa; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Dong Yeon; Han, Jong-In

    2015-04-01

    In this study, ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used to integrate downstream processes (harvesting, lipid extraction, and esterification). At concentration of 200 mg/L and at pH 3, FeCl3 exhibited an expected degree of coagulation and an increase in cell density of ten times (170 mg/10 mL). An iron-mediated oxidation reaction, Fenton-like reaction, was used to extract lipid from the harvested biomass, and efficiency of 80% was obtained with 0.5% H2O2 at 90 °C. The iron compound was also employed in the esterification step, and converted free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters under acidic conditions; thus, the fatal problem of saponification during esterification with alkaline catalysts was avoided, and esterification efficiency over 90% was obtained. This study clearly showed that FeCl3 in the harvesting process is beneficial in all downstream steps and have a potential to greatly reduce the production cost of microalgae-originated biodiesel.

  20. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  1. Detoxification of acidic biorefinery waste liquor for production of high value amino acid.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Meera; Anusree, Murali; Mathew, Anil K; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The current study evaluates the detoxification of acid pretreatment liquor (APL) using adsorbent (ADS 400 & ADS 800) or ion-exchange (A-27MP & A-72MP) resins and its potential for amino acid production. The APL is generated as a by-product from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and is rich monomeric sugars as well as sugar degradation products (fermentation inhibitors) such as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Of the four resins compared, ADS 800 removed approximately 85% and 60% of furfural and HMF, respectively. ADS 800 could be reused for up to six cycles after regeneration without losing its adsorption properties. The study was further extended by assessing the fermentability of detoxified APL for l-lysine production using wild and mutant strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The detoxified APL was superior to APL for l-lysine production.

  2. Coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization process for production of polymeric composite microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingxing; Qin, Hao; Yin, Zhenyuan; Hua, Jinsong; Pack, Daniel W.; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric composite microspheres consisting of a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core surrounded by a poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) shell layer were successfully fabricated by coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization (CEHDA) process. Process conditions, including nozzle voltage and polymer solution flow rates, as well as solution parameters, such as polymer concentrations, were investigated to ensure the formation of composite microspheres with a doxorubicin-loaded PLGA core surrounded by a relatively drug-free PDLLA shell layer. Various microsphere formulations were fabricated and characterized in terms of their drug distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release. Numerical simulation of CEHDA process was performed based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model in Fluent by employing the process conditions and fluid properties used in the experiments. The simulation results were compared with the experimental work to illustrate the capability of the CFD model to predict the production of consistent compound droplets, and hence, the expected core-shell structured microspheres. PMID:24347672

  3. Coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization process for production of polymeric composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingxing; Qin, Hao; Yin, Zhenyuan; Hua, Jinsong; Pack, Daniel W; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2013-12-18

    Polymeric composite microspheres consisting of a poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core surrounded by a poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) shell layer were successfully fabricated by coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization (CEHDA) process. Process conditions, including nozzle voltage and polymer solution flow rates, as well as solution parameters, such as polymer concentrations, were investigated to ensure the formation of composite microspheres with a doxorubicin-loaded PLGA core surrounded by a relatively drug-free PDLLA shell layer. Various microsphere formulations were fabricated and characterized in terms of their drug distribution, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release. Numerical simulation of CEHDA process was performed based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model in Fluent by employing the process conditions and fluid properties used in the experiments. The simulation results were compared with the experimental work to illustrate the capability of the CFD model to predict the production of consistent compound droplets, and hence, the expected core-shell structured microspheres.

  4. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts.

  5. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    PubMed Central

    Refsgaard, Hanne H. F.; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(III)/O2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate < methyl linolenate < methyl arachidonate. The amounts of alkyl hydroperoxides, malondialdehyde, and a number of other aldehydes that accumulated when polyunsaturated fatty acids were oxidized in the presence of BSA were significantly lower than that observed in the absence of BSA. Direct treatment of proteins with various lipid hydroperoxides led to a slight increase in the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives, whereas treatment with the hydroperoxides together with Fe(II) led to a substantial increase in the formation of protein carbonyls. These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (α,β-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues (Michael addition reactions) and also by interactions with alkoxyl radicals obtained by Fe(II) cleavage of lipid hydroperoxides that are formed. In addition, saturated aldehydes derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids likely react with lysine residues to form Schiff base adducts. PMID:10639127

  6. Oxygen production processes on the Moon: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Carrier, W. David, III

    1991-01-01

    The production of oxygen on the Moon utilizing indigenous material is paramount to a successful lunar colonization. Several processes were put forth to accomplish this. The lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) generation schemes which have received the most study to date are those involving: (1) the reduction of ilmenite (FeTiO3) by H2, C, CO, CH4, CO-Cl2 plasma; (2) magma electrolysis, both unadulterated and fluoride-fluxed, and (3) several others, including carbo-chlorination, HF acid leaching, fluorine extraction, magma oxidation, and vapor pyrolysis. The H2 reduction of ilmenite and magma electrolysis processes have received the most study to date. At this stage of development, they both appear feasible schemes with various pros and cons. However, all processes should be addressed at least at the onset of the considerations. It is ultimatley the energy requirements of the entire process, including the acquisition of feedstock, which will determine the mode of oxygen productions. There is an obvious need for considerably more experimentation and study. Some of these requisite studies are in progress, and several of the most studied and feasible processes for winning oxygen from lunar materials are reviewed.

  7. The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

    2000-05-07

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  8. The Effect of Pretreatments on Surfactin Production From Potato Process Effluent by Bacillus Subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neal; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

    2000-05-01

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  9. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure. PMID:26484732

  10. High Acetic Acid Production Rate Obtained by Microbial Electrosynthesis from Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Jourdin, Ludovic; Grieger, Timothy; Monetti, Juliette; Flexer, Victoria; Freguia, Stefano; Lu, Yang; Chen, Jun; Romano, Mark; Wallace, Gordon G; Keller, Jurg

    2015-11-17

    High product specificity and production rate are regarded as key success parameters for large-scale applicability of a (bio)chemical reaction technology. Here, we report a significant performance enhancement in acetate formation from CO2, reaching comparable productivity levels as in industrial fermentation processes (volumetric production rate and product yield). A biocathode current density of -102 ± 1 A m(-2) and an acetic acid production rate of 685 ± 30 (g m(-2) day(-1)) have been achieved in this study. High recoveries of 94 ± 2% of the CO2 supplied as the sole carbon source and 100 ± 4% of electrons into the final product (acetic acid) were achieved after development of a mature biofilm, reaching an elevated product titer of up to 11 g L(-1). This high product specificity is remarkable for mixed microbial cultures, which would make the product downstream processing easier and the technology more attractive. This performance enhancement was enabled through the combination of a well-acclimatized and enriched microbial culture (very fast start-up after culture transfer), coupled with the use of a newly synthesized electrode material, EPD-3D. The throwing power of the electrophoretic deposition technique, a method suitable for large-scale production, was harnessed to form multiwalled carbon nanotube coatings onto reticulated vitreous carbon to generate a hierarchical porous structure.

  11. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  12. Production of lactic acid from paper sludge using acid-tolerant, thermophilic Bacillus coagulan strains.

    PubMed

    Budhavaram, Naresh K; Fan, Zhiliang

    2009-12-01

    Production of lactic acid from paper sludge was studied using thermophilic Bacillus coagulan strains 36D1 and P4-102B. More than 80% of lactic acid yield and more than 87% of cellulose conversion were achieved using both strains without any pH control due to the buffering effect of CaCO(3) in paper sludge. The addition of CaCO(3) as the buffering reagent in rich medium increased lactic acid yield but had little effect on cellulose conversion; when lean medium was utilized, the addition of CaCO(3) had little effect on either cellulose conversion or lactic acid yield. Lowering the fermentation temperature lowered lactic acid yield but increased cellulose conversion. Semi-continuous simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) using medium containing 100 g/L cellulose equivalent paper sludge without pH control was carried out in serum bottles for up to 1000 h. When rich medium was utilized, the average lactic acid concentrations in steady state for strains 36D1 and P4-102B were 92 g/L and 91.7 g/L, respectively, and lactic acid yields were 77% and 78%. The average lactic acid concentrations produced using semi-continuous SSCF with lean medium were 77.5 g/L and 77.0 g/L for strains 36D1 and P4-102B, respectively, and lactic acid yields were 72% and 75%. The productivities at steady state were 0.96 g/L/h and 0.82 g/L/h for both strains in rich medium and lean medium, respectively. Our data support that B. coagulan strains 36D1 and P4-102B are promising for converting paper sludge to lactic acid via SSCF.

  13. Cascaded processing in written compound word production

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Raymond; Tønnessen, Finn Egil; Strömqvist, Sven; Hyönä, Jukka; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the intricate interplay between central linguistic processing and peripheral motor processes during typewriting. Participants had to typewrite two-constituent (noun-noun) Finnish compounds in response to picture presentation while their typing behavior was registered. As dependent measures we used writing onset time to assess what processes were completed before writing and inter-key intervals to assess what processes were going on during writing. It was found that writing onset time was determined by whole word frequency rather than constituent frequencies, indicating that compound words are retrieved as whole orthographic units before writing is initiated. In addition, we found that the length of the first syllable also affects writing onset time, indicating that the first syllable is fully prepared before writing commences. The inter-key interval results showed that linguistic planning is not fully ready before writing, but cascades into the motor execution phase. More specifically, inter-key intervals were largest at syllable and morpheme boundaries, supporting the view that additional linguistic planning takes place at these boundaries. Bigram and trigram frequency also affected inter-key intervals with shorter intervals corresponding to higher frequencies. This can be explained by stronger memory traces for frequently co-occurring letter sequences in the motor memory for typewriting. These frequency effects were even larger in the second than in the first constituent, indicating that low-level motor memory starts to become more important during the course of writing compound words. We discuss our results in the light of current models of morphological processing and written word production. PMID:25954182

  14. Multistage process for the production of bioethanol from almond shell.

    PubMed

    Kacem, Imen; Koubaa, Mohamed; Maktouf, Sameh; Chaari, Fatma; Najar, Taha; Chaabouni, Moncef; Ettis, Nadia; Ellouz Chaabouni, Semia

    2016-07-01

    This work describes the feasibility of using almond shell as feedstock for bioethanol production. A pre-treatment step was carried out using 4% NaOH for 60min at 121°C followed by 1% sulfuric acid for 60min at 121°C. Enzymatic saccharification of the pre-treated almond shell was performed using Penicillium occitanis enzymes. The process was optimized using a hybrid design with four parameters including the incubation time, temperature, enzyme loads, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration. The optimum hydrolysis conditions led to a sugar yield of 13.5%. A detoxification step of the enzymatic hydrolysate was carried out at pH 5 using 1U/ml of laccase enzyme produced by Polyporus ciliatus. Fermenting efficiency of the hydrolysates was greatly improved by laccase treatment, increasing the ethanol yield from 30% to 84%. These results demonstrated the efficiency of using almond shell as a promising source for bioethanol production. PMID:27017125

  15. [Study on preparation process of artesunate polylactic acid microspheres].

    PubMed

    Pan, Xu-Wang; Wang, Wei; Fang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Fu-Gen; Cai, Zhao-Bin

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the preparation process and in vitro release behavior of artesunate polylactic acid microspheres, in order to prepare an artesunate polylactic acid (PLA) administration method suitable for hepatic arterial embolization. With PLA as the material and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the emulsifier, O/W emulsion/solvent evaporation method was adopted to prepare artesunate polylactic acid microspheres, and optimize the preparation process. With drug loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and particle size as indexes, a single factor analysis was made on PLA concentration, PVA concentration, drug loading ratio and stirring velocity. Through an orthogonal experiment, the optimal processing conditions were determined as follows: PLA concentration was 9. 0% , PVA concentration was 0. 9% , drug loading ratio was 1:2 and stirring velocity was 1 000 r x min(-1). According to the verification of the optimal process, microsphere size, drug loading and entrapment rate of artesunate polylactic acid microspheres were (101.7 +/- 0.37) microm, (30.8 +/- 0.84)%, (53.6 +/- 0.62)%, respectively. The results showed that the optimal process was so reasonable and stable that it could lay foundation for further studies.

  16. Succinic acid production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by Basfia succiniciproducens.

    PubMed

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Smith, Holly; St John, Peter C; Mohagheghi, Ali; Peterson, Darren J; Black, Brenna A; Dowe, Nancy; Beckham, Gregg T

    2016-08-01

    The production of chemicals alongside fuels will be essential to enhance the feasibility of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Succinic acid (SA), a naturally occurring C4-diacid, is a primary intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a promising building block chemical that has received significant industrial attention. Basfia succiniciproducens is a relatively unexplored SA-producing bacterium with advantageous features such as broad substrate utilization, genetic tractability, and facultative anaerobic metabolism. Here B. succiniciproducens is evaluated in high xylose-content hydrolysates from corn stover and different synthetic media in batch fermentation. SA titers in hydrolysate at an initial sugar concentration of 60g/L reached up to 30g/L, with metabolic yields of 0.69g/g, and an overall productivity of 0.43g/L/h. These results demonstrate that B. succiniciproducens may be an attractive platform organism for bio-SA production from biomass hydrolysates. PMID:27179951

  17. Use of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) acid hydrolysate for microbial oil production by Trichosporon cutaneum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Fang; Huang, Chao; Xiong, Lian; Wang, Bo; Qi, Gao-Xiang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Can; Chen, Xin-De

    2016-10-01

    Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) dilute acid hydrolysate contains 34.6 g/L total sugars. The potential of lipid production by oleaginous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum grown on elephant grass acid hydrolysate was investigated for the first time. During the fermentation process on the elephant grass acid hydrolysate, glucose, xylose, and arabinose could be well utilized as carbon sources by T. cutaneum. Interestingly, xylose was almost no use before glucose was consumed completely. This illustrated that simultaneous saccharification of xylose and glucose by T. cutaneum did not occur on elephant grass acid hydrolysate. The highest biomass, lipid content, lipid yield, and lipid coefficient of T. cutaneum were measured after the sixth day of fermentation and were 22.76 g/L, 24.0%, 5.46 g/L, and 16.1%, respectively. Therefore, elephant grass is a promising raw material for microbial oil production by T. cutaneum.

  18. Biomass and organic acids in sandstone of a weathering building: Production by bacterial and fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R J; Siebert, J; Hirsch, P

    1991-12-01

    Ten fungal and nine bacterial strains were isolated from a weathering sandstone building. Their growth, organic acid production, and acidification capacity were assessed in culture under nutritional conditions similar to those in situ. Biomass (10-50 nmol phospholipid-PO4g(-1)) within the rock was small compared to soils. The isolated organisms were able to produce high amounts of those acids found in the sandstone, but acid production did not cause a drastic reduction in culture pH. It is suggested that the importance of acidification in microbial degradation of sandstone has been overestimated and that, under in situ pH and nutritional conditions, cation chelation by microbially produced organic acid anions may be more relevant to the weathering process.

  19. Emissions involved in acidic deposition processes: Methodology and results

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.

    1990-01-01

    Data on the emissions involved in atmospheric acid-base chemistry are crucial to the assessment of acidic deposition and its effects. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the primary chemical compounds involved in acidic deposition processes. In addition, other emission species -- e.g., ammonia, alkaline dust particles, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride -- are involved in atmospheric acid-base chemistry, either by contributing acidic constituents or by neutralizing acidic species. Several emissions data bases have been developed under the auspices of the National Acid Precipitation Program (NAPAP). In addition to those developed by NAPAP, emissions data bases and emissions trends estimates also have been developed by organizations such as the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This paper briefly describes and compares the methods used in developing these emissions data bases and presents an overview of their emissions estimates. A more detailed discussion of these topics can be found in the State-of-Science Report on emissions recently released by NAPAP and in the references cited in that report. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Enlarged processing window of plasticized wheat gluten using salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Ullsten, N Henrik; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva; Gräslund, Astrid; Hedenqvist, Mikael S

    2006-03-01

    The temperature window for the extrusion of glycerol-plasticized wheat gluten was increased by the use of salicylic acid, a known scorch retarder and radical scavenger. It was possible to extrude 30 wt % glycerol-wheat gluten films with a die-head temperature as high as 135 degrees C, rather than 95 degrees C, by incorporating only 1 wt % salicylic acid. Small effects of shear-induced heating during extrusion at the higher temperatures suggested that the acid acted as a lubricant and viscosity reducer. The latter was suggested to originate primarily from the salicylic-acid-induced reduction in the degree of protein aggregation/cross-linking, as indicated by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography and chemiluminescence. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy on extruded films indicated that the beneficial effect of salicylic acid was due to its radical scavenging effect. Tensile tests on extrudates revealed that the materials produced at the substantially higher processing temperature were still ductile. The complex shear modulus increased more slowly with increasing salicylic acid content above 110-120 degrees C, indicating that the aggregation/cross-linking rate was slower with salicylic acid, that is, that it did have a scorch-retarding effect, besides yielding a lower final degree/complexity of aggregation.

  1. Detoxification of corncob acid hydrolysate with SAA pretreatment and xylitol production by immobilized Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li-Hong; Tang, Yong; Liu, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Xylitol fermentation production from corncob acid hydrolysate has become an attractive and promising process. However, corncob acid hydrolysate cannot be directly used as fermentation substrate owing to various inhibitors. In this work, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was employed to reduce the inhibitors in acid hydrolysate. After detoxification, the corncob acid hydrolysate was fermented by immobilized Candida tropicalis cell to produce xylitol. Results revealed that SAA pretreatment showed high delignification and efficient removal of acetyl group compounds without effect on cellulose and xylan content. Acetic acid was completely removed, and the content of phenolic compounds was reduced by 80%. Furthermore, kinetic behaviors of xylitol production by immobilized C. tropicalis cell were elucidated from corncob acid hydrolysate detoxified with SAA pretreatment and two-step adsorption method, respectively. The immobilized C. tropicalis cell showed higher productivity efficiency using the corncob acid hydrolysate as fermentation substrate after detoxification with SAA pretreatment than by two-step adsorption method in the five successive batch fermentation rounds. After the fifth round fermentation, about 60 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for SAA pretreatment detoxification, while about 30 g xylitol/L fermentation substrate was obtained for two-step adsorption detoxification.

  2. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  3. Production of lactic acid from sucrose: strain selection, fermentation, and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Lunelli, Betânia H; Andrade, Rafael R; Atala, Daniel I P; Wolf Maciel, Maria Regina; Maugeri Filho, Francisco; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2010-05-01

    Lactic acid is an important product arising from the anaerobic fermentation of sugars. It is used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical, and food industries as well as for biodegradable polymer and green solvent production. In this work, several bacterial strains were isolated from industrial ethanol fermentation, and the most efficient strain for lactic acid production was selected. The fermentation was conducted in a batch system under anaerobic conditions for 50 h at a temperature of 34 degrees C, a pH value of 5.0, and an initial sucrose concentration of 12 g/L using diluted sugarcane molasses. Throughout the process, pulses of molasses were added in order to avoid the cell growth inhibition due to high sugar concentration as well as increased lactic acid concentrations. At the end of the fermentation, about 90% of sucrose was consumed to produce lactic acid and cells. A kinetic model has been developed to simulate the batch lactic acid fermentation results. The data obtained from the fermentation were used for determining the kinetic parameters of the model. The developed model for lactic acid production, growth cell, and sugar consumption simulates the experimental data well.

  4. Kinetic modeling of lactic acid production from batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Tango, M.S.A.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-12-01

    A kinetic model for the production of lactic acid through batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey using Lactobacillus helveticus was developed. The model accounts for the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition, lactic acid inhibition, maintenance energy and cell death on the cell growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production during the fermentation process. The model was evaluated using experimental data from Tango and Ghaly (1999). The predicted results obtained from the model compared well with experimental (R{sup 2} = 0.92--0.98). The model was also used to investigate the effect of the initial substrate concentration on the lag period, fermentation time, specific growth rate, and cell productivity during batch fermentation. The maximum specific growth rate ({micro}{sub m}), the saturation constant (K{sub S}), the substrate inhibition constant (K{sub IS}), and the lactic acid inhibition constant (K{sub IP}) were found to be 0.25h{sup {minus}1}, 0.9 g/L, 250.0 g/L, and 60.0 g/L, respectively. High initial lactose concentration in cheese whey reduced both the specific growth rate and substrate utilization rate due to the substrate inhibition phenomenon. The maximum lactic acid production occurred at about 100 g/L initial lactose concentration after 40 h of fermentation. The maximum lactic acid concentration above which Lactobacillus helveticus did not grow was found to be 80.0 g/L.

  5. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth.

  6. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth. PMID:23922685

  7. L-Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 10863

    PubMed Central

    Senedese, Ana Lívia Chemeli; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid has been shown to have the most promising application in biomaterials as poly(lactic acid). L. rhamnosus ATCC 10863 that produces L-lactic acid was used to perform the fermentation and molasses was used as substrate. A solution containing 27.6 g/L of sucrose (main composition of molasses) and 3.0 g/L of yeast extract was prepared, considering the final volume of 3,571 mL (14.0% (v/v) inoculum). Batch and fed batch fermentations were performed with temperature of 43.4°C and pH of 5.0. At the fed batch, three molasses feed were applied at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Samples were taken every two hours and the amounts of lactic acid, sucrose, glucose, and fructose were determined by HPLC. The sucrose was barely consumed at both processes; otherwise the glucose and fructose were almost entirely consumed. 16.5 g/L of lactic acid was produced at batch and 22.0 g/L at fed batch. Considering that lactic acid was produced due to the low concentration of the well consumed sugars, the final amount was considerable. The cell growth was checked and no substrate inhibition was observed. A sucrose molasses hydrolysis is suggested to better avail the molasses fermentation with this strain, surely increasing the L-lactic acid. PMID:25922852

  8. Combinatorial Effects of Fatty Acid Elongase Enzymes on Nervonic Acid Production in Camelina sativa

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Dongxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chunyu; Cahoon, Edgar B.; Zhou, Yongming

    2015-01-01

    Very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) with chain lengths of 20 carbons and longer provide feedstocks for various applications; therefore, improvement of VLCFA contents in seeds has become an important goal for oilseed enhancement. VLCFA biosynthesis is controlled by a multi-enzyme protein complex referred to as fatty acid elongase, which is composed of β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS), β-ketoacyl-CoA reductase (KCR), β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase (HCD) and enoyl reductase (ECR). KCS has been identified as the rate-limiting enzyme, but little is known about the involvement of other three enzymes in VLCFA production. Here, the combinatorial effects of fatty acid elongase enzymes on VLCFA production were assessed by evaluating the changes in nervonic acid content. A KCS gene from Lunaria annua (LaKCS) and the other three elongase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were used for the assessment. Five seed-specific expressing constructs, including LaKCS alone, LaKCS with AtKCR, LaKCS with AtHCD, LaKCS with AtECR, and LaKCS with AtKCR and AtHCD, were transformed into Camelina sativa. The nervonic acid content in seed oil increased from null in wild type camelina to 6-12% in LaKCS-expressing lines. However, compared with that from the LaKCS-expressing lines, nervonic acid content in mature seeds from the co-expressing lines with one or two extra elongase genes did not show further increases. Nervonic acid content from LaKCS, AtKCR and AtHCD co-expressing line was significantly higher than that in LaKCS-expressing line during early seed development stage, while the ultimate nervonic acid content was not significantly altered. The results from this study thus provide useful information for future engineering of oilseed crops for higher VLCFA production. PMID:26121034

  9. Engineering E. coli–E. coli cocultures for production of muconic acid from glycerol

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Haoran; Li, Zhengjun; Pereira, Brian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2015-09-15

    cis, cis-Muconic acid is an important chemical that can be biosynthesized from simple substrates in engineered microorganisms. Recently, it has been shown that engineering microbial cocultures is an emerging and promising approach for biochemical production. In this study, we aim to explore the potential of the E. coli–E. coli coculture system to use a single renewable carbon source, glycerol, for the production of value-added product cis, cis-muconic acid. As a result, two coculture engineering strategies were investigated. In the first strategy, an E. coli strain containing the complete biosynthesis pathway was co-cultivated with another E. coli strain containing only amore » heterologous intermediate-to-product biosynthetic pathway. In the second strategy, the upstream and downstream pathways were accommodated in two separate E. coli strains, each of which was dedicated to one portion of the biosynthesis process. Compared with the monoculture approach, both coculture engineering strategies improved the production significantly. Using a batch bioreactor, the engineered coculture achieved a 2 g/L muconic acid production with a yield of 0.1 g/g. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that coculture engineering is a viable option for producing muconic acid from glycerol. Moreover, microbial coculture systems are shown to have the potential for converting single carbon source to value-added products.« less

  10. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound. PMID:27226531

  11. Natural Product Anacardic Acid from Cashew Nut Shells Stimulates Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Production and Bactericidal Activity.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Andrew; Corriden, Ross; Gysler, Gabriela; Dahesh, Samira; Olson, Joshua; Raza Ali, Syed; Kunkel, Maya T; Lin, Ann E; Forli, Stefano; Newton, Alexandra C; Kumar, Geetha B; Nair, Bipin G; Perry, J Jefferson P; Nizet, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is an issue of great clinical importance, and new approaches to therapy are urgently needed. Anacardic acid, the primary active component of cashew nut shell extract, is a natural product used in the treatment of a variety of medical conditions, including infectious abscesses. Here, we investigate the effects of this natural product on the function of human neutrophils. We find that anacardic acid stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and neutrophil extracellular traps, two mechanisms utilized by neutrophils to kill invading bacteria. Molecular modeling and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest anacardic acid stimulation of neutrophils occurs in a PI3K-dependent manner through activation of surface-expressed G protein-coupled sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Neutrophil extracellular traps produced in response to anacardic acid are bactericidal and complement select direct antimicrobial activities of the compound.

  12. High-efficiency l-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae using a novel modified one-step fermentation strategy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yong-Qian; Yin, Long-Fei; Zhu, Hua-Yue; Jiang, Ru

    2016-10-01

    In this study, lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae was investigated using the two different fermentation strategies of one-step fermentation (OSF) and conventional fermentation (CF). Compared to CF, OSF reduced the demurrage of the production process and increased the production of lactic acid. However, the qp was significantly lower than during CF. Based on analysis of μ, qs and qp, a novel modified OSF strategy was proposed. This strategy aimed to achieve a high final concentration of lactic acid, and a high qp by R. oryzae. In this strategy, the maximum lactic acid concentration and productivity of the lactic acid production stage reached 158g/l and 5.45g/(lh), which were 177% and 366% higher, respectively, than the best results from CF. Importantly, the qp and yield did not decrease. This strategy is a convenient and economical method for l-lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae.

  13. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  14. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  15. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). 721.10448 Section 721.10448 Protection... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methylester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  17. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process controls. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall develop, conduct, control, and monitor production...

  18. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process controls. (a) General. Each manufacturer shall develop, conduct, control, and monitor production...

  19. Valproic Acid Induces Antimicrobial Compound Production in Doratomyces microspores.

    PubMed

    Zutz, Christoph; Bacher, Markus; Parich, Alexandra; Kluger, Bernhard; Gacek-Matthews, Agnieszka; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Strauss, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in public health is the rising number of antibiotic resistant pathogens and the lack of novel antibiotics. In recent years there is a rising focus on fungi as sources of antimicrobial compounds due to their ability to produce a large variety of bioactive compounds and the observation that virtually every fungus may still contain yet unknown so called "cryptic," often silenced, compounds. These putative metabolites could include novel bioactive compounds. Considerable effort is spent on methods to induce production of these "cryptic" metabolites. One approach is the use of small molecule effectors, potentially influencing chromatin landscape in fungi. We observed that the supernatant of the fungus Doratomyces (D.) microsporus treated with valproic acid (VPA) displayed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and two methicillin resistant clinical S. aureus isolates. VPA treatment resulted in enhanced production of seven antimicrobial compounds: cyclo-(L-proline-L-methionine) (cPM), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, cyclo-(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), indole-3-carboxylic acid, phenylacetic acid (PAA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The production of the antimicrobial compound phenyllactic acid was exclusively detectable after VPA treatment. Furthermore three compounds, cPM, cFP, and PAA, were able to boost the antimicrobial activity of other antimicrobial compounds. cPM, for the first time isolated from fungi, and to a lesser extent PAA, are even able to decrease the minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin in MRSA strains. In conclusion we could show in this study that VPA treatment is a potent tool for induction of "cryptic" antimicrobial compound production in fungi, and that the induced compounds are not exclusively linked to the secondary metabolism. Furthermore this is the first discovery of the rare diketopiperazine cPM in fungi. Additionally we could demonstrate that cPM and PAA boost antibiotic activity against antibiotic

  20. Valproic Acid Induces Antimicrobial Compound Production in Doratomyces microspores

    PubMed Central

    Zutz, Christoph; Bacher, Markus; Parich, Alexandra; Kluger, Bernhard; Gacek-Matthews, Agnieszka; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Strauss, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in public health is the rising number of antibiotic resistant pathogens and the lack of novel antibiotics. In recent years there is a rising focus on fungi as sources of antimicrobial compounds due to their ability to produce a large variety of bioactive compounds and the observation that virtually every fungus may still contain yet unknown so called “cryptic,” often silenced, compounds. These putative metabolites could include novel bioactive compounds. Considerable effort is spent on methods to induce production of these “cryptic” metabolites. One approach is the use of small molecule effectors, potentially influencing chromatin landscape in fungi. We observed that the supernatant of the fungus Doratomyces (D.) microsporus treated with valproic acid (VPA) displayed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and two methicillin resistant clinical S. aureus isolates. VPA treatment resulted in enhanced production of seven antimicrobial compounds: cyclo-(L-proline-L-methionine) (cPM), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, cyclo-(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), indole-3-carboxylic acid, phenylacetic acid (PAA) and indole-3-acetic acid. The production of the antimicrobial compound phenyllactic acid was exclusively detectable after VPA treatment. Furthermore three compounds, cPM, cFP, and PAA, were able to boost the antimicrobial activity of other antimicrobial compounds. cPM, for the first time isolated from fungi, and to a lesser extent PAA, are even able to decrease the minimal inhibitory concentration of ampicillin in MRSA strains. In conclusion we could show in this study that VPA treatment is a potent tool for induction of “cryptic” antimicrobial compound production in fungi, and that the induced compounds are not exclusively linked to the secondary metabolism. Furthermore this is the first discovery of the rare diketopiperazine cPM in fungi. Additionally we could demonstrate that cPM and PAA boost antibiotic activity

  1. A fluidized-bed continuous bioreactor for lactic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.F.; Fonta, J.P.

    1988-05-01

    A laboratory bioreactor consists of a fluidized bed of monosized activated carbon coated with a biofilm of the homolactic fermentative organism Streptococcus thermophilus. Biofilm growth moves the carbon through the bed, and adsorption of substrate and product at the bottom and top of the bed respectively reduces their inhibitory effects on the organism. Theory shows that high reactor productivity and rapid recirculation of carbon through the bed require a biofilm thickness of 25 to 45% of the carbon particle radius on particles fed into the base of the bed. This could not be achieved in practice due to the fragility of the biofilm. Product concentration was higher than expected from measurements of product inhibition, possibly because it is the undissociated form of the acid that both inhibits metabolism and adsorbs on the activated carbon. The observed productivity of 12 gm/1 hr could be greatly increased by ph control. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Control of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production

    SciTech Connect

    Leys, E.J.; Kellems, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The authors used methotrexate-resistant mouse cells in which dihydrofolate reductase levels are approximately 500 times normal to study the effect of growth stimulation on dihydrofolate reductase gene expression. As a result of growth stimulation, the relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase protein synthesis increased threefold, reaching a maximum between 25 and 30 h after stimulation. The relative rate of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid production (i.e., the appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm) increased threefold after growth stimulation and was accompanied by a corresponding increase in the relative steady-state level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid in the nucleus. However, the increase in the nuclear level of dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid was not accompanied by a significant increase in the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes. These data indicated that the relative rate of appearance of dihydrofolate reductase messenger ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm depends on the relative stability of the dihydrofolate reductase ribonucleic acid sequences in the nucleus and is not dependent on the relative rate of transcription of the dihydrofolate reductase genes.

  3. Efficient production of propionic acid through high density culture with recycling cells of Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ge, Yongsheng; Xu, Jing; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore propionic acid production via high density culture of Propionibacterium acidipropionici and recycling of cells. Results showed that final cells of P. acidipropionici from high density culture still had high metabolic activity for reuse. Using our process, 75.9gl(-1) propionic acid was produced, which was 1.84-fold of that in fed-batch fermentation with low cell density (41.2gl(-1)); the corresponding productivity was 100.0% higher than that in fed-batch fermentation with low cell density (0.16gl(-1)h(-1)). This bioprocess may have potential for the industrial production of propionic acid. PMID:27318164

  4. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of probiotic lactic acid bacteria for potential use in animal production.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Yaneisy; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Boucourt, Ramón; Balcázar, José L; Nicoli, Jacques R; Moreira-Silva, João; Rodríguez, Zoraya; Fuertes, Héctor; Nuñez, Odalys; Albelo, Nereyda; Halaihel, Nabil

    2016-10-01

    In livestock production, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the most common microorganisms used as probiotics. For such use, these bacteria must be correctly identified and characterized to ensure their safety and efficiency. In the present study, LAB were isolated from broiler excreta, where a fermentation process was used. Nine among sixteen isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular (sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene) methods as Lactobacillus crispatus (n=1), Lactobacillus pentosus (n=1), Weissella cibaria (n=1), Pediococcus pentosaceus (n=2) and Enterococcus hirae (n=4). Subsequently, these bacteria were characterized for their growth capabilities, lactic acid production, acidic pH and bile salts tolerance, cell surface hydrophobicity, antimicrobial susceptibility and antagonistic activity. Lactobacillus pentosus strain LB-31, which showed the best characteristics, was selected for further analysis. This strain was administered to broilers and showed the ability of modulating the immune response and producing beneficial effects on morpho-physiological, productive and health indicators of the animals.

  5. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Gibson, Tracy; Captain, James; Athman, Robert; Nugent, Matthew; Parks, Steven; Devor, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methane/oxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO2 is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a HiCO2 recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO2/hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO2 freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH4/hr and 71.3 g H20/hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH4/O2 propellant per 14 hr day (including O2 from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H2 for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASA's new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  6. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony; Gibson, Tracy; Captain, James; Athman, Robert; Nugent, Matthew; Parks, Steven; Devor, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methane/oxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (approx.8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO2 is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a HiCO2 recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO2/hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO2 freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH4/hr and 71.3 g H2O/hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH4/O2 propellant per 14 hr day (including O2 from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H2 for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASA's new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  7. Anisotropic porous metals production by melt processing

    SciTech Connect

    Shapovalov, V.; Boiko, L.; Baldwin, M.D.; Maguire, M.C.; Zanner, F.J.

    1997-02-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union has left many of its scientific institutes and technical universities without their traditional backbone of financial support. In an effort to stem the export of science to nations advocating nuclear proliferation, and to acquire potentially useful technology, several US government-sponsored programs have arise to mine the best of former USSR scientific advances. In the field of metallurgy, the earliest institutes to be investigated by Sandia National Laboratories are located in Ukraine. In particular, scientists at the State Metallurgical Academy have developed unique porous metals, resembling what could be described as gas-solid ``eutectic``. While porous metals are available in the US and other western countries, none have the remarkable structure and properties of these materials. Sandia began a collaborative program with the Ukrainian scientists to bring this technology to the US, verify the claims regarding these materials, and begin production of the so-called Gasars. This paper will describe the casting process technology and metallurgy associated with the production of Gasars, and will review the progress of the collaborative project.

  8. Modeling of matrix acidizing process under reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turegeldieva, Karlygash; Assilbekov, Bakhytzhan; Zhapbasbayev, Uzak; Zolotukhin, Anatoly; Bekibaev, Timur; Kenzhebekov, Nurlan; Gubkin Russian State University of oil; gas Collaboration

    2013-11-01

    Effectiveness of the process depends on the parameters: well choice, geological structure of the reservoir, definition of physical and chemical properties of rocks and fluids, agent choice. There are different mathematical models of the matrix acidizing, including the two scale model. These models describe the process in the core scale and Darcy scale, i.e. in an area with dimensions of several centimeters. It leads to the main problem - how to use these models to the near wellbore scale under reservoir conditions. Some authors have increased the dimensions of the cores in numerical simulations and investigated the influence of the core dimensions to acidizing process. In this paper effort to indirectly solve this problem made. It based on boundary conditions alteration and simultaneous solution of matrix acidizing in damaged zone and reservoir fluid flow models. Furthermore in this work the criterion of the acid injection shut down for optimal breakthrough volume calculation was modified. Influence of boundary conditions on near well-bore zone treatment process was investigated. Science Committee of Ministry of Education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan.

  9. Environmental evaluation of eicosapentaenoic acid production by Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Paula; González-García, Sara; Allewaert, Céline; Verween, Annick; Murray, Patrick; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play an important role in human health. Due to the increased market demand, the production of PUFAs from potential alternative sources such as microalgae is receiving increased interest. The aim of this study was to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the biotechnological production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, followed by the identification of avenues to improve its environmental profile. The LCA tackles two production schemes of P. tricornutum PUFAs with an EPA content of 36%: lab and pilot scales. The results at lab scale show that both the electricity requirements and the production of the extraction agent (chloroform) have significant influence on the life cycle environmental performance of microalgal EPA production. An alternative method based on hexane was proposed to replace chloroform and environmental benefits were identified. Regarding the production of EPA at pilot scale, three main environmental factors were identified: the production of the nitrogen source required for microalgae growing, the transport activities and electricity requirements. Improvement alternatives were proposed and discussed concerning: a) the use of nitrogen based fertilizers, b) the valorization of the residual algal paste as soil conditioner and, c) the anaerobic digestion of the residual algal paste for bioenergy production. Encouraging environmental benefits could be achieved if sodium nitrate was substituted by urea, calcium nitrate or ammonium nitrate, regardless the category under assessment. In contrast, minor improvement was found when valorizing the residual algal paste as mineral fertilizer, due to its overall low content in N and P. Concerning the biogas production from the anaerobic digestion, the improvement on the environmental profile was also limited due to the discrepancy between the potential energy production from the algal paste and the high electricity requirements in

  10. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  11. Production of Butyric Acid and Butanol from Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    David E. Ramey; Shang-Tian Yang

    2005-08-25

    Environmental Energy Inc has shown that BUTANOL REPLACES GASOLINE - 100 pct and has no pollution problems, and further proved it is possible to produce 2.5 gallons of butanol per bushel corn at a production cost of less than $1.00 per gallon. There are 25 pct more Btu-s available and an additional 17 pct more from hydrogen given off, from the same corn when making butanol instead of ethanol that is 42 pct more Btu-s more energy out than it takes to make - that is the plow to tire equation is positive for butanol. Butanol is far safer to handle than gasoline or ethanol. Butanol when substituted for gasoline gives better gas mileage and does not pollute as attested to in 10 states. Butanol should now receive the same recognition as a fuel alcohol in U.S. legislation as ethanol. There are many benefits to this technology in that Butanol replaces gasoline gallon for gallon as demonstrated in a 10,000 miles trip across the United States July-August 2005. No modifications at all were made to a 1992 Buick Park Avenue; essentially your family car can go down the road on Butanol today with no modifications, Butanol replaces gasoline. It is that simple. Since Butanol replaces gasoline more Butanol needs to be made. There are many small farms across America which can grow energy crops and they can easily apply this technology. There is also an abundance of plant biomass present as low-value agricultural commodities or processing wastes requiring proper disposal to avoid pollution problems. One example is in the corn refinery industry with 10 million metric tons of corn byproducts that pose significant environmental problems. Whey lactose presents another waste management problem, 123,000 metric tons US, which can now be turned into automobile fuel. The fibrous bed bioreactor - FBB - with cells immobilized in the fibrous matrix packed in the reactor has been successfully used for several organic acid fermentations, including butyric and propionic acids with greatly increased

  12. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for riboflavin production

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kiran; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Consumers are increasingly becoming aware of their health and nutritional requirements, and in this context, vitamins produced in situ by microbes may suit their needs and expectations. B groups vitamins are essential components of cellular metabolism and among them riboflavin is one of the vital vitamins required by bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Here, we focus on the importance of microbial production of riboflavin over chemical synthesis. In addition, genetic abilities for riboflavin biosynthesis by lactic acid bacteria are discussed. Genetically modified strains by employing genetic engineering and chemical analogues have been developed to enhance riboflavin production. The present review attempts to collect the currently available information on riboflavin production by microbes in general, while placing greater emphasis on food grade lactic acid bacteria and human gut commensals. For designing riboflavin‐enriched functional foods, proper selection and exploitation of riboflavin‐producing lactic acid bacteria is essential. Moreover, eliminating the in situ vitamin fortification step will decrease the cost of food production. PMID:26686515

  13. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  14. [Optimization of the fermentation conditions for 5-keto-D-gluconic acid production].

    PubMed

    Li, Boyi; Pan, Haifeng; Sun, Weirong; Cheng, Yongqing; Xie, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jianguo

    2014-09-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans converts glucose to gluconic acid and subsequently to 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5-KGA), a precursor of industrially important L(+)-tartaric acid. To increase the yield of 5-KGA, fermentation conditions of 5-KGA production was optimized. Under the optimum medium and culture conditions in the shake flask, the highest 5-KGA production reached 19.7 g/L, increased by 43.8% after optimization. In a 5-L bioreactor, the pH was controlled at 5.5 and dissolved oxygen (DO) at 15%, 5-KGA production reached 46.0 g/L, raised at least 1.3 times than in the shake flask. Glucose feeding fermentation process was further developed, and the highest 5-KGA production of 75.5 g/L with 70% of yield was obtained, 32.0% higher than the highest reported value. Therefore, this newly developed fermentation process provided a practical and effective alternative for the commercial production of 5-KGA, and further of L(+)-tartaric acid.

  15. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Keller, Fred A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  16. Technology Transfer and the Product Development Process

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.

    1989-03-21

    It is my pleasure this morning to address a topic that is much talked about in passing but rarely examined from a first person point of view. That topic is Technology Transfer. Over the next 30 minutes I'd like to approach Technology Transfer within the context of the Product Development Process looking at it from the perspectives of the federal government researcher and the industry manufacturer/user. Fist let us recognize that we are living in an ''Information Age'', where global economic and military competition is determined as much by technology as it is by natural resource assets. It is estimated that technical/scientific information is presently growing at a rate of l3 percent per year; this is expected to increase to 30 percent per year by the turn of the century. In fact, something like 90 percent of all scientific knowledge has been generated in the last 30 years; this pool will double again in the next 10-15 years (Exhibit 1). Of all the scientists and engineers throughout history, 90% live and work in the present time. Successfully managing this technical information/knowledge--i.e., transforming the results of R&D to practical applications--will be an important measure of national strength. A little over a dozen years ago, the United States with only 5 percent of the world's population was generating approximately 75 percent of the world's technology. The US. share is now 50 percent and may decline to 30 percent by the turn of the century. This decline won't be because of downturn in U.S. technological advances but because the other 95 percent of the world's population will be increasing its contribution. Economic and military strength then, will be determined by how quickly and successfully companies, industries, and nations can apply new technological information to practical applications--i.e., how they manage technology transfer within the context of the product development process. Much discussion and pronouncements are ongoing in public forums

  17. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process... could occur as a result of the manufacturing process, the manufacturer shall establish and...

  18. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Production and Process Controls § 820.70 Production and process... could occur as a result of the manufacturing process, the manufacturer shall establish and...

  19. Process for production of a borohydride compound

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-19

    A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

  20. [Optimization of the pertussis vaccine production process].

    PubMed

    Germán Santiago, J; Zamora, N; de la Rosa, E; Alba Carrión, C; Padrón, P; Hernández, M; Betancourt, M; Moretti, N

    1995-01-01

    The production of Pertussis Vaccine was reevaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Higiene "Rafael Rangel" in order to optimise it in terms of vaccine yield, potency, specific toxicity and efficiency (cost per doses). Four different processes, using two culture media (Cohen-Wheeler and Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1) and two types of bioreactors (25 L Fermentador Caracas and a 450 L industrial fermentor) were compared. Runs were started from freeze-dried strains (134 or 509) and continued until the obtention of the maximal yield. It was found that the combination Fermentación Glutamato Prolina-1/industrial fermentor, shortened the process to 40 hours while consistently yielding a vaccine of higher potency (7.91 +/- 2.56 IU/human dose) and lower specific toxicity in a mice bioassay. In addition, the physical aspect of the preparation was rather homogeneous and free of dark aggregates. Most importantly, the biomass yield more than doubled those of the Fermentador Caracas using the two different media and that in the industrial fermentor with the Cohen-Wheeler medium. Therefore, the cost per doses was substantially decreased. PMID:9279028