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Sample records for acid profile analysis

  1. Visualized analysis of cellular fatty acid profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Juntao; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Yinghui; Tang, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Chengzhu; Jia, Zhen; Zhao, Liqing

    2014-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common foodborne bacterial pathogen, which survives in cold environments and is sometimes difficult to culture. Fatty acid analysis under cold stress was conducted for several V. parahaemolyticus strains using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the results were compared with those of the controls. All the fatty acid profiles obtained were visualized by multidimensional scaling (MDS) and self-organized map (SOM). It was observed that the fatty acid profiles of V. parahaemolyticus substantially changed under cold stress. The percentage of methyl palmitate remarkably decreased and that of methyl palmitoleate (except for two strains) and methyl oleate increased. These findings demonstrate the role of fatty acids in cold stress. The changes in the fatty acid profiles illustrated by MDS and SOM could differentiate strains under cold stress from the controls and can potentially lead to a method of detecting injured cold-stressed V. parahaemolyticus.

  2. LCMS analysis of fingerprints, the amino acid profile of 20 donors.

    PubMed

    de Puit, Marcel; Ismail, Mahado; Xu, Xiaoma

    2014-03-01

    The analysis of amino acids present in fingerprints has been studied several times. In this paper, we report a method for the analysis of amino acids using an fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride-derivatization for LC separation and MS detection. We have obtained good results with regard to the calibration curves and the limit of detection and LOQ for the target compounds. The extraction of the amino acids from the substrates used proved to be very efficient. Analysis of the derivatized amino acids enabled us to obtain full amino acid profiles for 20 donors. The intervariability is as expected rather large, with serine as the most abundant constituent, and when examining the total profile of the amino acids per donor, a characteristic pattern can be observed. Some amino acids were not detected in some donors, or fell out of the range of the calibration curve, where others showed a surprisingly high amount of material in the deposition analyses. Further investigations will have to address the intravariability of the amino acid profiles of the fingerprints from donors. By the development of the analytical method and the application to the analysis of fingerprints, we were able to gain insight in the variability of the constituents of fingerprints between the donors.

  3. Standardizing methylation method during phospholipid fatty acid analysis to profile soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Dick, Richard P

    2012-02-01

    Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) as biomarkers, is widely used to profile microbial communities in environmental samples. However, PLFA extraction and derivatization protocols are not standardized and have widely varied among published studies. Specifically investigators have used either HCl/MeOH or KOH/MeOH or both for the methylation step of PLFA analysis, without justification or research to support either one. It seems likely that each method could have very different outcomes and conclusions for PLFA based studies. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of catalyst type for methylation on detecting PLFAs and implications for interpreting microbial profiling in soil. Fatty acid samples extracted from soils obtained from a wetland, an intermittently flooded site, and an adjacent upland site were subjected to HCl/MeOH or KOH/MeOH catalyzed methylation procedures during PLFA analyses. The methylation method using HCl/MeOH resulted in significantly higher concentrations of most PLFAs than the KOH/MeOH method. Another important outcome was that fatty acids with a methyl group (18:1ω,7c 11Me, TBSA 10Me 18:0, 10Me 18:0, 17:0 10Me and 16:0 10Me being an actinomycetes biomarker) could not be detected by HCl/MeOH catalyzed methylation but were found in appreciable concentrations with KOH/MeOH method. From our results, because the HCl/MeOH method did not detect the fatty acids containing methyl groups that could strongly influence the microbial community profile, we recommend that the KOH/MeOH catalyzed transesterification method should become the standard procedure for PLFA profiling of soil microbial communities.

  4. Chemometric analysis of the interactions among different parameters describing health conditions, breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how different doses of conjugated linoleic acids applied for various periods of time influence breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats treated or not with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). We also search for interactions among parameters describing health conditions and cancer risk. Animals were divided into 18 groups with different diet modifications (vegetable oil, 1.0%, 2.0% additions of CLA) and different periods of supplementation. In groups treated with DMBA mammary adenocarcinomas appeared. Due to the complexity of experiment apart from statistical analysis a chemometric tool-Partial Least Square method was applied. Analysis of pairs of correlated parameters allowed to identify some regularities concerning the relationships between fatty acid profiles and clinical features of animals. Fatty acids profile was the result of prolonged exposure to high dose of CLA and DMBA administration. These two factors underlined the differences in fatty acids profiles among clusters of animals.

  5. Analysis of plasma free amino acid profiles in canine brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Utsugi, Shinichi; Azuma, Kazuo; Osaki, Tomohiro; Murahata, Yusuke; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    Canine brain tumors are best diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, opportunities of MRI examination are restricted due to its limited availability in veterinary facilities; thus, numerous canine brain tumors are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Therefore, development of a noninvasive diagnostic biomarker is required for the early detection of brain tumors. In the present study, plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles between dogs with and without brain tumors were compared. A total of 12 dogs with brain tumors, diagnosed based on clinical signs, and on the results of intracranial MRI and/or pathological examination were evaluated. In addition, eight dogs diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and 16 healthy dogs were also included. A liquid chromatography system with automated pre-column derivatization functionality was used to measure the levels of 20 amino acids. As a result, the levels of three amino acids (alanine, proline and isoleucine) were increased significantly (1.6-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively) in the plasma of dogs with brain tumors as compared with the levels in control dogs (all P<0.05). Thus, the PFAA levels of dogs with brain tumors differed from those of healthy dogs. The present study demonstrated that analysis of PFAA levels of dogs with brain tumors may serve as a useful biomarker for the early detection of canine brain tumors. PMID:28357072

  6. Functional site profiling and electrostatic analysis of cysteines modifiable to cysteine sulfenic acid.

    PubMed

    Salsbury, Freddie R; Knutson, Stacy T; Poole, Leslie B; Fetrow, Jacquelyn S

    2008-02-01

    Cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH), a reversible modification, is a catalytic intermediate at enzyme active sites, a sensor for oxidative stress, a regulator of some transcription factors, and a redox-signaling intermediate. This post-translational modification is not random: specific features near the cysteine control its reactivity. To identify features responsible for the propensity of cysteines to be modified to sulfenic acid, a list of 47 proteins (containing 49 known Cys-SOH sites) was compiled. Modifiable cysteines are found in proteins from most structural classes and many functional classes, but have no propensity for any one type of protein secondary structure. To identify features affecting cysteine reactivity, these sites were analyzed using both functional site profiling and electrostatic analysis. Overall, the solvent exposure of modifiable cysteines is not different from the average cysteine. The combined sequence, structure, and electrostatic approaches reveal mechanistic determinants not obvious from overall sequence comparison, including: (1) pKaS of some modifiable cysteines are affected by backbone features only; (2) charged residues are underrepresented in the structure near modifiable sites; (3) threonine and other polar residues can exert a large influence on the cysteine pKa; and (4) hydrogen bonding patterns are suggested to be important. This compilation of Cys-SOH modification sites and their features provides a quantitative assessment of previous observations and a basis for further analysis and prediction of these sites. Agreement with known experimental data indicates the utility of this combined approach for identifying mechanistic determinants at protein functional sites.

  7. Hydroxy-fatty acid profiles of Legionella species: diagnostic usefulness assessed by principal component analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, E; Sonesson, A; Tangen, T; Eng, J

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-nine species (76 strains) of members of the genus Legionella were analyzed for their cellular hydroxylated fatty acids (OH-FAs). The individual patterns were unusually complex and included both monohydroxylated and dihydroxylated chains of unbranched or branched (iso and anteiso) types. Comparison of the strain profiles by SIMCA (Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy) principal component analysis revealed four main groups. Group 1 included Legionella pneumophila plus L. israelensis strains, and group 2 included L. micdadei and L. maceacherneii strains. These two closely related groups were characterized by the occurrence of di-OH-FAs and differed mainly in the amounts of 3-OH-a21:0, 3-OH-n21:0, 3-OH-n22:0, and 3-OH-a23:0. Group 3 (13 species) was distinguished by i14:0 at less than 3%, 3-OH-3-OH-n14:0 at greater than 5%, 3-OH-n15:0 at greater than 2%, and minute amounts of OH-FAs with chains longer than 21:0. Group 4 (12 species) was heterogeneous. Its main characteristics were the presence of 3-OH-n12:0 and 3-OH-n13:0, 3-OH-i14:0 at greater than 5%, as well as significant amounts of 3-OH-a21:0 and 3-OH-n21:0. The groupings obtained by OH-FA profiles were found to reflect DNA-DNA homology groupings reasonably well, and the profiles appear to be useful for differentiation of Legionella species. PMID:8314981

  8. Analysis of Fatty Acid and Growth Profiles in Ten Shewanella spp. to Associate Phylogenetic Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-25

    microorganisms from the same genus using physiological responses. To understand these changes, a shift in fatty acid length distributions and growth of...in new associations between dissimilar Shewanella spp. based on physiology . 25-11-2015 Memorandum Office of Naval Research One Liberty Center 875 N...genus which has led to novel insight into physiological changes based on fatty acid and growth profiles that are not predicted from phylogenetic

  9. Multivariate factor analysis of detailed milk fatty acid profile: Effects of dairy system, feeding, herd, parity, and stage of lactation.

    PubMed

    Mele, M; Macciotta, N P P; Cecchinato, A; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-12-01

    meaning and able to represent groups of fatty acids with a common origin and function. Multivariate factor analysis would therefore be a valuable tool for studying the influence of different production environments and individual animal factors on milk fatty acid composition, and for developing nutritional strategies able to manipulate the milk fatty acid profile according to consumer demand.

  10. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    PubMed

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( < 0.01) by 100% in the diet of goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( < 0.01) increased linearly with the amount of buriti oil in the diet. There was a linear reduction on hypercholesterolemic SFA such as C12:0 ( < 0.01) and C14:0 ( < 0.01) as well as the atherogenic index (AI; < 0.01) with buriti oil inclusion in goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( < 0.01) and C18:1 9 ( < 0.01) increased linearly in the milk of goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( < 0.01) varied quadratically; the maximum production of 0.62 g/100 g of fat was observed when using 1.50% buriti oil. The sensory characteristics of the milk were not changed ( > 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without

  11. REACTIVITY PROFILE OF LIGANDS OF MAMMALIAN RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS: A PRELIMINARY COREPA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retinoic acid and associated derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that bind to and activate different families of retinoic acid receptors (RARs, RXRs), and control many aspects of vertebrate development. Identification of potential RAR and RXR ligands is of interes...

  12. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-03

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the

  13. Enhanced L-lactic acid production in Lactobacillus paracasei by exogenous proline addition based on comparative metabolite profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Yonghong; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated cell physiological and metabolic responses of Lactobacillus paracasei to osmotic stresses. Both cellular fatty acid composition and metabolite profiling were responded by increasing unsaturated and epoxy-fatty acid proportions, as well as accumulating some specific intracellular metabolites. Simultaneously, metabolite profiling was adopted to rationally and systematically discover potential osmoprotectants. Consequently, exogenous addition of proline or aspartate was validated to be a feasible and efficacious approach to improve cell growth under hyperosmotic stress in shake flasks. Particularly, with 5-L cultivation system, L-lactic acid concentration increased from 108 to 150 g/L during the following 16-h fermentation in 2 g/L proline addition group, while it only increased from 110 to 140 g/L in no proline addition group. Moreover, glucose consumption rate with proline addition reached 3.49 g/L/h during this phase, 35.8 % higher than that with no proline addition. However, extreme high osmotic pressure would significantly limit the osmoprotection of proline, and the osmolality threshold for L. paracasei was approximately 3600 mOsm/kg. It was suggested that proline principally played a role as a compatible solute accumulated in the cell for hyperosmotic preservation. The strategies of exploiting osmotic protectant with metabolite profiling and enhancing L-lactic acid production by osmoprotectant addition would be potential to provide a new insight for other microorganisms and organic acids production.

  14. Rapid analysis of fatty acid profiles in raw nuts and seeds by microwave-ultrasonic synergistic in situ extraction-derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Lin; Song, Shuang-Hong; Wu, Mei; He, Tian; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2013-12-15

    Based on microwave-ultrasonic synergistic in situ extraction-derivatisation (MUED), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was proposed for rapid analysis of fatty acid profiles in raw nut and seed materials. Several critical experimental parameters for MUED, including reaction temperature, microwave power, amounts of catalyst and derivatisation reagent, have been optimised using response surface methodology. The results showed that the chromatographic peak areas of total fatty acids and the content of total unsaturated fatty acids obtained with MUED were markedly higher than those obtained by the conventional method (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The MUED method simplified the handling steps compared to the conventional procedure, shortened the sample preparation time whilst improving the extraction and derivatisation efficiency of lipids, and reduced oxidisation and decomposition of the unsaturated fatty acids. The simplicity, robustness and practicality of this method highlighted its significant potential for application in the rapid analysis of fatty acids in natural food resource samples.

  15. Determination of red blood cell fatty acid profiles: Rapid and high-confident analysis by chemical ionization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schober, Yvonne; Wahl, Hans Günther; Renz, Harald; Nockher, Wolfgang Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Cellular fatty acid (FA) profiles have been acknowledged as biomarkers in various human diseases. Nevertheless, common FA analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) requires long analysis time. Hence, there is a need for feasible methods for high throughput analysis in clinical studies. FA was extracted from red blood cells (RBC) and derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). A method using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with ammonia-induced chemical ionization (CI) was developed for the analysis of FA profiles in human RBC. We compared this method with classical single GC-MS using electron impact ionization (EI). The FA profiles of 703 RBC samples were determined by GC-MS/MS. In contrast to EI ammonia-induced CI resulted in adequate amounts of molecular ions for further fragmentation of FAME. Specific fragments for confident quantification and fragmentation were determined for 45 FA. The GC-MS/MS method has a total run time of 9min compared to typical analysis times of up to 60min in conventional GC-MS. Intra and inter assay variations were <10% for all FA analyzed. Analysis of RBC FA composition revealed an age-dependent increase of the omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid, and a decline of the omega-6 linoleic acid with a corresponding rise of the omega-3 index. The combination of ammonia-induced CI and tandem mass spectrometry after GC separation allows for high-throughput, robust and confident analysis of FA profiles in the clinical laboratory.

  16. Typical ultraviolet spectra in combination with diagnostic mass fragmentation analysis for the rapid and comprehensive profiling of chlorogenic acids in the buds of Lonicera macranthoides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shui-Han; Hu, Xin; Shi, Shu-Yun; Huang, Lu-Qi; Chen, Wei; Chen, Lin; Cai, Ping

    2016-05-01

    A major challenge of profiling chlorogenic acids (CGA) in natural products is to effectively detect unknown or minor isomeric compounds. Here, we developed an effective strategy, typical ultraviolet (UV) spectra in combination with diagnostic mass fragmentation analysis based on HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS, to comprehensively profile CGA in the buds of Lonicera macranthoides. First, three CGA UV patterns were obtained by UV spectra screening. Second, 13 types of CGA classified by molecular weights were found by thorough analysis of CGA peaks using high-resolution MS. Third, selected ion monitoring (SIM) was carried out for each type of CGA to avoid overlooking of minor ones. Fourth, MS/MS spectra of each CGA were investigated. Then 70 CGA were identified by matching their UV spectra, accurate mass signals and fragmentation patterns with standards or previously reported compounds, including six caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), six diCQA, one triCQA, three caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA), six diCSA, one triCSA, three p-coumaroylquinic acids (pCoQA), four p-coumaroylcaffeoylquinic acids (pCoCQA), four feruloylquinic acids (FQA), five methyl caffeoylquinates (MCQ), three ethyl caffeoylquinates (ECQ), three dimethoxycinnamoylquinic acids (DQA), six caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (CFQA), six methyl dicaffeoylquinates (MdiCQ), four FQA glycosides (FQAG), six MCQ glycosides (MCQG), and three ethyl dicaffeoylquinates (EdiCQ). Forty-five of them were discovered from Lonicera species for the first time, and it is noted that CGA profiles were investigated for the first time in L. macranthoides. Results indicated that the developed method was a useful approach to explore unknown and minor isomeric compounds from complex natural products.

  17. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  18. The complete targeted profile of the organic acid intermediates of the citric acid cycle using a single stable isotope dilution analysis, sodium borodeuteride reduction and selected ion monitoring GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Mamer, Orval; Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Choinière, Luc; Chénard, Valérie; St-Pierre, Julie; Avizonis, Daina

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative profiling of the organic acid intermediates of the citric acid cycle (CAC) presents a challenge due to the lack of commercially available internal standards for all of the organic acid intermediates. We developed an analytical method that enables the quantitation of all the organic acids in the CAC in a single stable isotope dilution GC/MS analysis with deuterium-labeled analogs used as internal standards. The unstable α-keto acids are rapidly reduced with sodium borodeuteride to the corresponding stable α-deutero-α-hydroxy acids and these, along with their unlabeled analogs and other CAC organic acid intermediates, are converted to their tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. Selected ion monitoring is employed with electron ionization. We validated this method by treating an untransformed mouse mammary epithelial cell line with well-known mitochondrial toxins affecting the electron transport chain and ATP synthase, which resulted in profound perturbations of the concentration of CAC intermediates.

  19. Microwave-assisted one-step extraction-derivatization for rapid analysis of fatty acids profile in herbal medicine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui-Lin; Zhang, Jing; Mou, Zhao-Li; Hao, Shuang-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2012-11-07

    A rapid and practical microwave-assisted one-step extraction-derivatization (MAED) method was developed for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of fatty acids profile in herbal medicine. Several critical experimental parameters for MAED, including reaction temperature, microwave power and the amount of derivatization reagent (methanol), were optimized with response surface methodology. The results showed that the chromatographic peak areas of total fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids content obtained with MAED were markedly higher than those obtained by the conventional Soxhlet or microwave extraction and then derivatization method. The investigation of kinetics and thermodynamics of the derivatization reaction revealed that microwave assistance could reduce activation energy and increase the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor. The MAED method simplified the sample preparation procedure, shortened the reaction time, but improved the extraction and derivatization efficiency of lipids and reduced ingredient losses, especially for the oxidization and isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids. The simplicity, speed and practicality of this method indicates great potential for high throughput analysis of fatty acids in natural medicinal samples.

  20. Estimating Cognitive Profiles Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang; Frisby, Craig L.; Davison, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Two of the most popular methods of profile analysis, cluster analysis and modal profile analysis, have limitations. First, neither technique is adequate when the sample size is large. Second, neither method will necessarily provide profile information in terms of both level and pattern. A new method of profile analysis, called Profile Analysis via…

  1. Serum fatty acid profiles and potential biomarkers of ankylosing spondylitis determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Han, Su; Dong, Daming; Wang, Yansong; Liu, Qingpeng; Xie, Wei; Li, Mi; Yao, Meng

    2015-04-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a common chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease. Early and accurate detection is essential for effective disease treatment. Recently, research has focused on genomics and proteomics. However, the associated metabolic variations, especially fatty acid profiles, have been poorly discussed. In this study, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach and multivariate statistical analysis were used to investigate the metabolic profiles of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) and esterified fatty acids (EFAs) in AS patients. The results showed that significant differences in most of the FFA (C12:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:3, C20:4, C20:5, C22:5 and C22:6) and EFA (C12:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3, C20:4 and C22:6) concentrations were found between the AS patients and healthy controls (p < 0.05). Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis were performed to classify the AS patients and controls. Additionally, FFAs C20:4, C12:0, C18:3 and EFAs C22:6, C12:0 were confirmed as potential biomarkers to identify AS patients and healthy controls. The present study highlights that differences in the serum FFA and EFA profiles of AS patients reflect the metabolic disorder. Moreover, FFA and EFA biomarkers appear to have clinical applications for the screening and diagnosis of AS.

  2. Profile Analysis: Multidimensional Scaling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.

    2001-01-01

    Outlines an exploratory multidimensional scaling-based approach to profile analysis called Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) (M. Davison, 1994). The PAMS model has the advantages of being applied to samples of any size easily, classifying persons on a continuum, and using person profile index for further hypothesis studies, but…

  3. Fatty acids profiling reveals potential candidate markers of semen quality.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, C; Caponecchia, L; Rago, R; Leoncini, E; Bottaccioli, A G; Ciacciarelli, M; Pacelli, A; Salacone, P; Sebastianelli, A; Pastore, A; Palleschi, G; Boccia, S; Carbone, A; Iuliano, L

    2016-11-01

    Previous reports showed altered fatty acid content in subjects with altered sperm parameters compared to normozoospermic individuals. However, these studies focused on a limited number of fatty acids, included a short number of subjects and results varied widely. We conducted a case-control study involving 155 patients allocated into four groups, including normozoospermia (n = 33), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 32), asthenozoospermia (n = 25), and varicocoele (n = 44). Fatty acid profiling, including 30 species, was analyzed by a validated gas chromatography (GC) method on the whole seminal fluid sample. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the associations between fatty acids and the four groups. Specimens from 15 normozoospermic subjects were also analyzed for fatty acids content in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa to study the distribution in the two compartments. Fatty acids lipidome varied markedly between the four groups. Multinomial logistic regression modeling revealed that high levels of palmitic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) confer a low risk to stay out of the normozoospermic group. In the whole population, seminal fluid stearic acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.53), and DHA was positively correlated (r = 0.65) with sperm motility. Some fatty acids were preferentially accumulated in spermatozoa and the highest difference was observed for DHA, which was 6.2 times higher in spermatozoa than in seminal plasma. The results of this study highlight complete fatty acids profile in patients with different semen parameters. Given the easy-to-follow and rapid method of analysis, fatty acid profiling by GC method can be used for therapeutic purposes and to measure compliance in infertility trials using fatty acids supplements.

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of the boreal lichen Mycoblastus sanguinarius (Mycoblastaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) reveals cryptic clades correlated with fatty acid profiles

    PubMed Central

    Spribille, Toby; Klug, Barbara; Mayrhofer, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Lichens are a prominent feature of northern conifer forests and a large number of species are thought to be circumboreal. Whether or not circumboreal lichen species really constitute monophyletic groups has seldom been tested. We investigated molecular phylogenetic patterns in the mycobiont of Mycoblastus sanguinarius, a well known epiphytic lichen species of the boreal forest, based on material collected from across the high latitude northern hemisphere. A three-locus dataset of internal transcribed spacer rDNA, translation elongation factor 1-α and replication licensing factor Mcm7 DNA sequences revealed that material treated until now as belonging to M. sanguinarius does indeed form a monophyletic group within the genus and is distinct from a strongly supported Mycoblastus affinis. The M. sanguinarius complex appears closely related to the rare Mycoblastus glabrescens, which is currently known only from the Pacific Northwest and was rediscovered during the present study. However, within M. sanguinarius s.lat. in the northern hemisphere, two deeply divergent and morphologically coherent species can be recovered, one of which matches the southern hemisphere species Mycoblastus sanguinarioides and turns out to be widespread in North America and Asia, and one of which corresponds to M. sanguinarius s.str. Both M. sanguinarius and M. sanguinarioides exhibit additional low-level genetic differentiation into geographically structured clades, the most prominent of which are distributed in East Asia/eastern North America and western North America/Europe, respectively. Individuals from these lowest-level clades are morphologically indistinguishable but chemical analyses by thin layer chromatography revealed that each clade possesses its own fatty acid profile, suggesting that chemical differentiation precedes morphological differentiation and may be a precursor to speciation. PMID:21443957

  5. Comparative Network-Based Recovery Analysis and Proteomic Profiling of Neurological Changes in Valproic Acid-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite its prominence for characterization of complex mixtures, LC–MS/MS frequently fails to identify many proteins. Network-based analysis methods, based on protein–protein interaction networks (PPINs), biological pathways, and protein complexes, are useful for recovering non-detected proteins, thereby enhancing analytical resolution. However, network-based analysis methods do come in varied flavors for which the respective efficacies are largely unknown. We compare the recovery performance and functional insights from three distinct instances of PPIN-based approaches, viz., Proteomics Expansion Pipeline (PEP), Functional Class Scoring (FCS), and Maxlink, in a test scenario of valproic acid (VPA)-treated mice. We find that the most comprehensive functional insights, as well as best non-detected protein recovery performance, are derived from FCS utilizing real biological complexes. This outstrips other network-based methods such as Maxlink or Proteomics Expansion Pipeline (PEP). From FCS, we identified known biological complexes involved in epigenetic modifications, neuronal system development, and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This is congruent with the observed phenotype where adult mice showed an increase in dendritic branching to allow the rewiring of visual cortical circuitry and an improvement in their visual acuity when tested behaviorally. In addition, PEP also identified a novel complex, comprising YWHAB, NR1, NR2B, ACTB, and TJP1, which is functionally related to the observed phenotype. Although our results suggest different network analysis methods can produce different results, on the whole, the findings are mutually supportive. More critically, the non-overlapping information each provides can provide greater holistic understanding of complex phenotypes. PMID:23557376

  6. Using fatty-acid profile analysis as an ecologic indicator in the management of tourist impacts on marine wildlife: a case of stingray-feeding in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Christina A D; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D

    2007-10-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. "Stingray City Sandbar" in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays (Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing practical

  7. Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.

    2007-10-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. “Stingray City Sandbar” in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing

  8. Metabolic analysis revealed altered amino acid profiles in Lupinus albus organs as a result of boron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marta; Chicau, Paula; Matias, Helena; Passarinho, José; Pinheiro, Carla; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2011-07-01

    We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs.

  9. Estimating Cognitive Profiles Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kang; Frisby, Craig L; Davison, Mark L

    2004-10-01

    Two of the most popular methods of profile analysis, cluster analysis and modal profile analysis, have limitations. First, neither technique is adequate when the sample size is large. Second, neither method will necessarily provide profile information in terms of both level and pattern. A new method of profile analysis, called Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS; Davison, 1996), is introduced to meet the challenge. PAMS extends the use of simple multidimensional scaling methods to identify latent profiles in a multi-test battery. Application of PAMS to profile analysis is described. The PAMS model is then used to identify latent profiles from a subgroup (N = 357) within the sample of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised (WJ-R; McGrew, Werder, & Woodcock, 1991; Woodcock & Johnson, 1989), followed by a discussion of procedures for interpreting participants' observed score profiles from the latent PAMS profiles. Finally, advantages and limitations of the PAMS technique are discussed.

  10. An Analysis of Diet Quality, How It Controls Fatty Acid Profiles, Isotope Signatures and Stoichiometry in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Schwarzinger, Bettina; Schwarzinger, Clemens; Soliban, Sharon; Madakacherry, Odessa; Aigner, Martina; Watzka, Margarete; Gilles, Jeremie

    2012-01-01

    Background Knowing the underlying mechanisms of mosquito ecology will ensure effective vector management and contribute to the overall goal of malaria control. Mosquito populations show a high degree of population plasticity in response to environmental variability. However, the principle factors controlling population size and fecundity are for the most part unknown. Larval habitat and diet play a crucial role in subsequent mosquito fitness. Developing the most competitive insects for sterile insect technique programmes requires a “production” orientated perspective, to deduce the most effective larval diet formulation; the information gained from this process offers us some insight into the mechanisms and processes taking place in natural native mosquito habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings Fatty acid profiles and de-novo or direct assimilation pathways, of whole-individual mosquitoes reared on a range of larval diets were determined using pyrolysis gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. We used elemental analysis and isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure individual-whole-body carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous values and to assess the impact of dietary quality on subsequent population stoichiometry, size, quality and isotopic signature. Diet had the greatest impact on fatty acid (FA) profiles of the mosquitoes, which exhibited a high degree of dietary routing, characteristic of generalist feeders. De-novo synthesis of a number of important FAs was observed. Mosquito C:N stoichiometry was fixed in the teneral stage. Dietary N content had significant influence on mosquito size, and P was shown to be a flexible pool which limited overall population size. Conclusions/Significance Direct routing of FAs was evident but there was ubiquitous de-novo synthesis suggesting mosquito larvae are competent generalist feeders capable of survival on diet with varying characteristics. It was concluded that nitrogen availability in the larval diet controlled teneral

  11. Fatty acid profile of unconventional oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha; Sathish Kumar, M H

    2012-01-01

    The continued increase in human population has resulted in the rise in the demand as well as the price of edible oils, leading to the search for alternative unconventional sources of oils, particularly in the developing countries. There are hundreds of un- or underexplored plant seeds rich in oil suitable for edible or industrial purposes. Many of them are rich in polyunsaturated essential fatty acids, which establish their utility as "healthy oils." Some agrowaste products such as rice bran have gained importance as a potential source of edible oil. Genetic modification has paved the way for increasing the oil yields and improving the fatty acid profiles of traditional as well as unconventional oilseeds. Single cell oils are also novel sources of edible oil. Some of these unconventional oils may have excellent potential for medicinal and therapeutic uses, even if their low oil contents do not promote commercial production as edible oils.

  12. Variability in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm and hybrids for fatty acid profile of oil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Naresh

    2011-12-28

    Coconut oil, the main product of coconut fruit, is the richest source of glycerol and lauric acid and hence is called lauric oil. This paper reports the fatty acid profile of oil from 60 Talls, 14 Dwarfs, and 34 hybrids. These include collections from 13 countries covering a large coconut-growing area of the world, apart from the indigenous ones. Capillary gas chromatography analysis of oil indicated a wider variation for the fatty acid profile than earlier reported. Apart from this, for the first time other fatty acids such as behenic and lignoceric acids were detected. Oil from cultivars and hybrids of coconut has significantly differed, particularly for commercially important fatty acids such as lauric acid and unsaturated fatty acids. However, coconut oil seems to have a conserved fatty acid profile, mainly because of low unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the possibility of grouping cultivars on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The cluster analysis based on fatty acid profile indicated grouping together of geographically and typically closely related cultivars. Cultivars with high concentrations of specific fatty acids can be of potential use for industrial exploitation, whereas those with high concentrations of short- and medium-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are more suitable for human consumption. Cultivars and hybrids with high and low values for each of the fatty acids are also identified.

  13. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-13

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na(+) were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato.

  14. Transcript profile analysis reveals important roles of jasmonic acid signalling pathway in the response of sweet potato to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qingchang; He, Shaozhen

    2017-01-01

    Sweet potato is an important food and bio-energy crop, and investigating the mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will provide information for salt-tolerant breeding of this crop. Here, the root transcriptomes of the salt-sensitive variety Lizixiang and the salt-tolerant line ND98 were compared to identify the genes and pathways involved in salt stress responses. In total, 8,744 and 10,413 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Lizixiang and ND98, respectively, were involved in salt responses. A lower DNA methylation level was detected in ND98 than in Lizixiang. In both genotypes, the DEGs, which function in phytohormone synthesis and signalling and ion homeostasis, may underlie the different degrees of salt tolerance. Significant up-regulations of the genes involved in the jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signalling pathways and ion transport, more accumulation of JA, a higher degree of stomatal closure and a lower level of Na+ were found in ND98 compared to Lizixiang. This is the first report on transcriptome responses to salt tolerance in sweet potato. These results reveal that the JA signalling pathway plays important roles in the response of sweet potato to salt stress. This study provides insights into the mechanisms and genes involved in the salt tolerance of sweet potato. PMID:28084460

  15. Employability. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This OCAP identifies the employability skills…

  16. Drafting. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Drafting Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This OCAP identifies the…

  17. Accounting. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Accounting Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This OCAP identifies the…

  18. Identification of the botanical origin of pine nuts found in food products by gas-liquid chromatography analysis of fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Giuffrida, Francesca; Dionisi, Fabiola

    2010-02-24

    Pine nuts are traditionally used in various part of the world for the preparation of desserts or sauces or in salads. Local production is not sufficient to cope with the high demand of pine nuts around the world, and countries such as China or Pakistan are exporting much of their production to Western countries. Almost all the nuts that are traditionally consumed belong to the Pinus genus, but over the past years, the number of consumer complaints following consumption of commercial pine nuts increased. Some consumers experienced taste disturbance lasting for up to two weeks after consumption. Food safety agencies raised some concerns regarding pine nuts imported from Asia and their association with taste disturbance. However, even though a formal association has not been found to date, the Pinus genus comprises species that are not classified as edible and could be eventually used to adulterate edible species. Pinus spp. seed lipids are known to contain very specific polyunsaturated fatty acids know as Delta5-olefinic acids. Seed fatty acid profile of conifers had been used in the past as a taxonomic marker, and in the present study to identify the botanical origin of pine nut in nine commercial products. Fast gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) was used to resolve the complete fatty acid profile of Pinus spp. samples in less than 5 min. A diagnostic index based on the relative levels of the main fatty acids including distinctive Delta5-olefinic acids was used to identify botanical origins. Results revealed the occurrence of the following Pinus spp. in commercial products: P. pinea, P. koraiensis, P. gerardiana, P. armandii and P. massoniana. The later two species, known as Chinese white pine and Chinese red pine, are only cultivated in China and are not listed as common source of edible pine nuts by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The present study shows that the botanical origin of pine nuts can be identified in products based on the fatty acid profile.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Natural Variation in Antirrhinum Scent Profiles Identifies BENZOIC ACID CARBOXYMETHYL TRANSFERASE As the Major Locus Controlling Methyl Benzoate Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Hermans, Benjamin; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The Antirrhinum genus has a considerable complexity in the scent profiles produced by different species. We have analyzed the genetic differences between A. majus and A. linkianum, two species divergent in the emission of methyl benzoate, methyl cinnamate, acetophenone, and ocimene. The genetic analysis showed that all compounds segregated in a Mendelian fashion attributable to one or two loci with simple or epistatic interactions. Several lines lacked methyl benzoate, a major Volatile Organic Compound emitted by A. majus but missing in A. linkianum. Using a candidate gene approach, we found that the BENZOIC ACID CARBOXYMETHYL TRANSFERASE from A. linkianum appeared to be a null allele as we could not detect mRNA expression. The coding region did not show significant differences that could explain the loss of expression. The intron-exon boundaries was also conserved indicating that there is no alternative splicing in A. linkianum as compared to A. majus. However, it showed multiple polymorphisms in the 5′ promoter region including two insertions, one harboring an IDLE MITE transposon with additional sequences with high homology to the PLENA locus and a second one with somewhat lower homology to the regulatory region of the VENOSA locus. It also had a 778 bp deletion as compared to the A. majus BAMT promoter region. Our results show that the differences in scent emission between A. majus and A. linkianum may be traced back to single genes involved in discrete biosynthetic reactions such as benzoic acid methylation. Thus, natural variation of this complex trait maybe the result of combinations of wild type, and loss of function alleles in different genes involved in discrete VOCs biosynthesis. Furthermore, the presence of active transposable elements in the genus may account for rapid evolution and instability, raising the possibility of adaptation to local pollinators. PMID:28154577

  20. Genetic Analysis of Natural Variation in Antirrhinum Scent Profiles Identifies BENZOIC ACID CARBOXYMETHYL TRANSFERASE As the Major Locus Controlling Methyl Benzoate Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Hernández, Victoria; Hermans, Benjamin; Weiss, Julia; Egea-Cortines, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The Antirrhinum genus has a considerable complexity in the scent profiles produced by different species. We have analyzed the genetic differences between A. majus and A. linkianum, two species divergent in the emission of methyl benzoate, methyl cinnamate, acetophenone, and ocimene. The genetic analysis showed that all compounds segregated in a Mendelian fashion attributable to one or two loci with simple or epistatic interactions. Several lines lacked methyl benzoate, a major Volatile Organic Compound emitted by A. majus but missing in A. linkianum. Using a candidate gene approach, we found that the BENZOIC ACID CARBOXYMETHYL TRANSFERASE from A. linkianum appeared to be a null allele as we could not detect mRNA expression. The coding region did not show significant differences that could explain the loss of expression. The intron-exon boundaries was also conserved indicating that there is no alternative splicing in A. linkianum as compared to A. majus. However, it showed multiple polymorphisms in the 5' promoter region including two insertions, one harboring an IDLE MITE transposon with additional sequences with high homology to the PLENA locus and a second one with somewhat lower homology to the regulatory region of the VENOSA locus. It also had a 778 bp deletion as compared to the A. majus BAMT promoter region. Our results show that the differences in scent emission between A. majus and A. linkianum may be traced back to single genes involved in discrete biosynthetic reactions such as benzoic acid methylation. Thus, natural variation of this complex trait maybe the result of combinations of wild type, and loss of function alleles in different genes involved in discrete VOCs biosynthesis. Furthermore, the presence of active transposable elements in the genus may account for rapid evolution and instability, raising the possibility of adaptation to local pollinators.

  1. Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media

    SciTech Connect

    Iordache, A.; Horj, E.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M.; Ani, A. R.; Mesaros, C.

    2010-08-04

    An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 mx0.25 mm, 0.25 {mu}m film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 deg. C, 1 min, 6 deg. C/min at 100 deg. C, 4 deg. C/min at 200 deg. C, 20 deg. C/min at 300 deg. C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 deg. C, the injector temperature 200 deg. C and ion source temperature 250 deg. C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 {mu}A. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

  2. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  3. Plasma Amino Acid Profile in Patients with Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Linlin; Liu, Sha; Yang, Wengang; Yu, Haitao; Zhang, Li; Ma, Ping; Wu, Peng; Li, Xue; Cho, Kenka; Xue, Song; Jiang, Baohong

    2017-01-01

    Aortic dissection (AD), a severe cardiovascular disease with the characteristics of high mortality, is lack of specific clinical biomarkers. In order to facilitate the diagnosis of AD, we investigated plasma amino acid profile through metabolomics approach. Total 33 human subjects were enrolled in the study: 11 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients without aortic lesion and 11 acute AD and 11 chronic AD. Amino acids were identified in plasma using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and were further subjected to multiple logistic regression analysis. The score plots of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) showed clear discrimination of CHD patients with AD, acute AD or chronic AD patients, respectively. The contents of histidine, glycine, serine, citrate, ornithine, hydroxyproline, proline and sarcosine were significant different in acute AD patients comparing with CHD patients. The levels of citrate, GABA, glutamate and cysteine were significant different in chronic AD patients comparing with CHD patients. The contents of glutamate and phenylalanine were significant changed in acute AD patients comparing with chronic AD patients. Plasma aminograms were significantly altered in patients with AD comparing with CHD, especially in acute AD, suggesting amino acid profile is expected to exploit a novel, non-invasive, objective diagnosis for AD. PMID:28071727

  4. Electronics. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  5. Horticulture. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This list consists of essential competencies from the following specialized Ohio Competency Analysis Profiles: Floriculutre and Greenhouse Worker; Nursery and Garden Center Worker; and Turf and Landscape Worker. Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency…

  6. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This index contains the unit titles from all 60 Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) lists. It is intended to facilitate the combination of units from different OCAPs in order to develop curricula that meet specific program needs (e.g., learner differences, labor market demands, and technological developments). OCAP titles are as follows:…

  7. Manual for Modal Profile Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Harvey A.; Lei, Hau

    Modal Profile Analysis (MPA) is a Fortran IV program for the identification and cross validation of relatively homogenous subgroups within a dimensional or ordination space. This classification approach is designed for use with several samples in a multiple replication design. The program consists of three stages: (1) identification of preliminary…

  8. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  9. Welding. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a welding program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability skills needed…

  10. Masonry. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for masonry occupations contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability…

  11. Mathematics. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This competency analysis profile contains eight lists of mathematics skills that have been identified by employers and verified by math-certified instructors as being core competencies for eight groups of occupational areas. Each list is organized into subsections dealing with the following: numbers and number relations, measurement, data analysis…

  12. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  13. Mechanism Analysis of Acid Tolerance Response of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN 68 by Gene Expression Profile Using RNA-Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Bing; Guo, Huiyuan; Cui, Jianyun; Jiang, Lu; Song, Shuhui; Sun, Min; Ren, Fazheng

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the mechanism of the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68, we optimized the acid-adaptation condition to stimulate ATR effectively and analyzed the change of gene expression profile after acid-adaptation using high-throughput RNA-Seq. After acid-adaptation at pH 4.5 for 2 hours, the survival rate of BBMN68 at lethal pH 3.5 for 120 min was increased by 70 fold and the expression of 293 genes were upregulated by more than 2 fold, and 245 genes were downregulated by more than 2 fold. Gene expression profiling of ATR in BBMN68 suggested that, when the bacteria faced acid stress, the cells strengthened the integrity of cell wall and changed the permeability of membrane to keep the H+ from entering. Once the H+ entered the cytoplasm, the cells showed four main responses: First, the F0F1-ATPase system was initiated to discharge H+. Second, the ability to produce NH3 by cysteine-cystathionine-cycle was strengthened to neutralize excess H+. Third, the cells started NER-UVR and NER-VSR systems to minimize the damage to DNA and upregulated HtpX, IbpA, and γ-glutamylcysteine production to protect proteins against damage. Fourth, the cells initiated global response signals ((p)ppGpp, polyP, and Sec-SRP) to bring the whole cell into a state of response to the stress. The cells also secreted the quorum sensing signal (AI-2) to communicate between intraspecies cells by the cellular signal system, such as two-component systems, to improve the overall survival rate. Besides, the cells varied the pathways of producing energy by shifting to BCAA metabolism and enhanced the ability to utilize sugar to supply sufficient energy for the operation of the mechanism mentioned above. Based on these reults, it was inferred that, during industrial applications, the acid resistance of bifidobacteria could be improved by adding BCAA, γ-glutamylcysteine, cysteine, and cystathionine into the acid-stress environment. PMID:23236393

  14. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  15. Discrimination of almonds (Prunus dulcis) geographical origin by minerals and fatty acids profiling.

    PubMed

    Amorello, Diana; Orecchio, Santino; Pace, Andrea; Barreca, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-one almond samples from three different geographical origins (Sicily, Spain and California) were investigated by determining minerals and fatty acids compositions. Data were used to discriminate by chemometry almond origin by linear discriminant analysis. With respect to previous PCA profiling studies, this work provides a simpler analytical protocol for the identification of almonds geographical origin. Classification by using mineral contents data only was correct in 77% of the samples, while, by using fatty acid profiles, the percentages of samples correctly classified reached 82%. The coupling of mineral contents and fatty acid profiles lead to an increased efficiency of the classification with 87% of samples correctly classified.

  16. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  17. Metabolomics using GC-TOF-MS followed by subsequent GC-FID and HILIC-MS/MS analysis revealed significantly altered fatty acid and phospholipid species profiles in plasma of smokers.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel C; Degen, Christian; Scherer, Gerhard; Jahreis, Gerhard; Niessner, Reinhard; Scherer, Max

    2014-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is an ideal tool for investigations of the metabolome in human plasma. To investigate the impact of smoking on the human metabolome, we performed an untargeted metabolic fingerprinting using GC-TOF-MS with EDTA-plasma samples from 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. The observed elevated levels in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in smokers were verified by a targeted analysis using GC-FID, which revealed also significantly alterations in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in smokers (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Since the main fraction of fatty acids in plasma is esterified to phospholipids, we analyzed phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) species composition in the plasma samples of the same subjects. The profiles of 39 PC and 40 PE species were analyzed with a newly developed and validated HILIC-ESI-MS/MS method. We were able to baseline separate the two lipid classes (PC from PE) by maintaining co-elution of individual lipid species of each class. The method shows a linear range from 0.5μM to 2000μM and an inter- and intraday coefficient of variation (CV)<20% across all analytes. Application of the validated method to the plasma samples of smokers and non-smokers, derived from a diet-controlled smoking study, revealed significantly elevated levels of PC and PE species containing MUFAs in smokers. In summary, we could demonstrate that there is a significantly altered total fatty acid profile, with increased MUFAs, in the plasma of smokers compared to non-smokers. Results obtained with the new HILIC-MS/MS method indicate that the altered fatty acid profile is also reflected in the PC and PE profile of smokers.

  18. Amino acid analysis for pharmacopoeial purposes.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Oliver; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2016-07-01

    The impurity profile of amino acids depends strongly on the production process. Since there are many different production methods (e.g. fermentation, protein hydrolysis or chemical synthesis) universal, state of the art methods are required to determine the impurity profile of amino acids produced by all relevant competitors. At the moment TLC tests provided by the Ph. Eur. are being replaced by a very specific amino acid analysis procedure possibly missing out on currently unknown process related impurities. Production methods and possible impurities as well as separation and detection methods suitable for said impurities are subject to this review.

  19. Velocity profile development for a poultry facility acid scrubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the air velocity profile for 12 experimental configurations (ECs) of an acid scrubber was carried out using an equal area traverse method with a vane axial anemometer. Four velocity profile plots were created for each configuration to determine the four optimal ECs. ECs were selecte...

  20. Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n = 71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n = 20) and the environment (n = 11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung.

  1. Accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of model bacterial communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, Haack S.; Garchow, H.; Odelson, D.A.; Forney, L.J.; Klug, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the accuracy and reproducibility of whole-community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis with two model bacterial communities differing in composition by using the Microbial ID, Inc. (MIDI), system. The biomass, taxonomic structure, and expected MIDI-FAME profiles under a variety of environmental conditions were known for these model communities a priori. Not all members of each community could be detected in the composite profile because of lack of fatty acid 'signatures' in some isolates or because of variations (approximately fivefold) in fatty acid yield across taxa. MIDI- FAME profiles of replicate subsamples of a given community were similar in terms of fatty acid yield per unit of community dry weight and relative proportions of specific fatty acids. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of MIDI-FAME profiles resulted in a clear separation of the two different communities and a clustering of replicates of each community from two separate experiments on the first PCA axis. The first PCA axis accounted for 57.1% of the variance in the data and was correlated with fatty acids that varied significantly between communities and reflected the underlying community taxonomic structure. On the basis of our data, community fatty acid profiles can be used to assess the relative similarities and differences of microbial communities that differ in taxonomic composition. However, detailed interpretation of community fatty acid profiles in terms of biomass or community taxonomic composition must be viewed with caution until our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fatty acids over a wide variety of taxa and the effects of growth conditions on fatty acid profiles is more extensive.

  2. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  3. Metabolite profiling of two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutants.

    PubMed

    Frank, Thomas; Meuleye, Bertrand Seumo; Miller, Andreas; Shu, Qing-Yao; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2007-12-26

    Two low phytic acid (lpa) rice mutant lines, Os-lpa-XS110-1 and Os-lpa-XS110-2, were grown together with their parent wild-type variety Xiushui 110 in four field trials. HPLC analysis of inositol phosphates in the seeds produced demonstrated that compared to the wild-type, the reduction in phytic acid content in Os-lpa-XS110-1 (-46%) was more pronounced than that in Os-lpa-XS110-2 (-23%). Lower inositol phosphates (InsP 3, InsP 4, InsP 5) were not detected in the mutants. The lpa mutants and the wild-type rice were subjected to comparative metabolite profiling by capillary gas chromatography. On average, 34% (Os-lpa-XS110-1) and 42% (Os-lpa-XS110-2) of the detected peaks were statistically significantly different between wild-type and mutants. However, only a few of these differences could be consistently observed for all field trials. Identification and quantification of the consistently different metabolites revealed that contents of myo-inositol and raffinose were increased in Os-lpa-XS110-1 but decreased in Os-lpa-XS110-2 compared to the wild-type. In addition, Os-lpa-XS110-1 exhibited increased levels of galactose and galactinol. Consideration of these metabolic changes in light of the routes involved in the biosynthesis of phytic acid indicated a disturbance in the early biosynthetic pathway of phytic acid in Os-lpa-XS110-2 (similar to the lpa-1 type mutation in maize) and a mutation event affecting phosphorylation of myo-inositol in Os-lpa-XS110-1 (similar to the lpa-3-type mutation).

  4. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-15

    for author profiling techniques, many of which give rise to deep ethical considerations. A company or organisation could use an author profiling tool...fourth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining - WSDM ’11, pages 365–374, 2011. [19] F Pedregosa, G Varoquaux, A Gramfort, V Michel

  5. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer.

  6. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L.; Frisby, Craig L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) parameterization of the Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) model to demonstrate validation of profile pattern hypotheses derived from multidimensional scaling (MDS). Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is an exploratory method for identifying major…

  7. Amino acid profile of milk-based infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Viadel, B; Alegriá, A; Farré, R; Abellán, P; Romero, F

    2000-09-01

    The protein content and amino acid profile of three milk-based infant formulas, two of which were powdered (adapted and follow-on) and the third liquid, were determined to check their compliance with the EU directive and to evaluate whether or not they fulfil an infant's nutritional needs. To obtain the amino acid profile proteins were subjected to acid hydrolysis, prior to which the sulfur-containing amino acids were oxidized with performic acid. The amino acids were derivatized with phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and then determined by ion-pair reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) In the case of tryptophan a basic hydrolysis was applied and there was no need of derivatization. The protein contents of the analysed formulas were in the ranges established by the EU directive for these products and the amino acid contents were in the ranges reported by other authors for these types of formulas. In all cases the tryptophan content determined the value of the chemical score, which was always lower than 80% of the reference protein but in the ranges reported by other authors. The analysed adapted infant formula provides amino acids in amounts higher than the established nutritional requirements.

  8. Entrepreneurship. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for entrepreneurship. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  9. Masonry. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for masonry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  10. Fatty acid profiling of soybean cotyledons by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C A; Ren, C; Beuselinck, P R; Benedict, H R; Bilyeu, K

    2006-11-01

    Genetically improved soybean grain often contains altered fatty acid profiles. Such alterations can have deleterious effects on seed germination and seedling development, making it necessary to monitor fatty acid profiles in follow-up physiological studies. The objective of this research was to quantify the five fatty acids in soybean (Glycine max) cotyledons using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Soybean cotyledon samples were dried, ground, and scanned with visible and NIR radiation from 400 to 2500 nm, and reflectance was recorded. Samples were also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids and total oil; GC data, expressed as actual concentration and proportion of total oil, were regressed against spectral data to develop calibration equations. Equation statistics indicated that four of the five fatty acids could be predicted accurately by NIR spectroscopy; the fifth fatty acid could be determined by subtraction. Principal component analysis revealed that most of the spectral variation in this population was due to chlorophyll absorbance in the visible region. Therefore, the spectra were trimmed to include the NIR region only (1100-2500 nm), and a second set of equations was developed. Equations based exclusively on NIR spectra had equal or greater precision than equations based on visible and NIR spectra. Principal component analysis and partial least squares analysis revealed that even after trimming, at least 90% of the spectral variation was unrelated to fatty acid, though variation from fatty acid was identified in the second and third principal components. This research provides an NIR method for complete fatty acid profiling of soybean cotyledons. Equations were achieved with NIR spectra only, so spectrophotometers that analyze both the visible and NIR regions are not needed for this analysis. In addition, equations were possible with a 250 mg sample, which is one-tenth the normal sample size for

  11. [Mineral elements analysis of Momordica charantiap seeds by ICP-AES and fatty acid profile identification of seed oil by GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-ru; Deng, Ze-yuan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Liu, Zhi-han

    2010-08-01

    In the present study, a special kind of Momordica charantia seeds produced in Hai Nan was selected and analyzed. Firstly, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES) was used to determine the mineral elements. It was clear that the contents of K, Mg and P are the highest in the seeds; Cr and Zn takes up to 5.65% and 45.45% high, especially, which are rare in plant foods. These minerals, especially Cr and Zn might have a complex effect on those proteins or polysaccharides and form a stronger anticipation of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and cholesterol. Secondly, seed oil was extracted by supercritical CO2 extraction with a yield ratio of 36.89, and the fatty acids were treated by methylation in alkaline process and purified by thin-layer chromatography, then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) identification. The saturated fatty acids (SFA) take up 36.712, and mainly are stearic acid; monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) is only 3.33% which is dominantly linoleic acid (LA); Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) accounted for 59.96%, and the alpha-eleostearic acid takes up 54.26% as the main fatty acids in all. The plentiful alpha-eleostearic acid leads to strong effects of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, lowering blood fat, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and preventing cardiovascular diseases, and so on. Knowing clearly the mineral elements distribution and identifying the composition of fatty acid, especially the main fatty acids in the oil, are both of great guiding importance to further exploit the clinical and edible value in Momordica charantiap seeds.

  12. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Acaglione

    2003-09-17

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B&W 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001).

  13. Autistic children exhibit distinct plasma amino acid profile.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Jain, Jamal Md Nurul; Prasad, Chintakindi Krishna; Naik, Usha; Akella, Radha Rama Devi

    2013-10-01

    In order to ascertain whether autistic children display characteristic metabolic signatures that are of diagnostic value, plasma amino acid analyses were carried out on a cohort of 138 autistic children and 138 normal controls using reverse-phase HPLC. Pre-column derivatization of amino acids with phenyl isothiocyanate forms phenyl thio-carbamate derivates that have a lamba(max) of 254 nm, enabling their detection using photodiode array. Autistic children showed elevated levels of glutamic acid (120 +/- 89 vs. 83 +/- 35 micromol/L) and asparagine (85 +/- 37 vs. 47 +/- 19 micromol/L); lower levels of phenylalanine (45 +/- 20 vs. 59 +/- 18 micromol/L), tryptophan (24 +/- 11 vs. 41 +/- 16 micromol/L), methionine (22 +/- 9 vs. 28 +/- 9 micromol/L) and histidine (45 +/- 21 vs. 58 +/- 15 micromol/L). A low molar ratio of (tryptophan/large neutral amino acids) x 100 was observed in autism (5.4 vs 9.2), indicating lesser availability of tryptophan for neurotransmitter serotonin synthesis. To conclude, elevated levels of excitatory amino acids (glutamate and asparagine), decreased essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and methionine) and decreased precursors of neurotransmitters (tyrosine and tryptophan) are the distinct characteristics of plasma amino acid profile of autistic children. Thus, such metabolic signatures might be useful tools for early diagnosis of autism.

  14. Profiling transcriptomes of human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to maleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Chi; Lin, Yin-Chi; Cheng, Yin-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Background Maleic acid is a multi-functional chemical widely used in the field of industrial chemistry for producing food additives and food contact materials. As maleic acid may contaminate food by the release from food packages or intentional addition, it raises the concern about the effects of excessive dietary exposure to maleic acid on human health. However, the influence of maleic acid on human health has not been thoroughly studied. In silico toxicogenomics approaches have found the association between maleic acid and nervous system disease in human. The aim of this study is to experimentally explore the effects of maleic acid on human neuronal cells. Methods A microarray-based transcriptome profiling was performed to offer a better understanding of the effects of maleic acid on human health. Gene expression profiles of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to three concentrations of maleic acid (10, 50, and 100 μM) for 24 h were analyzed. Genes which were differentially expressed in dose-dependent manners were identified and further analyzed with an enrichment analysis. The expression profile of selected genes related to the inferred functional changes was validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Specific fluorescence probes were applied to observe the inferred functional changes in maleic acid-treated neuronal cells. Results A total of 316 differentially expressed genes (141 upregulated and 175 downregulated) were identified in response to the treatment of maleic acid. The enrichment analysis showed that DNA binding and metal ion binding were the significant molecular functions (MFs) of the neuronal cells affected by maleic acid. Maleic acid exposure decreased the expression of genes associated with calcium and thiol levels of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of intracellular calcium and thiol levels were also affected by maleic acid dose-dependent. Discussion The exposure to maleic acid is found to decrease the

  15. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration.

  16. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    PubMed

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of oleic acid in the infraspinatus and LM, and increased linoleic acid (P < 0.01). Oil supplementation increased (P < 0.01) the weight percentage of various isomers of CLA in muscle, with the greatest change in the cis-9,trans-11 isomer. Supplementation of sheep diets with safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty

  17. Regulation of the plasma amino acid profile by leucine via the system L amino acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Hongmin; Nakamura, Koichi; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuya; Kondo, Yusuke; Xu, Minjun; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of amino acids reflect the intracellular amino acid pool in mammals. However, the regulatory mechanism requires clarification. In this study, we examined the effect of leucine administration on plasma amino acid profiles in mice with and without the treatment of 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) or rapamycin as an inhibitor of system L or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, respectively. The elevation of plasma leucine concentration after leucine administration was associated with a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine; BCH treatment almost completely blocked the leucine-induced decrease in plasma amino acid concentrations. Rapamycin treatment had much less effects on the actions of leucine than BCH treatment. These results suggest that leucine regulates the plasma concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, and that system L amino acid transporters are involved in the leucine action.

  18. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  19. Comparison of free amino acids profile in honey from three Argentinian regions.

    PubMed

    Cometto, Pablo M; Faye, Pablo F; Di Paola Naranjo, Romina D; Rubio, Miguel A; Aldao, Mario A J

    2003-08-13

    The physical chemistry characteristics of honey are directly related to floral origin and, as a result, to the production region. There are some available methods that can determine the botanical or geographical origin of honey such as the free amino acids profile analysis. This paper reports data on the free amino acid composition, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography UV detection on 56 honey samples from three different Argentine regions, with characteristic apiarian flora. To evaluate if the quantified amino acid could be used to verify the geographical or botanical origin of honey, statistical analyses were performed. The cluster analysis showed that samples were grouped in clusters related to sampling regions and more strictly to apiarian flora around apiaries. Each cluster appears associated, in accordance with the principal component analysis, to high or low concentrations of different amino acids.

  20. Automotive Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This occupational competency analysis profile (OCAP), which is one a series of employer-verified competency lists that were developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives across Ohio, identifies the occupational, academic, and employability…

  1. Auto Collision Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This occupational competency analysis profile (OCAP), which is one a series of employer-verified competency lists that were developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives across Ohio, identifies the occupational, academic, and employability…

  2. The Practical Use of Profile Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Rhonda D.

    Profile analysis refers to interpreting or analyzing the pattern of tests, subtests, or scores. The analysis may be across groups or across scores for one individual. This approach to analyzing data is being used by clinicians to help in the translation of the results of popular assessment instruments. This paper examines several examples of the…

  3. Business Information Systems. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for business information systems is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 10 units: (1) data…

  4. Commercial Photography. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial photography is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 12 units: (1) business…

  5. Animal Management Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for animal management technician (AMT) is a competency list verified by expert workers that evolved from a job analysis. It identifies occupational, academic, and employability competencies needed to enter the occupation; lists and clusters them into broader units; and details the competency…

  6. Nurse Aide. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for nurse aide (NA) is a competency list verified by expert workers that evolved from a job analysis. It identifies occupational, academic, and employability competencies needed to enter the occupation; lists and clusters them into broader units; and details the competency builders needed to…

  7. General Marketing. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This General Marketing Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This OCAP identifies the…

  8. Exploration of the antiplatelet activity profile of betulinic acid on human platelets.

    PubMed

    Tzakos, Andreas G; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tsoumani, Maria; Kyriakou, Eleni; Hwa, John; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2012-07-18

    Betulinic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpene acid, presents a diverse mode of biological actions including antiretroviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The potency of betulinic acid as an inhibitor of human platelet activation was evaluated, and its antiplatelet profile against in vitro platelet aggregation, induced by several platelet agonists (adenosine diphosphate, thrombin receptor activator peptide-14, and arachidonic acid), was explored. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the effect of betulinic acid on P-selectin membrane expression and PAC-1 binding to activated platelets. Betulinic acid potently inhibits platelet aggregation and also reduced PAC-1 binding and the membrane expression of P-selectin. Principal component analysis was used to screen, on the chemical property space, for potential common pharmacophores of betulinic acid with approved antithrombotic drugs. A common pharmacophore was defined between the NMR-derived structure of betulinic acid and prostacyclin agonists (PGI2), and the importance of its carboxylate group in its antiplatelet activity was determined. The present results indicate that betulinic acid has potential use as an antithrombotic compound and suggest that the mechanism underlying the antiplatelet effects of betulinic acid is similar to that of the PGI2 receptor agonists, a hypothesis that deserves further investigation.

  9. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Rivera Casado, Noemí Araceli; Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio; Calva Calva, Graciano

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process.

  10. The Fatty Acid Profile Analysis of Cyperus laxus Used for Phytoremediation of Soils from Aged Oil Spill-Impacted Sites Revealed That This Is a C18:3 Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Montes Horcasitas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez Vázquez, Refugio; Esparza García, Fernando José; Pérez Vargas, Josefina; Ariza Castolo, Armando; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Gómez Guzmán, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    The effect of recalcitrant hydrocarbons on the fatty acid profile from leaf, basal corm, and roots of Cyperus laxus plants cultivated in greenhouse phytoremediation systems of soils from aged oil spill-impacted sites containing from 16 to 340 g/Kg total hydrocarbons (THC) was assessed to investigate if this is a C18:3 species and if the hydrocarbon removal during the phytoremediation process has a relationship with the fatty acid profile of this plant. The fatty acid profile was specific to each vegetative organ and was strongly affected by the hydrocarbons level in the impacted sites. Leaf extracts of plants from uncontaminated soil produced palmitic acid (C16), octadecanoic acid (C18:0), unsaturated oleic acids (C18:1-C18:3), and unsaturated eichosanoic (C20:2-C20:3) acids with a noticeable absence of the unsaturated hexadecatrienoic acid (C16:3); this finding demonstrates, for the first time, that C. laxus is a C18:3 plant. In plants from the phytoremediation systems, the total fatty acid contents in the leaf and the corm were negatively affected by the hydrocarbons presence; however, the effect was positive in root. Interestingly, under contaminated conditions, unusual fatty acids such as odd numbered carbons (C15, C17, C21, and C23) and uncommon unsaturated chains (C20:3n6 and C20:4) were produced together with a remarkable quantity of C22:2 and C24:0 chains in the corm and the leaf. These results demonstrate that weathered hydrocarbons may drastically affect the lipidic composition of C. laxus at the fatty acid level, suggesting that this species adjusts the cover lipid composition in its vegetative organs, mainly in roots, in response to the weathered hydrocarbon presence and uptake during the phytoremediation process. PMID:26473488

  11. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard.

  12. Fatty Acid Profile and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in the Milk Fate from Qingphai Yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk and the milk products of yak (Bos grunniens) are major ingredients in the daily diets of Tibetan herders while dairy products from Bos taurus breeds are important dietary components in the U.S. Also, genetic advantages in yak milk fatty acid profiles might benefit to dairy production in the...

  13. Profiles of amino acids and biogenic amines in the plasma of Cri-du-Chat patients.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Danielle Zildeana Sousa; de Moura Leite, Fernando Brunale Vilela; Barreto, Cleber Nunes; Faria, Bernadete; Jedlicka, Leticia Dias Lima; de Jesus Silva, Elisângela; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Bechara, Etelvino Jose Henriques; Assunção, Nilson Antonio

    2017-03-21

    Cri-du-chat syndrome (CDCS) is a rare innate disease attributed to chromosome 5p deletion characterized by a cat-like cry, craniofacial malformation, and altered behavior of affected children. Metabolomic analysis and a chemometric approach allow description of the metabolic profile of CDCS as compared to normal subjects. In the present work, UHPLC/MS was employed to analyze blood samples withdrawn from CDCS carriers (n=18) and normal parental subjects (n=18), all aged 0-34 years, aiming to set up a representative CDCS profile constructed from 33 targeted amino acids and biogenic amines. Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) was of particular concern with respect to CDCS redox balance. Increased serotonin (3-fold), methionine sulfoxide (2-fold), and Asp levels, and a little lower Orn, citrulline, Leu, Val, Ile, Asn, Gln, Trp, Thr, His, Phe, Met, and creatinine levels were found in the plasma of CDCS patients. Nitrotyrosine and Trp did not differ in normal and CDCS individuals.The accumulated metabolites may reflect, respectively, disturbances in the redox balance, deficient purine biosynthesis, and altered behavior, whereas the amino acid abatement in the latter group may affect the homeostasis of the urea cycle, citric acid cycle, branched chain amino acid synthesis, Tyr and Trp metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. The identification of enzymatic deficiencies leading to the amino acid burden in CDCS is further required for elucidating its molecular bases and eventually propose specific or mixed amino acid supplementation to newborn patients aiming to balance their metabolism.

  14. Fatty acid profile of the sea snail Gibbula umbilicalis as a biomarker for coastal metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla O; Simões, Tiago; Novais, Sara C; Pimparel, Inês; Granada, Luana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Barata, Carlos; Lemos, Marco F L

    2017-05-15

    Metals are among the most common environmental pollutants with natural or anthropogenic origin that can be easily transferred through the food chain. Marine gastropods are known to accumulate high concentrations of these metals in their tissues. Gibbula umbilicalis ecological importance and abundant soft tissues, which enables extent biochemical assessments, makes this particular organism a potentially suitable species for marine ecotoxicological studies. Fatty acids are carbon-rich compounds that are ubiquitous in all organisms and easy to metabolize. Their biological specificity, relatively well-studied functions and importance, and the fact that they may alter when stress is induced, make fatty acids prospect biomarkers. This work aimed to assess fatty acid profile changes in the gastropod G. umbilicalis exposed to three metal contaminants. After a 168h exposure to cadmium, mercury, and nickel, the following lipid related endpoints were measured: total lipid content; lipid peroxidation; and fatty acid profile (FAP). The analysis of the FAP suggested an alteration in the fatty acid metabolism and indicated a link between metals exposure and homeoviscous adaptation and immune response. In particular, five fatty acids (palmitic, eicosatrienoic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids), demonstrated to be especially good indicators of G. umbilicalis responses to the array of metals used, having thus the potential to be used as biomarkers for metal contamination in this species. This work represents a first approach for the use of FAP signature as a sensitive and informative parameter and novel tool in environmental risk assessment (ERA) of coastal environments, using G. umbilicalis as model species.

  15. Gene expression profile analysis of type 2 diabetic mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ben; He, Zhishui; Zhai, Qiwei

    2013-01-01

    Liver plays a key role in glucose metabolism and homeostasis, and impaired hepatic glucose metabolism contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the precise gene expression profile of diabetic liver and its association with diabetes and related diseases are yet to be further elucidated. In this study, we detected the gene expression profile by high-throughput sequencing in 9-week-old normal and type 2 diabetic db/db mouse liver. Totally 12132 genes were detected, and 2627 genes were significantly changed in diabetic mouse liver. Biological process analysis showed that the upregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Surprisingly, the downregulated genes in diabetic mouse liver were mainly enriched in immune-related processes, although all the altered genes were still mainly enriched in metabolic processes. Similarly, KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic pathways were the major pathways altered in diabetic mouse liver, and downregulated genes were enriched in immune and cancer pathways. Analysis of the key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism showed that some key enzyme genes were significantly increased and none of the detected key enzyme genes were decreased. In addition, FunDo analysis showed that liver cancer and hepatitis were most likely to be associated with diabetes. Taken together, this study provides the digital gene expression profile of diabetic mouse liver, and demonstrates the main diabetes-associated hepatic biological processes, pathways, key enzyme genes in fatty acid and glucose metabolism and potential hepatic diseases.

  16. Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) to Identify Core Profiles from the WMS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Kim, Se-Kang

    2008-01-01

    Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is a procedure for extracting latent core profiles in a multitest data set. The PAMS procedure offers several advantages compared with other profile analysis procedures. Most notably, PAMS estimates individual profile weights that reflect the degree to which an individual's observed profile…

  17. Swine Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a swine producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability skills…

  18. Graphic Communications. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering graphic communications occupations. The…

  19. Diesel Mechanics. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for diesel mechanics. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  20. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  1. Machine Trades. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for machine trades. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  2. Agricultural Production. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This list consists of essential competencies from the following specialized Ohio Competency Analysis Profiles: Beef and Sheep Producers; Crop Producer; Dairy Producer; Poultry Producer; and Swine Producer. Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives…

  3. Poultry Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a comprehensive and verified employer competency list for a poultry producer program. It contains units (with or without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  4. Entertainment Marketing. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for entertainment marketing. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and…

  5. Medical Assistant. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  6. Dairy Producer. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for dairy producers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational, academic, and employability…

  7. Marketing Management. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  8. Agriculture Products Processing. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  9. Environmental Management. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  10. Diversified Health Occupations. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This list consists of essential competencies from the following specialized Ohio Competency Analysis Profile: Dental Assistant; Medical Assistant; and Nurse Aide. Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive…

  11. Dental Assistant. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  12. Electrical Trades. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the electrical trades. The introduction explains…

  13. Exhaustive screening of the acid beta-glucosidase gene, by fluorescence-assisted mismatch analysis using universal primers: mutation profile and genotype/phenotype correlations in Gaucher disease.

    PubMed Central

    Germain, D P; Puech, J P; Caillaud, C; Kahn, A; Poenaru, L

    1998-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is one of the most prevalent lysosomal storage disorders and one of the rare genetic diseases now accessible to therapy. Outside the Ashkenazi Jewish community, a high molecular diversity is observed, leaving approximately 30% of alleles undetected. Nevertheless, very few exhaustive methods have been developed for extensive gene screening of a large series of patients. Our approach for a complete search of mutations was the association of fluorescent chemical cleavage of mismatches with a universal strand-specific labeling system. The glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene was scanned by use of a set of six amplicons, comprising 11 exons, all exon/intron boundaries, and the promoter region. By use of this screening strategy, the difficulties due to the existence of a highly homologous pseudogene were easily overcome, and both GD mutant alleles were identified in all 25 patients studied, thus attesting to a sensitivity that approaches 100%. A total of 18 different mutations and a new glucocerebrosidase haplotype were detected. The mutational spectrum included eight novel acid beta-glucosidase mutations: IVS2 G(+1)-->T, I119T, R170P, N188K, S237P, K303I, L324P, and A446P. These data further indicate the genetic heterogeneity of the lesions causing GD. Established genotype/phenotype correlations generally were confirmed, but notable disparities were disclosed in several cases, thus underlining the limitation in the prognostic value of genotyping. The observed influence of multifactorial control on this monogenic disease is discussed. PMID:9683600

  14. Genomic prediction for beef fatty acid profile in Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Chiaia, Hermenegildo Lucas Justino; Peripoli, Elisa; Silva, Rafael Medeiros de Oliveira; Aboujaoude, Carolyn; Feitosa, Fabiele Loise Braga; Lemos, Marcos Vinicius Antunes de; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Olivieri, Bianca Ferreira; Espigolan, Rafael; Tonussi, Rafael Lara; Gordo, Daniel Gustavo Mansan; Bresolin, Tiago; Magalhães, Ana Fabrícia Braga; Júnior, Gerardo Alves Fernandes; Albuquerque, Lúcia Galvão de; Oliveira, Henrique Nunes de; Furlan, Joyce de Jesus Mangini; Ferrinho, Adrielle Mathias; Mueller, Lenise Freitas; Tonhati, Humberto; Pereira, Angélica Simone Cravo; Baldi, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare SNP-BLUP, BayesCπ, BayesC and Bayesian Lasso methodologies to predict the direct genomic value for saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acid profile, omega 3 and 6 in the Longissimus thoracis muscle of Nellore cattle finished in feedlot. A total of 963 Nellore bulls with phenotype for fatty acid profiles, were genotyped using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA) with 777,962 SNP. The predictive ability was evaluated using cross validation. To compare the methodologies, the correlation between DGV and pseudo-phenotypes was calculated. The accuracy varied from -0.40 to 0.62. Our results indicate that none of the methods excelled in terms of accuracy, however, the SNP-BLUP method allows obtaining less biased genomic evaluations, thereby; this method is more feasible when taking into account the analyses' operating cost. Despite the lowest bias observed for EBV, the adjusted phenotype is the preferred pseudophenotype considering the genomic prediction accuracies regarding the context of the present study.

  15. Proteomic Analysis Profile of Engineered Articular Cartilage with Chondrogenic Differentiated Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Loaded Polyglycolic Acid Mesh for Weight-Bearing Area Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lunli; Zhou, Xiao; Wu, Yaohao; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Chen; Zhou, Heng; Guo, Fangfang

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of full-thickness defects repair in porcine articular cartilage (AC) weight-bearing area using chondrogenic differentiated autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with a follow-up of 3 and 6 months, which is successive to our previous study on nonweight-bearing area. The isolated ASCs were seeded onto the phosphoglycerate/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA) with chondrogenic induction in vitro for 2 weeks as the experimental group prior to implantation in porcine AC defects (8 mm in diameter, deep to subchondral bone), with PGA/PLA only as control. With follow-up time being 3 and 6 months, both neo-cartilages of postimplantation integrated well with the neighboring normal cartilage and subchondral bone histologically in experimental group, whereas only fibrous tissue in control group. Immunohistochemical and toluidine blue staining confirmed similar distribution of COL II and glycosaminoglycan in the regenerated cartilage to the native one. A vivid remolding process with repair time was also witnessed in the neo-cartilage as the compressive modulus significantly increased from 70% of the normal cartilage at 3 months to nearly 90% at 6 months, which is similar to our former research. Nevertheless, differences of the regenerated cartilages still could be detected from the native one. Meanwhile, the exact mechanism involved in chondrogenic differentiation from ASCs seeded on PGA/PLA is still unknown. Therefore, proteome is resorted leading to 43 proteins differentially identified from 20 chosen two-dimensional spots, which do help us further our research on some committed factors. In conclusion, the comparison via proteome provided a thorough understanding of mechanisms implicating ASC differentiation toward chondrocytes, which is further substantiated by the present study as a perfect supplement to the former one in nonweight-bearing area. PMID:24044689

  16. Romit profile analysis for molecular replacements.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, D; Takenaka, A

    1998-01-01

    A new procedure for evaluation of molecular replacement has been examined by using an R factor calculated from the probe structure with some omitted parts (Romit). It has been demonstrated that changes in Romit from the conventional R factor for the whole structure are sensitive to the local fitness in the omitted region even for large molecules such as proteins. Their profile, plotted against residues, is effective for distinguishing the most probable one from several solutions. In addition, this profile analysis exhibits useful information for model building.

  17. Connecting SEM Analysis and Profile Analysis via MDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L.

    This study was designed to explain how Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) could be viewed as a structural equations model (SEM). The study replicated the major profiles extracted from PAMS in the context of the latent variables in SEM. Data involved the Basic Theme Scales of the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory (Campbell and…

  18. Electrical Load Profile Analysis Using Clustering Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damayanti, R.; Abdullah, A. G.; Purnama, W.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.

    2017-03-01

    Data mining is one of the data processing techniques to collect information from a set of stored data. Every day the consumption of electricity load is recorded by Electrical Company, usually at intervals of 15 or 30 minutes. This paper uses a clustering technique, which is one of data mining techniques to analyse the electrical load profiles during 2014. The three methods of clustering techniques were compared, namely K-Means (KM), Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), and K-Means Harmonics (KHM). The result shows that KHM is the most appropriate method to classify the electrical load profile. The optimum number of clusters is determined using the Davies-Bouldin Index. By grouping the load profile, the demand of variation analysis and estimation of energy loss from the group of load profile with similar pattern can be done. From the group of electric load profile, it can be known cluster load factor and a range of cluster loss factor that can help to find the range of values of coefficients for the estimated loss of energy without performing load flow studies.

  19. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms vs fatty acid profiling for adulteration detection in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a DNA-barcode assay with fatty acid profile analysis to authenticate the botanical origin of olive oil. To achieve this aim, we performed a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on olive oil: seed oil blends using the plastid trnL (UAA) intron barcode. In parallel to genomic analysis, we subjected the samples to gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition. While the PCR-CE assay proved equally efficient as gas chromatography analysis in detecting adulteration with soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and peanut oils, it was superior to the widely utilized analytical chemistry approach in revealing the adulterant species and detecting small quantities of corn and safflower oils in olive oil. Moreover, the DNA-based test correctly identified all tested olive oil: hazelnut oil blends whereas it was not feasible to detect hazelnut oil adulteration through fatty acid profile analysis. Thus, the present research has shown the feasibility of a PCR-CE barcode assay to detect adulteration in olive oil.

  20. Fatty acid profiles of benthic environment associated with artificial reefs in subtropical Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Siu Gin; Wai, Ho Yin; Shin, Paul K S

    2010-02-01

    Artificial reefs can enhance habitat heterogeneity, especially in seabed degraded by bottom-dredging and trawling. However, the trophodynamics of such reef systems are not well understood. This study provided baseline data on trophic relationships in the benthic environment associated with artificial reefs in late spring and mid summer of subtropical Hong Kong, using fatty acid profiles as an indicator. Data from sediments collected at the reef base, materials from sediment traps deployed on top and bottom of the reefs, total particulate matter from the water column and oyster tissues from reef surface were subjected to principal component analysis. Results showed variations of fatty acid profiles in the total particulate matter, upper sediment trap and oyster tissue samples collected in the two samplings, indicating seasonal, trophodynamic changes within the reef system. The wastes produced by fish aggregating at the reefs can also contribute a source of biodeposits to the nearby benthic environment.

  1. A UML Profile for State Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Alex; Rasmussen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    State Analysis is a systems engineering methodology for the specification and design of control systems, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The methodology emphasizes an analysis of the system under control in terms of States and their properties and behaviors and their effects on each other, a clear separation of the control system from the controlled system, cognizance in the control system of the controlled system's State, goal-based control built on constraining the controlled system's States, and disciplined techniques for State discovery and characterization. State Analysis (SA) introduces two key diagram types: State Effects and Goal Network diagrams. The team at JPL developed a tool for performing State Analysis. The tool includes a drawing capability, backed by a database that supports the diagram types and the organization of the elements of the SA models. But the tool does not support the usual activities of software engineering and design - a disadvantage, since systems to which State Analysis can be applied tend to be very software-intensive. This motivated the work described in this paper: the development of a preliminary Unified Modeling Language (UML) profile for State Analysis. Having this profile would enable systems engineers to specify a system using the methods and graphical language of State Analysis, which is easily linked with a larger system model in SysML (Systems Modeling Language), while also giving software engineers engaged in implementing the specified control system immediate access to and use of the SA model, in the same language, UML, used for other software design. That is, a State Analysis profile would serve as a shared modeling bridge between system and software models for the behavior aspects of the system. This paper begins with an overview of State Analysis and its underpinnings, followed by an overview of the mapping of SA constructs to the UML metamodel. It then delves into the details of these mappings and the

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L; Frisby, Craig L

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) parameterization of the Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) model to demonstrate validation of profile pattern hypotheses derived from multidimensional scaling (MDS). Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is an exploratory method for identifying major profiles in a multi-subtest test battery. Major profile patterns are represented as dimensions extracted from a MDS analysis. PAMS represents an individual observed score as a linear combination of dimensions where the dimensions are the most typical profile patterns present in a population. While the PAMS approach was initially developed for exploratory purposes, its results can later be confirmed in a different sample by CFA. Since CFA is often used to verify results from an exploratory factor analysis, the present paper makes the connection between a factor model and the PAMS model, and then illustrates CFA with a simulated example (that was generated by the PAMS model) and at the same time with a real example. The real example demonstrates confirmation of PAMS exploratory results by using a different sample. Fit indexes can be used to indicate whether the CFA reparameterization as a confirmatory approach works for the PAMS exploratory results.

  3. Amino Acid Profiles of Serum and Urine in Search for Prostate Cancer Biomarkers: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczynska, Agnieszka; Sawicki, Wojciech; Pałka, Jerzy A.; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2017-01-01

    There is a great interest in searching for diagnostic biomarkers in prostate cancer patients. The aim of the pilot study was to evaluate free amino acid profiles in their serum and urine. The presented paper shows the first comprehensive analysis of a wide panel of amino acids in two different physiological fluids obtained from the same groups of prostate cancer patients (n = 49) and healthy men (n = 40). The potential of free amino acids, both proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic, as prostate cancer biomarkers and their utility in classification of study participants have been assessed. Several metabolites, which deserve special attention in the further metabolomic investigations on searching for prostate cancer markers, were indicated. Moreover, free amino acid profiles enabled to classify samples to one of the studied groups with high sensitivity and specificity. The presented research provides a strong evidence that ethanolamine, arginine and branched-chain amino acids metabolic pathways can be a valuable source of markers for prostate cancer. The altered concentrations of the above-mentioned metabolites suggest their role in pathogenesis of prostate cancer and they should be further evaluated as clinically useful markers of prostate cancer. PMID:28138303

  4. Comparison of phenolic acids profile and antioxidant potential of six varieties of spelt (Triticum spelta L.).

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz

    2012-05-09

    Phenolic acids profile and antioxidant activity of six diverse varieties of spelt are reported. Antioxidant activity was assessed using eight methods based on different mechanism of action. Phenolic acids composition of spelt differed significantly between varieties and ranged from 506.6 to 1257.4 μg/g DW. Ferulic and sinapinic acids were the predominant phenolic acids found in spelt. Total ferulic acid content ranged from 144.2 to 691.5 μg/g DW. All analyzed spelt varieties possessed high antioxidant potential. In spite of the fact that bound phenolic acids possessed higher antioxidant activities, analysis of antioxidant potential and their relationship with phenolic acid content showed that free phenolics were more effective. Eight antioxidant methods were integrated to obtain a total antioxidant capacity index that may be used for comparison of total antioxidant capacity of spelt varieties. Total antioxidant potential of spelt cultivars were ordered as follows: Ceralio > Spelt INZ ≈ Ostro > Oberkulmer Rotkorn > Schwabenspelz > Schwabenkorn.

  5. Amino Acid Profile in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Richa; Chandrasekhar, Thiruvengadam; Ramani, Pratibha; Sherlin, Herald J.; Natesan, Anuja; Premkumar, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Collagen is a significant structural protein, the integrity of which is essential to be maintained for proper homeostasis. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), being a collagen metabolic disorder, may be subject to changes in amino acid profiling. Aim: The present study was attempted to evaluate the amino acid profile to assess its feasibility as a biological marker in OSMF. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 13 patents with OSMF and the normal group comprised of 13 normal patients without associated habits or systemic disorders. Venous blood was collected from the antecubital vein, plasma was separated and the plasma was then subjected to high profile liquid chromatographic analysis. Results: The assay levels of threonine, alanine and tyrosine did not yield any significant results. The decreased assay levels of valine, Isoleucine and the increased assay level of methionine and glycine observed in group II yielded significant results in correlation with the control group. The decreased assay level seen in phenylalanine in group II and III in correlation with group IV is statistically significant. Conclusion: A few amino acids have been identified which can be used as biological markers for the severity of the disease such as valine, methionine and phenyl alanine. Large scale studies are required to elucidate the potential of these biological markers. PMID:25654030

  6. Influence of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile of soy sauce during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Harada, Risa; Yuzuki, Masanobu; Ito, Kotaro; Shiga, Kazuki; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-02-01

    Soy sauce is a Japanese traditional seasoning composed of various constituents that are produced by various microbes during a long-term fermentation process. Due to the complexity of the process, the investigation of the constituent profile during fermentation is difficult. Metabolomics, the comprehensive study of low molecular weight compounds in biological samples, is thought to be a promising strategy for deep understanding of the constituent contribution to food flavor characteristics. Therefore, metabolomics is suitable for the analysis of soy sauce fermentation. Unfortunately, only few and unrefined studies of soy sauce fermentation using metabolomics approach have been reported. Therefore, we investigated changes in low molecular weight hydrophilic and volatile compounds of soy sauce using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based non-targeted metabolic profiling. The data were analyzed by statistical analysis to evaluate influences of yeast and lactic acid bacterium on the constituent profile. Consequently, our results suggested a novel finding that lactic acid bacterium affected the production of several constituents such as cyclotene, furfural, furfuryl alcohol and methional in the soy sauce fermentation process.

  7. [Plasma amino acids profile of healthy pregnant adolescents in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Castejón, Haydée V; Argotte, María G; Gómez, Gisela; Bohorquez, Lissette; Urrieta, Jesús R

    2003-06-01

    One hundred female adolescents (13-18 y) were clinical and anthropometrically studied to select only those with adequate nutrition. Most adolescents belonged to IV socio-economic stratum families (worker class). Height, weight, age, body mass index and medial arm circumference were used as anthropometric parameters. After screening, only 41 non pregnant girls (control) and 42 pregnant girls with adequate nutrition were selected to analyze plasma amino acids. Fasting peripheral venous blood was drawn, and plasma amino acids were analyzed by HPLC. Amino acid concentrations were expressed as umol/L +/- SE. SAS/STAT program was used for statistical analysis. Amino acid values of control adolescent group were found in ranges reported by other investigators, with slight variations, mostly in diminution, presumably due to nutritional, metabolic or genetic conditions of people living in tropical regions. In pregnant healthy adolescents, distributed according to gestational age: < 32 weeks (n = 30) and > 32 weeks (n = 12), a diminution of total molar plasma amino acids was found, by comparing with control values. Ten amino acids (Pro, Gly, Gln, Arg, Ser, Orn, Tau, Leu, Thr and Val) appeared significantively diminished throughout gestation, being Gly. Gln and Arg most affected since earlier weeks. During the 2nd period. Thr and Val increased their grade of affectation; whereas some amino acids values (Orn, Pro and Tau) tended to recuperate. Several of affected amino acids are gluconegoenic, thus, they could be utilized to supply the energy required by the pregnant adolescent against her double stress: the fetus development and her own development. The plasma amino acid values reported in both, healthy non pregnant and pregnant adolescents, could be taken as regional referential profile of plasma amino acids in this poblational group for further research on adolescent and fetal--maternal malnutrition.

  8. Computational model of abiogenic amino acid condensation to obtain a polar amino acid profile.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Carlos; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego, José Lino; Castañón González, Jorge Alberto; Arias Estrada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the second law of thermodynamics, the Universe as a whole tends to higher entropy. However, the sequence of far-from-equilibrium events that led to the emergence of life on Earth could have imposed order and complexity during the course of chemical reactions in the so-called primordial soup of life. Hence, we may expect to find characteristic profiles or biases in the prebiotic product mixtures, as for instance among the first amino acids. Seeking to shed light on this hypothesis, we have designed a high performance computer program that simulates the spontaneous formation of the amino acid monomers in closed environments. The program was designed in reference to a prebiotic scenario proposed by Sydney W. Fox. The amino acid abundances and their polarities as the two principal biases were also taken into consideration. We regarded the computational model as exhaustive since 200,000 amino acid dimers were formed by simulation, subsequently expressed in a vector and compared with the corresponding amino acid dimers that were experimentally obtained by Fox. We found a very high similarity between the experimental results and our simulations.

  9. Microbiota and bile acid profiles in retinoic acid-primed mice that exhibit accelerated liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Xin; Hu, Ying; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims All-trans Retinoic acid (RA) regulates hepatic lipid and bile acid homeostasis. Similar to bile acid (BA), RA accelerates partial hepatectomy (PHx)-induced liver regeneration. Because there is a bidirectional regulatory relationship between gut microbiota and BA synthesis, we examined the effect of RA in altering the gut microbial population and BA composition and established their relationship with hepatic biological processes during the active phases of liver regeneration. Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated with RA orally followed by 2/3 PHx. The roles of RA in shifting gut microbiota and BA profiles as well as hepatocyte metabolism and proliferation were studied. Results RA-primed mice exhibited accelerated hepatocyte proliferation revealed by higher numbers of Ki67-positive cells compared to untreated mice. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla dominated the gut microbial community (>85%) in both control and RA-primed mice after PHx. RA reduced the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, which was associated with a lean phenotype. Consistently, RA-primed mice lacked transient lipid accumulation normally found in regenerating livers. In addition, RA altered BA homeostasis and shifted BA profiles by increasing the ratio of hydrophilic to hydrophobic BAs in regenerating livers. Accordingly, metabolic regulators fibroblast growth factor 21, Sirtuin1, and their downstream targets AMPK and ERK1/2 were more robustly activated in RA-primed than unprimed regenerating livers. Conclusions Priming mice with RA resulted in a lean microbiota composition and hydrophilic BA profiles, which were associated with facilitated metabolism and enhanced cell proliferation. PMID:26701854

  10. Classification and adulteration detection of vegetable oils based on fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Sun, Xiaoman; Wang, Xuefang; Xu, Baocheng; Wang, Xiupin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2014-08-27

    The detection of adulteration of high priced oils is a particular concern in food quality and safety. Therefore, it is necessary to develop authenticity detection method for protecting the health of customers. In this study, fatty acid profiles of five edible oils were established by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode. Using mass spectral characteristics of selected ions and equivalent chain length (ECL), 28 fatty acids were identified and employed to classify five kinds of edible oils by using unsupervised (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis), supervised (random forests) multivariate statistical methods. The results indicated that fatty acid profiles of these edible oils could classify five kinds of edible vegetable oils into five groups and are therefore employed to authenticity assessment. Moreover, adulterated oils were simulated by Monte Carlo method to establish simultaneous adulteration detection model for five kinds of edible oils by random forests. As a result, this model could identify five kinds of edible oils and sensitively detect adulteration of edible oil with other vegetable oils about the level of 10%.

  11. Automated tumor analysis for molecular profiling in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Clinton; James, Jacqueline A.; Loughrey, Maurice B.; Hougton, Joseph P.; Boyle, David P.; Kelly, Paul; Maxwell, Perry; McCleary, David; Diamond, James; McArt, Darragh G.; Tunstall, Jonathon; Bankhead, Peter; Salto-Tellez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and clinical application of molecular biomarkers in solid tumors, increasingly relies on nucleic acid extraction from FFPE tissue sections and subsequent molecular profiling. This in turn requires the pathological review of haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) stained slides, to ensure sample quality, tumor DNA sufficiency by visually estimating the percentage tumor nuclei and tumor annotation for manual macrodissection. In this study on NSCLC, we demonstrate considerable variation in tumor nuclei percentage between pathologists, potentially undermining the precision of NSCLC molecular evaluation and emphasising the need for quantitative tumor evaluation. We subsequently describe the development and validation of a system called TissueMark for automated tumor annotation and percentage tumor nuclei measurement in NSCLC using computerized image analysis. Evaluation of 245 NSCLC slides showed precise automated tumor annotation of cases using Tissuemark, strong concordance with manually drawn boundaries and identical EGFR mutational status, following manual macrodissection from the image analysis generated tumor boundaries. Automated analysis of cell counts for % tumor measurements by Tissuemark showed reduced variability and significant correlation (p < 0.001) with benchmark tumor cell counts. This study demonstrates a robust image analysis technology that can facilitate the automated quantitative analysis of tissue samples for molecular profiling in discovery and diagnostics. PMID:26317646

  12. Using Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) to identify core profiles from the WMS-III.

    PubMed

    Frisby, Craig L; Kim, Se-Kang

    2008-03-01

    Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) is a procedure for extracting latent core profiles in a multitest data set. The PAMS procedure offers several advantages compared with other profile analysis procedures. Most notably, PAMS estimates individual profile weights that reflect the degree to which an individual's observed profile approximates the shape and scatter of latent core profiles. The PAMS procedure was applied to index scores of nonreplicated participants from the standardization sample (N = 1,033) for the Wechsler Memory Scale--Third Edition (D. Tulsky, J. Zhu, & M. F. Ledbetter, 2002). PAMS extracted discrepant visual memory and auditory memory versus working memory core profiles for the complete 16- to 89-year-old sample and discrepant working memory and auditory memory versus working memory core profiles for the 75- to 89-year-old cohort. Implications for use of PAMS in future research are discussed.

  13. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  14. Gene expression profiles of murine fatty liver induced by the administration of valproic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho; Hong, Il; Kim, Mingoo; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Ju-Han; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-Il; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu; Lee, Mi-Ock . E-mail: molee@snu.ac.kr

    2007-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been used as anticonvulsants, however, it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis and necrosis in the liver. To explore the mechanisms of VPA-induced steatosis, we profiled the gene expression patterns of the mouse liver that were altered by treatment with VPA using microarray analysis. VPA was orally administered as a single dose of 100 mg/kg (low-dose) or 1000 mg/kg (high-dose) to ICR mice and the animals were killed at 6, 24, or 72 h after treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were not significantly altered in the experimental animals. However, symptoms of steatosis were observed at 72 h with low-dose and at 24 h and 72 h with high-dose. After microarray data analysis, 1910 genes were selected by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) as VPA-responsive genes. Hierarchical clustering revealed that gene expression changes depended on the time rather than the dose of VPA treatment. Gene profiling data showed striking changes in the expression of genes associated with lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism, oncogenesis, signal transduction, and development. Functional categorization of 1156 characteristically up- and down-regulated genes (cutoff > 1.5-fold) revealed that 60 genes were involved in lipid metabolism that was interconnected with biological pathways for biosynthesis of triglyceride and cholesterol, catabolism of fatty acid, and lipid transport. This gene expression profile may be associated with the known steatogenic hepatotoxicity of VPA and it may provide useful information for prediction of hepatotoxicity of unknown chemicals or new drug candidates through pattern recognition.

  15. Analysis of lipid profile in lipid storage myopathy.

    PubMed

    Aguennouz, M'hammed; Beccaria, Marco; Purcaro, Giorgia; Oteri, Marianna; Micalizzi, Giuseppe; Musumesci, Olimpia; Ciranni, Annmaria; Di Giorgio, Rosa Maria; Toscano, Antonio; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Lipid dysmetabolism disease is a condition in which lipids are stored abnormally in organs and tissues throughout the body, causing muscle weakness (myopathy). Usually, the diagnosis of this disease and its characterization goes through dosage of Acyl CoA in plasma accompanied with evidence of droplets of intra-fibrils lipids in the patient muscle biopsy. However, to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of lipid storage diseases, it is useful to identify the nature of lipids deposited in muscle fiber. In this work fatty acids and triglycerides profile of lipid accumulated in the muscle of people suffering from myopathies syndromes was characterized. In particular, the analyses were carried out on the muscle biopsy of people afflicted by lipid storage myopathy, such as multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency, and neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy, and by the intramitochondrial lipid storage dysfunctions, such as deficiencies of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II enzyme. A single step extraction and derivatization procedure was applied to analyze fatty acids from muscle tissues by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector and with an electronic impact mass spectrometer. Triglycerides, extracted by using n-hexane, were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface. The most representative fatty acids in all samples were: C16:0 in the 13-24% range, C18:1n9 in the 20-52% range, and C18:2n6 in the 10-25% range. These fatty acids were part of the most representative triglycerides in all samples. The data obtained was statistically elaborated performing a principal component analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained among the different diseases. Using component 1 vs component 3 a 43.3% of total variance was explained. Such results suggest the important role that lipid profile characterization can have in supporting a correct

  16. Plasma amino acid profiles at various reproductive stages in female rats.

    PubMed

    Okame, Rieko; Nakahara, Keiko; Murakami, Noboru

    2015-07-01

    We measured the plasma levels of amino acids at various reproductive stages in female rats, including the estrous cycle, pregnancy and lactation, and compared the resulting amino acid profiles using two- or three-dimensional figures. These figures revealed that the amino acid profiles of pregnant and lactating dams differed considerably from those during the estrous cycle or in male rats. The plasma levels of individual amino acids were almost the same between proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus, and their profiles did not differ significantly. However, the amino acid profiles changed during pregnancy and lactation in dams. The plasma Ser level decreased significantly in mid and late pregnancy, whereas Tyr, Gly and His decreased significantly in the late and end stages of pregnancy, and Trp and Lys significantly decreased and increased at the end of pregnancy, respectively. Much larger changes in amino acid profiles were observed during lactation, when the levels of many amino acids increased significantly, and none showed a significant decrease. Plasma Pro, Ser and Gly levels increased continuously from day 1 until day 15 of lactation, whereas Asn and Met increased significantly from days 1 and 5 respectively until the end of lactation. These results suggest that the profiles of plasma amino acids show characteristic changes according to reproductive stage and that it may be necessary to consider such differences when performing amino acid-based diagnosis.

  17. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (p<0.05) to that of the PC class. The phytosterol content of the NMC class, determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was distinct from the IMCs, but similar (p<0.05) to a portion of the PCs. Principal component analysis (eigenvalue⩾1) indicated that the NMCs can be differentiated from the IMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved.

  18. Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Georgianne L.; Hyman, Susan L.; Mooney, Robert A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma amino acid profiles of 10 children with autism on gluten and casein restricted diets and 26 on unrestricted diets were reviewed. There was a trend for the children on restricted diets to have an increased prevalence of essential amino acid deficiencies and lower plasma levels of essential acids. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  19. Interpretation of pH-activity profiles for acid-base catalysis from molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Thakshila; Swails, Jason M; Harris, Michael E; Roitberg, Adrian E; York, Darrin M

    2015-02-17

    The measurement of reaction rate as a function of pH provides essential information about mechanism. These rates are sensitive to the pK(a) values of amino acids directly involved in catalysis that are often shifted by the enzyme active site environment. Experimentally observed pH-rate profiles are usually interpreted using simple kinetic models that allow estimation of "apparent pK(a)" values of presumed general acid and base catalysts. One of the underlying assumptions in these models is that the protonation states are uncorrelated. In this work, we introduce the use of constant pH molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent (CpHMD) with replica exchange in the pH-dimension (pH-REMD) as a tool to aid in the interpretation of pH-activity data of enzymes and to test the validity of different kinetic models. We apply the methods to RNase A, a prototype acid-base catalyst, to predict the macroscopic and microscopic pK(a) values, as well as the shape of the pH-rate profile. Results for apo and cCMP-bound RNase A agree well with available experimental data and suggest that deprotonation of the general acid and protonation of the general base are not strongly coupled in transphosphorylation and hydrolysis steps. Stronger coupling, however, is predicted for the Lys41 and His119 protonation states in apo RNase A, leading to the requirement for a microscopic kinetic model. This type of analysis may be important for other catalytic systems where the active forms of the implicated general acid and base are oppositely charged and more highly correlated. These results suggest a new way for CpHMD/pH-REMD simulations to bridge the gap with experiments to provide a molecular-level interpretation of pH-activity data in studies of enzyme mechanisms.

  20. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.

  1. HPLC method for amino acids profile in biological fluids and inborn metabolic disorders of aminoacidopathies.

    PubMed

    Babu, S V Suresh; Shareef, M M; Shetty, A Pavan Kumar; Shetty, K Taranath

    2002-07-01

    Quantification of total and individual amino acids in biological fluids such as plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid has an important diagnostic implication in laboratory medicine. The present paper describes protocols for the assay of total amino acids by modified method based on dinitrophenyl and HPLC profile involving pre-column derivatization with o-pthalaldehyde (OPA) derivatization, respectively. The method, based on the alkylation of-SH groups prior to OPA derivatization of amino acids followed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, provide a comprehensive profile of more than twenty amino acids (including-SH group containing) in a single run lasting about 45 minutes. The present study, apart from establishing the normal profile of amino acids in plasma of Indian sub population, also presents HPLC profile for some of the rare amino acidopathies.

  2. Fatty Acids Profile, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Elicited Callus of Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Pérez, Jack; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ludwi; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Luján-Hidalgo, María Celina; Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; González-Mendoza, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was analyze the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) as elicitors on fatty acids profile (FAP), phenolic compounds (PC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) in callus of Thevetia peruviana. Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium, supplemented with 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN) was used for callus induction. The effect of JA (50, 75 and 100 μM) and ABA (10, 55 and 100 μM) on FAP, PC and AC were analyzed using a response surface design. A maximum of 2.8 mg/g of TPC was obtained with 100 plus 10 µM JA and ABA, respectively, whereas AC maximum (2.17 μg/mL) was obtained with 75 plus 100 µM JA and ABA, respectively. The FAP was affected for JA but not for ABA. JA increased cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and decreased dodecanoic acid. Eight fatty acids were identified by GC-MS analysis and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1) was the principal fatty acid reaching 76 % in treatment with 50 μM JA plus 55 μM ABA. In conclusion, JA may be used in T. peruviana callus culture for obtain oil with different fatty acids profile.

  3. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL.

  4. Metabolite profiling of two novel low phytic acid (lpa) soybean mutants.

    PubMed

    Frank, Thomas; Nörenberg, Svenja; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2009-07-22

    A GC-based approach was applied to compare the metabolite profiles of two low phytic acid (lpa) soybean mutants and their respective wild-types. The lpa mutants (Gm-lpa-TW75-1 and Gm-lpa-ZC-2) were grown together with the wild-types (Taiwan 75 and Zhechun no. 3) in three and four field trials, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed a phytic acid reduction of -53% for Gm-lpa-TW75-1 and of -46% for Gm-lpa-ZC-2. For Gm-lpa-TW75-1, no accumulation of lower inositol phosphates was observed, whereas Gm-lpa-ZC-2 exhibited significantly increased contents of the lower inositol phosphates InsP(3), InsP(4), and InsP(5) compared to the corresponding wild-type. The metabolite profiling revealed that compared to the wild-types, 40% (Gm-lpa-TW75-1) and 21% (Gm-lpa-ZC-2) of the detected peaks were statistically significantly different in the lpa mutants grown at one field trial. However, the majority of these differences were shown to be related to environmental impact and natural variability rather than to the mutation event. Identification of consistent metabolic changes in the lpa mutants revealed decreased contents of myo-inositol, galactinol, raffinose, stachyose, and the galactosyl cyclitols galactopinitol A, galactopinitol B, and fagopyritol B1 compared to the wild-type. These consistently pronounced changes in Gm-lpa-TW75-1 confirmed the suggested mutation target. Consideration of the metabolic changes observed for Gm-lpa-ZC-2 (accumulation of lower inositol phosphates and increased myo-inositol contents) indicated a mutation event affecting the latter biosynthetic steps leading to phytic acid. The study demonstrated the applicability of metabolite profiling for the detection of changes in the metabolite phenotype induced by mutation breeding and its power in assisting in the elucidation of mutation events.

  5. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  6. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-07-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality.

  7. Exploring the Lean Phenotype of Glutathione-Depleted Mice: Thiol, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Elshorbagy, Amany K.; Jernerén, Fredrik; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; McMurray, Fiona; Cater, Heather; Hough, Tertius; Cox, Roger; Refsum, Helga

    2016-01-01

    Background Although reduced glutathione (rGSH) is decreased in obese mice and humans, block of GSH synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) results in a lean, insulin-sensitive phenotype. Data is lacking about the effect of BSO on GSH precursors, cysteine and glutamate. Plasma total cysteine (tCys) is positively associated with stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) activity and adiposity in humans and animal models. Objective To explore the phenotype, amino acid and fatty acid profiles in BSO-treated mice. Design Male C3H/HeH mice aged 11 weeks were fed a high-fat diet with or without BSO in drinking water (30 mmol/L) for 8 weeks. Amino acid and fatty acid changes were assessed, as well as food consumption, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, body composition and liver vacuolation (steatosis). Results Despite higher food intake, BSO decreased particularly fat mass but also lean mass (both P<0.001), and prevented fatty liver vacuolation. Physical activity increased during the dark phase. BSO decreased plasma free fatty acids and enhanced insulin sensitivity. BSO did not alter liver rGSH, but decreased plasma total GSH (tGSH) and rGSH (by ~70%), and liver tGSH (by 82%). Glutamate accumulated in plasma and liver. Urine excretion of cysteine and its precursors was increased by BSO. tCys, rCys and cystine decreased in plasma (by 23–45%, P<0.001 for all), but were maintained in liver, at the expense of decreased taurine. Free and total plasma concentrations of the SCD products, oleic and palmitoleic acids were decreased (by 27–38%, P <0.001 for all). Conclusion Counterintuitively, block of GSH synthesis decreases circulating tCys, raising the question of whether the BSO-induced obesity-resistance is linked to cysteine depletion. Cysteine-supplementation of BSO-treated mice is warranted to dissect the effects of cysteine and GSH depletion on energy metabolism. PMID:27788147

  8. Convergent evolution in structural elements of proteins investigated using cross profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evolutionary relations of similar segments shared by different protein folds remain controversial, even though many examples of such segments have been found. To date, several methods such as those based on the results of structure comparisons, sequence-based classifications, and sequence-based profile-profile comparisons have been applied to identify such protein segments that possess local similarities in both sequence and structure across protein folds. However, to capture more precise sequence-structure relations, no method reported to date combines structure-based profiles, and sequence-based profiles based on evolutionary information. The former are generally regarded as representing the amino acid preferences at each position of a specific conformation of protein segment. They might reflect the nature of ancient short peptide ancestors, using the results of structural classifications of protein segments. Results This report describes the development and use of "Cross Profile Analysis" to compare sequence-based profiles and structure-based profiles based on amino acid occurrences at each position within a protein segment cluster. Using systematic cross profile analysis, we found structural clusters of 9-residue and 15-residue segments showing remarkably strong correlation with particular sequence profiles. These correlations reflect structural similarities among constituent segments of both sequence-based and structure-based profiles. We also report previously undetectable sequence-structure patterns that transcend protein family and fold boundaries, and present results of the conformational analysis of the deduced peptide of a segment cluster. These results suggest the existence of ancient short-peptide ancestors. Conclusions Cross profile analysis reveals the polyphyletic and convergent evolution of β-hairpin-like structures, which were verified both experimentally and computationally. The results presented here give us new insights into the

  9. Differentiation of Gram-Negative, Nonfermentative Bacteria Isolated from Biofilters on the Basis of Fatty Acid Composition, Quinone System, and Physiological Reaction Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Lipski, André; Klatte, Stefan; Bendinger, Bernd; Altendorf, Karlheinz

    1992-01-01

    Gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria isolated from biofilters for off-gas treatment of animal-rendering-plant emissions were differentiated by whole-cell fatty acid analysis, quinone analysis, and numerical taxonomy based on their physiological reaction profiles. The last system consisted of 60 physiological tests and was arranged as a microtest system on microtitration plates. Based on fatty acid analyses, 31 isolates were separated into six clusters and five single-member clusters. The isolates of two clusters were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis and Pseudomonas diminuta. The remaining nine clusters were characterized by their fatty acid profiles, quinone systems, and physiological reaction profiles. Clusters resulting from fatty acid analyses were compared with those resulting from physiological reaction profiles. Six clusters could be confirmed this way. The efficiency of the physiological test system was increased by the prearrangement of the isolates according to their quinone type. PMID:16348724

  10. Differentiation of Sialyl Linkage Isomers by One-Pot Sialic Acid Derivatization for Mass Spectrometry-Based Glycan Profiling.

    PubMed

    Nishikaze, Takashi; Tsumoto, Hiroki; Sekiya, Sadanori; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Miura, Yuri; Tanaka, Koichi

    2017-02-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used for high-throughput glycan profiling analysis. In spite of the biological importance of sialic acids on nonreducing ends of glycans, it is still difficult to analyze glycans containing sialic acid residues due to their instability and the presence of linkage isomers. In this Article, we describe a one-pot glycan purification/derivatization method employing a newly developed linkage-specific sialic acid derivatization for MS-based glycan profiling with differentiation of sialyl linkage isomer. The derivatization, termed sialic acid linkage specific alkylamidation (SALSA), consists of sequential two-step alkylamidations. As a result of the reactions, α2,6- and α2,3-linked sialic acids are selectively amidated with different length of alkyl chains, allowing distinction of α2,3-/α2,6-linkage isomers from given mass spectra. Our studies using N-glycan standards with known sialyl linkages proved high suitability of SALSA for reliable relative quantification of α2,3-/α2,6-linked sialic acids compared with existing sialic acid derivatization approaches. SALSA fully stabilizes both α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids by alkylamidation; thereby, it became possible to combine SALSA with existing glycan analysis/preparation methods as follows. The combination of SALSA and chemoselective glycan purification using hydrazide beads allows easy one-pot purification of glycans from complex biological samples, together with linkage-specific sialic acid stabilization. Moreover, SALSA-derivatized glycans can be labeled via reductive amination without causing byproducts such as amide decomposition. This solid-phase SALSA followed by glycan labeling has been successfully applied to human plasma N-glycome profiling.

  11. Transcriptome Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis Gene Expressionfollowing Exposure to Acidic and Alkaline pH

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, Adam B.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Huang, Katherine; Alm,Eric; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Arkin, Adam P.; Brown, Steven D.; Wu, Liyou; Yan,Tingfen; Liu, Xueduan; Wickham, Gene S.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-04-02

    The molecular response of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 tovariations in extracellular pH was investigated based on genomewide geneexpression profiling. Microarray analysis revealed that cells elicitedboth general and specific transcriptome responses when challenged withenvironmental acid (pH 4) or base (pH 10) conditions over a 60-minperiod. Global responses included the differential expression of genesfunctionally linked to amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulationand signal transduction, transport, cell membrane structure, andoxidative stress protection. Response to acid stress included theelevated expression of genes encoding glycogen biosynthetic enzymes,phosphate transporters, and the RNA polymerase sigma-38 factor (rpoS),whereas the molecular response to alkaline pH was characterized byupregulation of nhaA and nhaR, which are predicted to encode an Na+/H+antiporter and transcriptional activator, respectively, as well assulfate transport and sulfur metabolism genes. Collectively, theseresults suggest that S. oneidensis modulates multiple transporters, cellenvelope components, and pathways of amino acid consumption and centralintermediary metabolism as part of its transcriptome response to changingexternal pH conditions.

  12. Protein profiling and phosphoprotein analysis by isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Filiou, Michaela D

    2015-01-01

    Protein profiling enables the qualitative characterization of a proteome of interest. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification with regulatory functions in a plethora of cell processes. We present an experimental workflow for simultaneous analysis of the proteome and phosphoproteome with no additional enrichment for phosphoproteins/phosphopeptides. Our approach is based on isoelectric focusing (IEF) which allows the separation of peptide mixtures on an immobilized pH gradient (IPG) according to their isoelectric point. Due to the negative charge of the phosphogroup, most of the phosphopeptides migrate toward acidic pH values. Peptides and phosphopeptides are then identified by mass spectrometry (MS) and phosphopeptide spectra are manually checked for the assignment of phosphorylation sites. Here, we apply this methodology to investigate synaptosome extracts from whole mouse brain. IEF-based peptide separation is an efficient method for peptide and phosphopeptide identification.

  13. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  14. [Classification of anticancer drugs with different mechanisms based on amino-acid consumption profiling in culture media].

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaofei; Wang, Longxing; Yang, Qianxu; Xiao, Hongbin

    2011-04-01

    An approach for quantitative determination of amino-acid consumption profiling in culture media by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed and validated, using o-phthalic dicarboxaldehyde (OPA) as the derivatizing reagent and norvaline as the internal standard. Mobile phase A was 10 mmol/L Na2HPO4Na2B4O7 buffer (pH 7.95), and mobile phase B was acetonitrile-methanol-water (45:45:10, v/v/v). The linear elution program was 5% B at the start and 52% B at the end in 35 min. The 17 free amino-acids (FAAs) were separated satisfactorily in 33 min. Following HeLa cells incubation in conditioned medias of taxol (4 micromol/L) and mitomycin (75 micromol/L), respectively, with control for 24 h, the media 17 amino-acid consumption profilings were determined, and then analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis based on Matlab7.1 software platform. Relation analysis performed by partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that in comparison with the control group, the media amino-acid consumption profiling can distinguish the two anticancer drugs with different mechanisms, which provides a new perspective for the pre-classification of drug action mechanisms during the screening of new anticancer drugs. Meanwhile, the idea from the outer into the inner has convenient and economic characteristics.

  15. Fatty acid profiles associated with microbial colonization of freshly ingested grass and rumen biohydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Sanderson, R; Dhanoa, M S; Dewhurst, R J

    2005-09-01

    Two in situ studies were conducted to examine the use of odd-chain fatty acid profiles to study microbial colonization of freshly ingested herbage in the rumen as well as fatty acid biohydrogenation. In the first study, fresh perennial ryegrass was subjected to a range of sample preparation methods before incubation in the rumen for 2 or 7 h. In the second study, fresh perennial ryegrass was chopped into 1-cm lengths and incubated in polyester bags in the rumen for 2, 8, and 24 h. After removal of bags from the rumen, 4 different washing methods, ranging from manual squeezing to machine washing, were applied. Fatty acids were extracted from washed residues and determined, as methyl esters, by gas chromatography. The main odd-chain fatty acids (with the exception of anteiso C(15:0)) were not found in fresh grass and were useful markers of the effects of incubation time, sample preparation method, and washing method on microbial colonization/contamination. The concentration of these and other odd-chain fatty acids increased with incubation time in both studies. The results indicate rapid and continued microbial colonization of freshly ingested forages, although patterns of odd-chain fatty acids did not reveal any further information about the types of bacteria-colonizing herbage. Principal component, biplot analysis provided a useful overall description of the processes of microbial colonization and degradation of plant fatty acids on fresh herbage incubated in the rumen. Bolus formation during mastication and ingestion results in extensive damage to herbage; none of the techniques (cutting, crushing, and drying/grinding) investigated in this work was able to replicate the effects of bolus formation in the animal. The study provided further evidence of loss of unfermented feed particles through polyester bag pores, especially when feeds are dried and ground. Biohydrogenation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids of fresh herbage was used principally by solid

  16. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases.

  17. Use of Latent Profile Analysis in Studies of Gifted Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammadov, Sakhavat; Ward, Thomas J.; Cross, Jennifer Riedl; Cross, Tracy L.

    2016-01-01

    To date, in gifted education and related fields various conventional factor analytic and clustering techniques have been used extensively for investigation of the underlying structure of data. Latent profile analysis is a relatively new method in the field. In this article, we provide an introduction to latent profile analysis for gifted education…

  18. The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

  19. Study of metabolic profile of Rhizopus oryzae to enhance fumaric acid production under low pH condition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Qing; Lv, Chunwei; Yan, Caixia; Li, Shuang; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH is a major problem in industrial organic acid fermentation. To circumvent this problem, we used a metabolic profiling approach to analyze metabolite changes in Rhizopus oryzae under different pH conditions. A correlation between fumaric acid production and intracellular metabolic characteristics of R. oryzae was revealed by principal component analysis. The results showed that to help cell survival in the presence of low pH, R. oryzae altered amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and promoted sugar or sugar alcohol synthesis, corresponding with a suppressing of energy metabolism, phenylalanine, and tyrosine synthesis and finally resulting in the low performance of fumaric acid production. Based on this observation, 1 % linoleic acid was added to the culture medium in pH 3.0 to decrease the carbon demand for cell survival, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 39.7 % compared with the control (pH 3.0 without linoleic acid addition), reaching 18.3 g/L after 84 h of fermentation. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which R. oryzae responds to acidic stress and would be helpful for the development of efficient strategies for fumaric acid production at low pH.

  20. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract.

    PubMed

    Mena, Pedro; Cirlini, Martina; Tassotti, Michele; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-19

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (poly)phenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (poly)phenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time. The rosemary extract contained 24 flavonoids (mainly flavones, although flavonols and flavanones were also detected), 5 phenolic acids, 24 diterpenoids (carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol derivatives), 1 triterpenoid (betulinic acid), and 3 lignans (medioresinol derivatives). Carnosic acid was the predominant phenolic compound. The volatile profile of the rosemary extract was evaluated by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty-three volatile molecules (mainly terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones) were identified. This characterization extends the current knowledge on the phytochemistry of Rosmarinus officinalis and is, to our knowledge, the broadest profiling of its secondary metabolites to date. It can assist in the authentication of rosemary extracts or rosemary-containing products or in testing its bioactivity. Moreover, this methodological approach could be applied to the study of other plant-based food ingredients.

  1. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    PubMed Central

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24971025

  2. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork.

    PubMed

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  3. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  4. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-06-30

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  5. Plasma fatty acid profiles of Canadian Inuit and Siberian Ganasan.

    PubMed

    Rode, A; Shephard, R J; Vloshinsky, P E; Kuksis, A

    1995-01-01

    Cross-sectional data from 86 male and 59 female coastal Inuit of Igloolik (69 degrees 40'N, 81 degrees W) showed a steep age-related increase in the percentage of plasma n-3 fatty acids, with parallel trends in 20:5 and 22:6 but not 18:3 n-3 fatty acid concentrations. Omega-7 + 9 (p < .001) and omega-9 fatty acid concentrations (P < .001 in M, .008 in F) also decreased with age. A tundra-based Siberian indigenous population (30 male and 11 female nGanasan) had similar percentages of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids to the young Inuit, with little age-related change in either measure. Correlation matrices for the Inuit men showed quite strong negative associations of n-3 fatty acid percentages with total triglycerides (r = .34, p < .001) and phosphatidylcholine/free cholesterol ratio (r = -.36, p < .001). In the Inuit women, n-3 percentages were strongly related to phosphatidylcholine/free cholesterol ratio (r = -.60, p < .001), but not to triglyceride readings. The phosphatidylcholine/free cholesterol ratio was also correlated with n-6 percentages (r = -.55, p < .001). In the nGanasan men, triglyceride levels were correlated with n-6 (r = -.35, p < .050), but the size of the female sample was insufficient to establish useful correlations. The present data suggest that as the younger coastal Inuit are abandoning their traditional country foods, plasma levels of n-3 fall. Reasons why n-3 fatty acid levels are negatively related to the plasma phosphatidyl choline/free cholesterol ratio merit further investigation.

  6. Comparison of amino acid profiles and metabolic gene expression in muskrat scented glands in secretion and non-secretion season

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Tianxiang; Fan, Mengyuan; Zhou, Juntong; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Meishan; Qi, Lei; Lin, Shaobi; Hu, Defu; Liu, Shuqiang

    2017-01-01

    The scented gland is an organ responsible for producing musk in muskrats. During musk secretion season, the metabolism of glandular cells increases in the scented glands and a large amount of musk is synthesised. In this study, we collected scented gland arterial blood from six healthy adult male muskrats during non-secretion season (November). We also obtained scented gland arterial blood, venous blood, and musk from six healthy adult males during secretion season (March). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free amino acids in blood and musk were performed with an automated amino acid analyzer. Additionally, we employed RNA sequencing technology to study the expression patterns of amino acid metabolic pathways in scented glands. Amino acid profile analysis indicates that scented glands can concentrate amino acids during secretion season, and transcriptome analysis suggests that some amino acid metabolism-related genes undergo significant seasonal changes. In summary, scented gland amino acid metabolism displays seasonal differences. Elevated amino acid metabolic activity during secretion season sustains the glands’ secretory function. PMID:28145478

  7. Comparison of amino acid profiles and metabolic gene expression in muskrat scented glands in secretion and non-secretion season.

    PubMed

    Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Tianxiang; Fan, Mengyuan; Zhou, Juntong; Yang, Shuang; Zhang, Meishan; Qi, Lei; Lin, Shaobi; Hu, Defu; Liu, Shuqiang

    2017-02-01

    The scented gland is an organ responsible for producing musk in muskrats. During musk secretion season, the metabolism of glandular cells increases in the scented glands and a large amount of musk is synthesised. In this study, we collected scented gland arterial blood from six healthy adult male muskrats during non-secretion season (November). We also obtained scented gland arterial blood, venous blood, and musk from six healthy adult males during secretion season (March). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of free amino acids in blood and musk were performed with an automated amino acid analyzer. Additionally, we employed RNA sequencing technology to study the expression patterns of amino acid metabolic pathways in scented glands. Amino acid profile analysis indicates that scented glands can concentrate amino acids during secretion season, and transcriptome analysis suggests that some amino acid metabolism-related genes undergo significant seasonal changes. In summary, scented gland amino acid metabolism displays seasonal differences. Elevated amino acid metabolic activity during secretion season sustains the glands' secretory function.

  8. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho |; Kim, Mingoo |; Lee, Byung-Hoon |; Kim, Ju-Han |; Kang, Kyung-Sun |; Kim, Hyung-Lae |; Yoon, Byung-Il |; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu |; Lee, Mi-Ock ||

    2008-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and fold change (> 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity.

  9. PHARMACOKINETIC PROFILES OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN MICE AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is highly persistent in humans, with serum half-life estimates of 2.3 to 3.8 years. In the mouse, elimination of PFOA appears to be first-order after a single oral administration, with serum half-life estimates of 16 days for females and 22 days for ...

  10. Fatty acid profile of hair lambs and their crossbreds slaughtered at different weights.

    PubMed

    Landim, Aline Vieira; Cardoso, Maximiliano Tadeu Memória; Castanheira, Marlos; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Louvandini, Helder; McManus, Concepta

    2011-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of breed and slaughter weight on fatty the acid profile of the Longissimus dorsi muscle in lambs. Twenty-four Santa Inês (SI), 24.5 Ile de France × 0.5 Santa Inês (Ile × SI) and 12.5 Texel × 0.5 Santa Inês (Te × SI), slaughtered at different weights (30, 35, 40, and 45 kg), were evaluated. The animals were reared with creep feeding to weaning and were feedlot finished, receiving a diet composed of 30% hay and 70% concentrate. The analyses of fatty acids were carried out on the Longissimus muscle of the 13th rib. The experiment was in a three by four factorial design. The total mean saturated fatty acid level was 44.88%, with 43.30% monounsaturated fats and 1.72% polyunsaturated. The major fatty acids found included oleic (43%), palmitic (22%), and stearic (18%). The concentration of desirable fatty acids varied from 61.56% to 66.78%, with Te × SI (66.78%) having the highest levels (P < 0.05). The slaughter weight affected (P < 0.05) the saturated and unsaturated (both mono and poly) fatty acid profiles. The 35-kg slaughter weight showed the most desirable fatty acid profile. The saturated myristic and stearic fatty acids decreased with an increase in the slaughter weight, but oleic acid increased. In the conditions of the present study, the meat from Santa Ines and Texel × Santa Ines lambs had fatty acid profiles more beneficial for human health due to the higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids.

  11. Plasma and brain fatty acid profiles in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Schneider, Julie A; Tangney, Christine; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Fortier, Mélanie; Bennett, David A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish but despite numerous studies, it is still unclear whether there are differences in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma or brain. In matched plasma and brain samples provided by the Memory and Aging Project, fatty acid profiles were quantified in several plasma lipid classes and in three brain cortical regions. Fatty acid data were expressed as % composition and as concentrations (mg/dL for plasma or mg/g for brain). Differences in plasma fatty acid profiles between AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those with no cognitive impairment (NCI) were most apparent in the plasma free fatty acids (lower oleic acid isomers and omega-6 fatty acids in AD) and phospholipids (lower omega-3 fatty acids in AD). In brain, % DHA was lower only in phosphatidylserine of mid-frontal cortex and superior temporal cortex in AD compared to NCI (-14% and -12%, respectively; both p < 0.05). The only significant correlation between plasma and brain fatty acids was between % DHA in plasma total lipids and % DHA in phosphatidylethanolamine of the angular gyrus, but only in the NCI group (+0.77, p < 0.05). We conclude that AD is associated with altered plasma status of both DHA and other fatty acids unrelated to DHA, and that the lipid class-dependent nature of these differences reflects a combination of differences in intake and metabolism.

  12. Fatty acid profiles during gametogenesis in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus): effects of dietary inputs on gonad, egg and embryo profiles.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Stefano; Hughes, Adam D; Atack, Tim; Tocher, Douglas R; Migaud, Herve

    2013-02-01

    The effects of dietary fatty acids on the composition of Paracentrotus lividus gonads were investigated to determine whether dietary inputs affect their relative abundance during gametogenesis. Egg and embryo FA compositions were compared with that of mature gonads to understand how maternal FA is transferred to the offspring. Urchins were fed an experimental Pellet diet in comparison to brown Kelp (Laminaria digitata). FA profiles of diets, gonads, eggs and embryos revealed the presence in gonads of FA that was absent in the diets and/or higher in contents of some long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA). Moreover, some unusual FA, such as non-methylene interrupted (NMI), was found in gonads, eggs and embryos, but not in the diets, suggesting that P. lividus may be capable of synthesizing this FA and accumulating them in the eggs. A description of gonad FA profiles during gametogenesis is reported for the first time and data suggest that eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids are accumulated during gametogenesis, while arachidonic acid is highly regulated and is the only LC-PUFA clearly accumulated into the eggs along with NMI. Further studies are required to determine if maternal provisioning of FA has the potential to influence sea urchin production outputs and to increase hatchery profitability.

  13. Wavelet Analysis of Long GRB Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, J. E.; Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.

    1997-12-01

    Previously, time-dilation studies have been performed in which gamma-ray burst (GRB) time profiles were analyzed for average wavelet amplitude integrated over time, or in which widths of average profiles in peak registration were measured (e.g., Norris et al. 1994, ApJ, 424, 540). Here we investigate average wavelet amplitude as a function of position and timescale, using the 'Mexican Hat' as the orthonormal basis function. The sample consists of more than 825 long GRBs (duration > 2 s) recorded by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). In order to nullify brightness bias, signal-to-noise levels and intensities were equalized for all bursts in the sample. In the time dimension, profiles were peak-aligned, and ranked according to intensity into six brightness groups. We find that the average, peak-aligned wavelet transforms of dim bursts evince greater activity on longer timescales at all times than do bright bursts. We quantify the degree of self-similarity of this time-dilation effect by stretching and redshifting profiles of bright bursts by a factor of two and comparing their average wavelet transforms with those of dimmer burst groups.

  14. Practical Nursing. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for practical nursing. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  15. Power Equipment Technology. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for power equipment technology occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and…

  16. General Marketing. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for general marketing occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

  17. Meat Processor. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for meat processing occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  18. Animal Management Technician. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for animal management technician occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and…

  19. Factor Analysis of the Personal Profile System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, Thomas George; Wilmoth, James Noel

    1992-01-01

    Principal components extraction with orthogonal and oblique rotations tested the construct validity of the Personal Profile System (PPS) using data from 1,045 senior noncommissioned Air Force officers. Four factors accounted for 85 percent of the total variance, but the results do not completely justify publisher claims for the PPS. (SLD)

  20. Resource Conservation. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for resource conservation occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

  1. Route profile analysis system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Wilson, S.W.

    1982-07-29

    A system for recording terrain profile information is disclosed. The system accurately senses incremental distances traveled by a vehicle along with vehicle inclination, recording both with elapsed time. The incremental distances can subsequently be differentiated with respect to time to obtain acceleration. The computer acceleration can then be used to correct the sensed inclination.

  2. Forest Industry Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for forest industry occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders…

  3. Route profile analysis system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mullenhoff, Donald J.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    1986-01-01

    A system for recording terrain profile information is disclosed. The system accurately senses incremental distances traveled by a vehicle along with vehicle inclination, recording both with elapsed time. The incremental distances can subsequently be differentiated with respect to time to obtain acceleration. The acceleration can then be used by the computer to correct the sensed inclination.

  4. Dental Assistant. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for dental assistants. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that…

  5. Nurse Aide. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for nurses' aides. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency builders that identify…

  6. Industrial Maintenance. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives in Ohio, this document is a comprehensive and verified employer competency profile for industrial maintenance occupations. The list contains units (with and without subunits), competencies, and competency…

  7. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Results Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. Conclusions This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the

  8. Advances in NMR-based biofluid analysis and metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shucha; Nagana Gowda, G A; Ye, Tao; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Significant improvements in NMR technology and methods have propelled NMR studies to play an important role in a rapidly expanding number of applications involving the profiling of metabolites in biofluids. This review discusses recent technical advances in NMR spectroscopy based metabolite profiling methods, data processing and analysis over the last three years.

  9. Branched-chain amino acid administration in surgical patients. Effects on amino acid and fuel substrate profiles.

    PubMed

    Desai, S P; Bistrian, B R; Palombo, J D; Moldawer, L L; Blackburn, G L

    1987-07-01

    During the first five days following gastric bypass surgery, 15 patients received near isotonic amino acid solutions that varied in their branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) content and amino acid profiles (15.6%, 50%, or 100% BCAA solutions). Plasma valine concentrations were elevated in patients receiving 50% and 100% BCAA solutions. Plasma alanine concentrations were highest in patients receiving 50% BCAA. Plasma free fatty acids and blood lactate concentrations were unchanged by either the operation or BCAA administration. Serum glucose concentration was unaffected by the different amino acid administrations and followed the pattern induced by stress initially and later by starvation. beta-Hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased as starvation proceeded and were highest in patients receiving the 15.6% BCAA solution. Branched-chain amino acid-enriched solutions without additional energy may be administered safely to patients recovering from operative trauma. Plasma amino acid concentrations and fuel substrate profiles appear to follow metabolic patterns determined by the physiologic response to stress and starvation and can be affected by large quantities of BCAAs.

  10. Folic Acid Alters Methylation Profile of JAK-STAT and Long-Term Depression Signaling Pathways in Alzheimer's Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Liu, Huan; Yu, Min; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hongbo; Wilson, John X; Huang, Guowei

    2016-11-01

    Dementia has emerged as a major societal issue because of the worldwide aging population and the absence of any effective treatment. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that evidently plays a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Folate acts through one-carbon metabolism to support the methylation of multiple substrates including DNA. We aimed to test the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation alters DNA methylation profiles in AD models. Mouse Neuro-2a cells expressing human APP695 (N2a-APP cells) were incubated with folic acid (2.8-20 μmol/L). AD transgenic mice were fed either folate-deficient or control diets and gavaged daily with water or folic acid (600 μg/kg). Gene methylation profiles were determined by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-DNA microarray (MeDIP-chip). Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were determined by Quantitative Differentially Methylated Regions analysis, and differentially methylated genes (DMGs) carrying at least three DMRs were selected for pathway analysis. Folic acid up-regulated DNA methylation levels in N2a-APP cells and AD transgenic mouse brains. Functional network analysis of folic acid-induced DMGs in these AD models revealed subnetworks composed of 24 focus genes in the janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway and 12 focus genes in the long-term depression (LTD) signaling pathway. In conclusion, these results revealed a role for folic acid in the JAK-STAT and LTD signaling pathways which may be relevant to AD pathogenesis. This novel finding may stimulate reinvestigation of folic acid supplementation as a prophylactic or therapeutic treatment for AD.

  11. Response to the Letter to the Editor regarding "Determination of the fatty acid profile by 1H-NMR spectroscopy."

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In expansion of previous work (G. Knothe, J.A. Kenar, Determination of the fatty acid profile by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2004, 106, 88-96), an additional approach is discussed for quantitating saturated fatty acids in the fatty acid profiles of common vegetable oils by 1H-NM...

  12. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K.; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J.

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity. PMID:27992457

  13. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  14. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Baró, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; Núñez, M. C.; Jiménez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the values were expressed as relative percentages, cancer patients had significantly higher proportions of oleic acid and lower levels of linoleic acid than controls. With regard to lipid fractions, cancer patients had higher proportions of oleic acid in plasma phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol esters, and lower percentages of linoleic acid and its derivatives. On the other hand, alpha-linolenic acid was significantly lower in triglycerides from cancer patients and tended to be lower in phospholipids. Its derivatives also tended to be lower in phospholipids and triglycerides from cancer patients. Our findings suggest that colorectal cancer patients present abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles characterized by lower amounts of most saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives, especially members of the n-6 series, than their healthy age-matched counterparts. These changes are probably due to metabolic changes caused by the illness per se but not to malnutrition. PMID:9667678

  15. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef.

  16. Comparative Serum Fatty Acid Profiles of Captive and Free-Ranging Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Wachter, Bettina; Heinrich, Sonja K; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk J

    2016-01-01

    Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) are highly specialised large felids, currently listed as vulnerable on the IUCN red data list. In captivity, they are known to suffer from a range of chronic non-infectious diseases. Although low heterozygosity and the stress of captivity have been suggested as possible causal factors, recent studies have started to focus on the contribution of potential dietary factors in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Fatty acids are an important component of the diet, not only providing a source of metabolisable energy, but serving other important functions in hormone production, cellular signalling as well as providing structural components in biological membranes. To develop a better understanding of lipid metabolism in cheetahs, we compared the total serum fatty acid profiles of 35 captive cheetahs to those of 43 free-ranging individuals in Namibia using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The unsaturated fatty acid concentrations differed most remarkably between the groups, with all of the polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, except arachidonic acid and hypogeic acid, detected at significantly lower concentrations in the serum of the free-ranging animals. The influence of age and sex on the individual fatty acid concentrations was less notable. This study represents the first evaluation of the serum fatty acids of free-ranging cheetahs, providing critical information on the normal fatty acid profiles of free-living, healthy individuals of this species. The results raise several important questions about the potential impact of dietary fatty acid composition on the health of cheetahs in captivity.

  17. Supplementation of essential fatty acids to Holstein calves during late uterine life and first month of life alters hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Lock, A L; Block, E; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R

    2016-09-01

    Linoleic acid is an essential dietary fatty acid (FA). However, how the supplementation of linoleic acid during uterine and early life may modify the FA profile and transcriptome regulation of the liver, and performance of preweaned dairy calves is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of essential FA to Holstein calves during late uterine and early life on their hepatic FA profile and global gene expression at 30 d of age. During the last 8 wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed either no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA supplement enriched with C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched with linoleic acid. Male calves (n=40) born from these dams were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low (LLA) or high linoleic acid (HLA) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30 d. Liver biopsy was performed at 30 d of age, and microarray analysis was performed on 18 liver samples. Total concentration of FA in liver were greater in calves fed LLA compared with those fed HLA MR (8.2 vs. 7.1%), but plasma concentrations of total FA did not differ due to MR diets. The FA profiles of plasma and liver of calves were affected differently by the prepartum diets. Specifically, the FA profile in liver was affected moderately by the feeding of fat prepartum, but the profiles did not differ due to the type of FA fed prepartum. The type of MR fed during the first 30 d of life had major effects on both plasma and liver FA profiles, resembling the type of fat fed. Plasma and liver of calves fed LLA MR had greater percentage of medium-chain FA (C12:0 and C14:0), whereas plasma and liver from calves fed HLA MR had greater percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Dams fed fat or a specific type of FA modified the expression of some genes in liver of calves, particularly those genes involved in biological functions and pathways related to upregulation of lipid metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory responses

  18. Plasma Amino Acid Profiling Identifies Specific Amino Acid Associations with Cardiovascular Function in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hakuno, Daihiko; Hamba, Yasuhito; Toya, Takumi; Adachi, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Background The heart has close interactions with other organs’ functions and concomitant systemic factors such as oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO), inflammation, and nutrition in systolic heart failure (HF). Recently, plasma amino acid (AA) profiling as a systemic metabolic indicator has attracted considerable attention in predicting the future risk of human cardiometabolic diseases, but it has been scarcely studied in HF. Methods Thirty-eight stable but greater than New York Heart Association class II symptomatic patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction <45% and 33 asymptomatic individuals with normal B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) value were registered as the HF and control groups, respectively. We analyzed fasting plasma concentrations of 41 AAs using high-performance liquid chromatography, serum NO metabolite concentration, hydroperoxide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements, echocardiography, and flow-mediated dilatation. Results We found that 17 AAs and two ratios significantly changed in the HF group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05). In the HF group, subsequent univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses with clinical variables revealed that Fischer ratio and five specific AAs, ie, monoethanolamine, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and histidine have significant correlation with BNP, LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index, inferior vena cava diameter, the ratio of early diastolic velocity of the mitral inflow to mitral annulus, and BNP, respectively (p < 0.05). Interestingly, further exploratory factor analysis categorized these AAs into hepatic-related (monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio) and skeletal muscle-related (histidine, methionine, and 1-methylhistidine) components. Some categorized AAs showed unique correlations with concomitant factors: monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio with serum NO concentration; histidine with serum albumin; and 1-methylhistidine

  19. Qualitative Analysis of Commercial Social Network Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Lester; Wolfson, Ouri; Adjouadi, Malek; Rishe, Naphtali

    Social-networking sites have become an integral part of many users' daily internet routine. Commercial enterprises have been quick to recognize this and are subsequently creating profiles for many of their products and services. Commercial enterprises use social network profiles to target and interact with potential customers as well as to provide a gateway for users of the product or service to interact with each other. Many commercial enterprises use the statistics from their product or service's social network profile to tout the popularity and success of the product or service being showcased. They will use statistics such as number of friends, number of daily visits, number of interactions, and other similar measurements to quantify their claims. These statistics are often not a clear indication of the true popularity and success of the product. In this chapter the term product is used to refer to any tangible or intangible product, service, celebrity, personality, film, book, or other entity produced by a commercial enterprise.

  20. Driver behaviour profiles for road safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Adrian B; Greaves, Stephen P; Bliemer, Michiel C J

    2015-03-01

    Driver behaviour is a contributing factor in over 90 percent of road crashes. As a consequence, there is significant benefit in identifying drivers who engage in unsafe driving practices. Driver behaviour profiles (DBPs) are introduced here as an approach for evaluating driver behaviour as a function of the risk of a casualty crash. They employ data collected using global positioning system (GPS) devices, supplemented with spatiotemporal information. These profiles are comprised of common risk scores that can be used to compare drivers between each other and across time and space. The paper details the development of these DBPs and demonstrates their use as an input into modelling the factors that influence driver behaviour. The results show that even having controlled for the influence of the road environment, these factors remain the strongest predictors of driver behaviour suggesting different spatiotemporal environments elicit a variety of psychological responses in drivers. The approach and outcomes will be of interest to insurance companies in enhancing the risk-profiling of drivers with on-road driving and government through assessing the impacts of behaviour-change interventions.

  1. Protein and Amino Acid Profiles of Different Whey Protein Supplements.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristine C; Alvares, Thiago S; Costa, Marion P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) supplements have received increasing attention by consumers due to the high nutritional value of the proteins and amino acids they provide. However, some WP supplements may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the nutritional quality and the effectiveness of these supplements. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the contents of total protein (TP), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), free essential amino acids (free EAA), and free branched-chain amino acids (free BCAA), amongst different WP supplements produced by U.S. and Brazilian companies. Twenty commercial brands of WP supplements were selected, ten manufactured in U.S. (WP-USA) and ten in Brazil (WP-BRA). The TP was analyzed using the Kjeldahl method, while α-LA, β-LG, free EAA, and free BCAA were analyzed using HPLC system. There were higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA in WP-USA supplements, as compared to the WP-BRA supplements; however, there was no difference (p > 0.05) in the content of free EAA between WP-USA and WP-BRA. Amongst the 20 brands evaluated, four WP-USA and seven WP-BRA had lower (p < 0.05) values of TP than those specified on the label. In conclusion, the WP-USA supplements exhibited better nutritional quality, evaluated by TP, α-LA, β-LG, and free BCAA when compared to WP-BRA.

  2. Genetic and environmental relationships of detailed milk fatty acids profile determined by gas chromatography in Brown Swiss cows.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, S; Cecchinato, A; Casellas, J; Conte, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the profile of 47 fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), 13 fatty acid groups, and 5 Δ(9)-desaturation indices in milk samples from Brown Swiss cows. The genetic variation was assessed and the statistical relevance of the genetic background for each trait was evaluated using the Bayes factor test. The additive genetic, herd-date, and residual relationships were also estimated among all single fatty acids and groups of fatty acids. Individual milk samples were collected from 1,158 Italian Brown Swiss cows and a detailed analysis of fat percentages and milk fatty acid compositions was performed by gas chromatography. Bayesian animal models were used for (co)variance components estimation. Exploitable genetic variation was observed for most of the de novo synthesized fatty acids and saturated fatty acids, except for C4:0 and C6:0, whereas long-chain fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids (including CLA) were mainly influenced by herd-date effects. Herd-date effect explained large portions of the total phenotypic variance for C18:2 cis-9,cis-12 (0.668), C18:3 cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 (0.631), and the biohydrogenation and elongation products of these fatty acids. The desaturation ratios showed higher heritability estimates than the individual fatty acids, except for CLA desaturation index (0.098). Among the medium-chain fatty acids, C12:0 had greater heritability than C14:0 (0.243 vs. 0.097, respectively). Both C14:0 and C16:0 showed negative additive genetic correlations with the main monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids of milk fat, suggesting that their synthesis in the mammary gland may be influenced by the presence of unsaturated fatty acids. No correlation was observed between C4:0 and the other short-chain fatty acids (except for C6:0), confirming the independence of C4:0 from de novo mammary fatty acid synthesis. Among the genetic correlations dealing with potentially beneficial fatty acids, C18

  3. Ileal and colonic fatty acid profiles in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Bühner, S; Nagel, E; Körber, J; Vogelsang, H; Linn, T; Pichlmayr, R

    1994-01-01

    In patients with active Crohn's disease and in a control group the fatty acid profiles in the whole lipid fraction of ileal and colonic mucosal biopsy specimens were determined by capillary gas chromatography. The biopsy specimens in Crohn's disease patients were taken from the inflamed terminal ileum as well as from the inflamed and macroscopically normal colon. Compared with controls the fatty acid distribution in the inflamed ileal mucosa was significantly characterised by (a) a decrease of 18:2 n6 and 18:3 n3 accompanied by a substantial increase of the highly polyunsaturated fatty acids 20:4 n6, 22:4 n6, and 22:6 n3 and (b) a higher unsaturation index of total fatty acids compared with controls. These changes were similar in the inflamed colon. Additionally, both the inflamed and the macroscopically normal colonic mucosa showed an increase of saturated (18:0) and a decrease of monounsaturated fatty acids (18:1 n9). Fatty acid profiles of ileum and colon showed side variations in controls, but not in the Crohn's disease group. These data suggest that in Crohn's disease changes in the distribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids seem to be the general feature of inflamed mucosa in small and large intestine. Results further suggest that colonic fatty acid metabolism in Crohn's disease is altered by degrees, showing changes in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids as an additional, primary event. PMID:7959199

  4. Evaluating the Invariance of Cognitive Profile Patterns Derived from Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS): A Bootstrapping Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to validate the invariance of major profile patterns derived from multidimensional scaling (MDS) by bootstrapping. Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) was employed to obtain profiles and bootstrapping was used to construct the sampling distributions of the profile coordinates and the empirical…

  5. Fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and tenderness of ostrich meat as influenced by age at slaughter and muscle type.

    PubMed

    Girolami, A; Marsico, I; D'Andrea, G; Braghieri, A; Napolitano, F; Cifuni, G F

    2003-07-01

    Ten Blue Neck ostriches were used to study the effect of age at slaughter (10-11 and 14-15 months) and muscle on fatty acid profile, cholesterol content and texture of meat. Fatty acid profile of ostrich meat was significantly affected by age at slaughter (P<0.001) and muscles (P<0.001). Different age at slaughter (10-11 vs. 14-15 months) produced an increase of P/S ratio (P<0.001), total saturated (P<0.05) and monounsaturated (P<0.001) fatty acids. The highest percentage of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were found in M. iliofibularis (P<0.001), whereas M. gastrocnemius showed the highest content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (P<0.001). Analysis of variance of data on cholesterol content (mg/100 g of meat) showed no significant effects of age at slaughter and muscle location. No effect of age on shear values was observed, whereas sensory panellists scored meat from younger birds as more tender (P<0.001). Both instrumental and sensory evaluation indicated that meat from M. iliofibularis was more tender (P<0.001).

  6. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  7. [Proposed profile of omega 3 fatty acids in enteral nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sanz París, A; Marí Sanchis, A; García Malpartida, K; García Gómez, M C

    2012-01-01

    We review the international recommendations on oral intake of n-3 fatty acids and their content in the enteral nutrition formulas. Their metabolic actions depend on their metabolization to EPA and DHA. The activity of desaturases catalyzing this process increases with exercise, insulin, estrogens in the fertile women, and peroxisomal proliferators, whereas it decreases with fasting, protein and oligoelements deficiencies, age < 30 years, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, alcohol, cholesterol, trans and saturated fatty acids, insulin deficiency, and stress hormones (adrenalin and glucocorticoids). Most of the guidelines recommend that 20-35% of the total energy comes from fat, being 7-10% saturated fats, 6-10% polyunsaturated, and 20% monounsaturated, in Spain. The recommendation for n-3 FA is 0.5-2 g/day or 0.5-2% of total caloric intake, with an upper limit of 3 g/day. For n-6 FA, 2.5-10% of total caloric intake, the n-6/n-3 ratio not being well established although most of the guidelines recommend 5:1. The EPA and DHA content should be at least 500 mg per day. Finally, the EPA/DHA ratio is 2:1 in most of them. Standard nutrition formulas present an appropriate fat content, although most of the products containing EPA and DHA exceed the limit of 3 g/day. Among the products with hyperprotein and/or concentrated, only of them contains EPA y DHA. Not all the formulas used for the frail elderly contain EPA or DHA, and in those containing them their concentration may be excessive and with a proportion very dissimilar to that of fish oil.

  8. Analysis of translation using polysome profiling.

    PubMed

    Chassé, Héloïse; Boulben, Sandrine; Costache, Vlad; Cormier, Patrick; Morales, Julia

    2016-10-07

    During the past decade, there has been growing interest in the role of translational regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Polysome profiling has been developed to infer the translational status of a specific mRNA species or to analyze the translatome, i.e. the subset of mRNAs actively translated in a cell. Polysome profiling is especially suitable for emergent model organisms for which genomic data are limited. In this paper, we describe an optimized protocol for the purification of sea urchin polysomes and highlight the critical steps involved in polysome purification. We applied this protocol to obtain experimental results on translational regulation of mRNAs following fertilization. Our protocol should prove useful for integrating the study of the role of translational regulation in gene regulatory networks in any biological model. In addition, we demonstrate how to carry out high-throughput processing of polysome gradient fractions, for the simultaneous screening of multiple biological conditions and large-scale preparation of samples for next-generation sequencing.

  9. Integrated data analysis at TJ-II: The density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Milligen, B. Ph. van; Estrada, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Tafalla, D.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Fraguas, A. Lopez; Jimenez, J. A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Dinklage, A.; Fischer, R.

    2011-07-15

    An integrated data analysis system based on Bayesian inference has been developed for the TJ-II stellarator. It reconstructs the electron density profile at a single time point, using data from interferometry, reflectometry, Thomson scattering, and the Helium beam, while providing a detailed error analysis. In this work, we present a novel analysis of the ambiguity inherent in profile reconstruction from reflectometry and show how the integrated data analysis approach elegantly resolves it. Several examples of the application of the technique are provided, in both low-density discharges with and without electrode biasing, and in high-density discharges with an (L-H) confinement transition.

  10. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications.

  11. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  12. Amino acid isotopic analysis in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new approach to stable isotopic analysis—referred to as compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA)—has emerged, centering on the measurement of 15N:14N ratios in amino acids (glutamic acid and phenylalanine). CSIA has recently been used to generate trophic position estimates among anima...

  13. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  14. Determination of fatty acid profile in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Torres, M A; Bravo, S; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in male reproductive function because they are associated with membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction, sperm motility and viability, but limited information exists about the fatty acid profile of ram semen. Our aim was to determine the fatty acid composition in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Sixty ejaculates were obtained from three ram (20 ejaculates/ram) using artificial vagina. Ram spermatozoa (RS) and seminal plasma (SP) were separated using centrifugation, and the fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Total lipids obtained in ram spermatozoa were 1.8% and 1.6% in seminal plasma. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) was proportionally major in SP (66.6%) that RS (49.9%). The highest proportions of SFA corresponded to C4:0 (RS = 16.3% and SP = 28.8%) and C16:0 (RS = 16.3% and PS = 20%). The most important unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 44.9% in RS and 31.5% in SP. The profile of fatty acid and their proportions showed differences between spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

  15. [Fatty acids profile characterization of white maize hybrids grown in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Alezones, Jesús; Avila, Manuel; Chassaigne, Alberto; Barrientos, Venancio

    2010-12-01

    In Venezuela, white corn is the most important crop regarding production, harvest area and consumption. One of its main by-products is corn oil, whose positive effect on health caused by the high content of unsaturated fatty acids has been widely recognized. In order to characterize the fatty acids profile of twelve white grained maize hybrids extensively grown in Venezuela, and the effect that divergent localities has on this profile, three semi commercial scale trials where established in Portuguesa, Yaracuy and Guárico states. Proportions of the main fatty acids in the raw oil of the different grain samples were determined using gas chromatography. Significant differences (p < 0,01) between hybrids were found for arachidic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, gadoleic and linoleic acids; non significant differences were found for linolenic acid. Significant differences between localities were found for all the fatty acids evaluated. High and significant correlations between fatty acids content were found; the most important relations were: linoleic-oleic (Rho = -0,98**), arachidic-palmitic (Rho = -0,61**), linoleic-stearic (Rho = -0,61**) and oleic-stearic (Rho = 0,58**). Corn produced in Venezuela presents lower levels of linoleic and higher levels of palmitic, stearic and oleic acids than the levels found in temperate corn. These differences involve significant changes in the nutritional properties of Venezuelan corn oil that should be considered in the development of new cultivars and industrial processes for oil production.

  16. Diagnose Test-Taker's Profile in Terms of Core Profile Patterns: Principal Component (PC) vs. Profile Analysis via MDS (PAMS) Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang; Davison, Mark L.

    A study was conducted to examine how principal components analysis (PCA) and Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) can be used to diagnose individuals observed score profiles in terms of core profile patterns identified by each method. The standardization sample from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition…

  17. Analysis of Rhode Island Coastal Wind Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, K. I.; Merrill, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Eleven wind profile data sets were collected at sites in Rhode Island between 2007 and the present, extending over periods from 6 to 20 months, with a mean of 14 months. The data was gathered from meteorological towers via anemometers and wind vanes at heights up to 60 m, or using SoDAR (Sonic Detection And Ranging) instruments at heights up to 200 m. Wind speeds are generally greater in the fall and winter, with minimum wind speeds occurring in the summer. Winds blow most frequently from the northwest in the winter and from the southwest in the summer. The power law describes wind speed with height in neutral static stability conditions; the fitted shear coefficient characterizes the distribution and is used in wind resource assessment. Marine sites exhibit higher wind speeds and lower shear than terrestrial sites, due to lower surface drag. In contrast, terrestrial sites experience more shear and greater temporal variability. The magnitude of diel and seasonal differences between marine and terrestrial locations will be discussed. The land-breeze sea-breeze cycle influences wind throughout the study area; the magnitude of this variation, along with azimuthal shear will be considered. In addition to the short-term profile data, we used several multi-decadal single height anemometer data sets. Wind estimates at hub height over an extended time period calculated using Measure Correlate Predict (MCP) algorithms will be discussed in the context of hypothesized temporal trends in the wind speeds. Utilization of such data for wind energy and other applications will be discussed.

  18. In vitro bile acid binding and short-chain fatty acid profile of flax fiber and ethanol co-products.

    PubMed

    Fodje, Adele M L; Chang, Peter R; Leterme, Pascal

    2009-10-01

    Fibers from flaxseed and co-products from ethanol production could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human diet. In vitro fermentation and bile acid binding models were used to investigate the metabolic effects of lignaMax (Bioriginal Food and Science Corp., Saskatoon, SK, Canada) flax meal, spent flax meal, soluble flax gum, wheat insoluble fiber (WIF), and rye insoluble fiber (RIF). Wheat and rye bran were used as reference samples. Bile acid binding of substrates was analysed at taurocholate ([(14)C]taurocholate) concentration of 12.5 mM. Soluble flax gum showed the highest bile acid binding (0.57 micromol/mg of fiber) (P acid binding between wheat bran (0.2 micromol/mg of fiber) and WIF (0.26 micromol/mg of fiber). RIF had higher (P acid binding (0.20 micromol/mg of fiber) than rye bran (0.13 micromol/mg of fiber). Substrates were hydrolyzed and incubated with pig fecal samples. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and gas accumulation (G(f)) were compared. Soluble flax gum generated the highest amount of acetic and propionic acids. SCFA profiles of wheat/rye brans and WIF/RIF were similar (except for butyric acid). G(f) for soluble flax gum was greater (P < .001) than that of spent flax meal. G(f) values of the wheat samples were similar, whereas the G(f) of the rye bran was higher (P < .001) than that of RIF. Fractional degradation rate (micro(t = T/2)) (P < .001) was also recorded. The highest mu(t = T/2) was observed for the soluble flax gum. Oil-depleted flaxseed fractions and WIF/RIF (co-products from ethanol production) could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human nutrition.

  19. Improvement in HPLC separation of acetic acid and levulinic acid in the profiling of biomass hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Wu, Yonnie; Adhikari, Sushil

    2011-04-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural could be separated by the Aminex HPX-87H column chromatography, however, the separation and quantification of acetic acid and levulinic acid in biomass hydrolysate have been difficult with this method. In present study, the HPLC separation of acetic acid and levulinic acid on Aminex HPX-87H column has been investigated by varying column temperature, flow rate, and sulfuric acid content in the mobile phase. The column temperature was found critical in resolving acetic acid and levulinic acid. The resolution for two acids increased dramatically from 0.42 to 1.86 when the column temperature was lowered from 60 to 30 °C. So did the capacity factors for levulinic acid that was increased from 1.20 to 1.44 as the column temperature dropped. The optimum column temperature for the separation was found at 45 °C. Variation in flow rate and sulfuric acid concentration improved not as much as the column temperature did.

  20. Boric Acid in Kjeldahl Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Gregorio

    2013-01-01

    The use of boric acid in the Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen is a variant of the original method widely applied in many laboratories all over the world. Its use is recommended by control organizations such as ISO, IDF, and EPA because it yields reliable and accurate results. However, the chemical principles the method is based on are not…

  1. Effects of induced subacute ruminal acidosis on milk fat content and milk fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Enjalbert, F; Videau, Y; Nicot, M C; Troegeler-Meynadier, A

    2008-06-01

    Two lactating dairy cows fitted with a rumen cannula received successively diets containing 0%, 20%, 34% and again 0% of wheat on a dry matter basis. After 5, 10 and 11 days, ruminal pH was measured between 8:00 and 16:00 hours, and milk was analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Diets with 20% and 34% wheat induced a marginal and a severe subacute ruminal acidosis respectively. After 11 days, diets with wheat strongly reduced the milk yield and milk fat content, increased the proportions of C8:0 to C13:0 even- or odd-chain fatty acids, C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3 fatty acids but decreased the proportions of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 fatty acids. Wheat also increased the proportions of trans-5 to trans-10 C18:1, the latter exhibiting a 10-fold increase with 34% of wheat compared with value during the initial 0% wheat period. There was also an increase of trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 fatty acid and a decrease of trans-11 to trans-16 C18:1 fatty acids. The evolution during adaptation or after return to a 0% wheat diet was rapid for pH but much slower for the fatty acid profile. The mean ruminal pH was closely related to milk fat content, the proportion of odd-chain fatty acids (linear relationship) and the ratio of trans-10 C18:1/trans-11 C18:1 (nonlinear relationship). Such changes in fatty acid profile suggested a possible use for non-invasive diagnosis of subacute ruminal acidosis.

  2. Altered plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in elite female water polo and football players.

    PubMed

    Arsić, Aleksandra; Vučić, Vesna; Tepšić, Jasna; Mazić, Sanja; Djelić, Marina; Glibetić, Marija

    2012-02-01

    The impact of chronic, intense exercise, such as in elite athletes, on phospholipids fatty acids (FA) composition has not been studied in women so far. This study aimed to investigate FA profiles in plasma and erythrocytes phospholipids in elite female water polo (N = 15) and football (N = 19) players in comparison with sedentary women. In spite of similar dietary patterns, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, plasma FA profile in the football players showed significantly higher proportions of stearic acid, oleic acid, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA), and significantly lower proportions of total and n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than in the water polo and control group. The water polo players had higher percentages of palmitoleic acid and arachidonic acid than the control subjects. Erythrocyte FA profile differed among groups. We found significantly higher proportion of oleic acid and MUFA in the football group than in the controls, and decreased stearic acid and elevated palmitic and palmitoleic acid in the water polo players than in the other 2 groups. Both groups of athletes had significantly lower percentages of n-6 dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, n-6 PUFA, and total PUFA compared with the controls. The estimated activities of elongase and desaturases in erythrocytes were also altered in the athletes. Our results indicate that long-term, intense physical training significantly affects FA status of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids in women. The observed differences between the water polo and the football players suggest that the type of regular training may contribute to the altered metabolism of FA, although possible genetic differences among the 3 study groups cannot be ruled out.

  3. Fatty acid profiles in Leishmania spp. isolates with natural resistance to nitric oxide and trivalent antimony.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Alana Freire; Dutra, Jorge Luís de Lisboa; Santos, Micheli Luize Barbosa; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Fernandes, Marcelo Ferreira; Scher, Ricardo; Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, especially those from phospholipids (PLFA), are essential membrane components that are present in relatively constant proportions in biological membranes under natural conditions. However, under harmful growth conditions, such as diseases, environmental changes, and chemical exposure, the fatty acid proportions might vary. If such changes could be identified and revealed to be specific for adverse situations, they could be used as biomarkers. Such biomarkers could facilitate the identification of virulence and resistance mechanisms to particular chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, specific biomarkers could lead to better therapeutic decisions that would, in turn, enhance treatment effectiveness. The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid profiles of trivalent antimony and nitric oxide (NO)-resistant and -sensitive Leishmania chagasi and Leishmania amazonensis isolates. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from total lipids (MIDI), ester-linked lipids (ELFA), and ester-linked phospholipids (PLFA). FAMEs were analyzed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. Species- or resistance-associated differences in FAME profiles were assessed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling, multiresponse permutation procedures, and indicator species analyses. The isolate groups had different MIDI-FAME profiles. However, neither the ELFA nor PLFA profiles differed between the sensitive and resistant isolates. Levels of the fatty acid 18:1 Δ9c were increased in sensitive isolates (p < 0,001), whereas the fatty acid 20:4 Δ5,8,11,14 showed the opposite trend (p < 0.01). We conclude that these two fatty acids are potential biomarkers for NO and antimony resistance in L. chagasi and L. amazonensis and that they could be helpful in therapeutic diagnoses.

  4. Amelioration of an Ultisol profile acidity using crop straws combined with alkaline slag.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiu-yu; Masud, M M; Li, Zhong-yi; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-07-01

    The acidity of Ultisols (pH <5) is detrimental to crop production. Technologies should be explored to promote base saturation and liming effect for amelioration of Ultisol pH. Column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the amelioration effects of canola straw (CS) and peanut straw (PS) in single treatment and in combination whether with alkaline slag (AS) or with lime on Ultisol profile acidity. The treatment without liming materials was set as control, and the AS and lime in single treatment are set for comparison. Results indicated that all the liming materials increase soil profile pH and soil exchangeable base cations at the 0-40-cm depth, except that the lime had amelioration effect just on 0 to 15-cm profile. The amelioration effect of the liming materials on surface soil acidity was mainly dependent on the ash alkalinity in organic materials or acid neutralization capacity of inorganic materials. Specific adsorption of sulfate (SO4(2-)) or organic anions, decarboxylation of organic acids/anions, and the association of H(+) with organic anions induced a "liming effect" of crop residues and AS on subsoil acidity. Moreover, SO4(2-) and chloride (Cl(-)) in PS, CS, and AS primarily induced base cations to move downward to subsoil and exchange with exchangeable aluminum (Al(3+)) and protons (H(+)). These anions also promoted the exchangeable Al to leach out of the soil profile. The CS was more effective than PS in decreasing soil acidity in the subsoil, which mainly resulted from higher sulfur (S) and Cl content in CS compared to PS. The CS combined with AS was the better amendment choice in practical agricultural systems.

  5. Fatty acid profile of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil and properties of the methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent literature, seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos; also known previously as Kosteletzkya virginica) seed oil was reported as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel. In the present work, the fatty acid profile of K. pentacarpos is shown to correspond to that of other plants in ...

  6. Fatty acid profile of 25 plant oils and implications for industrial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of plant oils extracted from twenty-five alternative feedstocks were determined. This information was utilized to determine what industrial application(s) each oil is best suited for. The basis for the selection was the premise that FA composition influences properties o...

  7. Contribution of Fermentation Yeast to Final Amino Acid Profile in DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One major factor affecting DDGS quality and market values is amino acid (AA) composition. DDGS proteins come from corn and yeast. Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS protein quantity and quality (AA profile) has not been well documented. Based on literature review, there are at least 4 met...

  8. Use of fatty acid methyl ester profiles for discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-strain spores grown on different media.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L; Swan, Brandon K; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 omega9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation.

  9. Use of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles for Discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-Strain Spores Grown on Different Media▿

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L.; Swan, Brandon K.; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 ω9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation. PMID:20097814

  10. Analysis of Microarray and RNA-seq Expression Profiling Data.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping

    2017-03-01

    Gene expression profiling refers to the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of a large number of genes (often all genes in a genome), typically in multiple experiments spanning a variety of cell types, treatments, or environmental conditions. Expression profiling is accomplished by assaying mRNA levels with microarrays or next-generation sequencing technologies (RNA-seq). This introduction describes normalization and analysis of data generated from microarray or RNA-seq experiments.

  11. Effect of crossbreeding with Limousine, Rubia Gallega and Belgium Blue on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Antonio; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Sanchez, Luciano; Cantalapiedra, Jesus; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The object of this work was to study the effects of crossbreeding on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves. Samples were taken from Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 calves of three different groups (Holstein crossed with Rubia Gallega (HF×RG), Holstein crossed with Limousine (HF×LI) and Holstein crossed with Belgian Blue (HF×BB)). Significant differences were observed in carcass weight and killing out percentage (P < 0.001) among, groups reaching the highest values in the HF×BB group (228 kg and 59.4%, respectively), while the cross with Limousine presented the lowest values for carcass weight (191 kg) and the cross with Rubia Gallega showed the lowest killing out percentages (54.9%). Meat from HF×RG animals was redder (a* 13.31) and lightest (L* 39.55) than meat from HF×LI and HF×BB groups. With regard to fatty acid profile, the saturated fatty acids were the most abundant fatty acid, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the three groups. Crossbreeding did not affect the proportion of fatty acid. Finally, live weight, cold carcass weight, killing out, shear force, L* from LT, b*from LT, a* from fat, b* from fat, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:3n-6, MUFA and price-to-sales ratio were the selected variables from discriminant analysis to classify the types of crossbreeding.

  12. Low to middle tropospheric profiles and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases in the summertime Canadian taiga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, O.; Talbot, R. W.; Fitzgerald, D. R.; Klemm, K. I.; Lefer, B. L.

    1994-01-01

    We report features of acidic gases in the troposphere from 9 to 5000 m altitude above ground over the Canadian taiga in the summer of 1990. The measurements were conducted at a 30-m meteorological tower and from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B Northern Wetland Studies (NOWES). We sampled air for acidic gases using the mist chamber collector coupled with subsequent analysis using ion chromatography. At the tower we collected samples at two heights during a 13-day period, including diurnal studies. Using eddy flux and profile data, we estimated the biosphere/troposphere fluxes of nitric, formic, and acetic acids and sulfur dioxide. For the organic acids, emissions from the taiga in the afternoon hours and deposition during the predawn morning hours were observed. The flux intensities alone were however not high enough to explain the observed changes in mixing ratios. The measured deposition fluxes of nitric acid were high enough to have a significant influence on its mixing ratio in the boundary layer. On three days we measured vertical profiles of nitric, formic, and acetic acids through the lower to midtroposphere. We found that the chemical composition of the troposphere was extremely heterogenous. Pronounced layers of polluted air were readily apparent from our measurements. Local photochemical production and episodic long-range transport of trace components, originating from biomass burning and possibly industrial emissions, appear to have a strong influence on the composition of the troposphere and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases at this site.

  13. Commercial Truck/Equipment Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial truck and equipment technician is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The task list of the National…

  14. Agricultural/Industrial Mechanical Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This occupational competency analysis profile (OCAP), which is one a series of employer-verified competency lists that were developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives across Ohio, identifies the occupational, academic, and employability…

  15. Administrative/Office Technology. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Administrative and Office Technology Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This…

  16. Food Management, Production, and Service. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Food Management, Production, and Service Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) is one of a series of competency lists, verified by expert workers, that have evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from throughout Ohio. This…

  17. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  18. Effects of a honeybee sting on the serum free amino acid profile in humans.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Jan; Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Matysiak, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Kokot, Zenon J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln), L-glutamic acid (Glu), L-methionine (Met) and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis) between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting.

  19. Effects of a Honeybee Sting on the Serum Free Amino Acid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Jan; Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Matysiak, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln), L-glutamic acid (Glu), L-methionine (Met) and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis) between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting. PMID:25072247

  20. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods.

  1. Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

    2011-12-14

    The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils.

  2. Sensory and textural attributes and fatty acid profiles of fillets of extensively and intensively farmed Eurasian perch (Percafluviatilis L.).

    PubMed

    Stejskal, V; Vejsada, P; Cepak, M; Spička, J; Vacha, F; Kouril, J; Policar, T

    2011-12-01

    Sensory attributes, texture and fatty acid profiles of fillets of Eurasian perch (Percafluviatilis L.) reared under two conditions were compared. Perch were reared either in an extensive pond-based (EC) system in polyculture with carp, or intensively cultured (IC) in a recirculation system. Attributes of raw and cooked fillets of marketable perch (120-150g) were compared. No significant differences were found between groups for odour, flavour, aftertaste, or consistency in subjective evaluation of cooked fillets. The texture profile analysis (TPA) showed raw fillets from the EC group to exhibit higher values of hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess than the IC group. Fish from the IC group had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a higher content of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in comparison to EC perch. The proportion of iso- and anteiso-SFAs was 2.6% in the EC group and 0.75% in the IC group. The content of n-3 PUFA was lower in IC than in EC, while the content of n-6 PUFA was higher in IC than in EC. The ratio of n-3:n-6 PUFA was 1.42 for the IC group and 2.85 for the EC group.

  3. Fatty acid profile of biscuits and salty snacks consumed by Brazilian college students.

    PubMed

    Dias, Flávia da Silva Lima; Passos, Maria Eliza Assis; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares; Lopes, Maria Lúcia Mendes; Valente Mesquita, Vera Lúcia

    2015-03-15

    High levels of biscuit and salty snack consumption have an effect on human health. This aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of 19 different biscuits and 10 types of salty snacks by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid was predominant in 79% of biscuits and represented more than 55% of the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in salty snacks. Low concentrations of trans fatty acids were observed in biscuits (0.86% of total FAs), and the highest values were observed in salty snacks (7.94% of total FAs). The results indicate a high daily intake of SFAs and trans fatty acids, which may have an unfavourable effect on health. Changes in dietary habits and appropriate food choices by students are strongly recommended to prevent the risk of chronic disease. Furthermore, knowledge of the FA profile of food can help to establish health programs targeted to this population.

  4. Fatty acid profile of Canadian dairy products with special attention to the trans-octadecenoic acid and conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    PubMed

    Mendis, Sanjaya; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Ratnayake, Walisundera M N

    2008-01-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that consumption of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) produced via partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils increases the risk of coronary heart disease. However, some studies have suggested that ruminant TFA, especially vaccenic acid (VA or 11t-18:1) and rumenic acid (RA or 9c,11t-18:2), which is a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer, may have potential beneficial health effects for humans. To date, no concerted effort has been made to provide detailed isomer composition of ruminant TFA and CLA of Canadian dairy products, information that is required to properly assess their nutritional impacts. To this end, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of popular brands of commercial cheese (n = 17), butter (n = 12), milk (n = 8), and cream (n = 4) sold in retail stores in Ottawa, Canada, in 2006-2007 by silver nitrate thin-layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. The average total TFA content of cheese, butter, milk, and cream samples were 5.6, 5.8, 5.8, and 5.5% of total fatty acids, respectively. VA was the major trans-octadecenoic acid (18:1) isomer in all the Canadian dairy samples with average levels of (as % total trans-18:1) 33.9% in cheese, 35.6% in butter, 31.0% milk, and 30.1% in cream. The different dairy products contained very similar levels of CLA, which ranged from 0.5 to 0.9% of total fat. RA was the major CLA isomer of all the dairy products, accounting for 82.4-83.2% of total CLA. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the fatty acid profile between the 4 different dairy groups, which suggests lack of processing effects on the fatty acid profile of dairy fat.

  5. Effect of added caffeic acid and tyrosol on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of camellia oil following heating.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Zhong; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2006-12-13

    Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. Parameters used to assess the effect of heating were peroxide and K values, volatile formation, and fatty acid profile. Of these, volatile formation was the most sensitive index of change as seen in the number of volatiles and the total area count of volatiles in gas chromatograms. Hexanal was generally the dominant volatile in treated and untreated samples with a concentration of 2.13 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) in untreated oils heated at 120 and 170 degrees C, respectively. The hexanal content was significantly reduced in heated oils to which tyrosol and/or caffeic acid had been added. Using volatile formation as an index of oxidation, tyrosol was the more effective antioxidant of these compounds. This is contradictory to generally accepted antioxidant structure-activity relationships. Changes in fatty acid profiles after heating for up to 24 h at 180 degrees C were not significant.

  6. Fatty acid profiles of Garuga floribunda, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Melanolepis multiglandulosa and Premna odorata seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of four species from four plant families for which no or only sparse information on the fatty acid profiles is available are reported. The five seed oils are Garuga floribunda of the Burseraceae family, Ipomoea pes-caprae of the Convolvulaceae family, Melanol...

  7. Consumer profile analysis for different types of meat in Spain.

    PubMed

    Escriba-Perez, Carmen; Baviera-Puig, Amparo; Buitrago-Vera, Juan; Montero-Vicente, Luis

    2017-03-01

    It is important to analyse the consumer profile of each type of meat to better adapt the marketing mix to each one. To this end, we examined the average consumption frequency of different types of meat based on two methodologies: consumer segmentation using the food-related lifestyle (FRL) framework, giving rise to 4 segments, and analysis of socio-demographic profiles. The variables used were: sex, age, educational level, social class, number of people in the household, presence of children younger than 18 in the home, geographical area and habitual residence. Beef was the only meat type significant in both analyses. Turkey meat only appeared as significant in the FRL analysis. The other meats (chicken, pork, rabbit and lamb) were only significant in the sociodemographic variables analysis. From the outcomes we may conclude that there is no single consumer profile, which rather depends on the type of meat.

  8. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  9. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  10. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  11. Fatty acid profiles as a potential lipidomic biomarker of exposure to brevetoxin for endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Dana L; Reynolds, John E; Sprinkel, Jay M; Schwacke, Lori; Mercurio, Philip; Rommel, Sentiel A

    2010-11-15

    Fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) is an important tool by which marine mammal scientists gain insight into foraging ecology. Fatty acid profiles (resulting from FASA) represent a potential biomarker to assess exposure to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Florida manatees are well studied, and an excellent necropsy program provides a basis against which to assess this budding tool. Results using samples from 54 manatees assigned to four cause-of-death categories indicated that those animals exposed to or that died due to brevetoxin exposure (red tide, or RT samples) demonstrate a distinctive hepatic fatty acid profile. Discriminant function analysis indicated that hepatic fatty acids could be used to classify RT versus non-RT liver samples with reasonable certainty. A discriminant function was derived based on 8 fatty acids which correctly classified 100% of samples from a training dataset (10 RT and 25 non-RT) and 85% of samples in a cross-validation dataset (5 RT and 13 non-RT). Of the latter dataset, all RT samples were correctly classified, but two of thirteen non-RT samples were incorrectly classified. However, the "incorrect" samples came from manatees that died due to other causes during documented red tide outbreaks; thus although the proximal cause of death was due to watercraft collisions, exposure to brevetoxin may have affected these individuals in ways that increased their vulnerability. This use of FASA could: a) provide an additional forensic tool to help scientists and managers to understand cause of death or debilitation due to exposure to red tide in manatees; b) serve as a model that could be applied to studies to improve assessments of cause of death in other marine mammals; and c) be used, as in humans, to help diagnose metabolic disorders or disease states in manatees and other species.

  12. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    AbuGhazaleh, A A; Schingoethe, D J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of feeding fish oil (FO) along with fat sources that varied in their fatty acid compositions (high stearic, high oleic, high linoleic, or high linolenic acids) to determine which combination would lead to maximum conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11 CLA) and transvaccenic acid (TVA) concentrations in milk fat. Twelve Holstein cows (eight multiparous and four primiparous cows) at 73 (+/- 32) DIM were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 4-wk periods. Treatment diets were 1) 1% FO plus 2% fat source high in stearic acid (HS), 2) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high oleic acid sunflower seeds (HO), 3) 1% FO plus 2% fat from high linoleic acid sunflower seeds (HLO), and 4) 1% FO plus 2% fat from flax seeds (high linolenic; HLN). Diets formulated to contain 18% crude protein were composed of 50% (dry basis) concentrate mix, 25% corn silage, 12.5% alfalfa haylage, and 12.5% alfalfa hay. Milk production (35.8, 36.3, 34.9, and 35.0 kg/d for diets 1 to 4) was similar for all diets. Milk fat percentages (3.14, 2.81, 2.66, and 3.08) and yields (1.13, 1.02, 0.93, and 1.08 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were lowest for HLO. Milk protein percentages (3.04, 3.03, 3.10, and 3.08) and dry matter intake (DMI) (25.8, 26.0, 26.2, and 26.2 kg/d) for diets 1 to 4 were similar for all diets. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations (0.70, 1.04, 1.70, and 1.06 g/100 g fatty acids) for diet 1 to 4 and yields (7.7, 10.7, 15.8, and 11.3 g/d) for diets 1 to 4 were greatest with HLO and were least with HS. Milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA concentrations and yields were similar for cows fed the HO and the HLN diets. Similar to milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA, milk TVA concentration (1.64, 2.49, 3.74, and 2.41 g/100 g fatty acids) for diets 1 to 4 was greatest with the HLO diet and least with the HS diet. Feeding a high linoleic acid fat source with fish oil most effectively increased concentrations and yields of milk cis-9,trans-11 CLA and TVA.

  13. Phenotypic Characterization of Retinoic Acid Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Korecka, Joanna A.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Blaas, Eva; Spitzer, Sonia O.; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Smit, August B.; Swaab, Dick F.; Verhaagen, Joost; Bossers, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The main neuropathological hallmark of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To study genetic and molecular contributors to the disease process, there is a great need for readily accessible cells with prominent DAergic features that can be used for reproducible in vitro cellular screening. Here, we investigated the molecular phenotype of retinoic acid (RA) differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using genome wide transcriptional profiling combined with gene ontology, transcription factor and molecular pathway analysis. We demonstrated that RA induces a general neuronal differentiation program in SH-SY5Y cells and that these cells develop a predominantly mature DAergic-like neurotransmitter phenotype. This phenotype is characterized by increased dopamine levels together with a substantial suppression of other neurotransmitter phenotypes, such as those for noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin and histamine. In addition, we show that RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells express the dopamine and noradrenalin neurotransmitter transporters that are responsible for uptake of MPP(+), a well known DAergic cell toxicant. MPP(+) treatment alters mitochondrial activity according to its proposed cytotoxic effect in DAergic neurons. Taken together, RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have a DAergic-like phenotype, and provide a good cellular screening tool to find novel genes or compounds that affect cytotoxic processes that are associated with PD. PMID:23724009

  14. Multi-omics profile of the mouse dentate gyrus after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Marijn; Bielefeld, Pascal; Fratantoni, Silvina A.; Hubens, Chantal J.; Piersma, Sander R.; Pham, Thang V.; Voskuyl, Rob A.; Lucassen, Paul J.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can develop from alterations in hippocampal structure and circuit characteristics, and can be modeled in mice by administration of kainic acid (KA). Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to hippocampal functions and has been reported to contribute to the development of TLE. Some of the phenotypical changes include neural stem and precursor cells (NPSC) apoptosis, shortly after their birth, before they produce hippocampal neurons. Here we explored these early phenotypical changes in the DG 3 days after a systemic injection of KA inducing status epilepticus (KA-SE), in mice. We performed a multi-omics experimental setup and analyzed DG tissue samples using proteomics, transcriptomics and microRNA profiling techniques, detecting the expression of 2327 proteins, 13401 mRNAs and 311 microRNAs. We here present a description of how these data were obtained and make them available for further analysis and validation. Our data may help to further identify and characterize molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations induced shortly after KA-SE in the mouse DG. PMID:27529540

  15. Profiles of fatty acids and 7-O-acyl okadaic acid esters in bivalves: can bacteria be involved in acyl esterification of okadaic acid?

    PubMed

    Vale, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The presence of 7-O-acyl okadaic acid (OA) esters was studied by LC-MS in the digestive glands of blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) from Albufeira lagoon, located 20km south of Lisbon. The profile of free and total fatty acids (FA) was analysed using a similar LC separation with a reversed phase C8 column and mass spectrometry detection. In mussel the free FA profile was reflected in the FA esterified to OA, being palmitic acid for instance the most abundant in both cases. In cockle, 7-O-acyl esters with palmitic acid were almost absent and esters with a C16:0 isomer were dominant, followed by esters with C15:1 and C15:0. The cockle free FA profile was similar to mussel, and in accordance with literature findings in bivalves. After hydrolysis, a major difference in the FA profile occurred in both species, presenting a high percentage of a C16:0 isomer. The isomer found in general lipids and bound to OA seemed to be related, presenting similar relative retention times (RRT) to C16:0, differing from expected RRT of monomethyl-branched isomers (iso- or anteiso-). A tentative identification was made with the multimethyl-branched isoprenoid, 4,8,12-trimethyltridecanoic acid (TMTD). TMTD is a product of phytol degradation. This was also suspected when the proportion of this compound in relation to palmitic acid was reduced in vivo in mussels fed a chlorophyll-free diet. Extensive esterification of OA by, among others, phytol-degrading bacteria is discussed as a plausible hypothesis in cockle, but not in mussel, due to the relatively high specific proportion of odd-numbered and branched FA.

  16. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk.

  17. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs.

  18. Analysis of Chiral Carboxylic Acids in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, A. S.; Elsila, J. E.; Hein, J. E.; Aponte, J. C.; Parker, E. T.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    our efforts to develop highly sensitive LC-MS methods for the analysis of chiral carboxylic acids including hydroxy acids.

  19. Fatty acid profile of beef from immunocastrated (BOPRIVA(®)) Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Nayara; Bridi, Ana Maria; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Prohmann, Paulo Emílio Fernandes; Peres, Louise Manha; Tarsitano, Marina Avena; de Lima Giangareli, Barbara; Takabayashi, Alyson Akira

    2016-07-01

    Twenty Nellore bulls (ABW=357.7±9.65kg) were divided into 2 groups: intact and immunocastrated - Bopriva®. After the trial period, the cattle were slaughtered and carcass fat thickness was evaluated, ether extract and fatty acid composition of the longissimus thoracis analyses were performed, and the activity indices of relevant enzymes were calculated. The means were calculated and compared by Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients (p<0.05). The immunocastrated group showed higher back fat thickness, ether extract, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and activity index of Δ(9) desaturase C18 and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-6 fatty acids when compared to the intact group. The correlations between ether extract and the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were positive, and negative with polyunsaturated, n-3, n-6 and PUFA/SFA. Therefore, immunocastration may improve the fatty acid profile in the longissimus thoracis by increasing MUFAs, mainly oleic acid that is the most representative fatty acid in the meat and is considered beneficial to health.

  20. Systems-level metabolic flux profiling identifies fatty acid synthesis as a target for antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Joshua; Bennett, Bryson D; Parikh, Anuraag; Feng, Xiao-Jiang; McArdle, Jessica; Rabitz, Herschel A; Shenk, Thomas; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2010-01-01

    Viruses rely on the metabolic network of their cellular hosts to provide energy and building blocks for viral replication. We developed a flux measurement approach based on liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry to quantify changes in metabolic activity induced by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This approach reliably elucidated fluxes in cultured mammalian cells by monitoring metabolome labeling kinetics after feeding cells 13C-labeled forms of glucose and glutamine. Infection with HCMV markedly upregulated flux through much of the central carbon metabolism, including glycolysis. Particularly notable increases occurred in flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and its efflux to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis suppressed the replication of both HCMV and influenza A, another enveloped virus. These results show that fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of two divergent enveloped viruses and that systems-level metabolic flux profiling can identify metabolic targets for antiviral therapy. PMID:18820684

  1. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  2. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    PubMed

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets.

  3. Incorporation and metabolism of dietary trans isomers of linolenic acid alter the fatty acid profile of rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Loï, C; Chardigny, J M; Almanza, S; Leclere, L; Ginies, C; Sébédio, J L

    2000-10-01

    To study the influence on lipid metabolism and platelet aggregation of the fatty acid isomerization that occurs during heat treatment, weanling rats were fed for 8 wk a diet enriched with 5% isomerized (experimental group) or normal (control group) canola oil. Geometrical isomers of alpha-linolenic acid representing 0.2 g/100 g of the experimental diet were incorporated into liver, platelets, aorta and heart, at the expense of their cis homologue and of 18:2(n-6). The major isomer, 9c,12c,15t-18:3, was also metabolized to 5c,8c,11c,14c,17t-20:5 and to an unknown compound, found in liver, platelets and aorta, which has been identified tentatively as 7c, 10c,13c,16c,19t-22:5. The greater 20:4(n-6)/18:2(n-6) ratio in the liver, platelets and heart of the experimental group than the control group indicated an enhancement of desaturation activities. This induced a higher content of long-chain (n-6) fatty acids in the experimental group. Platelet aggregation tended to be slightly higher (P: = 0.065) in the experimental group. We conclude that 0.2 g of trans isomers of alpha-linolenic acid per 100 g of diet was sufficient to be incorporated and metabolized, thus altering the fatty acid profile of rat tissues.

  4. Profiles of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Related with Insecticide Exposure in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say).

    PubMed

    Martin-Park, Abdiel; Gomez-Govea, Mayra A; Lopez-Monroy, Beatriz; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor Manuel; Torres-Sepúlveda, María Del Rosario; López-Uriarte, Graciela Arelí; Villanueva-Segura, Olga Karina; Ruiz-Herrera, María Del Consuelo; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita de la Luz; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Flores-Suárez, Adriana E; White, Gregory S; Martínez de Villarreal, Laura E; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Black, William C; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Irám Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say is a vector of many pathogens of humans, and both domestic and wild animals. Personal protection, reduction of larval habitats, and chemical control are the best ways to reduce mosquito bites and, therefore, the transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. Currently, to reduce the risk of transmission, the pyrethroids, and other insecticide groups have been extensively used to control both larvae and adult mosquitoes. In this context, amino acids and acylcarnitines have never been associated with insecticide exposure and or insecticide resistance. It has been suggested that changes in acylcarnitines and amino acids profiles could be a powerful diagnostic tool for metabolic alterations. Monitoring these changes could help to better understand the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance, complementing the strategies for managing this phenomenon in the integrated resistance management. The purpose of the study was to determine the amino acids and acylcarnitines profiles in larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus after the exposure to different insecticides. Bioassays were performed on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to the diagnostic doses (DD) of the insecticides chlorpyrifos (0.001 μg/mL), temephos (0.002 μg/mL) and permethrin (0.01 μg/mL). In each sample, we analyzed the profile of 12 amino acids and 31 acylcarnitines by LC-MS/MS. A t-test was used to determine statistically significant differences between groups and corrections of q-values. Results indicates three changes, the amino acids arginine (ARG), free carnitine (C0) and acetyl-carnitine (C2) that could be involved in energy production and insecticide detoxification. We confirmed that concentrations of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Cx. quinquefasciatus vary with respect to different insecticides. The information generated contributes to understand the possible mechanisms and metabolic changes occurring during insecticide exposure.

  5. Profiles of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Related with Insecticide Exposure in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Park, Abdiel; Gomez-Govea, Mayra A.; Lopez-Monroy, Beatriz; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor Manuel; Torres-Sepúlveda, María del Rosario; López-Uriarte, Graciela Arelí; Villanueva-Segura, Olga Karina; Ruiz-Herrera, María del Consuelo; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita de la Luz; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Flores-Suárez, Adriana E.; White, Gregory S.; Martínez de Villarreal, Laura E.; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Black, William C.; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Irám Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say is a vector of many pathogens of humans, and both domestic and wild animals. Personal protection, reduction of larval habitats, and chemical control are the best ways to reduce mosquito bites and, therefore, the transmission of mosquito-borne pathogens. Currently, to reduce the risk of transmission, the pyrethroids, and other insecticide groups have been extensively used to control both larvae and adult mosquitoes. In this context, amino acids and acylcarnitines have never been associated with insecticide exposure and or insecticide resistance. It has been suggested that changes in acylcarnitines and amino acids profiles could be a powerful diagnostic tool for metabolic alterations. Monitoring these changes could help to better understand the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance, complementing the strategies for managing this phenomenon in the integrated resistance management. The purpose of the study was to determine the amino acids and acylcarnitines profiles in larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus after the exposure to different insecticides. Bioassays were performed on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to the diagnostic doses (DD) of the insecticides chlorpyrifos (0.001 μg/mL), temephos (0.002 μg/mL) and permethrin (0.01 μg/mL). In each sample, we analyzed the profile of 12 amino acids and 31 acylcarnitines by LC-MS/MS. A t-test was used to determine statistically significant differences between groups and corrections of q-values. Results indicates three changes, the amino acids arginine (ARG), free carnitine (C0) and acetyl-carnitine (C2) that could be involved in energy production and insecticide detoxification. We confirmed that concentrations of amino acids and acylcarnitines in Cx. quinquefasciatus vary with respect to different insecticides. The information generated contributes to understand the possible mechanisms and metabolic changes occurring during insecticide exposure. PMID:28085898

  6. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Karen L.; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Koletzko, Berthold; Entringer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as well as increased

  7. Plasma metabolic profiling analysis of nephrotoxicity induced by acyclovir using metabonomics coupled with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuxiu; Li, Yubo; Zhou, Huifang; Fan, Simiao; Zhang, Zhenzhu; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yanjun

    2014-08-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) is an antiviral agent. However, its use is limited by adverse side effect, particularly by its nephrotoxicity. Metabonomics technology can provide essential information on the metabolic profiles of biofluids and organs upon drug administration. Therefore, in this study, mass spectrometry-based metabonomics coupled with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the plasma metabolites and metabolic pathways related to nephrotoxicity caused by intraperitoneal injection of low (50mg/kg) and high (100mg/kg) doses of acyclovir. Sixteen biomarkers were identified by metabonomics and nephrotoxicity results revealed the dose-dependent effect of acyclovir on kidney tissues. The present study showed that the top four metabolic pathways interrupted by acyclovir included the metabolisms of arachidonic acid, tryptophan, arginine and proline, and glycerophospholipid. This research proves the established metabonomic approach can provide information on changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways, which can be applied to in-depth research on the mechanism of acyclovir-induced kidney injury.

  8. Characterization of cider apples on the basis of their fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gomis, Domingo; Mangas Alonso, Juan J; Margolles Cabrales, Inmaculada; Arias Abrodo, Pilar

    2002-02-27

    In the current study, the fatty acids composition of 30 monovarietal apple juices from six cider apple varieties belonging to two categories was analyzed. The different apple juices were obtained from three consecutive harvests (1997, 1998, and 1999). The fatty acids concentration in apple juice together with chemometric techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), allowed us to differentiate apple juices on the basis of the sweet or sharp category to which the cider apple variety belongs. Fatty acids such as the unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, and saturated caprylic, capric, stearic, and palmitic acids were related to the sweet cider apple category, while pentadecanoic acid is related to the sharp class.

  9. Effects of bleomycin and antioxidants on the fatty acid profile of testicular cancer cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Cort, A; Ozben, T; Melchiorre, M; Chatgilialoglu, C; Ferreri, C; Sansone, A

    2016-02-01

    Bleomycin is used in chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of patients having testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT). There is no study in the literature investigating the effects of bleomycin on membrane lipid profile in testicular cancer cells. We investigated membrane fatty acid (FA) profiles isolated, derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography of NTera-2 testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin (Bleo) for 24 h in the absence and presence of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) and curcumin (Cur) as commonly used antioxidant adjuvants. At the same time the MAPK pathway and EGFR levels were followed up. Bleomycin treatment increased significantly saturated fatty acids (SFA) of phospholipids at the expense of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Bleomycin also led to a significant increase in the trans lipid isomers of oleic and arachidonic acids due to its free radical producing effect. Incubation with bleomycin increased the p38 MAPK and JNK levels and downregulated EGFR pathway. Coincubation of bleomycin with NAC reversed effects caused by bleomycin. Our results highlight the important role of membrane fatty acid remodeling occurring during the use of bleomycin and its concurrent use with antioxidants which can adjuvate the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Cassava interspecific hybrids with increased protein content and improved amino acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gomes, P T C; Nassar, N M A

    2013-04-12

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a principal food for large populations of poor people in the tropics and subtropics. Its edible roots are poor in protein and lack several essential amino acids. Interspecific hybrids may acquire high protein characteristics from wild species. We analyzed 19 hybrids of M. esculenta with its wild relative, M. oligantha, for crude protein, amino acid profile, and total cyanide. Some hybrids produced roots with high protein content of up to 5.7%, while the common cultivar that we examined had just 2.3% crude protein. The essential amino acids alanine, phenylalanine, and valine were detected in the hybrids. The sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found at relatively high concentrations in the roots of 4 hybrids. The proportion of lysine in one hybrid was 20 times higher than in the common cultivar. The levels of total cyanide ranged from 19.73 to 172.56 mg/kg and most of the roots analyzed were classified as "non-toxic" and "low toxic". Furthermore, 2 progenies showed reasonable levels of cyanide, but higher protein content and amino acid profile more advantageous than the common cassava.

  11. Brain fatty acid profiles and spatial learning in malnourished rats: effects of nutritional intervention.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Amanda Santos; Pacheco, Luciana da Camara; Castro, Priscila da Silva; Hokoç, Jan Nora; Rocha, Mônica Santos; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of malnutrition and nutritional rehabilitation on learning and memory performance and brain fatty acid composition. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were either fed ad libitum on a commercial laboratory chow or a multideficient diet from north-eastern Brazil (regional basic diet; RBD). After weaning, RBD offspring either continued on the multideficient diet (malnourished group) or switched to a control diet (rehabilitated group), until day 70. There was no difference in the passive avoidance test among the experimental groups, but malnourished rats showed important deficits in performance of the Morris water maze which were improved in the rehabilitated group. The hippocampus and cerebellum of the malnourished rats showed important changes in fatty acid profile obtained by gas-liquid chromatography, but the rehabilitated group had decreased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and an increase in the proportion of arachidonic acid. The data suggest that nutritional rehabilitation results in partial restoration of fatty acid profiles and cognitive performance.

  12. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  13. Graphic Communications--Graphic Arts. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for graphic communications--graphic arts. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

  14. Exploring Different Types of Academic Delayers: A Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether there are different types of academic delayers (i.e., types of students who delay academic tasks). Latent profile analysis based on 554 university students' reasons for academic delay revealed four distinct types: inconspicuous, successful pressure-seeking, worried/anxious, and discontent with studies. The types…

  15. Graphic Communications--Commercial Photography. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for graphic communications--commercial photography. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the…

  16. Building and Property Maintenance. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  17. Fatty acids from seeds of Pinus pinea L.: composition and population profiling.

    PubMed

    Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Fady, Bruno; Triki, Saida

    2005-07-01

    Pinus pinea L. is widely disseminated all over the Mediterranean Basin. Qualitatively, P. pinea fatty acid seed composition is identical and typical of the genus Pinus. This composition is made of unsaturated oil with several unusual polymethylene-interrupted unsaturated fatty acids. Linoleic acid is the major fatty acid followed by oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. Quantitatively, for all Mediterranean populations, total amounts of fatty acids seem to be fairly constant and independent from their origin. When applying principal component analysis, it seems that there is not a distinct geographical variability. Tunisian populations appear to be integral part of the Mediterranean populations without any particular structuring. Taking into account this research and the data reported in the literature, we can confirm that P. pinea expresses no significant variability. This low genetic diversity revealed by fatty acid composition can be explained by anthropogenetic diffusion of genetically homogeneous reproductive material as early as the first explorations.

  18. Color and fatty acid profile of abdominal fat pads from broiler chickens fed lobster meal.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, B M; Anderson, D M; Thompson, K L; Macisaac, J L; Budge, S

    2011-06-01

    Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid profile of broiler chicken fatty tissue. Broilers were fed increasing levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) of LM for 35 d. Fat pad samples were collected at slaughter and color and fatty acid concentrations were determined. A linear effect was found of LM on red coloration (P < 0.05) as dietary LM increased. Fat pad eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels also increased (P < 0.0001) in a linear fashion. The essential long-chain fatty acids were lower for the 10% LM diet (0.37 mg of EPA/g; 0.16 mg of DHA/g) compared with the 8% LM diet (0.51 mg of EPA/g; 0.27 mg of DHA/g). Using lobster meal as a feed ingredient resulted in broiler abdominal fat pads with a favorable increase in n-3 fatty acids.

  19. STS-1 operational flight profile. Volume 6: Abort analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The abort analysis for the cycle 3 Operational Flight Profile (OFP) for the Space Transportation System 1 Flight (STS-1) is defined, superseding the abort analysis previously presented. Included are the flight description, abort analysis summary, flight design groundrules and constraints, initialization information, general abort description and results, abort solid rocket booster and external tank separation and disposal results, abort monitoring displays and discussion on both ground and onboard trajectory monitoring, abort initialization load summary for the onboard computer, list of the key abort powered flight dispersion analysis.

  20. Lipid and fatty acid profiles in rats consuming different high-fat ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Dell, C A; Likhodii, S S; Musa, K; Ryan, M A; Burnham, W M; Cunnane, S C

    2001-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are used to treat intractable seizures in children, but little is known of the mechanism by which these diets work or whether fats rich in n-3 polyunsaturates might be beneficial. Tissue lipid and fatty acid profiles were determined in rats consuming very high fat (80 weight%), low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets containing either medium-chain triglyceride, flaxseed oil, butter, or an equal combination of these three fat sources. Ketogenic diets containing butter markedly raised liver triglyceride but had no effect on plasma cholesterol. Unlike the other fats, flaxseed oil in the ketogenic diet did not raise brain cholesterol. Brain total and free fatty acid profiles remained similar in all groups, but there was an increase in the proportion of arachidonate in brain total lipids in the medium-chain triglyceride group, while the two groups consuming flaxseed oil had significantly lower arachidonate in brain, liver, and plasma. The very high dietary intake of alpha-linolenate in the flaxseed group did not change docosahexaenoate levels in the brain. Our previous report based on these diets showed that although ketosis is higher in rats consuming a ketogenic diet based on medium-chain triglyceride oil, seizure resistance in the pentylenetetrazol model is not clearly related to the degree of ketosis achieved. In combination with our present data from the same seizure study, it appears that ketogenic diets with widely differing effects on tissue lipids and fatty acid profiles can confer a similar amount of seizure protection.

  1. Analysis of amino acids by miniaturised isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Prest, Jeff E; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nicholas J; Brown, Bernard J Treves

    2004-10-08

    A method allowing the miniaturised isotachophoretic analysis of amino acids has been developed. To overcome the problems of carbonate contamination which occur when performing separations at alkaline pH levels glycolate was used as the leading ion. Addition of magnesium to the leading electrolyte as a counter species was found to improve the separations. The method has been used on a poly(methyl methacrylate) microdevice with integrated on-column conductivity detectors. The behaviour of a range of common amino acids was investigated and successful separations of up to seven amino acids were made. Good linearity was observed with calibration curves for aspartic acid and phenylalanine over the range 0.063-1.0 mM. Limits of detection for these two species were calculated to be 0.060 and 0.018 mM, respectively.

  2. Vibrational analysis of α-cyanohydroxycinnamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojica, Elmer-Rico E.; Vedad, Jayson; Desamero, Ruel Z. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a comparative Raman vibrational analysis of alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4CHCA) and its derivative, alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamic acid (3CHCA), was performed. The Raman spectra of the 4CHCA and 3CHCA in solid form were obtained and analyzed to determine differences between the two structurally similar derivatives. For comparison, the CHCA derivatives cyanocinnamic acid (CCA) and coumaric acid (CA) were also studied. The plausible vibrational assignments were made and matched with those obtained theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) based method employing a 6-31 g basis set. The computational wavenumbers obtained were in good agreement with the observed experimental results. This was the first reported Raman study of CCA, 3CHCA and 4CHCA.

  3. Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2011-07-01

    Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

  4. A hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for amino acid profiling in mussels.

    PubMed

    Tsochatzis, Emmanouil D; Begou, Olga; Gika, Helen G; Karayannakidis, Panayotis D; Kalogiannis, Stavros

    2017-03-15

    A UHPLC-HILIC-tandem MS method has been developed and validated for the quantification of 21 amino acids (20 protein amino acids and cystine) in their free form (FAA) and as protein constituents (total amino acids, TAA) in a rich protein food matrix such as lyophilized mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples. FAA were analyzed after suspending the samples in the presence of trichloroacetic acid in order to prevent dissolving the proteins, while TAA were determined after acid hydrolysis with 6M HCl in the presence of 4% v/v thioglycolic acid as a reducing agent. In hydrolysed samples 17 amino acids could be determined since tryptophan, cysteine, cystine and asparagine were degraded during acid hydrolysis. Linear regression coefficients (R(2)) were above 0.99 for all amino acids. Accuracy and precision, expressed as recovery (%) and relative standard deviation (RSD, %) were in acceptable levels, ranging from 78.2 to 123.3% and below 15%, respectively for both FAA and TAA. Uncertainty was also below 12% for FAA and below 22% for TAA. Sensitivity of the method was high with LOD values ranging from 0.003 to 0.034g/100g for FAA and 0.001 to 0.004g/100g for TAA, while LOQ ranged from 0.009 to 0.104g/100g for FAA and 0.002 to 0.011g/100g for TAA. The method proved to be a fast and reliable tool for acquiring information on free and total amino acids profile in high protein content foodstuffs such as mussels.

  5. GLC analysis of Indian rapeseed-mustard to study the variability of fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, N; Agnihotri, A

    2000-12-01

    Rapeseed-mustard is one of the most economically important oilseed crops in India. Speciality oils having high amounts of a specific fatty acid are of immense importance for both nutritional and industrial purposes. Oil high in oleic acid has demand in commercial food-service applications due to a long shelf-life and cholesterol-reducing properties. Both linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids; however, less than 3% linolenic acid is preferred for oil stability. High erucic acid content is beneficial for the polymer industry, whereas low erucic acid is recommended for food purposes. Therefore, it is important to undertake systematic characterization of the available gene pool for its variable fatty acid profile to be utilized for specific purposes. In the present study the Indian rapeseed-mustard germplasm and some newly developed low-erucic-acid strains were analysed by GLC to study the fatty acid composition in these lines. The GLC analysis revealed that the rapeseed-mustard varieties being commonly grown in India are characterized by high erucic acid content (30-51%) in the oil with low levels of oleic acid (13-23%). However, from among the recently developed low-erucic-acid strains, several lines were identified with comparatively high oleic acid (60-70%), moderate to high linoleic acid (13-40%) and low linolenic acid (< 10%) contents. Work is in progress at TERI (New Delhi, India) to utilize these lines for development of strains with particular fatty acid compositions for specific purposes.

  6. Novel biochip platform for nucleic acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Pernagallo, Salvatore; Ventimiglia, Giorgio; Cavalluzzo, Claudia; Alessi, Enrico; Ilyine, Hugh; Bradley, Mark; Diaz-Mochon, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes the use of a novel biochip platform for the rapid analysis/identification of nucleic acids, including DNA and microRNAs, with very high specificity. This approach combines a unique dynamic chemistry approach for nucleic acid testing and analysis developed by DestiNA Genomics with the STMicroelectronics In-Check platform, which comprises two microfluidic optimized and independent PCR reaction chambers, and a sequential microarray area for nucleic acid capture and identification by fluorescence. With its compact bench-top "footprint" requiring only a single technician to operate, the biochip system promises to transform and expand routine clinical diagnostic testing and screening for genetic diseases, cancers, drug toxicology and heart disease, as well as employment in the emerging companion diagnostics market.

  7. Methods of emulsifying linoleic acid in biohydrogenation studies in vitro may bias the resulting fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Khiaosa-ard, Ratchaneewan; Leiber, Florian; Soliva, Carla R

    2010-07-01

    The effects of three emulsifying methods on ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation (BH) in vitro were compared. Using a static in-vitro gas test system, four replicates of each treatment were incubated in buffered ruminal fluid. Hemicellulose (300 mg dry matter) was supplemented either with or without linoleic acid (9c12c-18:2, 5% in diet dry matter) and incubated for 4 and 24 h. Three methods of emulsifying 9c12c-18:2 were tested: (1) ethanol, (2) Tween 80, and (3) sonication. The products were then compared to non-emulsified 9c12c-18:2. Out of the three emulsifying methods tested, ethanol and sonication resulted in stable 9c12c-18:2 emulsions, indicating good 9c12c-18:2 distribution, while the Tween 80 emulsion was less stable. BH was strongly inhibited by treating 9c12c-18:2 with ethanol and sonication at different steps of the BH-pathway, resulting in changed concentrations of certain BH intermediates. The fatty acid profile generated from the major BH-pathways of 9c12c-18:2 with Tween 80 was comparable to that without emulsification after 24 h of incubation. We conclude that it is not recommended to emulsify lipids before incubating them in vitro when investigating fatty acid BH. If emulsification of 9c12c-18:2 is necessary, Tween 80 seems to be the method that interferes least with BH.

  8. Mechanism of Xinfeng Capsule on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis via Analysis of Urinary Metabolomic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Liu, Jian; Wang, Ting; Gao, Jia-rong; Sun, Yue; Huang, Chuan-bing; Meng, Mei; Qin, Xiu-juan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to explore the potential effects of Xinfeng capsule (XFC) on urine metabolic profiling in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats by using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS). GC-TOF/MS technology was combined with multivariate statistical approaches, such as principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). These methods were used to distinguish the healthy group, untreated group, and XFC treated group and elucidate potential biomarkers. Nine potential biomarkers such as hippuric acid, adenine, and L-dopa were identified as potential biomarkers, indicating that purine metabolism, fat metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and energy metabolism were disturbed in AA rats. This study demonstrated that XFC is efficacious for RA and explained its potential metabolomics mechanism. PMID:26989506

  9. Sputter-depth profiling for thin-film analysis.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, S

    2004-01-15

    Following a brief historical background, the concepts and the present state of sputter-depth profiling for thin-film analysis are outlined. There are two main branches: either the removed matter (as in mass- or optical-spectroscopy-based secondary-ion mass spectrometry or glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy), or the remaining surface (as in Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) is characterized. These complementary methods show the same result if there is no preferential sputtering of a component. The common root of both is the fundamental ion-solid interaction. Understanding of how the latter influences the depth resolution has led to important improvements in experimental profiling conditions such as sample rotation and the use of low-energy ions at glancing incidence. Modern surface-analysis instruments can provide high-resolution depth profiles on the nanometre scale. Mathematical models of different sophistication were developed to allow deconvolution of the measured profile or quantification by reconstruction of the in-depth distribution of composition. For the latter purpose, the usefulness of the so-called mixing-roughness-information (MRI) depth model is outlined on several thin-film structures (e.g. AlAs/GaAs and Si/Ge), including its extension to quantification of sputter-depth profiles in layer structures with preferential sputtering of one component (Ta/Si). Using the MRI model, diffusion coefficients at interfaces as low as 10(-22) m(2) s(-1) can be determined. Fundamental limitations of sputter-depth profiling are mainly traced back to the stochastic nature of primary-particle energy transfer to the sputtered particle, promoting atomic mixing and the development of surface roughness. Owing to more sophisticated experimental methods, such as low-energy cluster ion bombardment, glancing ion incidence or 'backside' sputtering, these ultimate limitations can be reduced to the atomic monolayer scale.

  10. A diet high in α-linolenic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates hepatic steatosis and alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Danielle; Zahradka, Peter; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Clark, Jaime L; Taylor, Carla G

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the plant-based n-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), a dietary precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for modulating hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil, or lard. After 12 weeks, C/F and weight-matched (WM) groups had 20% less liver lipid. Body mass, liver weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and molecular markers of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, desaturation and elongation did not account for this effect. The C/F group had the highest total n-3 and EPA in hepatic phospholipids (PL), as well as one of the highest DHA and lowest arachidonic acid (n-6) concentrations. In conclusion, the C/F diet with the highest content of the plant-based n-3 ALA attenuated hepatic steatosis and altered the hepatic PL fatty acid profile.

  11. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  12. Specific Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Differentially Modulate the Profile of Adipokines In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabersani, Emanuel; Abeijon-Mukdsi, María Claudia; Ross, Romina; Medina, Roxana; González, Silvia; Gauffin-Cano, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Obesity induces local/systemic inflammation accompanied by increases in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and hormones. Previous studies have shown that probiotics could improve the intestinal dysbiosis induced by metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Microorganisms could (directly or indirectly) affect adipokine levels due to their capacity to induce translocation of several intestinal microbial antigens into systemic circulation, which could lead to metabolic endotoxemia or produce immunomodulation in different organs. The aim of the present study was to select non-inflammatory lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with the capacity to modulate adipokine secretion by the adipose tissue. We wish to elucidate the role of potential probiotic strains in the regulation of the cross talking between immune cells such as macrophages and adipose cells. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used for evaluating the ability of 14 LAB strains to induce cytokine production. The LAB strains were chosen based on their previously studied beneficial properties in health. Then, in murine adipocyte culture and macrophage-adipocyte coculture, we determined the ability of these strains to induce cytokines and leptin secretion. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin levels were measured in cell supernatants. We also performed the detection and quantification of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) expression in macrophage cell lines stimulated by these LAB strains. Differential secretion profile of cytokines in macrophage cells induced by LAB strains was observed. Also, the levels of Ob-Rb expression diverged among different LAB strains. In LAB-stimulated coculture cells (adipocytes and macrophages), we observed differential production of leptin and cytokines. Furthermore, we detected lower production levels in single culture than

  13. Specific Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Differentially Modulate the Profile of Adipokines In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Fabersani, Emanuel; Abeijon-Mukdsi, María Claudia; Ross, Romina; Medina, Roxana; González, Silvia; Gauffin-Cano, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Obesity induces local/systemic inflammation accompanied by increases in macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue and production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and hormones. Previous studies have shown that probiotics could improve the intestinal dysbiosis induced by metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Microorganisms could (directly or indirectly) affect adipokine levels due to their capacity to induce translocation of several intestinal microbial antigens into systemic circulation, which could lead to metabolic endotoxemia or produce immunomodulation in different organs. The aim of the present study was to select non-inflammatory lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with the capacity to modulate adipokine secretion by the adipose tissue. We wish to elucidate the role of potential probiotic strains in the regulation of the cross talking between immune cells such as macrophages and adipose cells. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used for evaluating the ability of 14 LAB strains to induce cytokine production. The LAB strains were chosen based on their previously studied beneficial properties in health. Then, in murine adipocyte culture and macrophage–adipocyte coculture, we determined the ability of these strains to induce cytokines and leptin secretion. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin levels were measured in cell supernatants. We also performed the detection and quantification of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) expression in macrophage cell lines stimulated by these LAB strains. Differential secretion profile of cytokines in macrophage cells induced by LAB strains was observed. Also, the levels of Ob-Rb expression diverged among different LAB strains. In LAB-stimulated coculture cells (adipocytes and macrophages), we observed differential production of leptin and cytokines. Furthermore, we detected lower production levels in single culture than

  14. Dietary indispensable amino acids profile affects protein utilization and growth of Senegalese sole larvae.

    PubMed

    Canada, Paula; Engrola, Sofia; Richard, Nadège; Lopes, Ana Filipa; Pinto, Wilson; Valente, Luísa M P; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-12-01

    In diet formulation for fish, it is critical to assure that all the indispensable amino acids (IAA) are available in the right quantities and ratios. This will allow minimizing dietary AA imbalances that will result in unavoidable AA losses for energy dissipation rather than for protein synthesis and growth. The supplementation with crystalline amino acids (CAA) is a possible solution to correct the dietary amino acid (AA) profile that has shown positive results for larvae of some fish species. This study tested the effect of supplementing a practical microdiet with encapsulated CAA as to balance the dietary IAA profile and to improve the capacity of Senegalese sole larvae to utilize AA and maximize growth potential. Larvae were reared at 19 °C under a co-feeding regime from mouth opening. Two microdiets were formulated and processed as to have as much as possible the same ingredients and proximate composition. The control diet (CTRL) formulation was based on commonly used protein sources. A balanced diet (BAL) was formulated as to meet the ideal IAA profile defined for Senegalese sole: the dietary AA profile was corrected by replacing 4 % of encapsulated protein hydrolysate by CAA. The in vivo method of controlled tube-feeding was used to assess the effect on the larvae capacity to utilize protein, during key developmental stages. Growth was monitored until 51 DAH. The supplementation of microdiets with CAA in order to balance the dietary AA had a positive short-term effect on the Senegalese sole larvae capacity to retain protein. However, that did not translate into increased growth. On the contrary, larvae fed a more imbalanced (CTRL group) diet attained a better performance. Further studies are needed to ascertain whether this was due to an effect on the voluntary feed intake as a compensatory response to the dietary IAA imbalance in the CTRL diet or due to the higher content of tryptophan in the BAL diet.

  15. Dynamic Changes in Amino Acid Concentration Profiles in Patients with Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Aimei; Liu, Dan; Rao, Weiqiao; Lan, Liping; Li, Xuan; Li, Fang; Xiao, Kun; Wang, Huijuan; Yan, Peng; Li, Xin; Xie, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this work was to explore the dynamic concentration profiles of 42 amino acids and the significance of these profiles in relation to sepsis, with the aim of providing guidance for clinical therapies. Methods Thirty-five critically ill patients with sepsis were included. These patients were further divided into sepsis (12 cases) and severe sepsis (23 cases) groups or survivor (20 cases) and non-survivor (15 cases) groups. Serum samples from the patients were collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 following intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the serum concentrations of 42 amino acids were measured. Results The metabolic spectrum of the amino acids changed dramatically in patients with sepsis. As the disease progressed further or with poor prognosis, the levels of the different amino acids gradually increased, decreased, or fluctuated over time. The concentrations of sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs), especially taurine, decreased significantly as the severity of sepsis worsened or with poor prognosis of the patient. The serum concentrations of SAAs, especially taurine, exhibited weak negative correlations with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) (r=-0.319) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II (r=-0.325) scores. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of cystine, taurine, and SAA levels and the SOFA and APACHE II scores, which denoted disease prognosis, were 0.623, 0.674, 0.678, 0.86, and 0.857, respectively. Conclusions Critically ill patients with disorders of amino acid metabolism, especially of SAAs such as cystine and taurine, may provide an indicator of the need for the nutritional support of sepsis in the clinic. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01818830. PMID:25849571

  16. Further Examining Berry's Model: The Applicability of Latent Profile Analysis to Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Rina S.; Merz, Erin L.; Solórzano, Martha T.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    This study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to identify acculturation profiles. A three-profile solution fit the data best, and comparisons on demographic and psychosocial outcomes as a function of profile yielded expected results. The findings support using LPA as a parsimonious way to model acculturation without anticipating profiles in…

  17. Genomic Profiling Reveals an Alternate Mechanism for Hepatic Tumor Promotion by Perfluorooctanoic Acid in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Susan C.; Orner, Gayle A.; Benninghoff, Abby D.; Carpenter, Hillary M.; Hendricks, Jerry D.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a potent hepatocarcinogen and peroxisome proliferator (PP) in rodents. Humans are not susceptible to peroxisome proliferation and are considered refractory to carcinogenesis by PPs. Previous studies with rainbow trout indicate they are also insensitive to peroxisome proliferation by the PP dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), but are still susceptible to enhanced hepatocarcinogenesis after chronic exposure. Objectives In this study, we used trout as a unique in vivo tumor model to study the potential for PFOA carcinogenesis in the absence of peroxisome proliferation compared with the structurally diverse PPs clofibrate (CLOF) and DHEA. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis were identified from hepatic gene expression profiles phenotypically anchored to tumor outcome. Methods We fed aflatoxin B1 or sham-initiated animals 200–1,800 ppm PFOA in the diet for 30 weeks for tumor analysis. We subsequently examined gene expression by cDNA array in animals fed PFOA, DHEA, CLOF, or 5 ppm 17β-estradiol (E2, a known tumor promoter) in the diet for 14 days. Results PFOA (1,800 ppm or 50 mg/kg/day) and DHEA treatments resulted in enhanced liver tumor incidence and multiplicity (p < 0.0001), whereas CLOF showed no effect. Carcinogenesis was independent of peroxisome proliferation, measured by lack of peroxisomal β-oxidation and catalase activity. Alternately, both tumor promoters, PFOA and DHEA, resulted in estrogenic gene signatures with strong correlation to E2 by Pearson correlation (R = 0.81 and 0.78, respectively), whereas CLOF regulated no genes in common with E2. Conclusions These data suggest that the tumor-promoting activities of PFOA in trout are due to novel mechanisms involving estrogenic signaling and are independent of peroxisome proliferation. PMID:18709148

  18. Modification of a micellar system for amino acid separation by MEKC--application for amino acid profiling in formulations for parenteral use.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Małgorzata; Szulińska, Zofia; Wilk, Małgorzata; Anuszewska, Elżbieta

    2010-12-15

    The paper proposes a new method for amino acid determination which can be applied for amino acid profiling in solutions for parenteral nutrition. The MEKC method based on a mixed micellar system was developed for the separation of 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) derivatized amino acids. Background electrolyte was based on tris-borate buffer with high alkaline pH. Sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles were modified using 1,2-hexanediol as a co-surfactant. The effect of the modifier on amino acid migration was studied with respect to hydrophobicity of the analytes. The modifier appeared to be suitable to improve the separation of AQC-tagged amino acids without an adverse effect on buffer ionic strength or EOF velocity. The method was successfully validated and applied for amino acid profiling in medicinal preparations for parenteral nutrition. The results obtained were compared with a reference chromatographic method (amino acid analyser).

  19. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  20. A fully validated GC-TOF-MS method for the quantification of fatty acids revealed alterations in the metabolic profile of fatty acids after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Goettel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard; Pluym, Nikola; Scherer, Gerhard; Scherer, Max

    2017-01-15

    We developed and validated an efficient and robust method for the simultaneous quantification of 44 fatty acid species in human plasma via GC-TOF-MS. The method is characterized by its robustness, accuracy and precision covering a wide range of fatty acid species with various saturation degrees including short chain fatty acids (beginning with FA 4:0) and long chain fatty acids (up to FA 32:0). The fatty acids were methylated prior to analyses and subsequently detected as fatty acid methyl esters by means of GC-TOF-MS. A highly substituted polar column allowed the separation of geometrical and positional isomers of fatty acid species. The method was applied to plasma samples of a strictly diet controlled clinical smoking cessation study including 39 smokers followed over the course of three months after having quit. Statistical significant alterations within the fatty acid profile were observed when comparing the baseline (subjects still smoking) with one week, one month and three months of smoking cessation. After 3 months of smoking cessation, a partial recovery of alterations in the fatty acid profile evoked by smoking was observed. In conclusion, the developed fatty acid profiling method using GC-TOF-MS has proven as a reliable tool for the quantitative determination of 44 individual fatty acid species within clinical studies.

  1. Who Are Truant Youth? Examining Distinctive Profiles of Truant Youth Using Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Peters, Kristen E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the heterogeneity of truant youth to provide a more nuanced examination of the nature of adolescent truancy and examine distinct profiles of truant youth as they relate to externalizing behaviors. Latent profile analysis was employed to examine the heterogeneity of truant youth by using a nationally representative sample of 1,646 truant adolescents (49.8 % female) from the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Five key indicator variables were utilized to identify latent classes: school engagement, participation in school-based activities, grades, parental academic involvement, and number of school days skipped. Additionally, multinomial regression was employed to examine the relationship between latent truant youth classes and externalizing behaviors. Four classes of truant youth were identified: achievers (28.55 %), moderate students (24.30 %), academically disengaged (40.89 %), and chronic skippers (6.26 %). Additionally, group membership was found to be associated differentially with marijuana use, fighting, theft and selling drugs. Results from the present study suggest that truant youth are not a homogenous group, but rather present with different risk profiles as they relate to key indicators, demographic characteristics and externalizing behaviors. Implications for practice, policy and future research are discussed. PMID:22766683

  2. Transcriptional profile of glucose-shocked and acid-adapted strains of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Baker, J L; Abranches, J; Faustoferri, R C; Hubbard, C J; Lemos, J A; Courtney, M A; Quivey, R

    2015-12-01

    The aciduricity of Streptococcus mutans is an important virulence factor of the organism, required to both out-compete commensal oral microorganisms and cause dental caries. In this study, we monitored transcriptional changes that occurred as a continuous culture of either an acid-tolerant strain (UA159) or an acid-sensitive strain (fabM::Erm) moved from steady-state growth at neutral pH, experienced glucose-shock and acidification of the culture, and transitioned to steady-state growth at low pH. Hence, the timing of elements of the acid tolerance response (ATR) could be observed and categorized as acute vs. adaptive ATR mechanisms. Modulation of branched chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA/protein repair mechanisms, reactive oxygen species metabolizers and phosphoenolpyruvate:phosphotransferase systems occurred in the initial acute phase, immediately following glucose-shock, while upregulation of F1 F0 -ATPase did not occur until the adaptive phase, after steady-state growth had been re-established. In addition to the archetypal ATR pathways mentioned above, glucose-shock led to differential expression of genes suggesting a re-routing of resources away from the synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, and towards synthesis of purines, pyrimidines and amino acids. These adjustments were largely transient, as upon establishment of steady-state growth at acidic pH, transcripts returned to basal expression levels. During growth at steady-state pH 7, fabM::Erm had a transcriptional profile analogous to that of UA159 during glucose-shock, indicating that even during growth in rich media at neutral pH, the cells were stressed. These results, coupled with a recently established collection of deletion strains, provide a starting point for elucidation of the acid tolerance response in S. mutans.

  3. Evaluation of fatty acid profiles and mineral content of grape seed oil of some grape genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tangolar, Serpil Gök; Ozoğul, Yeşim; Tangolar, Semih; Torun, Ayfer

    2009-01-01

    The grape seeds of seven grape cultivars (Alphonse Lavallée, Muscat of Hamburg, Alicante Bouschet, Razaki, Narince, Oküzgözü and Horoz karasi) and two rootstocks (Salt creek and Cosmo 2) were evaluated in terms of quality properties including protein, oil, moisture, ash, fatty acid composition and mineral contents. The oil contents were found to be different for each cultivar, which ranged from 10.45% (Razaki) to 16.73% (Salt creek). Saturated fatty acid values were less than the values of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in all genotypes. Among the identified fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) was the predominant fatty acid and followed by oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) in all varieties. The results of mineral analysis showed that all varieties contained considerable amount of macro and micro elements. These grape seeds could be used as a food supplement to improve the nutritive value of the human diet.

  4. Protein turnover, amino acid profile and amino acid flux in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: effects of dietary protein source.

    PubMed

    Mente, Eleni; Coutteau, Peter; Houlihan, Dominic; Davidson, Ian; Sorgeloos, Patrick

    2002-10-01

    The effect of dietary protein on protein synthesis and growth of juvenile shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated using three different diets with equivalent protein content. Protein synthesis was investigated by a flooding dose of tritiated phenylalanine. Survival, specific growth and protein synthesis rates were higher, and protein degradation was lower, in shrimps fed a fish/squid/shrimp meal diet, or a 50% laboratory diet/50% soybean meal variant diet, than in those fed a casein-based diet. The efficiency of retention of synthesized protein as growth was 94% for shrimps fed the fish meal diet, suggesting a very low protein turnover rate; by contrast, the retention of synthesized protein was only 80% for shrimps fed the casein diet. The amino acid profile of the casein diet was poorly correlated with that of the shrimps. 4 h after a single meal the protein synthesis rates increased following an increase in RNA activity. A model was developed for amino acid flux, suggesting that high growth rates involve a reduction in the turnover of proteins, while amino acid loss appears to be high.

  5. Wide-band profile domain pulsar timing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentati, L.; Kerr, M.; Dai, S.; Hobson, M. P.; Shannon, R. M.; Hobbs, G.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. Ramesh; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Coles, W.; Dempsey, J.; Lasky, P. D.; Levin, Y.; Manchester, R. N.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D. J.; Rosado, P. A.; Spiewak, R.; van Straten, W.; Toomey, L.; Wang, J.; Wen, L.; You, X.; Zhu, X.

    2017-04-01

    We extend profile domain pulsar timing to incorporate wide-band effects such as frequency-dependent profile evolution and broad-band shape variation in the pulse profile. We also incorporate models for temporal variations in both pulse width and in the separation in phase of the main pulse and interpulse. We perform the analysis with both nested sampling and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo methods. In the latter case, we introduce a new parametrization of the posterior that is extremely efficient in the low signal-to-noise regime and can be readily applied to a wide range of scientific problems. We apply this methodology to a series of simulations, and to between seven and nine years of observations for PSRs J1713+0747, J1744-1134 and J1909-3744 with frequency coverage that spans 700-3600 Mhz. We use a smooth model for profile evolution across the full frequency range, and compare smooth and piecewise models for the temporal variations in dispersion measure (DM). We find that the profile domain framework consistently results in improved timing precision compared to the standard analysis paradigm by as much as 40 per cent for timing parameters. Incorporating smoothness in the DM variations into the model further improves timing precision by as much as 30 per cent. For PSR J1713+0747, we also detect pulse shape variation uncorrelated between epochs, which we attribute to variation intrinsic to the pulsar at a level consistent with previously published analyses. Not accounting for this shape variation biases the measured arrival times at the level of ∼30 ns, the same order of magnitude as the expected shift due to gravitational waves in the pulsar timing band.

  6. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  7. Profiling of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids in plant extracts using in-source CID fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Ádám; Abrankó, László

    2016-12-01

    Hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids (HCQAs) are a major class of phenolic plant secondary metabolites, belonging to the chlorogenic acid family. Various health-beneficial properties of HCQAs have been shown, which has drawn interest for HCQA profiling in plants of human consumption. However, this task remains challenging, because several isomeric HCQAs can be present in the sample with identical molecular formulae and the limited availability of reference standards poses additional challenges to their identification. In the present work, a high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) method accompanied with an effective data filtering protocol is presented, which is shown to be suitable for the identification of HCQAs in plant materials in a non-targeted manner. Both collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragmentation performed in a collision cell and in-source (CID) fragmentation were used to produce accurate mass fragments. It was shown that fragmentation characteristics required for identification of regio-isomers of HCQAs can be achieved with in-source CID fragmentation, enabling the use of a single-stage MS system with in-source fragmentation for convincing identification of HCQAs. Based on a thorough validation of identified HCQA compounds using coffee bean extracts as reference samples, comprehensive profiling of HCQAs in two apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) genotypes ('Preventa' and 'Gönci magyarkajszi') was carried out for the first time and the following 10 HCQAs were shown to be present in apricot fruit: 3-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), cis-3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA, cis-5-CQA, 3,5-diCQA, 3-p-coumaroylquinic acid (pCoQA), 4-pCoQA, 3-feruloylquinic acid (FQA) and cis-3-FQA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Awake craniotomy induces fewer changes in the plasma amino acid profile than craniotomy under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hol, Jaap W; Klimek, Markus; van der Heide-Mulder, Marieke; Stronks, Dirk; Vincent, Arnoud J; Klein, Jan; Zijlstra, Freek J; Fekkes, Durk

    2009-04-01

    In this prospective, observational, 2-armed study, we compared the plasma amino acid profiles of patients undergoing awake craniotomy to those undergoing craniotomy under general anesthesia. Both experimental groups were also compared with a healthy, age-matched and sex-matched reference group not undergoing surgery. It is our intention to investigate whether plasma amino acid levels provide information about physical and emotional stress, as well as pain during awake craniotomy versus craniotomy under general anesthesia. Both experimental groups received preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative dexamethasone. The plasma levels of 20 amino acids were determined preoperative, perioperative, and postoperatively in all groups and were correlated with subjective markers for pain, stress, and anxiety. In both craniotomy groups, preoperative levels of tryptophan and valine were significantly decreased whereas glutamate, alanine, and arginine were significantly increased relative to the reference group. Throughout time, tryptophan levels were significantly lower in the general anesthesia group versus the awake craniotomy group. The general anesthesia group had a significantly higher phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio, which may suggest higher oxidative stress, than the awake group throughout time. Between experimental groups, a significant increase in large neutral amino acids was found postoperatively in awake craniotomy patients, pain was also less and recovery was faster. A significant difference in mean hospitalization time was also found, with awake craniotomy patients leaving after 4.53+/-2.12 days and general anesthesia patients after 6.17+/-1.62 days; P=0.012. This study demonstrates that awake craniotomy is likely to be physically and emotionally less stressful than general anesthesia and that amino acid profiling holds promise for monitoring postoperative pain and recovery.

  9. Lactic acid fermentation drives the optimal volatile flavor-aroma profile of pomegranate juice.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-02-21

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum C2, POM1, and LP09, unstarted-PJ, and raw-PJ were characterized for the profile of the volatile components (VOC) by PT-GC-MS. Lactic acid fermentation through selected strains enhanced the flavor profile of PJ. Concentrations of desired compounds (e.g., alcohols, ketones, and terpenes) were positively affected, whereas those of non-desired aldehydes decreased. Unstarted-PJ mainly differentiated from fermented PJs for the highest levels of aldehydes and sulfur compounds, and in lesser extent of furans, whereas alcohols, ketones, and alkenes followed by terpenes and benzene derivatives mainly differentiated fermented PJs. As expected, the lowest level of VOC was found in raw-PJ. VOC profile reflected on the sensory features of fermented PJs, unstarted-PJ, and raw-PJ, which were evaluated using a consensus modified flavor profile based on 13 attributes. Fermented PJs were mainly discriminated by the higher intensity of floral, fruity and anise notes than the controls.

  10. Mutation-selection models of coding sequence evolution with site-heterogeneous amino acid fitness profiles

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Modeling the interplay between mutation and selection at the molecular level is key to evolutionary studies. To this end, codon-based evolutionary models have been proposed as pertinent means of studying long-range evolutionary patterns and are widely used. However, these approaches have not yet consolidated results from amino acid level phylogenetic studies showing that selection acting on proteins displays strong site-specific effects, which translate into heterogeneous amino acid propensities across the columns of alignments; related codon-level studies have instead focused on either modeling a single selective context for all codon columns, or a separate selective context for each codon column, with the former strategy deemed too simplistic and the latter deemed overparameterized. Here, we integrate recent developments in nonparametric statistical approaches to propose a probabilistic model that accounts for the heterogeneity of amino acid fitness profiles across the coding positions of a gene. We apply the model to a dozen real protein-coding gene alignments and find it to produce biologically plausible inferences, for instance, as pertaining to site-specific amino acid constraints, as well as distributions of scaled selection coefficients. In their account of mutational features as well as the heterogeneous regimes of selection at the amino acid level, the modeling approaches studied here can form a backdrop for several extensions, accounting for other selective features, for variable population size, or for subtleties of mutational features, all with parameterizations couched within population-genetic theory. PMID:20176949

  11. Total nitrogen vs. amino-acid profile as indicator of protein content of beef.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nicolette G; Schönfeldt, Hettie C

    2013-10-01

    In most cited food composition studies and tables, the proximate system measures protein as total nitrogen (N) (determined by Kjeldahl or Dumas method) multiplied by a specific factor. A factor of 6.25 is used for determining total protein from total N (Jones, Munsey, & Walker, 1942). Although more expensive, it is considered more accurate to base protein content of foods on amino acid data (Greenfield & Southgate, 2003). A study on the nutrient composition of beef analysed the full amino-acid profile of fifteen retail cuts from three age groups and six fat codes, as well as determined total nitrogen content to determine proximate protein composition. For all cuts, the correlation coefficient of total amino acids to protein (N×6.25) was 0.635. This indicates a poor correlation for predicting actual protein content (as determined by total amino acid count), based on the nitrogen factor of 6.25. On average, the sum of amino acids per cut amounted to 91% of total determined protein (N×6.25) for the same cut.

  12. Plasma amino acid profiles in preterm infants receiving Vamin 9 glucose or Vamin infant.

    PubMed

    Mitton, S G; Burston, D; Brueton, M J; Kovar, I Z

    1993-02-01

    Amino acid profiles were measured in 29 low-birth-weight infants receiving either Vamin 9 glucose (n = 18, group A) or Vamin Infant (n = 11, group B) as the amino acid source in parenteral nutrition; intake was otherwise identical. Infants were sampled when receiving 430 mgN/kg per day (3.2 g/kg per day amino acids) and 90 non-protein kcal/kg per day. There was no difference between groups in birth weight, gestational or postnatal age. The percentage N retention was similar in both (68 and 60%, groups A and B respectively). Phenylalanine and tyrosine levels were higher in those who received Vamin 9 glucose but 55% of infants given Vamin Infant had tyrosine levels below the lower limit of the target range. Cysteine levels were low in both groups. Further modification of the amino acid composition of parenteral solutions for the newborn is necessary. If sufficient non-protein energy can be provided the risk of abnormally high amino acid levels is reduced.

  13. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production.

  14. Surface profile changes of scuffed bearing surfaces. [before and after acid treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Fung, S. S.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A phase locked interference microscope capable of resolving depth differences to 30 A and planar displacements of 6000 A was constructed for the examination of the profiles of bearing surfaces without physical contact. This instrument was used to determine surface chemical reactivity by applying a drop of dilute alcoholic hydrochloric acid and measuring the profile of the solid surface before and after application of this probe. Scuffed bearing surfaces reacted much faster than unscuffed ones, but bearing surfaces which had been previously exposed to lubricants containing an organic chloride reacted much more slowly. In a separate series of experiments, a number of stainless steel plates were heated in a nitrogen atmosphere to different temperatures and their reactivity examined later at room temperature. The change of surface contour as a result of the probe reaction followed an Arrhenius type relation with respect to heat treatment temperature. This result could have implications on the scuffing mechanism.

  15. The OMPS Limb Profiler instrument: Data analysis and retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rault, Didier; Loughman, Robert; Bourassa, Adam; Taha, Ghassan; Jaross, Glen; Flittner, Dave

    The Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS) is scheduled to be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2010. The OMPS will continue monitoring ozone from space, using three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The collection of this ozone data is aimed at fulfilling the U.S. treaty obligation to monitor the ozone depletion for the Montreal Protocol to ensure no gaps on ozone coverage. The paper will describe the data analysis method being presently developed to retrieve ozone vertical distribution from the radiance data measured by the Limb Profiler (LP). The OMPS-LP instrument was designed based upon the SOLSE/LORE heritage and is specially conceived to minimize stray light. The sensor simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each horizontally spaced at 250 km cross-track interval and covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km. The calibration stability, which is essential to enable long-term ozone monitoring, is maintained by periodic observations of the sun, using a transmissive diffuser to redirect the solar irradiance into the telescope. To satisfy the anticipated science needs, the accuracy/precision requirements imposed upon the OMPS-LP instrument are tight, ranging from 10

  16. ANALYTICAL GALAXY PROFILES FOR PHOTOMETRIC AND LENSING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Spergel, David N.

    2010-11-15

    This article introduces a family of analytical functions of the form x {sup {nu}} K {sub {nu}}(x), where K {sub {nu}} is the incomplete Bessel function of the third kind. This family of functions can describe the density profile, projected and integrated light profiles, and the gravitational potentials of galaxies. For the proper choice of parameters, these functions accurately approximate Sersic functions over a range of indices and are good fits to galaxy light profiles. With an additional parameter corresponding to a galaxy core radius, these functions can fit galaxy like M87 over a factor of 10{sup 5} in radius. Unlike Sersic profiles, these functions have simple analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional Fourier transforms, so they are easily convolved with spatially varying point-spread function (PSF) and are well suited for photometric and lensing analysis. We use these functions to estimate the effects of seeing on lensing measurements and show that high S/N measurements, even when the PSF is larger than the galaxy effective radius, should be able to recover accurate estimates of lensing distortions by weighting light in the outer isophotes that are less affected by seeing.

  17. Aromatic profile of ciders by chemical quantitative, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Antón, María José; Suárez Valles, Belén; García Hevia, Ana; Picinelli Lobo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Nine samples of Asturias cider have been analyzed for volatile, olfactometric, and sensorial profiles. The aromatic composition was mainly constituted by fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. Among the minor volatile compounds, fatty acids, volatile phenols, and alcohols were the main components. The olfactometric analysis revealed the existence of 55 aromatic areas, exhibiting a wide range of intensities. Components like amyl alcohols, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters such as 2-methylbutyrate, hexanoate and octanoate, hexanoic and octanoic acids 2-phenylethyl acetate, 4-ethyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl phenol could be considered as being part of the structure of cider aroma. The extract dilution analysis of one extract identified 2 volatile phenols (4-ethyl guaiacol and 4-ethyl phenol) among the most powerful odorants in cider. These components gave significant correlations with the sensory attributes sweet, spicy, and lees.

  18. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in Japanese adult men.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  19. Analysis and test of low profile aluminum aerospace tank dome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmed, R.; Wilhelm, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to increase the structural performance of cryogenic tanks, the aerospace industry is beginning to employ low-profile bulkheads in new generation launch vehicle designs. This report details the analysis and test of one such dome made from 2219 aluminum. Such domes have two potential failure modes under internal pressure, general tensile failure and hoop compression buckling (in regions near the equator). The test determined the buckling load and ultimate tensile load of the hardware and showed that both compared well with the analysis predictions. This effort was conducted under the auspices of NASA and the General Dynamics Cryogenic Tank Technology Program (CTTP).

  20. Transcriptional profile of glucose-shocked and acid-adapted strains of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J.L.; Abranches, J.; Faustoferri, R.C.; Hubbard, C.J.; Lemos, J.A.; Courtney, M.A.; Quivey, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The aciduricity of Streptococcus mutans is an important virulence factor of the organism, required to both out-compete commensal oral microorganisms and cause dental caries. In this study, we monitored transcriptional changes that occurred as a continuous culture of either an acid-tolerant strain (UA159) or an acid-sensitive strain (fabM::Erm) moved from steady-state growth at neutral pH, experienced glucose-shock and acidification of the culture, and transitioned to steady-state growth at low pH. Thus, the timing of elements of the acid tolerance response (ATR) could be observed and categorized as acute vs. adaptive ATR mechanisms. Modulation of BCAA biosynthesis, DNA/protein repair mechanisms, ROS metabolizers, and PTS occurred in the initial acute phase, immediately following glucose-shock, while up-regulation of F1F0-ATPase did not occur until the adaptive phase, after steady-state growth had been re-established. In addition to the archetypal ATR pathways mentioned above, glucose-shock led to differential expression of genes suggesting a re-routing of resources away from synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, and towards synthesis of purines, pyrimidines and amino acids. These adjustments were largely transient, as upon establishment of steady-state growth at acidic pH, transcripts returned to basal expression levels. During growth at steady-state pH 7, fabM::Erm had a transcriptional profile analogous to that of UA159 during glucose-shock, indicating that even during growth in rich media at neutral pH, the cells were stressed. These results, coupled with a recently established collection of deletion strains (Quivey et al., 2015), provide a starting point for elucidation of the acid tolerance response in S. mutans. PMID:26042838

  1. Albumin dialysis has a favorable effect on amino acid profile in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Teikari, Taru; Höckerstedt, Krister; Isoniemi, Helena

    2008-12-01

    According to one popular theory, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is partly caused by an imbalance in plasma amino acid levels. The Fischer's ratio between branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) correlates with the degree of HE; the lower Fischer's ratio, the higher the grade of HE. Extra-corporeal liver support systems, like MARS(R)-albumin dialysis (Molecular Adsorbents Recirculating System), can improve HE. The MARS(R) system uses a hyperosmolar albumin circuit to remove both water-soluble and albumin-bound substances. Plasma levels of neuroactive amino acids were analyzed in 82 consecutive patients with life-threatening liver failure admitted to our ICU. All patients fulfilled our indications for MARS treatment and most also fulfilled the criteria for liver transplantation (LTx). In patients with acute liver failure (ALF), as compared to those with acute decompensation of chronic liver failure (AcOChr), levels of leucine and isoleucine were significantly higher before MARS(R) treatment. In all patients, before MARS(R) treatment the higher the grade of HE grade the lower was the Fischer's ratio and higher were the levels of inhibitory neuroactive amino acids. During MARS(R) treatments the Fischer's ratio increased, and the grade of HE decreased. The increase in Fischer's ratio was mainly due to the decrease in AAAs. The plasma levels of neuroactive amino acids, methionine, glutamine, glutamate, histidine and taurine decreased during MARS(R)-treatment. In this study MARS(R)-albumin dialysis had a favorable effect on the plasma amino acid profile of patients with HE.

  2. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid.

  3. Evaluation of buffering capacity and acid neutralizing-pH time profile of antacids.

    PubMed

    Lin, M S; Sun, P; Yu, H Y

    1998-10-01

    The antacid properties of seven antacids listed in the hospital formulary of a medical center were evaluated with in vitro tests. These included not only the preliminary antacid test and acid-neutralizing capacity test as described in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP XXIII), but also a buffering pH profile test. The preliminary antacid test measured the final pH of a 10-mL solution of 0.5 N HCl 10 minutes after addition of the minimum recommended dose of an antacid, while the neutralizing capacity test measured the amount (mEq) of HCl neutralized by the minimum recommended dose in 15 minutes. The buffering pH profile recorded the pH time course of dynamic simulated gastric fluid neutralization by a dose of an antacid. In the preliminary antacid test, magnesium oxide showed the highest pH (9.52 +/- 0.14, mean +/- standard deviation, n = 3); aluminum phosphate gel yielded a final pH of 2.51 +/- 0.01, thus failing to meet the criteria of an antacid (pH > 3.5). In the acid-neutralizing capacity test, hydrotalcite had the highest neutralizing capacity (28.26 +/- 0.3 mEq), while sodium bicarbonate had the lowest (7.40 +/- 0.12 mEq). In the buffering pH profile test, aluminum-magnesium hydroxide suspensions and hydrotalcite tablets maintained a steady optimum pH (3-5) for around 1.5 hours. One tablet of calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate or magnesium oxide could not raise the gastric pH to above 3, but two tablets increased the pH excessively (5.3 to 8.6). The higher dose (two tablets) of aluminum hydroxide hexitol complex could not raise the pH to the optimal level. These findings demonstrate that there is disparity in the antacid effectiveness estimated by the neutralizing capacity test and the buffering pH profile test and suggest that the efficacy of an antacid cannot be accurately predicted from its acid-neutralizing capacity. The dose of antacids greatly influences the neutralizing pH profiles. Aluminum-magnesium compounds appear to provide steadier buffering

  4. The behavioural homing response of adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta to amino-acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Chen, E Y; Leonard, J B K; Ueda, H

    2016-11-21

    Adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta homing behaviour in a two-choice test tank (Y-maze) was monitored using a passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tag system in response to river-specific dissolved free amino-acid (DFAA) profiles and revealed that the majority of O. keta showed a preference for artificial natal-stream water and tended to stay in this maze arm for a longer period; natal-stream water was chosen over a nearby tributary's water, but not when the O. keta were presented with a non-tributary water. The results demonstrate the ability of O. keta to discriminate artificial stream waters containing natural levels of DFAA.

  5. Profiling of Free Fatty Acids Using Stable Isotope Tagging Uncovers a Role for Saturated Fatty Acids in Neuroexocytosis.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Vinod K; Tomatis, Vanesa M; Wang, Tong; Kvaskoff, David; Meunier, Frederic A

    2015-10-20

    The phospholipase-catalyzed release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from phospholipids is implicated in many critical biological processes such as neurotransmission, inflammation, and cancer. However, determining the individual change in FFAs generated during these processes has remained challenging due to the limitations of current methods, and has hampered our understanding of these key mediators. Here, we developed an "iTRAQ"-like method for profiling FFAs by stable isotope tagging (FFAST), based on the differential labeling of the carboxyl group and designed to resolve analytical variance, through a multiplexed assay in cells and subcellular fractions. With nanomolar sensitivity, this method revealed a spectrum of saturated FFAs elicited during stimulation of exocytosis that was identical in neurons and neurosecretory cells. Purified secretory vesicles also generated these FFAs when challenged with cytosol. Our multiplex method will be invaluable to assess the range of FFAs generated in other physiological and pathological settings.

  6. GOAL: automated Gene Ontology analysis of expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Volinia, Stefano; Evangelisti, Rita; Francioso, Francesca; Arcelli, Diego; Carella, Massimo; Gasparini, Paolo

    2004-07-01

    One of the most common problems encountered while deciphering results from expression profiling experiments is in relating differential expression of genes to molecular functions and cellular processes. A second important problem is that of comparing experiments performed by different labs using different microarray platforms, or even unrelated techniques. Gene Ontology (GO) is now used to describe biological features, since GO terms are associated with genes, to overcome the apparent distance between expression profiles and biological comprehension. Here we describe the development, implementation and use of GOAL (Gene Ontology Automated Lexicon), a web-based application for the identification of functions and processes regulated in microarray and SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) experiments. We applied GOAL to a range of experimental datasets related to different biological problems, including cancer and the cell cycle. By using GOAL, reported and novel relevant processes were identified in a number of experiments by our collaborators and by us. Different datasets could also be compared with each other to define conserved functional modules. GOAL allows a seamless and high-level analysis of expression profiles and is implemented as a free WWW resource (http://microarrays.unife.it).

  7. Factors affecting variations in the detailed fatty acid profile of Mediterranean buffalo milk determined by 2-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, S; Stocco, G; Mele, M; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-04-01

    Buffalo milk is the world's second most widely produced milk, and increasing attention is being paid to its composition, particularly the fatty acid profile. The objectives of the present study were (1) to characterize the fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk, and (2) to investigate potential sources of variation in the buffalo milk fatty acid profile. We determined the profile of 69 fatty acid traits in 272 individual samples of Mediterranean buffalo milk using gas chromatography. In total, 51 individual fatty acids were identified: 24 saturated fatty acids, 13 monounsaturated fatty acids, and 14 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major individual fatty acids in buffalo milk were in the order 16:0, 18:1 cis-9, 14:0, and 18:0. Saturated fatty acids were the predominant fraction in buffalo milk fat (70.49%); monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were at 25.95 and 3.54%, respectively. Adopting a classification based on carbon-chain length, we found that medium-chain fatty acids (11-16 carbons) represented the greater part (53.7%) of the fatty acid fraction of buffalo milk, whereas long-chain fatty acids (17-24 carbons) and short-chain fatty acids (4-10 carbons) accounted for 32.73 and 9.72%, respectively. The n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were 0.46 and 1.77%, respectively. The main conjugated linoleic acid, rumenic acid, represented 0.45% of total milk fatty acids. Herd/test date and stage of lactation were confirmed as important sources of variation in the fatty acid profile of buffalo milk. The percentages of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids in buffalo milk increased in early lactation (+0.6 and +3.5%, respectively), whereas long-chain fatty acids decreased (-4.2%). The only exception to this pattern was butyric acid, which linearly decreased from the beginning of lactation, confirmation that its synthesis is independent of malonyl-CoA. These results seem to suggest that in early lactation the mobilization of energy reserves may have less

  8. Acidic Barren Slope Profiling using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) at Ayer Hitam area Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Haimi, D. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, non-destructive method such as the electrical resistivity technique has become increasingly popular in engineering, environmental, mining and archeological studies nowadays. This method was popular in subsurface profiling due to its ability to replicate the images of the subsurface indirectly. The soil slope found in Batu Pahat, specifically in Ayer Hitam, is known to be problematic due to its barren condition. This location is believed to contain futile soil due to its difficulty in supporting the growth of vegetations. In the past, acidic barren slope assessment using non-destructive method was rarely being used due to several reasons related to the equipment and knowledge constraints. Hence, this study performed an electrical resistivity imaging using ABEM Terrameter LS in order to investigate the acidic barren slope conditions. Field data acquisition was based on Schlumberger and Wenner arrays while RES2DINV software was used to analyze and generate a 2-D model of the problematic subsurface profile. Based on electrical resistivity results, it was found that the acidic barren slope studied consists of two main zones representing residual soil (electrical resistivity value = 10 - 600 Ωm) and shale (electrical resistivity value = 20 - 2000 Ωm). The results of resistivity value were correlated with the physical mapping and the in situ mackintosh probe test for verification purposes. It was found that the maximum depth of the mackintosh probe test was 1.8 m due to its ground penetration limitation. However, the results of the resistivity section managed to achieve greater depth up to 40 m. Hence, the correlation between electrical resistivity and mackintosh probe results can only be performed at certain depth of the acidic barren slope profile in contrast with the physical mapping which able to define the whole section of the barren soil slope structure. Finally, a good match of electrical resistivity results calibrated with mackintosh and physical

  9. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines.

  10. Efficient Algorithms for Sequence Analysis with Entropic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Cinzia; Ornamenti, Mattia; Spangaro, Simone; Rombo, Simona E; Parida, Laxmi

    2016-10-21

    Entropy, being closely related to repetitiveness and compressibility, is a widely used information-related measure to assess the degree of predictability of a sequence. Entropic profiles are based on information theory principles, and can be used to study the under-/over-representation of subwords, by also providing information about the scale of conserved DNA regions. Here we focus on the algorithmic aspects related to entropic profiles. In particular, we propose linear time algorithms for their computation that rely on suffix-based data structures, more specifically on the truncated suffix tree (TST) and on the enhanced suffix array (ESA). We performed an extensive experimental campaign showing that our algorithms, beside being faster, make it possible the analysis of longer sequences, even for high degrees of resolution, than state of the art algorithms.

  11. Analysis of lidar systems for profiling aurorally excited molecular species.

    PubMed

    Collins, R L; Lummerzheim, D; Smith, R W

    1997-08-20

    We report a detailed analysis of lidar systems that profile aurorally excited molecular species in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere ( ~80 -300 km). Current profiling of this region is performed with incoherent scatter radars that determine the total electron and ion concentrations but not the individual species. Studies of the aeronomy of the thermosphere requires knowledge of the species present and their relative populations in the different vibrational and rotational states. We review the spectroscopy of nitrogen to determine an optimized lidar system. We combine these results with current auroral observations and models to determine the performance of an actual lidar system. The study shows that such systems can provide high-resolution (1 km, 100 s) measurements of these species with current laser technology.

  12. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  13. Choice of population database for forensic DNA profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Steele, Christopher D; Balding, David J

    2014-12-01

    When evaluating the weight of evidence (WoE) for an individual to be a contributor to a DNA sample, an allele frequency database is required. The allele frequencies are needed to inform about genotype probabilities for unknown contributors of DNA to the sample. Typically databases are available from several populations, and a common practice is to evaluate the WoE using each available database for each unknown contributor. Often the most conservative WoE (most favourable to the defence) is the one reported to the court. However the number of human populations that could be considered is essentially unlimited and the number of contributors to a sample can be large, making it impractical to perform every possible WoE calculation, particularly for complex crime scene profiles. We propose instead the use of only the database that best matches the ancestry of the queried contributor, together with a substantial FST adjustment. To investigate the degree of conservativeness of this approach, we performed extensive simulations of one- and two-contributor crime scene profiles, in the latter case with, and without, the profile of the second contributor available for the analysis. The genotypes were simulated using five population databases, which were also available for the analysis, and evaluations of WoE using our heuristic rule were compared with several alternative calculations using different databases. Using FST=0.03, we found that our heuristic gave WoE more favourable to the defence than alternative calculations in well over 99% of the comparisons we considered; on average the difference in WoE was just under 0.2 bans (orders of magnitude) per locus. The degree of conservativeness of the heuristic rule can be adjusted through the FST value. We propose the use of this heuristic for DNA profile WoE calculations, due to its ease of implementation, and efficient use of the evidence while allowing a flexible degree of conservativeness.

  14. CHO gene expression profiling in biopharmaceutical process analysis and design.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Jochen; Clemens, Christoph; Schorn, Peter; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Rust, Werner; Mennerich, Detlev; Kaufmann, Hitto; Schulz, Torsten W

    2010-02-01

    Increase in both productivity and product yields in biopharmaceutical process development with recombinant protein producing mammalian cells can be mainly attributed to the advancements in cell line development, media, and process optimization. Only recently, genome-scale technologies enable a system-level analysis to elucidate the complex biomolecular basis of protein production in mammalian cells promising an increased process understanding and the deduction of knowledge-based approaches for further process optimization. Here, the use of gene expression profiling for the analysis of a low titer (LT) and high titer (HT) fed batch process using the same IgG producing CHO cell line was investigated. We found that gene expression (i) significantly differed in HT versus LT process conditions due to differences in applied chemically defined, serum-free media, (ii) changed over the time course of the fed batch processes, and that (iii) both metabolic pathways and 14 biological functions such as cellular growth or cell death were affected. Furthermore, detailed analysis of metabolism in a standard process format revealed the potential use of transcriptomics for rational media design as is shown for the case of lipid metabolism where the product titer could be increased by about 20% based on a lipid modified basal medium. The results demonstrate that gene expression profiling can be an important tool for mammalian biopharmaceutical process analysis and optimization.

  15. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis in Profile of Electrical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iswan; Garniwa, I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper propose to present approach for profile of electrical system, presented approach is combination algorithm, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. Based on relevant data of gross domestic regional product and electric power and energy use. This profile is set up to show the condition of electrical system of the region, that will be used as a policy in the electrical system of spatial development in the future. This paper consider 24 region in South Sulawesi province as profile center points and use principal component analysis (PCA) to asses the regional profile for development. Cluster analysis is used to group these region into few cluster according to the new variable be produced PCA. The general planning of electrical system of South Sulawesi province can provide support for policy making of electrical system development. The future research can be added several variable into existing variable.

  16. Changes in fatty acid profiles in testis and spermatozoa of red deer exposed to metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Pilar; Reglero, Manuel M; Taggart, Mark A; Mateo, Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Lowered sperm quality associated with reduced superoxide dismutase activity in testis and spermatozoa has been observed in red deer from a mined area in South-central Spain. Here we present fatty acid profiles for testis and spermatozoa of deer from this mined area (n=29) and a control area (n=33). Despite elevated Pb in liver and bone of red deer from this area, concentrations in testis and sperm were not significantly higher than in control areas; however, Cu in testis was lower in mined areas. Testis from mined areas also contained higher percentages of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), but lower arachidonic acid (20:4n-6). The percentage of 20:4n-6 was also lower in spermatozoa of deer from the mined area. Copper levels in testis correlated positively with the percentage of 20:4n-6. The imbalance in Cu homeostasis caused by metal pollution may have caused the observed effects on deer sperm.

  17. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  18. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition.

  19. Thin film depth profiling by ion beam analysis.

    PubMed

    Jeynes, Chris; Colaux, Julien L

    2016-10-17

    The analysis of thin films is of central importance for functional materials, including the very large and active field of nanomaterials. Quantitative elemental depth profiling is basic to analysis, and many techniques exist, but all have limitations and quantitation is always an issue. We here review recent significant advances in ion beam analysis (IBA) which now merit it a standard place in the analyst's toolbox. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) has been in use for half a century to obtain elemental depth profiles non-destructively from the first fraction of a micron from the surface of materials: more generally, "IBA" refers to the cluster of methods including elastic scattering (RBS; elastic recoil detection, ERD; and non-Rutherford elastic backscattering, EBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA: including particle-induced gamma-ray emission, PIGE), and also particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). We have at last demonstrated what was long promised, that RBS can be used as a primary reference technique for the best traceable accuracy available for non-destructive model-free methods in thin films. Also, it has become clear over the last decade that we can effectively combine synergistically the quite different information available from the atomic (PIXE) and nuclear (RBS, EBS, ERD, NRA) methods. Although it is well known that RBS has severe limitations that curtail its usefulness for elemental depth profiling, these limitations are largely overcome when we make proper synergistic use of IBA methods. In this Tutorial Review we aim to briefly explain to analysts what IBA is and why it is now a general quantitative method of great power. Analysts have got used to the availability of the large synchrotron facilities for certain sorts of difficult problems, but there are many much more easily accessible mid-range IBA facilities also able to address (and often more quantitatively) a wide range of otherwise almost intractable thin film questions.

  20. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, J. Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P.; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M. N.; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica. PMID:27626416

  1. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, J Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-09-12

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica.

  2. Gait profile score and movement analysis profile in patients with Parkinson's disease during concurrent cognitive load

    PubMed Central

    Speciali, Danielli S.; Oliveira, Elaine M.; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Correa, João C. F.; Baker, Richard; Lucareli, Paulo R. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gait disorders are common in individuals with Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the concurrent performance of motor and cognitive tasks can have marked effects on gait. The Gait Profile Score (GPS) and the Movement Analysis Profile (MAP) were developed in order to summarize the data of kinematics and facilitate understanding of the results of gait analysis. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of the GPS and MAP in the quantification of changes in gait during a concurrent cognitive load while walking in adults with and without PD. Method: Fourteen patients with idiopathic PD and nine healthy subjects participated in the study. All subjects performed single and dual walking tasks. The GPS/MAP was computed from three-dimensional gait analysis data. Results: Differences were found between tasks for GPS (P<0.05) and Gait Variable Score (GVS) (pelvic rotation, knee flexion-extension and ankle dorsiflexion-plantarflexion) (P<0.05) in the PD group. An interaction between task and group was observed for GPS (P<0.01) for the right side (Cohen's ¯d=0.99), left side (Cohen's ¯d=0.91), and overall (Cohen's ¯d=0.88). No interaction was observed only for hip internal-external rotation and foot internal-external progression GVS variables in the PD group. Conclusions: The results showed gait impairment during the dual task and suggest that GPS/MAP may be used to evaluate the effects of concurrent cognitive load while walking in patients with PD. PMID:25054382

  3. The volatile profiles of a rare apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) honey: shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, terpenes, and others.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Šarolić, Mladenka

    2013-09-01

    The volatile profiles of rare Malus domestica Borkh. honey were investigated for the first time. Two representative samples from Poland (sample I) and Spain (sample II) were selected by pollen analysis (44-45% of Malus spp. pollen) and investigated by GC/FID/MS after headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE). The apple honey is characterized by high percentage of shikimic acid-pathway derivatives, as well as terpenes, norisoprenoids, and some other compounds such as coumaran and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate. The main compounds of the honey headspace were (sample I; sample II): benzaldehyde (9.4%; 32.1%), benzyl alcohol (0.3%; 14.4%), hotrienol (26.0%, 6.2%), and lilac aldehyde isomers (26.3%; 1.7%), but only Spanish sample contained car-2-en-4-one (10.2%). CH2 Cl2 and pentane/Et2 O 1 : 2 (v/v) were used for USE. The most relevant compounds identified in the extracts were: benzaldehyde (0.9-3.9%), benzoic acid (2.0-11.2%), terpendiol I (0.3-7.4%), coumaran (0.0-2.8%), 2-phenylacetic acid (2.0-26.4%), methyl syringate (3.9-13.1%), vomifoliol (5.0-31.8%), and methyl 1H-indole-3-acetate (1.9-10.2%). Apple honey contained also benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl alcohol, eugenol, vanillin, and linalool that have been found previously in apple flowers, thus disclosing similarity of both volatile profiles.

  4. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature.

  5. Extraction and Analysis of Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Quideau, Sylvie A.; McIntosh, Anne C.S.; Norris, Charlotte E.; Lloret, Emily; Swallow, Mathew J.B.; Hannam, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) are key components of microbial cell membranes. The analysis of PLFAs extracted from soils can provide information about the overall structure of terrestrial microbial communities. PLFA profiling has been extensively used in a range of ecosystems as a biological index of overall soil quality, and as a quantitative indicator of soil response to land management and other environmental stressors. The standard method presented here outlines four key steps: 1. lipid extraction from soil samples with a single-phase chloroform mixture, 2. fractionation using solid phase extraction columns to isolate phospholipids from other extracted lipids, 3. methanolysis of phospholipids to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and 4. FAME analysis by capillary gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Two standards are used, including 1,2-dinonadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(19:0/19:0)) to assess the overall recovery of the extraction method, and methyl decanoate (MeC10:0) as an internal standard (ISTD) for the GC analysis. PMID:27685177

  6. Coaxial electrospinning with acetic acid for preparing ferulic acid/zein composite fibers with improved drug release profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Mao; Zha, Liu-sheng; Yu, Deng-Guang; Liu, Jianyun

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated drug/zein composite fibers prepared using a modified coaxial electrospinning process. With unspinnable acetic acid as sheath liquid and an electrospinnable co-dissolving solution of zein and ferulic acid (FA) as core fluid, the modified coaxial process could run smoothly and continuously without any clogging. Compared with those from the single-fluid electrospinning process, the FA-loaded zein fibers from the modified process were rounder and possessed higher quality in terms of diameter and distribution, as verified by scanning electron microscopic observations of their surface and cross-section. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction showed that fibers from both processes similarly formed a composite with the FA present in the zein matrix in an amorphous state. The driving force of encapsulation of FA into zein fibers was hydrogen bonding, as evidenced by the attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectra. However, in vitro dissolution tests demonstrated that the fibers from the coaxial process exhibited better sustained-release profiles with a smaller initial burst effect and less tailing-off release compared with those from the single process. The modified coaxial electrospinning process is a useful tool for generating nanofibers with higher quality and improved functional performance.

  7. DNA Methylation Profiling at Single-Base Resolution Reveals Gestational Folic Acid Supplementation Influences the Epigenome of Mouse Offspring Cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Subit; Kuizon, Salomon; Brown, W. Ted; Junaid, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly more evident that lifestyle, environmental factors, and maternal nutrition during gestation can influence the epigenome of the developing fetus and thus modulate the physiological outcome. Variations in the intake of maternal nutrients affecting one-carbon metabolism may influence brain development and exert long-term effects on the health of the progeny. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with high maternal folic acid during gestation alters DNA methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of mouse offspring. We used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to analyze the DNA methylation profile at the single-base resolution level. The genome-wide DNA methylation analysis revealed that supplementation with higher maternal folic acid resulted in distinct methylation patterns (P < 0.05) of CpG and non-CpG sites in the cerebellum of offspring. Such variations of methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of offspring were highly sex-specific, including several genes of the neuronal pathways. These findings demonstrate that alterations in the level of maternal folic acid during gestation can influence methylation and gene expression in the cerebellum of offspring. Such changes in the offspring epigenome may alter neurodevelopment and influence the functional outcome of neurologic and psychiatric diseases. PMID:27199632

  8. Empirical Error Analysis of GPS RO Atmospheric Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Steiner, A. K.; Foelsche, U.; Kirchengast, G.; Kuo, Y.

    2010-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region the radio occultation (RO) technique provides accurate profiles of atmospheric parameters. These profiles can be used in operational meteorology (i.e., numerical weather prediction), atmospheric and climate research. We present results of an empirical error analysis of GPS RO data retrieved at UCAR and at WEGC and compare data characteristics of CHAMP, GRACE-A, and Formosat-3/COSMIC. Retrieved atmospheric profiles of bending angle, refractivity, dry pressure, dry geopotential height, and dry temperature are compared to reference profiles extracted from ECMWF analysis fields. This statistical error characterization yields a combined (RO observational plus ECMWF model) error. We restrict our analysis to the years 2007 to 2009 due to known ECMWF deficiencies prior to 2007 (e.g., deficiencies in the representation of the austral polar vortex or the weak representation of tropopause height variability). The GPS RO observational error is determined by subtracting the estimated ECMWF error from the combined error in terms of variances. Our results indicate that the estimated ECMWF error and the GPS RO observational error are approximately of the same order of magnitude. Differences between different satellites are small below 35 km. The GPS RO observational error features latitudinal and seasonal variations, which are most pronounced at stratospheric altitudes at high latitudes. We present simplified models for the observational error, which depend on a few parameters only (Steiner and Kirchengast, JGR 110, D15307, 2005). These global error models are derived from fitting simple analytical functions to the GPS RO observational error. From the lower troposphere up to the tropopause, the model error decreases closely proportional to an inverse height law. Within a core "tropopause region" of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere the model error is constant and above this region it increases exponentially with

  9. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals. PMID:26426396

  10. Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile and Lipid Metabolism in Fat-1 Transgenic Cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Bai, Chunling; Ding, Xiangbin; Wei, Zhuying; Guo, Hong; Li, Guangpeng

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are beneficial for human health. However, humans and mammals are unable to synthesize n-3 PUFAs because they lack the n-3 desaturase gene fat-1 and must therefore obtain this type of fatty acid through their diet. Through the production of fat-1 transgenic animals, it is possible to obtain animal products that are rich in n-3 PUFAs, such as meat and milk. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression profile and the mechanism of lipid metabolism in fat-1 transgenic cattle and to accumulate important basic data that are required to obtain more efficient fat-1 transgenic cattle. Transcriptome profiling of fat-1 transgenic and wild-type cattle identified differentially expressed genes that are involved in 90 biological pathways, eight pathways of which were related to lipid metabolism processes 36 genes of which were related to lipid metabolism. This analysis also identified 11 significantly enriched genes that were involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. These findings were verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The information obtained in this study indicated that the introduction of an exogenous fat-1 gene into cattle affects the gene expression profile and the process of lipid metabolism in these animals. These results may provide important insights into how an exogenous fat-1 gene synthesizes n-3 PUFAs in transgenic cattle and other mammals.

  11. Major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles of agave syrup. Application of this data to authenticity analysis.

    PubMed

    Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

    2012-09-05

    Nineteen pure agave syrups representing the three major production regions and four processing facilities in Mexico were analyzed for their major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles, as well as their physicochemical properties (pH, °Brix, total acidity, percent total titratable acidity, and color). Additionally, the detection of intentional debasing of agave syrup with four commercial nutritive sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, DE 42 and sucrose) was afforded by oligosaccharide profiling employing both high performance anion exchange liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID). Results showed that the major carbohydrate and polyol in agave syrups were fructose and inositol with mean concentrations of 84.29% and 0.38%, respectively. Oligosaccharide profiling was extremely successful for adulteration detection with detection limits ranging from 0.5 to 2.0% for the aforementioned debasing agents. Also, all four of these possible adulterants could be detected within a single chromatographic analysis.

  12. Analysis of plant hormone profiles in response to moderate dehydration stress.

    PubMed

    Urano, Kaoru; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Plant responses to dehydration stress are mediated by highly complex molecular systems involving hormone signaling and metabolism, particularly the major stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA-dependent gene expression. To understand the roles of plant hormones and their interactions during dehydration, we analyzed the plant hormone profiles with respect to dehydration responses in Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type (WT) plants and ABA biosynthesis mutants (nced3-2). We developed a procedure for moderate dehydration stress, and then investigated temporal changes in the profiles of ABA, jasmonic acid isoleucine (JA-Ile), salicylic acid (SA), cytokinin (trans-zeatin, tZ), auxin (indole-acetic acid, IAA), and gibberellin (GA4 ), along with temporal changes in the expression of key genes involved in hormone biosynthesis. ABA levels increased in a bi-phasic pattern (at the early and late phases) in response to moderate dehydration stress. JA-Ile levels increased slightly in WT plants and strongly increased in nced3-2 mutant plants at 72 h after the onset of dehydration. The expression profiles of dehydration-inducible genes displayed temporal responses in an ABA-dependent manner. The early phase of ABA accumulation correlated with the expression of touch-inducible genes and was independent of factors involved in the major ABA regulatory pathway, including the ABA-responsive element-binding (AREB/ABF) transcription factor. JA-Ile, SA, and tZ were negatively regulated during the late dehydration response phase. Transcriptome analysis revealed important roles for hormone-related genes in metabolism and signaling during dehydration-induced plant responses.

  13. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  14. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  15. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B; Renaud, Helen J; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin+imipenem and cephalothin+neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin+imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin+neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism.

  16. Incorporation profiles of conjugated linoleic acid isomers in cell membranes and their positional distribution in phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Subbaiah, Papasani V.; Gould, Ian G.; Lal, Samanta; Aizezi, Buzulagu

    2010-01-01

    Although the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have several isomer-specific biological effects including anti-carcinogenic and anti-adipogenic effects, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. To determine their potential effects on membrane structure and function, we studied the incorporation profiles of four CLA isomers (trans-10 cis-12 (A), trans-9 trans-11 (B), cis-9 trans-11 (C), and cis-9 cis-11 (D)) in CHO and HepG2 cells. All four isomers were incorporated into cellular lipids as efficiently as linoleic acid (LA), with the majority of the incorporated CLA present in membrane rafts. Of the four isomers, only CLA-A increased the cholesterol content of the raft fraction. Over 50% of the incorporated CLAs were recovered in phosphatidylcholine of CHO cells, but in HepG2 the neutral lipids contained the majority of CLA. The desaturation index (18:1/18:0 and 16:1/16:0) was reduced by CLA-A, but increased by CLA-B, the effects being apparent mostly in raft lipids. The Δ9 desaturase activity was inhibited by CLAs A and C. Unlike LA, which was mostly found in the sn-2 position of phospholipids, most CLAs were also incorporated significantly into the sn-1 position in both cell types. These studies show that the incorporation profiles of CLA isomers differ significantly from that of LA, and this could lead to alterations in membrane function, especially in the raft-associated proteins. PMID:20920595

  17. Profiling of soil fatty acids using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Annie Xu; Chin, Sung-Tong; Patti, Antonio; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-11-22

    Profiling of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) represents a challenging goal for distinguishing the diversity of microbial communities and biomass in the complex and heterogeneous soil ecosystem. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled with simultaneous flame ionisation and mass spectrometry detection was applied as a culture-independent method for PLFA profiling of microbial classification in forest soil. A number of column sets were evaluated for the GC×GC separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Due to better isomeric separation and compound patterns on the 2D contour plot, an apolar-polar column combination was selected for soil microbial PLFA characterisation. A comprehensive view of PLFA composition with carbon chain length varying from 12 to 20 was observed in forest soil samples, with the commonly reported bacterial FAME of iso-/anteiso-, methyl-branched-, cyclopropyl-, and hydroxyl-substituted FA identified by their mass spectral and retention time according to authentic standards. Notably, some uncommon oxygenated FAME were found in high abundance and were further characterised by GC×GC coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. This tentatively revealed geometric pairs of methyl 9,10-epoxyoctadecanoate isomers.

  18. Dietary intake and plasma metabolomic analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in bipolar subjects reveal dysregulation of linoleic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Evans, Simon J; Ringrose, Rachel N; Harrington, Gloria J; Mancuso, Peter; Burant, Charles F; McInnis, Melvin G

    2014-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) profiles associate with risk for mood disorders. This poses the hypothesis of metabolic differences between patients and unaffected healthy controls that relate to the primary illness or are secondary to medication use or dietary intake. However, dietary manipulation or supplementation studies show equivocal results improving mental health outcomes. This study investigates dietary patterns and metabolic profiles relevant to PUFA metabolism, in bipolar I individuals compared to non-psychiatric controls. We collected seven-day diet records and performed metabolomic analysis of fasted plasma collected immediately after diet recording. Regression analyses adjusted for age, gender and energy intake found that bipolar individuals had significantly lower intake of selenium and PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (n-3), arachidonic acid (AA) (n-6) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (n-3/n-6 mix); and significantly increased intake of the saturated fats, eicosanoic and docosanoic acid. Regression analysis of metabolomic data derived from plasma samples, correcting for age, gender, BMI, psychiatric medication use and dietary PUFA intake, revealed that bipolar individuals had reduced 13S-HpODE, a major peroxidation product of the n-6, linoleic acid (LA), reduced eicosadienoic acid (EDA), an elongation product of LA; reduced prostaglandins G2, F2 alpha and E1, synthesized from n-6 PUFA; and reduced EPA. These observations remained significant or near significant after Bonferroni correction and are consistent with metabolic variances between bipolar and control individuals with regard to PUFA metabolism. These findings suggest that specific dietary interventions aimed towards correcting these metabolic disparities may impact health outcomes for individuals with bipolar disorder.

  19. Prediction of solute kinetics, acid-base status, and blood volume changes during profiled hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ursino, M; Colí, L; Brighenti, C; Chiari, L; de Pascalis, A; Avanzolini, G

    2000-02-01

    A mathematical model of solute kinetics oriented to the simulation of hemodialysis is presented. It includes a three-compartment model of body fluids (plasma, interstitial and intracellular), a two-compartment description of the main solutes (K+, Na+, Cl-, urea, HCO3-, H+), and acid-base equilibrium through two buffer systems (bicarbonate and noncarbonic buffers). Tentative values for the main model parameters can be given a priori, on the basis of body weight and plasma concentration values measured before beginning the session. The model allows computation of the amount of sodium removed during hemodialysis, and may enable the prediction of plasma volume and osmolarity changes induced by a given sodium concentration profile in the dialysate and by a given ultrafiltration profile. Model predictions are compared with clinical data obtained during 11 different profiled hemodialysis sessions, both with all parameters assigned a priori, and after individual estimation of dialysances and mass-transfer coefficients. In most cases, the agreement between the time pattern of model solute concentrations in plasma and clinical data was satisfactory. In two sessions, blood volume changes were directly measured in the patient, and in both cases the agreement with model predictions was acceptable. The present model can be used to improve the dialysis session taking some characteristics of individual patients into account, in order to minimize intradialytic unbalances (such as hypotension or disequilibrium syndrome).

  20. Metabolomic profiles of myocardial ischemia under treatment with salvianolic acid B

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) has been used as a principal herb in treating cardiovascular diseases in Chinese medicine. Salvianolic acid B (SA-B), a water-soluble active component of Danshen, was found to have anti-myocardial ischemia (anti-MI) effect. This study aims to investigate mechanisms of SA-B on MI. Methods Five conventional Western medicines (isosorbide dinitrate, verapamil, propranolol, captopril and trimethazine) with different mechanisms for treating cardiovascular diseases were selected as positive references to compare with SA-B in changing of the metabolomic profiles in MI rats under treatment. Potential mechanisms of SA-B were further investigated in H9C2 cell line. Results The metabolomic profiles between SA-B- and propranolol-treated MI rats were similar, since there was a big overlap between the two groups in the PLS-DA score plot. Finally, it was demonstrated that SA-B exhibited a protective effect on MI mainly by decreasing the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and Ca2+ and inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA). Conclusion SA-B and propanolol exhibited similar metabolomic profiles, indicating that the two drugs might have a similar mechanism. PMID:22409910

  1. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  2. Quantitative Profiling of Hydroxy Lipid Metabolites in Mouse Organs Reveals Distinct Lipidomic Profiles and Modifications Due to Elevated n-3 Fatty Acid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Cheng-Ying; Smyl, Christopher; Dogan, Inci; Rothe, Michael; Weylandt, Karsten-H.

    2017-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of bioactive metabolites and mediators. In this study, the profile of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE), hydroxyeicosapentaenoic (HEPE) and hydroxydocosahexaenoic (HDHA) acids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colon, liver, lung, spleen, muscle, heart and kidney tissue of healthy wildtype mice were characterized, and compared to profiles in organs from transgenic fat-1 mice engineered to express the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 desaturase and thereby with endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA levels. PUFAs were measured using gas chromatography. The lipid metabolites were assayed using LC-MS/MS. AA and DHA were the prominent PUFAs in wildtype and fat-1 mice. EPA levels were low in both groups even though there was a significant increase in fat-1 organs with an up to 12-fold increase in fat-1 spleen and kidney. DHA levels increased by approximately 1.5-fold in fat-1 as compared to wildtype mice. While HETEs remained the same or decreased moderately and HDHAs increased 1- to 3-fold, HEPE formation in fat-1 tissues increased from 8- (muscle) to 44-fold (spleen). These findings indicate distinct profiles of monohydroxy lipid metabolites in different organs and strong utilization of EPA for HEPE formation, by which moderate EPA supplementation might trigger formation of biologically active EPA-derived resolvins. PMID:28165385

  3. Applications of cellular fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D F

    1991-01-01

    More than ever, new technology is having an impact on the tools of clinical microbiologists. The analysis of cellular fatty acids by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) has become markedly more practical with the advent of the fused-silica capillary column, computer-controlled chromatography and data analysis, simplified sample preparation, and a commercially available GLC system dedicated to microbiological applications. Experience with applications in diagnostic microbiology ranges from substantial success in work with mycobacteria, legionellae, and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli to minimal involvement with fungi and other nonbacterial agents. GLC is a good alternative to other means for the identification of mycobacteria or legionellae because it is rapid, specific, and independent of other specialized testing, e.g., DNA hybridization. Nonfermenters show features in their cellular fatty acid content that are useful in identifying species and, in some cases, subspecies. Less frequently encountered nonfermenters, including those belonging to unclassified groups, can ideally be characterized by GLC. Information is just beginning to materialize on the usefulness of cellular fatty acids for the identification of gram-positive bacteria and anaerobes, despite the traditional role of GLC in detecting metabolic products as an aid to identification of anaerobes. When species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci is called for, GLC may offer an alternative to biochemical testing. Methods for direct analysis of clinical material have been developed, but in practical and economic terms they are not yet ready for use in the clinical laboratory. Direct analysis holds promise for detecting markers of infection due to an uncultivable agent or in clinical specimens that presently require cultures and prolonged incubation to yield an etiologic agent. PMID:1747860

  4. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Polysome Profile Analysis and RNA Purification.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dieter A; Bähler, Jürg; Wise, Jo Ann

    2017-04-03

    Polysome profile analysis is widely used by investigators studying the mechanism and regulation of translation. The method described here uses high-velocity centrifugation of whole cell extracts on linear sucrose gradients to separate 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits from 80S monosomes and polysomes. Cycloheximide is included in the lysis buffer to "freeze" polysomes by blocking translation. After centrifugation, the gradient is fractionated and RNA (and/or protein) is prepared from each fraction for subsequent analysis of individual species using northern or western blots. The entire RNA population in each fraction can be analyzed by hybridization to microarrays or by high-throughput RNA sequencing, and the proteins present can be identified by mass spectrometry analysis.

  5. Functional analysis and quantitative determination of the expression profile of human parvovirus B19.

    PubMed

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Filippone, Claudia; Manaresi, Elisabetta; Zerbini, Marialuisa; Musiani, Monica; Gallinella, Giorgio

    2008-11-25

    Comprehension of the pathogenetic potential of human parvovirus B19 requires the definition of the complete spectrum of cellular tropism and a functional analysis of the viral genome in infected cells. In this study, we carried out a systematic functional analysis of B19 virus genome in the course of infection of susceptible bone marrow mononuclear cells and myeloblastoid UT7/EpoS1 cells, in terms of dynamics of nucleic acid synthesis. A PCR array was designed and a comprehensive analysis was performed by quantitative PCR and RT-PCR, yielding extended information on the presence and abundance of the diverse classes of viral nucleic acids, on the temporal regulation of genome expression and on its relationship with the cell cycle. The analysis performed indicate that the synthesis of viral nucleic acids is correlated to the progression through the S phase of the cell cycle, that an extended pattern of transcriptional activity occurs throughout the course of infection, with a maximal rate of transcription preceding the onset of S-phase dependent replication of the viral genome, and that utilization of transcript processing signals is relatively constant throughout the course of infection. The information obtained led to the definition of a unified model of functional and expression profiling of parvovirus B19 genome.

  6. Fatty acid and transcriptome profiling of longissimus dorsi muscles between pig breeds differing in meat quality.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kaifan; Shu, Gang; Yuan, Fangfang; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wang, Songbo; Wang, Lina; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Shouquan; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Yan; Wu, Tongshan; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Qingyan

    2013-01-01

    Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH(45min), pH(24h) and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P < 0.05). Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage in Lantang LD than that in Landrace LD (P < 0.05). To further identify candidate genes for fatty acid composition, the transcriptome of LD muscle from the two breeds were measured by microarrays. There were 586 transcripts differentially expressed, of which 267 transcripts were highly expressed in Lantang pigs. After the validation by real-time quantitative PCR, 13 genes were determined as candidate genes for fatty acid composition of muscle, including Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Then, a SCD over-expression plasmid was transfected into C2C12 cells to reveal the effect of SCD on the fatty acid composition in vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P < 0.05). In summary, this study compared the differences of fatty acid composition and transcriptome in two breeds differing in meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition.

  7. Profiling of 3-hydroxy fatty acids as environmental markers of endotoxin using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Negård, Mariell; Heldal, Kari K; Straumfors, Anne; Madsø, Lene; Bakke, Berit; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-02-19

    3-Hydroxy acids are constituents of the lipid A part of lipopolysaccharides and may potentially be used as chemical markers of endotoxin. While commercial enzymatic assays, such as the widely used Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, commonly detect merely the water-soluble fraction of the bioactive endotoxin, the chemical approach aims to estimate the total amount of endotoxin present in a sample. Our objective was to develop a simple method for quantitative profiling of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in occupational and environmental samples based on detection with HPLC-MS/MS. We included eleven 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-hydroxyoctanoic acid to 3-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid) in the HPLC-MS/MS based method, which involved base hydrolysis of filter samples using 1M sodium hydroxide and removal of the base as well as concentration of the fatty acids using solid-phase extraction on a functionalized polystyrene-divinylbenzene polymer. Recovery trials from spiked glass fiber filters, using threo-9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid as internal standard, gave an overall recovery of 54-86% for 3-hydroxy fatty acids of medium chain length (3-hydroxynonanoic to 3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid). 3-Hydroxyoctanoic acid and the longer chain fatty acids were more problematic yielding overall spike recoveries of 11-39%. While the 3-hydroxy fatty acid profile of pure lipopolysaccharides was dominated by 3-hydroxydecanoic, 3-hydroxydodecanoic and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid the aqueous phase from drilling mud contained in addition relatively high amounts of 3-hydroxyoctanoic and 3-hydroxynonanoic acid. Endotoxin activity as measured by the LAL assay was reasonably correlated (R(2)=0.54) to the sum of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid in these samples.

  8. Fatty acid profiling of the seed oils of some varieties of field peas (Pisum sativum) by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS: towards the development of an oilseed pea.

    PubMed

    Villalobos Solis, Manuel Ivan; Patel, Anil; Orsat, Valérie; Singh, Jaswinder; Lefsrud, Mark

    2013-08-15

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled to negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS) was used to study the fatty acid profile from the oil of harvested field pea (Pisum sativum) varieties as part of a research project to develop this legume as a commercial oilseed for Canada. The seed oils from pea samples contained palmitic and stearic acids as major saturated fatty acids. Oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids found. Small percentages of other long chain fatty acids were also detected. This profile suggests that the species of field pea investigated might have the potential to be used as raw materials to develop a future new oilseed crop for the food industry. Fatty acid extracts did not require further manipulation before final analysis by RP-LC/ESI-MS/MS, indicating the utility and relative simplicity of this technique for future screening studies.

  9. [Analysis of citric acid and citrates. Citric acid and urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P

    1979-08-01

    In the first part the physico-chemical, analytic chemical and physiologic biochemical properties of the citric acid are discussed. In the second part the author enters the role of the citric acid in the formation of uric calculi. In the third part is reported on the individual methods of the determination of citric acid and the method practised in the author's laboratory is described.

  10. Analysis of the Serum Lipid Profile in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miaoling; Zhang, Xiongze; Liao, Nanying; Ye, Baikang; Peng, Yuting; Ji, Yuying; Wen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), the predominant subtype of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in the Asian population, is associated with genetic polymorphism of lipid metabolism. In this study, we performed the untargeted lipidomics approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) to reveal the potential discriminating lipid profile of PCV patients in serum (21 PCV patients and 19 age-matched controls). Unsupervised principal component, supervised orthogonal partial least squares analysis, correlation analysis, and heatmap analysis were performed with the data obtained by UPLC-MS. Forty–one discriminating metabolites were identified. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, pathway analysis and functional analysis were performed subsequently, and platelet-activating factor (PAF) was further selected as the key indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. Finally, the serum level of PAF was validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which is significantly higher in PCV patients compared to controls (65 PCV patients and 63 age-matched controls, p < 0.0001), consistent with the UPLC-MS analysis. Our results suggested that PAF is considered as the major indicator of the distinct lipid metabolism in PCV patients. PMID:27910906

  11. Quantitative analysis of 17 amino acids in tobacco leaves using an amino acid analyzer and chemometric resolution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yihang; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2015-06-01

    A method was developed for quantifying 17 amino acids in tobacco leaves by using an A300 amino acid analyzer and chemometric resolution. In the method, amino acids were eluted by the buffer solution on an ion-exchange column. After reacting with ninhydrin, the derivatives of amino acids were detected by ultraviolet detection. Most amino acids are separated by the elution program. However, five peaks of the derivatives are still overlapping. A non-negative immune algorithm was employed to extract the profiles of the derivatives from the overlapping signals, and then peak areas were adopted for quantitative analysis of the amino acids. The method was validated by the determination of amino acids in tobacco leaves. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) are all less than 2.54% and the recoveries of the spiked samples are in a range of 94.62-108.21%. The feasibility of the method was proved by analyzing the 17 amino acids in 30 tobacco leaf samples.

  12. Prediction of mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasite using split amino acid composition and PSSM profile.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ruchi; Varshney, Grish C; Raghava, G P S

    2010-06-01

    The rate of human death due to malaria is increasing day-by-day. Thus the malaria causing parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PF) remains the cause of concern. With the wealth of data now available, it is imperative to understand protein localization in order to gain deeper insight into their functional roles. In this manuscript, an attempt has been made to develop prediction method for the localization of mitochondrial proteins. In this study, we describe a method for predicting mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasite using machine-learning technique. All models were trained and tested on 175 proteins (40 mitochondrial and 135 non-mitochondrial proteins) and evaluated using five-fold cross validation. We developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model for predicting mitochondrial proteins of P. falciparum, using amino acids and dipeptides composition and achieved maximum MCC 0.38 and 0.51, respectively. In this study, split amino acid composition (SAAC) is used where composition of N-termini, C-termini, and rest of protein is computed separately. The performance of SVM model improved significantly from MCC 0.38 to 0.73 when SAAC instead of simple amino acid composition was used as input. In addition, SVM model has been developed using composition of PSSM profile with MCC 0.75 and accuracy 91.38%. We achieved maximum MCC 0.81 with accuracy 92% using a hybrid model, which combines PSSM profile and SAAC. When evaluated on an independent dataset our method performs better than existing methods. A web server PFMpred has been developed for predicting mitochondrial proteins of malaria parasites ( http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/pfmpred/).

  13. Long-Chain Fatty Acid Combustion Rate Is Associated with Unique Metabolite Profiles in Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Erin L.; Fiehn, Oliver; Bezaire, Véronic; Bickel, David R.; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Adams, Sean H.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim Incomplete or limited long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Signals that are responsive to shifts in LCFA β-oxidation rate or degree of intramitochondrial catabolism are hypothesized to regulate second messenger systems downstream of the insulin receptor. Recent evidence supports a causal link between mitochondrial LCFA combustion in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance. We have used unbiased metabolite profiling of mouse muscle mitochondria with the aim of identifying candidate metabolites within or effluxed from mitochondria and that are shifted with LCFA combustion rate. Methodology/Principal Findings Large-scale unbiased metabolomics analysis was performed using GC/TOF-MS on buffer and mitochondrial matrix fractions obtained prior to and after 20 min of palmitate catabolism (n = 7 mice/condition). Three palmitate concentrations (2, 9 and 19 µM; corresponding to low, intermediate and high oxidation rates) and 9 µM palmitate plus tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and electron transport chain inhibitors were each tested and compared to zero palmitate control incubations. Paired comparisons of the 0 and 20 min samples were made by Student's t-test. False discovery rate were estimated and Type I error rates assigned. Major metabolite groups were organic acids, amines and amino acids, free fatty acids and sugar phosphates. Palmitate oxidation was associated with unique profiles of metabolites, a subset of which correlated to palmitate oxidation rate. In particular, palmitate oxidation rate was associated with distinct changes in the levels of TCA cycle intermediates within and effluxed from mitochondria. Conclusions/Significance This proof-of-principle study establishes that large-scale metabolomics methods can be applied to organelle-level models to discover metabolite patterns reflective of LCFA combustion, which may lead to identification of molecules linking muscle fat

  14. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Metabolic Profiles in Brain and Liver of Mouse Revealed by a High-throughput Targeted Metabolomics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Li, Meiying; Yang, Jingping; Li, Kan; Jin, Ling; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl acid, can result in hepatotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects in animals. The metabolome, which serves as a connection among transcriptome, proteome and toxic effects, provides pathway-based insights into effects of PFOA. Since understanding of changes in the metabolic profile during hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were still incomplete, a high-throughput targeted metabolomics approach (278 metabolites) was used to investigate effects of exposure to PFOA for 28 d on brain and liver of male Balb/c mice. Results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that PFOA caused alterations in metabolic pathways in exposed individuals. Pathway analysis suggested that PFOA affected metabolism of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetics. Ten and 18 metabolites were identified as potential unique biomarkers of exposure to PFOA in brain and liver, respectively. In brain, PFOA affected concentrations of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate in brain, which provides novel insights into mechanisms of PFOA-induced neurobehavioral effects. In liver, profiles of lipids revealed involvement of β-oxidation and biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, while alterations in metabolism of arachidonic acid suggesting potential of PFOA to cause inflammation response in liver. These results provide insight into the mechanism and biomarkers for PFOA-induced effects.

  15. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Metabolic Profiles in Brain and Liver of Mouse Revealed by a High-throughput Targeted Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Li, Meiying; Yang, Jingping; Li, Kan; Jin, Ling; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl acid, can result in hepatotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects in animals. The metabolome, which serves as a connection among transcriptome, proteome and toxic effects, provides pathway-based insights into effects of PFOA. Since understanding of changes in the metabolic profile during hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were still incomplete, a high-throughput targeted metabolomics approach (278 metabolites) was used to investigate effects of exposure to PFOA for 28 d on brain and liver of male Balb/c mice. Results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that PFOA caused alterations in metabolic pathways in exposed individuals. Pathway analysis suggested that PFOA affected metabolism of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetics. Ten and 18 metabolites were identified as potential unique biomarkers of exposure to PFOA in brain and liver, respectively. In brain, PFOA affected concentrations of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate in brain, which provides novel insights into mechanisms of PFOA-induced neurobehavioral effects. In liver, profiles of lipids revealed involvement of β-oxidation and biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, while alterations in metabolism of arachidonic acid suggesting potential of PFOA to cause inflammation response in liver. These results provide insight into the mechanism and biomarkers for PFOA-induced effects. PMID:27032815

  16. Effect of flaxseed supplementation rate and processing on the production, fatty acid profile, and texture of milk, butter, and cheese.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, S P; Qu, Y; Just, J; Quezada, N; Ramsing, E; Keller, M; Cherian, G; Goddick, L; Bobe, G

    2013-02-01

    Health and nutrition professionals advise consumers to limit consumption of saturated fatty acids and increase the consumption of foods rich in n-3 fatty acids. Researchers have previously reported that feeding extruded flaxseed, which is high in C18:3n-3, improves the fatty acid profile of milk and dairy products to less saturated fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3. Fat concentrations in milk and butter decreased when cows were fed higher concentrations of extruded flaxseed. The objective of this study was to determine the optimal rate of flaxseed supplementation for improving the fatty acid profile without decreasing production characteristics of milk and dairy products. By using a double 5 × 5 Latin square design, 10 mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows were fed extruded (0, 0.91, 1.81, and 2.72 kg/d) and ground (1.81 kg/d) flaxseed as a top dressing for 2-wk periods each. At the end of each 2-wk treatment period, milk and serum samples were taken. Milk was subsequently manufactured into butter and fresh Mozzarella cheese. Increasing supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed improved the fatty acid profile of milk, butter, and cheese gradually to less saturated and atherogenic fatty acids and to more C18:3n-3 by increasing concentrations of C18:3n-3 in serum. The less saturated fatty acid profile was associated with decreased hardness and adhesiveness of refrigerated butter, which likely cause improved spreadability. Supplementation rates of extruded flaxseed did not affect dry matter intake of the total mixed ration, milk composition, and production of milk, butter, or cheese. Flaxseed processing did not affect production, fatty acid profile of milk, or texture of butter and cheese. Feeding up to 2.72 kg/d of extruded flaxseed to mid- to late-lactation Holstein cows may improve nutritional and functional properties of milk fat without compromising production parameters.

  17. Profiling serum bile acid glucuronides in humans: gender divergences, genetic determinants and response to fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Jocelyn; Perreault, Martin; Rudkowska, Iwona; Levy, Cynthia; Dallaire-Theroux, Amélie; Verreault, Mélanie; Caron, Patrick; Staels, Bart; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Straka, Robert J.; Barbier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Glucuronidation, catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes detoxifies cholestatic bile acids (BAs). We aimed at i) characterizing the circulating BA-glucuronide (-G) pool composition in humans, ii) evaluating how sex and UGT polymorphisms influence this composition, and iii) analyzing the effects of lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate on the circulating BA-G profile in 300 volunteers and 5 cholestatic patients. Eleven BA-Gs were determined in pre- and post-fenofibrate samples. Men exhibited higher BA-G concentrations, and various genotype/BA-G associations were discovered in relevant UGT genes. The chenodeoxycholic acid-3G concentration was associated with the UGT2B7 802C>T polymorphism. Glucuronidation assays confirmed the predominant role of UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 in CDCA-3G formation. Fenofibrate exposure increased the serum levels of 5 BA-G species, including CDCA-3G, and up-regulated expression of UGT1A4, but not UGT2B7, in hepatic cells. This study demonstrates that fenofibrate stimulates BA glucuronidation in humans, and thus reduces bile acid toxicity in the liver. PMID:23756370

  18. Transcriptome profile analysis of floral sex determination in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiuyan; Feng, Zhuo; Du, Yalin

    2010-07-15

    Cucumber has been widely studied as a model for floral sex determination. In this investigation, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of apical tissue of a gynoecious mutant (Csg-G) and the monoecious wild-type (Csg-M) of cucumber in an attempt to isolate genes involved in sex determination, using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the mutation, which resulted in the down-regulation of 600 genes and the up-regulation of 143 genes. The Solexa data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biogenesis, transport and organization of cellular component, macromolecular and cellular biosynthesis, localization, establishment of localization, translation and other processes. Furthermore, the expression of some of these genes depended upon the tissue and the developmental stage of the flowers of gynoecious mutant. The results of this study suggest two important concepts, which govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as ACS, Asr1, CsIAA2, CS-AUX1 and TLP, indicate that phytohormones and their crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be involved in this developmental process.

  19. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    PubMed

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  20. Development and validation of an LCMS method to determine the pharmacokinetic profiles of caffeic acid phenethyl amide and caffeic acid phenethyl ester in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, John; Bowman, Phillip D; Kerwin, Sean M; Stavchansky, Salomon

    2014-02-01

    A validated LCMS method was developed for the quantitative determination of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) from rat plasma. Separation was achieved using a reverse-phase C12 HPLC column (150 × 2.00 mm, 4 µm) with gradient elution running water (A) and acetonitrile (B). Mass spectrometry was performed with electrospray ionization in negative mode. This method was used to determine the pharmacokinetic profiles of CAPA and CAPE in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intravenous bolus administration of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of CAPA and 20 mg/kg of CAPE. The pharmacokinetic analysis suggests the lack of dose proportionality in the dose range of 5-20 mg/kg of CAPA. Total clearance values for CAPA ranged from 45 to 156 mL/min and decreased with increasing dose of CAPA. The volume of distribution for CAPA ranged from 17,750 to 52,420 mL, decreasing with increasing dose. The elimination half-life for CAPA ranged from 243.1 to 295.8 min and no statistically significant differences were observed between dose groups in the range of 5-20 mg/kg (p > 0.05). The elimination half-life for CAPE was found to be 92.26 min.

  1. Characterization of honey amino acid profiles using high-pressure liquid chromatography to control authenticity.

    PubMed

    Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Giroud, B; Albert, M; Lheritier, J; Grenier-Loustalot, M F

    2004-03-01

    Amino acid analysis of honey by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used first to discriminate different botanical origins and then to combat adulteration. Pure honeys of seven selected floral varieties were examined. A principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on the results after selection of the most discriminating parameters. Lavender honeys were thus perfectly characterized, but complete satisfaction was not obtained with the six other varieties. This method (analysis by HPLC and statistical processing by PCA) enabled us to detect the addition of sugar syrup to rape and fir honeys.

  2. You are what you eat: fatty acid profiles as a method to track the habitat movement of an insect.

    PubMed

    Bayes, Stephen K; Hellerstein, Marc K; Fitch, Mark; Mills, Nicholas J; Welter, Stephen C

    2014-08-01

    Tracking the movement of small organisms is of tremendous importance to understanding the ecology of populations, communities, and ecosystems. However, it remains one of the most difficult challenges facing the field of movement ecology. We developed an intrinsic marking technique for tracking small organisms using dietary fatty acid profiles as a biomarker as well as for clarifying source-sink dynamics between populations on a landscape level. Navel orangeworm moths (NOW), Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), raised on two different host plants with significantly different fatty acid profiles, were used to develop a model that distinguishes NOW based on their larval host plant. Wild NOW from both known and unknown host plants were used to validate the model. NOW fatty acid profiles showed striking similarities to the fatty acid profile of their host plant demonstrating that fatty acids can act as an intrinsic marking technique for quantifying the movement of small organisms. We anticipate that given sufficient spatial variation in dietary fatty acids, this technique will be useful in studying the movement of arthropods and other invertebrates particularly when addressing questions of source-sink dynamics.

  3. Liver transcriptome profile in pigs with extreme phenotypes of intramuscular fatty acid composition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background New advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed for the massive analysis of genomic data, providing new opportunities for the characterization of the transcriptome architectures. Recent studies in pigs have employed RNA-Seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a reduced number of animals. The main goal of this study was the identification of differentially-expressed genes in the liver of Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition using RNA-Seq. Results The liver transcriptomes of two female groups (H and L) with phenotypically extreme intramuscular fatty acid composition were sequenced using RNA-Seq. A total of 146 and 180 unannotated protein-coding genes were identified in intergenic regions for the L and H groups, respectively. In addition, a range of 5.8 to 7.3% of repetitive elements was found, with SINEs being the most abundant elements. The expression in liver of 186 (L) and 270 (H) lncRNAs was also detected. The higher reproducibility of the RNA-Seq data was validated by RT-qPCR and porcine expression microarrays, therefore showing a strong correlation between RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq data (ranking from 0.79 to 0.96), as well as between microarrays and RNA-Seq (r=0.72). A differential expression analysis between H and L animals identified 55 genes differentially-expressed between groups. Pathways analysis revealed that these genes belong to biological functions, canonical pathways and three gene networks related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism. In concordance with the phenotypic classification, the pathways analysis inferred that linolenic and arachidonic acids metabolism was altered between extreme individuals. In addition, a connection was observed among the top three networks, hence suggesting that these genes are interconnected and play an important role in lipid and fatty acid metabolism. Conclusions In the present study RNA-Seq was used as a tool to explore

  4. Seasonal variations in the fatty acid profile of milk from yaks grazing on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Ding, Luming; Wang, Yupeng; Kreuzer, Michael; Guo, Xusheng; Mi, Jiandui; Gou, Yujiao; Shang, Zhanhuan; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Jianwei; Wang, Hucheng; Long, Ruijun

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the seasonal changes in the fatty acid profile of milk from yaks (Bos grunniens) when kept at altitudes of 3000 m above sea level (a.s.l.) and higher. Data and samples were collected in summer (July), autumn (September), winter (November) and spring (March) from ten lactating yaks (four in spring). The yaks grazed pastures adjacent to the farm building throughout the year. In spring only they received 0·6 kg crop by-products per day (dry matter basis). Fresh alpine grasses, available in summer and autumn, showed high concentrations of α-linolenic acid (46-51 g/100 g lipids) compared with the dry, yellow vegetation of winter and spring (16 g/100 g lipids). In autumn and summer, the milk fat had higher concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids than in winter. These polyunsaturated fatty acids were comprised of vaccenic acid, rumenic acid and α-linolenic acid, which are all considered beneficial to human health. The rare fatty acid, γ-linolenic acid, was also detected in yak milk, especially in the milk obtained in spring. The results suggest that yak milk, which is the most important basic food of the Tibetan herders, has the most favourable fatty acid profile when yaks grazed green pasture, which also corresponds to the period of highest milk production.

  5. Transcriptional profiling of canola developing embryo and identification of the important roles of BnDof5.6 in embryo development and fatty acids synthesis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Yan, Fang; Zhang, Xiaolan; Tang, Yuwei; Yuan, Yujin

    2015-08-01

    Canola is an important vegetable oil crop globally, and the understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying fatty acids biosynthesis during seed embryo development is an important research goal. Here we report the transcriptional profiling analysis of developing canola embryos using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) method. RNA-Seq analysis generated 58,579,451 sequence reads aligned with 32,243 genes. It was found that a total of 55 differential expression genes (DEGs) encoding 28 enzymes function in carbon flow to fatty acids of storage TAG. Most of the DEGs encoding above enzymes showed similar expression pattern, indicating the DEGs are cooperatively involved in carbon flow into fatty acids. In addition, 41 DEGs associated with signal transductions, transport and metabolic processing of auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, cytokinin and salicylic acids were found in the RNA-Seq database, which indicates the important roles of the phytohormones in controlling embryo development and fatty acids synthesis. 122 DEGs encoding transcriptional factor family members were found in developing canola embryos. Furthermore, BnDOF5.6, a zinc finger transcriptional factor gene, found in RNA-Seq database was down-regulated in developing canola embryos. The transgenic plants displayed reduced embryo sizes, decreased fatty acids contents and altered seed fatty acids composition in canola. Down-regulated of BnDof5.6 also changed the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acids synthesis and desaturation. Our results indicate that BnDof5.6 is required for embryo development and fatty acids synthesis in canola. Overall this study presents new information on the global expression patterns of genes during embryo development and will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of carbon flow into fatty acids and embryo development in canola.

  6. Analysis of electrophoretic patterns of arbitrarily primed PCR profiling.

    PubMed

    Trifunović, Dragana; Radović, Milan; Ristić, Zoran; Guzvić, Miodrag; Dimitrijević, Bogomir

    2005-11-01

    We present a mathematical algorithm for the analysis of electrophoretic patterns resulting from arbitrarily primed PCR profiling. The algorithm is based on the established mathematical procedures applied to the analysis of digital images of gel patterns. The algorithm includes (a) transformation of the image into a matrix form, (b) identification of every electrophoretic lane as a set of matrix columns that are further mathematically processed, (c) averaging of matrix columns corresponding to electrophoretic lanes that define lane representatives, (d) elimination of "smiling" bands, (e) solving the problem of a lane offset, and (f) removal of the background. Representation of individual electrophoretic lanes in the form of functions allows interlane comparisons and further mathematical analysis. Direct comparison of selected lanes was obtained by employing correlation analysis. Gel images were those obtained after arbitrarily primed PCR analysis of DNA that underwent damage induced by gamma radiation from a (60)Co source. The applied method proved to be useful for elimination of subjectivity of visual inspection. It offers the possibility to avoid overlooking important differences in case of suboptimal electrophoretic resolution. In addition, higher precision is achieved in the assessment of quantitative differences due to better insight into experimental artifacts. These simple mathematical methods offer an open-type algorithm, i.e., this algorithm enables easy implementation of different parameters that may be useful for other analytical needs.

  7. Validation of acid washes as critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems.

    PubMed

    Dormedy, E S; Brashears, M M; Cutter, C N; Burson, D E

    2000-12-01

    A 2% lactic acid wash used in a large meat-processing facility was validated as an effective critical control point (CCP) in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan. We examined the microbial profiles of beef carcasses before the acid wash, beef carcasses immediately after the acid wash, beef carcasses 24 h after the acid wash, beef subprimal cuts from the acid-washed carcasses, and on ground beef made from acid-washed carcasses. Total mesophilic, psychrotrophic, coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and acid-tolerant microorganisms were enumerated on all samples. The presence of Salmonella spp. was also determined. Acid washing significantly reduced all counts except for pseudomonads that were present at very low numbers before acid washing. All other counts continued to stay significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those on pre-acid-washed carcasses throughout all processing steps. Total bacteria, coliforms, and generic E. coli enumerated on ground beef samples were more than 1 log cycle lower than those reported in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Baseline data. This study suggests that acid washes may be effective CCPs in HACCP plans and can significantly reduce the total number of microorganisms present on the carcass and during further processing.

  8. Lipids of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 with biodiesel potential: Oil yield, fatty acid profile, fuel properties.

    PubMed

    Khot, Mahesh; Ghosh, Debashish

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the single cell oil (SCO), fatty acid profile, and biodiesel fuel properties of the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa IIPL32 grown on the pentose fraction of acid pre-treated sugarcane bagasse as a carbon source. The yeast biomass from nitrogen limiting culture conditions (15.3 g L(-1) ) was able to give the SCO yield of 0.17 g g(-1) of xylose consumed. Acid digestion, cryo-pulverization, direct in situ transesterification, and microwave assisted techniques were evaluated in comparison to the Soxhlet extraction for the total intracellular yeast lipid recovery. The significant differences were observed among the SCO yield of different methods and the in situ transesterification stood out most for effective yeast lipid recovery generating 97.23 mg lipid as FAME per gram dry biomass. The method was fast and consumed lesser solvent with greater FAME yield while accessing most cellular fatty acids present. The yeast lipids showed the major presence of monounsaturated fatty esters (35-55%; 18:1, 16:1) suitable for better ignition quality, oxidative stability, and cold-flow properties of the biodiesel. Analyzed fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number) of the yeast oil were in good agreement with international biodiesel standards. The sugarcane bagasse-derived xylose and the consolidated comparative assessment of lab scale SCO recovery methods highlight the necessity for careful substrate choice and validation of analytical method in yeast oil research. The use of less toxic co-solvents together with solvent recovery and recycling would help improve process economics for sustainable production of biodiesel from the hemicellulosic fraction of cheap renewable sources.

  9. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  10. Dynamics of the separation of amino acid and mineral salt in the stationary dialysis of solutions with an MK-40 profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Vorob'eva, E. A.

    2012-11-01

    The conjugated diffusion transport of amino acid and mineral salt through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane that simulates the extraction of amino acid from wash waters of microbiological production containing mineral components not used in synthesis is studied. The competitive nature of the conjugation of flows resulting in a decrease in the rate of the mass transfer of components and their separation factor is established from a comparative analysis of experimental data on the diffusion transfer of phenylalanine and sodium chloride in the form of hydrogen from individual and mixed solutions through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane. The range of concentrations and the ratio of components in solution corresponding to the effective separation of phenylalanine and sodium chloride are determined.

  11. Impact of salt reduction on biogenic amines, fatty acids, microbiota, texture and sensory profile in traditional blood dry-cured sausages.

    PubMed

    Laranjo, Marta; Gomes, Ana; Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina; Potes, Maria Eduarda; Cabrita, Maria João; Garcia, Raquel; Rocha, João Miguel; Roseiro, Luísa Cristina; Fernandes, Maria José; Fraqueza, Maria João; Elias, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Meat industry needs to reduce salt in their products due to health issues. The present study evaluated the effect of salt reduction from 6% to 3% in two Portuguese traditional blood dry-cured sausages. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters, biogenic amines, fatty acids and texture profiles and sensory panel evaluations were considered. Differences due to salt reduction were perceptible in a faint decline of water activity, which slightly favoured microbial growth. Total biogenic amines content ranged from 88.86 to 796.68mgkg(-1) fresh matter, with higher amounts, particularly of cadaverine, histamine and tyramine, in low-salt products. Still, histamine and other vasoactive amines remained at low levels, thus not affecting consumers' health. Regarding fatty acids, no significant differences were observed due to salt. However, texture profile analysis revealed lower resilience and cohesiveness in low-salt products, although no textural changes were observed by the sensory panel. Nevertheless, low-salt sausages were clearly preferred by panellists.

  12. Analysis and characterization of the vertical wind profile in UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Ghedira, H.; Ouarda, T.; Gherboudj, I.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, temporal and spatial analysis of the vertical wind profiles in the UAE has been performed to estimate wind resource potential. Due to the very limited number of wind masts (only two wind masts in the UAE, operational for less than three years), the wind potential analysis will be mainly derived from numerical-based models. Additional wind data will be derived from the UAE met stations network (at 10 m elevation) managed by the UAE National Center of Meteorology and Seismology. However, since wind turbines are generally installed at elevations higher than 80 m, it is vital to extrapolate wind speed correctly from low heights to wind turbine hub heights to predict potential wind energy properly. To do so, firstly two boundary layer based models, power law and logarithmic law, were tested to find the best fitting model. Power law is expressed as v/v0 =(H/H0)^α and logarithmic law is represented as v/v0 =[ln(H/Z0))/(ln(H0/Z0)], where V is the wind speed [m/s] at height H [m] and V0 is the known wind speed at a reference height H0. The exponent (α) coefficient is an empirically derived value depending on the atmospheric stability and z0 is the roughness coefficient length [m] that depends on topography, land roughness and spacing. After testing the two models, spatial and temporal analysis for wind profile was performed. Many studies about wind in different regions have shown that wind profile parameters have hourly, monthly and seasonal variations. Therefore, it can be examined whether UAE wind characteristics follow general wind characteristics observed in other regions or have specific wind features due to its regional condition. About 3 years data from August 2008 to February 2011 with 10-minutes resolution were used to derive monthly variation. The preliminary results(Fig.1) show that during that period, wind profile parameters like alpha from power law and roughness length from logarithmic law have monthly variation. Both alpha and roughness have

  13. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  14. Mutational Profile of Metastatic Breast Cancers: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pedrero, Marion; Campone, Mario; Soria, Jean-Charles; Massard, Christophe; Lévy, Christelle; Arnedos, Monica; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; Garrabey, Julie; Boursin, Yannick; Deloger, Marc; Commo, Frédéric; Scott, Véronique; Kamal, Maud; Diéras, Véronique; Gonçalves, Anthony; Romieu, Gilles; Vanlemmens, Laurence; Mouret Reynier, Marie-Ange; Théry, Jean-Christophe; Le Du, Fanny; Guiu, Séverine; Dalenc, Florence; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Jimenez, Marta; Le Tourneau, Christophe; André, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Background Major advances have been achieved in the characterization of early breast cancer (eBC) genomic profiles. Metastatic breast cancer (mBC) is associated with poor outcomes, yet limited information is available on the genomic profile of this disease. This study aims to decipher mutational profiles of mBC using next-generation sequencing. Methods and Findings Whole-exome sequencing was performed on 216 tumor–blood pairs from mBC patients who underwent a biopsy in the context of the SAFIR01, SAFIR02, SHIVA, or Molecular Screening for Cancer Treatment Optimization (MOSCATO) prospective trials. Mutational profiles from 772 primary breast tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used as a reference for comparing primary and mBC mutational profiles. Twelve genes (TP53, PIK3CA, GATA3, ESR1, MAP3K1, CDH1, AKT1, MAP2K4, RB1, PTEN, CBFB, and CDKN2A) were identified as significantly mutated in mBC (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.1). Eight genes (ESR1, FSIP2, FRAS1, OSBPL3, EDC4, PALB2, IGFN1, and AGRN) were more frequently mutated in mBC as compared to eBC (FDR < 0.01). ESR1 was identified both as a driver and as a metastatic gene (n = 22, odds ratio = 29, 95% CI [9–155], p = 1.2e-12) and also presented with focal amplification (n = 9) for a total of 31 mBCs with either ESR1 mutation or amplification, including 27 hormone receptor positive (HR+) and HER2 negative (HER2−) mBCs (19%). HR+/HER2− mBC presented a high prevalence of mutations on genes located on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway (TSC1 and TSC2) as compared to HR+/HER2− eBC (respectively 6% and 0.7%, p = 0.0004). Other actionable genes were more frequently mutated in HR+ mBC, including ERBB4 (n = 8), NOTCH3 (n = 7), and ALK (n = 7). Analysis of mutational signatures revealed a significant increase in APOBEC-mediated mutagenesis in HR+/HER2− metastatic tumors as compared to primary TCGA samples (p < 2e-16). The main limitations of this study include the absence of bone

  15. Clearance of Hepatic Sphingomyelin by Olipudase Alfa Is Associated With Improvement in Lipid Profiles in Acid Sphingomyelinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Jones, Simon A.; Schiano, Thomas D.; Cox, Gerald F.; Puga, Ana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD; Niemann-Pick disease type A and B) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by abnormal intracellular sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation. Prominent liver involvement results in hepatomegaly, fibrosis/cirrhosis, abnormal liver chemistries, and a proatherogenic lipid profile. Olipudase alfa (recombinant human ASM) is in clinical development as an investigational enzyme replacement therapy for the non-neurological manifestations of ASMD. In a phase 1b study conducted to evaluate the safety and tolerability of within-patient dose escalation with olipudase alfa, measurement of SM levels in liver biopsies was used as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of substrate burden. Five adult patients with non neuronopathic ASMD received escalating doses of olipudase alfa every 2 weeks for 26 weeks. Liver biopsies obtained at baseline and 26 weeks after treatment were evaluated for SM storage by histomorphometric analysis, biochemistry, and electron microscopy. Biopsies were also assessed for inflammation and fibrosis, and for the association of SM levels with liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles. At baseline, SM storage present in Kupffer cells and hepatocytes ranged from 9.8% to 53.8% of the microscopic field. After 26 weeks of treatment, statistically significant reductions in SM (P<0.0001) measured by morphometry were seen in 4 patients with evaluable liver biopsies. The 26-week biopsy of the fifth patient was insufficient for morphometric quantitation. Posttreatment SM levels ranged from 1.2% to 9.5% of the microscopic field, corresponding to an 84% to 92% relative reduction from baseline. Improvements in liver volume, liver function tests, and lipid profiles were also observed. This study illustrates the utility of SM assessment by liver biopsy as a pharmacodynamic biomarker of disease burden in these patients. PMID:27340749

  16. Comparison of fullerene and large argon clusters for the molecular depth profiling of amino acid multilayers.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, N; Mouhib, T; Delcorte, A; Bertrand, P; Moellers, R; Niehuis, E; Houssiau, L

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge regarding the characterization of multilayer films is to perform high-resolution molecular depth profiling of, in particular, organic materials. This experimental work compares the performance of C60(+) and Ar1700(+) for the depth profiling of model multilayer organic films. In particular, the conditions under which the original interface widths (depth resolution) were preserved were investigated as a function of the sputtering energy. The multilayer samples consisted of three thin δ-layers (~8 nm) of the amino acid tyrosine embedded between four thicker layers (~93 nm) of the amino acid phenylalanine, all evaporated on to a silicon substrate under high vacuum. When C60(+) was used for sputtering, the interface quality degraded with depth through an increase of the apparent width and a decay of the signal intensity. Due to the continuous sputtering yield decline with increasing the C60(+) dose, the second and third δ-layers were shifted with respect to the first one; this deterioration was more pronounced at 10 keV, when the third δ-layer, and a fortiori the silicon substrate, could not be reached even after prolonged sputtering. When large argon clusters, Ar1700(+), were used for sputtering, a stable molecular signal and constant sputtering yield were achieved throughout the erosion process. The depth resolution parameters calculated for all δ-layers were very similar irrespective of the impact energy. The experimental interface widths of approximately 10 nm were barely larger than the theoretical thickness of 8 nm for the evaporated δ-layers.

  17. Fatty acid profiling reveals seasonal and spatial shifts in zooplankton diet in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Azeiteiro, U. M.; Pardal, M. A.; De Troch, M.

    2012-08-01

    Fatty acids composition of copepod and cladoceran species and their possible food sources was investigated in the Mondego estuary (southern Europe) in order to explain the seasonal variation of the small copepods Acartia clausi, Acartia tonsa, Copidodiaptomus numidicus, Temora longicornis and the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina. A total of 12 zooplankton species (7 marine, 2 estuarine and 3 freshwater species) were studied. A multivariate analysis revealed a clear seasonal distribution of zooplankton species in terms of fatty acids composition and abundance, with winter and spring zooplankton species showing maximal concentrations and diversity of total fatty acids. These findings underline the role of lipids as storage during the colder seasons in a highly variable environment like an estuary. Estuarine and freshwater species showed a more diverse array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids rather than marine species, except for Centropages typicus. Fatty acids markers of trophic position indicated the presence of two trophic levels: copepod species were primarily omnivorous, whereas cladocerans showed to be herbivorous. Our results suggest that feeding patterns of plankton change spatially and temporally, reflecting the shifts in dominance between diatoms and flagellates as well as between dinoflagellates/diatoms and small animals.

  18. Effect of chronic valproic Acid treatment on hepatic gene expression profile in wfs1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Punapart, Marite; Eltermaa, Mall; Oflijan, Julia; Sütt, Silva; Must, Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Catherine; Vasar, Eero; Soomets, Ursel; Terasmaa, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug whose use is often associated with drug-induced weight gain. Treatment with VPA has been shown to upregulate Wfs1 expression in vitro. Aim of the present study was to compare the effect of chronic VPA treatment in wild type (WT) and Wfs1 knockout (KO) mice on hepatic gene expression profile. Wild type, Wfs1 heterozygous, and homozygous mice were treated with VPA for three months (300 mg/kg i.p. daily) and gene expression profiles in liver were evaluated using Affymetrix Mouse GeneChip 1.0 ST array. We identified 42 genes affected by Wfs1 genotype, 10 genes regulated by VPA treatment, and 9 genes whose regulation by VPA was dependent on genotype. Among the genes that were regulated differentially by VPA depending on genotype was peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (Ppard), whose expression was upregulated in response to VPA treatment in WT, but not in Wfs1 KO mice. Thus, regulation of Ppard by VPA is dependent on Wfs1 genotype.

  19. Fatty acid profile of the initial oral biofilm (pellicle): an in-situ study.

    PubMed

    Reich, Marco; Kümmerer, Klaus; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Hannig, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The first step of bioadhesion on dental surfaces is the formation of the acquired pellicle. This mainly acellular layer is formed instantaneously on all solid surfaces exposed to oral fluids. It is composed of proteins, glycoproteins and lipids. However, information on the lipid composition is sparse. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA) profile of the in-situ pellicle for the first time. Furthermore, the impact of rinses with safflower oil on the pellicle's FA composition was investigated. Pellicles were formed in situ on bovine enamel slabs mounted on individual upper jaw splints. The splints were carried by ten subjects over durations of 3-240 min. After comprehensive sample preparation, gas chromatography coupled with electron impact ionization mass spectrometry (GC-EI/MS) was used in order to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively a wide range of FA (C12-C24). The relative FA profiles of the pellicle samples gained from different subjects were remarkably similar, whereas the amount of FA showed significant interindividual variability. An increase in FA in the pellicle was observed over time. The application of rinses with safflower oil resulted in an accumulation of its specific FA in the pellicle. Pellicle formation is a highly selective process that does not correlate directly with salivary composition, as shown for FA.

  20. AFAL: a web service for profiling amino acids surrounding ligands in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio; Ortega-Salazar, Samuel; Gonzales-Nilo, Fernando; Pohl, Ehmke; Holmes, David S.; Quatrini, Raquel

    2014-11-01

    With advancements in crystallographic technology and the increasing wealth of information populating structural databases, there is an increasing need for prediction tools based on spatial information that will support the characterization of proteins and protein-ligand interactions. Herein, a new web service is presented termed amino acid frequency around ligand (AFAL) for determining amino acids type and frequencies surrounding ligands within proteins deposited in the Protein Data Bank and for assessing the atoms and atom-ligand distances involved in each interaction (availability: http://structuralbio.utalca.cl/AFAL/index.html). AFAL allows the user to define a wide variety of filtering criteria (protein family, source organism, resolution, sequence redundancy and distance) in order to uncover trends and evolutionary differences in amino acid preferences that define interactions with particular ligands. Results obtained from AFAL provide valuable statistical information about amino acids that may be responsible for establishing particular ligand-protein interactions. The analysis will enable investigators to compare ligand-binding sites of different proteins and to uncover general as well as specific interaction patterns from existing data. Such patterns can be used subsequently to predict ligand binding in proteins that currently have no structural information and to refine the interpretation of existing protein models. The application of AFAL is illustrated by the analysis of proteins interacting with adenosine-5'-triphosphate.

  1. AFAL: a web service for profiling amino acids surrounding ligands in proteins.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio; Ortega-Salazar, Samuel; Gonzales-Nilo, Fernando; Pohl, Ehmke; Holmes, David S; Quatrini, Raquel

    2014-11-01

    With advancements in crystallographic technology and the increasing wealth of information populating structural databases, there is an increasing need for prediction tools based on spatial information that will support the characterization of proteins and protein-ligand interactions. Herein, a new web service is presented termed amino acid frequency around ligand (AFAL) for determining amino acids type and frequencies surrounding ligands within proteins deposited in the Protein Data Bank and for assessing the atoms and atom-ligand distances involved in each interaction (availability: http://structuralbio.utalca.cl/AFAL/index.html ). AFAL allows the user to define a wide variety of filtering criteria (protein family, source organism, resolution, sequence redundancy and distance) in order to uncover trends and evolutionary differences in amino acid preferences that define interactions with particular ligands. Results obtained from AFAL provide valuable statistical information about amino acids that may be responsible for establishing particular ligand-protein interactions. The analysis will enable investigators to compare ligand-binding sites of different proteins and to uncover general as well as specific interaction patterns from existing data. Such patterns can be used subsequently to predict ligand binding in proteins that currently have no structural information and to refine the interpretation of existing protein models. The application of AFAL is illustrated by the analysis of proteins interacting with adenosine-5'-triphosphate.

  2. Analysis of microflora profile in Korean traditional nuruk.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Chunghee; Lee, Sulhee; Park, Jung Min; Lee, Hyong-Joo; Bai, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Sung-Sik; Choi, Jun Bong; Park, Young Seo

    2013-01-01

    A variety of nuruk were collected from various provinces in Korea, and their microflora profiles were analyzed at the species level. A total of 42 nuruk samples were collected and when the viable cell numbers in these nuruk were enumerated, the average cell numbers of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria from all nuruk were 7.21, 7.91, 3.49, and 4.88 log CFU/10 g, respectively. There were no significant differences in viable cell numbers of bacteria or fungi according to regions collected. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis were the predominant bacterial strains in most samples. A significant portion, 13 out of 42 nuruk, contained foodborne pathogens such as B. cereus or Cronobacter sakazakii. There were various species of lactic acid bacteria such as Enterococcus faecium and Pediococcus pentosaceus in nuruk. It was unexpectedly found that only 13 among the 42 nuruk samples contained Aspergillus oryzae, the representative saccharifying fungi in makgeolli, whereas a fungi Lichtheimia corymbifera was widely distributed in nuruk. It was also found that Pichia jadinii was the predominant yeast strain in most nuruk, but the representative alcohol fermentation strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was isolated from only 18 out of the 42 nuruk. These results suggested that a variety of species of fungi and yeast were distributed in nuruk and involved in the fermentation of makgeolli. In this study, a total of 64 bacterial species, 39 fugal species, and 15 yeast species were identified from nuruk. Among these strains, 37 bacterial species, 20 fungal species, and 8 yeast species were distributed less than 0.1%.

  3. Impact of season on the fatty acid profiles of male and female blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) muscles.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J; Britz, T J; Hoffman, L C

    2014-12-01

    This study quantified the impact of season on fatty acid profiles of male and female blesbok muscles (longissimus thoracis et lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus). Eight mature blesbok were harvested per season (winter and spring). Gender and muscle type influenced (p<0.05) the fatty acid profiles of blesbok muscles, while season only influenced the C18:3ω3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) percentages and therefore the total omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (total ω3 PUFA). Female muscles had higher C16:0 (palmitic acid) (21.01%±0.256 vs. 19.05%±0.296) and total MUFA percentages, while male muscles had higher (p<0.05) C18:2ω6c, C20:5ω3, total ω3 PUFA (11.08%±0.382 vs. 8.50%±0.367), and total PUFA (43.03%±0.904 vs. 29.59%±1.164) percentages, contributing to higher poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (PUFA:SFA ratios). Differences in fatty acid profiles were attributed more to gender and anatomical location of muscles, than seasonal differences in diets.

  4. Lipidomic Profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii Reveals Critical Changes in Lipid Composition in Response to Acetic Acid Stress

    PubMed Central

    Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L−1, while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L−1 acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  5. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  6. Analysis of communicative behaviour: profiling roles and activities.

    PubMed

    Sørby, Inger Dybdahl; Nytrø, Oystein

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how profiles of communicative behaviour can be used to present and analyse information about role activity recorded through structured observation of specific situations. The role activities are encoded as distinctive speech acts. Example profiles resulting from the analysis of three clinicians' communicative behaviour during pre-rounds meetings and ward rounds are given. The examples are based on an observational study performed at a Norwegian university hospital. One fifth-year medical student spent 20 days in two different hospital wards, following 7 physicians from one to seven days each. The observer recorded data from several ward situations such as pre-rounds meetings, ward rounds, and discharge situations. The data was recorded by means of an observation form consisting of a mixture of codes and free-text fields. The data has been post-processed by associating each event with one communicative act. The approach is an efficient and useful means for studying clinicians' information and communication patterns in hospital wards, which can serve as an important tool in the design of new clinical information systems.

  7. Statistical analysis of mission profile parameters of civil transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxbaum, O.

    1972-01-01

    The statistical analysis of flight times as well as airplane gross weights and fuel weights of jet-powered civil transport airplanes has shown that the distributions of their frequency of occurrence per flight can be presented approximately in general form. Before, however, these results may be used during the project stage of an airplane for defining a typical mission profile (the parameters of which are assumed to occur, for example, with a probability of 50 percent), the following points have to be taken into account. Because the individual airplanes were rotated during service, the scatter between the distributions of mission profile parameters for airplanes of the same type, which were flown with similar payload, has proven to be very small. Significant deviations from the generalized distributions may occur if an operator uses one airplane preferably on one or two specific routes. Another reason for larger deviations could be that the maintenance services of the operators of the observed airplanes are not representative of other airlines. Although there are indications that this is unlikely, similar information should be obtained from other operators. Such information would improve the reliability of the data.

  8. Gene expression profile analysis of ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    XU, XIAOLI; YUAN, BO; LIANG, QUAN; HUANG, HUIMIN; YIN, XIANGYI; SHENG, XIAOYUE; NIE, NIUYAN; FANG, HONGMEI

    2015-01-01

    Based on the gene expression profile of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and patients not affected by the disease, the present study aimed to enhance the current understanding of VAP development using bioinformatics methods. The expression profile GSE30385 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The Linear Models for Microarray Data package in R language was used to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which were grouped as up- and down-regulated genes. The up- and downregulated genes were functionally enriched using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery system and then annotated according to TRANSFAC, Tumor Suppressor Gene and Tumor Associated Gene databases. Subsequently, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed, followed by module analysis using CFinder software. A total of 69 DEGs, including 33 up- and 36 downregulated genes were screened out in patients with VAP. Upregulated genes were mainly enriched in functions and pathways associated with the immune response (including the genes ELANE and LTF) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway (including MAPK14). The PPI network comprised 64 PPI pairs and 44 nodes. The top two modules were enriched in different pathways, including the MAPK signaling pathway. Genes including ELANE, LTF and MAPK14 may have important roles in the development of VAP via altering the immune response and the MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:26459786

  9. Alteration of fatty acid profile and nucleotide-related substances in post-mortem breast meat of α-lipoic acid-fed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Y

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of α-lipoic acid supplementation on post-mortem changes in the fatty acid profile and concentrations of nucleotide-related substances, especially those of a taste-active compound, inosine 5'-monophosphate, in chicken meat. Mixed-sex broiler chicks aged 14 d were divided into three groups of 16 birds each and were fed on diets supplemented with α-lipoic acid at levels of 0, 100 or 200 mg/kg for 4 weeks. Blood and breast muscle samples were taken at 42 d of age under the fed condition and then after fasting for 18 h. The breast muscle obtained from fasted chickens was subsequently refrigerated at 2°C for one and 3 d. α-Lipoic acid supplementation did not affect any plasma metabolite concentration independently of feeding condition, while a slight increase in plasma glucose concentration was shown with both administration levels of α-lipoic acid. In early post-mortem breast muscle under the fed condition, α-lipoic acid had no effect on concentrations of fatty acids or nucleotides of ATP, ADP, and AMP. In post-mortem breast tissues obtained from fasted chickens, total fatty acid concentrations were markedly increased by α-lipoic acid feeding at 200 mg/kg irrespective of length of refrigeration. This effect was dependent on stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. However, among fatty acids, the only predominantly increased unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid. Dietary supplementation with α-lipoic acid at 200 mg/kg increased the inosine 5'-monophosphate concentration in breast meat and, in contrast, reduced the subsequent catabolites, inosine and xanthine, regardless of the length of refrigeration. Therefore, the present study suggests that α-lipoic acid administration altered the fatty acid profile and improved meat quality by increasing taste-active substances in the post-mortem meat obtained from fasted chickens.

  10. Estimation and Psychometric Analysis of Component Profile Scores via Multivariate Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grochowalski, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Component Universe Score Profile analysis (CUSP) is introduced in this paper as a psychometric alternative to multivariate profile analysis. The theoretical foundations of CUSP analysis are reviewed, which include multivariate generalizability theory and constrained principal components analysis. Because CUSP is a combination of generalizability…

  11. Influence of inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured ham from Celta pig breed.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez, Roberto; Franco, Inmaculada; Franco, Daniel; Carballo, Javier; Lorenzo, José M

    2012-12-01

    The effect of the inclusion of chestnut in the finishing diet on fatty acid profile of dry-cured Celta ham was studied. Twelve hams of each type (from three different diets: concentrate, mixed and chestnut) were used. Significant differences between treatments (P<0.001) were found regarding total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Ham samples from the mixed and chestnut groups had less SFA (35.57% and 35.63%, respectively) with respect to ham samples from the concentrate group (40.33%), while hams from the mixed and chestnut batches showed higher values of MUFA than hams from the concentrate group (50.70 vs. 49.79 vs. 43.85, P<0.001, respectively). From a nutritional point of view, Celta hams from chestnut diets could be considered as healthier regarding their fatty acid profiles (low n-6/n-3 ratio and high hypocholesterolemic/Hypercholesterolemic ratio). Discriminant analysis selected five variables (C(16:0), C(16:1cis-9), C(20:2), C(20:3n-6) and C(20:4n-6)) and calculated two discriminating functions which verifies the presence of chestnut in the finishing diet.

  12. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity, color, and free phenolic acid profile of malt.

    PubMed

    Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M

    2007-08-08

    Green malt was kilned at 95 degrees C following two regimens: a standard regimen (SKR) and a rapid regimen (RKR). Both resulting malts were treated further in a tray dryer heated to 120 degrees C, as was green malt previously dried to 65 degrees C (TDR). Each regimen was monitored by determining the color, antioxidant activity (by both ABTS(.+) and FRAP methods), and polyphenolic profile. SKR and RKR malts exhibited decreased L* and increased b* values above approximately 80 degrees C. TDR malts changed significantly less, and color did not develop until 110 degrees C, implying that different chemical reactions lead to color in those malts. Antioxidant activity increased progressively with each regimen, although with TDR malts this became significant only at 110-120 degrees C. The RKR malt ABTS(.+) values were higher than those of the SKR malt. The main phenolics, that is, ferulic, p-coumaric, and vanillic acids, were monitored throughout heating. Ferulic acid levels increased upon heating to 80 degrees C for SKR and to 70 degrees C for RKR, with subsequent decreases. However, the levels for TDR malts did not increase significantly. The increase in free phenolics early in kilning could be due to enzymatic release of bound phenolics and/or easier extractability due to changes in the matrix. The differences between the kilning regimens used suggest that further modification of the regimens could lead to greater release of bound phenolics with consequent beneficial effects on flavor stability in beer and, more generally, on human health.

  13. Zinc biofortification improves phytochemicals and amino-acidic profile in Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco.

    PubMed

    Barrameda-Medina, Yurena; Blasco, Begoña; Lentini, Marco; Esposito, Sergio; Baenas, Nieves; Moreno, Diego A; Ruiz, Juan M

    2017-05-01

    Zn deficiency is currently listed as a major risk factor for human health. Recently, a complimentary solution to mineral malnutrition termed 'biofortification' has been proposed. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of a Zn-biofortification program on Zn levels, amino acidic profile and the phytochemicals content in an edible leafy vegetable, such as Brassica oleracea cv. Bronco. Our results indicate that supplementation of 80-100μM Zn is optimal for maintaining the normal growth of plants and to promote the major Zn concentration in the edible part of B. oleracea. Any further increase of Zn supply induced an accumulation of total amino acids, and increased the enzymatic activities involved in sulfur assimilation and synthesis of phenols, finally resulting in a foliar accumulation of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds. Thus, it could be proposed that the growth of B. oleracea under 80-100μM Zn may increase the intake of this micronutrient and other beneficial compunds for the human health.

  14. Profiling serum bile acid glucuronides in humans: gender divergences, genetic determinants, and response to fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Trottier, J; Perreault, M; Rudkowska, I; Levy, C; Dallaire-Theroux, A; Verreault, M; Caron, P; Staels, B; Vohl, M-C; Straka, R J; Barbier, O

    2013-10-01

    Glucuronidation, catalyzed by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, detoxifies cholestatic bile acids (BAs). We aimed to (i) characterize the circulating BA-glucuronide (BA-G) pool composition in humans, (ii) determine how sex and UGT polymorphisms influence this composition, and (iii) analyze the effects of the lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate on the circulating BA-G profile in 300 volunteers and 5 cholestatic patients. Eleven BA-Gs were determined in pre- and postfenofibrate samples. Men exhibited higher BA-G concentrations, and various genotype/BA-G associations were discovered in relevant UGT genes. The chenodeoxycholic acid-3G (CDCA-3G) concentration was associated with the UGT2B7 802C>T polymorphism. Glucuronidation assays confirmed the predominant role of UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 in CDCA-3G formation. Fenofibrate exposure increased the serum levels of five BA-G species, including CDCA-3G, and upregulated expression of UGT1A4, but not UGT2B7, in hepatic cells. This study demonstrated that fenofibrate stimulates BA glucuronidation in humans and thus reduces BA toxicity in the liver.

  15. Archetypal TRMM Radar Profiles Identified Through Cluster Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    2003-01-01

    It is widely held that identifiable 'convective regimes' exist in nature, although precise definitions of these are elusive. Examples include land / Ocean distinctions, break / monsoon beahvior, seasonal differences in the Amazon (SON vs DJF), etc. These regimes are often described by differences in the realized local convective spectra, and measured by various metrics of convective intensity, depth, areal coverage and rainfall amount. Objective regime identification may be valuable in several ways: regimes may serve as natural 'branch points' in satellite retrieval algorithms or data assimilation efforts; one example might be objective identification of regions that 'should' share a similar 2-R relationship. Similarly, objectively defined regimes may provide guidance on optimal siting of ground validation efforts. Objectively defined regimes could also serve as natural (rather than arbitrary geographic) domain 'controls' in studies of convective response to environmental forcing. Quantification of convective vertical structure has traditionally involved parametric study of prescribed quantities thought to be important to convective dynamics: maximum radar reflectivity, cloud top height, 30-35 dBZ echo top height, rain rate, etc. Individually, these parameters are somewhat deficient as their interpretation is often nonunique (the same metric value may signify different physics in different storm realizations). Individual metrics also fail to capture the coherence and interrelationships between vertical levels available in full 3-D radar datasets. An alternative approach is discovery of natural partitions of vertical structure in a globally representative dataset, or 'archetypal' reflectivity profiles. In this study, this is accomplished through cluster analysis of a very large sample (0[107) of TRMM-PR reflectivity columns. Once achieved, the rainconditional and unconditional 'mix' of archetypal profile types in a given location and/or season provides a description

  16. Distinct Patterns in Human Milk Microbiota and Fatty Acid Profiles Across Specific Geographic Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Himanshu; du Toit, Elloise; Kulkarni, Amruta; Aakko, Juhani; Linderborg, Kaisa M.; Zhang, Yumei; Nicol, Mark P.; Isolauri, Erika; Yang, Baoru; Collado, Maria C.; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland), Africa (South Africa), and Asia (China), on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the 1 month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country) participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or cesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6%) observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries (p = 0.002). Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes (mean relative abundance of 3.75) whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 5.7). Women who had had a cesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism (p < 0.05). Association of the lipid profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were negatively associated with Proteobacteria (r = -0.43, p < 0.05), while Lactobacillus genus was associated with MUFA (r = -0.23, p = 0.04). These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery. PMID:27790209

  17. Quantification problems in depth profiling of pwr steels using Ar+ ion sputtering and XPS analysis.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Velislava A; Van Den Berghe, Sven; Van Dyck, Steven; Popok, Vladimir N

    2006-10-01

    The oxide scales of AISI 304 formed in boric acid solutions at 300 degrees C and pH = 4.5 have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling. The present focus is depth profile quantification both in depth and chemical composition on a molecular level. The roughness of the samples is studied by atomic force microscopy before and after sputtering, and the erosion rate is determined by measuring the crater depth with a surface profilometer and vertical scanning interferometry. The resulting roughness (20-30 nm), being an order of magnitude lower than the crater depth (0.2-0.5 microm), allows layer-by-layer profiling, although the ion-induced effects result in an uncertainty of the depth calibration of a factor of 2. The XPS spectrum deconvolution and data evaluation applying target factor analysis allows chemical speciation on a molecular level. The elemental distribution as a function of the sputtering time is obtained, and the formation of two layers is observed-one hydroxide (mainly iron-nickel based) on top and a second one deeper, mainly consisting of iron-chromium oxides.

  18. Profiling the chlorogenic acids of aster by HPLC-MS(n).

    PubMed

    Clifford, Michael N; Zheng, Wang; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2006-01-01

    Using HPLC-MS(n), 33 chlorogenic acids were identified in an aqueous-alcoholic extract of Aster ageratoides Turcz. flower buds. These were three isomers each of p-coumaroylquinic acid, caffeoylquinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, dicaffeoylquinic acid and diferuloylquinic acid, and six isomers each of p-coumaroyl-caffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl-feruloylquinic acid and caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acid. Only the caffeoylquinic acids and dicaffeoylquinic acids have been reported previously in Asteraceae. Three of the six p-coumaroyl-feruloylquinic acids (3-feruloyl-4-p-coumaroylquinic acid, '3-feruloyl-5-p-coumaroylquinic acid and 4-feruloyl-5-p-coumaroylquinic acid) have not been observed previously in nature. Cis-5-p-coumaroylquinic acid was identified at a concentration ca 25% that of the more common trans isomer. The feruloylquinic acids and diferuloylquinic acids dominated the mono- and di-acyl chlorogenic acid fractions, respectively, making this plant material a useful source of these commercially non-available substances. These 33 chlorogenic acids were not detected in the leaves or stem of A. ageratoides Turcz., or in the flower buds of A. ageratoides Turcz. var. Gerla or A. kalimeris indica (L) Sch. Bip. Only the feruloylquinic acids were detected in the root of A. ageratoides Turcz. It was not possible to detect any 1-acyl chlorogenic acids, any chlorogenic acids with a succinic acid substituent, or any chlorogenic acids based on muco-quinic acid.

  19. Total sialic acid profile in regressing and remodelling organs during the metamorphosis of marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas 1771).

    PubMed

    Kaptan, Engin; Bas, Serap Sancar; Inceli, Meliha Sengezer

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional relationship of sialic acid in regressing and remodelling organs such as the tail, small intestine and liver during the metamorphosis of Pelophylax ridibundus. For this purpose, four groups were composed according to developmental periods by considering Gosner's criteria (1964). Our findings showed that the sialic acid content of the larval tail has an opposite profile to cell death process. Although the sialic acid content of the small intestine and liver did not change evidently during metamorphosis, it increased after the completion of metamorphosis. Frog tail extensively exhibited cell death process and decreased proliferative activity and underwent complete degeneration during metamorphic climax. In spite of increased apoptotic index, a decreased sialic acid level in the tail tissues during climax can be the indication of a death cell removal process. However, the intestine and the liver included both cell death and proliferative process and remodelling in their adult forms. Thus, their sialic acid profiles during metamorphosis were different from the tail's profile. These data show that sialic acid may be an indicator of the presence of some cellular events during metamorphosis and that it can have different roles in the developmental process depending on the organ's fate throughout metamorphosis.

  20. Profile of organic acid concentrations in the digestive gland and hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata under estivation.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, J C; Kemper, A; Becker, W

    1999-01-01

    Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis it was possible to determine simultaneously the concentration of organic acids (pyruvate, lactate, succinate, fumarate, malate, acetate, propionate, acetoacetate, and ss-hydroxybutyrate) in the digestive gland and the extracellular concentration of these same acids in the hemolymph of estivating Biomphalaria glabrata, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. After a 7 day period of estivation, there was a significant increase in the tissue levels of lactate, succinate, malate and acetate compared to non-estivating snails. After 14 days of estivation, the levels of lactate and acetate were also significantly elevated. The hemolymph concentrations of pyruvate and acetate increased significantly after 7 days and acetate concentrations continued to be significantly increased up to 14 days of estivation. The other organic acids studied, such as ketone body acetoacetate and ss-hydroxybutyrate or the volatile acid propionate, did not accumulate. Their tissue concentrations, however, increased on the 7th day of estivation and reached normal levels within two weeks of estivation for some of them. One should take into consideration how the reduction in metabolism can be handled under aerobic conditions, and what role anaerobic pathways may play in both energy formation and redox balance processes.

  1. Cellular fatty acid profile and H(+)-ATPase activity to assess acid tolerance of Bacillus sp. for potential probiotic functional attributes.

    PubMed

    Shobharani, P; Halami, Prakash M

    2014-11-01

    The present study has been focused widely on comparative account of probiotic qualities of Bacillus spp. for safer usage. Initially, 170 heat resistant flora were isolated and selected for non-pathogenic cultures devoid of cytK, hblD, and nhe1 virulence genes. Subsequently, through biochemical tests along with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid profiling, the cultures were identified as Bacillus megaterium (AR-S4), Bacillus subtilis (HR-S1), Bacillus licheniformis (Csm1-1a and HN-S1), and Bacillus flexus (CDM4-3c and CDM3-1). The selected cultures showed 70-80 % survival under simulated gastrointestinal condition which was also confirmed through H(+)-ATPase production. The amount of H(+)-ATPase increased by more than 2-fold when grown at pH 2 which support for the acid tolerance ability of Bacillus isolates. The study also examined the influence of acidic pH on cellular fatty acid composition of Bacillus spp. A remarkable shift in the fatty acid profile was observed at acidic pH through an increased amount of even numbered fatty acid (C16 and C18) in comparison with odd numbered (C15 and C17). Additionally, the cultures exhibited various probiotic functional properties. Overall, the study increases our understanding of Bacillus spp. and will allow both industries and consumers to choose for well-defined probiotic with possible health benefits.

  2. Differentiation of geographical origin of cream products in Poland according to their fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Jaroslawa; Bialek, Malgorzata; Adamska, Agata; Zbikowska, Anna

    2015-07-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of bovine milk fat from cream samples, originating from three regions of Poland (one mountainous and two lowland ones) and collected within 2 years, was analysed aiming at identifying the region of production by applying principal component analysis (PCA). From the 44 FAs identified by gas chromatography, two groups were discerned: seasonally variable (n=17) and non-seasonal (n=7). The biplots showed that different FAs could serve as markers of geographical origin of cream samples. The CLA, vaccenic acid, C18:39c12c15c, total C18:1 trans and C18:39c12c15c n-6 (GLA) were found indicative of mountainous regions, and the short-chain saturated FAs (SCFA; C4:0-C11:0) - of the lowland ones. The Opole province was characterised by a high content of linoleic acid. It was concluded that the origin of a cream sample could be fairly well identified by gas chromatography combined with chemometric analysis of milk fat FAs.

  3. Altered fatty acid profile in the liver and serum of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats: reduced proportion of cis-vaccenic acid.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shizuyo; Kojiguchi, Chiho; Yamazaki, Tohru; Mitsumoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are utilized as models for study of the pathogenesis of not only stroke and cardiovascular disorders but also atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Basic information on the profiles of fatty acids and lipid classes in the liver is indispensable to use SHRSP as a model of disorder of lipid metabolism; nevertheless, detailed information on the metabolism of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and fatty acids in the liver of SHRSP is lacking. This study aimed to characterize profiles of lipid classes and fatty acids and to explore the mechanism underlying the characteristic alterations in metabolism of TAGs and fatty acids in the liver of SHRSP, in comparison with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The characteristic changes observed in SHRSP were (1) markedly lower hepatic TAG contents; (2) altered expressions of genes encoding three enzymes responsible for the control of TAG level, namely, adipose triglyceride lipase (for TAG degradation; up-regulated), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (for fatty acid β-oxidation; up-regulated) and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3 (for glycerolipid synthesis; down-regulated); (3) evidently lower contents and proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), in the liver and serum; and (4) down-regulation of palmitoleoyl-CoA chain elongase, which is necessary for the biosynthesis of 18:1n-7, in the liver. From the above observations, we concluded that there are significant differences in profiles of lipid classes and fatty acids between SHRSP and SHR, and that altered characteristics in SHRSP are likely responsible for increases in TAG hydrolysis and β-oxidation, and decreases in TAG synthesis and 18:1n-7 synthesis.

  4. The influence of thermal processing on the fatty acid profile of pork and lamb meat fed diet with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Janiszewski, Piotr; Grześkowiak, Eugenia; Lisiak, Dariusz; Borys, Bronisław; Borzuta, Karol; Pospiech, Edward; Poławska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The research was carried out on 32 crossbred pigs of Polish Large White × Danish Landrace with Duroc and 80 rams, crossbreds of the Prolific-Dairy Koludzka Sheep with the Ile de France, a meat sheep. The fodder for the animals was enriched with the unsaturated fatty acids originated mainly from linseed and rapeseed oils. The fatty acid profile was determined in cooked longissimus lumborum, roasted triceps brachii and raw ripened rump from pigs as well as in grilled lambs' legs and their corresponding raw materials. Roasting caused the most pronounced increase of the saturated fatty acids and decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acids of heated pork muscles. The smallest changes were observed in grilled lamb legs. The heating processes applied in this study, in most cases, did not cause essential changes in the indices of pro-health properties of fatty acid, therefore meat in the majority fulfil the latest recommendations of EFSA and FAO/WHO according to human health.

  5. Recent trends in the advanced analysis of bioactive fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibañez, Elena

    2010-01-20

    The consumption of dietary fats have been long associated to chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, asthma, and cardiovascular disease; although some controversy still exists in the role of dietary fats in human health, certain fats have demonstrated their positive effect in the modulation of abnormal fatty acid and eicosanoid metabolism, both of them associated to chronic diseases. Among the different fats, some fatty acids can be used as functional ingredients such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), stearidonic acid (STA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), among others. The present review is focused on recent developments in FAs analysis, covering sample preparation methods such as extraction, fractionation and derivatization as well as new advances in chromatographic methods such as GC and HPLC. Special attention is paid to trans fatty acids due its increasing interest for the food industry.

  6. Effect of starter cultures and packaging methods on amino acid profile and eating quality characteristics of pork ham.

    PubMed

    Gogoi, Protiva; Borpuzari, R N; Borpuzari, T; Hazarika, R A; Bora, J R

    2015-08-01

    Wet cured pork hams were inoculated with a mixed starter cultures comprising of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Micrococcus varians M483 at the dose level of 106 cfu/g and the un inoculated hams served as controls. The amino acid profile of hams of the treated and the control groups stored at 4oC under MAP and VP and evaluated on 60th day of storage revealed that treated hams liberated higher concentration of free amino acids except for proline and methionine which were found in higher concentration (P < 0.01) in the MAP control samples. The MAP control samples liberated glutamic acid (85.65 ± 1.40 ppm), cystine (21.56 ± 1.14 ppm) and tyrosine (16.63 ± 1.94 ppm) whereas, the treated samples did not release these amino acids. The VP control samples too liberated cystine (6.98 ± 1.36 ppm) and arginine (42.70 ± 2.78 ppm) but the treated ham of the VP did not liberate these amino acids. The VP hams had higher concentration (P < 0.01) of free proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine and histidine than the MAP samples. Colour analysis of ham using CIE Lab colour system revealed that the treated samples had significantly higher concentrations of L*, a* and b* components. The L* and a* values were higher in the MAP than under VP systems while the b* values were higher in the VP samples than the MAP samples. Neither the bacterial cultures nor the packaging system influenced the textural property of ham. Starter cultures inoculated hams were rated superior (P < 0.05) in terms of their sensory properties. Hams packaged under MAP were rated superior (P < 0.05) than those packaged under VP in terms of appearance, colour, taste, tenderness, flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability.

  7. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF ABSCISIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    MCCARTY D R

    2012-01-10

    The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) catalyze synthesis of a variety of apo-carotenoid secondary metabolites in plants, animals and bacteria. In plants, the reaction catalyzed by the 11, 12, 9-cis-epoxy carotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the first committed and key regulated step in synthesis of the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA). ABA is a key regulator of plant stress responses and has critical functions in normal root and seed development. The molecular mechanisms responsible for developmental control of ABA synthesis in plant tissues are poorly understood. Five of the nine CCD genes present in the Arabidopsis genome encode NCED's involved in control of ABA synthesis in the plant. This project is focused on functional analysis of these five AtNCED genes as a key to understanding developmental regulation of ABA synthesis and dissecting the role of ABA in plant development. For this purpose, the project developed a comprehensive set of gene knockouts in the AtNCED genes that facilitate genetic dissection of ABA synthesis. These mutants were used in combination with key molecular tools to address the following specific objectives: (1) the role of ABA synthesis in root development; (2) developmental control of ABA synthesis in seeds; (3) analysis of ATNCED over-expressers; (4) preliminary crystallography of the maize VP14 protein.

  8. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated.

  9. Dietary verbascoside supplementation in donkeys: effects on milk fatty acid profile during lactation, and serum biochemical parameters and oxidative markers.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Vizzarri, F; Palazzo, M; Martemucci, G

    2017-03-07

    Various uses of donkeys' milk have been recently proposed for human consumption on the basis of its nutritional characteristics. Improvements in milk fatty acid profile and animal oxidative status can be induced through dietary supplementation of phenolic compounds. The study aimed to evaluate in donkeys the effects of dietary supplementation with verbascoside (VB) on: (i) the fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents of milk during a whole lactation, and (ii) blood biochemical parameters and markers of oxidative status of the animals. At foaling, 12 lactating jennies were subdivided into two groups (n 6): control, without VB supplement; VB, receiving a lipid-encapsulated VB supplement. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and vitamins A and E contents in milk were assessed monthly over the 6 months of lactation. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol, tryglicerides, non-esterified fatty acid, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, reactive oxygen metabolites, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), vitamin A and vitamin E were evaluated at 8 days after foaling (D0) and then at D90, D105 and D120 of lactation. In milk, the VB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acids (P<0.05) and increased the monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05), and vitamins A and E (P<0.01) values. On the serum parameters, the VB supplementation decreased total cholesterol (P<0.01), tryglicerides, bilirubin, ALT and TBARs, and increased (P<0.01) vitamin E. In conclusion, the VB dietary supplementation affects the nutritional quality of donkey's milk with a benefit on the oxidative status and serum lipidic profile of the animals.

  10. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  11. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  12. Orchardgrass forage effects on bacterial communities and long-chain fatty acid profiles in the rumen of Holstein heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine if ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) and long-chain fatty acid (FA) profiles differed in heifers grazing in orchardgrass pasture (OP) versus those fed hay (OH) harvested from the same field at the same stage of maturity. Five ruminally cannulated Ho...

  13. Biological spectra analysis: Linking biological activity profiles to molecular structure

    PubMed Central

    Fliri, Anton F.; Loging, William T.; Thadeio, Peter F.; Volkmann, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Establishing quantitative relationships between molecular structure and broad biological effects has been a longstanding challenge in science. Currently, no method exists for forecasting broad biological activity profiles of medicinal agents even within narrow boundaries of structurally similar molecules. Starting from the premise that biological activity results from the capacity of small organic molecules to modulate the activity of the proteome, we set out to investigate whether descriptor sets could be developed for measuring and quantifying this molecular property. Using a 1,567-compound database, we show that percent inhibition values, determined at single high drug concentration in a battery of in vitro assays representing a cross section of the proteome, provide precise molecular property descriptors that identify the structure of molecules. When broad biological activity of molecules is represented in spectra form, organic molecules can be sorted by quantifying differences between biological spectra. Unlike traditional structure–activity relationship methods, sorting of molecules by using biospectra comparisons does not require knowledge of a molecule's putative drug targets. To illustrate this finding, we selected as starting point the biological activity spectra of clotrimazole and tioconazole because their putative target, lanosterol demethylase (CYP51), was not included in the bioassay array. Spectra similarity obtained through profile similarity measurements and hierarchical clustering provided an unbiased means for establishing quantitative relationships between chemical structures and biological activity spectra. This methodology, which we have termed biological spectra analysis, provides the capability not only of sorting molecules on the basis of biospectra similarity but also of predicting simultaneous interactions of new molecules with multiple proteins. PMID:15625110

  14. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

  15. [Profile of free fatty acids (FFA) in serum of young Colombians with obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bermudez, J A; Velásquez, C M

    2014-12-01

    Obesity produces greater circulation of free fatty acids (FFA). In adults, the FFA composition changes in states of obesity; in adolescents, the results are contradictory. This study compare the FFA profile of obese youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and explore the association between FFA and metabolic alterations of obesity and MetS. A cross-sectional study with 96 young people between 10 and 18 years old was divided into three groups: 1) obese youth with MetS, 2) obese youth without MetS; and 3) adequate weight (AW), matched according to age, gender, pubertal maturation and socioeconomic stratum. The nutritional status was classified according to the body-mass index (BMI), according to the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO, 2007); the waist circumference (WC), adiposity, lipid profile, highly-sensitive reactive C protein (hsRCP), glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (IR), according to the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA Calculator Version 2.2.2). The FFA serum concentration was determined by gas chromatography. Both obese groups had higher adiposity, inflamation (hsRCP), FFA totals and frequency palmitoleic-16:Jn7, compared to AW. The obese with MetS presented more metabolic alterations, a greater amount of dihomo-γ-linolenic (DHGL-20:3n6) and a 20:3n6/18:2n6 relation, indicative of increased activity of A6 desaturase (D6D). The FFA totals, palmitoleic-l6:1n7, DHGL-20:3n6, D6D activity and hsRCP significantly correlated with variables of adiposity, IR and triglicerides. The results in obese with MetS corroborate the association among central obesity, inflammation and increased lipolysis in visceral adipose tissue and metabolic alterations.

  16. Triglyceride accumulation and fatty acid profile changes in Chlorella (Chlorophyta) during high pH-induced cell cycle inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Guckert, J.B.; Cooksey, K.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Alkaline pH stress resulted in triglyceride (TG) accumulation in Chlorella CHLOR1 and was independent of medium nitrogen or carbon levels. Based on morphological observations, alkaline pH inhibited autospore release, thus increasing the time for cell cycle completion. Autospore release has been postulated to coincide with TG utilization within the microalgal cell division cycle. The alkaline pH stress affected lipid accumulation by inhibiting the cell division cycle prior to autospore release and, therefore, prior to TG utilization. Cells inhibited in this manner showed an increase in TG accumulation but a decrease in both membrane lipid classes (glycolipid and polar lipid). Unlike TG fatty acid profiles, membrane lipid fatty acid profiles were not stable during TG accumulation. The membrane profiles became similar to the TG, i.e. less unsaturated than in the membrane lipids of unstressed control cells.

  17. Fatty Acid Profiles of Ten Muscles from High and Low Marbled (Quality Grade 1++ and 2) Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Young-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate: 1) the fatty acid profile of ten muscles from high marbled (HM, quality grade 1++) and low marbled (LM, quality grade 2) Hanwoo carcass, 2) the relationship between the fatty acid profile and sensory traits. There were significant (p<0.001) differences in fat content and fatty acid composition among the 10 muscles obtained from HM and LM Hanwoo steers. The proportions of SFA (saturated fatty acid), MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acid) and PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid) were significantly (p<0.001) different among the 10 muscles due to differences in all fatty acids except eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3). The high-fat muscles had a lower n-6/n-3 ratio compared to the low-fat muscles (p<0.001). LM muscles had a significantly (p<0.05) higher proportion of SFA than HM muscles due to a higher proportion of stearic acid (C18:0). On the contrary, HM muscles had a significantly (p<0.01) higher proportion of MUFA than LM muscles due to higher oleic acid (C18:1n-9) proportion. SFA had a significant correlation with CIE a* (r=0.281; p<0.01) and drip loss (%) (r=−0.233; p<0.001). Cooking loss (%) had a significantly (p<0.05) negative correlation with PUFA (r=−0.233; p<0.05). Overall palatability was positively correlated with SFA (r=0.262; p<0.01), but negatively correlated with PUFA (r=−0.567; p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between oleic acid and any of the sensory traits (p>0.05). PMID:27857545

  18. Trophic spectra under the lens of amino acid isotopic analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advances in compound specific isotopic ratio analysis (CSIRA) have allowed researchers to measure trophic fractionation of 15N in specific amino acids, namely glutamic acid and phenylalanine. These amino acids have proven useful in food web studies because of the wide and consistent disparity...

  19. A Typology of Child School Behavior: Investigation Using Latent Profile Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindrila, Diana L.

    2016-01-01

    To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…

  20. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Anna; Tolika, Evanthia; Louka, Maria; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Melchiorre, Michele; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; Faraone Mennella, Maria Rosaria; Ferreri, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50) compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50); and ii) the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL) and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0) and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3) as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in the

  1. Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish.

  2. [Fatty acid profile of mero (Epinephelus morio) raw and processed oil captured in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Segura-Campos, Maira; González-Barrios, Gisela; Acereto-Escoffié, Pablo; Rosado-Rubio, Gabriel; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2014-11-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids are of current interest for their potential to reduce cardiovascular disease, the first cause of death worldwide. By its content of essential fatty acids, fish is one of the food products most in demand among the population. One of the most popular processes for fish consumption in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico is frying. However, studies show that frying food causes changes in the composition generating trans fatty acids. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile of Mero (Epinephelus morio) crude and processed with different types of commercial oil. The results showed a fat content in raw E. morio of 1.68%. The percentage of oil extracted and absorbed by the product to be fried with corn oil, sunflower/canola, soybean and safflower was found in a range of 2.3-3.93 and 26.95-57.25%, respectively. The lipid profile obtained by GC-MS suggested the formation of trans fatty acids by isomerization and effect of temperature frying. However essential fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids were absorbed by E. morio being fried in sunflower oil and safflower/ canola, respectively.

  3. Original Research: Effect of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile in duck liver: Efficient conversion of short-chain to long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Du, Xue; Shen, Jianliang; Lu, Lizhi; Wang, Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, have been associated with potential health benefits for chronic disease prevention. Our previous studies found that dietary omega-3 fatty acids could accumulate in the meat and eggs in a duck model. This study was to reveal the effects of various dietary fats on fatty acid profile and conversion of omega-3 fatty acids in duck liver. Female Shan Partridge Ducks were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments, each consisting of 6 replicates of 30 birds. The experimental diets substituted the basal diet by 2% of flaxseed oil, rapeseed oil, beef tallow, or fish oil, respectively. In addition, a dose response study was further conducted for flaxseed and fish oil diets at 0.5%, 1%, and 2%, respectively. At the end of the five-week treatment, fatty acids were extracted from the liver samples and analyzed by GC-FID. As expected, the total omega-3 fatty acids and the ratio of total omega-3/omega-6 significantly increased in both flaxseed and fish oil groups when compared with the control diet. No significant change of total saturated fatty acids or omega-3 fatty acids was found in both rapeseed and beef tallow groups. The dose response study further indicated that 59-81% of the short-chain omega-3 ALA in flaxseed oil-fed group was efficiently converted to long-chain DHA in the duck liver, whereas 1% of dietary flaxseed oil could produce an equivalent level of DHA as 0.5% of dietary fish oil. The more omega-3 fatty acids, the less omega-6 fatty acids in the duck liver. Taken together, this study showed the fatty acid profiling in the duck liver after various dietary fat consumption, provided insight into a dose response change of omega-3 fatty acids, indicated an efficient conversion of short- to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, and suggested alternative long-chain omega-3 fatty acid-enriched duck products for human health benefits.

  4. Functional analysis of rat acidic calponin.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshihiro; Yabe, Sachiko; Nakamura, Kouta; Koizumi, Youichi

    2002-05-01

    Recombinant acidic calponin, a member of the calponin family, interacted with F-actin, but not with microtubules, desmin filaments, tropomyosin, calmodulin, S100 and phosphatidylserine (PS) vesicles with significant affinity. The bindings of acidic calponin to F-actin occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and were saturated at a molar ratio of about 1 acidic calponin to 1-2 actin molecules. The apparent Kd value of acidic calponin to F-actin was calculated to be 1.6 x 10(5) M(-1). Chemical cross-linking experiments indicated that a 1:1 molar covalent complex of acidic calponin and actin monomer was produced as in the case of basic calponinactin binding. No significant morphologic change of F-actin was observed by the addition of acidic calponin. Acidic calponin had little effect on actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity unlike basic calponin. Basic calponin partially competed with acidic calponin for binding to F-actin. Domain mapping with V8 protease revealed that acidic calponin binding site resided within the C-terminal 16 kDa fragment of actin, where the binding of basic calponin also occurs. However, both calponins showed reversal effects on fluorescence intensity of pyrene-labeled F-actin. Fragments of acidic calponin with 30 and 22 kDa, lacking the C-terminal acidic tail, were bound to F-actin. Interestingly, both the fragments became bound to PS vesicles, but not to other components. Circular dichroism studies showed that limited digestion of acidic calponin resulted in about 30% decrease of alpha-helix and beta contents. The present results suggest that acidic calponin is functionally distinct from basic calponin and expresses a novel characteristic after removal of the acidic tail region.

  5. Transform analysis of the resonance Raman excitation profile of lycopene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, L. C.

    1992-10-01

    The resonance Raman excitation profiles (RREPs) of the ν 1, ν 2 and ν 3 vibrations of lycopene in acetone, ethyl alcohol, toluene and carbon disulphide solvents have been analyzed using the transform method for calculating resonance Raman excitation profiles. The tests show excellent agreement between the calculated and observed profiles for the ν 2 and ν 3 RREPs, but greater difference between experiment and theory occurs for the ν 1 RREP, especially in carbon disulphide solvent.

  6. Non-Esterified Fatty Acids Profiling in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Associations with Clinical Features and Th1 Response

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Carrio, Javier; Alperi-López, Mercedes; López, Patricia; Ballina-García, Francisco Javier; Suárez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Since lipid compounds are known to modulate the function of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages, we hypothesize that altered levels of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) may underlie rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Methods Serum levels of NEFA (palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linoleic, arachidonic –AA–, linolenic, eicosapentaenoic –EPA– and docosahexaenoic –DHA–) were quantified by LC-MS/MS after methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE)-extraction in 124 RA patients and 56 healthy controls (HC). CD4+ phenotype was studied by flow cytometry. TNFα, IL-8, VEGF, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-17, CCL2, CXCL10, leptin and resistin serum levels were quantified by immunoassays. The effect of FA on IFNγ production by PBMC was evaluated in vitro. Results Lower levels of palmitic (p<0.0001), palmitoleic (p = 0.002), oleic (p = 0.010), arachidonic (p = 0.027), EPA (p<0.0001) and DHA (p<0.0001) were found in RA patients, some NEFA being altered at onset. Cluster analysis identified a NEFA profile (hallmarked by increased stearic and decreased EPA and DHA) overrepresented in RA patients compared to HC (p = 0.002), being associated with clinical features (RF, shared epitope and erosions), increased IFNγ expression in CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.002) and a Th1-enriched serum milieu (IFNγ, CCL2 and CXCL10, all p<0.005). In vitro assays demonstrated that imbalanced FA could underlie IFNγ production by CD4+ T-cells. Finally, changes on NEFA levels were associated with clinical response upon TNFα-blockade. Conclusion An altered NEFA profile can be found in RA patients associated with clinical characteristics of aggressive disease and enhanced Th1 response. These results support the relevance of lipidomic studies in RA and provide a rationale for new therapeutic targets. PMID:27487156

  7. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-01-04

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs). We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA) profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1), second (HF2), or third (HF3) week, or for all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA) proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status.

  8. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Marlon E.; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs). We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA) profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1), second (HF2), or third (HF3) week, or for all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA) proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status. PMID:26742067

  9. Effectiveness and safety profile of 40% trichloroacetic acid and cryotherapy for plantar warts.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan; Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide

    2016-09-01

    Plantar warts are one of the most common infectious skin disease caused by the human papillomavirus. In this study, cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen delivered by the physician, up to four treatments 2 weeks apart. Forty percent trichloroacetic acid (TCA) was applied to warts weekly up to four treatments. At the end of 4 weeks, the clinical improvement of the TCA group (n = 30) was six patients (20%) with no change, one patient (3.3%) with a mild response, 13 patients (43.3%) with a moderate response and 10 patients (33.3%) with a good response. In the cryotherapy group, clinical responses were 12 patients (40%) with no change, four patients (13.3%) with a mild response, 12 patients (40%) with a moderate response and two patients (6.7%) with a good response. There was a statistically significant difference in improvement between the two treatment groups (P = 0.027). According to our results, TCA 40% is more effective for clearance of plantar warts with significantly improved long-term safety profile.

  10. Profiling the changes in signaling pathways in ascorbic acid/β-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chaves Neto, Antonio Hernandes; Queiroz, Karla Cristiana; Milani, Renato; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Justo, Giselle Zenker; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Ferreira, Carmen Veríssima

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reports on the ability of ascorbic acid and β-glycerophosphate (AA/β-GP) to induce osteoblast differentiation, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this work, we used a peptide array containing specific consensus sequences (potential substrates) for protein kinases and traditional biochemical techniques to examine the signaling pathways modulated during AA/β-GP-induced osteoblast differentiation. The kinomic profile obtained after 7 days of treatment with AA/β-GP identified 18 kinase substrates with significantly enhanced or reduced phosphorylation. Peptide substrates for Akt, PI3K, PKC, BCR, ABL, PRKG1, PAK1, PAK2, ERK1, ERBB2, and SYK showed a considerable reduction in phosphorylation, whereas enhanced phosphorylation was observed in substrates for CHKB, CHKA, PKA, FAK, ATM, PKA, and VEGFR-1. These findings confirm the potential usefulness of peptide microarrays for identifying kinases known to be involved in bone development in vivo and in vitro and show that this technique can be used to investigate kinases whose function in osteoblastic differentiation is poorly understood.

  11. Analysis of Valproic Acid, Salicylic Acid and Ibuprofen in Whole Blood by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Jon B; Flater, Melanie L; Bain, Lisa T

    2016-10-01

    The Georgia Bureau of Investigation utilized a silylation method of analysis for low molecular weight carboxylic acids in the past. Due to the negative impact such derivatizations can have on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) systems an alternative means of analysis was investigated. The described method is a whole blood solid phase extraction of valproic acid, salicylic acid and ibuprofen utilizing butylation for sensitivity and improved chromatography by GC-MS. The method produced a limit of detection and limit of quantitation at 1 mg/L for valproic acid, 2 mg/L for salicylic acid and 0.25 mg/L for ibuprofen. The variability based upon the middle of the calibration curve estimated to be 7% for valproic acid, 8% for salicylic acid and 11% for ibuprofen established upon a 95% confidence interval, with the highest percent coefficient of variation being 5.3% for ibuprofen.

  12. Transcription Profiling Analysis of Mango–Fusarium mangiferae Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Wu, Jing-bo; Zhan, Ru-lin; Ou, Xiong-chang

    2016-01-01

    Malformation caused by Fusarium mangiferae is one of the most destructive mango diseases affecting the canopy and floral development, leading to dramatic reduction in fruit yield. To further understand the mechanism of interaction between mango and F. mangiferae, we monitored the transcriptome profiles of buds from susceptible mango plants, which were challenged with F. mangiferae. More than 99 million reads were deduced by RNA-sequencing and were assembled into 121,267 unigenes. Based on the sequence similarity searches, 61,706 unigenes were identified, of which 21,273 and 50,410 were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively, and 33,243 were mapped to 119 KEGG pathways. The differentially expressed genes of mango were detected, having 15,830, 26,061, and 20,146 DEGs respectively, after infection for 45, 75, and 120 days. The analysis of the comparative transcriptome suggests that basic defense mechanisms play important roles in disease resistance. The data also show the transcriptional responses of interactions between mango and the pathogen and more drastic changes in the host transcriptome in response to the pathogen. These results could be used to develop new methods to broaden the resistance of mango to malformation, including the over-expression of key mango genes. PMID:27683574

  13. Analysis of gene expression profile identifies potential biomarkers for atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Luran; Liu, Yan; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zhuobo; Du, Yaojun; Zhao, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify potential biomarkers for atherosclerosis via analysis of gene expression profiles. The microarray dataset no. GSE20129 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 118 samples from the peripheral blood of female patients was used, including 47 atherosclerotic and 71 non-atherosclerotic patients. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the atherosclerosis samples were identified using the Limma package. Gene ontology term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses for DEGs were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery tool. The recursive feature elimination (RFE) algorithm was applied for feature selection via iterative classification, and support vector machine classifier was used for the validation of prediction accuracy. A total of 430 DEGs in the atherosclerosis samples were identified, including 149 up- and 281 downregulated genes. Subsequently, the RFE algorithm was used to identify 11 biomarkers, whose receiver operating characteristic curves had an area under curve of 0.92, indicating that the identified 11 biomarkers were representative. The present study indicated that APH1B, JAM3, FBLN2, CSAD and PSTPIP2 may have important roles in the progression of atherosclerosis in females and may be potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis as well as treatment targets for this disease. PMID:27573188

  14. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  15. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) Fatty Acids Profile Is Strain-Dependent and Changes Upon Host Macrophages Infection

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Hearn, Marta; Abendaño, Naiara; Ruvira, Maria A.; Aznar, Rosa; Landin, Mariana; Juste, Ramon A.

    2017-01-01

    Johne's disease is a chronic granulomatous enteritis of ruminants caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). We previously demonstrated that Map isolates from sheep persisted within host macrophages in lower CFUs than cattle isolates after 7 days of infection. In the current study, we hypothesize that these phenotypic differences between Map isolates may be driven be the fatty acids (FAs) present on the phosphadidyl-1-myo-inositol mannosides of the Map cell wall that mediate recognition by the mannose receptors of host macrophages. FAs modifications may influence Map's envelope fluidity ultimately affecting pathogenicity. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the responses of two Map isolates from cattle (K10 isolate) and sheep (2349/06-1) to the bovine and ovine macrophage environment by measuring the FAs content of extracellular and intracellular bacteria. For this purpose, macrophages cell lines of bovine (BOMAC) and ovine (MOCL-4) origin were infected with the two isolates of Map for 4 days at 37°C. The relative FAs composition of the two isolates recovered from infected BOMAC and MOCL-4 cells was determined by gas chromatography and compared with that of extracellular bacteria and that of bacteria grown in Middlebrook 7H9 medium. Using this approach, we demonstrated that the FAs composition of extracellular and 7H9-grown bacteria was highly conserved within each Map isolate, and statistically different from that of intracellular bacteria. Analysis of FAs composition from extracellular bacteria enabled the distinction of the two Map strains based on the presence of the tuberculostearic acid (18:0 10Me) exclusively in the K10 strain of Map. In addition, significant differences in the content of Palmitic acid and cis-7 Palmitoleic acid between both isolates harvested from the extracellular environment were observed. Once the infection established itself in BOMAC and MOCL-4 cells, the FAs profiles of both Map

  16. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

  17. Elasticity of foam bubbles measured by profile analysis tensiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakashev, S. I.; Tsekov, R.; Manev, E. D.; Nguyen, A. V.

    2010-10-01

    Elastic modulus of foam bubbles, stabilized with tetraethylene glycol octyl ether (C8E4) and 1 × 10-5 M NaCl, was determined by cyclic expansion and shrinking of foam bubbles with frequency of 0.1 Hz and volumetric amplitude of 2 mm3. The film tension was monitored by a commercial profile analysis tensiometer (Sinterface Technologies, GmbH). The elastic moduli of foam bubbles were obtained as a function of surfactant concentration in the range of 2 × 10-3-1 × 10-2 M. The theory of Lucassen and van den Tempel [1] for the elastic modulus of a single liquid/air interface at a given frequency was employed. In the theoretical analysis the bulk diffusion coefficient of surfactant molecules was considered as a unknown model parameter which was obtained by matching the theory with the experimental data. Hence, the dependence of the bulk diffusion coefficient of C8E4 molecules upon the C8E4 concentration was obtained. The diffusion coefficient reached a maximum at 5 × 10-3 M C8E4 (D = 8.5 × 10-11 m2/s). In the experimental surfactant concentration range (2 × 10-3-1 × 10-2 M, CMC = 7.5 × 10-3 M) the foam bubbles were relatively dry, with visible interferometric fringes corresponding to thin films stabilized by repulsion of the electrostatic disjoining pressure. Hence, the overall dynamics of periodical expansion and shrinking of the foam bubbles occurred within the thin film state.

  18. Comparative analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mingming; Zeng, Qingfang; Dai, Suiping; Liang, Huixia; Dai, Fengying; Xie, Xueling; Lu, Kunlin; Gao, Chunfang

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression data of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was compared with that of cirrhosis (C) to identify critical genes in HCC. A total of five gene expression data sets were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. HCC and healthy samples were combined as dataset HCC, whereas cirrhosis samples were included in dataset C. A network was constructed for dataset HCC with the package R for performing Weighted Gene Co‑expression Network Analysis. Modules were identified by cluster analysis with the packages flashClust and dynamicTreeCut. Hub genes were screened out by calculating connectivity. Functional annotations were assigned to the hub genes using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integration Discovery, and functional annotation networks were visualized with Cytoscape. Following the exclusion of outlier samples, 394 HCC samples and 47 healthy samples were included in dataset HCC and 233 cirrhosis samples were included in dataset C. A total of 6 modules were identified in the weighted gene co‑expression network of dataset HCC (blue, brown, turquoise, green, red and yellow). Modules blue, brown and turquoise had high preservation whereas module yellow exhibited the lowest preservation. These modules were associated with transcription, mitosis, cation transportation, cation homeostasis, secretion and regulation of cyclase activity. Various hub genes of module yellow were cytokines, including chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 22 and interleukin‑19, which may be important in the development of HCC. Gene expression profiles of HCC were compared with those of cirrhosis and numerous critical genes were identified, which may contribute to the progression of HCC. Further studies on these genes may improve the understanding of HCC pathogenesis.

  19. Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

  20. [Profiles of the utilization of 20 amino acids as the only source of nitrogen and carbon in bacteria of the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia, Escherichia].

    PubMed

    Sivolodskiĭ, E P

    2005-01-01

    The profiles of the utilization of 20 protein amino acids in 118 Klebsiella pneumoniae sub- sp. pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, K. planticola, K. mobilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marscescens, S. liquefaciens, Escherichia coli strains isolated from clinical material were studied. The utilization of amino acids was determined on minimal saline agar containing amino acid as the only source of nitrogen and carbon; the results were evaluated after 72-hour incubation at 37 degrees C. 17 profiles of amino-acid utilization were thus determined, most of them genus-specific in enterobacteria: Klebsiella (profiles No. 1--6, 9, 10), Enterobacter (No. 11--13), Serratia (No. 14--16), Escherichia (No. 17). The full coincidence of amino-acid utilization profiles in bacteria of K. mobilis (No. 1, 6) and K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae with out of such profiles in bacteria of the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Escherichia was established, which confirmed that K. mobilis (formerly Enterobacter aerogenes) belonged to the genus Klebsiella.

  1. Pathway analysis of kidney cancer using proteomics and metabolic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Perroud, Bertrand; Lee, Jinoo; Valkova, Nelly; Dhirapong, Amy; Lin, Pei-Yin; Fiehn, Oliver; Kültz, Dietmar; Weiss, Robert H

    2006-01-01

    Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the sixth leading cause of cancer death and is responsible for 11,000 deaths per year in the US. Approximately one-third of patients present with disease which is already metastatic and for which there is currently no adequate treatment, and no biofluid screening tests exist for RCC. In this study, we have undertaken a comprehensive proteomic analysis and subsequently a pathway and network approach to identify biological processes involved in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). We have used these data to investigate urinary markers of RCC which could be applied to high-risk patients, or to those being followed for recurrence, for early diagnosis and treatment, thereby substantially reducing mortality of this disease. Results Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis, we identified 31 proteins which were differentially expressed with a high degree of significance in ccRCC as compared to adjacent non-malignant tissue, and we confirmed some of these by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, and comparison to published transcriptomic data. When evaluated by several pathway and biological process analysis programs, these proteins are demonstrated to be involved with a high degree of confidence (p values < 2.0 E-05) in glycolysis, propanoate metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, urea cycle and arginine/proline metabolism, as well as in the non-metabolic p53 and FAS pathways. In a pilot study using random urine samples from both ccRCC and control patients, we performed metabolic profiling and found that only sorbitol, a component of an alternative glycolysis pathway, is significantly elevated at 5.4-fold in RCC patients as compared to controls. Conclusion Extensive pathway and network analysis allowed for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of clear cell RCC samples. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to novel assays identifying their proteomic and/or metabolomic signatures in biofluids

  2. Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of α-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products.

  3. Two aspects of thin film analysis: boron profile and scattering length density profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Mayer, H. H.; Lamaze, G. P.; Coakley, K. J.; Satija, S. K.

    2003-06-01

    Boron/phosphorus-doped silicate glass (BPSG) thin films are widely used in microelectronic circuit devices. We employ two neutron techniques to investigate a 200-nm thick BPSG film: neutron depth profiling (NDP) and neutron reflectometry (NR) to obtain complementary information on the boron containing layer.

  4. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Bai, Ling; Walsh, Phillip; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 FAMEs, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated types were recorded. Unsaturated FAMEs show significantly different gas phase absorption profiles than saturated ones, and these classes can be easily distinguished with the VUV detector. Another advantage includes differentiating cis/trans-isomeric FAMEs (e.g. oleic acid methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester isomers) and the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV also provides high specificity, sensitivity, and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for fatty acid screening when combined with gas chromatography. The fatty acid profile of several food oil samples (olive, canola, vegetable, corn, sunflower and peanut oils) were analyzed in this study to demonstrate applicability to real world samples.

  5. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Marlon E.; Louw, Johan; Herrera, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for the first (HF1), second (HF2), third (HF3) or all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA) profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance) were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6) and arachidonic (20:4 n-6) acid proportions (p < 0.05). In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6) and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05). HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3) proportions (p < 0.05). High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype. PMID:26343716

  6. An application of target profiling analyses in the hepatotoxicity assessment of herbal medicines: comparative characteristic fingerprint and bile acid profiling of Senecio vulgaris L. and Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Aizhen; Fang, Lianxiang; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Fan; Qi, Meng; Kang, Hong; Yang, Li; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-11-01

    The toxicity assessment of herbal medicines is important for human health and appropriate utilization of these medicines. However, challenges have to be overcome because of the complexity of coexisting multiple components in herbal medicines and the highly interconnected organismal system. In this study, a target profiling approach was established by combining the characteristic fingerprint analysis of herbal chemicals with potential toxicity through a precursor ion scan-based mass spectroscopy and the target profiling analysis of biomarkers responsible for the toxicity. Through this newly developed approach, the comparative hepatotoxicity assessment of two herbal medicines from the same genus, Senecio vulgaris L. and Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham, was performed. Significant differences were found between the two species in their chemical markers (i.e., pyrrolizidine alkaloids) and biomarkers (i.e., bile acids) responsible for their toxicities. This result was consistent with the conventional toxicity assessment conducted by histopathological examination and clinical serum index assay on experimental animal models. In conclusion, this study provided a new approach for the hepatotoxicity assessment of herbal medicines containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which are widely distributed in various herbal medicines. The target profiling approach may shed light on the toxicity assessment of other herbal medicines with potential toxicity.

  7. Ion-exchange chromatographic analysis of peroxynitric acid.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoichi; Ikawa, Satoshi; Tani, Atsushi; Kitano, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-29

    Ion-exchange chromatographic analysis of peroxynitric acid (O2NOOH) was performed by combining an acidic eluate with an UV-vis detector and immersing the separation column in an ice-water bath. The decomposition behavior of peroxynitric acid in the solution was also studied using this system. The fraction for the peroxynitric acid peak was collected. Ion-exchange chromatographic analysis of this fraction, after standing at room temperature for 24h, showed that the decomposition products were mainly nitrate ions with a very small amount of nitrous acid. The peroxynitric acid peak area correlated perfectly with the total amount of decomposition products. The ion-exchange chromatographic isolation allowed us to evaluate the molar extinction coefficient of peroxynitric acid precisely in a wider wavelength range than previous reports. The value decreases monotonically from 1729±26M(-1)cm(-1) at 200nm to 12.0±0.5M(-1)cm(-1) at 290nm.

  8. Examining Combinations of Social Physique Anxiety and Motivation Regulations Using Latent Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cox, Anne E.; Cooper, Brittany Rhoades

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has used cluster analysis to examine how social physique anxiety (SPA) combines with motivation in physical education. This study utilized a more advanced analytic approach, latent profile analysis (LPA), to identify profiles of SPA and motivation regulations. Students in grades 9-12 (N = 298) completed questionnaires at two time…

  9. Targeted cellular process profiling approach for uterine leiomyoma using cDNA microarray, proteomics and gene ontology analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Woong Shick; Kim, Ko-Woon; Bae, Su Mi; Yoon, Joo Hee; Lee, Joon Mo; Namkoong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Chong Kook; Lee, Young Joo; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2003-01-01

    This study utilized both cDNA microarray and two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis technology to investigate the multiple interactions of genes and proteins involved in uterine leiomyoma pathophysiology. Also, the gene ontology analysis was used to systematically characterize the global expression profiles at cellular process levels. We profiled differentially expressed transcriptome and proteome in six-paired leiomyoma and normal myometrium. Screening up to 17 000 genes identified 21 upregulated and 50 downregulated genes. The gene-expression profiles were classified into mutually dependent 420 functional sets, resulting in 611 cellular processes according to the gene ontology. Also, protein analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified 33 proteins (17 upregulated and 16 downregulated) of more than 500 total spots, which was classified into 302 cellular processes. Of these functional profilings, downregulations of transcriptomes and proteoms were shown in cell adhesion, cell motility, organogenesis, enzyme regulator, structural molecule activity and response to external stimulus functional activities that are supposed to play important roles in pathophysiology. In contrast, the upregulation was only shown in nucleic acid-binding activity. Taken together, potentially significant pathogenetic cellular processes were identified and showed that the downregulated functional profiling has a significant impact on the discovery of pathogenic pathway in leiomyoma. Also, the gene ontology analysis can overcome the complexity of expression profiles of cDNA microarray and two-dimensional protein analysis via its cellular process-level approach. Therefore, a valuable prognostic candidate gene with relevance to disease-specific pathogenesis can be found at cellular process levels. PMID:14748746

  10. High-fat diet alters serum fatty acid profiles in obesity prone rats: implications for in-vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tzu-Wen; Heden, Timothy D.; Morris, E. Matthew; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Thyfault, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFD) are commonly used in rodents to induce obesity, increase serum fatty acids, and induce lipotoxicity in various organs. In-vitro studies commonly utilize individual free fatty acids (FFA) to study lipid exposure in an effort to model what is occurring in-vivo, however, these approaches are not physiological as tissues are exposed to multiple fatty acids in-vivo. Here we characterize circulating lipids in obese-prone rats fed a HFD in both fasted and fed states with the goal of developing physiologically relevant fatty acid mixtures for subsequent in-vitro studies. Rats were fed a HFD (60% kcal fat) or a control diet (10% kcal fat) for 3 weeks; liver tissue, and both portal and systemic blood was collected. Fatty acid profiles and absolute concentrations of triglycerides (TAG) and FFA in the serum and TAG, diacylglycerol (DAG), and phospholipids (PL) in the liver were measured. Surprisingly, both systemic and portal serum TAG were ~40% lower in HFD-fed compared to controls. Overall, compared to the control diet, HFD feeding consistently induced an increase in the proportion of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with a concomitant decline in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both serum TAG and FFA. The elevations of PUFA were mostly attributed to increases in n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. In conclusion, fatty acid mixtures enriched with linoleic and arachidonic acid in addition to SFA and MUFA should be utilized for in-vitro studies attempting to model lipid exposures that occur during in-vivo HFD condition. PMID:26318121

  11. Pixel-based analysis of FRAP data with a general initial bleaching profile.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, J K; Hagman, J; Lorén, N; Bernin, D; Nydén, M; Rudemo, M

    2010-08-01

    In Jonasson et al. (2008), we presented a new pixel-based maximum likelihood framework for the estimation of diffusion coefficients from data on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The main method there, called the Gaussian profile method below, is based on the assumption that the initial intensity profile after photobleaching is approximately Gaussian. In the present paper, we introduce a method, called the Monotone profile method, where the maximum likelihood framework is extended to a general initial bleaching profile only assuming that the profile is a non-decreasing function of the distance to the bleaching centre. The statistical distribution of the image noise is further assumed to be Poisson instead of normal, which should be a more realistic description of the noise in the detector. The new Monotone profile method and the Gaussian profile method are applied to FRAP data on swelling of super absorbent polymers (SAP) in water with a Fluorescein probe. The initial bleaching profile is close to a step function at low degrees of swelling and close to a Gaussian profile at high degrees of swelling. The results obtained from the analysis of the FRAP data are corroborated with NMR diffusometry analysis of SAP with a polyethylene glycol probe having size similar to the Fluorescein. The comparison of the Gaussian and Monotone profile methods is also performed by use of simulated data. It is found that the new Monotone profile method is accurate for all types of initial profiles studied, but it suffers from being computationally slow. The fast Gaussian profile method is sufficiently accurate for most of the profiles studied, but underestimates the diffusion coefficient for profiles close to a step function. We also provide a diagnostic plot, which indicates whether the Gaussian profile method is acceptable or not.

  12. Nucleic acid labeling with ( sup 3 H)orotic acid and nucleotide profile in rats in protein deprivation, enteral and parenteral essential amino acid administration, and 5-fluorouracil treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsson, B.; el Hag, I.A.; Andersson, M.; Christensson, P.I.; Stenram, U. )

    1990-09-01

    Rats were fed a 0% casein diet for 1 week, with or without enteral or parenteral administration of essential amino acids, or a 25% casein diet, in one group supplemented with 5-fluorouracil treatment. Ninety minutes before sacrifice the rats were given a tracer of (3H)orotic acid. Incorporation into the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA was determined in liver, small intestine, bone marrow, and kidney. Nucleotide profile was examined in liver and intestine. Protein deficiency caused inter alia a decrease in body weight; a decrease in RNA/DNA ratio and an increase in the specific RNA labeling in liver and kidney; an altered nucleotide profile in the liver; an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios and a decrease in the specific labeling of the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA in the bone marrow. These changes were prevented to the same extent by giving essential amino acids, either orally or intravenously. The minor changes in intestinal nucleotide profile in protein deprivation were prevented to a slightly larger extent by amino acids orally than parenterally. 5-Fluorouracil treatment gave a decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the liver and kidney but an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios in the bone marrow. Nucleotide profiles were unaltered. The amount of DNA per gram of tissue decreased in bone marrow and increased in kidney. Parenteral administration per se resulted in almost no changes.

  13. Influence of changes in dietary fatty acids during pregnancy on placental and fetal fatty acid profile in the rat.

    PubMed

    Amusquivar, Encarnación; Herrera, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether the composition of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could be modified in the fetus by maternal dietary fatty acids, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed semipurified diets that differed only in the non-vitamin lipid component. The diets contained either 10 g palm, sunflower, olive or fish oil (FOD)/100 g diet. A total of 5-6 rats were studied in each group. At day 20 of gestation, corresponding to 1.5 days prior parturition, the fatty acids in maternal adipose tissue were closely related to the fatty acid composition in the corresponding diet. An important proportion of arachidonic acid (AA) appeared in maternal liver and plasma, although it was lower in the FOD than in the other groups. Except for saturated fatty acids, the proportion of individual fatty acids in the placenta correlated linearly with that in maternal plasma. Also, PUFA in fetal plasma and liver showed significant correlations with PUFA in maternal plasma. Again, AA showed the lowest proportion in the plasma and liver of the FOD group. Therefore, the maternal dietary fatty acid composition influences maternal and fetal plasma and tissue composition, and an increase in dietary omega-3 fatty acids decreases the amount of AA in maternal and fetal tissues.

  14. Amino acid profiles of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from kefir grains and kefir starter made from them.

    PubMed

    Simova, Emilina; Simov, Zhelyasko; Beshkova, Dora; Frengova, Ginka; Dimitrov, Zhechko; Spasov, Zdravko

    2006-03-15

    The characteristics of cell growth, lactic acid production, amino acid release and consumption by single-strain cultures of lactic acid bacteria (isolated from kefir grains), and by a multiple-strain kefir starter prepared from them, were studied. The change in the levels of free amino acids was followed throughout the kefir process: single-strain kefir bacteria and the kefir starter (Lactococcus lactis C15-1%+Lactobacillus helveticus MP12-3%+(Streptococcus thermophilus T15+Lactobacillus bulgaricus HP1 = 1:1)-3%) were cultivated in pasteurized (92 degrees C for 20 min) cow's milk (3% fat content) at 28 degrees C for 5 h (the kefir starter reached pH 4.7) and subsequently grown at 20 degrees C for 16 h; storage was at 4 degrees C for 168 h. The strain L. helveticus MP12 was unrivaled with respect to free amino acid production (53.38 mg (100 g)(-1)) and cell growth (17.8 x 10(8) CFU ml(-1)); however, it manifested the lowest acidification activity. L. bulgaricus HP1 released approximately 3.7 times less amino acids, nearly 5 times lower cell growth, and produced about 1.2 times more lactic acid. S. thermophilus T15 demonstrated dramatically complex amino acid necessities for growth and metabolism. With L. lactis C15, the highest levels of growth and lactic acid synthesis were recorded (18.3 x 10(8) CFU ml(-1) and 7.8 g l(-1) lactic acid at the 21st hour), and as for free amino acid production, it approximated L. bulgaricus HP1 (17.03 mg (100 g)(-1) maximum concentration). In the L. lactis C15 culture, the amino acids were used more actively throughout the first exponential growth phase (by the 10th hour) than during the second growth phase. The unique properties of the L. helveticus MP12 strain to produce amino acids were employed to create a symbiotic bioconsortium kefir culture, which, under conditions of kefir formation, enhanced lactic acid production and shortened the time required to reach pH 4.7; intensified cell growth activity, resulting in a respective 90

  15. Shortwave flux profile analysis at the Cabauw BSRN site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Baltink, H. Klein; Knap, W. H.; Stammes, P.

    2013-05-01

    The vertical distribution of the shortwave flux in the atmosphere is important for understanding the energy budget and the validation of climate models. We calculated shortwave flux profiles for cloudy cases by using the Doubling-Adding KNMI radiative transfer model with water vapour and cloud liquid water profiles derived from the Integrated Profiling Technique (IPT). As an example, we will show the approach for 3 March 2012. The calculated downward flux at the surface for this day compares well with measurements made at the Cabauw Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site (51.97°N, 4.93°E), the Netherlands.

  16. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profile of urinary organic acids of Wistar rats orally treated with ozonized unsaturated triglycerides and ozonized sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Jardines, Daniel; Correa, Teresa; Ledea, Oscar; Zamora, Zullyt; Rosado, Aristides; Molerio, Jesús

    2003-01-15

    The main products in the ozonolysis of unsaturated triglycerides or vegetable oils are peroxides, aldehydes, Criegee ozonides and carboxylic acids. Some of these compounds are present in different concentrations in the biological fluids. The aim of this work is to study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the organic acid excretion in urine of rats orally treated with ozonized sunflower oil (OSO), ozonized triolein or ozonized trilinolein. Oral administration of OSO to Wistar rats has produced changes in the urinary content of dicarboxylic organic acids. Among others heptanedioic (pimelic acid) and nonanedioic acids (azelaic acid) were the major increased dicarboxylic acids found. The urinary dicarboxylic acid profiles of rats which received ozonized triolein only showed an increase in heptanedioic and nonanedioic acids. However, when ozonized trilinolein is applied, the profile is similar to that obtained when OSO is administered. A biochemical mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of dicarboxylic acids from ozonated unsaturated triglycerides.

  17. Determination of the degree of oxidation in highly-oxidised lipids using profile changes of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Soo; Yeo, JuDong; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2013-06-01

    The degree of highly oxidised lipids was determined by a modified method using profile changes of fatty acids in lard and soybean oil heated at 180°C. The usefulness of the modified method was compared through conjugated dienoic acid (CDA) and/or p-anisidine value (p-AV) methods. Absolute values, which were expressed as equivalent to an internal standard (C11:0), of both unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) decreased significantly during thermal oxidation (p<0.05) while relative percentage of SFA increased and those of UFA decreased significantly (p<0.05). The content of caprylic acid (C8:0) increased significantly (p<0.05) as thermal oxidation time increased. The ratio of total saturated over total unsaturated fa