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Sample records for acid profile similar

  1. A framework for profile similarity: integrating similarity, normativeness, and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Furr, R Michael

    2008-10-01

    Many questions in personality psychology lend themselves to the analysis of profile similarity. A profile approach to issues such as personality judgment, personality similarity, behavioral consistency, developmental stability, and person-environment fit is intuitively appealing. However, it entails conceptual and statistical challenges arising from the overlap among profile similarity and normativeness, which presents potential confounds and potential opportunities. This article describes the normativeness problem, articulating the need to evaluate profile similarity alongside normativeness and distinctiveness. It presents conceptual and psychometric foundations of a framework differentiating these elements for pairs of profiles. It derives two models from this framework, and it discusses the application of their components to a variety of research domains. Finally, it presents recommendations and implications regarding the use of these components and profile similarity more generally. This approach can reveal and manage potential confounds, and it can provide theoretical insights that might otherwise be overlooked. PMID:18705644

  2. Dietary palmitic and oleic acids exert similar effects on serum cholesterol and lipoprotein profiles in normocholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Ng, T K; Hayes, K C; DeWitt, G F; Jegathesan, M; Satgunasingam, N; Ong, A S; Tan, D

    1992-08-01

    To compare the effects of dietary palmitic acid (16:0) vs oleic acid (18:1) on serum lipids, lipoproteins, and plasma eicosanoids, 33 normocholesterolemic subjects (20 males, 13 females; ages 22-41 years) were challenged with a coconut oil-rich diet for 4 weeks. Subsequently they were assigned to either a palm olein-rich or olive oil-rich diet followed by a dietary crossover during two consecutive 6-week periods. Each test oil served as the sole cooking oil and contributed 23% of dietary energy or two-thirds of the total daily fat intake. Dietary myristic acid (14:0) and lauric acid (12:0) from coconut oil significantly raised all the serum lipid and lipoprotein parameters measured. Subsequent one-to-one exchange of 7% energy between 16:0 (palm olein diet) and 18:1 (olive oil diet) resulted in identical serum total cholesterol (192, 193 mg/dl), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (130, 131 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (41, 42 mg/dl), and triglyceride (TG) (108, 106 mg/dl) concentrations. Effects attributed to gender included higher HDL in females and higher TG in males associated with the tendency for higher LDL and LDL/HDL ratios in men. However, both sexes were equally responsive to changes in dietary fat saturation. The results indicate that in healthy, normocholesterolemic humans, dietary 16:0 can be exchanged for 18:1 within the range of these fatty acids normally present in typical diets without affecting the serum lipoprotein cholesterol concentration or distribution. In addition, replacement of 12:0 + 14:0 by 16:0 + 18:1, but especially 16:0 or some component of palm olein, appeared to have a beneficial impact on an important index of thrombogenesis, i.e., the thromboxane/prostacyclin ratio in plasma. PMID:1506599

  3. Classification of wheat: Badhwar profile similarity technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    The Badwar profile similarity classification technique used successfully for classification of corn was applied to spring wheat classifications. The software programs and the procedures used to generate full-scene classifications are presented, and numerical results of the acreage estimations are given.

  4. COMPARISON OF PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID PROFILES AND RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCE SIMILARITIES AMONG DISSIMILATORY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-five isolates of dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria were clustered based on similarity analysis of their phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids (PLFA). f these, twenty-three showed the phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA direct...

  5. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-02-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils. PMID:19106316

  6. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden syrian-hamster

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to polyunsaturated fatty acids may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to hydrogenated fats but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study inves...

  7. Segments of amino acid sequence similarity in beta-amylases.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, F; Rhodes, C

    1988-01-01

    In alpha-amylases from animals, plants and bacteria and in beta-amylases from plants and bacteria a number of segments exhibit amino acid sequence similarity specific to the alpha or to the beta type, respectively. In the case of the beta-amylases the similar sequence regions are extensive and they are disrupted only by short interspersed dissimilar regions. Close to the C terminus, however, no such sequence similarity exist. PMID:2464171

  8. Individual Differences in RIASEC Profile Similarity across Five Interest Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickas, Mark L.; Taber, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    The present research indicated substantial variation within the 5 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) profiles obtained by each of 99 individuals who responded to the same 5 interest inventories. The authors concluded that the RIASEC indicators on each inventory probably reflect different portions of the…

  9. Fatty acid profile of kenaf seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profile of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been the subject of several previous reports in the literature. These reports vary considerably regarding the presence and amounts of specific fatty acids, notably epoxyoleic acid but also cyclic (cyclopropene and cyclopropane) fa...

  10. Similarity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  11. On the similarity between exchangeable profiles: A psychometric model, analytic strategy, and empirical illustration

    PubMed Central

    Furr, R. Michael; Wood, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of profile similarity are widespread in personality psychology, but their apparent simplicity masks difficult psychometric and statistical issues. We present a psychometric framework that addresses an important challenge (i.e., profile normativeness) in examinations of dyadic exchangeable profiles. In addition, we present an analytic strategy accounting for non-independence that often arises in analyses of profile similarity, facilitating integrated examinations of variables at dyadic and individual levels. An empirical analysis of personality similarity and relationship quality demonstrates that the model and analytic strategy can reveal novel psychological insights. These are important advances, as previous work has ignored exchangeable profiles and has failed to present an integrated psychometric and statistical framework for profile similarity. PMID:24039314

  12. Plasma fatty acid profile and alternative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Klvanová, J

    1997-01-01

    Plasma profile of fatty acids was examined in a group of children consisting of 7 vegans, 15 lactoovovegetarians and 10 semivegetarians. The children were 11-15 years old and the average period of alternative nutrition was 3.4 years. The results were compared with a group of 19 omnivores that constituted an average sample with respect to biochemical and hematological parameters from a larger study of health and nutritional status of children in Slovakia. Alternative nutrition groups had significantly lower values of saturated fatty acids. The content of oleic acid was identical to omnivores. A significant increase was observed for linoleic and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids. The dihomo-gamma-linolenic (n-6) acid and arachidonic (n-6) acid values were comparable to omnivores for all alternative nutrition groups. Values of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in lactoovovegetarians were identical to those of omnivores whereas they were significantly increased in semivegetarians consuming fish twice a week. Due to the total exclusion of animal fats from the diet, vegans had significantly reduced values of palmitoleic acid as well as eicosapentaenoic (n-3) acid and docosahexaenoic (n-3) acid resulting in an increased n-6/n-3 ratio. Values of plasma fatty acids found in alternative nutrition groups can be explained by the higher intake of common vegetable oils (high content of linoleic acid), oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid (cereal germs, soybean oil, walnuts), as well as in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (fish). The results of fatty acids (except n-3 in vegans) and other lipid parameters confirm the beneficial effect of vegetarian nutrition in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:9491192

  13. Nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds - Similar temperature of nitric acid condensation and cloud formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Snetsinger, Kenneth G.; Hamill, Patrick; Goodman, Jindra K.; Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    As shown independently by two different techniques, nitric acid aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) both form below similar threshold temperatures. This supports the idea that the PSC particles involved in chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the winter polar stratosphere are composed of nitric acid. One technique used to show this is the inertial impaction of nitric acid aerosols using an Er-2 aircraft; the other method is remote sensing of PSCs by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite borne optical sensor. Both procedures were in operation during the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition in 1989, and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in 1987. Analysis of Arctic particles gathered in situ indicates the presence of nitric acid below a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 202 K. This is the same highest temperature at which PSCs are seen by the SAM II satellite. In comparison, a 'first appearance' temperature Tfa = 198 K as found for the Antarctic samples.

  14. Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS): A Method for Semantic Analysis of Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Matt; Lu, Xiaoming; Matloff, Norman S.; Wu, S. Felix

    Online Social Networks (OSN)[OSN] are experiencing an explosive growth rate and are becoming an increasingly important part of people’s lives. There is an increasing desire to aid online users in identifying potential friends, interesting groups, and compelling products to users. These networks have offered researchers almost total access to large corpora of data. An interesting goal in utilizing this data is to analyze user profiles and identify how similar subsets of users are. The current techniques for comparing users are limited as they require common terms to be shared by users. We present a simple and novel extension to a word-comparison algorithm [6], entitled Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS), which allows comparison of short text phrases even if they share no common terms. The output of Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) is simply a scalar value in [0,1], with 1 denoting complete similarity and 0 the opposite. Therefore it is easy to understand and can provide a total ordering of users. We, first, evaluated the effectiveness of Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) with a user-study, and then applied it to datasets from Facebook and Orkut verifying and extending earlier results. We show that Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) yields both a larger range for the similarity value and obtains a higher value than intersection-based mechanisms. Both Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) and the output from the analysis of the two Online Social Networks (OSN)[OSN] should help to predict and classify social links, make recommendations, and annotate friends relations for social network analysis.

  15. Detecting and classifying method based on similarity matching of Android malware behavior with profile.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae-Wook; Yun, Jaesung; Mohaisen, Aziz; Woo, Jiyoung; Kim, Huy Kang

    2016-01-01

    Mass-market mobile security threats have increased recently due to the growth of mobile technologies and the popularity of mobile devices. Accordingly, techniques have been introduced for identifying, classifying, and defending against mobile threats utilizing static, dynamic, on-device, and off-device techniques. Static techniques are easy to evade, while dynamic techniques are expensive. On-device techniques are evasion, while off-device techniques need being always online. To address some of those shortcomings, we introduce Andro-profiler, a hybrid behavior based analysis and classification system for mobile malware. Andro-profiler main goals are efficiency, scalability, and accuracy. For that, Andro-profiler classifies malware by exploiting the behavior profiling extracted from the integrated system logs including system calls. Andro-profiler executes a malicious application on an emulator in order to generate the integrated system logs, and creates human-readable behavior profiles by analyzing the integrated system logs. By comparing the behavior profile of malicious application with representative behavior profile for each malware family using a weighted similarity matching technique, Andro-profiler detects and classifies it into malware families. The experiment results demonstrate that Andro-profiler is scalable, performs well in detecting and classifying malware with accuracy greater than 98 %, outperforms the existing state-of-the-art work, and is capable of identifying 0-day mobile malware samples. PMID:27006882

  16. Application of a Profile Similarity Methodology for Identifying Terrorist Groups That Use or Pursue CBRN Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiger, Ronald L.; Ackerman, Gary A.; Asal, Victor; Melamed, David; Milward, H. Brinton; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Schoon, Eric

    No single profile fits all CBRN-active groups, and therefore it is important to identify multiple profiles. In the analysis of terrorist organizations, linear and generalized regression modeling provide a set of tools to apply to data that is in the form of cases (named groups) by variables (traits and behaviors of the groups). We turn the conventional regression modeling "inside out" to reveal a network of relations among the cases on the basis of their attribute and behavioral similarity. We show that a network of profile similarity among the cases is built in to standard regression modeling, and that the exploitation of this aspect leads to new insights helpful in the identification of multiple profiles for actors. Our application builds on a study of 108 Islamic jihadist organizations that predicts use or pursuit of CBRN weapons.

  17. Female choice for male cuticular hydrocarbon profile in decorated crickets is not based on similarity to their own profile.

    PubMed

    Steiger, S; Capodeanu-Nägler, A; Gershman, S N; Weddle, C B; Rapkin, J; Sakaluk, S K; Hunt, J

    2015-12-01

    Indirect genetic benefits derived from female mate choice comprise additive (good genes) and nonadditive genetic benefits (genetic compatibility). Although good genes can be revealed by condition-dependent display traits, the mechanism by which compatibility alleles are detected is unclear because evaluation of the genetic similarity of a prospective mate requires the female to assess the genotype of the male and compare it to her own. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), lipids coating the exoskeleton of most insects, influence female mate choice in a number of species and offer a way for females to assess genetic similarity of prospective mates. Here, we determine whether female mate choice in decorated crickets is based on male CHCs and whether it is influenced by females' own CHC profiles. We used multivariate selection analysis to estimate the strength and form of selection acting on male CHCs through female mate choice, and employed different measures of multivariate dissimilarity to determine whether a female's preference for male CHCs is based on similarity to her own CHC profile. Female mating preferences were significantly influenced by CHC profiles of males. Male CHC attractiveness was not, however, contingent on the CHC profile of the choosing female, as certain male CHC phenotypes were equally attractive to most females, evidenced by significant linear and stabilizing selection gradients. These results suggest that additive genetic benefits, rather than nonadditive genetic benefits, accrue to female mate choice, in support of earlier work showing that CHC expression of males, but not females, is condition dependent. PMID:26301596

  18. Nitric acid in polar stratospheric clouds: Similar temperature of nitric acid condensation and cloud formation

    SciTech Connect

    Pueschel, R.F.; Snetsinger, K.G. ); Hamill, P.; Goodman, J.K. ); McCormick, M.P. )

    1990-03-01

    As shown independently by two different techniques, nitric acid aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds both form below similar threshold temperatures. This supports the idea that the polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles involved in chlorine activation and ozone depletion in the winter polar stratosphere are composed of nitric acid. One technique used to show this is inertial impaction of nitric acid aerosols using an ER-2 aircraft; the other method is remote sensing of PSCs by the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM II) satellite borne optical sensor. Both procedures were in operation during the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition in 1989, and the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment in 1987. Analysis of Arctic particles gathered in situ indicates the presence of nitric acid below a first appearance temperature T{sub fa} = 202 K. This is the same highest temperature at which PSCs are seen by the SAM II satellite. In comparison, a first appearance temperature T{sub fa} = 198 K was found for the Antarctic samples.

  19. Collaborative distribution of remote sensing data based on user profile similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinguang; Liu, Yang; Li, Yunhua; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of earth observation technology and the rapid increase of remote sensors, the amount of remote sensing data rapidly expands, which leads to increasingly outstanding contradiction of "more and less" remote sensing data. According to the user's preference characteristics, intelligent distribution of remote sensing data is an effective solution to the problem. The user profile model is the basis of intelligent distribution of remote sensing data. This paper intends to (1) establish the user profile model which describes the user's preference characteristics of remote sensing data; (2) develop similarity measure methods of user profile models, according to which similarities of user preference characteristics can be calculated; (3) put forward prediction methods of the user's ratings of remote sensing data, based on which remote sensing data can be collaboratively distributed.

  20. The Use of Cattell's Profile Similarity Coefficient in the Classification of Football Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Virden; Johnson, DeWayne

    Using Cattell's Profile Similarity Coefficient, 154 high school football players from 21 different public high schools were classified as being successful or unsuccessful. Seventeen physical and motor ability variables relating to athletic ability were administered to the football players. The variables included: (1) standard height; (2) body…

  1. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape(®) and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape(®) adhesive patches removed ~6× more total lipid than Sebutape(®) indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  2. Self-similarity and universality of void density profiles in simulation and SDSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadathur, S.; Hotchkiss, S.; Diego, J. M.; Iliev, I. T.; Gottlöber, S.; Watson, W. A.; Yepes, G.

    2015-06-01

    The stacked density profile of cosmic voids in the galaxy distribution provides an important tool for the use of voids for precision cosmology. We study the density profiles of voids identified using the ZOBOV watershed transform algorithm in realistic mock luminous red galaxy (LRG) catalogues from the Jubilee simulation, as well as in void catalogues constructed from the SDSS LRG and Main Galaxy samples. We compare different methods for reconstructing density profiles scaled by the void radius and show that the most commonly used method based on counts in shells and simple averaging is statistically flawed as it underestimates the density in void interiors. We provide two alternative methods that do not suffer from this effect; one based on Voronoi tessellations is also easily able to account from artefacts due to finite survey boundaries and so is more suitable when comparing simulation data to observation. Using this method, we show that the most robust voids in simulation are exactly self-similar, meaning that their average rescaled profile does not depend on the void size. Within the range of our simulation, we also find no redshift dependence of the mean profile. Comparison of the profiles obtained from simulated and real voids shows an excellent match. The mean profiles of real voids also show a universal behaviour over a wide range of galaxy luminosities, number densities and redshifts. This points to a fundamental property of the voids found by the watershed algorithm, which can be exploited in future studies of voids.

  3. Mathematical investigations of branch length similarity entropy profiles of shapes for various resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Wonju; Lee, Sang-Hee

    2012-12-01

    In our previous study, we defined the branch length similarity (BLS) entropy for a simple network consisting of a single node and numerous branches. As the first application of this entropy to characterize shapes, the BLS entropy profiles of 20 battle tank shapes were calculated from simple networks created by connecting pixels in the boundary of the shape. The profiles successfully characterized the tank shapes through a comparison of their BLS entropy profiles. Following the application, this entropy was used to characterize human's emotional faces, such as happiness and sad, and to measure the degree of complexity for termite tunnel networks. These applications indirectly indicate that the BLS entropy profile can be a useful tool to characterize networks and shapes. However, the ability of the BLS entropy in the characterization depends on the image resolution because the entropy is determined by the number of nodes for the boundary of a shape. Higher resolution means more nodes. If the entropy is to be widely used in the scientific community, the effect of the resolution on the entropy profile should be understood. In the present study, we mathematically investigated the BLS entropy profile of a shape with infinite resolution and numerically investigated the variation in the pattern of the entropy profile caused by changes in the resolution change in the case of finite resolution.

  4. PRoSPer: perceptual similarity queries in medical CBIR systems through user profiles.

    PubMed

    Bugatti, Pedro H; Kaster, Daniel S; Ponciano-Silva, Marcelo; Traina, Caetano; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M; Traina, Agma J M

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to perform similarity queries over medical images, maintaining the semantics of a given query posted by the user. Content-based image retrieval systems relying on relevance feedback techniques usually request the users to label relevant/irrelevant images. Thus, we present a highly effective strategy to survey user profiles, taking advantage of such labeling to implicitly gather the user perceptual similarity. The profiles maintain the settings desired for each user, allowing tuning of the similarity assessment, which encompasses the dynamic change of the distance function employed through an interactive process. Experiments on medical images show that the method is effective and can improve the decision making process during analysis. PMID:24480158

  5. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals Similarities between the Spatial Architectures of Postnatal Articular and Growth Plate Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Michael; Lui, Julian C.; Landman, Ellie B. M.; Späth, Stephan-Stanislaw; Vortkamp, Andrea; Baron, Jeffrey; Nilsson, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Articular and growth plate cartilage are discrete tissues but arise from a common cartilaginous condensation and have comparable spatial architectures consisting of distinct layers of chondrocytes. To investigate similarities and differences between articular and growth plate cartilage and to explore transcriptional changes that occur during the onset of their divergence, we performed manual microdissection of 10-day-old rat proximal tibias, microarray analysis, bioinformatics, and real-time PCR to compare gene expression profiles in individual cartilage layers. We found that many genes that were spatially upregulated in the intermediate/deep zone of articular cartilage were also spatially upregulated in the resting zone of growth plate cartilage (overlap greater than expected by chance, P<0.001). Interestingly, the superficial zone of articular cartilage showed an expression profile with similarities to both the proliferative and hypertrophic zones of growth plate cartilage (P<0.001 each). Additionally, significant numbers of known proliferative zone markers (3 out of 6) and hypertrophic zone markers (27 out of 126) were spatially upregulated in the superficial zone (more than expected by chance, P<0.001 each). In conclusion, we provide evidence that the intermediate/deep zone of articular cartilage has a gene expression profile more similar to that of the resting zone of growth plate cartilage, whereas the superficial zone has a gene expression profile more similar to those of the proliferative and hypertrophic zones. These findings suggest that the superficial zone chondrocytes of articular cartilage differentiate according to a program that is not completely different from but instead has distinct similarities to the hypertrophic differentiation program of growth plate chondrocytes. We also present functional signaling pathways implicated by differential gene expression between articular and growth plate cartilage during their initial separation by the

  6. A Data Similarity-Based Strategy for Meta-analysis of Transcriptional Profiles in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yuzhu; Shyr, Yu; Chen, Xi; Lehmann, Brian David; Viox, Daniel Joseph; George, Alfred L.; Yi, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    Background Robust transcriptional signatures in cancer can be identified by data similarity-driven meta-analysis of gene expression profiles. An unbiased data integration and interrogation strategy has not previously been available. Methods and Findings We implemented and performed a large meta-analysis of breast cancer gene expression profiles from 223 datasets containing 10,581 human breast cancer samples using a novel data similarity-based approach (iterative EXALT). Cancer gene expression signatures extracted from individual datasets were clustered by data similarity and consolidated into a meta-signature with a recurrent and concordant gene expression pattern. A retrospective survival analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive power of a novel meta-signature deduced from transcriptional profiling studies of human breast cancer. Validation cohorts consisting of 6,011 breast cancer patients from 21 different breast cancer datasets and 1,110 patients with other malignancies (lung and prostate cancer) were used to test the robustness of our findings. During the iterative EXALT analysis, 633 signatures were grouped by their data similarity and formed 121 signature clusters. From the 121 signature clusters, we identified a unique meta-signature (BRmet50) based on a cluster of 11 signatures sharing a phenotype related to highly aggressive breast cancer. In patients with breast cancer, there was a significant association between BRmet50 and disease outcome, and the prognostic power of BRmet50 was independent of common clinical and pathologic covariates. Furthermore, the prognostic value of BRmet50 was not specific to breast cancer, as it also predicted survival in prostate and lung cancers. Conclusions We have established and implemented a novel data similarity-driven meta-analysis strategy. Using this approach, we identified a transcriptional meta-signature (BRmet50) in breast cancer, and the prognostic performance of BRmet50 was robust and applicable across a

  7. BAR expressolog identification: expression profile similarity ranking of homologous genes in plant species.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rohan V; Nahal, Hardeep K; Breit, Robert; Provart, Nicholas J

    2012-09-01

    Large numbers of sequences are now readily available for many plant species, allowing easy identification of homologous genes. However, orthologous gene identification across multiple species is made difficult by evolutionary events such as whole-genome or segmental duplications. Several developmental atlases of gene expression have been produced in the past couple of years, and it may be possible to use these transcript abundance data to refine ortholog predictions. In this study, clusters of homologous genes between seven plant species - Arabidopsis, soybean, Medicago truncatula, poplar, barley, maize and rice - were identified. Following this, a pipeline to rank homologs within gene clusters by both sequence and expression profile similarity was devised by determining equivalent tissues between species, with the best expression profile match being termed the 'expressolog'. Five electronic fluorescent pictograph (eFP) browsers were produced as part of this effort, to aid in visualization of gene expression data and to complement existing eFP browsers at the Bio-Array Resource (BAR). Within the eFP browser framework, these expression profile similarity rankings were incorporated into an Expressolog Tree Viewer to allow cross-species homolog browsing by both sequence and expression pattern similarity. Global analyses showed that orthologs with the highest sequence similarity do not necessarily exhibit the highest expression pattern similarity. Other orthologs may show different expression patterns, indicating that such genes may require re-annotation or more specific annotation. Ultimately, it is envisaged that this pipeline will aid in improvement of the functional annotation of genes and translational plant research. PMID:22607031

  8. Self-similarity of temperature profiles in distant galaxy clusters: the quest for a universal law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, A.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.

    2012-09-01

    Context. We present the XMM-Newton temperature profiles of 12 bright (LX > 4 × 1044 erg s-1) clusters of galaxies at 0.4 < z < 0.9, having an average temperature in the range 5 ≲ kT ≲ 11 keV. Aims: The main goal of this paper is to study for the first time the temperature profiles of a sample of high-redshift clusters, to investigate their properties, and to define a universal law to describe the temperature radial profiles in galaxy clusters as a function of both cosmic time and their state of relaxation. Methods: We performed a spatially resolved spectral analysis, using Cash statistics, to measure the temperature in the intracluster medium at different radii. Results: We extracted temperature profiles for the clusters in our sample, finding that all profiles are declining toward larger radii. The normalized temperature profiles (normalized by the mean temperature T500) are found to be generally self-similar. The sample was subdivided into five cool-core (CC) and seven non cool-core (NCC) clusters by introducing a pseudo-entropy ratio σ = (TIN/TOUT) × (EMIN/EMOUT)-1/3 and defining the objects with σ < 0.6 as CC clusters and those with σ ≥ 0.6 as NCC clusters. The profiles of CC and NCC clusters differ mainly in the central regions, with the latter exhibiting a slightly flatter central profile. A significant dependence of the temperature profiles on the pseudo-entropy ratio σ is detected by fitting a function of r and σ, showing an indication that the outer part of the profiles becomes steeper for higher values of σ (i.e. transitioning toward the NCC clusters). No significant evidence of redshift evolution could be found within the redshift range sampled by our clusters (0.4 < z < 0.9). A comparison of our high-z sample with intermediate clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 showed how the CC and NCC cluster temperature profiles have experienced some sort of evolution. This can happen because higher z clusters are at a less advanced stage of their formation and

  9. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  10. Accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of model bacterial communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, Haack S.; Garchow, H.; Odelson, D.A.; Forney, L.J.; Klug, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the accuracy and reproducibility of whole-community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis with two model bacterial communities differing in composition by using the Microbial ID, Inc. (MIDI), system. The biomass, taxonomic structure, and expected MIDI-FAME profiles under a variety of environmental conditions were known for these model communities a priori. Not all members of each community could be detected in the composite profile because of lack of fatty acid 'signatures' in some isolates or because of variations (approximately fivefold) in fatty acid yield across taxa. MIDI- FAME profiles of replicate subsamples of a given community were similar in terms of fatty acid yield per unit of community dry weight and relative proportions of specific fatty acids. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of MIDI-FAME profiles resulted in a clear separation of the two different communities and a clustering of replicates of each community from two separate experiments on the first PCA axis. The first PCA axis accounted for 57.1% of the variance in the data and was correlated with fatty acids that varied significantly between communities and reflected the underlying community taxonomic structure. On the basis of our data, community fatty acid profiles can be used to assess the relative similarities and differences of microbial communities that differ in taxonomic composition. However, detailed interpretation of community fatty acid profiles in terms of biomass or community taxonomic composition must be viewed with caution until our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fatty acids over a wide variety of taxa and the effects of growth conditions on fatty acid profiles is more extensive.

  11. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  12. Modified MALDI MS fatty acid profiling for bacterial identification.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Kent J; Jensen, Kirk R; McAlpin, Casey R; Rees, Jon C; Cody, Robert; Ubukata, Masaaki; Cox, Christopher R

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial fatty acid profiling is a well-established technique for bacterial identification. Ten bacteria were analyzed using both positive- and negative-ion modes with a modified matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) approach using CaO as a matrix replacement (metal oxide laser ionization MS (MOLI MS)). The results show that reproducible lipid cleavage similar to thermal in situ tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide saponification/derivatization had occurred. Principal component analysis showed that replicates from each organism grouped in a unique space. Cross validation (CV) of spectra from both ionization modes resulted in greater than 94% validation of the data. When CV results were compared for the two ionization modes, negative-ion data produced a superior outcome. MOLI MS provides clinicians a rapid, reproducible and cost-effective bacterial diagnostic tool. PMID:23832941

  13. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Barnig, Cindy; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach–in a limited number of patients and controls—to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology. PMID:26524763

  14. Velocity profile development for a poultry facility acid scrubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of the air velocity profile for 12 experimental configurations (ECs) of an acid scrubber was carried out using an equal area traverse method with a vane axial anemometer. Four velocity profile plots were created for each configuration to determine the four optimal ECs. ECs were selecte...

  15. Fatty acid profiles of some Fabaceae seed oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid profiles of six seed oils of the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family are reported and discussed. These are the seed oils of Centrosema pubescens, Clitoria ternatea, Crotalaria mucronata, Macroptilium lathyroides, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Senna alata. The most common fatty acid in the fatty a...

  16. Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media

    SciTech Connect

    Iordache, A.; Horj, E.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M.; Ani, A. R.; Mesaros, C.

    2010-08-04

    An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 mx0.25 mm, 0.25 {mu}m film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 deg. C, 1 min, 6 deg. C/min at 100 deg. C, 4 deg. C/min at 200 deg. C, 20 deg. C/min at 300 deg. C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 deg. C, the injector temperature 200 deg. C and ion source temperature 250 deg. C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 {mu}A. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

  17. Amino Acids Profiles in Biological Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, A.; Horj, E.; Ani, A. R.; Mesaros, C.; Morar, S.; Cozar, O.; Culea, M.

    2010-08-01

    An accurate analytical method was developed to determine amino acids in some biological specimens by GC/MS technique. Stable isotopes provide useful tools for a variety of studies, offering ideal internal standards in quantitative information. Isotopic dilution gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (ID-GC/MS) is the techniques used for quantitative analysis of compounds labeled with stable isotopes. A Trace DSQ Thermo Finnigan quadrupole mass spectrometer coupled with a Trace GC was used. Amino acids were separated on a Rtx-5 MS capillary column, 30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film thickness, using a temperature program from 50 °C, 1 min, 6 °C/min at 100 °C, 4 °C/min at 200 °C, 20 °C/min at 300 °C, (3 min). The transfer line temperature was 250 °C, the injector temperature 200 °C and ion source temperature 250 °C; splitter: 10:1. Electron energy was 70 eV and emission current, 100 μA. The amino acids were purified on a Dowex 50W-W8 exchange resin and were derivatized in a procedure following two steps to obtain trifluoroacetyl butyl esters. The identification of amino acids was obtained by using NIST library but also by using amino acid standards.

  18. Similar cardiovascular risk factor profile in screen-detected and known type 2 diabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    Heldgaard, Poul Erik; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Sidelmann, Johannes J.; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, Volkert D.; Gram, Jørgen B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile in subjects with screen-detected type 2 diabetes (SDM) and subjects with known type 2 diabetes (KDM). Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey. Setting and subjects In a single, semi-rural general practice 2082 subjects were between 20 and 69 years. Of those, 1970 subjects were invited, and a total of 1374 (69.7%) subjects were examined by blood tests, anthropometric measures, and self-administered questionnaires. Results Before the survey 19 persons were known to have type 2 diabetes. The screening revealed another 31 individuals with type 2 diabetes, diagnosed according to the 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Age, levels of blood pressure, BMI, and dyslipidaemia, and markers of haemostasis and inflammation were comparable in the two groups. Median age in the KDM group was 58 vs. 57 years in the SDM group, p = 0.82, 79% were male vs. 61%, p = 0.23. In both groups 74% had blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mmHg, p = 1.00. In both groups 90% had BMI ≥ 25, p = 1.00, and about half in both groups had BMI ≥ 30, p = 0.56. In the KDM group 63% had dyslipidaemia (low HDL cholesterol or elevated triglycerides) vs. 80% in the SDM group, p = 0.32. Median levels of plasminogen-activator-inhibitor (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), as well as fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) were without statistically significant differences in the two groups, p > 0.1. In contrast, in markers of glycaemic regulation statistically significant differences were found between groups. Median HbA1 was 8.0 vs. 6.5, p < 0.001. Median fasting whole blood glucose level was 8.8 mmol/L vs. 6.3 mmol/L, p < 0.001, and glucose at two hours during OGTT was 16.9 mmol/L vs. 11.2 mmol/L, p < 0.001. Median fasting serum insulin level was 52 pmol/L vs. 80 pmol/L, p = 0.039 and at two hours 127 pmol/L vs. 479 pmol/L, p < 0.001. Conclusions The CVD risk-factor profile of SDM patients was similar to the expected

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl source attribution in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, using multivariate similarity among congener profiles in sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Cacela, Dave; Beltman, Douglas J; Lipton, Joshua

    2002-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations measured in 1,189 sediment samples from Green Bay (MI/WI, USA), Lake Michigan (MI/WI, USA), and the Fox River (WI, USA) were analyzed statistically to evaluate whether PCB congener profiles in outer Green Bay are more similar to those observed in inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan. Similarities among PCB profiles were assessed with complementary multivariate analysis techniques: Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and classification trees. The PCA indicated that profiles in outer Green Bay are distinct from those of inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan but are more similar to those of inner Green Bay. The outer bay profiles are dissimilar to profiles that would result from a simple process of mixing contaminated sediments from the inner bay with Lake Michigan sediments and, therefore, support the conclusion that contaminants in outer Green Bay come from discharges of the Fox River. Several classification trees based on small sets of congener proportions defined simple rules that consistently distinguished the regional profiles. Application of these rules to classify the outer bay samples suggests that the profiles of less than 7% of outer bay samples are similar to Lake Michigan profiles. These results are interpreted with respect to physical transport and chemical weathering processes that may account for the observed differences. PMID:12152758

  20. Microbiota and bile acid profiles in retinoic acid-primed mice that exhibit accelerated liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui-Xin; Hu, Ying; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims All-trans Retinoic acid (RA) regulates hepatic lipid and bile acid homeostasis. Similar to bile acid (BA), RA accelerates partial hepatectomy (PHx)-induced liver regeneration. Because there is a bidirectional regulatory relationship between gut microbiota and BA synthesis, we examined the effect of RA in altering the gut microbial population and BA composition and established their relationship with hepatic biological processes during the active phases of liver regeneration. Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated with RA orally followed by 2/3 PHx. The roles of RA in shifting gut microbiota and BA profiles as well as hepatocyte metabolism and proliferation were studied. Results RA-primed mice exhibited accelerated hepatocyte proliferation revealed by higher numbers of Ki67-positive cells compared to untreated mice. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla dominated the gut microbial community (>85%) in both control and RA-primed mice after PHx. RA reduced the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes, which was associated with a lean phenotype. Consistently, RA-primed mice lacked transient lipid accumulation normally found in regenerating livers. In addition, RA altered BA homeostasis and shifted BA profiles by increasing the ratio of hydrophilic to hydrophobic BAs in regenerating livers. Accordingly, metabolic regulators fibroblast growth factor 21, Sirtuin1, and their downstream targets AMPK and ERK1/2 were more robustly activated in RA-primed than unprimed regenerating livers. Conclusions Priming mice with RA resulted in a lean microbiota composition and hydrophilic BA profiles, which were associated with facilitated metabolism and enhanced cell proliferation. PMID:26701854

  1. The lectin riddle: glycoproteins fractionated from complex mixtures have similar glycomic profiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Albert; Nakano, Miyako; Hincapie, Marina; Kolarich, Daniel; Baker, Mark S; Hancock, William S; Packer, Nicolle H

    2010-08-01

    One common method used for analyzing the glycoproteome is chromatography using multiple lectins that display different affinities toward oligosaccharide structures. Much has been done to determine lectin affinity using standard glycoproteins with known glycosylation; however, a knowledge of the selectivity and specificity of lectins exposed to complex mixtures of proteins is required if they are to be used as a means of studying the glycoproteome. In the present study, three lectins (Concanavalin A, Jacalin, and Wheat Germ Agglutinin) were used to fractionate glycoproteins from two different complex environments: (1) cell membranes and (2) plasma. Reproducible enrichment of glycoproteins from these samples has been shown to result from the combined use of these lectins. However, the global glycan profiles of the released N- and O-linked oligosaccharides from the glycoproteins retained by the lectins, and from those glycoproteins that did not bind, using both these complex samples, were found to be very similar. That is, although the lectins selectively and reproducibly retained some glycoproteins, other proteins with the same attached oligosaccharide structures did not bind. Some small N- and O-glycan differences were observed in the bound fractions but there was little absolute specificity toward individual oligosaccharide structures known to have high affinity to these lectins. These data indicate that lectins are useful for fractionating glycoproteins from complex mixtures, but that the overall glycoproteome is not isolated by this approach. PMID:20726804

  2. Beryllium-induced lung disease exhibits expression profiles similar to sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Silveira, Lori J; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Gillespie, May; Mroz, Peggy M; Mayer, Annyce S; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Maier, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    A subset of beryllium-exposed workers develop beryllium sensitisation (BeS) which precedes chronic beryllium disease (CBD). We conducted an in-depth analysis of differentially expressed candidate genes in CBD.We performed Affymetrix GeneChip 1.0 ST array analysis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 CBD, 10 BeS and 10 beryllium-exposed, nondiseased controls stimulated with BeSO4 or medium. The differentially expressed genes were validated by high-throughput real-time PCR in this group and in an additional group of cases and nonexposed controls. The functional roles of the top candidate genes in CBD were assessed using a pharmacological inhibitor. CBD gene expression data were compared with whole blood and lung tissue in sarcoidosis from the Gene Expression Omnibus.We confirmed almost 450 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between CBD and controls. The top enrichment of genes was for JAK (Janus kinase)-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signalling. A JAK2 inhibitor significantly decreased tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production. Furthermore, we found 287 differentially expressed genes overlapped in CBD/sarcoidosis. The top shared pathways included cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and Toll-like receptor, chemokine and JAK-STAT signalling pathways.We show that PBMCs demonstrate differentially expressed gene profiles relevant to the immunnopathogenesis of CBD. CBD and sarcoidosis share similar differential expression of pathogenic genes and pathways. PMID:27103383

  3. Rat and human STINGs profile similarly towards anticancer/antiviral compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Han, Min-Jie; Tao, Jianli; Ye, Zhao-Yang; Du, Xiao-Xia; Deng, Ming-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Lan-Fen; Jiang, Zheng-Fan; Su, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) and antitumor/antiviral agents (DMXAA and CMA) trigger STING-dependent innate immunity activation. Accumulative evidences have showed that DMXAA and CMA selectively activate mouse, but not human STING signaling. The mechanism underlying this species selectivity remains poorly understood. In this report, we have shown that human and rat STINGs display more similar signaling profiles toward DMXAA and CMA than that of human and mouse STINGs, suggesting that rat is more suitable for preclinical testing of STING-targeted drugs. We have also determined the crystal structures of both apo rat STING and its complex with cyclic GMP-AMP with 2′5′ and 3′5′ phosphodiester linkage (2′3′-cGAMP), a human endogenous CDN. Structure-guided biochemical analysis also revealed the functional importance of the connecting loop (A140-N152) between membrane and cytosolic domains in STING activation. Taken together, these findings reveal that rat STING is more closely related to human STING in terms of substrate preference, serving as a foundation for the development of STING-targeted drugs. PMID:26669264

  4. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles for Characterization of Glomalean Fungi and Their Endomycorrhizae

    PubMed Central

    Graham, J. H.; Hodge, N. C.; Morton, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Arbuscule-forming fungi in the order Glomales form obligate endomycorrhizal associations with plants that make them difficult to quantify, and taxonomy of the group is only beginning to be objectively understood. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were analyzed to assess the diversity and quantity of fatty acids in 53 isolates of 24 glomalean species. Spores and endomycorrhizal roots of sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) and the citrus rootstock Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x Citrus sinensis) were examined. Spores yielded reproducible FAME profiles from replicate spore collections extracted from soil pot cultures despite being grown in association with a host plant and with contaminating microorganisms present. Unweighted pair group analysis revealed relatively tight clusters of groups at the intraspecific, specific, and generic levels; however, lipid profiles at the family level were convergent. Thus, FAME profile comparisons provided a robust measure of similarity below the family level. FAME profiles in sudan grass roots containing vesicles and/or spores of Glomus intraradices were more similar to spore profiles than to profiles from nonmycorrhizal roots. The FAME profiles for Gigaspora species, which do not form vesicles or spores in roots, were less distinct from nonmycorrhizal roots. G. intraradices and G. rosea produced fatty acids in roots that were distinguishable from each other as well as from the host root. Production in citrus roots of the fatty acid 16:1(inf(omega)5) cis by two Glomus species was correlated with the development of mycorrhizal colonization as measured by clearing and staining procedures and by estimates of total incidence and vesicle intensity. FAME analysis of roots not only provided a measure of colonization development but also served as an index of carbon allocated to intraradical fungal growth and lipid storage. PMID:16534923

  5. Desmethyl bosentan displays a similar in vitro interaction profile as bosentan.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Johanna; Baumann, Sybille; Theile, Dirk; Haefeli, Walter Emil

    2015-02-01

    The endothelin-1 receptor antagonists bosentan and ambrisentan used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension remarkably differ in their potential to act as perpetrators in pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions. So far, it is not clear whether the metabolites of bosentan and ambrisentan contribute to the extent of drug interactions. We therefore investigated the effects of 4-hydroxymethyl ambrisentan, hydroxy bosentan, desmethyl bosentan, and hydroxy desmethyl bosentan on targets which are inhibited or induced by the parent compounds. The hydroxylated metabolites of ambrisentan and bosentan neither induced any of the genes investigated at the mRNA level, nor inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp) measured by calcein assay in L-MDR1 cells, and only weakly inhibited organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 measured by 8-fluorescein-cAMP uptake in HEK-OATP1B1 and HEK-OATP1B3 cells. In contrast, desmethyl bosentan induced mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4, about 6-fold at 50 μM), ABCB1 (P-gp, about 4.5-fold at 50 μM), and ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein, about 2-fold at 50 μM), whereas CYP2C19, ABCB11, and ABCC2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) were not induced in LS180 cells. In a reporter gene assay, desmethyl bosentan activated pregnane X receptor with the highest potency of all metabolites tested. Whereas desmethyl bosentan did not inhibit P-gp, it inhibited OATP1B1 with an IC50 of 3.8 μM (1.9-7.6) (geometric mean, 95% CI) and OATP1B3 with an IC50 of 7.4 μM (2.6-21.52). In conclusion, our data demonstrate that desmethyl bosentan exhibits a similar pharmacokinetic interaction profile as bosentan and might contribute to the inducing effects of the parent compound. PMID:25535031

  6. Fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gloria Romina; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina Paola; González, Silvia Nelina

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this work was to study the fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration. Thirty postweaned pigs (25 day old) were distributed into 2 groups: control (n = 15) and probiotic (n = 15). Each experimental group was fed ad libitum on a commercial diet for 35 days. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Enterococcus faecium mixed culture (10(8) CFU/ml)was daily orally delivered to the probiotic group. At the end of the assay, six pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered and muscle samples (Longissimus dorsi) were taken for fatty acid analysis. Tissues from the probiotic group animals exhibited an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids; furthermore, linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (18:3), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. These results suggest probiotic administration could be useful to modify and improve the fatty acid profile of pig meat. PMID:22506842

  7. Typing of Histoplasma capsulatum strains by fatty acid profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zarnowski, Robert; Miyazaki, Makoto; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Ntambi, James M.; Woods, Jon P.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of fatty acid profiling for strain differentiation of Histoplasma capsulatum was assessed. Total fatty acids were isolated from the yeast-phase cells of seven stock and two previously unreported clinical strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum, as well as from one unreported clinical strain and one stock strain of H. capsulatum var. duboisii, and one strain of each of three other dimorphic zoopathogenic fungal species, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii. Different colony morphology and pigmentation types of the H. capsulatum strains were also included. The most frequently occurring fatty acids were oleic, palmitic, stearic and linoleic acids. There were variations in the relative percentage fatty acid contents of H. capsulatum strains that could be used for strain identification and discrimination. Differentiation between H. capsulatum strains was achieved by the comparison of detected fatty acids accompanied by principal component analysis using calculated Varimax-rotated principal component loadings. Statistical analysis yielded three major principal components that explained over 94% of total variance in the data. All the strains of H. capsulatum var. capsulatum RFLP classes II and III were grouped into two distinct clusters: the heterogenic RFLP class I formed a large, but also well-defined group, whereas the outgroup strains of H. capsulatum var. duboisii, B. dermatitidis, P. brasiliensis and S. schenckii were shifted away. These data suggest that fatty acid profiling can be used in H. capsulatum strain classification and epidemiological studies that require strain differentiation at the intraspecies level. PMID:17510264

  8. Amino acid profile during exercise and training in Standardbreds.

    PubMed

    Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; Wijnberg, I D; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; van Breda, E; Barneveld, A; de Graaf-Roelfsema, E; Keizer, H A; van der Kolk, J H

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the influence of acute exercise, training and intensified training on the plasma amino acid profile. In a 32-week longitudinal study using 10 Standardbred horses, training was divided into four phases, including a phase of intensified training for five horses. At the end of each phase, a standardized exercise test, SET, was performed. Plasma amino acid concentrations before and after each SET were measured. Training significantly reduced mean plasma aspartic acid concentration, whereas exercise significantly increased the plasma concentrations of alanine, taurine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine and reduced the plasma concentrations of glycine, ornithine, glutamine, citrulline and serine. Normally and intensified trained horses differed not significantly. It is concluded that amino acids should not be regarded as limiting training performance in Standardbreds except for aspartic acid which is the most likely candidate for supplementation. PMID:20863542

  9. Profiles of secreted neuropeptides and catecholamines illustrate similarities and differences in response to stimulation by distinct secretagogues.

    PubMed

    Podvin, Sonia; Bundey, Richard; Toneff, Thomas; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to define profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that undergo co-release from sympathoadrenal chromaffin cells upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla participate in the dynamic responses to stress, especially that of 'fight and flight', and, thus, analyses of the co-release of multiple neurotransmitters is necessary to gain knowledge of how the stress response regulates cell-cell communication among physiological systems. Results of this study demonstrated that six different secretagogues stimulated the co-release of the neuropeptides Met-enkephalin, galanin, NPY, and VIP with the catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Importantly, the quantitative profiles of the secreted neurotransmitters showed similarities and differences upon stimulation by the different secretagogues evaluated, composed of KCl depolarization, nicotine, carbachol, PACAP, bradykinin, and histamine. The rank-orders of the secreted profiles of the neurotransmitters were generally similar among these secretagogues, but differences in the secreted amounts of each neurotransmitter occurred with different secretagogues. Epinephrine among the catecholamines showed the highest level of secretion. (Met)enkephalin showed the largest levels of secretion compared to the other neuropeptides examined. Levels of secreted catecholamines were greater than that of the neuropeptides. These data support the hypothesis that profiles of secreted neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters show similarities and differences upon stimulation by distinct secretagogues. These results illustrate the co-release of concerted neurotransmitter profiles that participate in the stress response of the sympathoadrenal nervous system. PMID:26092702

  10. Fast profiling of protease specificity reveals similar substrate specificities for cathepsins K, L and S.

    PubMed

    Vizovišek, Matej; Vidmar, Robert; Van Quickelberghe, Emmy; Impens, Francis; Andjelković, Uroš; Sobotič, Barbara; Stoka, Veronika; Gevaert, Kris; Turk, Boris; Fonović, Marko

    2015-07-01

    Proteases are important effectors of numerous physiological and pathological processes. Reliable determination of a protease's specificity is crucial to understand protease function and to develop activity-based probes and inhibitors. During the last decade, various proteomic approaches for profiling protease substrate specificities were reported. Although most of these approaches can identify up to thousands of substrate cleavage events in a single experiment, they are often time consuming and methodologically challenging as some of these approaches require rather complex sample preparation procedures. For such reasons their application is often limited to those labs that initially introduced them. Here, we report on a fast and simple approach for proteomic profiling of protease specificities (fast profiling of protease specificity (FPPS)), which can be applied to complex protein mixtures. FPPS is based on trideutero-acetylation of novel N-termini generated by the action of proteases and subsequent peptide fractionation on Stage Tips containing ion-exchange and reverse phase chromatographic resins. FPPS can be performed in 2 days and does not require extensive fractionation steps. Using this approach, we have determined the specificity profiles of the cysteine cathepsins K, L and S. We further validated our method by comparing the results with the specificity profiles obtained by the N-terminal combined fractional diagonal chromatography method. This comparison pointed to almost identical substrate specificities for all three cathepsins and confirmed the reliability of the FPPS approach. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001536 and PXD001553 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001536; http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001553). PMID:25626674

  11. In vitro bile acid binding and short-chain fatty acid profile of flax fiber and ethanol co-products.

    PubMed

    Fodje, Adele M L; Chang, Peter R; Leterme, Pascal

    2009-10-01

    Fibers from flaxseed and co-products from ethanol production could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human diet. In vitro fermentation and bile acid binding models were used to investigate the metabolic effects of lignaMax (Bioriginal Food and Science Corp., Saskatoon, SK, Canada) flax meal, spent flax meal, soluble flax gum, wheat insoluble fiber (WIF), and rye insoluble fiber (RIF). Wheat and rye bran were used as reference samples. Bile acid binding of substrates was analysed at taurocholate ([(14)C]taurocholate) concentration of 12.5 mM. Soluble flax gum showed the highest bile acid binding (0.57 micromol/mg of fiber) (P acid binding between wheat bran (0.2 micromol/mg of fiber) and WIF (0.26 micromol/mg of fiber). RIF had higher (P acid binding (0.20 micromol/mg of fiber) than rye bran (0.13 micromol/mg of fiber). Substrates were hydrolyzed and incubated with pig fecal samples. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and gas accumulation (G(f)) were compared. Soluble flax gum generated the highest amount of acetic and propionic acids. SCFA profiles of wheat/rye brans and WIF/RIF were similar (except for butyric acid). G(f) for soluble flax gum was greater (P < .001) than that of spent flax meal. G(f) values of the wheat samples were similar, whereas the G(f) of the rye bran was higher (P < .001) than that of RIF. Fractional degradation rate (micro(t = T/2)) (P < .001) was also recorded. The highest mu(t = T/2) was observed for the soluble flax gum. Oil-depleted flaxseed fractions and WIF/RIF (co-products from ethanol production) could be potential sources of dietary fiber in human nutrition. PMID:19857071

  12. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens’ performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26261709

  13. Projected profile similarity in gyrokinetic simulations of Bohm and gyro-Bohm scaled DIII-D L and H modes

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Candy, J.; Petty, C. C.

    2006-07-15

    Global gyrokinetic simulations of DIII-D [M. A. Mahdavi and J. L. Luxon, in 'DIII-D Tokamak Special Issue', Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] L- and H-mode dimensionally similar discharge pairs are treated in detail. The simulations confirm the Bohm scaling of the well-matched L-mode pair. The paradoxical but experimentally apparent gyro-Bohm scaling of the H-mode pair at larger relative gyroradius (rho-star) and lower transport levels is due to poor profile similarity. Simulations of projected experimental plasma profiles with perfect similarity show both the L- and H-mode pairs to have Bohm scaling. A {rho}{sub *} stabilization rule for predicting the breakdown of gyro-Bohm scaling from simulations of a single discharge is presented.

  14. The WISC-III Profile in Greek Children with Learning Disabilities: Different Language, Similar Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotsika, V.; Vlassopoulos, M.; Legaki, L.; Sini, A.; Rogakou, E.; Sakellariou, K.; Pehlivanidou, H.; Anagnostopoulos, D. C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the WISC-III profile in Greek children with learning disabilities (LD). The sample consisted of 180 children diagnosed with learning disability (136 boys, 44 girls) aged 6.11 to 14.4 years. The Mean Full-scale IQ is 96.08, Mean Verbal IQ is 96.38, and Mean Performance IQ is 96.61. On individual subtests, the lowest mean…

  15. Similarity normalization method for thermal conductivity depth profile reconstructions from inhomogeneous cylindrical and flat solids using thermal waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwang; Wang, Chinhua; Yuan, Xiao; Mandelis, Andreas

    2010-03-01

    A similarity normalization method for thermal-wave depth profiling of layered and radial continuously varying inhomogeneous thermophysical properties in cylindrical solids is investigated and related to that developed for inhomogeneous flat solids both theoretically and experimentally using photothermal radiometry. The deconvolution of the curvature effect out of the overall thermal-wave field of inhomogeneous cylindrical solids allows conventional rectilinear thermal-wave inverse-problem techniques to be applied to thermal conductivity depth profile reconstructions in layered and inhomogeneous depth-varying cylindrical solids and opens new possibilities for depth profilometry of such solids using existing flat-surface inverse techniques.

  16. Velocity profile similarity for viscous flow development along a longitudinally slotted wind-tunnel wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Goradia, Suresh H.

    1988-01-01

    A discussion of the flow field measurements on the slot centerline of two different longitudinally slotted wind-tunnel walls is presented. The longitudinal and transverse components of these data are then transformed using the concept of flow similarity to demonstrate the applicability of the technique to the development of the viscous shear flow along and through a slotted wall. Results are presented showing the performance of the similarity transformations with variations in tunnel station, Mach number, and airfoil-induced curvature of the tunnel free stream.

  17. Fatty acids profiles of some Spanish wild vegetables.

    PubMed

    Morales, P; Ferreira, I C F R; Carvalho, A M; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Cámara, M; Tardío, J

    2012-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in human nutrition, being associated with several health benefits. The analyzed vegetables, in spite of its low fat content, lower than 2%, present a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3, n-6 and n-9 series, such as α-linolenic, linoleic and oleic acids, respectively. Wild edible plants contain in general a good balance of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. The present study tries to contribute to the preservation and valorization of traditional food resources, studying the fatty acids profile of 20 wild vegetables by gas-liquid chromatography with flame ionization detection. Results show that species in which leaves are predominant in their edible parts have in general the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios: Rumex pulcher (5.44), Cichorium intybus (5.14) and Papaver rhoeas (5.00). Due to the low n-6/n-3 ratios of the majority of the samples, they can be considered interesting sources of n-3 fatty acids, especially those with higher total fat amount, such as Bryonia dioica, Chondrilla juncea or Montia fontana, with the highest contents of α-linolenic acid (67.78, 56.27 and 47.65%, respectively). The wild asparaguses of Asparagus acutifolius and Tamus communis stand out for their linoleic acid content (42.29 and 42.45%, respectively). All these features reinforce the interest of including wild plants in diet, as an alternative to the variety of vegetables normally used. PMID:22701061

  18. Similarity of the nocturnal profile of serum melatonin at early puberty and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Terzolo, M; Piovesan, A; Pia, A; Arvat, E; Bellone, J; Valente, F; Paccotti, P; Ghigo, E; Angeli, A

    1992-01-01

    In the present study we determined the nocturnal profile of serum melatonin (MT) concentrations in 10 short normal children at Tanner stage I-II of pubertal development (12.5-14.9 yrs) and in 6 young adults (24-29 yrs). Blood was collected every 30 min from 00(00) to 06(00). We did not find any significant difference in the nocturnal profile of serum MT, as gauged by the comparison of MT concentrations at any time-point tested as well as of the transverse means (84.2 +/- 36.0 pg/ml [M +/- SD] in the children vs 78.7 +/- 10.8 pg/ml in the adults). Mean serum melatonin concentration was not correlated to sex hormone concentration or body surface area. Our findings do not support the view that MT concentrations fall at the beginning of pubertal development and that changes in body size may be the reason for age-dependent changes of serum MT concentrations. PMID:1628525

  19. Exploration of the antiplatelet activity profile of betulinic acid on human platelets

    PubMed Central

    Tzakos, Andreas G.; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G.; Tsoumani, Maria; Kyriakou, Eleni; Hwa, John; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Tselepis, Alexandros D.

    2013-01-01

    Betulinic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpene acid, presents a diverse mode of biological actions including anti-retroviral, antibacterial, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory activities. The potency of betulinic acid as an inhibitor of human platelet activation was evaluated and its antiplatelet profile against in vitro platelet aggregation, induced by several platelet agonists (Adenosine Diphosphate, Thrombin Receptor Activator Peptide-14 and Arachidonic Acid), was explored. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the effect of betulinic acid on P-selectin membrane expression and PAC-1 binding to activated platelets. Betulinic acid potently inhibits platelet aggregation and also reduced PAC-1 binding and the membrane expression of P-selectin. Principal component analysis was used to screen, on the chemical property space, for potential common pharmacophores of betulinic acid with approved antithrombotic drugs. A common pharmacophore was defined between the NMR derived structure of betulinic acid and prostacyclin agonists (PGI2) and the importance of its carboxylate group in its antiplatelet activity was determined. The present results indicate that betulinic acid has potential use as an antithrombotic compound and suggest that the mechanism underlying the antiplatelet effects of betulinic acid is similar to that of the PGI2 receptor agonists, a hypothesis that reserves further investigation. PMID:22720759

  20. Exploration of the antiplatelet activity profile of betulinic acid on human platelets.

    PubMed

    Tzakos, Andreas G; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tsoumani, Maria; Kyriakou, Eleni; Hwa, John; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2012-07-18

    Betulinic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpene acid, presents a diverse mode of biological actions including antiretroviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The potency of betulinic acid as an inhibitor of human platelet activation was evaluated, and its antiplatelet profile against in vitro platelet aggregation, induced by several platelet agonists (adenosine diphosphate, thrombin receptor activator peptide-14, and arachidonic acid), was explored. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the effect of betulinic acid on P-selectin membrane expression and PAC-1 binding to activated platelets. Betulinic acid potently inhibits platelet aggregation and also reduced PAC-1 binding and the membrane expression of P-selectin. Principal component analysis was used to screen, on the chemical property space, for potential common pharmacophores of betulinic acid with approved antithrombotic drugs. A common pharmacophore was defined between the NMR-derived structure of betulinic acid and prostacyclin agonists (PGI2), and the importance of its carboxylate group in its antiplatelet activity was determined. The present results indicate that betulinic acid has potential use as an antithrombotic compound and suggest that the mechanism underlying the antiplatelet effects of betulinic acid is similar to that of the PGI2 receptor agonists, a hypothesis that deserves further investigation. PMID:22720759

  1. Oxidation and textural characteristics of butter and ice cream with modified fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, S; Duncan, S E; O'Keefe, S F; Sumner, S S; Herbein, J H

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate oxidation and firmness of butter and ice cream made with modified milkfat containing enhanced amounts of linoleic acid or oleic acid. The influence of the fatty acid profile of the HO milkfat relating to product properties as compared with the influence the fatty acid profile of the HL milkfat was the main focus of the research. Altering the degree of unsaturation in milkfat may affect melting characteristics and oxidation rates, leading to quality issues in dairy products. Three milkfat compositions (high-oleic, high-linoleic, and control) were obtained by modifying the diets of Holstein cows. Ice cream and butter were processed from milkfat obtained from cows in each dietary group. Butter and ice cream samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid profile and firmness. High-oleic milkfat resulted in a softer butter. Solid fat index of high-oleic and high-linoleic milkfat was lower than the control. Control ice cream mix had higher viscosity compared with high-oleic and high-linoleic, but firmness of all ice creams was similar when measured between -17 and -13 degrees C. Nutritional and textural properties of butter and ice cream can be improved by modifying the diets of cows. PMID:12613850

  2. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    PubMed

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods. PMID:26576657

  3. Similarity Equations for Wind and Temperature Profiles in the Radix Layer, at the Bottom of the Convective Boundary Layer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoso, Edi; Stull, Roland

    2001-06-01

    In the middle of the convective boundary layer, also known as the mixed layer, is a relatively thick region where wind speed and potential temperature are nearly uniform with height. Below this uniform layer (UL), wind speed decreases to zero at the ground, and potential temperature increases to the surface skin value. This whole region below the UL is called the radix layer (RxL), and is of order hundreds of meters thick. Within the bottom of the RxL lies the classical surface layer (order of tens of meters thick) that obeys traditional Monin-Obukhov similarity theory.The RxL depth is shown to depend on friction velocity, Deardorff velocity, and boundary layer depth. The wind RxL is usually thicker than the temperature RxL. Using RxL depth, UL wind speed, and UL potential temperature as length, velocity, and temperature scales, respectively, one can form dimensionless heights, velocities, and temperatures. When observations obtained within the RxL are plotted in this dimensionless framework, the data collapse into similarity curves. This data collapse is tightly packed for data collected over single-location homogeneous surfaces, and shows more scatter for data collected along 72-km flight tracks over heterogeneous surfaces. Empirical profile equations are proposed to describe this RxL similarity. When these profile equations are combined with the flux equations from convective transport theory, the results are new flux-profile equations for a deep region within the bottom of the convective boundary layer.These RxL profile similarity equations are calibrated using data from four sites with different roughnesses: Minnesota, BLX96-Lamont, BLX96-Meeker, and BLX96-Winfield. The empirical parameters are found to be invariant from site to site, except for the profile shape parameter for wind speed. This parameter is found to depend on standard deviation of terrain elevation, rather than on the aerodynamic roughness length. The resulting parameter values are compared

  4. A Uniqueness Result for Self-Similar Profiles to Smoluchowski's Coagulation Equation Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, B.; Throm, S.; Velázquez, J. J. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this note we indicate how to correct the proof of a uniqueness result in [6] for self-similar solutions to Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for kernels K=K(x,y) that are homogeneous of degree zero and close to constant in the sense that begin{aligned} -\\varepsilon le K(x,y)-2 le \\varepsilon Big ( Big (x/yBig )^{α } + Big (y/xBig )^{α }Big ) for α in [0,1/2). Under the additional assumption, in comparison to [6], that K has an analytic extension to mathbb {C}{setminus } (-infty ,0] and that the precise asymptotic behaviour of K at the origin is prescribed, we prove that self-similar solutions with given mass are unique if \\varepsilon is sufficiently small. The complete details of the proof are available in [4]. In addition, we give here the proof of a uniqueness result for a related but simpler problem that appears in the description of self-similar solutions for x → infty.

  5. A Uniqueness Result for Self-Similar Profiles to Smoluchowski's Coagulation Equation Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niethammer, B.; Throm, S.; Velázquez, J. J. L.

    2016-06-01

    In this note we indicate how to correct the proof of a uniqueness result in [6] for self-similar solutions to Smoluchowski's coagulation equation for kernels K=K(x,y) that are homogeneous of degree zero and close to constant in the sense that -ɛ ≤ K(x,y)-2 ≤ ɛ Big ( Big (x/yBig )^{α } + Big (y/xBig )^{α }Big ) for α in [0,1/2) . Under the additional assumption, in comparison to [6], that K has an analytic extension to {C}{setminus } (-∞ ,0] and that the precise asymptotic behaviour of K at the origin is prescribed, we prove that self-similar solutions with given mass are unique if ɛ is sufficiently small. The complete details of the proof are available in [4]. In addition, we give here the proof of a uniqueness result for a related but simpler problem that appears in the description of self-similar solutions for x → ∞.

  6. 2D Self-Similar Profile for Laser Beam Propagation in Medium with Saturating Multi-Photon Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Lysak, Tatiana M.; Zakharova, Irina G.

    2016-02-01

    We study a self-similar mode of 2D laser beam propagation in media with multiphoton absorption (MA) taking into account a resonant nonlinearity and nonlinear absorption saturating. An analytical solution of the corresponding equations describing the problems under consideration is derived using an eigenvalue problem method generalization for soliton- like solution finding. The developed solution is used as incident beam profile and phase front for computer simulation of the 2D laser beam propagation. In particular, we demonstrate numerically that the laser beam propagation in a self-similar mode occurs within a certain distance, which depends on medium properties. Under certain relations between the nonlinear absorption and resonant nonlinearity, and cubic nonlinear response, we observe the super long distance of the beam propagation without any beam profile distributions.

  7. Application of a Self-Similar Pressure Profile to Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect Data from Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mroczkowski, Tony; Bonamente, Max; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Greer, Christopher; Hawkins, David; Hennessy, Ryan; Joy, Marshall; Lamb, James W.; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; Maughan, Ben; Marrone, Daniel P.; Miller, Amber; Muchovej, Stephen; Nagai, Daisuke; Pryke, Clem; Sharp, Matthew; Woody, David

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the utility of a new, self-similar pressure profile for fitting Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect observations of galaxy clusters. Current SZ imaging instruments-such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Array (SZA)- are capable of probing clusters over a large range in a physical scale. A model is therefore required that can accurately describe a cluster's pressure profile over a broad range of radii from the core of the cluster out to a significant fraction of the virial radius. In the analysis presented here, we fit a radial pressure profile derived from simulations and detailed X-ray analysis of relaxed clusters to SZA observations of three clusters with exceptionally high-quality X-ray data: A1835, A1914, and CL J1226.9+3332. From the joint analysis of the SZ and X-ray data, we derive physical properties such as gas mass, total mass, gas fraction and the intrinsic, integrated Compton y-parameter. We find that parameters derived from the joint fit to the SZ and X-ray data agree well with a detailed, independent X-ray-only analysis of the same clusters. In particular, we find that, when combined with X-ray imaging data, this new pressure profile yields an independent electron radial temperature profile that is in good agreement with spectroscopic X-ray measurements.

  8. New families in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B; Bairoch, A

    1993-01-01

    301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes corresponding to 39 EC entries of the I.U.B. classification system have been classified into 35 families on the basis of amino-acid-sequence similarities [Henrissat (1991) Biochem. J. 280, 309-316]. Approximately half of the families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number), whereas the other half were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). A > 60% increase in sequence data for glycosyl hydrolases (181 additional enzymes or enzyme domains sequences have since become available) allowed us to update the classification not only by the addition of more members to already identified families, but also by the finding of ten new families. On the basis of a comparison of 482 sequences corresponding to 52 EC entries, 45 families, out of which 22 are polyspecific, can now be defined. This classification has been implemented in the SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank. PMID:8352747

  9. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunying; Liu, Xueming; Chen, Zhiyi; Lin, Yaosheng; Wang, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. PMID:26942012

  10. Bovine lactoferrin binds oleic acid to form an anti-tumor complex similar to HAMLET.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Mai; Jiang, Lu; Guo, Hui Yuan; Ren, Fa Zheng

    2014-04-01

    α-Lactalbumin (α-LA) can bind oleic acid (OA) to form HAMLET-like complexes, which exhibited highly selective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Considering the structural similarity to α-LA, we conjectured that lactoferrin (LF) could also bind OA to obtain a complex with anti-tumor activity. In this study, LF-OA was prepared and its activity and structural changes were compared with α-LA-OA. The anti-tumor activity was evaluated by methylene blue assay, while the apoptosis mechanism was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blot. Structural changes of LF-OA were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The interactions of OA with LF and α-LA were evaluated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). LF-OA was obtained by heat-treatment at pH8.0 with LD50 of 4.88, 4.95 and 4.62μM for HepG2, HT29, and MCF-7 cells, respectively, all of which were 10 times higher than those of α-LA-OA. Similar to HAMLET, LF-OA induced apoptosis in tumor cells through both death receptor- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways. Exposure of tryptophan residues and the hydrophobic regions as well as the loss of tertiary structure were observed in LF-OA. Besides these similarities, LF showed different secondary structure changes when compared with α-LA, with a decrease of α-helix and β-turn and an increase of β-sheet and random coil. ITC results showed that there was a higher binding number of OA to LF than to α-LA, while both of the proteins interacted with OA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploration of protein-OA complexes. PMID:24368211

  11. Transcriptional profile of maize roots under acid soil growth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the most important yield-limiting factors of many crops worldwide. The primary symptom of Al toxicity syndrome is the inhibition of root growth leading to poor water and nutrient absorption. Al tolerance has been extensively studied using hydroponic experiments. However, unlike soil conditions, this method does not address all of the components that are necessary for proper root growth and development. In the present study, we grew two maize genotypes with contrasting tolerance to Al in soil containing toxic levels of Al and then compared their transcriptomic responses. Results When grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al, the Al-sensitive genotype (S1587-17) showed greater root growth inhibition, more Al accumulation and more callose deposition in root tips than did the tolerant genotype (Cat100-6). Transcriptome profiling showed a higher number of genes differentially expressed in S1587-17 grown in acid soil, probably due to secondary effects of Al toxicity. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of organic acids, which are frequently associated with an Al tolerance response, were not differentially regulated in both genotypes after acid soil exposure. However, genes related to the biosynthesis of auxin, ethylene and lignin were up-regulated in the Al-sensitive genotype, indicating that these pathways might be associated with root growth inhibition. By comparing the two maize lines, we were able to discover genes up-regulated only in the Al-tolerant line that also presented higher absolute levels than those observed in the Al-sensitive line. These genes encoded a lipase hydrolase, a retinol dehydrogenase, a glycine-rich protein, a member of the WRKY transcriptional family and two unknown proteins. Conclusions This work provides the first characterization of the physiological and transcriptional responses of maize roots when grown in acid soil containing toxic levels of Al. The transcriptome profiles highlighted

  12. Molecular and Cellular Profiling of Scalp Psoriasis Reveals Differences and Similarities Compared to Skin Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruano, Juan; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Shemer, Avner; Oliva, Margeaux

    2016-01-01

    Scalp psoriasis shows a variable clinical spectrum and in many cases poses a great therapeutic challenge. However, it remains unknown whether the immune response of scalp psoriasis differs from understood pathomechanisms of psoriasis in other skin areas. We sought to determine the cellular and molecular phenotype of scalp psoriasis by performing a comparative analysis of scalp and skin using lesional and nonlesional samples from 20 Caucasian subjects with untreated moderate to severe psoriasis and significant scalp involvement and 10 control subjects without psoriasis. Our results suggest that even in the scalp, psoriasis is a disease of the inter-follicular skin. The immune mechanisms that mediate scalp psoriasis were found to be similar to those involved in skin psoriasis. However, the magnitude of dysregulation, number of differentially expressed genes, and enrichment of the psoriatic genomic fingerprint were more prominent in skin lesions. Furthermore, the scalp transcriptome showed increased modulation of several gene-sets, particularly those induced by interferon-gamma, compared with that of skin psoriasis, which was mainly associated with activation of TNFα/L-17/IL-22-induced keratinocyte response genes. We also detected differences in expression of gene-sets involving negative regulation, epigenetic regulation, epidermal differentiation, and dendritic cell or Th1/Th17/Th22-related T-cell processes. PMID:26849645

  13. Fatty Acid Profile and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in the Milk Fate from Qingphai Yak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The milk and the milk products of yak (Bos grunniens) are major ingredients in the daily diets of Tibetan herders while dairy products from Bos taurus breeds are important dietary components in the U.S. Also, genetic advantages in yak milk fatty acid profiles might benefit to dairy production in the...

  14. Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profile Alters the Fatty Acid Profile and Quality of Beef from Confined Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Lage, Josiane F.; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta. C.; Reis, Ricardo A.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of lipid sources with different fatty acids profile on meat fatty acids profile and beef quality traits of Nellore. A total of 45 Nellore animals with an average initial body weight of 419±11 kg (at 15±2 mo) were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of 5 treatments and 9 replicates. The roughage feed was maize silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF), and soybean grains (SG). No effects of lipid sources were observed (p>0.05) on beef color, pH, water-holding capacity, and sarcomere length. Beef from cattle fed PO had greater shear-force values (p<0.05) compared to beef from cattle fed WF. Deposition of main unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and linolenic) was greater in treatments WF, SG, and LO, respectively, while the values of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) were greater when animals were fed LO. The inclusion of LO in the diet enhances the concentration of CLA in longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat besides improving the atherogenicity index and elongase activity. As such, LO can be used with the aim to improve the quality of beef from confined Nellore cattle. Conversely, the use of PO is not recommended since it may increase the concentration of undesirable unsaturated fatty acids in muscle and subcutaneous fat, shear-force and the atherogenicity index. PMID:26104402

  15. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits. PMID:25694719

  16. Plasma fatty acid profile in multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Czepiel, Jacek; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Paśko, Paweł; Czapkiewicz, Anna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Perucki, William; Butrym, Aleksandra; Castillo, Jorge J; Skotnicki, Aleksander B

    2015-04-01

    New membrane formation in the proliferating tumor cells consequently results in hypermetabolism of fatty acids (FA), as seen in many cancer patients, including multiple myeloma (MM). The FA composition of plasma reflects both endogenous synthesis as well as the dietary supply of these compounds. Additionally, obesity is a risk factor for the development of MM. The aim of this study was to compare the FA composition of plasma in 60 MM patients and 60 healthy controls. We noted significant differences in the FA profile of plasma from patients with MM when compared to the control group. Increased levels of saturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in MM patients suggest that there may be increased endogenous synthesis of these fatty acids, likely due to increased expression of desaturase and elongase. Furthermore, cluster analysis showed differences in the distribution of FA in plasma from MM patients compared to controls. Dietary fat and a deranged endogenous FA metabolism may contribute to cancer-associated inflammation through an abnormal arachidonic acid metabolism, caused by pro-inflammatory derivatives. Our study supports further research on the biochemistry of lipids in patients with MM. PMID:25666255

  17. Discrimination of commercial cheeses from fatty acid profiles and phytosterol contents obtained by GC and PCA.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Sook; Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyoung Moon; Kim, Ji Won; Cho, Sooyeul; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-15

    In this study, a method for discriminating natural mozzarella cheese from cheese substitutes, using fatty acid profiles, phytosterol contents, and statistical comparison, was developed. A total of 27 cheeses were evaluated: eight natural mozzarella cheeses (NMCs), four imitation mozzarella cheeses (IMCs), 12 processed cheeses (PCs) and three mixed cheeses (MCs) composed of NMCs and IMCs. The fatty acid composition of the NMC class was distinct from those of the IMC and MC classes, but statistically similar (p<0.05) to that of the PC class. The phytosterol content of the NMC class, determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was distinct from the IMCs, but similar (p<0.05) to a portion of the PCs. Principal component analysis (eigenvalue⩾1) indicated that the NMCs can be differentiated from the IMCs, but discrimination between the NMCs and the PCs could not be achieved. PMID:24054210

  18. Similarities and differences in PM 10 chemical source profiles for geological dust from the San Joaquin Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Magliano, Karen L.

    elements. Ga, Zr, Sn, and Ba were found in some of the paved road dust profiles; toxic species such as As, Mo, Cd, Sb, and U were found in salt deposits from canal drainage; and Pd, Rb, Sr, and Tl were found in construction dust. The profile-compositing methodology can be used for evaluating similarities and differences for other source characterization studies.

  19. Survey of duckweed diversity in Lake Chao and total fatty acid, triacylglycerol, profiles of representative strains.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Li, Y; Ma, J; Cheng, J J

    2015-09-01

    Lemnaceae (duckweeds) are widely distributed aquatic flowering plants. Their high growth rate, starch content and suitability for bioremediation make them potential feedstock for biofuels. However, few natural duckweed resources have been investigated in China, and there is no information about total fatty acid (TFA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of duckweeds from China. Here, the genetic diversity of a natural duckweed population collected from Lake Chao, China, was investigated using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The 54 strains were categorised into four species in four genera, representing 12 distinct sequence types. Strains representing Lemna aequinoctialis and Spirodela polyrhiza were predominant. Interestingly, a surprisingly high degree of genetic diversification within L. aequinoctialis was observed. The four duckweed species revealed a uniform fatty acid composition, with three fatty acids, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, accounting for more than 80% of the TFA. The TFA in biomass varied among species, ranging from 1.05% (of dry weight, DW) for L. punctata and S. polyrhiza to 1.62% for Wolffia globosa. The four duckweed species contained similar TAG contents, 0.02% mg · DW(-1). The fatty acid profiles of TAG were different from those of TFA, and also varied among the four species. The survey investigated the genetic diversity of duckweeds from Lake Chao, and provides an initial insight into TFA and TAG of four duckweed species, indicating that intraspecific and interspecific variations exist in the content and composition of both TFA and TAG in comparison with other studies. PMID:25950142

  20. Improved Comparative Signature Diagrams to Evaluate Similarity of Storage Stability Profiles of Different IgG1 mAbs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Esfandiary, Reza; Iyer, Vidyashankara; Bishop, Steven M; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, Charles Russell

    2016-03-01

    For therapeutic protein analytical studies related to evaluating lot-to-lot variability, different processes and/or formulations, or biosimilars, there is growing interest in applying novel data visualization tools for fingerprint analysis to identify statistically significant differences between 2 samples. Comparative Signature Diagrams (CSDs) were previously developed to display such differences as colored contour plots using a variety of biophysical data sets. In this study, several improvements are proposed to enhance readability and quantitative determinations of CSDs using protein stability data from more commonly used analytical methods such as size exclusion chromatography and capillary isoelectric focusing. To demonstrate the effectiveness of improved CSDs for data visualization, an accelerated and real-time stability study was set up for an IgG1 mAb (mAb A) and its corresponding triple mutant (mAb E). The stability profiles of both mAbs were compared for differences in aggregation (size exclusion chromatography) and charge heterogeneity (capillary isoelectric focusing) profiles over time. Both traditional data analysis and the improved CSDs conclude that the triple mutant mAb E is more susceptible to physicochemical degradation than mAb A under accelerated conditions. The current abilities and limitations of CSDs to provide fingerprint analysis of protein stability profiles to facilitate the determination of similarity versus nonsimilarity between samples is discussed. PMID:26886311

  1. Fibroblasts from phenotypically normal palmar fascia exhibit molecular profiles highly similar to fibroblasts from active disease in Dupuytren's Contracture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a fibroproliferative disorder characterized by the progressive development of a scar-like collagen-rich cord that affects the palmar fascia of the hand and leads to digital flexion contractures. DC is most commonly treated by surgical resection of the diseased tissue, but has a high reported recurrence rate ranging from 27% to 80%. We sought to determine if the transcriptomic profiles of fibroblasts derived from DC-affected palmar fascia, adjacent phenotypically normal palmar fascia, and non-DC palmar fascial tissues might provide mechanistic clues to understanding the puzzle of disease predisposition and recurrence in DC. Methods To achieve this, total RNA was obtained from fibroblasts derived from primary DC-affected palmar fascia, patient-matched unaffected palmar fascia, and palmar fascia from non-DC patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (6 patients in each group). These cells were grown on a type-1 collagen substrate (to better mimic their in vivo environments). Microarray analyses were subsequently performed using Illumina BeadChip arrays to compare the transcriptomic profiles of these three cell populations. Data were analyzed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM v3.02), hierarchical clustering, concordance mapping and Venn diagram. Results We found that the transcriptomic profiles of DC-disease fibroblasts and fibroblasts from unaffected fascia of DC patients exhibited a much greater overlap than fibroblasts derived from the palmar fascia of patients undergoing carpal tunnel release. Quantitative real time RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression of select genes validating the microarray data analyses. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that predisposition and recurrence in DC may stem, at least in part, from intrinsic similarities in the basal gene expression of diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia fibroblasts. These data also demonstrate that a collagen

  2. Untargeted fatty acid profiles based on the selected ion monitoring mode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Sun, Xiaoman; Hu, Wei; Wang, Xiupin; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2014-08-11

    Fatty acids are potential biomarkers of some diseases and also key markers and quality parameters of different dietary fats and related products. Thus, untargeted fatty acid profiles are important in the study of dietary fat quality and fat-related diseases, as well as in other fields such as bioenergy. In addition, accurate identification of unknown components is a technological breakthrough for the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode for untargeted profiles. In this study, we developed untargeted fatty acid profiles based on SIM. We also investigated mass spectral characteristics and equivalent chain lengths (ECL) to eliminate the influence of non-FAMEs for identifying fatty acids in samples. As an application example, fatty acid profiles were used to classify three edible vegetable oils. The results indicated that SIM-based untargeted fatty acid profiles could yield accurate qualitative and quantitative results for more fatty acids and benefit related studies of metabolite profiles. PMID:25066717

  3. Global transcriptional profiles of beating clusters derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells are highly similar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Functional and molecular integrity of cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells is essential for their use in tissue repair, disease modelling and drug screening. In this study we compared global transcriptomes of beating clusters (BCs) microdissected from differentiating human iPS cells and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Results Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis revealed that iPS-BCs and ES-BCs cluster together, are similarly enriched for cardiospecific genes and differ in expression of only 1.9% of present transcripts. Similarly, sarcomeric organization, electrophysiological properties and calcium handling of iPS-CMs were indistinguishable from those of ES-CMs. Gene ontology analysis revealed that among 204 genes that were upregulated in iPS-BCs vs ES-BCs the processes related to extracellular matrix, cell adhesion and tissue development were overrepresented. Interestingly, 47 of 106 genes that were upregulated in undifferentiated iPS vs ES cells remained enriched in iPS-BCs vs ES-BCs. Most of these genes were found to be highly expressed in fibroblasts used for reprogramming and 34% overlapped with the recently reported iPS cell-enriched genes. Conclusions These data suggest that iPS-BCs are transcriptionally highly similar to ES-BCs. However, iPS-BCs appear to share some somatic cell signature with undifferentiated iPS cells. Thus, iPS-BCs may not be perfectly identical to ES-BCs. These minor differences in the expression profiles may occur due to differential cellular composition of iPS-BCs and ES-BCs, due to retention of some genetic profile of somatic cells in differentiated iPS cell-derivatives, or both. PMID:20843318

  4. Metabolomic profiles of myocardial ischemia under treatment with salvianolic acid B

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) has been used as a principal herb in treating cardiovascular diseases in Chinese medicine. Salvianolic acid B (SA-B), a water-soluble active component of Danshen, was found to have anti-myocardial ischemia (anti-MI) effect. This study aims to investigate mechanisms of SA-B on MI. Methods Five conventional Western medicines (isosorbide dinitrate, verapamil, propranolol, captopril and trimethazine) with different mechanisms for treating cardiovascular diseases were selected as positive references to compare with SA-B in changing of the metabolomic profiles in MI rats under treatment. Potential mechanisms of SA-B were further investigated in H9C2 cell line. Results The metabolomic profiles between SA-B- and propranolol-treated MI rats were similar, since there was a big overlap between the two groups in the PLS-DA score plot. Finally, it was demonstrated that SA-B exhibited a protective effect on MI mainly by decreasing the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and Ca2+ and inhibiting protein kinase A (PKA). Conclusion SA-B and propanolol exhibited similar metabolomic profiles, indicating that the two drugs might have a similar mechanism. PMID:22409910

  5. Large-Scale Chemical Similarity Networks for Target Profiling of Compounds Identified in Cell-Based Chemical Screens

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yu-Chen; Senese, Silvia; Li, Chien-Ming; Hu, Qiyang; Huang, Yong; Damoiseaux, Robert; Torres, Jorge Z.

    2015-01-01

    Target identification is one of the most critical steps following cell-based phenotypic chemical screens aimed at identifying compounds with potential uses in cell biology and for developing novel disease therapies. Current in silico target identification methods, including chemical similarity database searches, are limited to single or sequential ligand analysis that have limited capabilities for accurate deconvolution of a large number of compounds with diverse chemical structures. Here, we present CSNAP (Chemical Similarity Network Analysis Pulldown), a new computational target identification method that utilizes chemical similarity networks for large-scale chemotype (consensus chemical pattern) recognition and drug target profiling. Our benchmark study showed that CSNAP can achieve an overall higher accuracy (>80%) of target prediction with respect to representative chemotypes in large (>200) compound sets, in comparison to the SEA approach (60–70%). Additionally, CSNAP is capable of integrating with biological knowledge-based databases (Uniprot, GO) and high-throughput biology platforms (proteomic, genetic, etc) for system-wise drug target validation. To demonstrate the utility of the CSNAP approach, we combined CSNAP's target prediction with experimental ligand evaluation to identify the major mitotic targets of hit compounds from a cell-based chemical screen and we highlight novel compounds targeting microtubules, an important cancer therapeutic target. The CSNAP method is freely available and can be accessed from the CSNAP web server (http://services.mbi.ucla.edu/CSNAP/). PMID:25826798

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profile of urinary organic acids of Wistar rats orally treated with ozonized unsaturated triglycerides and ozonized sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Jardines, Daniel; Correa, Teresa; Ledea, Oscar; Zamora, Zullyt; Rosado, Aristides; Molerio, Jesús

    2003-01-15

    The main products in the ozonolysis of unsaturated triglycerides or vegetable oils are peroxides, aldehydes, Criegee ozonides and carboxylic acids. Some of these compounds are present in different concentrations in the biological fluids. The aim of this work is to study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the organic acid excretion in urine of rats orally treated with ozonized sunflower oil (OSO), ozonized triolein or ozonized trilinolein. Oral administration of OSO to Wistar rats has produced changes in the urinary content of dicarboxylic organic acids. Among others heptanedioic (pimelic acid) and nonanedioic acids (azelaic acid) were the major increased dicarboxylic acids found. The urinary dicarboxylic acid profiles of rats which received ozonized triolein only showed an increase in heptanedioic and nonanedioic acids. However, when ozonized trilinolein is applied, the profile is similar to that obtained when OSO is administered. A biochemical mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of dicarboxylic acids from ozonated unsaturated triglycerides. PMID:12482495

  7. Variability of humic acid properties depending on their precursor material: a study of peat profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klavins, Maris; Purmalis, Oskars

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of variation of peat composition, presence of trace elements in the peat and HSs within peat profiles can give information on the character of transformation of organic matter, important for C biogeochemical cycling, but also about impacts of climate change and human activities. In peat the transformation and decay process of living organic matter (humification) is retarded by the acidic and anaerobic environment, but at the same time the peat can provide information on environmental and paleo-environmental conditions of the past. The aim of the present study is to analyze the elemental and functional composition, spectral characteristics of humic acids isolated from a well characterized raised bog peat profiles to evaluate the impact of the character of humification processes on the peat HA properties. A comparative and complex characterization of humic acids (HAs) isolated from peat profiles of different origin in Latvia was carried out. Elemental and functional analysis of the isolated HAs was done, their acidity and molecular weights estimated. Spectral characterization included UV-Vis, IR, and electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectra. Structural characterization of HAs was by both 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Comparison of position of studied humic acids in the Van Krevelen graph was done, thus locating them in the biogeochemical transformation processes of organic matter. Properties of HAs isolated from the Latvian peat were compared with HA from other sources (soil, water, coal and synthetic humic substances). Major properties of peat HAs depended on their origin, indicating the importance of humification processes. HAs isolated from peat of more recent origin were more similar to soil HAs, but from older sources there was a greater degree of humification. Changes of surface tension of solutions of humic acids stress the differences in aggregation character - ability to form supramacromolecular complexes of humic substances

  8. An uncooked vegan diet shifts the profile of human fecal microflora: computerized analysis of direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography profiles of bacterial cellular fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, R; Ling, W H; Hänninen, O; Eerola, E

    1992-01-01

    The effect of an uncooked extreme vegan diet on fecal microflora was studied by direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of bacterial cellular fatty acids and by quantitative bacterial culture by using classical microbiological techniques of isolation, identification, and enumeration of different bacterial species. Eighteen volunteers were divided randomly into two groups. The test group received an uncooked vegan diet for 1 month and a conventional diet of mixed Western type for the other month of the study. The control group consumed a conventional diet throughout the study period. Stool samples were collected. Bacterial cellular fatty acids were extracted directly from the stool samples and measured by GLC. Computerized analysis of the resulting fatty acid profiles was performed. Such a profile represents all bacterial cellular fatty acids in a sample and thus reflects its microflora and can be used to detect changes, differences, or similarities of bacterial flora between individual samples or sample groups. GLC profiles changed significantly in the test group after the induction and discontinuation of the vegan diet but not in the control group at any time, whereas quantitative bacterial culture did not detect any significant change in fecal bacteriology in either of the groups. The results suggest that an uncooked extreme vegan diet alters the fecal bacterial flora significantly when it is measured by direct stool sample GLC of bacterial fatty acids. PMID:1482187

  9. Differentiation in fatty acid profiles of pigmented and nonpigmented Aurantiochytrium isolated from Hong Kong mangroves.

    PubMed

    Fan, King-Wai; Jiang, Yue; Ho, Lok-Tang; Chen, Feng

    2009-07-22

    Twenty-five thraustochytrids that belong to the genus Aurantiochytrium were isolated from subtropical mangroves in Hong Kong. Although they have similar morphological and physiological characteristics, they have different colors on a yeast extract-glucose agar plate, which were largely ignored before. On the basis of the differences in their colony color, 25 Aurantiochytrium strains were further classified into pigmented and nonpigmented subgroups and their fatty acid profiles were analyzed and compared. In general, nonpigmented Aurantiochytrium strains were found to contain biomass concentrations and growth yield coefficients statistically higher than pigmented Aurantiochytrium strains (p < 0.01). Among all isolates, a significantly higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, 123.41-179.64 mg/g) was found in the nonpigmented Aurantiochytrium (p < 0.01), whereas the pigmented strains contained a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was identified as the most abundant PUFA in both nonpigmented and pigmented Aurantiochytrium. According to the result of principal component analysis, the contents and composition of saturated fatty acids and PUFAs are the major varieties to distinguish these two Aurantiochytrium groups, especially the contents of C15:0, C13:0, C16:0, C17:0, and DHA. With a rapid growth rate and high DHA yield, the strain from the nonpigmented Aurantiochytrium group was regarded as the ideal candidate for PUFA production. PMID:19534536

  10. Proteomics reveals differences in protein abundance and highly similar antigenic profiles between Besnoitia besnoiti and Besnoitia tarandi.

    PubMed

    García-Lunar, P; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Ortega-Mora, L M; Gutiérrez-Expósito, D; Alvarez-García, G

    2014-10-15

    Besnoitia besnoiti and Besnoitia tarandi are two cyst-forming apicomplexan parasites of the genus Besnoitia. B. besnoiti uses cattle as an intermediate host, in which it causes a disease that progresses in two sequential phases: the acute anasarca stage and the chronic scleroderma stage. Reindeer and caribou act as intermediate hosts for B. tarandi, which causes clinical signs similar to those caused by B. besnoiti. Previous studies demonstrated high molecular similarity, as determined by 18S and ITS-1 RNA sequences, between these Besnoitia spp., and strong serological cross-reactivity between these species has recently been demonstrated. Thus, a difference gel electrophoresis approach and mass spectrometry analysis were used to describe the proteomes and explore differences in protein abundance between B. besnoiti and B. tarandi in tachyzoite extracts. Immunoproteomes were also compared using 2-DE immunoblotting with polyclonal sera from experimentally infected rabbits. From approximately 1400 spots detected in DIGE-gels, 28 and 29 spots were differentially abundant in B. besnoiti and B. tarandi tachyzoites, respectively (± 1.5-fold, p<0.05). Four and 13 spots were exclusively detected in B. besnoiti and B. tarandi, respectively. Of the 32 differentially abundant spots analyzed by MALDI-TOF/MS, 6 up-regulated B. besnoiti proteins (LDH; HSP90; purine nucleoside phosphorylase and 3 hypothetical proteins) and 6 up-regulated B. tarandi proteins (G3PDH; LDH; PDI; mRNA decapping protein and 2 hypothetical proteins) were identified. Interestingly, no specific antigen spots were recognized by sera on any of the Besnoitia species studied and a similar antigen profile has been observed for B. tarandi and B. besnoiti sera when cross reactions were studied. This fact corroborates the difficulty in discerning Besnoitia infections using current serological assays. The present study underscores the importance of sequencing the B. besnoiti genome for species diversity studies of

  11. Plasmids from Food Lactic Acid Bacteria: Diversity, Similarity, and New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanhua; Hu, Tong; Qu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Lanwei; Ding, Zhongqing; Dong, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    Plasmids are widely distributed in different sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as self-replicating extrachromosomal genetic materials, and have received considerable attention due to their close relationship with many important functions as well as some industrially relevant characteristics of the LAB species. They are interesting with regard to the development of food-grade cloning vectors. This review summarizes new developments in the area of lactic acid bacteria plasmids and aims to provide up to date information that can be used in related future research. PMID:26068451

  12. Similarities in Gene Expression Profiles during In Vitro Aging of Primary Human Embryonic Lung and Foreskin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Baumgart, Mario; Groth, Marco; Cellerino, Alessandro; Guthke, Reinhard; Hemmerich, Peter; Diekmann, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Replicative senescence is of fundamental importance for the process of cellular aging, since it is a property of most of our somatic cells. Here, we elucidated this process by comparing gene expression changes, measured by RNA-seq, in fibroblasts originating from two different tissues, embryonic lung (MRC-5) and foreskin (HFF), at five different time points during their transition into senescence. Although the expression patterns of both fibroblast cell lines can be clearly distinguished, the similar differential expression of an ensemble of genes was found to correlate well with their transition into senescence, with only a minority of genes being cell line specific. Clustering-based approaches further revealed common signatures between the cell lines. Investigation of the mRNA expression levels at various time points during the lifespan of either of the fibroblasts resulted in a number of monotonically up- and downregulated genes which clearly showed a novel strong link to aging and senescence related processes which might be functional. In terms of expression profiles of differentially expressed genes with age, common genes identified here have the potential to rule the transition into senescence of embryonic lung and foreskin fibroblasts irrespective of their different cellular origin. PMID:26339636

  13. Similarities in Gene Expression Profiles during In Vitro Aging of Primary Human Embryonic Lung and Foreskin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marthandan, Shiva; Priebe, Steffen; Baumgart, Mario; Groth, Marco; Cellerino, Alessandro; Guthke, Reinhard; Hemmerich, Peter; Diekmann, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Replicative senescence is of fundamental importance for the process of cellular aging, since it is a property of most of our somatic cells. Here, we elucidated this process by comparing gene expression changes, measured by RNA-seq, in fibroblasts originating from two different tissues, embryonic lung (MRC-5) and foreskin (HFF), at five different time points during their transition into senescence. Although the expression patterns of both fibroblast cell lines can be clearly distinguished, the similar differential expression of an ensemble of genes was found to correlate well with their transition into senescence, with only a minority of genes being cell line specific. Clustering-based approaches further revealed common signatures between the cell lines. Investigation of the mRNA expression levels at various time points during the lifespan of either of the fibroblasts resulted in a number of monotonically up- and downregulated genes which clearly showed a novel strong link to aging and senescence related processes which might be functional. In terms of expression profiles of differentially expressed genes with age, common genes identified here have the potential to rule the transition into senescence of embryonic lung and foreskin fibroblasts irrespective of their different cellular origin. PMID:26339636

  14. Triglyceride accumulation and fatty acid profile changes in Chlorella (Chlorophyta) during high pH-induced cell cycle inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Guckert, J.B.; Cooksey, K.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Alkaline pH stress resulted in triglyceride (TG) accumulation in Chlorella CHLOR1 and was independent of medium nitrogen or carbon levels. Based on morphological observations, alkaline pH inhibited autospore release, thus increasing the time for cell cycle completion. Autospore release has been postulated to coincide with TG utilization within the microalgal cell division cycle. The alkaline pH stress affected lipid accumulation by inhibiting the cell division cycle prior to autospore release and, therefore, prior to TG utilization. Cells inhibited in this manner showed an increase in TG accumulation but a decrease in both membrane lipid classes (glycolipid and polar lipid). Unlike TG fatty acid profiles, membrane lipid fatty acid profiles were not stable during TG accumulation. The membrane profiles became similar to the TG, i.e. less unsaturated than in the membrane lipids of unstressed control cells.

  15. Global gene expression profiling reveals similarities and differences among mouse pluripotent stem cells of different origins and strains

    PubMed Central

    Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Shaik, Nabeebi; Sullivan, Terry; Stewart, Colin L.; Hogan, Brigid L.M.; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cell lines with similar phenotypes can be derived from both blastocysts (embryonic stem cells, ESC) and primordial germ cells (embryonic germ cells, EGC). Here, we present a compendium DNA microarray analysis of multiple mouse ESCs and EGCs from different genetic backgrounds (strains 129 and C57BL/6) cultured under standard conditions and in differentiation-promoting conditions by the withdrawal of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) or treatment with retinoic acid (RA). All pluripotent cell lines showed similar gene expression patterns, which separated them clearly from other tissue stem cells with lower developmental potency. Differences between pluripotent lines derived from different sources (ESC vs. EGC) were smaller than differences between lines derived from different mouse strains (129 vs. C57BL/6). Even in the differentiation-promoting conditions, these pluripotent cells showed the same general trends of gene expression changes regardless of their origin and genetic background. These data indicate that ESCs and EGCs are indistinguishable based on global gene expression patterns alone. On the other hand, a detailed comparison between a group of ESC lines and a group of EGC lines identified 20 signature genes whose average expression levels were consistently higher in ESC lines, and 84 signature genes whose average expression levels were consistently higher in EGC lines, irrespective of mouse strains. Similar analysis identified 250 signature genes whose average expression levels were consistently higher in a group of 129 cell lines, and 337 signature genes whose average expression levels were consistently higher in a group of C57BL/6 cell lines. Although none of the genes was exclusively expressed in either ESCs versus EGCs or 129 versus C57BL/6, in combination these signature genes provide a reliable separation and identification of each cell type. Differentiation-promoting conditions also revealed some minor differences between the cell

  16. Effect of feeding rolled flaxseed on milk fatty acid profiles and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bork, N R; Schroeder, J W; Lardy, G P; Vonnahme, K A; Bauer, M L; Buchanan, D S; Shaver, R D; Fricke, P M

    2010-11-01

    The objectives were to study the effects of feeding rolled flaxseed (FLX) to early-lactation dairy cows on milk yield, milk components, and milk fatty acid profiles as well as on measures of cow reproduction. Lactating Holstein cows, on 3 commercial dairies, were fed either an early-lactation ration (CON) or a ration that was similar in protein, energy, and fat content but that included FLX (0.85 kg of DM/cow per day). Within each dairy, cows were allocated alternately to breeding pens upon leaving the fresh pen (approximately 10 ± 5 d postpartum). Pens (n = 4 to 5 pens/dairy) were randomized to treatment (n = 2 to 3 pens/treatment per dairy). Pen (CON, n = 6; FLX, n = 7) was considered the experimental unit and data were analyzed as a split plot with pen as the whole-plot error term. Cows fed FLX had greater (P ≤ 0.06) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, C18:3n-3, and C20:0 fatty acids in milk fat and a lesser (P = 0.03) proportion of C20:3n-6 fatty acid when compared with cows fed the CON diet. Treatment did not affect (P ≥ 0.24) milk yield, milk protein, protein yield, milk fat, or milk fat yield. No interactions (P ≥ 0.52) were found between treatment and season of the year or parity, or between treatment and days open, pregnancies per AI at first or second service, or pregnancy loss. In conclusion, feeding FLX at 0.85 kg/cow per day (DM basis) altered the fatty acid profile of milk, but milk yield, milk composition, and reproductive performance of dairy cows were not affected. PMID:20622184

  17. A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.

    PubMed Central

    Henrissat, B

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of 301 glycosyl hydrolases and related enzymes have been compared. A total of 291 sequences corresponding to 39 EC entries could be classified into 35 families. Only ten sequences (less than 5% of the sample) could not be assigned to any family. With the sequences available for this analysis, 18 families were found to be monospecific (containing only one EC number) and 17 were found to be polyspecific (containing at least two EC numbers). Implications on the folding characteristics and mechanism of action of these enzymes and on the evolution of carbohydrate metabolism are discussed. With the steady increase in sequence and structural data, it is suggested that the enzyme classification system should perhaps be revised. PMID:1747104

  18. CPAG: software for leveraging pleiotropy in GWAS to reveal similarity between human traits links plasma fatty acids and intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liuyang; Oehlers, Stefan H; Espenschied, Scott T; Rawls, John F; Tobin, David M; Ko, Dennis C

    2015-01-01

    Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have demonstrated that the same genetic variants can be associated with multiple diseases and other complex traits. We present software called CPAG (Cross-Phenotype Analysis of GWAS) to look for similarities between 700 traits, build trees with informative clusters, and highlight underlying pathways. Clusters are consistent with pre-defined groups and literature-based validation but also reveal novel connections. We report similarity between plasma palmitoleic acid and Crohn's disease and find that specific fatty acids exacerbate enterocolitis in zebrafish. CPAG will become increasingly powerful as more genetic variants are uncovered, leading to a deeper understanding of complex traits. CPAG is freely available at www.sourceforge.net/projects/CPAG/. PMID:26374098

  19. Genetics and Breeding for Modified Fatty Acid Profile in Soybean Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil is versatile and used in many products. Modifying the fatty acid profile would make soy oil more functional in food and other products. The ideal oil with the most end uses would have saturates (palmitic + stearic acids) reduced from 15 to < 7%, oleic acid increa...

  20. Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Georgianne L.; Hyman, Susan L.; Mooney, Robert A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma amino acid profiles of 10 children with autism on gluten and casein restricted diets and 26 on unrestricted diets were reviewed. There was a trend for the children on restricted diets to have an increased prevalence of essential amino acid deficiencies and lower plasma levels of essential acids. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  1. Purified membrane and soluble folate binding proteins from cultured KB cells have similar amino acid compositions and molecular weights but differ in fatty acid acylation.

    PubMed Central

    Luhrs, C A; Pitiranggon, P; da Costa, M; Rothenberg, S P; Slomiany, B L; Brink, L; Tous, G I; Stein, S

    1987-01-01

    A membrane-associated folate binding protein (FBP) and a soluble FBP, which is released into the culture medium, have been purified from human KB cells using affinity chromatography. By NaDodSO4/PAGE, both proteins have an apparent Mr of approximately 42,000. However, in the presence of Triton X-100, the soluble FBP eluted from a Sephadex G-150 column with an apparent Mr of approximately 40,000 (similar to NaDodSO4/PAGE) but the membrane-associated FBP eluted with an apparent Mr of approximately 160,000, indicating that this species contains a hydrophobic domain that interacts with the detergent micelles. The amino acid compositions of both forms of FBP were similar, especially with respect to the apolar amino acids. In addition, the 18 amino acids at the amino termini of both proteins were identical. The membrane FBP, following delipidation with chloroform/methanol, contained 7.1 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein, of which 4.7 mol was amide-linked and 2.4 mol was ester-linked. The soluble FBP contained only 0.05 mol of fatty acid per mol of protein. These studies indicate that the membrane FBP of KB cells contains covalently bound fatty acids that may serve to anchor the protein in the cell membrane. Images PMID:3476960

  2. In vitro toxicity of carbon nanotubes, nano-graphite and carbon black, similar impacts of acid functionalization.

    PubMed

    Figarol, Agathe; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Akono, Céline; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Jean-Pierre; Cottier, Michèle; Bernache-Assollant, Didier; Grosseau, Philippe

    2015-12-25

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano-graphite (NG) are graphene-based nanomaterials which share exceptional physicochemical properties, but whose health impacts are unfortunately still not well understood. On the other hand, carbon black (CB) is a conventional and widely studied material. The comparison of these three carbon-based nanomaterials is thus of great interest to improve our understanding of their toxicity. An acid functionalization was carried out on CNT, NG and CB so that, after a thorough characterization, their impacts on RAW 264.7 macrophages could be compared for a similar surface chemistry (15 to 120 μg·mL(-1) nanomaterials, 90-min to 24-h contact). Functionalized nanomaterials triggered a weak cytotoxicity similar to the pristine nanomaterials. Acid functionalization increased the pro-inflammatory response except for CB which did not trigger any TNF-α production before or after functionalization, and seemed to strongly decrease the oxidative stress. The toxicological impact of acid functionalization appeared thus to follow a similar trend whatever the carbon-based nanomaterial. At equivalent dose expressed in surface and equivalent surface chemistry, the toxicological responses from murine macrophages to NG were higher than for CNT and CB. It seemed to correspond to the hypothesis of a platelet and fiber paradigm. PMID:26381085

  3. Nucleic Acid Similarities Among Pseudomonas pseudomallei, Pseudomonas multivorans, and Actinobacillus mallei1

    PubMed Central

    Rogul, M.; Brendle, J. J.; Haapala, D. K.; Alexander, A. D.

    1970-01-01

    Annealing experiments on membrane filters were carried out with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from selected strains of the nomen-species of Pseudomonas, Actinobacillus, Chromobacterium, and Micrococcus, with the use of DNA of Pseudomonas pseudomallei and Actinobacillus mallei as reference materials. Under the usual conditions employed in these experiments, the results were not quantitatively reproducible. Incorporation of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) into the incubation medium greatly increased differences in comparative binding. DNA binding in agar matrices was examined in the presence and absence of DMSO at various incubation temperatures. It was found that the greatest specificity, stability, and total binding for DNA containing high amounts of guanine and cytosine occurred in the presence of DMSO. Under the most stringent annealing conditions permitted in agar, DNA species from P. pseudomallei and A. mallei in the presence of DMSO demonstrated interspecific relative bindings of 76 to 86% when compared to the homologous reactions. The thermal elution midpoints (Em) of these duplexed interspecific DNA species were quite close to the homologous Em values. The relative bindings of P. multivorans DNA types to either reference DNA ranged between 6 to 27%, and the Em values were 4 to 7 C less than those for the homologous reactions. PMID:5438051

  4. Bile acid profiles in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: is this the solution to the enigma of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Sinakos, Emmanouil; Lindor, Keith D

    2010-03-01

    Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare pregnancy-related liver disease characterized by pruritus, abnormal liver function tests, and an increased risk of fetal complications. An increase in the levels of bile acids is considered to be the diagnostic hallmark of the disease. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is currently the most effective therapy. Tribe et al. (this issue) hypothesized that measuring the longitudinal profiles of individual bile acids would provide further insight into the mechanisms of disease. They used a novel chromatography method, which allowed the simultaneous measurement of 15 serum bile acids between 16 weeks of pregnancy and 4 weeks post-partum. ICP was associated with a predominant rise in cholic acid conjugated with taurine and glycine from 24 weeks of pregnancy. UDCA treatment significantly reduced serum taurocholic and taurodeoxycholic acid concentrations. Finally, bile acid profiles were similar in normal pregnancy and pregnancy associated with pruritus gravidarum. The study by Tribe et al. (this issue) presents a significant contribution to the solution of this enigmatic disease by expanding our knowledge on the pathophysiology of ICP and proposing a convenient method for diagnosis and monitoring of this disorder. PMID:20203641

  5. Designer laying hen diets to improve egg fatty acid profile and maintain sensory quality

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Gibson, Robert A; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of eggs is highly reflective of the diet of the laying hen; therefore, nutritionally important fatty acids can be increased in eggs in order to benefit human health. To explore the factors affecting the hen's metabolism and deposition of fatty acids of interest, the current research was divided into two studies. In Study 1, the fatty acid profile of eggs from Bovan White hens fed either 8%, 14%, 20%, or 28% of the omega-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (expressed as a percentage of total fatty acids), and an additional treatment of 14% LA containing double the amount of saturated fat (SFA) was determined. Omega-6 fatty acids and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in the yolk were significantly (P < 0.05) increased, and oleic acid (OA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were significantly decreased with an increasing dietary LA content. In Study 2, the fatty acid and sensory profiles were determined in eggs from Shaver White hens fed either (1) 15% or 30% of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) (of total fatty acids), and (2) low (0.5), medium (1), or high (2) ratios of SFA: LA+OA. Increasing this ratio resulted in marked increases in lauric acid, ALA, EPA, DPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with decreases in LA and arachidonic acid. Increasing the dietary ALA content from 15% to 30% (of total fatty acids) did not overcome the DHA plateau observed in the yolk. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) in aroma or flavor between cooked eggs from the different dietary treatments were observed among trained panelists (n = 8). The results showed that increasing the ratio of SFA: LA+OA in layer diets has a more favorable effect on the yolk fatty acid profile compared to altering the LA content at the expense of OA, all while maintaining sensory quality. PMID:24804037

  6. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples. PMID:26212967

  7. Response of plasma fatty acid profiles to changes in dietary n-3 fatty acids and its correlation with erythrocyte fatty acid profiles in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, K; Bachmann, L; Dobeleit, G; Fuhrmann, H

    2013-12-01

    An elevated level of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) in tissue membranes has a positive influence on the progression and treatment of many diseases. Therefore, dietary supplementation of n-3 FA is recommended in some diseases. Even though n-3 FA are absorbed readily from the diet, their incorporation into tissues may be compromised in diseased animals. In a clinical setting, it is desirable to monitor the success of dietary intervention. Plasma FA as well as erythrocyte membrane (EM) FA can be used to monitor dietary FA intake. This study compares FA from EM and plasma with regard to their reaction time and reliability for monitoring dietary changes of tissue FA profiles in dogs. Thirty dogs were divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks. The control group (CONT) was fed a commercial standard diet low in n-3 FA. One group received the standard diet and 85 mg/kg body weight of a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrate (ADD). The third group was fed a commercial dog food containing fish oil (FO), which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). EM and plasma FA profiles were analysed by GC separately. Data on EM FA were published recently. n-3 FA in plasma reached the new level after 2 weeks (8 weeks in EM). Dietary differences between DHA and EPA are obvious after 1 week already. The concomitant decrease in plasma n-6 FA differed between ADD and FO. In general, the correlation of n-6 FA between plasma and EM was low. We therefore conclude that analysis of plasma FA is sufficient for monitoring a diet-induced increase in tissue n-3 FA in dogs. However, EM FA should be analysed if the effect of dietary intervention on tissue n-6 FA is important. PMID:23279610

  8. Phenolic acids from wheat show different absorption profiles in plasma: a model experiment with catheterized pigs.

    PubMed

    Nørskov, Natalja P; Hedemann, Mette S; Theil, Peter K; Fomsgaard, Inge S; Laursen, Bente B; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2013-09-18

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study the absorption of phenolic acids. The difference between the artery and the vein for all phenolic acids was small, indicating that the release of phenolic acids in the large intestine was not sufficient to create a porto-arterial concentration difference. Although, the porto-arterial difference was small, their concentrations in the plasma and the absorption profiles differed between cinnamic and benzoic acid derivatives. Cinnamic acids derivatives such as ferulic acid and caffeic acid had maximum plasma concentration of 82 ± 20 and 200 ± 7 nM, respectively, and their absorption profiles differed depending on the diet consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (<30 nM) and in the diets. The exception was p-hydroxybenzoic acid, with a plasma concentration (4 ± 0.4 μM), much higher than the other plant phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism. It was concluded that plant phenolic acids undergo extensive interconversion in the colon and that their absorption profiles reflected their low bioavailability in the plant matrix. PMID:23971623

  9. Intra-thallus differentiation of fatty acid and pigment profiles in some temperate Fucales and Laminariales.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Matthias; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-02-01

    Intra-thallus variation in fatty acid and pigment contents and profiles was investigated in five species of Laminariales (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Saccharina latissima, and Saccorhiza polyschides), and three Fucales (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, and Himanthalia elongata). Significant variation occurred across all species and compounds examined. Total fatty acids were generally higher in the fronds, with highest levels and largest variability observed in A. nodosum (1.5% of dry weight (DW) in the base, 6.3% of DW in frond tips). Percentages of the omega-3 fatty acids 18:4 n-3 and 20:5 n-3 were generally higher in more distal parts, while 20:4 n-6 exhibited a contrasting pattern, with higher levels in basal structures and holdfasts. Trends for pigments were similar to those for fatty acids in Laminariales. In the Fucales, highest levels were detected in the mid-fronds, with lower concentrations in meristematic areas. Highest levels and greatest variability in pigments (e.g., chl a) was observed in F. serratus (1.07 mg · g(-1) DW in the base, 3.04 mg · g(-1) DW in the mid frond). Intra-thallus variability was attributed to physiological functions of the respective thallus sections, e.g., photosynthetic activity, meristematic tissue, and to variations in physical attributes of the structures investigated. Regarding potential commercial nutritional applications, fronds appeared to represent most suitable source materials, due to higher levels of pigments, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and more preferable omega-3/omega-6 ratios. PMID:26986256

  10. Profiling of bile acids in bovine follicular fluid by fused-core-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Guijo, A; Blaschka, C; Hartmann, M F; Wrenzycki, C; Wudy, S A

    2016-09-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are present in follicular fluid (FF) from humans and cattle. This fact has triggered an interest on the role BAs might play in folliculogenesis and their possible association with fertility. To achieve a better understanding about this subject, new methods are needed to provide reliable information about concentrations of the most important BAs in FF. In this context, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers high specificity with a relatively simple sample workup. We developed and validated a new assay for the quick profiling of the 9 most abundant BAs in follicular fluid from cattle. The method uses 200μl of FF and can quantify cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and their glycine (G) and taurine (T) conjugates. Lithocholic acid (LCA), its conjugates GLCA and TLCA, and sulfated forms, were present in some samples, but their concentration was low compared to other BAs (in average, below 60ng/ml for LCA, GLCA or TLCA and below 20ng/ml for their corresponding sulfates). Method performance was studied at three quality controls for each compound in consonance with their physiological concentration. Excellent linearity and recovery were found for all compounds at every control level. Intra-day and between-day precisions (%CV) and accuracies (relative errors) were below 15% for all the compounds. Matrix effects were negligible for most of the analytes. Samples undergoing freeze-thaw showed no degradation of their BAs. The method makes use of a fused-core phenyl column coupled to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer to achieve chromatographic separation within 5min. We quantified BAs grouped in four different follicle sizes (3-5mm, 6-8mm, 9-14mm, >15mm), obtaining a similar relative BA profile for all the sizes, with CA always in higher concentration, ranging between 1600 and 18000ng/ml, approximately, followed by its conjugate glycocholic acid, GCA, which ranged between 800 and 9000ng

  11. Responses of two birch ( Betula pendula Roth) clones to different ozone profiles with similar AOT40 exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksanen, Elina; Holopainen, Toini

    Saplings of two clones of European white birch ( Betula pendula Roth) were exposed to three different ozone profiles resulting in same AOT40 value of 13-14 ppm h in a chamber experiment. The sensitive clone 5 and the more tolerant clone 2 were growing (1) under filtered air (=control), or (2) were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 24 h d -1 (=profile 1), (3) to 100 ppb ozone for 12 h d -1 at 8:00-20:00 (=profile 2), or (4) to 200 ppb ozone for 4.5 h d -1 at 9:30-14:00 (=profile 3) for 20 d. The saplings were determined for growth, visible leaf injuries, stomatal conductance, and concentrations of Rubisco, chlorophyll and carotenoids. Growth responses and induction of visible foliar injuries under different ozone profiles were variable, resulting in 4-17% lower dry mass of shoot, 16-46% reduction in stem height increment and 11-43% increase in visible injuries in clone 5, which was accompanied by higher leaf turnover rate under profile 3 indicating compensation growth. In clone 2, ozone-induced responses ranged from slight stimulation in stem height growth to 13% decrease in dry mass of shoot and 2-16% increase in visible injuries. Daytime stomatal conductance rates were lowered by 14-54% in clone 5 and 9-74% in clone 2, depending on profile. The additional power-weighted analyses revealed that high peak concentrations and exposure shape were important for induction of visible injuries in both clones and reduction in stomatal conductance in clone 5, whereas growth reductions were rather related to total cumulative exposure. The results indicate that profile of ozone exposure, night-time stomatal conductance (24 h flux), and recovery time for defence and compensations reactions should not be ignored in plant response and ozone flux modelling.

  12. Fatty acid profile as a basis for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) profile was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Coriandr...

  13. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Anna; Tolika, Evanthia; Louka, Maria; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Melchiorre, Michele; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; Faraone Mennella, Maria Rosaria; Ferreri, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50) compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50); and ii) the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL) and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0) and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3) as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in the

  14. Hexadecenoic Fatty Acid Isomers in Human Blood Lipids and Their Relevance for the Interpretation of Lipidomic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Anna; Tolika, Evanthia; Louka, Maria; Sunda, Valentina; Deplano, Simone; Melchiorre, Michele; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatgilialoglu, Chryssostomos; Formisano, Cesare; Di Micco, Rosa; Faraone Mennella, Maria Rosaria; Ferreri, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) are emerging health biomarkers, and in particular the ratio between palmitoleic acid (9cis-16:1) and palmitic acid (16:0) affords the delta-9 desaturase index that is increased in obesity. Recently, other positional and geometrical MUFA isomers belonging to the hexadecenoic family (C16 MUFA) were found in circulating lipids, such as sapienic acid (6cis-16:1), palmitelaidic acid (9trans-16:1) and 6trans-16:1. In this work we report: i) the identification of sapienic acid as component of human erythrocyte membrane phospholipids with significant increase in morbidly obese patients (n = 50) compared with age-matched lean controls (n = 50); and ii) the first comparison of erythrocyte membrane phospholipids (PL) and plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) in morbidly obese patients highlighting that some of their fatty acid levels have opposite trends: increases of both palmitic and sapienic acids with the decrease of linoleic acid (9cis,12cis-18:2, omega-6) in red blood cell (RBC) membrane PL were reversed in plasma CE, whereas the increase of palmitoleic acid was similar in both lipid species. Consequentially, desaturase enzymatic indexes gave different results, depending on the lipid class used for the fatty acid content. The fatty acid profile of morbidly obese subjects also showed significant increases of stearic acid (C18:0) and C20 omega-6, as well as decreases of oleic acid (9cis-18:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega-3) as compared with lean healthy controls. Trans monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were also measured and found significantly increased in both lipid classes of morbidly obese subjects. These results highlight the C16 MUFA isomers as emerging metabolic marker provided that the assignment of the double bond position and geometry is correctly performed, thus identifying the corresponding lipidomic pathway. Since RBC membrane PL and plasma CE have different fatty acid trends, caution must also be used in the

  15. Changes in lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability during Cantonese sausage processing.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Weizheng; Zhou, Feibai; Cui, Chun

    2013-03-01

    Lipid composition, fatty acid profile and lipid oxidative stability were evaluated during Cantonese sausage processing. Free fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease of phospholipids. Total content of free fatty acids at 72 h in muscle and adipose tissue was 7.341 mg/g and 3.067 mg/g, respectively. Total amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA, MUFA, and PUFA) in neutral lipid exhibited a little change during processing, while the proportion of PUFA significantly decreased in the PL fraction. The main triacylglycerols were POO+SLO+OOO, PSO (P = palmitic acid, O = oleic acid, L = linoleic acid, S = stearic acid), and a preferential hydrolysis of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid was observed. Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) were the main components of phospholipids and PE exhibited the most significant degradation during processing. Thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS) increased while peroxide values and hexanal contents varied during processing. PMID:23273460

  16. The Erythrocyte Fatty Acid Profile and Cognitive Function in Old Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linhong; Zhen, Jie; Ma, Weiwei; Cai, Can; Huang, Xiaochen; Xiao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between the erythrocyte fatty acid profile and cognition in elderly Chinese adults. Methods: 60 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and 60 age- and gender-matched control adults (aged 55 years and above) were involved in this cross-sectional study. Cognitive function was measured by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Information regarding the demographic characteristics and lifestyle of the participants was collected with a questionnaire. A semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) method was used for dietary assessment. The erythrocytes fatty acid profile was measured. Results: The MCI subjects had a lower education level than the control subjects (p < 0.05). Compared with control subjects, MCI subjects had higher daily poultry intake and lower fish intake (p < 0.05). Erythrocyte fatty acid profile of the MCI subjects was characterized as lower erythrocyte proportions of 20:4 n-6, 20:5 n-3, and total n-3 fatty acids compared with control subjects (p < 0.05). An association of erythrocyte proportions of 18:0, 22:0, total SFA, 18:2 n-6, 24:4 n-6 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total n-6 PUFAs with cognition in elderly Chinese adults was detected. Conclusion: The erythrocyte fatty acid profile was related to cognitionin the elderly. Lower erythrocyte unsaturated fatty acid and higher saturated fatty acid proportions might predict cognitive function decline in elderly Chinese adults. PMID:27347995

  17. [Fatty acids profile and microstructure of avocado puree after microwave heating].

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Gerónimo, Rosa I; Dorantes, Lidia

    2008-09-01

    Changes in the fatty acid profile and the microstructure of avocado puree after microwave treatment were evaluated. The main components of the fatty acid profile were oleic, palmitic, linoleic and palmitoleic acids. Fatty acids profile of microwaved avocado puree did not show significant changes (p < 0.05). Trans fatty acids were not detected. Microwaved avocado puree showed significant changes in its microstructure. Samples treated with microwaves for less than 40 s preserved the cells shape, causing only a minimal modification. On the other hand, microwave treated avocado puree using more than 40 s, showed a disruption of idioblast oil cells, releasing the oil contained on them. The results might be explained based on the sensory evaluation that was performed on the microwaved avocado puree, where samples at 60 s showed oily texture and grassy flavor. PMID:19137994

  18. Fatty acid profiles of fin fish in Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Osman, Farida; Jaswir, Irwandi; Khaza'ai, Huzwah; Hashim, Ridzwan

    2007-01-01

    Total lipid contents and fatty acid composition of 13 marine fish species namely, "jenahak" (Lutianus agentimaculatus), "kebasi" (Anadontostoma chacunda), "duri" (Arius cumatranus), "tenggiri batang" (Scomberomorus commersoni), "kembong" (Rastrelliger kanagurta), "kintan" or "sebalah" (Psettodes crumei), "kerisi" (Pristipomodes typus), "kerapu" (Epinephelus sexfasciatus), "gelama kling" (Sciaena dussumieri), "malong" (Congresax talabon), "laban" (Cynoglossus lingua), "yu 9" (Scolidon sorrakowah) and "bagi" (Aacnthurs nigrosis) commonly found in Pulau Tuba, one of the islands surrounding the popular tourist destination Langkawi in Malaysia were determined. All fish showed a considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids particularly those with 4, 5 and 6 double bonds. Two physiologically important n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), i.e. eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docasahaexaenoic acid (DHA), made up of more than 50% of the total PUFAs. For saturated fatty acids, palmitic was found to be the major one in all types of fish studied. Based on DHA, EPA and arachidonic acid (AA) contents, "gelama kling" was found to be the best source (23, 11 and 7%, respectively) followed by "kerapu" (21, 10, 9%) and "sebalah" (19, 14, 4%). PMID:17898471

  19. Bio-mimetic drug delivery systems designed to help the senior population reconstruct melatonin plasma profiles similar to those of the healthy younger population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Wang, Liuyi; Wu, Li; Zhang, Xueju; Li, Xue; Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiyan; York, Peter; Gui, Shuangying; Zhang, Jiwen

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of melatonin (MT) is obviously different in the younger and the senior sectors of the population, and the maximum plasma concentration of seniors is only half of that in the younger population group. If exogenous MT can be supplied to senior citizens based on the secretion rate and amount of endogenous MT in the younger population by a bio-mimetic drug delivery system (DDS), an improved therapeutic effect and reduced side effects can be expected. Based upon this hypothesis, the pharmacokinetic parameters of MT, namely, the absorption rate constant (ka), the elimination rate constant (ke), and the ratio of absorption rate (F) to the apparent volume of distribution (V) were obtained by a residual method depending on the plasma concentration curve of immediate release preparations in the healthy younger population. The dose-division method was applied to calculate the cumulative release profiles of MT achieved by oral administration of a controlled release drug delivery system (DDS) to generate plasma MT profiles similar to the physiological level-time profiles. The in vivo release of MT deduced from the healthy younger population physiological MT profiles as the pharmacokinetic output of the bio-mimetic DDS showed a two-phase profile with two different zero order release rates, namely, 4.919 μg/h during 0–4 h (r=0.9992), and 11.097 μg/h during 4–12 h (r=0.9886), respectively. Since the osmotic pump type of DDS generally exhibits a good correlation between in vivo and in vitro release behaviors, an osmotic pump controlled delivery system was designed in combination with dry coating technology targeting on the cumulative release characteristics to mimic the physiological MT profiles in the healthy younger population. The high similarity between the experimental drug release profiles and the theoretical profiles (similarity factor f2>50) and the high correlation between the predicted plasma concentration profiles and the theoretical plasma

  20. Physicochemical Profiling of α-Lipoic Acid and Related Compounds.

    PubMed

    Mirzahosseini, Arash; Szilvay, András; Noszál, Béla

    2016-07-01

    Lipoic acid, the biomolecule of vital importance following glycolysis, shows diversity in its thiol/disulfide equilibria and also in its eight different protonation forms of the reduced molecule. In this paper, lipoic acid, lipoamide, and their dihydro derivatives were studied to quantify their solubility, acid-base, and lipophilicity properties at a submolecular level. The acid-base properties are characterized in terms of six macroscopic, 12 microscopic protonation constants, and three interactivity parameters. The species-specific basicities, the pH-dependent distribution of the microspecies, and lipophilicity parameters are interpreted by various intramolecular effects, and contribute to understanding the antioxidant, chelate-forming, and enzyme cofactor behavior of the molecules observed. PMID:27272749

  1. Analysis of the indices of acidity in the soil profile and their relationship with pedogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokotov, Yu. A.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Aparin, B. F.

    2016-01-01

    A new notion—an acidic trace of pedogenesis in the field of soil acidity—is suggested. This notion implies a three-dimensional representation of the distribution of soil acidity in the soil profile and can be graphically shown in three two-dimensional projections that can be combined on a common V-diagram. Such V-diagrams are individual for each particular soil profile. At the same time, they have some common phenomenology in their shapes and in the position in the acidity field. A tendency for the S-shaped form of acidic trace is manifested by a sharp decrease in pH upon the reduction of base saturation at the high and low values of this index and by small changes in pH at the moderate values of base saturation in the area of acid buffering of the soil profile. This phenomenon is related to the weak acidity and polyfunctionality of the soils as ionite systems. An acidic trace can be subdivided into several characteristic parts related to different pedogenetic processes in their interaction. Its position in the field of acidity is largely determined by the acidity of parent material. Acidic traces of different types of soils in the northwestern Russia are discussed. It is argued that V-diagrams should be analyzed together with other soil characteristics.

  2. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phthalic Acids (o-, m-, p-)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phthalic Acids (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams. Quantitative estimates have been presented provided sufficient data are available. p-Phthalic acid has been de...

  3. Fatty acid profile and Unigene-derived simple sequence repeat markers in tung tree (Vernicia fordii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tung tree (Vernicia fordii) provides the sole source of tung oil widely used in industry. Lack of fatty acid composition and molecular markers hinders biochemical, genetic and breeding research. The objectives of this study were to determine fatty acid profiles and develop unigene-derived simple se...

  4. Direct analysis of fatty acid profile from milk by thermochemolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gomes Reis, Mariza; dos Reis, Marlon Martins; Leath, Shane; Stelwagen, Kerst

    2011-01-14

    The fatty acid composition of milk is of considerable interest due to their nutritional and functional properties. Although rapid milk fat separation and transesterification procedures have been developed, the overall procedure remains time consuming, specially, for the analysis of a large number of samples. In this work, a fast and simple method for direct profiling of fatty acids from milk using thermochemolysis has been developed. This method has the capability of directly analyse fatty acids from one drop of milk without fat extraction or cleanup. Our approach for thermochemolysis is based on thermal desorption integrated with a cold trap inlet. The optimized method does not present isomerisation/degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acid and shows milk fatty acid profiles comparable to the conventional method based on fat extraction and alkaline transesterification. Overall, this method has demonstrated significant potential for high throughput analysis of fatty acids in milk. PMID:21144530

  5. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    PubMed

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer. PMID:27006233

  6. Fatty acid profile of Lesquerella germplasm in the National Plant Germplasm System collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of Lesquerella (Brassicaceae) contain oil rich in hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) that may be used in several industrial products as motor oils, greases, plastics, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. One of the most abundant HFA in the seed oil is lesquerolic acid is chemically similar to ricinoleic acid...

  7. trans-3-Chloroacrylic Acid Dehalogenase from Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170 Shares Structural and Mechanistic Similarities with 4-Oxalocrotonate Tautomerase

    PubMed Central

    Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Saunier, Raymond; Janssen, Dick B.

    2001-01-01

    The genes (caaD1 and caaD2) encoding the trans-3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase (CaaD) of the 1,3-dichloropropene-utilizing bacterium Pseudomonas pavonaceae 170 were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sp. strain GJ1. CaaD is a protein of 50 kDa that is composed of α-subunits of 75 amino acid residues and β-subunits of 70 residues. It catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of the β-vinylic carbon-chlorine bond in trans-3-chloroacrylic acid with a turnover number of 6.4 s−1. On the basis of sequence similarity, oligomeric structure, and subunit size, CaaD appears to be related to 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT). This tautomerase consists of six identical subunits of 62 amino acid residues and catalyzes the isomerization of 2-oxo-4-hexene-1,6-dioate, via hydroxymuconate, to yield 2-oxo-3-hexene-1,6-dioate. In view of the oligomeric architecture of 4-OT, a trimer of homodimers, CaaD is postulated to be a hexameric protein that functions as a trimer of αβ-dimers. The sequence conservation between CaaD and 4-OT and site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggested that Pro-1 of the β-subunit and Arg-11 of the α-subunit are active-site residues in CaaD. Pro-1 could act as the proton acceptor/donor, and Arg-11 is probably involved in carboxylate binding. Based on these findings, a novel dehalogenation mechanism is proposed for the CaaD-catalyzed reaction which does not involve the formation of a covalent enzyme-substrate intermediate. PMID:11418568

  8. Volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic compartments and have physiological and structural characteristics similar to acidocalcisomes

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Lia Carolina Soares; Gomes, Fabio; Maciel, Luis Renato Maia; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia; Plattner, Helmut; Hentschel, Joachim; Kawazoe, Urara; Barrabin, Hector; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; Miranda, Kildare

    2012-01-01

    The structural organization of parasites has been the subject of investigation by many groups and has lead to the identification of structures and metabolic pathways that may represent targets for anti-parasitic drugs. A specific group of organelles named acidocalcisomes has been identified in a number of organisms, including the apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, where they have been shown to be involved in cation homeostasis, polyphosphate metabolism, and osmoregulation. Their structural counterparts in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria have not been fully characterized. In this work, the ultrastructural and chemical properties of acidocalcisomes in Eimeria were characterized. Electron microscopy analysis of Eimeria parasites showed the dense organelles called volutin granules similar to acidocalcisomes. Immunolocalization of the vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase, considered as a marker for acidocalcisomes, showed labeling in vesicles of size and distribution similar to the dense organelles seen by electron microscopy. Spectrophotometric measurements of the kinetics of proton uptake showed a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase activity. X-ray mapping revealed significant amounts of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, and Zn in their matrix. The results suggest that volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic, dense organelles and possess structural and chemical properties analogous to those of other acidocalcisomes, suggesting a similar functional role in these parasites. PMID:21699625

  9. PHARMACOKINETIC PROFILES OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN MICE AFTER CHRONIC EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is highly persistent in humans, with serum half-life estimates of 2.3 to 3.8 years. In the mouse, elimination of PFOA appears to be first-order after a single oral administration, with serum half-life estimates of 16 days for females and 22 days for ...

  10. Fatty acid profiling of soybean cotyledons by NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research was conducted to quantify the five fatty acids in soybean (Glycine max) cotyledons using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Soybean cotyledon samples were dried and ground. A 250-mg sample was scanned in the visible and NIR regions (400 to 2500 nm), and diffuse reflectance was recorded...

  11. Fatty acid profiles of mammary gland tissue in rats following exposure to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Karmali, R.

    1986-03-01

    Prostaglandins have been implicated in the mechanism of DMBA carcinogenesis and tumor-promoting effects of linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6). Since elevated levels of arachidonate (C20:4 omega 6) products have been reported in various mammary tumors it is important to evaluate changes in pools of this substrate fatty acid and its precursor, linoleic acid. To address this question, total lipid extracts were subjected to TLC separation to obtain phosphatidyl choline (PC), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), and neutral (N) fractions. Fatty acid profiles for each fraction were analyzed by GLC. Three groups of 50 day old female Sprague-Dawley rats were used: Control, DMBA 10mg and 20mg/rat. Mammary gland tissue specimens were excised at 2 week intervals from the time of challenge through appearance of tumors. Individual fatty acid percentages and specific ratios were examined. At 2 weeks post DMBA, the levels of C18:2 omega 6 were increased in all 3 lipid fractions in both DMBA-challenged compared with Control groups. On the other hand, similar trends in C20:4 omega 6 were apparent only in the PE fraction. Also, ratio of 20:4/18:2 showed a marked increase from the Control (0.09) to DMBA-challenged groups (0.47 and 0.42 respectively) in the PE fraction. These results suggest changes in fatty acid profiles during the early phase of DMBA carcinogenesis. Results of similar studies at subsequent stages will also be discussed in detail.

  12. Lactobionic and cellobionic acid production profiles of the resting cells of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kiryu, Takaaki; Kiso, Taro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    Lactobionic acid was produced by acetic acid bacteria to oxidize lactose. Gluconobacter spp. and Gluconacetobacter spp. showed higher lactose-oxidizing activities than Acetobacter spp. Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC3285 produced the highest amount of lactobionic acid per cell, among the strains tested. This bacterium assimilated neither lactose nor lactobionic acid. At high lactose concentration (30%), resting cells of the bacterium showed sufficient oxidizing activity for efficient production of lactobionic acid. These properties may contribute to industrial production of lactobionic acid by the bacterium. The bacterium showed higher oxidizing activity on cellobiose than that on lactose and produced cellobionic acid. PMID:25965080

  13. Influence of monochromatic light on quality traits, nutritional, fatty acid, and amino acid profiles of broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, M J; Parvin, R; Mushtaq, M M H; Hwangbo, J; Kim, J H; Na, J C; Kim, D W; Kang, H K; Kim, C D; Cho, K O; Yang, C B; Choi, H C

    2013-11-01

    The role of monochromatic lights was investigated on meat quality in 1-d-old straight-run broiler chicks (n = 360), divided into 6 light sources with 6 replicates having 10 chicks in each replicate. Six light sources were described as incandescent bulbs (IBL, as a control) and light-emitting diode (LED) light colors as white light (WL), blue light, red light (RL), green light, and yellow light. Among LED groups, the RL increased the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001), and the saturated:polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio (P < 0.001), but reduced the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-3 fatty acid, and n-6 fatty acid. The IBL increased the n-3 and sulfur-containing amino acids but reduced the n-6:n-3 nonessential amino acids. The WL improved the concentration of most of the essential amino acids (P < 0.01) and nonessential amino acids (P < 0.01) of breast meat. It can be extracted that the light produced by LED responded similar to the IBL light in influencing nutrient contents of meat. Moreover, LED is not decisive in improving fatty acid composition of meat. However, the role of IBL in reducing n-6:n-3 ratio and enhancing n-3 cannot be neglected. Among LED, WL is helpful in improving essential and nonessential amino acid contents of broiler meat. PMID:24135586

  14. Similarities Across Mars: Acidic Fluids at Both Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater in the Formation of Magnesium-Nickel Sulfates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gellert, Ralf; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Vaniman, David T.; Thompson, Lucy M.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.; Arvidson, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    In-situ identification of sulfates at the martian surface by the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Mars Science Laboratory have included calcium sulfates with various states of hydration (gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite), iron sulfates of likely fumarolic origin, massive deposits of iron hydroxysulfates indicative of an acidic history, and minor occurrences of magnesium sulfates. Recent measurements by the Opportunity and Curiosity Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers (APXS) have indicated the presence of Ni-substituted Mg-sulfates at the Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater landing sites. The Opportunity rover has traversed nearly 43 km and is currently exploring the impact breccias of the rim of Endeavour crater, near a location where signatures of aqueous alteration have been established from orbit. APXS analyses of subsurface materials excavated by a rover wheel show clear evidence for a Mg(Ni)-sulfate with Mg:Ni (is) approximately 100:1 (molar). On the other side of the planet, Curiosity is continuing its climb up Mount Sharp after driving (is) approximately 13 km since landing. Over the last 4 km of the traverse, there have been multiple chemical analyses of erosionally-resistant nodules and dendritic features in a finely laminated mudstone unit which also indicate Mg(Ni)-sulfate (Mg:Ni (is) approximately 30:1, molar). The geologic settings for the Endeavour rim and the Mount Sharp mudstones are clearly different, but similar formation conditions for these sulfates may be possible. Ni(2+) readily substitutes for Mg(2+) in a variety of geochemical processes due to their comparable ionic radii. The availability of soluble Ni at the time of Mg-sulfate precipitation suggests acidic solutions. The fluids responsible for alteration in the Endeavour rim and for the formation of nodules in Gale mudstones may have had similar chemical characteristics at the time the Mg-sulfates were formed.

  15. Protein content and amino acids profile of pseudocereals.

    PubMed

    Mota, Carla; Santos, Mariana; Mauro, Raul; Samman, Norma; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) represent the main protein source in several diets, although these pseudocereals are not currently present in the FCDB nutrient profile information. The aim of this work is to characterise the AA profile of these pseudocereals and compare them with rice. Total protein content revealed to vary from 16.3g/100g (quinoa Salta) to 13.1g/100g (buckwheat) and lower values were found in rice samples (6.7g/100g). For pseudocereals the most abundant essential AA was leucine. Quinoa-Salta evidences the highest leucine content (1013mg/100g) and the minor methionine content (199mg/100g). Buckwheat was the cereal with the highest phenylalanine content (862mg/100g). Rice (Oryza sativa) presents the lowest content for all AA. Results showed pseudocereals as the best source of AA. EuroFIR guidelines where strictly followed and proved to be a crucial tool to guarantee data interchangeability and comparability. PMID:26433287

  16. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, J A; Islam, M M; Ahmed, S T; Mun, H S; Kim, G M; Kim, Y J; Yang, C J

    2014-08-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  17. Serum bile acid profiling reflects enterohepatic detoxification state and intestinal barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Gnewuch, Carsten; Liebisch, Gerhard; Langmann, Thomas; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Mueller, Thomas; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Dieplinger, Hans; Zahn, Alexandra; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Rogler, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine free and conjugated serum bile acid (BA) levels in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) subgroups with defined clinical manifestations. METHODS: Comprehensive serum BA profiling was performed in 358 IBD patients and 310 healthy controls by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Serum levels of hyodeoxycholic acid, the CYP3A4-mediated detoxification product of the secondary BA lithocholic acid (LCA), was increased significantly in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), while most other serum BA species were decreased significantly. Total BA, total BA conjugate, and total BA glycoconjugate levels were decreased only in CD, whereas total unconjugated BA levels were decreased only in UC. In UC patients with hepatobiliary manifestations, the conjugated primary BAs glycocholic acid, taurocholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were as significantly increased as the secondary BAs LCA, ursodeoxycholic acid, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid compared to UC patients without hepatobiliary manifestations. Finally, we found that in ileocecal resected CD patients, the unconjugated primary BAs, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, were increased significantly compared to controls and patients without surgical interventions. CONCLUSION: Serum BA profiling in IBD patients that indicates impaired intestinal barrier function and increased detoxification is suitable for advanced diagnostic characterization and differentiation of IBD subgroups with defined clinical manifestations. PMID:19575493

  18. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; Kim, G. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p<0.05) improved average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as well as serum immunoglobulin G concentration. Chemical composition and quality grade of meat and carcass yield grades evaluated at the end of the trial were found to be unaffected by SW supplementation. Dietary SW significantly reduced meat cholesterol concentration (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation significantly reduced the myristic acid (C14:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:ln-7) concentration, while SW increased the concentration of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) compared to control (p<0.05). Dietary SW supplementation had no effect on saturated fatty acids (SFA), unsaturated fatty acids, poly unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) or mono unsaturated fatty acid content in muscles. A reduced ratio of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 were found in SW supplemented group (p<0.05). In conclusion, 2% SW supplementation was found to improve growth, immunity and fatty acid profile with significantly reduced cholesterol of beef. PMID:25083105

  19. Response to the Letter to the Editor regarding "Determination of the fatty acid profile by 1H-NMR spectroscopy."

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In expansion of previous work (G. Knothe, J.A. Kenar, Determination of the fatty acid profile by 1H-NMR spectroscopy, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2004, 106, 88-96), an additional approach is discussed for quantitating saturated fatty acids in the fatty acid profiles of common vegetable oils by 1H-NM...

  20. A2B5+/GFAP+ Cells of Rat Spinal Cord Share a Similar Lipid Profile with Progenitor Cells: A Comparative Lipidomic Study.

    PubMed

    Itokazu, Yutaka; Tajima, Nobuyoshi; Kerosuo, Laura; Somerharju, Pentti; Sariola, Hannu; Yu, Robert K; Käkelä, Reijo

    2016-07-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) harbors multiple glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressing cell types. In addition to the most abundant cell type of the CNS, the astrocytes, various stem cells and progenitor cells also contain GFAP+ populations. Here, in order to distinguish between two types of GFAP expressing cells with or without the expression of the A2B5 antigens, we performed lipidomic analyses on A2B5+/GFAP+ and A2B5-/GFAP+ cells from rat spinal cord. First, A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors were exposed to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to induce their differentiation to A2B5+/GFAP+ cells or A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes, respectively. The cells were then analyzed for changes in their phospholipid, sphingolipid or acyl chain profiles by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Compared to A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes contained higher amounts of ether phospholipids (especially the species containing arachidonic acid) and sphingomyelin, which may indicate characteristics of cellular differentiation and inability for multipotency. In comparison, principal component analyses revealed that the lipid composition of A2B5+/GFAP+ cells retained many of the characteristics of A2B5+/GFAP- progenitors, but their lipid profile was different from that of A2B5-/GFAP+ astrocytes. Thus, our study demonstrated that two GFAP+ cell populations have distinct lipid profiles with the A2B5+/GFAP+ cells sharing a phospholipid profile with progenitors rather than astrocytes. The progenitor cells may require regulated low levels of lipids known to mediate signaling functions in differentiated cells, and the precursor lipid profiles may serve as one measure of the differentiation capacity of a cell population. PMID:26915109

  1. Plasma free amino acid profiles of canine mammary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Kazuo; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between plasma free amino acid (PFAA) levels and the clinical stages of mammary gland tumors (MGT) in dogs. PFAA levels in canines with malignant mammary tumors were decreased compared to those of healthy animals. The levels of aspartate and ornithine, in the dogs with tumor metastasis were significantly decreased when compared to those of dogs that did not have metastases. Results of this study indicate that PFAA levels could be a risk factor or biomarker for canine MGT metastasis. PMID:23271187

  2. Depth profiling of 4-acetamindophenol-doped poly(lactic acid) films using cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Christine M; Roberson, Sonya V; Gillen, Greg

    2004-06-01

    The feasibility of using cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry for depth profiling of drug delivery systems is explored. The behavior of various biodegradable polymer films under dynamic SF(5)(+) primary ion bombardment was investigated, including several films doped with model drugs. The SF(5)(+) depth profiles obtained from these biodegradable polymer films showed very little degradation in secondary ion signal as a function of increasing primary ion dose, and it was discovered that the characteristic ion signals for the polymers remained constant for ion doses up to approximately 5 x 10(15) ions/cm(2). These results suggest that the polyester structure of the biodegradable polymers studied here allows for a greater ability to depth profile due to ease of main chain scission. Attempts were also made to depth profile through a series of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films containing varying concentrations of the drug 4-acetamidophenol. The depth profiles obtained from these films show very little decrease in both the 4-acetamidophenol molecular ion and PLA fragment ion signals as a function of increasing SF(5)(+) primary ion dose. Similar results were obtained with theophylline-doped PLA films. These results show that, in some drug delivery devices, it is possible to monitor the distribution of a drug as a function of depth by using cluster primary ion beams. PMID:15167802

  3. Striking similarities are exhibited by two small Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acids and the adenovirus-associated ribonucleic acids VAI and VAII

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, M.D.; Gottlieb, E.; Lerner, M.R.; Steitz, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the region of the Epstein-Barr virus genome that specified two small ribonucleic acids (RNAs), EBER 1 and EBER 2, has been determined. Both of these RNAs are encoded by the right-hand 1,000 base pairs of the EcoRI J fragment of EBV deoxyribonucleic acid. EBER 1 is 166 (167) nucleotides long and EBER 2 is 172 +- 1 nucleotides long; the heterogeneity resides at the 3' termini. The EBER genes are separated by 161 base pairs and are transcribed from the same deoxyribonucleic acid strand. In vitro, both EBER genes can be transcribed by RNA polymerase III; sequences homologous to previously identified RNA polymerase III intragenic transcription control regions are present. Striking similarities are therefore apparent both between the EBERs and the two adenovirus-associated RNAs, VAI and VAII, and between the regions of the two viral genomes that specify these small RNAs. We have shown that VAII RNA as well as VAI RNA and the EBERs exist in ribonucleoprotein complexes which are precipitable by anti-La antibodies associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Finally the authors have demonstrated that the binding of protein(s) from uninfected cells confers antigenicity on each of the four virus-encoded small RNAs.

  4. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance in dairy cows, similar to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Shafran, A; Zachut, M; Dekel, I; Portnick, Y; Arieli, A

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the differential incorporation of various omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) supplemented to dairy cows into ovarian compartments and assess the effects on IVF. Forty-two 256-day pregnant cows were supplemented with encapsulated fats, in treatments designated as i) SFA - saturated fat at 240 and 560 g/day per cow, prepartum and post partum (PP) respectively; ii) FLX - flaxseed oil at 300 and 700 g/day per cow prepartum and PP respectively; and iii) FO - fish oil at 300 and 700 g/day per cow prepartum and PP respectively. Commencing at 60 days in lactation, ovum pickup (OPU) was performed twice weekly (20 sessions; five cows per group) and in vitro maturation and IVF were conducted. The proportion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greater in follicular fluid (FF), granulosa cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of FLX cows than in other groups (P<0.001). The proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was 6.7 times as great in FF of FO as in other groups (P<0.001); docosapentaenoic acid n-3 and DHA were detected in COCs of FO but not in others. The follicle number during OPU was higher in FLX and FO than in SFA (P<0.05), and the oocyte cleavage rate was higher in FLX and FO than in SFA (P<0.01). Also, the percentage of oocytes that developed to blastocysts tended to be higher in both n-3 groups than in SFA (P<0.1). In conclusion, both dietary n-3 FAs similarly improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance; therefore, ALA-rich botanical n-3 seems to be a satisfactory approach to improve oocyte quality. PMID:24062566

  5. Expression profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Li, Hong; Dong, Jin; Dong, Yan; Wang, Chang-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and tumor-associated factors for predicting the outcome of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in Chinese patients. METHODS: Fresh-frozen malignant and normal tissues from 82 Chinese patients with CRC were analyzed for PUFA composition using gas-liquid chromatography. The levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the levels of VEGF, p53 and Ki-67 were measured by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In malignant tissue, compared with normal tissue, the levels of total ω-6 PUFAs (24.64% ± 3.41% vs 26.77% ± 3.37%, P = 0.00) and linoleic acid (LA) (15.46% ± 3.51% vs 18.30% ± 2.83%, P < 0.01) were lower, whereas the levels of total ω-3 PUFAs (1.58% ± 0.74% vs 1.35% ± 0.60%, P < 0.01) and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) (1.32% ± 0.69% vs 0.85% ± 0.29%, P < 0.01) were significantly higher. The ratios of arachidonic acid (AA)/LA (0.53 ± 0.22 vs 0.42 ± 0.19, P < 0.01) and AA/total ω-6 PUFAs (0.31 ± 0.09 vs 0.27 ± 0.10, P < 0.01) were also significantly higher in malignant tissue. The levels of PDGF (353.10 ± 148.85 pg/mL vs 286.09 ± 104.91 pg/mL, P < 0.01), COX-2 (125.21 ± 70.29 ng/mL vs 67.06 ± 42.22 ng/mL, P < 0.01) and VEGF (357.11 ± 128.76 pg/mL vs 211.38 ± 99.47 pg/mL, P < 0.01) were also higher in malignant tissue compared to normal tissue. COX-2 was inversely correlated with LA (R = -0.3244, P < 0.05) and positively correlated with AA/total ω-6 PUFAs (R = 0.3083, P < 0.05) and AA/LA (R = 0.3001, P < 0.05). The tissue level of LA was highest in poorly differentiated tumors (19.9% ± 6.3%, P < 0.05), while the ratio of AA/ω-3 PUFAs was lowest in these tumors (10.8 ± 2.6, P < 0.05). In VEGF-positive tumors, the level of LA was higher (16.2% ± 3.7% vs 13.9% ± 2.7%, P < 0.01), while the AA/ω-3PUFA, AA/ω-6

  6. Impact of gluconic fermentation of strawberry using acetic acid bacteria on amino acids and biogenic amines profile.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, J L; Sainz, F; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Torija, M J; García-Parrilla, M C

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the amino acid profile of beverages obtained through the fermentation of strawberry purée by a surface culture using three strains belonging to different acetic acid bacteria species (one of Gluconobacter japonicus, one of Gluconobacter oxydans and one of Acetobacter malorum). An HPLC-UV method involving diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate (DEEMM) was adapted and validated. From the entire set of 21 amino acids, multiple linear regressions showed that glutamine, alanine, arginine, tryptophan, GABA and proline were significantly related to the fermentation process. Furthermore, linear discriminant analysis classified 100% of the samples correctly in accordance with the microorganism involved. G. japonicus consumed glucose most quickly and achieved the greatest decrease in amino acid concentration. None of the 8 biogenic amines were detected in the final products, which could serve as a safety guarantee for these strawberry gluconic fermentation beverages, in this regard. PMID:25704705

  7. Improvement in HPLC separation of acetic acid and levulinic acid in the profiling of biomass hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Wu, Yonnie; Adhikari, Sushil

    2011-04-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural could be separated by the Aminex HPX-87H column chromatography, however, the separation and quantification of acetic acid and levulinic acid in biomass hydrolysate have been difficult with this method. In present study, the HPLC separation of acetic acid and levulinic acid on Aminex HPX-87H column has been investigated by varying column temperature, flow rate, and sulfuric acid content in the mobile phase. The column temperature was found critical in resolving acetic acid and levulinic acid. The resolution for two acids increased dramatically from 0.42 to 1.86 when the column temperature was lowered from 60 to 30 °C. So did the capacity factors for levulinic acid that was increased from 1.20 to 1.44 as the column temperature dropped. The optimum column temperature for the separation was found at 45 °C. Variation in flow rate and sulfuric acid concentration improved not as much as the column temperature did. PMID:21316945

  8. Composition, physiochemical properties, nitrogen fraction distribution, and amino acid profile of donkey milk.

    PubMed

    Guo, H Y; Pang, K; Zhang, X Y; Zhao, L; Chen, S W; Dong, M L; Ren, F Z

    2007-04-01

    This study investigated the changes in chemical composition, nitrogen fraction distribution, and AA profile of milk samples obtained during lactation from the Jiangyue breed of donkey in Northwest China. Results showed that donkey milk contained 9.53% total solids, 1.57% protein, 1.16% fat, 6.33% lactose, and 0.4% ash on average, which is more similar to mare and human milk than to the milk of other mammals. Throughout the lactation investigated, pH and density were constant, protein and ash content showed an apparent negative trend (an increase in lactose content during 120 d postpartum, followed by a decrease), fat content exhibited wide variability, and variations in the content and percentage of whey protein, casein, and AA were small. The casein to whey protein ratio of 52:37 was between the lower value of human milk and the higher value of cow milk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE results demonstrated that donkey milk is rich in beta-lactoglobulin and lysozyme. The percentages of 8 essential AA in protein of donkey milk were 38.2%, higher than those of mare and cow milk; donkey milk also had higher levels of serine (6.2%), glutamic acid (22.8%), arginine (4.6%), and valine (6.5%) and a lower level of cystine (0.4%). PMID:17369203

  9. Similar PAH Fate in Anaerobic Digesters Inoculated with Three Microbial Communities Accumulating Either Volatile Fatty Acids or Methane

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10 % to 30 %, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH

  10. Similar PAH fate in anaerobic digesters inoculated with three microbial communities accumulating either volatile fatty acids or methane.

    PubMed

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Bonnafous, Anaïs; Delgenès, Nadine; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Patureau, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Urban sludge produced on wastewater treatment plants are often contaminated by organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Their removal under methanogenic conditions was already reported, but the factors influencing this removal remain unclear. Here, we determined the influence of microbial communities on PAH removal under controlled physico-chemical conditions. Twelve mesophilic anaerobic digesters were inoculated with three microbial communities extracted from ecosystems with contrasting pollution histories: a PAH contaminated soil, a PCB contaminated sediment and a low contaminated anaerobic sludge. These anaerobic digesters were operated during 100 days in continuous mode. A sterilised activated sludge, spiked with 13 PAH at concentrations usually encountered in full-scale wastewater treatment plants, was used as substrate. The dry matter and volatile solid degradation, the biogas production rate and composition, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production and the PAH removals were monitored. Bacterial and archaeal communities were compared in abundance (qPCR), in community structure (SSCP fingerprinting) and in dominant microbial species (454-pyrosequencing). The bioreactors inoculated with the community extracted from low contaminated anaerobic sludge showed the greater methane production. The PAH removals ranged from 10% to 30%, respectively, for high and low molecular weight PAH, whatever the inoculums tested, and were highly correlated with the dry matter and volatile solid removals. The microbial community structure and diversity differed with the inoculum source; this difference was maintained after the 100 days of digestion. However, the PAH removal was not correlated to these diverse structures and diversities. We hence obtained three functional stable consortia with two contrasted metabolic activities, and three different pictures of microbial diversity, but similar PAH and matter removals. These results confirm that PAH removal

  11. Determination of fatty acid profile in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Díaz, R; Torres, M A; Bravo, S; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in male reproductive function because they are associated with membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction, sperm motility and viability, but limited information exists about the fatty acid profile of ram semen. Our aim was to determine the fatty acid composition in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Sixty ejaculates were obtained from three ram (20 ejaculates/ram) using artificial vagina. Ram spermatozoa (RS) and seminal plasma (SP) were separated using centrifugation, and the fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Total lipids obtained in ram spermatozoa were 1.8% and 1.6% in seminal plasma. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) was proportionally major in SP (66.6%) that RS (49.9%). The highest proportions of SFA corresponded to C4:0 (RS = 16.3% and SP = 28.8%) and C16:0 (RS = 16.3% and PS = 20%). The most important unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 44.9% in RS and 31.5% in SP. The profile of fatty acid and their proportions showed differences between spermatozoa and seminal plasma. PMID:26707342

  12. Controlled Cortical Impact and Craniotomy Induce Strikingly Similar Profiles of Inflammatory Gene Expression, but with Distinct Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lagraoui, Mouna; Latoche, Joseph R.; Cartwright, Natalia G.; Sukumar, Gauthaman; Dalgard, Clifton L.; Schaefer, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    An immediate consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the induction of an inflammatory response. Mounting data suggest that inflammation is a major contributor to TBI-induced brain damage. However, much remains unknown regarding the induction and regulation of the inflammatory response to TBI. In this study we compared the TBI-induced inflammatory response to severe parenchymal injury (controlled cortical impact) vs. mild brain injury (craniotomy) over a 21-day period. Our data show that both severe and mild brain injury induce a qualitatively similar inflammatory response, involving highly overlapping sets of effector molecules. However, kinetic analysis revealed that the inflammatory response to mild brain injury is of much shorter duration than the response to severe TBI. Specifically, the inflammatory response to severe brain injury persists for at least 21 days, whereas the response to mild brain injury returns to near baseline values within 10 days post-injury. Our data therefore imply that the development of accurate diagnostic tests of TBI severity that are based on imaging or biomarker analysis of the inflammatory response may require repeated measures over at least a 10-day period, post-injury. PMID:23118733

  13. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, René J J; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-04-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal desorption (DTD) interface was used to profile the fatty acid composition of human plasma and whole human blood of eight volunteers in a procedure omitting the usual lipid extraction steps that precede sample methylation in the traditional (off-line) protocols. Trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) was used as reagent for thermally assisted methylation. In a fully automated manner, the liner of the GC injector is used as a sample-and-reaction container with the aid of the DTD interface. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles obtained using this novel approach, were very identical to those obtained when the traditional off-line protocol was applied. FAME yields obtained in the at-line DTD method were found to be very similar for saturated fatty acids, but significantly higher for polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to off-line yields. As a result of the contribution of circulating cell membranes in blood, substantial differences were observed when the amount of FAMEs obtained in whole human blood and human plasma samples were compared after their analysis. Thanks to the fully automated operation of this novel procedure, large series of analyses can easily be performed. PMID:17889883

  14. Two novel LRR-only proteins in Chlamys farreri: Similar in structure, yet different in expression profile and pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Xin, Lusheng; Wang, Xiudan; Wang, Lin; Xu, Jianchao; Jia, Zhihao; Yue, Feng; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2016-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-only proteins could mediate protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions and be involved in the immune response. In the present study, two novel LRR-only proteins, CfLRRop-2 and CfLRRop-3, were identified and characterized from scallop Chlamys farreri. They both contained nine LRR motifs with the consensus signature sequence LxxLxLxxNxL and formed typical horseshoe structure. The CfLRRop-2 and CfLRRop-3 mRNA transcripts were constitutively expressed in haemocytes, muscle, mantle, gill, haepatopancreas and gonad, with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas and gill, respectively. During the ontogenesis of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfLRRop-2 were kept at a high level in oocytes and embryos, while those of CfLRRop-3 were expressed at a rather low level from oocytes to blastula. Their mRNA transcripts were significantly increased after the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN), glucan (GLU) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), and the mRNA expression of CfLRRop-2 rose more intensely than that of CfLRRop-3. After the suppression of CfTLR (previously identified Toll-like receptor in C. farreri) via RNA interference (RNAi), CfLRRop-3 mRNA transcripts increased more intensely and lastingly than those of CfLRRop-2. The rCfLRRop-3 protein could bind LPS, PGN, GLU and poly I:C, while rCfLRRop-2 exhibited no significant binding activity to them. Additionally, rCfLRRop-2 could significantly induce the release of TNF-α from the mixed primary cultured scallop haemocytes, but rCfLRRop-3 failed. These results collectively indicated that CfLRRop-2 might act as an immune effector or pro-inflammatory factor, while CfLRRop-3 would function as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR), suggesting the function of LRR-only protein family has differentiated in scallop. PMID:26826425

  15. Use of fatty acid methyl ester profiles for discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-strain spores grown on different media.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L; Swan, Brandon K; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 omega9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation. PMID:20097814

  16. Use of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles for Discrimination of Bacillus cereus T-Strain Spores Grown on Different Media▿

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J.; Chu, Vivian; Brown, TeeCie; Simmons, Terrie L.; Swan, Brandon K.; Bannan, Jason; Robertson, James M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if cellular fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling could be used to distinguish among spore samples from a single species (Bacillus cereus T strain) that were prepared on 10 different medium formulations. To analyze profile differences and identify FAME biomarkers diagnostic for the chemical constituents in each sporulation medium, a variety of statistical techniques were used, including nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), analysis of similarities (ANOSIM), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results showed that one FAME biomarker, oleic acid (18:1 ω9c), was exclusively associated with spores grown on Columbia agar supplemented with sheep blood and was indicative of blood supplements that were present in the sporulation medium. For spores grown in other formulations, multivariate comparisons across several FAME biomarkers were required to discern profile differences. Clustering patterns in nMDS plots and R values from ANOSIM revealed that dissimilarities among FAME profiles were most pronounced when spores grown with disparate sources of complex additives or protein supplements were compared (R > 0.8), although other factors also contributed to FAME differences. DFA indicated that differentiation could be maximized with a targeted subset of FAME variables, and the relative contributions of branched FAME biomarkers to group dissimilarities changed when different media were compared. When taken together, these analyses indicate that B. cereus spore samples grown in different media can be resolved with FAME profiling and that this may be a useful technique for providing intelligence about the production methods of Bacillus organisms in a forensic investigation. PMID:20097814

  17. Live and inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium stimulate similar but distinct transcriptome profiles in bovine macrophages and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirsty; Gallagher, Iain J; Kaliszewska, Anna; Zhang, Chen; Abejide, Oluyinka; Gallagher, Maurice P; Werling, Dirk; Glass, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major cause of gastroenteritis in cattle and humans. Dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (Mø) are major players in early immunity to Salmonella, and their response could influence the course of infection. Therefore, the global transcriptional response of bovine monocyte-derived DC and Mø to stimulation with live and inactivated S. Typhimurium was compared. Both cell types mount a major response 2 h post infection, with a core common response conserved across cell-type and stimuli. However, three of the most affected pathways; inflammatory response, regulation of transcription and regulation of programmed cell death, exhibited cell-type and stimuli-specific differences. The expression of a subset of genes associated with these pathways was investigated further. The inflammatory response was greater in Mø than DC, in the number of genes and the enhanced expression of common genes, e.g., interleukin (IL) 1B and IL6, while the opposite pattern was observed with interferon gamma. Furthermore, a large proportion of the investigated genes exhibited stimuli-specific differential expression, e.g., Mediterranean fever. Two-thirds of the investigated transcription factors were significantly differentially expressed in response to live and inactivated Salmonella. Therefore the transcriptional responses of bovine DC and Mø during early S. Typhimurium infection are similar but distinct, potentially due to the overall function of these cell-types. The differences in response of the host cell will influence down-stream events, thus impacting on the subsequent immune response generated during the course of the infection. PMID:27000047

  18. Aspartame and sucrose produce a similar increase in the plasma phenylalanine to large neutral amino acid ratio in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Burns, T S; Stargel, W W; Tschanz, C; Kotsonis, F N; Hurwitz, A

    1991-01-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) consumption has been postulated to increase brain phenylalanine levels by increasing the molar ratio of the plasma phenylalanine concentration to the sum of the plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids (Phe/LNAA). Dietary manipulations with carbohydrate or protein can also produce changes in the Phe/LNAA value. To compare the effects of aspartame and carbohydrate on Phe/LNAA, beverages sweetened with aspartame, sucrose, and aspartame plus sucrose, and unsweetened beverage were ingested by 8 healthy, fasted subjects in a randomized, four-way crossover design. The beverages were sweetened with an amount of aspartame (500 mg) and/or sucrose (100 g) approximately equivalent to that used to sweeten 1 liter of soft drink. The baseline-corrected plasma Phe/LNAA values did not differ significantly following ingestion of aspartame or sucrose. Following aspartame alone, the high mean ratio increased 26% over baseline 1 h after ingestion. Following sucrose alone, the high mean ratio increased 19% at 2.5 h. Sucrose increased the Phe/LNAA value due to an insulin-mediated decrease in the plasma LNAA, while aspartame increased the ratio by increasing the plasma Phe concentration. These findings indicate that similar increases in plasma Phe/LNAA occur when healthy, fasting subjects ingest amounts of equivalent sweetness of sucrose or aspartame. PMID:1771173

  19. Amelioration of an Ultisol profile acidity using crop straws combined with alkaline slag.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiu-yu; Masud, M M; Li, Zhong-yi; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-07-01

    The acidity of Ultisols (pH <5) is detrimental to crop production. Technologies should be explored to promote base saturation and liming effect for amelioration of Ultisol pH. Column leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the amelioration effects of canola straw (CS) and peanut straw (PS) in single treatment and in combination whether with alkaline slag (AS) or with lime on Ultisol profile acidity. The treatment without liming materials was set as control, and the AS and lime in single treatment are set for comparison. Results indicated that all the liming materials increase soil profile pH and soil exchangeable base cations at the 0-40-cm depth, except that the lime had amelioration effect just on 0 to 15-cm profile. The amelioration effect of the liming materials on surface soil acidity was mainly dependent on the ash alkalinity in organic materials or acid neutralization capacity of inorganic materials. Specific adsorption of sulfate (SO4(2-)) or organic anions, decarboxylation of organic acids/anions, and the association of H(+) with organic anions induced a "liming effect" of crop residues and AS on subsoil acidity. Moreover, SO4(2-) and chloride (Cl(-)) in PS, CS, and AS primarily induced base cations to move downward to subsoil and exchange with exchangeable aluminum (Al(3+)) and protons (H(+)). These anions also promoted the exchangeable Al to leach out of the soil profile. The CS was more effective than PS in decreasing soil acidity in the subsoil, which mainly resulted from higher sulfur (S) and Cl content in CS compared to PS. The CS combined with AS was the better amendment choice in practical agricultural systems. PMID:25666472

  20. Fatty acid profile of 25 plant oils and implications for industrial applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of plant oils extracted from twenty-five alternative feedstocks were determined. This information was utilized to determine what industrial application(s) each oil is best suited for. The basis for the selection was the premise that FA composition influences properties o...

  1. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks screened...

  2. Contribution of Fermentation Yeast to Final Amino Acid Profile in DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One major factor affecting DDGS quality and market values is amino acid (AA) composition. DDGS proteins come from corn and yeast. Yet, the effect of fermentation yeast on DDGS protein quantity and quality (AA profile) has not been well documented. Based on literature review, there are at least 4 met...

  3. Fatty acid profile of seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) seed oil and properties of the methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent literature, seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos; also known previously as Kosteletzkya virginica) seed oil was reported as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel. In the present work, the fatty acid profile of K. pentacarpos is shown to correspond to that of other plants in ...

  4. IMPACT OF SOYBEAN OILS VARYING IN FATTY ACID PROFILE ON T CELL PROLIFERATION OF MODERATELY HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linoleic acid and alpha linolenic acid are essential fatty acids, which play an important role in modulation of T cell proliferation. We studied the effects of feeding selectively bred and genetically modified soybean oils distinguished by altered fatty acid profiles, resulting in varied linoleic/li...

  5. Temperature and age affect the life history characteristics and fatty acid profiles of Moina macrocopa (Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Gama-Flores, José Luis; Huidobro-Salas, María Elena; Sarma, S S S; Nandini, S; Zepeda-Mejia, Ricardo; Gulati, Ramesh D

    2015-10-01

    Demographic responses and fatty acid profiles of Moina macrocopa were quantified under different temperature regimes (20°C, 25°C and 30°C and diurnally variable 20-30°C) and at fixed ration (10.65µgDWml(-1)) of Chlorella. Highest constant temperature (30°C) reduced the density of M. macrocopa. The cladocerans under the fluctuating temperature regime too had lower population growth (about 50% lower than that at constant 25°C). The survivorship of M. macrocopa was higher at 20°C than that at 25°C and 30°C or at variable temperature regime. Gross and net reproductive rates were higher at 25°C. At 20°C, neonates had the highest proportion (67%) of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids while the adults had the lowest (26%) proportion. For both adults and neonates, palmitoleic, linoleic and linolenic comprised of 15-35% of the total fatty acids. Higher percentage (19%) of linoleic acid was present in adults than neonates (7%). Adults had linolenic acid level which was 3-times higher than in neonates. Linoleic and linolenic fatty acids decreased with increasing temperature for neonates and adults from 20°C to 30°C. The demographic responses and fatty acid profiles of M. macrocopa were discussed in relation to level and mode of temperature exposure. PMID:26590466

  6. Serum lipid and fatty acid profiles in adriamycin-treated rats after administration of L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Mi; Kim, Hae Soon; Yoon, Hye-Ran

    2002-02-01

    Cardiomyopathy induced by Adriamycin (ADR) is a cause of congestive heart failure. Recently, it has been suggested that ADR inhibits the carnitine palmitoyltransferase system (CPT I) and consequently the transport of long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes. This study was devised to ascertain how ADR affects serum lipid and fatty acid metabolism in rats given ADR with and without L-carnitine supplementation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The first group was the control. The second group was given intraperitoneal injections of ADR (5 mg/kg) twice a week over a period of 2 wk. The third group received the same dose of ADR plus L-carnitine (200 mg/kg). The fourth group was injected with L-carnitine only. Serum lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol) and fatty acid levels were determined on the first, eighth, and 15th d after injection of ADR. ADR caused an increase of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol compared with the control group. HDL cholesterol was similar between two groups. Similarly, total fatty acids, especially C16-C18 fatty acids, were significantly elevated after injection of ADR. Striking reduction in these substances was observed when L-carnitine was added (p < 0.05). This study is the first report regarding the reversal effect of L-carnitine in connection with FFA profiles (C6-C18) in the serum of ADR-induced cardiomyopathic rats. This study also supports the view that ADR causes cardiomyopathy because it interferes with fatty acid metabolism, and we hypothesize that there is a possible protective effect of L-carnitine. PMID:11809922

  7. Effects of a Honeybee Sting on the Serum Free Amino Acid Profile in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Matysiak, Jan; Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Matysiak, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Kokot, Zenon J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln), L-glutamic acid (Glu), L-methionine (Met) and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis) between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting. PMID:25072247

  8. Effects of a honeybee sting on the serum free amino acid profile in humans.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Jan; Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Matysiak, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Kokot, Zenon J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response to a honeybee venom by analyzing serum levels of 34 free amino acids. Another goal of this study was to apply complex analytic-bioinformatic-clinical strategy based on up-to-date achievements of mass spectrometry in metabolomic profiling. The amino acid profiles were determined using hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with a liquid chromatography instrument. Serum samples were collected from 27 beekeepers within 3 hours after they were stung and after a minimum of 6 weeks following the last sting. The differences in amino acid profiles were evaluated using MetaboAnalyst and ROCCET web portals. Chemometric tests showed statistically significant differences in the levels of L-glutamine (Gln), L-glutamic acid (Glu), L-methionine (Met) and 3-methyl-L-histidine (3MHis) between the two analyzed groups of serum samples. Gln and Glu appeared to be the most important metabolites for distinguishing the beekeepers tested shortly after a bee sting from those tested at least 6 weeks later. The role of some amino acids in the response of an organism to the honeybee sting was also discussed. This study indicated that proposed methodology may allow to identify the individuals just after the sting and those who were stung at least 6 weeks earlier. The results we obtained will contribute to better understanding of the human body response to the honeybee sting. PMID:25072247

  9. Fatty acid profile of biscuits and salty snacks consumed by Brazilian college students.

    PubMed

    Dias, Flávia da Silva Lima; Passos, Maria Eliza Assis; do Carmo, Maria das Graças Tavares; Lopes, Maria Lúcia Mendes; Valente Mesquita, Vera Lúcia

    2015-03-15

    High levels of biscuit and salty snack consumption have an effect on human health. This aim of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of 19 different biscuits and 10 types of salty snacks by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid was predominant in 79% of biscuits and represented more than 55% of the total saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in salty snacks. Low concentrations of trans fatty acids were observed in biscuits (0.86% of total FAs), and the highest values were observed in salty snacks (7.94% of total FAs). The results indicate a high daily intake of SFAs and trans fatty acids, which may have an unfavourable effect on health. Changes in dietary habits and appropriate food choices by students are strongly recommended to prevent the risk of chronic disease. Furthermore, knowledge of the FA profile of food can help to establish health programs targeted to this population. PMID:25308679

  10. Will opposites attract? Similarities and differences in students' perceptions of the stereotype profiles of other health and social care professional groups.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Clark, Jill Macleod; Adams, Kim; Humphris, Debra

    2006-03-01

    The extent to which health and social care (HSC) students hold stereotypical views of other HSC professional groups is of great potential importance to team working in health care. This paper explores students' perceptions of different HSC professional groups at the beginning of their university programmes. Findings are presented from an analysis of baseline data collected as part of the New Generation Project longitudinal cohort study which is assessing the impact of interprofessional education over time on a range of variables including stereotyping. Questionnaires were administered to a cohort of over 1200 students from 10 different HSC professional groups entering their first year of university. Stereotypes were measured using a tool adapted from Barnes et al. (2000) designed to elicit stereotype ratings on a range of nine characteristics. The findings confirm that students arrive at university with an established and consistent set of stereotypes about other health and social care professional groups. Stereotypical profiles were compiled for each professional group indicating the distinctive characteristics of the groups as well as the similarities and differences between groups.Midwives, social workers and nurses were rated most highly on interpersonal skills and on being a team player whilst doctors were rated most highly on academic ability. Doctors, midwives and social workers were perceived as having the strongest leadership role, whilst doctors were also rated most highly on decision making. All professions were rated highly on confidence and professional competence and, with the exception of social workers, on practical skills. A comparison of profiles for each professional group reveals that, for example, pharmacists and doctors were perceived as having very similar characteristics as were social workers, midwives and nurses. However, the profiles of nurses and doctors were perceived to be very different. The implications of these similarities and

  11. Gas chromatographic organic acid profiling analysis of brandies and whiskeys for pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, K R; Kim, J H

    1999-06-01

    An efficient gas chromatographic profiling and pattern recognition method is described for brandy and whiskey samples according to their organic acid contents. It involves solid-phase extraction of organic acids using Chromosorb P with subsequent conversion to stable tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for the direct analysis by capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 organic acids were reproducibly identified in liquor samples (1 mL). When the GC profiles were simplified to their retention index spectra, characteristic patterns were obtained for each liquor sample as well as for each group average. Stepwise discriminant analysis provided star symbols characteristic for each liquor sample and group average. As expected, canonical discriminant analysis correctly classified 23 liquor samples studied into two groups of either brandy or whiskey. PMID:10794629

  12. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  13. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  14. Protodeboronation of Heteroaromatic, Vinyl, and Cyclopropyl Boronic Acids: pH-Rate Profiles, Autocatalysis, and Disproportionation.

    PubMed

    Cox, Paul A; Leach, Andrew G; Campbell, Andrew D; Lloyd-Jones, Guy C

    2016-07-27

    pH-rate profiles for aqueous-organic protodeboronation of 18 boronic acids, many widely viewed as unstable, have been studied by NMR and DFT. Rates were pH-dependent, and varied substantially between the boronic acids, with rate maxima that varied over 6 orders of magnitude. A mechanistic model containing five general pathways (k1-k5) has been developed, and together with input of [B]tot, KW, Ka, and KaH, the protodeboronation kinetics can be correlated as a function of pH (1-13) for all 18 species. Cyclopropyl and vinyl boronic acids undergo very slow protodeboronation, as do 3- and 4-pyridyl boronic acids (t0.5 > 1 week, pH 12, 70 °C). In contrast, 2-pyridyl and 5-thiazolyl boronic acids undergo rapid protodeboronation (t0.5 ≈ 25-50 s, pH 7, 70 °C), via fragmentation of zwitterionic intermediates. Lewis acid additives (e.g., Cu, Zn salts) can attenuate (2-pyridyl) or accelerate (5-thiazolyl and 5-pyrazolyl) fragmentation. Two additional processes compete when the boronic acid and the boronate are present in sufficient proportions (pH = pKa ± 1.6): (i) self-/autocatalysis and (ii) sequential disproportionations of boronic acid to borinic acid and borane. PMID:27355973

  15. Effect of pollution on DNA damage and essential fatty acid profile in Cirrhinus mrigala from River Chenab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Bilal; Sultana, Tayyaba; Sultana, Salma; Al-Ghanim, K. A.; Mahboob, Shahid

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of anthropogenic pollution on DNA damage and the fatty acid profile of the bottom dweller fish (Cirrhinus mrigala), collected from the River Chenab, in order to assess the effect of the toxicants on the quality of the fish meat. The levels of Cd, Hg, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr and Sn and of phenols from this river were significantly higher than the permissible limits set by the USEPA. Comet assays showed DNA damage in Cirrhinus mrigala collected from three different sampling sites in the polluted area of the river. Significant differences were observed for DNA damage through comet assay in fish collected from polluted compared to control sites. No significant differences were observed for DNA damage between farmed and fish collected from upstream. The micronucleus assay showed similar trends. Fish from the highly polluted sites showed less number of fatty acids and more saturated fatty acids in their meat compared to fish from less polluted areas. Several fatty acids were missing in fish with higher levels of DNA in comet tail and micronucleus induction. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) was found missing in the fish from polluted environment while it was found in considerable amount in farmed fish 7.8±0.4%. Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) also showed significant differences as 0.1±0.0 and 7.0±0.1% respectively, in wild polluted and farmed fishes.

  16. Gene-expression profiling of Waldenström macroglobulinemia reveals a phenotype more similar to chronic lymphocytic leukemia than multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Chng, Wee J.; Schop, Roelandt F.; Price-Troska, Tammy; Ghobrial, Irene; Kay, Neil; Jelinek, Diane F.; Gertz, Morie A.; Dispenzieri, Angela; Lacy, Martha; Kyle, Robert A.; Greipp, Philip R.; Tschumper, Renee C.; Fonseca, Rafael; Bergsagel, Peter Leif

    2006-01-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the ability of the B-cell clone to differentiate into plasma cells. Although the clinical syndrome and the pathologic characteristics are well defined, little is known about its biology and controversy still exists regarding its cell of origin. In this gene-expression study, we compared the transcription profiles of WM with those of other malignant B cells including (chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL] and multiple myeloma [MM]) as well as normal cells (peripheral-blood B cells and bone marrow plasma cells). We found that WM has a homogenous gene expression regardless of 6q deletion status and clusters with CLL and normal B cells on unsupervised clustering with very similar expression profiles. Only a small gene set has expression profiles unique to WM compared to CLL and MM. The most significantly up-regulated gene is IL6 and the most significantly associated pathway for this set of genes is MAPK signaling. Thus, IL6 and its downstream signaling may be of biologic importance in WM. Further elucidation of the role of IL-6 in WM is warranted as this may offer a potential therapeutic avenue. PMID:16804116

  17. Distinct Plasma Bile Acid Profiles of Biliary Atresia and Neonatal Hepatitis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kejun; Wang, Jun; Xie, Guoxiang; Zhou, Ying; Yan, Weihui; Pan, Weihua; Che, Yanran; Zhang, Ting; Wong, Linda; Kwee, Sandi; Xiao, Yongtao; Wen, Jie; Cai, Wei; Jia, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a severe chronic cholestasis disorder of infants that leads to death if not treated on time. Neonatal hepatitis syndrome (NHS) is another leading cause of neonatal cholestasis confounding the diagnosis of BA. Recent studies indicate that altered bile acid metabolism is closely associated with liver injury and cholestasis. In this study, we systematically measured the bile acid metabolome in plasma of BA, NHS, and healthy controls. Liver bile acids were also measured using biopsy samples from 48 BA and 16 NHS infants undergoing operative cholangiography as well as 5 normal adjacent nontumor liver tissues taken from hepatoblastoma patients as controls. Both BA and NHS samples had significantly elevated bile acid levels in plasma compared to normal controls. BA patients showed a distinct bile acid profile characterized by the higher taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) level and lower chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) level than those in NHS patients. The ratio of TCDCA to CDCA in plasma was significantly higher in BA compared to healthy infants (p < 0.001) or NHS (p < 0.001). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for TCDCA/CDCA to differentiate BA from NHS was 0.923 (95% CI: 0.862-0.984). These findings were supported by significantly altered expression levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptors in liver including farnesoid X receptor (FXR), small heterodimer partner (SHP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), and multidrug resistant protein 3 (MDR3) in BA compared to NHS. Taken together, the plasma bile acid profiles are distinct in BA, NHS, and normal infants, as characterized by the ratio of TCDCA/CDCA differentially distributed among the three groups of infants. PMID:26449593

  18. Dietary essential fatty acids change the fatty acid profile of rat neural mitochondria over time.

    PubMed

    Dyer, J R; Greenwood, C E

    1991-10-01

    This experiment examined the time course over which the amount of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA) affects brain mitochondrial fatty acids. Weanling rats were fed 20% (wt/wt) fat diets that contained either 4 or 15% (wt/wt of diet) EFA for 1, 2, 3 or 6 wk or a 10% EFA diet for 3 or 6 wk. The EFA ratio [18:2(n-6)/18:3(n-3)] of all diets was approximately 30. Fatty acid analysis of brain mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin revealed that the largest dietary effect was on 18:2(n-6), which was 30% higher in rats fed the 15 vs. 4% EFA diets after 1 wk. This difference increased to twofold by 3 wk and was still twofold after 6 wk. These results demonstrate several facts: 1) the response of 18:2(n-6) in cardiolipin to dietary EFA is very fast and large, relative to changes in other quantitatively major fatty acids observed in weanling rats; 2) the 18:2(n-6) level in neural cardiolipin stabilizes after 3 wk of feeding at a level dependent upon the amount of dietary EFA; and 3) at least one neural fatty acid, 18:2(n-6), is very sensitive to amounts of dietary EFA that are well above the animal's EFA requirement. PMID:1765818

  19. Altered erythrocyte membrane fatty acid profile in typical Rett syndrome: effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Cinzia; De Felice, Claudio; Leoncini, Silvia; Durand, Thierry; Galano, Jean-Marie; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Zollo, Gloria; Guerranti, Roberto; Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Rossi, Marcello; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-11-01

    This study mainly aims at examining the erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FAs) profile in Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetically determined neurodevelopmental disease. Early reports suggest a beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) on disease severity in RTT. A total of 24 RTT patients were assigned to ω-3 PUFAs-containing fish oil for 12 months in a randomized controlled study (average DHA and EPA doses of 72.9, and 117.1mg/kgb.w./day, respectively). A distinctly altered FAs profile was detectable in RTT, with deficient ω-6 PUFAs, increased saturated FAs and reduced trans 20:4 FAs. FAs changes were found to be related to redox imbalance, subclinical inflammation, and decreased bone density. Supplementation with ω-3 PUFAs led to improved ω-6/ω-3 ratio and serum plasma lipid profile, decreased PUFAs peroxidation end-products, normalization of biochemical markers of inflammation, and reduction of bone hypodensity as compared to the untreated RTT group. Our data indicate that a significant FAs abnormality is detectable in the RTT erythrocyte membranes and is partially rescued by ω-3 PUFAs. PMID:25240461

  20. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    PubMed

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk. PMID:27233896

  1. Amino acid profiling as a method of discovering biomarkers for early diagnosis of cancer.

    PubMed

    Simińska, Edyta; Koba, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in the world and its early detection significantly increases chances of patients' survival. High cancer mortality rate is caused mainly by late-stage diagnosis and lack of non-invasive and reliable methods for early diagnosis, such as plasma biomarkers. The incidence of cancers in the world still grows so it is crucial to develop a new, faster, high specificity and more sensitive diagnostic technologies. Several recent researchers indicate amino acids as a potential marker for cancer detection. An ideal cancer biomarker should be characterized by high specificity and sensitivity, reliability, ease of measurement and, what is important, ability to detect disease in its early stage. This study is focused on indicating metabolic amino acid profiling as a method of identifying biomarkers for cancer early detection and screening. Presented results are derived from the most recent studies where patients in early, often asymptomatic stages of disease constituted a large percentage of all the patients and, what is important, where researchers have observed alterations in these patients' amino acid profiles. This review is concentrated on analyzing studies on the most common cancers with high mortality rate. Inventing effective methods of early diagnosis is particularly important in case of such diseases. Research presented in this publication is focused on patients with lung, breast and colon cancer. In all analyzed cases, significant changes in the amino acid profile in cancer patients comparing to healthy controls were observed. This study indicates potential of amino acid profiling as method for early cancer detection. PMID:27033065

  2. Wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid predominantly improve the lipid profile of broiler meat.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-11-20

    In response to recent assertions that synthetic antioxidants may have the potential to cause toxic effects and to consumers' increased attention to consuming natural products, the poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants, alone or in combination with synthetic antioxidants that are currently being used by the industry. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of α-lipoic acid, α-tocopherol, and wheat germ oil on the status of antioxidant enzymes, fatty acid profile, and serum biochemical profile of broiler blood. One-day-old (180) broiler birds were fed six different feeds varying in their antioxidant content: no addition (T1), natural α-tocopherol (wheat germ oil, T2), synthetic α-tocopherol (T3), α-lipoic acid (T4), α-lipoic acid together with natural α-tocopherol (T5), and α-lipoic acid together with synthetic α-tocopherol (T6). The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the breast and leg meat was positively influenced by the different dietary supplements. The content of fatty acid was significantly greater in broilers receiving T2 both in breast (23.92%) and in leg (25.82%) meat, whereas lower fatty acid levels was found in broilers receiving diets containing T6 in the breast (19.57%) and leg (21.30%) meat. Serum total cholesterol (113.42 mg/dL) and triglycerides (52.29 mg/dL) were lowest in the group given natural α-tocopherol and α-lipoic acid. Wheat germ oil containing natural α-tocopherol alone or with α-lipoic acid was more effective than synthetic α-tocopherol in raising levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase while lowering plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides and raising high-density lipoprotein and plasma protein significantly. It was concluded that the combination of wheat germ oil and α-lipoic acid is helpful in improving the lipid profile of broilers. PMID:24191686

  3. Individual Variation in Lipidomic Profiles of Healthy Subjects in Response to Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Nording, Malin L.; Yang, Jun; Georgi, Katrin; Hegedus Karbowski, Christine; German, J. Bruce; Weiss, Robert H.; Hogg, Ronald J.; Trygg, Johan; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Conflicting findings in both interventional and observational studies have resulted in a lack of consensus on the benefits of ω3 fatty acids in reducing disease risk. This may be due to individual variability in response. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to investigate both the consistent and inconsistent responses of individuals comprehensively to a defined ω3 intervention. Methods The lipidomic profile including fatty acids, lipid classes, lipoprotein distribution, and oxylipins was examined multi- and uni-variately in 12 healthy subjects pre vs. post six weeks of ω3 fatty acids (1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]). Results Total lipidomic and oxylipin profiles were significantly different pre vs. post treatment across all subjects (p=0.00007 and p=0.00002 respectively). There was a strong correlation between oxylipin profiles and EPA and DHA incorporated into different lipid classes (r2=0.93). However, strikingly divergent responses among individuals were also observed. Both ω3 and ω6 fatty acid metabolites displayed a large degree of variation among the subjects. For example, in half of the subjects, two arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2), and a lipoxygenase product, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) significantly decreased post intervention, whereas in the other half they either did not change or increased. The EPA lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12-HEPE) varied among subjects from an 82% decrease to a 5,000% increase. Conclusions Our results show that certain defined responses to ω3 fatty acid intervention were consistent across all subjects. However, there was also a high degree of inter-individual variability in certain aspects of lipid metabolism. This lipidomic based phenotyping approach demonstrated that individual responsiveness to ω3 fatty acids is highly variable and measurable, and could be

  4. Fatty acid profile of beef from immunocastrated (BOPRIVA(®)) Nellore bulls.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Nayara; Bridi, Ana Maria; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Prohmann, Paulo Emílio Fernandes; Peres, Louise Manha; Tarsitano, Marina Avena; de Lima Giangareli, Barbara; Takabayashi, Alyson Akira

    2016-07-01

    Twenty Nellore bulls (ABW=357.7±9.65kg) were divided into 2 groups: intact and immunocastrated - Bopriva®. After the trial period, the cattle were slaughtered and carcass fat thickness was evaluated, ether extract and fatty acid composition of the longissimus thoracis analyses were performed, and the activity indices of relevant enzymes were calculated. The means were calculated and compared by Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficients (p<0.05). The immunocastrated group showed higher back fat thickness, ether extract, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and activity index of Δ(9) desaturase C18 and lower polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-6 fatty acids when compared to the intact group. The correlations between ether extract and the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were positive, and negative with polyunsaturated, n-3, n-6 and PUFA/SFA. Therefore, immunocastration may improve the fatty acid profile in the longissimus thoracis by increasing MUFAs, mainly oleic acid that is the most representative fatty acid in the meat and is considered beneficial to health. PMID:26930361

  5. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption on fatty acid profile of heart tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Tubío, A; Carreras, O; Tavares, E; Delgado, M J

    1999-03-01

    The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on fatty acid composition and lipid content of heart tissue in rats, and whether this effect depends on age, was studied. Rats were maintained on a 30% ethanol solution in drinking water for 3 and 5 months. Control animals were given water. Phospholipid concentration was unchanged in the ethanol-fed groups, compared with control groups, whereas total cholesterol content was increased at 5 months of treatment. An increase in stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, and 22:5n6 were observed at 3 months of ethanol ingestion. When ethanol was administered for 5 months, polyunsaturated fatty acids series n3 were decreased with respect to control. The effect of age on the profile of fatty acids of heart showed an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids and a decrease of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in both control and ethanol-fed rats. The effect of ethanol ingestion on fatty acid composition of heart tissue is not very pronounced, but the small changes observed could contribute to the development of functional and electrophysiological features of alcoholic heart disease. PMID:10195810

  6. Chemometric analysis of the interactions among different parameters describing health conditions, breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how different doses of conjugated linoleic acids applied for various periods of time influence breast cancer risk and fatty acids profile in serum of rats treated or not with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). We also search for interactions among parameters describing health conditions and cancer risk. Animals were divided into 18 groups with different diet modifications (vegetable oil, 1.0%, 2.0% additions of CLA) and different periods of supplementation. In groups treated with DMBA mammary adenocarcinomas appeared. Due to the complexity of experiment apart from statistical analysis a chemometric tool-Partial Least Square method was applied. Analysis of pairs of correlated parameters allowed to identify some regularities concerning the relationships between fatty acid profiles and clinical features of animals. Fatty acids profile was the result of prolonged exposure to high dose of CLA and DMBA administration. These two factors underlined the differences in fatty acids profiles among clusters of animals. PMID:26926361

  7. Physicochemical Properties and Fatty Acid Profiles of Elaeagnus mollis Diels Nut Oils.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shaohua; Yang, Ruinan; Dong, Caiwen; Yang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profiles, content of tocopherol and sterol of the oils extracted from the nuts of Elaeagnus mollis Diels grown in different regions of China were studied in this work. The results indicated that the Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oils contained about 0.2% sterols and the tocopherol contents were in the range of 119.6-128.6mg/100g. The nut oils were all rich in unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid and linoleic acid. Furthermore, the main triacylglycerols species of the nut oils were all dilinoleoyl-monoolein (LOL), dioleoyl-monolinoleoyl (OLO) and trilinoleate (LLL). This work might be useful for developing applications for Elaeagnus mollis Diels nut oil. PMID:26632946

  8. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp.

    PubMed

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-05-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  9. Amino acid profile and oxidizable vitamin content of Synsepalum dulcificum berry (miracle fruit) pulp

    PubMed Central

    Njoku, Njideka E; Ubbaonu, Collins N; Alagbaoso, Serah O; Eluchie, Chioma N; Umelo, Munachiso C

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid profile of the Synsepalum dulcificum berry was studied. Among the essential amino acid observed, leucine (2.35 g/100 g protein) was the highest while methionine (0.31 g/100 g protein) was the lowest. The nonessential amino acids were also discovered, with glutamic acid (3.43 g/100 g protein) being the highest and glycine (0.38 g/100 g protein), the lowest. The study of the oxidizable vitamins revealed that vitamin C (1.33 mg/100 g) was more abundant than vitamin A (2.54 µg) and vitamin E (0.78 mg/100 g). This information will hopefully enhance the fruits acceptability by more people and thus, generally promote its utilization and appreciation in our diets. PMID:25988000

  10. Effect of fatty acid profile in vegetable oils and antioxidant supplementation on dairy cattle performance and milk fat depression.

    PubMed

    He, M; Armentano, L E

    2011-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of unprotected vegetable oils differing in fatty acid profiles with or without a commercial antioxidant (Agrado Plus, Novus International, St. Charles, MO) on dairy cattle performance, milk fatty acid profiles, and milk fat depression. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by production (high and low) and assigned to Agrado Plus or no Agrado Plus diets as the main plot in this experiment. The 6 cows in each of the fixed effect groups (high with and without Agrado, low with and without Agrado) were then assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square as a split plot with 21-d periods. The 6 dietary treatments in the split-plot Latin square were no added oil (control), or 5% DM as oil from palm (PO), high-oleic safflower (OSAF), high-linoleic safflower (LSAF), linseed (LNSD), or corn (CO). Added oil replaced corn starch in the total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to have similar crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, and consisted of 41.2% alfalfa silage, 18.3% corn silage, and 40.5% concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Feeding Agrado Plus did not affect milk, milk fat, or milk protein production or milk fatty acid composition in this study. No significant differences were found between oil feeding versus control for dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield, but oils other than PO significantly decreased milk fat concentration and proportion and yield of milk short- and medium-chain fatty acids (C(<16)). Feeding PO effectively maintained milk fat yield (1.18 kg/d) and concentration (3.44%), whereas the oils rich in linoleic acid (CO and LSAF) significantly decreased milk fat yield (0.98 and 0.86 vs. 1.14 kg/d) and concentration (3.05 and 2.83 vs. 3.41%) compared with control. Similar lactation performance between OSAF and LNSD suggests that oleic and linolenic acids are roughly equal in potency of milk fat depression. PMID:21524540

  11. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen L; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Koletzko, Berthold; Entringer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as well as increased

  12. Longitudinal Metabolomic Profiling of Amino Acids and Lipids across Healthy Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Karen L.; Hellmuth, Christian; Uhl, Olaf; Buss, Claudia; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Koletzko, Berthold; Entringer, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is characterized by a complexity of metabolic processes that may impact fetal development and ultimately, infant health outcomes. However, our understanding of whole body maternal and fetal metabolism during this critical life stage remains incomplete. The objective of this study is to utilize metabolomics to profile longitudinal patterns of fasting maternal metabolites among a cohort of non-diabetic, healthy pregnant women in order to advance our understanding of changes in protein and lipid concentrations across gestation, the biochemical pathways by which they are metabolized and to describe variation in maternal metabolites between ethnic groups. Among 160 pregnant women, amino acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, keto-bodies and non-esterified fatty acids were detected by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, while polar lipids were detected through flow-injected mass spectrometry. The maternal plasma concentration of several essential and non-essential amino acids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, free carnitine, acetylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins significantly decreased across pregnancy. Concentrations of several TCA intermediates increase as pregnancy progresses, as well as the keto-body β-hydroxybutyrate. Ratios of specific acylcarnitines used as indicators of metabolic pathways suggest a decreased beta-oxidation rate and increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 enzyme activity with advancing gestation. Decreasing amino acid concentrations likely reflects placental uptake and tissue biosynthesis. The absence of any increase in plasma non-esterified fatty acids is unexpected in the catabolic phase of later pregnancy and may reflect enhanced placental fatty acid uptake and utilization for fetal tissue growth. While it appears that energy production through the TCA cycle increases as pregnancy progresses, decreasing patterns of free carnitine and acetylcarnitine as well as increased

  13. Quantitative analysis of highly similar salvianolic acids with (1)H qNMR for quality control of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xialin; Guo, Yujie; Hu, Yuanjia; Yu, Boyang; Qi, Jin

    2016-05-30

    Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection (SLI), a traditional Chinese medicinal (TCM) preparation which is used to treat stroke, is composed of multiple salvianolic acids from the aqueous extracts of Salvia miltiorrhiza, and includes mainly protocatechualdehyde, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid D, salvianolic acid E, diastereomer of salvianolic acid E, salvianolic acid Y, lithospermic acid and diastereomer of lithospermic acid. It is difficult to quantitatively control the quality of SLI using traditional high performance liquid chromatography due to the highly similar structure of these constituents including three pairs of diastereomers and the lack of commercial resources for most of these constituents as standards. Thus, a highly reproducible, fast, accurate and simple (1)H quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) method without the need for calibration curves and complex computation was established by optimizing the solvent system and acquisition parameters to simultaneously determine the nine salvianolic acids and mannitol in SLI. This method was validated and successfully used to determine 10 batches of SLI and the qNMR data were further analyzed with a vector including angle cosine and the partial least squares method for the quality control of SLI. The results indicated that qNMR can be used as a routine method for the quality control of SLI and may have potential in the quantification of diastereomers in other TCM preparations. PMID:26970983

  14. Foraging at wastewater treatment works affects brown adipose tissue fatty acid profiles in banana bats

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kate; van Aswegen, Sunet; Schoeman, M. Corrie; Claassens, Sarina; Jansen van Rensburg, Peet; Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study we tested the hypothesis that the decrease in habitat quality at wastewater treatment works (WWTW), such as limited prey diversity and exposure to the toxic cocktail of pollutants, affect fatty acid profiles of interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBrAT) in bats. Further, the antioxidant capacity of oxidative tissues such as pectoral and cardiac muscle may not be adequate to protect those tissues against reactive molecules resulting from polyunsaturated fatty acid auto-oxidation in the WWTW bats. Bats were sampled at two urban WWTW, and two unpolluted reference sites in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Brown adipose tissue (BrAT) mass was lower in WWTW bats than in reference site bats. We found lower levels of saturated phospholipid fatty acids and higher levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in WWTW bats than in reference site bats, while C18 desaturation and n-6 to n-3 ratios were higher in the WWTW bats. This was not associated with high lipid peroxidation levels in pectoral and cardiac muscle. Combined, these results indicate that WWTW bats rely on iBrAT as an energy source, and opportunistic foraging on abundant, pollutant-tolerant prey may change fatty acid profiles in their tissue, with possible effects on mitochondrial functioning, torpor and energy usage. PMID:26740572

  15. Effects of bleomycin and antioxidants on the fatty acid profile of testicular cancer cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Cort, A; Ozben, T; Melchiorre, M; Chatgilialoglu, C; Ferreri, C; Sansone, A

    2016-02-01

    Bleomycin is used in chemotherapy regimens for the treatment of patients having testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT). There is no study in the literature investigating the effects of bleomycin on membrane lipid profile in testicular cancer cells. We investigated membrane fatty acid (FA) profiles isolated, derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography of NTera-2 testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin (Bleo) for 24 h in the absence and presence of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) and curcumin (Cur) as commonly used antioxidant adjuvants. At the same time the MAPK pathway and EGFR levels were followed up. Bleomycin treatment increased significantly saturated fatty acids (SFA) of phospholipids at the expense of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Bleomycin also led to a significant increase in the trans lipid isomers of oleic and arachidonic acids due to its free radical producing effect. Incubation with bleomycin increased the p38 MAPK and JNK levels and downregulated EGFR pathway. Coincubation of bleomycin with NAC reversed effects caused by bleomycin. Our results highlight the important role of membrane fatty acid remodeling occurring during the use of bleomycin and its concurrent use with antioxidants which can adjuvate the cytotoxic effects of the chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26656160

  16. Plasma free amino acid profiling of esophageal cancer using high-performance liquid chromatography spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hong; Hasim, Ayshamgul; Mamtimin, Batur; Kong, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Ping; Sheyhidin, Ilyar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To perform plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiling of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients at different pathological stages and healthy subjects. METHODS: Plasma samples from ESCC patients (n = 51) and healthy control adults (n = 60) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The ESCC patients included moderate/poorly-differentiation (n = 24), lymph node metastasis (n = 17) and clinical stage > Ib2 (n = 36). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the PFAA metabolic patterns enabled discrimination between ESCC patients and controls, and the Student t test was applied to assess significant differences in PFAA concentrations between the two groups. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the PFAA profiles between controls and ESCC patients. Compared with healthy controls, the levels of Asp, Glu, Gly, His, Thr, Tau, Ala, Met, Ile, Leu, and Phe were decreased in ESCC patients, but Cys was increased. There exists a strong correlation between PFAA profiles and clinicopathological characteristics in ESCC patients. The levels of many PFAAs (i.e., Glu, Asp, Ser, Gly, Tau, Ala, Tyr, Val, Ile, and Leu) were related to pathological grading, lymph node metastasis, and ESCC clinical stage. Very good discrimination between ESCC patients and control subjects was achieved by multivariate modeling of plasma profiles. CONCLUSION: HPLC-based plasma profiling analysis was shown to be an effective approach to differentiate between ESCC patients and controls. PFAA profiles may have potential value for screening or diagnosing ESCC. PMID:25024622

  17. The pH profile for acid-induced elongation of coleoptile and epicotyl sections is consistent with the acid-growth theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleland, R. E.; Buckley, G.; Nowbar, S.; Lew, N. M.; Stinemetz, C.; Evans, M. L.; Rayle, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    The acid-growth theory predicts that a solution with a pH identical to that of the apoplast of auxin-treated tissues (4.5.-5.0) should induce elongation at a rate comparable to that of auxin. Different pH profiles for elongation have been obtained, however, depending on the type of pretreatment between harvest of the sections and the start of the pH-incubations. To determine the acid sensitivity under in vivo conditions, oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptile, maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile and pea (Pisum sativum L.) epicotyl sections were abraded so that exogenous buffers could penetrate the free space, and placed in buffered solutions of pH 3.5-6.5 without any preincubation. The extension, without auxin, was measured over the first 3 h. Experiments conducted in three laboratories produced similar results. For all three species, sections placed in buffer without pretreatment elongated at least threefold faster at pH 5.0 than at 6.0 or 6.5, and the rate elongation at pH 5.0 was comparable to that induced by auxin. Pretreatment of abraded sections with pH-6.5 buffer or distilled water adjusted to pH 6.5 or above gave similar results. We conclude that the pH present in the apoplast of auxin-treated coleoptile and stems is sufficiently low to account for the initial growth response to auxin.

  18. Effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on fatty acid composition, free amino acid profile and gene expression of transporters in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengna; Duan, Yehui; Li, Yinghui; Tang, Yulong; Geng, Meimei; Oladele, Oso Abimbola; Kim, Sung Woo; Yin, Yulong

    2015-03-14

    Revealing the expression patterns of fatty acid and amino acid transporters as affected by dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio would be useful for further clarifying the importance of the balance between n-6 and n-3 PUFA. A total of ninety-six finishing pigs were fed one of four diets with the ratio of 1:1, 2·5:1, 5:1 and 10:1. Pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 5:1 had the highest (P< 0·05) daily weight gain, and those fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio of 1:1 had the largest loin muscle area (P< 0·01). The concentration of n-3 PUFA was raised as the ratio declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The contents of tryptophan, tasty amino acids and branched-chain amino acids in the longissimus dorsi were enhanced in pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1. The mRNA expression level of the fatty acid transporter fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP-1) was declined (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1, and increased (P< 0·05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 5:1 and 10:1. The expression profile of FATP-4 was similar to those of FATP-1 in the adipose tissue. The mRNA expression level of the amino acid transceptors LAT1 and SNAT2 was up-regulated (P< 0·05) in the longissimus dorsi of pigs fed the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1 and 2·5:1. In conclusion, maintaining the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios of 1:1-5:1 would facilitate the absorption and utilisation of fatty acids and free amino acids, and result in improved muscle and adipose composition. PMID:25704496

  19. Aberrant serum polyunsaturated fatty acids profile is relevant with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Atsushi; Saotome, Masao; Hosoya, Natsuko; Kageyama, Shigetaka; Yoshizaki, Toru; Takeuchi, Ryosuke; Murata, Koichiro; Nawada, Ryuzo; Onodera, Tomoya; Takizawa, Akinori; Satoh, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2016-08-01

    Although a robust relationship between aberrant serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) profile and coronary artery disease (CAD) has been reported, the details concerning the association between aberrant PUFAs profile and clinical feature of CAD are not fully discovered. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between serum PUFAs and clinical profiles in CAD patients. We classified 595 consecutive CAD patients, who underwent coronary angiography into 3 groups according to the clinical profiles of CAD (group A: early phase ACS, n = 96; group B: stable CAD with previous history of ACS, n = 259; group C: stable CAD without previous history of ACS, n = 240) and measured serum n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and n-6 [arachidonic acid (AA)] PUFAs. Serum EPA, DHA, and EPA/AA ratio were significantly low in the order of group A < B < C [EPA; 48.1 (34.1-60.3) μg/ml, 61.7 (41.2-94.5) μg/ml, and 74.4 (52.7-104.9) μg/ml, DHA; 113.1 (92.8-135.1) μg/ml, 125.8 (100.4-167.2) μg/ml, and 140.1 (114.7-177.0) μg/ml, EPA/AA ratio; 0.31 (0.22-0.45), 0.39 (0.26-0.62), and 0.44 (0.31-0.69), medians with interquartile range, p < 0.01]. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EPA (p = 0.009) and EPA/AA ratio (p = 0.023), but not DHA and DHA/AA ratio, were negatively associated with clinical profiles of ACS in CAD patients. Significant correlation was not observed between PUFAs profile and severity of coronary stenosis. Low serum EPA and EPA/AA ratio correlates with clinical profiles of ACS in patients with CAD, regardless of the extent and severity of coronary artery stenosis. PMID:26233644

  20. Diets containing traditional and novel green leafy vegetables improve liver fatty acid profiles of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption of green leafy vegetables (GLVs) has been demonstrated to reduce the risks associated with cardiovascular and other diseases. However, no literature exists that examines the influence of traditional and novel GLVs on the liver fatty acid profile of an animal model genetically predisposed to developing hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of diets containing 4% collard greens, purslane or sweet potato greens on the liver fatty acid profiles of four-week old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs, N = 44). Following four weeks consumption of the diets, liver fatty acid profiles were determined by gas–liquid chromatography of transesterified fatty acid methyl esters. Results SHRs consuming the control diet had greater percentages of liver saturated fatty acid and less omega-3 fatty acid percentages. SHRs consuming the diets containing vegetables had significantly greater liver concentrations of γ- linolenic, docosahexaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, as well as lower levels of lauric, palmitic and arachidonic acids. SHRs consuming the control diet had significantly greater percentages (p < 0.05) of oleic; significantly less γ-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids. Conclusions This study demonstrates the ability of GLVs to modulate liver fatty acid composition, thus providing protection against elevations in atherogenic fatty acids, which may be involved in CVD pathogenesis. Consequently, dietary recommendations for the prevention of CVD should consider the possible cardioprotective benefits and the subsequent alterations in fatty acid profiles afforded by diets containing collard greens, purslane and sweet potato greens. PMID:24192144

  1. Use of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles to Compare Copper-Tolerant and Copper-Sensitive Strains of Pantoea ananatis.

    PubMed

    Nischwitz, C; Gitaitis, R; Sanders, H; Langston, D; Mullinix, B; Torrance, R; Boyhan, G; Zolobowska, L

    2007-10-01

    ABSTRACT A survey was conducted to evaluate differences in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles among strains of Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot of onion (Allium cepa), isolated from 15 different onion cultivars in three different sites in Georgia. Differences in FAME composition were determined by plotting principal components (PCs) in two-dimensional plots. Euclidean distance squared (ED(2)) values indicated a high degree of similarity among strains. Plotting of PCs calculated from P. ananatis strains capable of growing on media amended with copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) indicated that copper-tolerant strains grouped into tight clusters separate from clusters formed by wild-type strains. However, unlike copper-sensitive strains, the copper-tolerant strains tended to cluster by location. A total of 80, 60, and 73% of the strains from Tift1, Tift2, and Tattnall, respectively, exhibited either confluent growth or partial growth on copper-amended medium. However, all strains were sensitive to a mixture of copper sulfate pentahydrate (200 mug/ml) and maneb (40 mug/ml). When copper-tolerant clones were analyzed and compared with their wild-type parents, in all cases the plotting of PCs developed from copper-tolerant clones formed tight clusters separate from clusters formed by the parents. Eigenvalues generated from these tests indicated that two components provided a good summary of the data, accounting for 98, 98, and 96% of the standardized variance for strains Pna 1-15B, Pna 1-12B, and Pna 2-5A, respectively. Furthermore, feature 4 (cis-9-hexadecenoic acid/2-hydroxy-13-methyltetradecanoic acid) and feature 7 (cis-9/trans-12/cis-7-octadecenoic acid) were the highest or second highest absolute values for PC1 in all three strains of the parents versus copper-tolerant clones, and hexadecanoic acid was the highest absolute value for PC2 in all three strains. Along with those fatty acids, dodecanoic acid and feature 3 (3-hydroxytetradecanoic

  2. Improving the fatty acid profile of winter milk from housed cows with contrasting feeding regimes by oilseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Seal, C J; Eyre, M D; Steinshamn, H; Butler, G

    2014-12-01

    Many studies show concentrations of nutritionally desirable fatty acids in bovine milk are lower when cows have no access to grazing, leading to seasonal fluctuations in milk quality if cows are housed for part of the year. This study investigated the potential to improve the fatty acid profiles of bovine milk by oilseed supplementation (rolled linseed and rapeseed) during a period of indoor feeding in both organic and conventional production systems. Both linseed and rapeseed increased the concentrations of total monounsaturated fatty acids, vaccenic acid, oleic acid and rumenic acid in milk, but decreased the concentration of the total and certain individual saturated fatty acids. Linseed resulted in greater changes than rapeseed, and also significantly increased the concentrations of α-linolenic acid, total polyunsaturated fatty acids and total omega-3 fatty acids. The response to oilseed supplementation, with respect to increasing concentrations of vaccenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids, appeared more efficient for organic compared with conventional diets. PMID:24996337

  3. [Plasma amino acids profile of healthy pregnant adolescents in Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Pablo; Castejón, Haydée V; Argotte, María G; Gómez, Gisela; Bohorquez, Lissette; Urrieta, Jesús R

    2003-06-01

    One hundred female adolescents (13-18 y) were clinical and anthropometrically studied to select only those with adequate nutrition. Most adolescents belonged to IV socio-economic stratum families (worker class). Height, weight, age, body mass index and medial arm circumference were used as anthropometric parameters. After screening, only 41 non pregnant girls (control) and 42 pregnant girls with adequate nutrition were selected to analyze plasma amino acids. Fasting peripheral venous blood was drawn, and plasma amino acids were analyzed by HPLC. Amino acid concentrations were expressed as umol/L +/- SE. SAS/STAT program was used for statistical analysis. Amino acid values of control adolescent group were found in ranges reported by other investigators, with slight variations, mostly in diminution, presumably due to nutritional, metabolic or genetic conditions of people living in tropical regions. In pregnant healthy adolescents, distributed according to gestational age: < 32 weeks (n = 30) and > 32 weeks (n = 12), a diminution of total molar plasma amino acids was found, by comparing with control values. Ten amino acids (Pro, Gly, Gln, Arg, Ser, Orn, Tau, Leu, Thr and Val) appeared significantively diminished throughout gestation, being Gly. Gln and Arg most affected since earlier weeks. During the 2nd period. Thr and Val increased their grade of affectation; whereas some amino acids values (Orn, Pro and Tau) tended to recuperate. Several of affected amino acids are gluconegoenic, thus, they could be utilized to supply the energy required by the pregnant adolescent against her double stress: the fetus development and her own development. The plasma amino acid values reported in both, healthy non pregnant and pregnant adolescents, could be taken as regional referential profile of plasma amino acids in this poblational group for further research on adolescent and fetal--maternal malnutrition. PMID:14528605

  4. Postprandial Differences in the Amino Acid and Biogenic Amines Profiles of Impaired Fasting Glucose Individuals after Intake of Highland Barley

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liyan; Wang, Xinyang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the postprandial changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and to investigate the changes of postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a meal of highland barley (HB). Firstly, 50 IFG and 50 healthy individuals were recruited for the measurement of 2 h postprandial changes of amino acid and biogenic amine profiles after a glucose load. Secondly, IFG individuals received three different loads: Glucose (GL), white rice (WR) and HB. Amino acid and biogenic amine profiles, glucose and insulin were assayed at time zero and 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the test load. The results showed fasting and postprandial amino acid and biogenic amine profiles were different between the IFG group and the controls. The level of most amino acids and their metabolites decreased after an oral glucose tolerance test, while the postprandial level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increased significantly in IFG individuals. After three different test loads, the area under the curve for glucose, insulin, lysine and GABA after a HB load decreased significantly compared to GL and WR loads. Furthermore, the postprandial changes in the level of GABA between time zero and 120 min during a HB load were associated positively with 2 h glucose and fasting insulin secretion in the IFG individuals. Thus, the HB load produced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses, which induced changes in amino acid and biogenic amine profiles and improved insulin sensitivity. PMID:26184292

  5. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko.

    PubMed

    Saroka, Kevin S; Vares, David E; Persinger, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m) and magnetic field (pT) components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6-16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV) obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric) comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7-8 Hz), second (13-14 Hz) and third (19-20 Hz) harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the 'best-of-fitness' of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity. PMID:26785376

  6. Similar Spectral Power Densities Within the Schumann Resonance and a Large Population of Quantitative Electroencephalographic Profiles: Supportive Evidence for Koenig and Pobachenko

    PubMed Central

    Saroka, Kevin S.; Vares, David E.; Persinger, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    In 1954 and 1960 Koenig and his colleagues described the remarkable similarities of spectral power density profiles and patterns between the earth-ionosphere resonance and human brain activity which also share magnitudes for both electric field (mV/m) and magnetic field (pT) components. In 2006 Pobachenko and colleagues reported real time coherence between variations in the Schumann and brain activity spectra within the 6–16 Hz band for a small sample. We examined the ratios of the average potential differences (~3 μV) obtained by whole brain quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) between rostral-caudal and left-right (hemispheric) comparisons of 238 measurements from 184 individuals over a 3.5 year period. Spectral densities for the rostral-caudal axis revealed a powerful peak at 10.25 Hz while the left-right peak was 1.95 Hz with beat-differences of ~7.5 to 8 Hz. When global cerebral measures were employed, the first (7–8 Hz), second (13–14 Hz) and third (19–20 Hz) harmonics of the Schumann resonances were discernable in averaged QEEG profiles in some but not all participants. The intensity of the endogenous Schumann resonance was related to the ‘best-of-fitness’ of the traditional 4-class microstate model. Additional measurements demonstrated real-time coherence for durations approximating microstates in spectral power density variations between Schumann frequencies measured in Sudbury, Canada and Cumiana, Italy with the QEEGs of local subjects. Our results confirm the measurements reported by earlier researchers that demonstrated unexpected similarities in the spectral patterns and strengths of electromagnetic fields generated by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric cavity. PMID:26785376

  7. Prion Strain Differences in Accumulation of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion Strains.

    PubMed

    Carroll, James A; Striebel, James F; Rangel, Alejandra; Woods, Tyson; Phillips, Katie; Peterson, Karin E; Race, Brent; Chesebro, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which accumulates in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc accumulation at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie strains that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each strain had a different pattern of cell specificity. Strain 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas strain ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, strain RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc accumulation, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three strains, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice. PMID:27046083

  8. Prion Strain Differences in Accumulation of PrPSc on Neurons and Glia Are Associated with Similar Expression Profiles of Neuroinflammatory Genes: Comparison of Three Prion Strains

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, James A.; Striebel, James F.; Rangel, Alejandra; Woods, Tyson; Phillips, Katie; Peterson, Karin E.; Race, Brent; Chesebro, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of host proteins are important features of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia and prion diseases. In all these diseases, the misfolded protein increases in amount by a mechanism involving seeded polymerization. In prion diseases, host prion protein is misfolded to form a pathogenic protease-resistant form, PrPSc, which accumulates in neurons, astroglia and microglia in the CNS. Here using dual-staining immunohistochemistry, we compared the cell specificity of PrPSc accumulation at early preclinical times post-infection using three mouse scrapie strains that differ in brain regional pathology. PrPSc from each strain had a different pattern of cell specificity. Strain 22L was mainly associated with astroglia, whereas strain ME7 was mainly associated with neurons and neuropil. In thalamus and cortex, strain RML was similar to 22L, but in substantia nigra, RML was similar to ME7. Expression of 90 genes involved in neuroinflammation was studied quantitatively using mRNA from thalamus at preclinical times. Surprisingly, despite the cellular differences in PrPSc accumulation, the pattern of upregulated genes was similar for all three strains, and the small differences observed correlated with variations in the early disease tempo. Gene upregulation correlated with activation of both astroglia and microglia detected in early disease prior to vacuolar pathology or clinical signs. Interestingly, the profile of upregulated genes in scrapie differed markedly from that seen in two acute viral CNS diseases (LaCrosse virus and BE polytropic Friend retrovirus) that had reactive gliosis at levels similar to our prion-infected mice. PMID:27046083

  9. Comprehensive Profiling of Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Young Healthy Canadian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmagid, Salma A.; Clarke, Shannon E.; Nielsen, Daiva E.; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Mutch, David M.; Ma, David W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating fatty acids (FA) are associated with a multitude of chronic diseases. However, a major gap in establishing such relationships is the lack of accepted fatty acid reference ranges representing healthy individuals. Data on validated FA reference ranges would provide a better understanding of study baseline measures and aid in the evaluation and interpretation of pharmaceutical or dietary interventions. Reference ranges for plasma FA levels have been reported in a few small studies and on a limited number of FA. Therefore, we determined the average and percentiles of a broad set of 61 FA (C14 - C24:1) from plasma total lipids from an ethnically diverse population of healthy young Canadian males and females (Total n = 826). Plasma concentrations of some of the major FA ranged from 0.3 to 4.1 mmol/L for palmitic acid, 0.1 to 1.0 mmol/L for stearic acid, 0.03 to 3.2 mmol/L for oleic acid, 0.2 to 5.0 mmol/L for linoleic acid (LA), 12.0 to 186.9 μmol/L for α-linolenic acid, and 7.2 to 237.5 μmol/L for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Males had significantly higher plasma concentrations of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid and lower concentrations of palmitoleic acid, LA and DHA than females. Comparison of FA concentrations between Caucasians, East Asians and South Asians revealed that South Asians had significantly lower levels of palmitoleic acid (p < 0.01) and oleic acid (p = 0.01) while East Asians had lower levels of GLA (p = 0.02) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (p = 0.03). Overall, these data provide a comprehensive set of quantitative values that profiles a small cohort of Canadians which highlights the utility of establishing validated FA reference ranges that may be used to understand how deficient, suboptimal, or excess amounts of a given FA may be associated with chronic disease. PMID:25675440

  10. Using reduced amino acid composition to predict defensin family and subfamily: Integrating similarity measure and structural alphabet.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Yong-Chun; Li, Qian-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Defensins are essentially ancient natural antibiotics with potent activity extending from lower organisms to humans. They can inhibit the growth or virulence of micro-organisms directly or indirectly enhance the host's immune system. The successful prediction of defensin peptides will provide very useful information and insights for the basic research of defensins. In this study, by selecting the N-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) obtained from structural alphabet named Protein Blocks as the feature parameters, the increment of diversity (ID) is firstly developed to predict defensins family and subfamily. The jackknife test based on 2-peptide composition of reduced amino acid alphabet (RAAA) with 13 reduced amino acids shows that the overall accuracy of prediction are 91.36% for defensin family, and 94.21% for defensin subfamily. The results indicate that ID_RAAA is a simple and efficient prediction method for defensin peptides. PMID:19591890

  11. Phytosterol, squalene, tocopherol content and fatty acid profile of selected seeds, grains, and legumes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2007-09-01

    The unsaponifiable lipid fraction of plant-based foods is a potential source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, squalene, and tocopherols. The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of phytosterols, and squalene, as well as tocopherols (alpha and beta + gamma) in selected grains, seeds, and legumes. The method comprised acid hydrolysis and lipid extraction followed by alkaline saponification, prior to analysis by HPLC. In addition, the fatty acid profile of the foods was determined via total lipid extraction, fatty acid derivitisation and GC analysis. In general, beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 24.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seed to 191.4 mg/100 g in peas. Squalene identified in all foods examined in this study, was particularly abundant in pumpkin seed (89.0 mg/100 g). The sum of alpha- and beta+ gamma-tocopherols ranged from 0.1 mg/100 g in rye to 15.9 mg/100 g in pumpkin seeds. Total oil content ranged from 0.9% (w/w) in butter beans to 42.3% (w/w) in pumpkin seed and the type of fat, in all foods examined, was predominantly unsaturated. In conclusion, seeds, grains, and legumes are a rich natural source of phytosterols. Additionally, they contain noticeable amounts of squalene and tocopherols, and in general, their fatty acid profile is favorable. PMID:17594521

  12. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions.

    PubMed

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  13. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions

    PubMed Central

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. PMID:26904623

  14. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phthalic Acids (o-, m-, p-)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phthalic Acids (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams. Quantitative estimates have been presented provided sufficient data are available. p-Phthalic acid was determined to be a systemic toxicant. A Reference Dose (RfD), defined as an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of the daily exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious effect during a lifetime, for p-phthalic acid is 1.4 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. Existing data are insufficient to determine a Reference Dose (RfD) or a carcinogenic potency factor for o- and m-phthalic acid. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release (as specified by CERCLA) based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for p-phthalic acid is 1000. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value for o- and m-phthalic acid.

  15. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2014-12-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the fermented milks obtained from three different species were evaluated. Antioxidant activity determined by DPPH assay showed activity in probiotic fermented milk obtained from all the products being highest in goat milk (93 %) followed by product from camel milk (86 %) and then product from cow milk (79 %). The composition of beneficial fatty acids such as stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were higher in fermented milk than the unfermented ones. Results suggested that probiotic bacteria are able to utilize the nutrients in goat and camel milk more efficiently compared to cow milk. Increase in antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milks enhances the therapeutic value of the products. PMID:25477694

  16. The stability of textile azo dyes in soil and their impact on microbial phospholipid fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Shaharoona, Baby; Crowley, David E; Khalid, Azeem; Hussain, Sabir; Arshad, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the stability of structurally different azo dyes in soil and their impact on the microbial community composition by analyzing phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Sterile and non-sterile soils were amended with three azo dyes, including: Direct Red 81, Reactive Black 5 and Acid Yellow 19 at 160mgkg(-1) soil. The results showed that the azo dyes were quite stable and that large amounts of these dyes ranging from 17.3% to 87.5% were recoverable from the sterile and non-sterile soils after 14 days. The maximum amount of dye was recovered in the case of Direct Red 81. PLFA analysis showed that the azo dyes had a significant effect on microbial community structure. PLFA concentrations representing Gram-negative bacteria in dye-amended soil were substantially less as compared to the PLFA concentration of Gram-positive bacteria. Acid Yellow 19 dye had almost similar effects on the PLFA concentrations representing bacteria and fungi. In contrast, Reactive Black 5 had a greater negative effect on fungal PLFA than that on bacterial PLFA, while the opposite was observed in the case of Direct Red 81. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the stability of textile azo dyes in soil and their effects on soil microbial community composition. PMID:26074308

  17. Nitrogen supplementation of corn silages. 2. Assessing rumen function using fatty acid profiles of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cabrita, A R J; Fonseca, A J M; Dewhurst, R J; Gomes, E

    2003-12-01

    The effects of N supplementation strategies on milk fatty acid profiles of dairy cows and their use as a noninvasive technique to diagnose rumen function, and to guide protein feeding decisions on-farm were evaluated in three experiments. Each experiment was designed according to three 3 x 3 Latin squares with 9 Holstein cows receiving total mixed rations based on corn silage. Experiment 1 was designed to study effects of diets with different ratios of effective rumen-degradable protein (ERDP; g) to fermentable metabolizable energy (FME; j) providing, respectively, a large deficiency, a slight deficiency, and a slight excess in relation to the target level of 11 g of ERDP/MJ FME for lactating cows. Experiment 2 evaluated effects of different proportions of quickly and slowly rumen-degradable protein achieved by replacing soybean meal with urea in the concentrates (0, 0.5, and 1% urea for U0, U5, and U10, respectively). Experiment 3 investigated effects of synchronizing the availability of FME and ERDP in rumen by offering the protein-rich concentrate once or twice per day before the meal (corn silage, ryegrass hay, and energy-rich concentrate), or included in the total mixed ration. Milk fatty acid profiles were significantly affected by dietary N and carbohydrate supply. Principal component factor analysis provided a reasonable description of the data, clearly discriminating between fatty acids that are synthesized by different metabolic pathways. Several sources/pathways were distinguished: de novo synthesis in the mammary gland (short- and medium-chain fatty acids), delta9-desaturase activity (monoenoic fatty acids), direct absorption from the blood stream (long-chain fatty acids), and de novo synthesis by the rumen microbial populations (odd-chain fatty acids). Discriminant canonical analysis showed that milk odd-chain fatty acids had a higher ability to discriminate between diets than even-chain fatty acids. The anteiso C15:0 increased in line with increasing

  18. Fatty Acid and Lipid Profiles with Emphasis on n-3 Fatty Acids and Phospholipids from Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Wang, Miao; Lindström, Mikael E; Li, Jiebing

    2015-10-01

    In order to establish Ciona intestinalis as a new bioresource for n-3 fatty acids-rich marine lipids, the animal was fractionated into tunic and inner body tissues prior to lipid extraction. The lipids obtained were further classified into neutral lipids (NL), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis using GC-FID, GC-MS, (1)H NMR, 2D NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS methods. It was found that the tunic and inner body tissues contained 3.42-4.08% and 15.9-23.4% of lipids respectively. PL was the dominant lipid class (42-60%) irrespective of the anatomic fractions. From all lipid fractions and classes, the major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:1n-9, C20:1n-9, C20:5n-3 (EPA) and C22:6n-3 (DHA). The highest amounts of long chain n-3 fatty acids, mainly EPA and DHA, were located in PL from both body fractions. Cholestanol and cholesterol were the dominant sterols together with noticeable amounts of stellasterol, 22 (Z)-dehydrocholesterol and lathosterol. Several other identified and two yet unidentified sterols were observed for the first time from C. intestinalis. Different molecular species of phosphatidylcholine (34 species), sphingomyelin (2 species), phosphatidylethanolamine (2 species), phosphatidylserine (10 species), phosphatidylglycerol (9 species), ceramide (38 species) and lysophospholipid (5 species) were identified, representing the most systematic PL profiling knowledge so far for the animal. It could be concluded that C. intestinalis lipids should be a good alternative for fish oil with high contents of n-3 fatty acids. The lipids would be more bioavailable due to the presence of the fatty acids being mainly in the form of PL. PMID:26233815

  19. Maternal dietary fat affects milk fatty acid profile and impacts on weight gain and thermogenic capacity of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; García, Ana Paula; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-05-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of maternal supplementation with the main fat sources used in the human Western diet (olive oil, butter, margarine) on milk FA composition and on plasma FA profile of offspring, and to determine whether it may influence body-weight-gain (BWG) and adiposity of offspring during the suckling period. Wistar rats were supplemented with the different fat sources from day 14 of gestation and throughout lactation. Olive oil-supplemented dams showed the highest proportion of oleic-acid in milk, with no changes in plasma. Their offspring also showed the highest proportion of this FA in plasma, lower BWG during the suckling period, and higher levels of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) at weaning. Margarine-supplemented dams showed the highest percentage of PUFA in milk, and a similar tendency was found in plasma of their offspring. Butter-supplemented dams displayed higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA) in milk compared to other fat-supplemented dams, but lower than controls. Control offspring also showed higher proportion of SFA in plasma and greater BWG during the suckling period than fat-supplemented groups. Significant correlations were found between the relative content of some milk FA and BWG of offspring, in particular, oleic-acid levels correlated negatively with BWG and positively with UCP1 levels. These results show that maternal dietary source of fat affects milk FA composition and circulating FA profile, as could be expected, but also BWG and thermogenic capacity of offspring during the suckling period. An effect of oleic-acid stimulating BAT thermogenic capacity of suckling pups is proposed. PMID:23417844

  20. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  1. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  2. Bioconversion of Raw Glycerol Generated from the Synthesis of Biodiesel by Different Oleaginous Yeasts: Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Biomass.

    PubMed

    Spier, Franciela; Buffon, Jaqueline G; Burkert, Carlos A V

    2015-12-01

    In this work, 12 different yeast strains were evaluated to gauge their ability to accumulate lipids using raw glycerol as the main carbon source. Lipomyces lipofer NRRL Y-1155 stood out above the other strains, achieving 9.48 g/l biomass, 57.64 % lipid content and 5.46 g/l lipid production. The fatty acid profile was similar to vegetable oils commonly used in the synthesis of biodiesel, with the predominance of polyunsaturated acids, especially linoleic acid, reaching 68.3 % for Rhodotorula glutinis NRRL YB-252. The occurrence of palmitic acid (39.3 % for Lipomyces starkeyi NRRL Y-11557) was also notable. Thus, yeast biomass with high lipid content can be a sustainable and renewable alternative as a raw material for the biodiesel industry. PMID:26543267

  3. Association between insulin resistance and plasma amino acid profile in non-diabetic Japanese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Chizumi; Kondo, Masumi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shibata, Takeo; Nagai, Yoko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Oroguchi, Takashige; Ishii, Naoaki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine; and the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, has been observed in obesity-related insulin resistance. However, there have been few studies on Asians, who are generally less obese and less insulin-resistant than Caucasian or African-Americans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma amino acid concentration in non-diabetic Japanese participants. Materials and Methods A total of 94 healthy men and women were enrolled, and plasma amino acid concentration was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after overnight fasting. The associations between HOMA-IR and 20 amino acid concentrations, and anthropometric and clinical parameters of lifestyle-related diseases were evaluated. Results The mean age and body mass index were 40.1 ± 9.6 years and 22.7 ± 3.9, respectively. Significantly positive correlations were observed between HOMA-IR and valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and total BCAA concentration. Compared with the HOMA-IR ≤ 1.6 group, the HOMA-IR > 1.6 group showed significantly exacerbated anthropometric and clinical parameters, and significantly elevated levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and BCAA. Conclusions The present study shows that the insulin resistance-related change in amino acid profile is also observed in non-diabetic Japanese subjects. These amino acids include BCAAs (valine, isoleucine and leucine) and aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in agreement with previous studies carried out using different ethnic groups with different degrees of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26221519

  4. Transcriptional profile of glucose-shocked and acid-adapted strains of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Baker, J L; Abranches, J; Faustoferri, R C; Hubbard, C J; Lemos, J A; Courtney, M A; Quivey, R

    2015-12-01

    The aciduricity of Streptococcus mutans is an important virulence factor of the organism, required to both out-compete commensal oral microorganisms and cause dental caries. In this study, we monitored transcriptional changes that occurred as a continuous culture of either an acid-tolerant strain (UA159) or an acid-sensitive strain (fabM::Erm) moved from steady-state growth at neutral pH, experienced glucose-shock and acidification of the culture, and transitioned to steady-state growth at low pH. Hence, the timing of elements of the acid tolerance response (ATR) could be observed and categorized as acute vs. adaptive ATR mechanisms. Modulation of branched chain amino acid biosynthesis, DNA/protein repair mechanisms, reactive oxygen species metabolizers and phosphoenolpyruvate:phosphotransferase systems occurred in the initial acute phase, immediately following glucose-shock, while upregulation of F1 F0 -ATPase did not occur until the adaptive phase, after steady-state growth had been re-established. In addition to the archetypal ATR pathways mentioned above, glucose-shock led to differential expression of genes suggesting a re-routing of resources away from the synthesis of fatty acids and proteins, and towards synthesis of purines, pyrimidines and amino acids. These adjustments were largely transient, as upon establishment of steady-state growth at acidic pH, transcripts returned to basal expression levels. During growth at steady-state pH 7, fabM::Erm had a transcriptional profile analogous to that of UA159 during glucose-shock, indicating that even during growth in rich media at neutral pH, the cells were stressed. These results, coupled with a recently established collection of deletion strains, provide a starting point for elucidation of the acid tolerance response in S. mutans. PMID:26042838

  5. Impact of water temperature on the growth and fatty acid profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Ye, Zhi; Tian, Xiangli

    2016-08-01

    The present study determined the changes in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in response to the varied water temperature. Sea cucumbers with similar size (4.02±0.11g) were cultured for 8 weeks at 14°C, 18°C, 22°C and 26°C, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the specific growth rate (SGR) and the profiles of FAs in neutral lipids and phospholipids of the juvenile sea cucumbers cultured at different temperatures were determined. The SGRs of the sea cucumbers cultured at 26°C significantly decreased 46.3% compared to thos cultured at 18°C. Regression analysis showed that the SGR-temperature (T) relationship can be expressed as SGR=-0.0073T(2)+0.255T -1.0231 (R(2)=0.9936) and the highest SGR was predicted at 17.5°C. For the neutral lipids, the sum of saturated FAs (SFAs), monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) of the sea cucumbers that were cultured at the water temperature from 18°C-26°C did not change significantly, indicating the insensitivity of FA profiles for the neutral lipids of sea cucumbers in response to increasing water temperature. For phospholipids, the sum of PUFAs in the sea cucumbers dramatically decreased with the gradually increased water temperature. The sum of SFAs and MUFAs of sea cucumbers, however, increased with the gradually elevated water temperature. In particular, the contents of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the phospholipids of the sea cucumbers decreased 37.2% and 26.1%, respectively, when the water temperature increased from 14°C to 26°C. In summary, the sea cucumbers A. japonicus can regulate the FA compositions, especially the contents of EPA and DHA, in the phospholipids so as to adapt to varied water temperature. PMID:27503728

  6. High-throughput profiling of amino acids in strains of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion collection.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sara J; Finney, Gregory L; Brown, Shauna L; Nelson, Sven K; Hesselberth, Jay; MacCoss, Michael J; Fields, Stanley

    2010-09-01

    The measurement of small molecule metabolites on a large scale offers the opportunity for a more complete understanding of cellular metabolism. We developed a high-throughput method to quantify primary amine-containing metabolites in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the use of capillary electrophoresis in combination with fluorescent derivatization of cell extracts. We measured amino acid levels in the yeast deletion collection, a set of approximately 5000 strains each lacking a single gene, and developed a computational pipeline for data analysis. Amino acid peak assignments were validated by mass spectrometry, and the overall approach was validated by the result that expected pathway intermediates accumulate in mutants of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Global analysis of the deletion collection was carried out using clustering methods. We grouped strains based on their metabolite profiles, revealing clusters of mutants enriched for genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, urea cycle enzymes, and vacuolar ATPase functions. One of the most striking profiles, common among several strains lacking ribosomal protein genes, accumulated lysine and a lysine-related metabolite. Mutations in the homologous ribosomal protein genes in the human result in Diamond-Blackfan anemia, demonstrating that metabolite data may have potential value in understanding disease pathology. This approach establishes metabolite profiling as capable of characterizing genes in a large collection of genetic variants. PMID:20610602

  7. Awake craniotomy induces fewer changes in the plasma amino acid profile than craniotomy under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hol, Jaap W; Klimek, Markus; van der Heide-Mulder, Marieke; Stronks, Dirk; Vincent, Arnoud J; Klein, Jan; Zijlstra, Freek J; Fekkes, Durk

    2009-04-01

    In this prospective, observational, 2-armed study, we compared the plasma amino acid profiles of patients undergoing awake craniotomy to those undergoing craniotomy under general anesthesia. Both experimental groups were also compared with a healthy, age-matched and sex-matched reference group not undergoing surgery. It is our intention to investigate whether plasma amino acid levels provide information about physical and emotional stress, as well as pain during awake craniotomy versus craniotomy under general anesthesia. Both experimental groups received preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative dexamethasone. The plasma levels of 20 amino acids were determined preoperative, perioperative, and postoperatively in all groups and were correlated with subjective markers for pain, stress, and anxiety. In both craniotomy groups, preoperative levels of tryptophan and valine were significantly decreased whereas glutamate, alanine, and arginine were significantly increased relative to the reference group. Throughout time, tryptophan levels were significantly lower in the general anesthesia group versus the awake craniotomy group. The general anesthesia group had a significantly higher phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio, which may suggest higher oxidative stress, than the awake group throughout time. Between experimental groups, a significant increase in large neutral amino acids was found postoperatively in awake craniotomy patients, pain was also less and recovery was faster. A significant difference in mean hospitalization time was also found, with awake craniotomy patients leaving after 4.53+/-2.12 days and general anesthesia patients after 6.17+/-1.62 days; P=0.012. This study demonstrates that awake craniotomy is likely to be physically and emotionally less stressful than general anesthesia and that amino acid profiling holds promise for monitoring postoperative pain and recovery. PMID:19295387

  8. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  9. Fatty Acid Profile and Biological Activities of Linseed and Rapeseed Oils.

    PubMed

    Lewinska, Anna; Zebrowski, Jacek; Duda, Magdalena; Gorka, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that fatty acids found in edible oils may exert beneficial health effects by the modulation of signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation and proliferation, especially in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of selected edible oils--linseed (LO) and rapeseed (RO) oils--were tested in vitro on fibroblast cells. The fatty acid profile of the oils was determined using gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy. LO was found to be rich in α-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas oleic acid was the most abundant species in RO. Fatty acids were taken up by the cells and promoted cell proliferation. No oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic or genotoxic effects were observed after oil stimulation. Oils ameliorated the process of wound healing as judged by improved migration of fibroblasts to the wounding area. As ALA-rich LO exhibited the most potent wound healing activity, ALA may be considered a candidate for promoting the observed effect. PMID:26703545

  10. Mutation-selection models of coding sequence evolution with site-heterogeneous amino acid fitness profiles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2010-03-01

    Modeling the interplay between mutation and selection at the molecular level is key to evolutionary studies. To this end, codon-based evolutionary models have been proposed as pertinent means of studying long-range evolutionary patterns and are widely used. However, these approaches have not yet consolidated results from amino acid level phylogenetic studies showing that selection acting on proteins displays strong site-specific effects, which translate into heterogeneous amino acid propensities across the columns of alignments; related codon-level studies have instead focused on either modeling a single selective context for all codon columns, or a separate selective context for each codon column, with the former strategy deemed too simplistic and the latter deemed overparameterized. Here, we integrate recent developments in nonparametric statistical approaches to propose a probabilistic model that accounts for the heterogeneity of amino acid fitness profiles across the coding positions of a gene. We apply the model to a dozen real protein-coding gene alignments and find it to produce biologically plausible inferences, for instance, as pertaining to site-specific amino acid constraints, as well as distributions of scaled selection coefficients. In their account of mutational features as well as the heterogeneous regimes of selection at the amino acid level, the modeling approaches studied here can form a backdrop for several extensions, accounting for other selective features, for variable population size, or for subtleties of mutational features, all with parameterizations couched within population-genetic theory. PMID:20176949

  11. Study of Adverse Effect Profile of Parenteral Zoledronic Acid in Female Patients with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Kotian, Prem; Sreenivasan, Sushanth

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis is still a under recognized entity in the population. Osteoporosis-related fractures can be prevented if people at risk can be screened, diagnosed and treated early. Bisphosphonates remain the mainstay of osteoporosis treatment as they have multimodal action. Oral bisphosphonate therapy has, significant gastrointestinal side effects leading to noncompliance. Of late parenteral Zoledronic Acid is being used as once or twice yearly infusion for the treatment of osteoporosis. Aim Our article studies the side effect profile and tolerability of parenteral Zoledronic Acid, one of the most potent bisphosphonate used in clinical practice in patients with osteoporosis. Materials and Methods This study was done in KMC hospitals where 49 patients diagnosed with osteoporosis were included for the study. After obtaining a written informed consent each patient received one infusion of 5 mg Zoledronic Acid as per standard treatment protocol. Patient was monitored for clinical improvement and development of any adverse effects. Conclusion In our study all subjects reported significant pain relief after infusion of Zoledronic Acid. Zoledronic Acid had very few serious adverse effects that can be prevented through pre-infusion screening, maintaining good hydration and careful patient monitoring. In our population the patients only experienced mild symptoms of pyrexia, arthralgia myalgia and influenza like symptoms which resolved with symptomatic treatment. PMID:26894105

  12. Influence of enteric citric acid on the release profile of 4-aminopyridine from HPMC matrix tablets.

    PubMed

    Martínez González, Ilona; Villafuerte Robles, Leopoldo

    2003-01-30

    A weakly basic experimental drug, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), was taken as a model to study the influence of enteric citric acid (ECA) on the release profile from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrices, to set up a system bringing about gradual release of the drug. For this purpose, powder mixtures were wet granulated with water and compressed with a hydraulic press at 55 MPa. Dissolution studies were made using first 900 ml HCl 0.1 N, and then phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Dissolution curves were described by M(t)/M(inf)=kt(n). As physically expected, increasing proportions (2-9%) of the in acid insoluble ECA decreased the release rate. In an acid medium, ECA acts as a physical barrier obstructing the diffusion path, dissolving after the pH change to 7.4. Both circumstances flattening the release profile. Apparent zero order release was observed at ECA concentrations of about 10%. The presence of ECA compensates the effect of decreased solubility of 4-AP at pH 7.4. Unexpectedly, higher ECA proportions (10-50%) act increasing the dissolution rate. This is attributed to a void space formation around the insoluble ECA, after HPMC hydration, which percolates after a critical ECA proportion of approximately 10%. Moreover, decreasing release constant values (k) show a logarithmic relationship with increasing values of the exponent (n). This indicates that an apparent zero-order release can be obtained at a given release constant. PMID:12527188

  13. Parameters affecting the analytical profile of fatty acids in the macroalgal genus Ulva.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Janice I; Meyer, Barbara J; Winberg, Pia C; Skropeta, Danielle

    2016-10-15

    The fatty acids (FA) of Ulva have potential to contribute to nutrition. However the large variability of FA profiles of Ulva species; thus the quality and quantity of FA in relation to nutrition is poorly defined. Herein we investigate the FA profile of 74 cultured Ulva samples crossing five culture regimes, six extraction regimes and four post-harvesting processes. This is compared alongside a comprehensive review of FA profiles of Ulva spp. With regard to the literature, Ulva is characterised by C16:0 (30.5±11.5%), C18:3 n-3 (14.5±6.3%), C18:4 n-3 (12.5±5.4%), C16:4 n-3 (8.9±4.8%) and C18:1 n-7 (10.1±4.0%). The investigated Ulva fell within the reported range of specific FA. High nutrient conditions showed the most desirable FA profile for health, along with the highest total FA content (56mgg(-1) dry weight equivalent) when extracted with an optimised protocol. PMID:27173571

  14. The fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cells modulates their tolerance to methylmercury and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ferain, Aline; Bonnineau, Chloé; Neefs, Ineke; Rees, Jean François; Larondelle, Yvan; Schamphelaere, Karel A C De; Debier, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of fish tissues, which generally reflects that of the diet, affects various cellular properties such as membrane structure and fluidity, energy metabolism and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Since these cellular parameters can play an important role in the cellular response to organic and inorganic pollutants, a variation of the PUFA supply might modify the toxicity induced by such xenobiotics. In this work, we investigated whether the cellular fatty acid profile has an impact on the in vitro cell sensitivity to two environmental pollutants: methylmercury and cadmium. Firstly, the fatty acid composition of the rainbow trout liver cell line RTL-W1 was modified by enriching the growth medium with either alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) or docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5n-6). These modified cells and their control (no PUFA enrichment) were then challenged for 24h with increasing concentrations of methylmercury or cadmium. We observed that (i) the phospholipid composition of the RTL-W1 cells was profoundly modulated by changing the PUFA content of the growth medium: major modifications were a high incorporation of the supplemented PUFA in the cellular phospholipids, the appearance of direct elongation and desaturation metabolites in the cellular phospholipids as well as a change in the gross phospholipid composition (PUFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) levels and n-3/n-6 ratio); (ii) ALA, EPA and DPA enrichment significantly protected the RTL-W1 cells against both methylmercury and cadmium; (iv) DHA enrichment significantly protected the cells against cadmium but not methylmercury; (v) AA and LA enrichment had no impact on the cell tolerance to both methylmercury and cadmium; (vi) the abundance of 20:3n-6, a metabolite of the n-6 biotransformation pathway, in

  15. The Overnight Effect of Dietary Energy Balance on Postprandial Plasma Free Amino Acid (PFAA) Profiles in Japanese Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40–61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion. PMID:23667542

  16. Surface profile changes of scuffed bearing surfaces. [before and after acid treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Fung, S. S.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A phase locked interference microscope capable of resolving depth differences to 30 A and planar displacements of 6000 A was constructed for the examination of the profiles of bearing surfaces without physical contact. This instrument was used to determine surface chemical reactivity by applying a drop of dilute alcoholic hydrochloric acid and measuring the profile of the solid surface before and after application of this probe. Scuffed bearing surfaces reacted much faster than unscuffed ones, but bearing surfaces which had been previously exposed to lubricants containing an organic chloride reacted much more slowly. In a separate series of experiments, a number of stainless steel plates were heated in a nitrogen atmosphere to different temperatures and their reactivity examined later at room temperature. The change of surface contour as a result of the probe reaction followed an Arrhenius type relation with respect to heat treatment temperature. This result could have implications on the scuffing mechanism.

  17. Metabolite Profiling of Sugarcane Genotypes and Identification of Flavonoid Glycosides and Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Isabel D; Baker, John M; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Creste, Silvana; Cavalheiro, Alberto J

    2016-06-01

    Sugarcane is an important agricultural crop in the economy of tropical regions, and Brazil has the largest cultivated acreage in the world. Sugarcane accumulates high levels of sucrose in its stalks. Other compounds produced by sugarcane are currently not of economic importance. To explore potential coproducts, we have studied the chemical diversity of sugarcane genotypes, via metabolite profiling of leaves by NMR and LC-DAD-MS. Metabolites were identified via in-house and public databases. From the analysis of 60 HPLC-fractionated extracts, LC-DAD-MS detected 144 metabolites, of which 56 were identified (MS-MS and (1)H NMR), including 19 phenolics and 25 flavones, with a predominance of isomeric flavone C-glycosides. Multivariate analysis of the profiles from genotypes utilized in Brazilian breeding programs revealed clustering according to sugar, phenolic acid, and flavone contents. PMID:27152527

  18. Essential fatty acid profiling for routine nutritional assessment unmasks adrenoleukodystrophy in an infant with isovaleric acidaemia.

    PubMed

    Bonilla Guerrero, R; Wolfe, L A; Payne, N; Tortorelli, S; Matern, D; Rinaldo, P; Gavrilov, D; Melan, M; He, M; Steinberg, S J; Raymond, G V; Vockley, J; Gibson, K M

    2008-12-01

    We report a 16-month-old asymptomatic male with enzyme confirmed isovaleric acidaemia (IVA; isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency; OMIM 243500) who, upon routine nutritional follow-up, presented evidence of peroxisomal dysfunction. The newborn screen (2 days of life) revealed elevated C(5)-carnitine (2.95 μmol/L; cutoff <0.09 μmol/L) and IVA was subsequently confirmed by metabolic profiling and in vitro enzymology. Plasma essential fatty acid (EFA) analysis, assessed to evaluate nutritional status during protein restriction and L: -carnitine supplementation, revealed elevated C(26:0) (5.0 μmol/L; normal <1.3). Subsequently, metabolic profiling and molecular genetic analysis confirmed X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (XALD). Identification of co-inherited XALD with IVA in this currently asymptomatic patient holds significant treatment ramifications for the proband prior to the onset of neurological sequelae, and critically important counselling implications for this family. PMID:19089597

  19. Distinction among North Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks by tissue fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Joensen, H; Grahl-Nielsen, O

    2014-06-01

    The fatty acid (FA) profiles of the white muscle and heart tissues of cod Gadus morhua from five locations, Faroe Bank, Faroe Plateau, North-West Iceland, Norway-Barents Sea and Denmark-Skagerrak, were population dependent. The interregional differences of FAs were significantly dissimilar (P < 0.01) in most cases. By way of a rapid and simple analytical method, the stock dependence and harvest location of individual G. morhua were chemometrically determined by multivariate principal component analysis. The difference among the stocks was correlated with the average water temperature at the harvest locations. It thus appears that the tissue FA profile is a phenotypic trait that is partly temperature driven. PMID:24890408

  20. Milk volatile organic compounds and fatty acid profile in cows fed timothy as hay, pasture, or silage.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, M-P; Lebeuf, Y; Gervais, R; Tremblay, G F; Vuillemard, J C; Fortin, J; Chouinard, P Y

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient composition and organoleptic properties of milk can be influenced by cow diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the forage type effects on volatile organic compounds, fatty acid (FA) profile, and organoleptic properties of milk. Timothy grass was fed as hay, pasture, or silage during a period of 27 d to a group of 21 cows in a complete block design based on days in milk. Each cow also received 7.2 kg/d of a concentrate mix to meet their nutrient requirements. Forage dry matter intake averaged 13.9 kg/d and was not different among treatments. Milk yield was higher for cows fed pasture, intermediate for cows fed silage, and lowest for cows fed hay. However, milk fat content was higher for cows fed hay and silage, compared with cows fed pasture. As a result, fat-corrected milk and fat yield were not different among treatments. Increasing the supply of dietary cis-9,cis-12 18:2 (linoleic acid) and cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3 (α-linolenic acid) when feeding pasture enhanced the concentration of these 2 essential FA in milk fat compared with feeding hay or silage. Moreover, the ratio of 16:0 (palmitic acid) to cis-9 18:1 (oleic acid), which is closely related to the melting properties of milk fat, was lower in milk from cows on pasture than in milk from cows fed hay or silage. Cows fed hay produced milk with higher levels of several free FA and γ-lactones, but less pentanal and 1-pentanol. More dimethyl sulfone and toluene were found in milk of cows on pasture. Cows fed silage produced milk with higher levels of acetone, 2-butanone, and α-pinene. Results from a sensory evaluation showed that panelists could not detect a difference in flavor between milk from cows fed hay compared with silage. However, a significant number of assessors perceived a difference between milk from cows fed hay compared with milk from cows fed pasture. In a sensory ranking test, the percentage of assessors ranking for the intensity of total (raw milk, fresh milk, and farm

  1. At-line gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of fatty acid profiles of green microalgae using a direct thermal desorption interface.

    PubMed

    Blokker, Peter; Pel, Roel; Akoto, Lawrence; Brinkman, Udo A Th; Vreuls, René J J

    2002-06-14

    Thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation-gas chromatography (THM-GC) is an important tool to analyse fatty acid in complex matrices. Since THM-GC has major drawbacks such as isomerisation when applied to fatty acids in natural matrices, a direct thermal desorption (DTD) interface and an incubation time of 30 min were used to circumvent these problems. Using vegetable oils such as sunflower oil and triarachidonin, the conversion of triglycerides into their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was investigated. The yields using a DTD (and trimethylsulfonium hydroxide as a reagent) were found to be similar or even higher than when applying a conventional off-line method, while the FAME profiles were identical. When the procedure was applied to analyse the FAME profiles of microbial cells in a methanolic or aqueous suspension, it was found that accurate profiles are obtained for such samples. Thus, the present approach opens the route to analyse fatty acids in microbial cells in a fully automated fashion, which will allow high sample throughput. PMID:12141545

  2. Gene expression profiles of murine fatty liver induced by the administration of valproic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho; Hong, Il; Kim, Mingoo; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Ju-Han; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-Il; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu; Lee, Mi-Ock . E-mail: molee@snu.ac.kr

    2007-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been used as anticonvulsants, however, it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis and necrosis in the liver. To explore the mechanisms of VPA-induced steatosis, we profiled the gene expression patterns of the mouse liver that were altered by treatment with VPA using microarray analysis. VPA was orally administered as a single dose of 100 mg/kg (low-dose) or 1000 mg/kg (high-dose) to ICR mice and the animals were killed at 6, 24, or 72 h after treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were not significantly altered in the experimental animals. However, symptoms of steatosis were observed at 72 h with low-dose and at 24 h and 72 h with high-dose. After microarray data analysis, 1910 genes were selected by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) as VPA-responsive genes. Hierarchical clustering revealed that gene expression changes depended on the time rather than the dose of VPA treatment. Gene profiling data showed striking changes in the expression of genes associated with lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism, oncogenesis, signal transduction, and development. Functional categorization of 1156 characteristically up- and down-regulated genes (cutoff > 1.5-fold) revealed that 60 genes were involved in lipid metabolism that was interconnected with biological pathways for biosynthesis of triglyceride and cholesterol, catabolism of fatty acid, and lipid transport. This gene expression profile may be associated with the known steatogenic hepatotoxicity of VPA and it may provide useful information for prediction of hepatotoxicity of unknown chemicals or new drug candidates through pattern recognition.

  3. Changes in Gene Expression Profiling of Apoptotic Genes in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Retinoic Acid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Celay, Jon; Blanco, Idoia; Lázcoz, Paula; Rotinen, Mirja; Castresana, Javier S.; Encío, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of retinoic acid (RA) in neuroblastoma we treated RA sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines with 9-cis RA or ATRA for 9 days, or for 5 days followed by absence of RA for another 4 days. Both isomers induced apoptosis and reduced cell density as a result of cell differentiation and/or apoptosis. Flow cytometry revealed that 9-cis RA induced apoptosis more effectively than ATRA. The expression profile of apoptosis and survival pathways was cell line specific and depended on the isomer used. PMID:23650528

  4. Global Gene Profiling of Spontaneous Hepatocellular Carcinoma in B6C3F1 Mice: Similarities in the Molecular Landscape with Human Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Pandiri, Arun R.; Lahousse, Stephanie A.; Hong, Hu-Hua; Ton, Tai-Vu; Masinde, Tiwanda; Auerbach, Scott S.; Gerrish, Kevin; Bushel, Pierre R.; Shockley, Keith R.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Sills, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although the risk factors of human HCC are well known, the molecular pathogenesis of this disease is complex, and in general, treatment options remain poor. The use of rodent models to study human cancer has been extensively pursued, both through genetically engineered rodents and rodent models used in carcinogenicity and toxicology studies. In particular, the B6C3F1 mouse used in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) two-year bioassay has been used to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of environmental and occupational chemicals, and other compounds. The high incidence of spontaneous HCC in the B6C3F1 mouse has challenged its use as a model for chemically induced HCC in terms of relevance to the human disease. Using global gene expression profiling, we identify the dysregulation of several mediators similarly altered in human HCC, including re-expression of fetal oncogenes, upregulation of protooncogenes, downregulation of tumor suppressor genes, and abnormal expression of cell cycle mediators, growth factors, apoptosis regulators, and angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling factors. Although major differences in etiology and pathogenesis remain between human and mouse HCC, there are important similarities in global gene expression and molecular pathways dysregulated in mouse and human HCC. These data provide further support for the use of this model in hazard identification of compounds with potential human carcinogenicity risk, and may help in better understanding the mechanisms of tumorigenesis resulting from chemical exposure in the NTP two-year carcinogenicity bioassay. PMID:21571946

  5. Genus-specific profile of acetic acid bacteria by 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    An effective method for grouping acetic acid bacteria (AAB) genera was defined and evaluated as a tool for preliminary screening of the major AAB species involved in vinegar production. Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Neoasaia, Saccharibacter, Frateuria and Kozakia AAB strains were screened on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique. The DGGE profile of all the strains tested, consisted of one single band of approximately 330 bp for each strain and allowed their clustering. The results obtained clearly reflected in silico phylogenetic analysis of the AAB species used in this study, in fact, the species with a higher 16S rDNA sequence homology showed a similar electrophoretic profile. In particular almost all the species belonging to the genus Gluconacetobacter showed a DGGE pattern nearly identical and well distinct from all the other AAB genera. Furthermore by PCR-DGGE it was possible to clearly group the species more frequently recovered from vinegar fermentation which are mainly distributed in the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter and Gluconacetobacter. PMID:17919758

  6. Safety profile of the intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Mariana; Mendonça, Liliana; Nóbrega, Clévio; Gomes, Célia; Costa, Pedro; Hirai, Hirokazu; Moreira, João Nuno; Lima, Maria C; Manjunath, N; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2016-03-01

    In a clinical setting, where multiple administrations of the therapeutic agent are usually required to improve the therapeutic outcome, it is crucial to assess the immunogenicity of the administered nanoparticles. In this data work, we investigated the safety profile of the repeated intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles (RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs). To evaluate local activation of the immune system, we performed analysis of mouse tissue homogenates and sections from cerebellum. To investigate peripheral activation of the immune system, we used serum of mice that were intravenously injected with RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs. These data are related and were discussed in the accompanying research article entitled "Intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles alleviates Machado-Joseph disease neurological phenotype" (Conceição et al., in press) [1]. PMID:26958628

  7. Numerical analysis of fatty and mycolic acid profiles of Corynebacterium urealyticum and other related corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Alcaraz, E; Valero-Guillén, P; Martín-Luengo, F; Canteras-Jordana, M

    1993-04-01

    The fatty and mycolic acid profiles of 52 strains of clinical origin belonging to Corynebacterium urealyticum were subjected to numerical analysis along with those of representative members of Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium jèikeium, Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Corynebacterium xerosis, Corynebacterium renale, Corynebacterium cystitidis, "Corynebacterium ulcerans" and one strain of the Corynebacterium F1 group. Strains were divided into eight clusters at an amalgamation distance of 7.4. Corynebacterium urealyticum appeared as an homogeneous cluster clearly distant from others, that included several members of the genus Corynebacterium, and it was characterized by its content on unsaturated mycolic acids of mainly 28 (28:1) and 30 (30:3) carbon atoms. On the basis of these results the taxonomic "status" of Corynebacterium urealyticum, a new species within the genus Corynebacterium "sensu stricto", is further justified. PMID:8397966

  8. Safety profile of the intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles

    PubMed Central

    Conceição, Mariana; Mendonça, Liliana; Nóbrega, Clévio; Gomes, Célia; Costa, Pedro; Hirai, Hirokazu; Moreira, João Nuno; Lima, Maria C.; Manjunath, N.; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2016-01-01

    In a clinical setting, where multiple administrations of the therapeutic agent are usually required to improve the therapeutic outcome, it is crucial to assess the immunogenicity of the administered nanoparticles. In this data work, we investigated the safety profile of the repeated intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles (RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs). To evaluate local activation of the immune system, we performed analysis of mouse tissue homogenates and sections from cerebellum. To investigate peripheral activation of the immune system, we used serum of mice that were intravenously injected with RVG-9r-targeted SNALPs. These data are related and were discussed in the accompanying research article entitled “Intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles alleviates Machado–Joseph disease neurological phenotype” (Conceição et al., in press) [1]. PMID:26958628

  9. CD4+ T cell polyfunctional profile in HIV-TB coinfection are similar between individuals with latent and active TB infection

    PubMed Central

    Canaday, David H.; Sridaran, Sankar; Van Epps, Puja; Aung, Htin; Burant, Christopher J.; Nsereko, Mary; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Betts, Michael R.; Toossi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    CD4+ T cell counts of HIV-infected individuals with pulmonary TB (PTB) are higher than with other opportunistic infections suggesting that progression to PTB is not merely due to T cell depletion but also dysfunction. There are limited data examining T cell functional signatures in human HIV-TB co-infection particularly in PTB which accounts for about 80% of active TB disease overall. We examined a cohort of HIV-infected anti-retroviral naïve individuals in Kampala, Uganda, a TB endemic area using multi-parametric flow cytometry analysis to determine IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and TNF-α production in CD4+ memory T cell subsets. The cytokine frequency and polyfunctionality profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) or PTB is comparable. This similarity suggests that LTBI may represent a smoldering state of persistent MTB replication rather than dormant infection. This may be a contributory mechanism to the significantly increased risk of progression to PTB in this population. PMID:25956974

  10. Acidic Barren Slope Profiling using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) at Ayer Hitam area Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, A. T. S.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.; Haimi, D. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, non-destructive method such as the electrical resistivity technique has become increasingly popular in engineering, environmental, mining and archeological studies nowadays. This method was popular in subsurface profiling due to its ability to replicate the images of the subsurface indirectly. The soil slope found in Batu Pahat, specifically in Ayer Hitam, is known to be problematic due to its barren condition. This location is believed to contain futile soil due to its difficulty in supporting the growth of vegetations. In the past, acidic barren slope assessment using non-destructive method was rarely being used due to several reasons related to the equipment and knowledge constraints. Hence, this study performed an electrical resistivity imaging using ABEM Terrameter LS in order to investigate the acidic barren slope conditions. Field data acquisition was based on Schlumberger and Wenner arrays while RES2DINV software was used to analyze and generate a 2-D model of the problematic subsurface profile. Based on electrical resistivity results, it was found that the acidic barren slope studied consists of two main zones representing residual soil (electrical resistivity value = 10 - 600 Ωm) and shale (electrical resistivity value = 20 - 2000 Ωm). The results of resistivity value were correlated with the physical mapping and the in situ mackintosh probe test for verification purposes. It was found that the maximum depth of the mackintosh probe test was 1.8 m due to its ground penetration limitation. However, the results of the resistivity section managed to achieve greater depth up to 40 m. Hence, the correlation between electrical resistivity and mackintosh probe results can only be performed at certain depth of the acidic barren slope profile in contrast with the physical mapping which able to define the whole section of the barren soil slope structure. Finally, a good match of electrical resistivity results calibrated with mackintosh and physical

  11. Survival and Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles of Surface and Subsurface Bacteria in Natural Sediment Microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, T. L.; Wilch, E.; O'Connor, K.; Ringelberg, D. B.; White, D. C.

    1997-01-01

    Although starvation survival has been characterized for many bacteria, few subsurface bacteria have been tested, and few if any have been tested in natural subsurface porous media. We hypothesized that subsurface bacteria may be uniquely adapted for long-term survival in situ. We further hypothesized that subsurface conditions (sediment type and moisture content) would influence microbial survival. We compared starvation survival capabilities of surface and subsurface strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and a novel Arthrobacter sp. in microcosms composed of natural sediments. Bacteria were incubated for up to 64 weeks under saturated and unsaturated conditions in sterilized microcosms containing either a silty sand paleosol (buried soil) or a sandy silt nonpaleosol sediment. Direct counts, plate counts, and cell sizes were measured. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were quantified to determine temporal patterns of PLFA stress signatures and differences in PLFAs among strains and treatments. The Arthrobacter strains survived better than the P. fluorescens strains; however, differences in survival between surface and subsurface strains of each genus were not significant. Bacteria survived better in the paleosol than in the nonpaleosol and survived better under saturated conditions than under unsaturated conditions. Cell volumes of all strains decreased; however, sediment type and moisture did not influence rates of miniaturization. Both P. fluorescens strains showed PLFA stress signatures typical for gram-negative bacteria: increased ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, increased ratios of trans- to cis-monoenoic fatty acids, and increased ratios of cyclopropyl to monoenoic precursor fatty acids. The Arthrobacter strains showed few changes in PLFAs. Environmental conditions strongly influenced PLFA profiles. PMID:16535578

  12. Survival and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of surface and subsurface bacteria in natural sediment microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Wilch, E.; O`Connor, K.

    1997-04-01

    Although starvation survival has been characterized for many bacteria, few subsurface bacteria have been tested, and few if any have been tested in natural subsurface porous media. We hypothesized that subsurface bacteria may be uniquely adapted for long-term survival in situ. We further hypothesized that subsurface conditions (sediment type and moisture content) would influence microbial survival. We compared starvation survival capabilities of surface and subsurface strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens and a novel Arthrobacter sp. in microcosms composed of natural sediments. Bacteria were incubated for up to 64 weeks under saturated and unsaturated conditions in sterilized microcosms containing either a silty sand paleosol (buried soil) or a sandy silt nonpaleosol sediment. Direct counts, plate counts, and cell sizes were measured. Membrane phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles were quantified to determine temporal patterns of PLFA stress signatures and differences in PLFAs among strains and treatments. The Arthrobacter strains survived better than the P. fluorescens strains; however, differences in survival between surface and subsurface strains of each genus were not significant. Bacteria survived better in the paleosol than in the nonpaleosol and survived better under saturated conditions than under unsaturated conditions. Cell volumes of all strains decreased; however, sediment type and moisture did not influence rates of miniaturization. Both P.fluorescens strains showed PLFA stress signatures typical for gram-negative bacteria: increased ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, increased ratios of trans- to cis-monoenoic fatty acids, and increased ratios of cyclopropyl to monoenoic precursor fatty acids. The Arthrobacter strains showed few changes in PLFAs. Environmental conditions strongly influenced PLFA profiles. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines. PMID:26812309

  14. Similarity in microbial amino acid uptake in surface waters of the North and South Atlantic (sub-)tropical gyres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Polly G.; Mary, Isabelle; Purdie, Duncan A.; Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth’s most extensive biomes - the oceanic subtropical gyres - are considered to be expanding with current surface ocean warming. Although it is well established that microbial communities control gyre biogeochemistry, comparisons of their metabolic activities between gyres are limited. In order to estimate metabolic activities including production of microbial communities, the uptake rates of amino acids leucine, methionine and tyrosine at ambient concentrations were estimated in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean using radioisotopically labelled tracers. Data were acquired during six research cruises covering main oceanic provinces herein termed: North and South Atlantic Gyres, Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS), Equatorial region, and Mauritanian Upwelling (off Cape Blanc). Data were divided between provinces, the extents of which were identified by ocean colour data, in order to achieve provincial mean uptake rates. Leucine and methionine uptake rates did not differ between sampling periods, and were comparable between the North and South subtropical gyres. Furthermore, variation in uptake rates measured throughout the two oligotrophic gyres, where sampling covered ∼4 × 10 6 km 2, was considerably lower than that measured within the Mauritanian Upwelling and Equatorial regions, and even at the BATS site. Tyrosine was generally the slowest of the amino acids to be taken up, however, it was assimilated faster than methionine within the Mauritanian Upwelling region. Thus, we propose that one value for leucine (12.6 ± 3.2 pmol L -1 h -1) and methionine (10.0 ± 3.3 pmol L -1 h -1) uptake could be applied to the oligotrophic subtropical gyres of the Atlantic Ocean. However, with the significantly lower uptake rates observed at the BATS site, we would not advise extrapolation to the Sargasso Sea.

  15. The fatty acid profile of subcutaneous and abdominal fat in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum.

    PubMed

    Hostens, M; Fievez, V; Leroy, J L M R; Van Ranst, J; Vlaeminck, B; Opsomer, G

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the fatty acid (FA) profile and assess desaturase indices of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in the blood, as well as in the abdominal (ABD) and subcutaneous (SUBC) fat stores, in dairy cows with left displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Blood, ABD, and SUBC samples were taken from 50 Holstein cows offered for surgery to correct LDA. The FA profile of the 3 compartments was determined by gas chromatography after lipid extraction, methylation, and, in the case of blood plasma, separation of lipid classes. The most abundant FA in all 3 compartments were 16:0, 18:0, and 18:1 cis-9, with a total proportion of 82.5, 68.0, and 74.1g/100 g of FA in ABD, NEFA, and SUBC, respectively. A principal component analysis was performed on the entire FA profile as well as on the Δ(9)-desaturase indices (14:1 cis-9/14:0, 16:1 cis-9/16:0, 18:1 cis-9/18:0). The principal component analysis extracted 2 principal components (PC), representing 51.6% (PC1) and 21.1% (PC2) of the total variance in FA composition of the 3 compartments. The loading plot for the regression factors revealed a strong positive correlation between PC1 with the Δ(9)-desaturase indices and the proportions of 14:1 cis-9 and 16:1 cis-9, and revealed a negative correlation with the proportion of 18:0 and saturated FA. The correlation with PC2 was positive for the proportion of unsaturated FA, 18:2n-6, and 18:3n-3, and negative for the proportion of 14:0, 16:0, and saturated FA. The SUBC could be distinguished from the NEFA and ABD by a positive score for PC1, whereas differentiation among the latter 2 compartments could be made by a positive (NEFA) or negative (ABD) score for PC2. The Δ(9)-desaturase indices for C14 and C16 differed between all compartments but were numerically closer for NEFA and ABD versus NEFA and SUBC. The desaturase indices of the main FA (18:1 cis-9 and 18:0) did not differ between NEFA and ABD. These results support the existence of a different FA

  16. Experimental evaluation of fatty acid profiles as a technique to determine dietary composition in benthic elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Crystal L; Mitchell, James G; Seuront, Laurent; Stone, David A J; Huveneers, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) analysis is a tool for dietary investigation that complements traditional stomach content analyses. Controlled feeding experiments were used to determine the extent to which the FA composition of diet is reflected in the liver and muscle tissue of the Port Jackson shark Heterodontus portusjacksoni. Over 10 wk, two groups of sharks were fed prawns or squid, which have distinct FA profiles. The percentage of total FA was significantly different for shark liver and muscle tissue when comparing controls with prawn- and squid-fed sharks. Compared with experimentally fed sharks, control shark muscle and liver had higher levels of 18:1n-9 and 20:2n-9. When comparing prawn- and squid-fed sharks, only liver tissue showed a significant difference in FA profiles. The livers of prawn-fed sharks were comparatively higher in 18:1n-7, 22:5n-3, 20:0, and 18:1n-9, while the squid-fed sharks had higher levels of 16:0 and 22:6n-3. These FAs in shark liver tissue were all reflective of higher amounts in their respective dietary items, demonstrating the conservative transfer of FA from diet to liver tissue. This study shows that liver and muscle FA profiles can be used as indicators of dietary change through the comparison of controls and fed sharks. The timescale of this study may not have been sufficient for capturing the integration of FA into muscle tissue because only liver FA profiles were useful to distinguish between sharks fed different diets. These findings have important implications for sampling design where FA profiles are used to infer dietary preferences. PMID:23434786

  17. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India

    PubMed Central

    Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T. V.; Anandan, R.; Paul, B. N.; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J.; Venkateshwarlu, G.; Mathew, Suseela; Karunakaran, D.; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P.; Sridhar, N.

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  18. DHA and EPA Content and Fatty Acid Profile of 39 Food Fishes from India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Bimal Prasanna; Ganguly, Satabdi; Mahanty, Arabinda; Sankar, T V; Anandan, R; Chakraborty, Kajal; Paul, B N; Sarma, Debajit; Syama Dayal, J; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mathew, Suseela; Asha, K K; Karunakaran, D; Mitra, Tandrima; Chanda, Soumen; Shahi, Neetu; Das, Puspita; Das, Partha; Akhtar, Md Shahbaz; Vijayagopal, P; Sridhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principal constituent of a variety of cells especially the brain neurons and retinal cells and plays important role in fetal brain development, development of motor skills, and visual acuity in infants, lipid metabolism, and cognitive support and along with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) it plays important role in preventing atherosclerosis, dementia, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and so forth. Being an essential nutrient, it is to be obtained through diet and therefore searching for affordable sources of these ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is important for consumer guidance and dietary counseling. Fish is an important source of PUFA and has unique advantage that there are many food fish species available and consumers have a wide choice owing to availability and affordability. The Indian subcontinent harbors a rich fish biodiversity which markedly varies in their nutrient composition. Here we report the DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile of 39 important food fishes (including finfishes, shellfishes, and edible molluscs from both marine water and freshwater) from India. The study showed that fishes Tenualosa ilisha, Sardinella longiceps, Nemipterus japonicus, and Anabas testudineus are rich sources of DHA and EPA. Promotion of these species as DHA rich species would enhance their utility in public health nutrition. PMID:27579313

  19. Transcriptome Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis Gene Expressionfollowing Exposure to Acidic and Alkaline pH

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, Adam B.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Huang, Katherine; Alm,Eric; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Arkin, Adam P.; Brown, Steven D.; Wu, Liyou; Yan,Tingfen; Liu, Xueduan; Wickham, Gene S.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-04-02

    The molecular response of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 tovariations in extracellular pH was investigated based on genomewide geneexpression profiling. Microarray analysis revealed that cells elicitedboth general and specific transcriptome responses when challenged withenvironmental acid (pH 4) or base (pH 10) conditions over a 60-minperiod. Global responses included the differential expression of genesfunctionally linked to amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulationand signal transduction, transport, cell membrane structure, andoxidative stress protection. Response to acid stress included theelevated expression of genes encoding glycogen biosynthetic enzymes,phosphate transporters, and the RNA polymerase sigma-38 factor (rpoS),whereas the molecular response to alkaline pH was characterized byupregulation of nhaA and nhaR, which are predicted to encode an Na+/H+antiporter and transcriptional activator, respectively, as well assulfate transport and sulfur metabolism genes. Collectively, theseresults suggest that S. oneidensis modulates multiple transporters, cellenvelope components, and pathways of amino acid consumption and centralintermediary metabolism as part of its transcriptome response to changingexternal pH conditions.

  20. Identification of Bioactivity, Volatile and Fatty Acid Profile in Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Mexican arnica.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, J Saúl; Cuéllar-Bermúdez, Sara P; Arévalo-Gallegos, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Parra-Saldivar, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a sustainable technique used for the extraction of lipophilic metabolites such as pigments and fatty acids. Arnica plant is considered a potential candidate material with high antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, in this study, a locally available Heterotheca inuloides, also known as Mexican arnica, was analyzed for the extraction of high-value compounds. Based on different pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (CoS), four treatments (T) were prepared. A maximum 7.13% yield was recovered from T2 (T = 60 °C, P = 10 MPa, CoS = 8 g/min), followed by 6.69% from T4 (T = 60 °C, P = 30 MPa, CoS = 4 g/min). Some bioactive sesquiterpenoids such as 7-hydroxycadalene, caryophyllene and δ-cadinene were identified in the extracts by GC/MS. The fatty acid profile revealed that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by linoleic acid (C18:2ω6c), α-linolenic acid (C18:3ω3) and stearic acid (C18:0) differing in percent yield per treatment. Antibacterial activities were determined by the agar diffusion method, indicating that all the treatments exerted strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, C. albicans, and E. coli strains. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was also measured by three in vitro assays, DPPH, TEAC and FRAP, using Trolox as a standard. Results showed high antioxidant capacity enabling pharmaceutical applications of Mexican arnica. PMID:27626416

  1. Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Profiles seven Black, Native American, and Chicano artists and art teachers: Hale A. Woodruff, Allan Houser, Luis Jimenez, Betrand D. Phillips, James E. Pate, I, and Fernando Navarro. This article is part of a theme issue on multicultural art. (SJL)

  2. Influence of dietary grape pomace combined with linseed oil on fatty acid profile and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Manso, T; Gallardo, B; Salvá, A; Guerra-Rivas, C; Mantecón, A R; Lavín, P; de la Fuente, M A

    2016-02-01

    Grape pomace is a by-product resulting from the winery industry that is rich in phenolic compounds. It could play a role as an antioxidant and, owing to its high fiber concentration, it would be an alternative ingredient to partially replace forage in the diet of small ruminants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of vitamin E or different doses of grape pomace associated with linseed oil on milk fatty acid profile, composition, and yield. Forty-eight Churra ewes were fed with experimental diets consisting of a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 2.7% [on a dry matter (DM) basis] of linseed oil, forage, and concentrate at a 40:60 ratio. Ewes were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (without grape pomace), vitamin E (with 500 mg/kg of TMR of vitamin E), grape pomace-5 (5 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace), and grape pomace-10 (10 g/100 g of TMR of DM of grape pomace). Experimental diets did not affect DM intake and milk yield and composition. The vitamin E supplementation had only a moderate effect on milk concentration of fatty acids (increase in α-linolenic acid and 16:0 and decrease in cis-9 18:1). Grape pomace supplementation did not affect the percentages of total saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Levels of α-linolenic acid reached about 1% of total fatty acids as a consequence of the presence of linseed oil in the diets, were not modified with vitamin E, and remained unaltered in grape pomace-5 and -10 treatments. Linoleic acid was increased by the highest dose of grape pomace, but this ingredient did not modify the cis-9,trans-11 18:2 milk fat content. The concentration of total odd- and branched-chain fatty acids did not diminish in grape pomace-5 and pomace-10 treatments. The presence of grape residue did not modified the trans-11 18:1 and trans-10 18:1 contents, which might indicate that, under the conditions assayed, this winery by-product would not alter the pathways of

  3. AB115. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles of Filipino patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and correlation with their neurologic features

    PubMed Central

    Chiong, Mary Anne D.; Cordero, Cynthia P.; Fodra, Esphie Grace D; Manliguis, Judy S.; Lopez, Cristine P.; Dalmacio, Leslie Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is the most common inborn error of metabolism in the country. The main cause of the neuropathology is still not well established although the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and alteration in large neutral amino acids (LNAA) as well as energy deprivation have been suggested. It is the aim of the study to determine the plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles of Filipino patients with MSUD and correlate the findings with their neurologic features. Methods Twenty six Filipino patients confirmed to have MSUD were studied in terms of their plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles. Their results were compared with 26 age and sex matched controls. Their neurologic features were reviewed and correlated with the results of their plasma amino acid and urine organic acid profiles. Results Majority of the patients with MSUD had developmental delay/intellectual disability (88%), speech delay (69%) and seizures (65%). The amino acid profile of MSUD patients revealed low glutamine and alanine with high levels of leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine and alloisoleucine compared to controls (P<0.05). The urine organic acids showed significantly elevated excretion of the branched chain ketoacids and succinate (P<0.05), however other Krebs cycle metabolites that would indicate possible energy perturbation were not found in significant amounts. There were also no metabolite markers in the plasma amino acids or urine organic acids that correlated significantly with the neurologic features. The most remarkable finding in this study was the discriminant analysis done on 7 clinically and statistically significant important amino acids in the plasma wherein elevations in leucine, isoleucine, alloisoleucine, phenylalanine and threonine, and decreased levels of glutamine and alanine clearly defined the boundary between an MSUD case and control. Conclusions The findings suggest that there

  4. Similarities between the Binding Sites of SB-206553 at Serotonin Type 2 and Alpha7 Acetylcholine Nicotinic Receptors: Rationale for Its Polypharmacological Profile

    PubMed Central

    Möller-Acuña, Patricia; Contreras-Riquelme, J. Sebastián; Rojas-Fuentes, Cecilia; Nuñez-Vivanco, Gabriel; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Arias, Hugo R.; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from systems biology indicates that promiscuous drugs, i.e. those that act simultaneously at various protein targets, are clinically better in terms of efficacy, than those that act in a more selective fashion. This has generated a new trend in drug development called polypharmacology. However, the rational design of promiscuous compounds is a difficult task, particularly when the drugs are aimed to act at receptors with diverse structure, function and endogenous ligand. In the present work, using docking and molecular dynamics methodologies, we established the most probable binding sites of SB-206553, a drug originally described as a competitive antagonist of serotonin type 2B/2C metabotropic receptors (5-HT2B/2CRs) and more recently as a positive allosteric modulator of the ionotropic α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). To this end, we employed the crystal structures of the 5-HT2BR and acetylcholine binding protein as templates to build homology models of the 5-HT2CR and α7 nAChR, respectively. Then, using a statistical algorithm, the similarity between these binding sites was determined. Our analysis showed that the most plausible binding sites for SB-206553 at 5-HT2Rs and α7 nAChR are remarkably similar, both in size and chemical nature of the amino acid residues lining these pockets, thus providing a rationale to explain its affinity towards both receptor types. Finally, using a computational tool for multiple binding site alignment, we determined a consensus binding site, which should be useful for the rational design of novel compounds acting simultaneously at these two types of highly different protein targets. PMID:26244344

  5. Similarities between the Binding Sites of SB-206553 at Serotonin Type 2 and Alpha7 Acetylcholine Nicotinic Receptors: Rationale for Its Polypharmacological Profile.

    PubMed

    Möller-Acuña, Patricia; Contreras-Riquelme, J Sebastián; Rojas-Fuentes, Cecilia; Nuñez-Vivanco, Gabriel; Alzate-Morales, Jans; Iturriaga-Vásquez, Patricio; Arias, Hugo R; Reyes-Parada, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from systems biology indicates that promiscuous drugs, i.e. those that act simultaneously at various protein targets, are clinically better in terms of efficacy, than those that act in a more selective fashion. This has generated a new trend in drug development called polypharmacology. However, the rational design of promiscuous compounds is a difficult task, particularly when the drugs are aimed to act at receptors with diverse structure, function and endogenous ligand. In the present work, using docking and molecular dynamics methodologies, we established the most probable binding sites of SB-206553, a drug originally described as a competitive antagonist of serotonin type 2B/2C metabotropic receptors (5-HT2B/2CRs) and more recently as a positive allosteric modulator of the ionotropic α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). To this end, we employed the crystal structures of the 5-HT2BR and acetylcholine binding protein as templates to build homology models of the 5-HT2CR and α7 nAChR, respectively. Then, using a statistical algorithm, the similarity between these binding sites was determined. Our analysis showed that the most plausible binding sites for SB-206553 at 5-HT2Rs and α7 nAChR are remarkably similar, both in size and chemical nature of the amino acid residues lining these pockets, thus providing a rationale to explain its affinity towards both receptor types. Finally, using a computational tool for multiple binding site alignment, we determined a consensus binding site, which should be useful for the rational design of novel compounds acting simultaneously at these two types of highly different protein targets. PMID:26244344

  6. Amniotic Fluid or Its Fatty Acids Produce Actions Similar to Diazepam on Lateral Septal Neurons Firing Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G.; Vásquez-Hernández, Diana Idania

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid (AF) contains eight fatty acids (FATs), and both produce anxiolytic-like effects in adult rats and appetitive responses in human newborns. The medial amygdala and lateral septal nucleus function are related to social behavior, but the action of AF or its FATs in this circuit is known. We obtained 267 single-unit extracellular recordings in Wistar rats treated with vehicle (1 mL, s.c.; n = 12), human AF (1 mL, s.c.; n = 12), a FAT mixture (1 mL, s.c.; n = 13), diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 11), and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg, p.o.; n = 12). Compared with the vehicle group, the spontaneous septal firing rate in the AF, FAT mixture, and diazepam groups was the lowest and in the fluoxetine group the highest. Cumulative peristimulus histograms indicated that the significant change in septal firing occurred only in the AF and FAT mixture groups and exclusively in those neurons that increased their firing rate during amygdala stimulation. We conclude that human AF and its FATs produce actions comparable to anxiolytic drugs and are able to modify the responsivity of a circuit involved in social behavior, suggesting facilitation of social recognition processes by maternal-fetal fluids. PMID:23864826

  7. So different and still so similar: The plant compound rosmarinic acid mimics bacterial homoserine lactone quorum sensing signals

    PubMed Central

    Corral-Lugo, Andrés; Daddaoua, Abdelali; Ortega, Alvaro; Espinosa-Urgel, Manuel; Krell, Tino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Apart from inter-bacteria communication quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms also enable inter-domain interactions. To interfere with bacterial QS, plants were found to secrete compounds; most of which of unknown identity. We have identified the plant compound rosmarinic acid (RA) to modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS by binding to the RhlR QS regulator. RA was found to be a homoserine-lactone (HSL) mimic that caused agonistic effects on transcription, resulting ultimately in a stimulation of several RhlR controlled phenotypes like virulence factor synthesis or biofilm formation. Our study was initiated by in silico screening of an RhlR model with compound libraries, demonstrating that this approach is suitable to tackle a major bottleneck in signal transduction research, which is the identification of sensor protein ligands. Previous work has shown that plant compounds interfere with the function of orphan QS regulators. Our study demonstrates that this has not necessarily to be the case since RhlR forms a functional pair with the RhlI synthase. A wide range of structurally dissimilar compounds have been found to mimic HSLs suggesting that this class of QS regulators is characterized by a significant plasticity in the recognition of effector molecules. Further research will show to what extent RA impacts on QS mechanisms of other bacteria. PMID:27195067

  8. Authentication of dried distilled grain with solubles (DDGS) by fatty acid and volatile profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tres, Alba; Heenan, Samuel P.; van Ruth, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Demand for ethanol substituted fuels from the utilisation of cereal based biofuel has resulted in an over production of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) that are now readily available on the animal feed market. With this rapid emerging availability comes potential variability in the nutritional value of DDGS and possible risks of feed contaminants. Subsequently, the authentication and traceability of alternative animal feed sources is of high priority. In this study and as part of the EU research project “Quality and Safety of Feeds and Food for Europe (QSAFFE FP7-KBBE-2010-4) an attempt was made to classify the geographical origin of cereal grains used in the production of DDGS material. DDGS material of wheat and corn origin were obtained from Europe, China, and the USA. Fatty acid profiles and volatile fingerprints were assessed by gas chromatography flame ionisation (GC-FID) and rapid proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) respectively. Chemometric analysis of fatty acid profiles and volatile fingerprints allowed for promising classifications of cereals used in DDGS material by geographical and botanical origin and enabled visual representation of the data. This objective analytical approach could be adapted for routine verification of cereal grains used in the production of DDGS material. PMID:25368433

  9. Elution profiles of lanthanides with α-hydroxyisobutyric acid by ion exchange chromatography using fine resin.

    PubMed

    Trikha, Rahul; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Sabharwal, Kanwal Nain; Prabhu, Krishan

    2015-11-01

    Experiments were carried out using a strong acid cation exchange resin with a particle size of 75-150 μm, termed as "fine resin" in hydrogen ion form for the elution of individual lanthanides Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy that are produced as fission products in the spent nuclear fuel and generated in the effluent during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of concentration of nitric acid on distribution coefficient. The distribution coefficient values for these individual lanthanides were determined in nitric acid medium in the concentration range of 0.01-4.0 N. Uptake of each individual lanthanide by resin was increased with increased nitric acid concentration from 0.01 to 0.5 N and remained similar from 0.5 to 1.0 N and decreased thereafter up to 4.0 N. Column experiments were also carried out using the same resin to study the parameters like pH of the eluent, flow rate, and resin bed height under isocratic elution conditions for eluting lanthanide elements using α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as eluent. The results of this study have indicated the possibility for the elution of individual lanthanides. PMID:26333182

  10. Profiling of 3-hydroxy fatty acids as environmental markers of endotoxin using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Negård, Mariell; Heldal, Kari K; Straumfors, Anne; Madsø, Lene; Bakke, Berit; Eduard, Wijnand

    2016-02-19

    3-Hydroxy acids are constituents of the lipid A part of lipopolysaccharides and may potentially be used as chemical markers of endotoxin. While commercial enzymatic assays, such as the widely used Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay, commonly detect merely the water-soluble fraction of the bioactive endotoxin, the chemical approach aims to estimate the total amount of endotoxin present in a sample. Our objective was to develop a simple method for quantitative profiling of 3-hydroxy fatty acids in occupational and environmental samples based on detection with HPLC-MS/MS. We included eleven 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-hydroxyoctanoic acid to 3-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid) in the HPLC-MS/MS based method, which involved base hydrolysis of filter samples using 1M sodium hydroxide and removal of the base as well as concentration of the fatty acids using solid-phase extraction on a functionalized polystyrene-divinylbenzene polymer. Recovery trials from spiked glass fiber filters, using threo-9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid as internal standard, gave an overall recovery of 54-86% for 3-hydroxy fatty acids of medium chain length (3-hydroxynonanoic to 3-hydroxypentadecanoic acid). 3-Hydroxyoctanoic acid and the longer chain fatty acids were more problematic yielding overall spike recoveries of 11-39%. While the 3-hydroxy fatty acid profile of pure lipopolysaccharides was dominated by 3-hydroxydecanoic, 3-hydroxydodecanoic and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid the aqueous phase from drilling mud contained in addition relatively high amounts of 3-hydroxyoctanoic and 3-hydroxynonanoic acid. Endotoxin activity as measured by the LAL assay was reasonably correlated (R(2)=0.54) to the sum of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid, 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid in these samples. PMID:26818235

  11. Discrimination of "grazing milk" using milk fatty acid profile in the grassland dairy area in Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Milk produced by the grazing system, referred to as "grazing milk" contains many components required for human health. The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is strongly associated with the diet on the farms. In the present study, based on the FA profile of farmer's bulk milk, we determined how to discriminate between milk produced on grazing and on a confinement system. A field survey was conducted four times (grazing and confinement season) in the Konsen (29 farms) and Okhotsk (25 farms) area in Hokkaido. Farmer's bulk milk samples and details of feeding management were collected and the FA profile of milk was measured. Milk produced during the grazing season contained less C16:0 and cis-9 C16:0, and more C18:0, cis-9 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,12 C18:2, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and cis-9,12,15 C18:3 than milk produced during the confinement season. Discrimination analysis using 16 FA revealed that almost all milk samples were discriminated correctly (confinement season: 90% correct and 10% borderline, grazing season: 88% correct, 9% borderline and 3% incorrect). For farmers that were categorized incorrectly and were considered borderline in the grazing season, the dependency on pasture was low compared with that for farmers correctly discriminated. Therefore, to claim "grazing milk", a high dependency on pasture is required for grazing dairy farmers. PMID:26220515

  12. Fatty acid and sensory profiles of Caciocavallo cheese as affected by management system.

    PubMed

    Esposito, G; Masucci, F; Napolitano, F; Braghieri, A; Romano, R; Manzo, N; Di Francia, A

    2014-01-01

    The effect of season of the year associated with changes in feeding and management system (pasture-based vs. confinement) on milk and cheese fatty acid profile and on sensory properties of Caciocavallo cheese was evaluated on 3 mountain dairy farms. Each farm used a pasture-based feeding system from April to June and from September to October (PS), and a confinement system for the rest of the year (CS). As a consequence of grazing, PS milk showed higher percentages of C18:3, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and trans-11 C18:1, and a reduced percentage of C16:0. The fatty acid profile of cheese largely reflected that of the corresponding raw milk from which cheese was made. This led to a significant decrease of atherogenic index in cheeses produced from cows on pasture. Based on sensory analysis, cheese from animals kept on pasture was more yellow and had a lower intensity of butter and smoked odors than did CS cheese. In addition, grazing induced a lower intensity of bitter and a higher intensity of spicy flavors compared with cheese from CS animals. In regard to texture, pasture feeding resulted in higher intensity of friability and graininess. All cheeses performed well in consumer tests; the panel found all samples more than acceptable for overall liking, and for liking according to appearance, taste/flavor, and texture. Overall liking of Caciocavallo cheese, as assessed by slope analysis, was affected primarily by taste/flavor (raw slope k=0.88) and texture (k=0.97), whereas appearance had a lesser effect (k=0.72). The acidic and sensory profiles of cheese were well discriminated, with healthier cheeses produced by grazing cows. Therefore, wider use of pasture should be promoted to accentuate this favorable feature. Based on the specific nutritional and sensory characteristics of mountain Caciocavallo cheese, particularly that obtained from grazing animals, efforts should be made to indicate the quality of this cheese to the consumer and improve product

  13. Chemical profile and seasonal variation of phenolic acid content in bastard balm (Melittis melissophyllum L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak-Pietraszek, Ewa; Pietraszek, Jacek

    2012-07-01

    Melittis melissophyllum L. is an old medicinal plant. Nowadays it is only used in the folk medicine but formerly it has been applied in the official medicine as a natural product described in French Pharmacopoeia. M. melissophyllum herbs used in our studies were collected from two localities in Poland in May and September. Methanolic plant extracts were purified by means of solid-phase extraction and then analysed by HPLC-DAD for their phenolic acid profile. Eleven compounds were identified in all plant samples and quantitatively analysed as: protocatechuic, chlorogenic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, o-coumaric and cinnamic acid. Plant materials contained free and bound phenolic acids. The main compounds were: p-hydroxybenzoic acid (30.21-54.16 mg/100 g dw and 37.04-56.75 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively) and p-coumaric acid (40.48-80.55 mg/100 g dw and 28.09-40.85 mg/100 g dw, free and bound, respectively). The highest amounts of the investigated compounds were found in all samples collected in September, e.g. p-hydroxybenzoic acid (September 51.72-54.16 mg/100 g dw vs. May 30.21-34.07 mg/100 g dw), p-coumaric acid (September 77.14-80.55 mg/100 g dw vs. May 40.48-43.2 5mg/100 g dw). Multivariate statistical and data mining techniques, such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to characterize the sample populations according to the geographical localities, vegetation period and compound form (free or bound). To the best of our knowledge we report for the first time the results of quantitative analysis of M. melissophyllum phenolic acids and seasonal variation of their content. Plant herbs are usually collected at flowering for plant derived medical preparations. Our results show that it is not always the optimal time for the highest contents of active compounds. PMID:22513117

  14. Transcriptional profiling of canola developing embryo and identification of the important roles of BnDof5.6 in embryo development and fatty acids synthesis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Yan, Fang; Zhang, Xiaolan; Tang, Yuwei; Yuan, Yujin

    2015-08-01

    Canola is an important vegetable oil crop globally, and the understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying fatty acids biosynthesis during seed embryo development is an important research goal. Here we report the transcriptional profiling analysis of developing canola embryos using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) method. RNA-Seq analysis generated 58,579,451 sequence reads aligned with 32,243 genes. It was found that a total of 55 differential expression genes (DEGs) encoding 28 enzymes function in carbon flow to fatty acids of storage TAG. Most of the DEGs encoding above enzymes showed similar expression pattern, indicating the DEGs are cooperatively involved in carbon flow into fatty acids. In addition, 41 DEGs associated with signal transductions, transport and metabolic processing of auxin, gibberellin, abscisic acid, cytokinin and salicylic acids were found in the RNA-Seq database, which indicates the important roles of the phytohormones in controlling embryo development and fatty acids synthesis. 122 DEGs encoding transcriptional factor family members were found in developing canola embryos. Furthermore, BnDOF5.6, a zinc finger transcriptional factor gene, found in RNA-Seq database was down-regulated in developing canola embryos. The transgenic plants displayed reduced embryo sizes, decreased fatty acids contents and altered seed fatty acids composition in canola. Down-regulated of BnDof5.6 also changed the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acids synthesis and desaturation. Our results indicate that BnDof5.6 is required for embryo development and fatty acids synthesis in canola. Overall this study presents new information on the global expression patterns of genes during embryo development and will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanism of carbon flow into fatty acids and embryo development in canola. PMID:26092973

  15. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    PubMed Central

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors. PMID:24971025

  16. Bile acid profiles by capillary electrophoresis in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Gustavo; Lucangioli, Silvia; Sookoian, Silvia; Mesquida, Marcelo; Lemberg, Abraham; Di Scala, Mirta; Franchi, Paula; Carducci, Clyde; Tripodi, Valeria

    2006-04-01

    ICP (intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy) is characterized by pruritus and biochemical cholestasis, including raised SBAs (serum bile acids) and, usually, elevated aminotransferases levels. However, AHP (asymptomatic hypercholanaemia of pregnancy) is defined as the presence of total SBA levels above the cut-off value (11 microM) in healthy pregnant women, thus elevation of total SBAs do not necessarily reflect an ICP condition. The aim of the present study was to describe clinical, obstetric, perinatal and biochemical findings, as well as the SBA profile, in pregnant women studied in the third trimester of pregnancy in order to define characteristic patterns of individual bile acids that enable women with ICP to be distinguished from AHP and healthy pregnancies. Free and conjugated ursodeoxycholic (UDCA), cholic (CA), lithocholic (LCA), deoxycholic (DCA) and chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) acids were evaluated by CE (capillary electrophoresis) in 41 patients (15 of them simultaneously by HPLC), in 30 healthy pregnant women and in 10 non-pregnant women. A highly significant correlation between CE and HPLC for total SBAs (r=0.990) and for individual SBAs was found. Normal pregnant women had higher total SBA levels than non-pregnant women (due to an increase in taurine-conjugated dihydroxy SBAs). Women with ICP had higher levels of total SBAs, the free/conjugated ratio, LCA, CA, CDCA and DCA than normal pregnant women. Newborns from women with ICP had lower birth weight and gestational age. Women with AHP had higher levels of conjugated dihydroxy SBAs than normocholanaemic patients, without any evidence of a clinical difference. In conclusion, the present study has shown a clear difference in SBA profiles between ICP and normal pregnancies (including AHP), involving a shift towards a characteristic hydrophobic composition in women with ICP. PMID:16356162

  17. The cowpox virus SPI-3 and myxoma virus SERP1 serpins are not functionally interchangeable despite their similar proteinase inhibition profiles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y X; Turner, P C; Ness, T L; Moon, K B; Schoeb, T R; Moyer, R W

    2000-07-01

    The myxoma virus (MYX) serpin SERP1 is a secreted glycoprotein with anti-inflammatory activity that is required for full MYX virulence in vivo. The cowpox virus (CPV) serpin SPI-3 (vaccinia virus ORF K2L) is a nonsecreted glycoprotein that blocks cell-cell fusion, independent of serpin activity, and is not required for virulence of vaccinia virus or CPV in mice. Although SPI-3 has only 29% overall identity to SERP1, both serpins have arginine at the P1 position in the reactive center loop, and SPI-3 has a proteinase inhibitory profile strikingly similar to that of SERP1 [Turner, P. C., Baquero, M. T., Yuan, S., Thoennes, S. R., and Moyer, R. W. (2000) Virology 272, 267-280]. To determine whether SPI-3 and SERP1 were functionally equivalent, a CPV variant was constructed where the SPI-3 gene was deleted and replaced with the SERP1 gene regulated by the SPI-3 promoter. Cells infected with CPVDeltaSPI-3::SERP1 secrete SERP1 and show extensive fusion, suggesting that SERP1 is unable to functionally substitute for SPI-3 in fusion inhibition. In the reciprocal experiment, both copies of SERP1 were deleted from MYX and replaced with SPI-3 under the control of the SERP1 promoter. Cells infected with the MYXDeltaSERP1::SPI-3 recombinant unexpectedly secreted SPI-3, suggesting either that the cellular secretory pathway is enhanced by MYX or that CPV encodes a protein that prevents SPI-3 secretion. MYXDeltaSERP1::SPI-3 was as attenuated in rabbits as MYXDeltaSERP1::lacZ, indicating that SPI-3 cannot substitute for SERP1 in MYX pathogenesis. PMID:10873771

  18. Grouping newly isolated docosahexaenoic acid-producing thraustochytrids based on their polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles and comparative analysis of 18S rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianzhong; Aki, Tsunehiro; Yokochi, Toshihiro; Nakahara, Toro; Honda, Daiske; Kawamoto, Seiji; Shigeta, Seiko; Ono, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    Seven strains of marine microbes producing a significant amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6, n-3) were screened from seawater collected in coastal areas of Japan and Fiji. They accumulate their respective intermediate fatty acids in addition to DHA. There are 5 kinds of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles which can be described as (1) DHA/docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; C22:5, n-6), (2) DHA/DPA/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5, n-3), (3) DHA/EPA, (4) DHA/DPA/EPA/arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4, n-6), and (5) DHA/DPA/EPA/AA/docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4, n-6). These isolates are proved to be new thraustochytrids by their specific insertion sequences in the 18S rRNA genes. The phylogenetic tree constructed by molecular analysis of 18S rRNA genes from the isolates and typical thraustochytrids shows that strains with the same PUFA profile form each monophyletic cluster. These results suggest that the C20-22 PUFA profile may be applicable as an effective characteristic for grouping thraustochytrids. PMID:14730428

  19. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010. PMID:25838071

  20. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River.

    PubMed

    Murzina, Svetlana A; Nefedova, Zinaida A; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N; Veselov, Alexey E; Efremov, Denis A; Nemova, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  1. Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.

    PubMed

    Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-01-01

    The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17 mg mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

  2. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    PubMed Central

    Murzina, Svetlana A.; Nefedova, Zinaida A.; Pekkoeva, Svetlana N.; Veselov, Alexey E.; Efremov, Denis A.; Nemova, Nina N.

    2016-01-01

    The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years) after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs) maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes. PMID:27376274

  3. Terpenes and fatty acid profiles of milk fat and "Bitto" cheese as affected by transhumance of cows on different mountain pastures.

    PubMed

    Noni, Ivano De; Battelli, Giovanna

    2008-07-15

    The evolution of fatty acid (FA) and terpenoid profiles was studied in milk (n=20) and "Bitto" (n=3), a protected designation of origin cheese produced in a restricted Italian alpine area. Milk came from 25 Italian Brown cows successively grazing pastures at 1400, 2100 and 2200m during transhumance in June-September 2006. The fat matter was analyzed for FAs and terpenes by means of gas chromatography and purge & trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. FA composition of milk fat varied significantly (p<0.0001) in relation to contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), stearic, linoleic and trans-vaccenic acids. Similar monoterpene profiles characterized milk fat from cows grazing the different pastures and the highest amount of terpenes was measured in milk coming from cows grazing at 1400m. High levels of δ3-carene in milk fat were likely related to the important presence of Ligusticum mutellina in the pasture. Only negligible amounts of sesquiterpenes were detected in milk fat whereas they were the most abundant class in fodder. Both FA and terpene profiles of ripened (70 days) cheeses resembled those of the original milks. Overall, results confirm the influence of the botanical composition of mountain pastures both in enhancing the ruminal synthesis of CLA and in modifying the FA and terpenoid profiles of milk and "Bitto" cheese. Nevertheless, neither the FA nor the terpenoid profiles revealed here can be considered as "unique" to "Bitto" cheese and, for this reason, they can hardly be assumed to be biomarkers for defining a specific relationship among grazing area, milk and "Bitto" cheese. They better represent the chemical fingerprint of the cow feeding, adopted in mountain areas. PMID:26003351

  4. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  5. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  6. Effect of Lipid Sources with Different Fatty Acid Profiles on Intake, Nutrient Digestion and Ruminal Fermentation of Feedlot Nellore Steers

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentini, Giovani; Carvalho, Isabela P. C.; Messana, Juliana D.; Canesin, Roberta C.; Castagnino, Pablo S.; Lage, Josiane F.; Arcuri, Pedro B.; Berchielli, Telma T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of lipid sources with different fatty acid profiles on nutrient digestion and ruminal fermentation. Ten rumen and duodenal fistulated Nellore steers (268 body weight±27 kg) were distributed in a duplicated 5×5 Latin square. Dietary treatments were as follows: without fat (WF), palm oil (PO), linseed oil (LO), protected fat (PF; Lactoplus), and whole soybeans (WS). The roughage feed was corn silage (600 g/kg on a dry matter [DM] basis) plus concentrate (400 g/kg on a DM basis). The higher intake of DM and organic matter (OM) (p<0.001) was found in animals on the diet with PF and WF (around 4.38 and 4.20 kg/d, respectively). Treatments with PO and LO decreased by around 10% the total digestibility of DM and OM (p<0.05). The addition of LO decreased by around 22.3% the neutral detergent fiber digestibility (p = 0.047) compared with other diets. The higher microbial protein synthesis was found in animals on the diet with LO and WS (33 g N/kg OM apparently digested in the rumen; p = 0.040). The highest C18:0 and linolenic acid intakes occurred in animals fed LO (p<0.001), and the highest intake of oleic (p = 0.002) and C16 acids (p = 0.022) occurred with the diets with LO and PF. Diet with PF decreased biohydrogenation extent (p = 0.05) of C18:1 n9,c, C18:2 n6,c, and total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; around 20%, 7%, and 13%, respectively). The diet with PF and WF increased the concentration of NH3-N (p<0.001); however, the diet did not change volatile fatty acids (p>0.05), such as the molar percentage of acetate, propionate, butyrate and the acetate:propionate ratio. Treatments PO, LO and with WS decreased by around 50% the concentration of protozoa (p<0.001). Diets with some type of protection (PF and WS) decreased the effects of lipid on ruminal fermentation and presented similar outflow of benefit UFA as LO. PMID:26580282

  7. Regiospecific Profiles of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Adzuki Beans (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Tomiyama, Yuka; Yoshida, Naoko; Shibata, Kyoko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Regiospecific distributions of fatty acids (FA) of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) isolated from five cultivars of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) were investigated. The lipids comprised mainly PL (72.2-73.4 wt-%) and TAG (20.6-21.9 wt-%), whilst other components were detected in minor proportions (0.1-3.4 wt-%). The principal profiles of the FA distribution in the TAG and PL were evident in the beans among the five cultivars: unsaturated FA were predominantly distributed in the sn-2 position, whilst saturated FA primarily occupied the sn-1 or the sn-3 position in the these lipids. The results would be useful information to both producers and consumers for manufacturing traditional adzuki confectionaries such as wagashi in Japan. PMID:22253991

  8. Comparison of the mineral and fatty acid profiles of ostrich, turkey and broiler chicken livers.

    PubMed

    Majewska, D; Szczerbińska, D; Ligocki, M; Bucław, M; Sammel, A; Tarasewicz, Z; Romaniszyn, K; Majewski, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the mineral and lipid profiles in ostrich, turkey and broiler chicken livers. The highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were found in turkey livers, at 3751.50, 2153.05 and 363.98 mg/kg fresh weight (FW), respectively, whereas ostrich livers were the richest in calcium (82.77 mg/kg FW). Ostrich liver was the richest source of iron, calcium, zinc and silicon, at 947.8, 82.77, 47.50, 36.69 mg/kg FW, respectively. Ostrich livers proved to be the richest source of long-chain fatty acids (5.18% C20:4n+6, 0.48% EPA and 1.08% DHA). PMID:26963037

  9. Design and synthesis of an activity-based protein profiling probe derived from cinnamic hydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    Ai, Teng; Qiu, Li; Xie, Jiashu; Geraghty, Robert J; Chen, Liqiang

    2016-02-15

    In our continued effort to discover new anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents, we validated the anti-replicon activity of compound 1, a potent and selective anti-HCV hydroxamic acid recently reported by us. Generally favorable physicochemical and in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties exhibited by 1 made it an ideal parent compound from which activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probe 3 was designed and synthesized. Evaluation of probe 3 revealed that it possessed necessary anti-HCV activity and selectivity. Therefore, we have successfully obtained compound 3 as a suitable ABPP probe to identify potential molecular targets of compound 1. Probe 3 and its improved analogs are expected to join a growing list of ABPP probes that have made important contributions to not only the studies of biochemical and cellular functions but also discovery of selective inhibitors of protein targets. PMID:26753813

  10. The Transcription Profile of Tax-3 Is More Similar to Tax-1 than Tax-2: Insights into HTLV-3 Potential Leukemogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Sébastien A.; Durand, Stéphanie; Dasgupta, Arindam; Radonovich, Michael; Cimarelli, Andrea; Brady, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell Lymphotropic Viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma. Although associated with lymphocytosis, HTLV-2 infection is not associated with any malignant hematological disease. Similarly, no infection-related symptom has been detected in HTLV-3-infected individuals studied so far. Differences in individual Tax transcriptional activity might account for these distinct physiopathological outcomes. Tax-1 and Tax-3 possess a PDZ binding motif in their sequence. Interestingly, this motif, which is critical for Tax-1 transforming activity, is absent from Tax-2. We used the DNA microarray technology to analyze and compare the global gene expression profiles of different T- and non T-cell types expressing Tax-1, Tax-2 or Tax-3 viral transactivators. In a T-cell line, this analysis allowed us to identify 48 genes whose expression is commonly affected by all Tax proteins and are hence characteristic of the HTLV infection, independently of the virus type. Importantly, we also identified a subset of genes (n = 70) which are specifically up-regulated by Tax-1 and Tax-3, while Tax-1 and Tax-2 shared only 1 gene and Tax-2 and Tax-3 shared 8 genes. These results demonstrate that Tax-3 and Tax-1 are closely related in terms of cellular gene deregulation. Analysis of the molecular interactions existing between those Tax-1/Tax-3 deregulated genes then allowed us to highlight biological networks of genes characteristic of HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 infection. The majority of those up-regulated genes are functionally linked in biological processes characteristic of HTLV-1-infected T-cells expressing Tax such as regulation of transcription and apoptosis, activation of the NF-κB cascade, T-cell mediated immunity and induction of cell proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that, in T- and non T-cells types, Tax-3 is a functional analogue of Tax-1 in terms of transcriptional activation and

  11. Lipids in the diet and the fatty acid profile in beef: a review and recent patents on the topic.

    PubMed

    Ladeira, Marcio M; Machado Neto, Otavio R; Chizzotti, Mario L; Oliveira, Dalton M; Chalfun Junior, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this review is to report how the use of lipid sources in diets for ruminants can affect the fatty acid profile of beef. In addition, recent patents that can be utilized to alter the fatty acid profile in the meat, or which concern the synthesis of conjugated fatty acids will be reviewed. The industrial production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has already started and the commercial products present isomers cis-9, trans-11; trans-9, cis-11; and trans-10, cis-12. Patents on the biological synthesis of isomer C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 from the linoleic acid have also been published. However, the economic production of CLA in industrial scale is a difficult process. Most of the patents published for CLA production utilize bacteria of the genera Bifidobacterium sp. and Propionibacterium sp. Lipid supplementation, with the objective to improve the fatty acid profile of beef, can be done through the use of patented products, such as genetically modified oilseeds and calcium soaps of fatty acids. PMID:22702746

  12. Impact of season on the fatty acid profiles of male and female blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) muscles.

    PubMed

    Neethling, J; Britz, T J; Hoffman, L C

    2014-12-01

    This study quantified the impact of season on fatty acid profiles of male and female blesbok muscles (longissimus thoracis et lumborum, biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus). Eight mature blesbok were harvested per season (winter and spring). Gender and muscle type influenced (p<0.05) the fatty acid profiles of blesbok muscles, while season only influenced the C18:3ω3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA) percentages and therefore the total omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (total ω3 PUFA). Female muscles had higher C16:0 (palmitic acid) (21.01%±0.256 vs. 19.05%±0.296) and total MUFA percentages, while male muscles had higher (p<0.05) C18:2ω6c, C20:5ω3, total ω3 PUFA (11.08%±0.382 vs. 8.50%±0.367), and total PUFA (43.03%±0.904 vs. 29.59%±1.164) percentages, contributing to higher poly-unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios (PUFA:SFA ratios). Differences in fatty acid profiles were attributed more to gender and anatomical location of muscles, than seasonal differences in diets. PMID:25089783

  13. Effects of different biomass drying and lipid extraction methods on algal lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and biodiesel quality.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Javid; Liu, Yan; Lopes, Wilson A; Druzian, Janice I; Souza, Carolina O; Carvalho, Gilson C; Nascimento, Iracema A; Liao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0% on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7%. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel. PMID:25588528

  14. Lipidomic profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces bailii reveals critical changes in lipid composition in response to acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Lina; Santos, Aline Xs; Riezman, Howard; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    When using microorganisms as cell factories in the production of bio-based fuels or chemicals from lignocellulosic hydrolysate, inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid, released from the biomass, reduce the production rate. The undissociated form of acetic acid enters the cell by passive diffusion across the lipid bilayer, mediating toxic effects inside the cell. In order to elucidate a possible link between lipid composition and acetic acid stress, the present study presents detailed lipidomic profiling of the major lipid species found in the plasma membrane, including glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and sterols, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK 113_7D) and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (CBS7555) cultured with acetic acid. Detailed physiological characterization of the response of the two yeasts to acetic acid has also been performed in aerobic batch cultivations using bioreactors. Physiological characterization revealed, as expected, that Z. bailii is more tolerant to acetic acid than S. cerevisiae. Z. bailii grew at acetic acid concentrations above 24 g L(-1), while limited growth of S. cerevisiae was observed after 11 h when cultured with only 12 g L(-1) acetic acid. Detailed lipidomic profiling using electrospray ionization, multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry (ESI-MRM-MS) showed remarkable changes in the glycerophospholipid composition of Z. bailii, including an increase in saturated glycerophospholipids and considerable increases in complex sphingolipids in both S. cerevisiae (IPC 6.2×, MIPC 9.1×, M(IP)2C 2.2×) and Z. bailii (IPC 4.9×, MIPC 2.7×, M(IP)2C 2.7×), when cultured with acetic acid. In addition, the basal level of complex sphingolipids was significantly higher in Z. bailii than in S. cerevisiae, further emphasizing the proposed link between lipid saturation, high sphingolipid levels and acetic acid tolerance. The results also suggest that acetic acid tolerance is associated with the ability of a given strain to generate large

  15. Phenolic Profiling of Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase-Deficient Poplar Reveals Novel Benzodioxane Oligolignols1

    PubMed Central

    Morreel, Kris; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; Goeminne, Geert; Busson, Roger; Herdewijn, Piet; Goeman, Jan L.; Van der Eycken, Johan; Boerjan, Wout; Messens, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes preferentially the methylation of 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde to sinapaldehyde in monolignol biosynthesis. Here, we have compared HPLC profiles of the methanol-soluble phenolics fraction of xylem tissue from COMT-deficient and control poplars (Populus spp.), using statistical analysis of the peak heights. COMT down-regulation results in significant concentration differences for 25 of the 91 analyzed peaks. Eight peaks were exclusively detected in COMT-deficient poplar, of which four could be purified for further identification using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and spiking of synthesized reference compounds. These new compounds were derived from 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol or 5-hydroxyconiferaldehyde and were characterized by benzodioxane moieties, a structural type that is also increased in the lignins of COMT-deficient plants. One of these four benzodioxanes amounted to the most abundant oligolignol in the HPLC profile. Furthermore, all of the differentially accumulating oligolignols involving sinapyl units were either reduced in abundance or undetectable. The concentration levels of all identified oligolignols were in agreement with the relative supply of monolignols and with their chemical coupling propensities, which supports the random coupling hypothesis. Chiral HPLC analysis of the most abundant benzodioxane dimer revealed the presence of both enantiomers in equal amounts, indicating that they were formed by radical coupling reactions under simple chemical control rather than guided by dirigent proteins. PMID:15563622

  16. A new maleimide-bound acid-cleavable solid-support reagent for profiling phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Saiful M; Munske, Gerhard R; Siems, William F; Bruce, James E

    2005-01-01

    A new chemical strategy for phosphopeptide profiling is reported in this study. Phosphorylation represents one of the most important classes of posttranslational modifications of proteins. Here we report a generalized strategy that employs solid-phase capture and mass-encoding steps to selectively enrich phosphopeptides from complex mixtures. This method exploits conversion of phosphates into thiols and reactive compounds to selectively isolate products of phosphorylation. Selective isolation of phosphopeptides is achieved with a simple, novel, acid-cleavable, solid-support-bound maleimide reagent. Our chemistry efforts have focused on minimization of linker size and simplification of reagent production with incorporation of common solid-phase peptide synthesis steps. Relative quantitation was demonstrated by modifying phosphopeptides with incorporation of ethanedithiol and propanedithiol. We observed that appropriate normalization is necessary to utilize mass tag strategies for relative quantitation of posttranslational modifications. The utility of solid-phase capture was determined with model phosphopeptides, and the method was demonstrated with enriching phosphopeptides from beta-casein, alpha-casein and ovalbumin. The solid-phase capture and release methods were also demonstrated with unfractionated whole histone protein mixtures to show this compound applicability in real biological samples. The new chemical strategy will ultimately be utilized for high-throughput profiling of phosphorylation and possibly other posttranslational modifications. PMID:15739244

  17. Effects of processing on the release profiles of matrix systems containing 5-aminosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Korbely, Anita; Kelemen, András; Kása, Péter; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different processing methods on the profiles of 5-aminosalicylic acid dissolution from controlled-release matrix systems based on Eudragit® RL and Eudragit® RS water-insoluble polymers. The pure polymers and their mixtures were studied as matrix formers using different processing methods, i.e., direct compression, wet granulation of the active ingredient with the addition of polymer(s) to the external phase, wet granulation with water, and wet granulation with aqueous dispersions. In comparison with the directly compressed tablets, tablets made by wet granulation with water demonstrated a 6-19% increase in final drug dissolution, whereas when polymers were applied in the external phase during compression, a 0-13% decrease was observed in the amount of drug released. Wet granulation with aqueous polymer dispersions delayed the release of the drug; this was especially marked (a 54-56% decrease in drug release) in compositions, which contained a high amount of Eudragit RL 30D. The release profiles were mostly described by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model or the Hopfenberg model. PMID:23054987

  18. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency diagnosed by clinical metabolomic profiling of plasma.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Cardon, Aaron L; Bacino, C A; Sun, Qin; Emrick, L; Reid Sutton, V; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism affecting the biosynthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and catecholamines. We report a case of AADC deficiency that was detected using the Global MAPS platform. This is a novel platform that allows for parallel clinical testing of hundreds of metabolites in a single plasma specimen. It uses a state-of-the-art mass spectrometry platform, and the resulting spectra are compared against a library of ~2500 metabolites. Our patient is now a 4 year old boy initially seen at 11 months of age for developmental delay and hypotonia. Multiple tests had not yielded a diagnosis until exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants of uncertain significance (VUS), c.286G>A (p.G96R) and c.260C>T (p.P87L) in the DDC gene, causal for AADC deficiency. CSF neurotransmitter analysis confirmed the diagnosis with elevated 3-methoxytyrosine (3-O-methyldopa). Metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma and revealed marked elevation in 3-methoxytyrosine (Z-score +6.1) consistent with the diagnosis of AADC deficiency. These results demonstrate that the Global MAPS platform is able to diagnose AADC deficiency from plasma. In summary, we report a novel and less invasive approach to diagnose AADC deficiency using plasma metabolomic profiling. PMID:25956449

  19. Fatty Acids Profile, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Elicited Callus ofThevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Pérez, Jack; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ludwi; Ruíz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Luján-Hidalgo, María Celina; Ruiz-Lau, Nancy; González-Mendoza, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was analyze the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA) as elicitors on fatty acids profile (FAP), phenolic compounds (PC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) in callus of Thevetia peruviana. Schenk & Hildebrandt (SH) medium, supplemented with 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2, 4-D) and 0.5 mg/L kinetin (KIN) was used for callus induction. The effect of JA (50, 75 and 100 μM) and ABA (10, 55 and 100 μM) on FAP, PC and AC were analyzed using a response surface design. A maximum of 2.8 mg/g of TPC was obtained with 100 plus 10 µM JA and ABA, respectively, whereas AC maximum (2.17 μg/mL) was obtained with 75 plus 100 µM JA and ABA, respectively. The FAP was affected for JA but not for ABA. JA increased cis-9, cis-12-octadecadienoic acid and decreased dodecanoic acid. Eight fatty acids were identified by GC-MS analysis and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (18:1) was the principal fatty acid reaching 76 % in treatment with 50 μM JA plus 55 μM ABA. In conclusion, JA may be used in T. peruviana callus culture for obtain oil with different fatty acids profile. PMID:26972464

  20. Polar lipid and fatty acid profiles--re-vitalizing old approaches as a modern tool for the classification of mycoplasmas?

    PubMed

    Worliczek, Hanna Lucia; Kämpfer, Peter; Rosengarten, Renate; Tindall, Brian J; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-07-01

    A set of 20 Mollicutes strains representing different lines of descent, including the type species of the genus Mycoplasma, Mycoplasma mycoides, Acholeplasma laidlawii and a strain of Mesoplasma, were subjected to polar lipid and fatty acid analyses in order to evaluate their suitability for classification purposes within members of this group. Complex polar lipid and fatty acid profiles were detected for each examined strain. All strains contained the polar lipids phosphocholine-6'-alpha-glucopyranosyl-(1'-3)-1, 2-diacyl-glycerol (MfGL-I), 1-O-alkyl/alkenyl-2-O-acyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine (MfEL), sphingomyelin (SphM), 1-O-alkyl/alkenyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lysoMfEL), the unknown aminophospholipid APL1 and the cholesterol Chol2. A total of 19 strains revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and/or phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) was detected in 13 strains. The unknown aminolipid AL1 was found in the extracts of 17 strains. Unbranched saturated and unsaturated compounds predominated in the fatty acid profiles. Major fatty acids were usually C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 omega9c and 'Summed feature 5' (C18:2 omega6, 9c/C18:0 anteiso). Our results demonstrated that members of the M. mycoides cluster showed rather homogenous polar lipid and fatty acid profiles. In contrast, each of the other strains was characterized by a unique polar lipid profile and significant quantitative differences in the presence of certain fatty acids. These results indicate that analyses of both polar lipid and fatty acid profiles could be a useful tool for classification of mycoplasmas. PMID:17482408

  1. Using Fatty-Acid Profile Analysis as an Ecologic Indicator in the Management of Tourist Impacts on Marine Wildlife: A Case of Stingray-Feeding in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, Christina A. D.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Rothley, Kristina D.

    2007-10-01

    Feeding marine wildlife as a tourism experience has become a popular means by which to attract both people and wildlife, although management efforts are still in their infancy. “Stingray City Sandbar” in the Cayman Islands, where visitors can hand feed free-ranging Southern Stingrays ( Dasyatis americana), is a world-famous attraction currently undergoing visitor and wildlife management. One plan is to decrease the amount of nonnatural food provided by tourists with the intention of decreasing stingray habituation to the artificial food source and promoting stingray health. However, the effectiveness of this action is uncertain given that neither the extent of squid composition in the stingray diet nor the degree of nutrient similarity between the fed and natural diets is unknown. We used fatty acid (FA) profile analysis to address these questions by assessing the serum nonesterified FA composition of fed and unfed stingrays around the island and compared them with FA profiles of (1) the provisioned food source (squid) and (2) other warm- and cold-water elasmobranchs (sharks and rays). Our results indicated that fed stingrays were distinct. The FA profiles of the fed stingray population were expressly different from those of the unfed populations and showed a remarkable similarity to the FA composition of squid, suggesting that squid is the main food source. The tropical fed stingrays also exhibited essential FA ratios, specific to both species and habitat, comparable with those of elasmobranchs and squid from cold-water environs, implying that the provisioned food does not provide a similar nutritional lipid composition to that eaten in the wild. Our results suggest that FA profiles are a valuable indicator for the management and monitoring of fed Southern Stingrays because they can be used to assess differences in diet composition and provide an index of nutritional similarity. Our findings are currently being used by Caymanian stakeholders in designing

  2. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  3. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yangyun; Sun, Wei; Chen, Junfeng; Tan, Hexin; Xiao, Ying; Li, Qing; Ji, Qian; Gao, Shouhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects. PMID:26947390

  4. Promising toxicological biomarkers for the diagnosis of liver injury types: Bile acid metabolic profiles and oxidative stress marker as screening tools in drug development.

    PubMed

    Masubuchi, Noriko; Nishiya, Takayoshi; Imaoka, Masako; Mizumaki, Kiyoko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Promising biomarkers were identified in adult male Crl:CD (SD) rats for the screening of new chemical entities for their potential to cause liver injury. We examined the serum biochemistry, liver histopathology, and bile acid profiles by LC-MS/MS, and the mRNA expression of transporters and CYPs by an RT-PCR after the following treatments to male Crl:CD (SD) rats: (a) bile duct ligation (BDL); (b) a single oral dose of 150 mg/kg α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT); and (c) repeated oral doses of a novel pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid derivative (abbreviated as PCA) at 30, 300, and 1000 mg/kg. The serum total bile acid levels and bilirubin concentrations were found to be elevated in all of the groups. However, the bile acid component profiles of the PCA group differed significantly from BDL and ANIT models: deoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid, and sulfated bile acids were upregulated in a dose-dependent manner only in the PCA group. In addition, the PCA group demonstrated high levels of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression, whereas the profiles of the mRNA levels of the hepatic transporters and CYPs of all groups were found to be similar. The histopathological findings, for both the BDL and ANIT groups, were of bile duct hyperplasia, hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis. In contrast, only bile duct hyperplasia and hepatocyte degeneration were observed in the PCA group, even at a lethal dose. These results indicated that PCA induced a cholestatic condition and the increase of oxidative stress markers implies that this will also lead hepatocellular injury. In conclusion, the serum bile acid components and sulfated bile acid levels, and the expression of oxidative stress markers could provide information that aids in the diagnosis of liver injury type and helps to elucidate the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. These findings can be extrapolated into our clinical investigation. The analysis of these crucial biomarkers is likely to be a useful screening tool in the lead

  5. Gut microbial and short-chain fatty acid profiles in adults with chronic constipation before and after treatment with lubiprostone.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dae-Wook; DiBaise, John K; Ilhan, Zehra Esra; Crowell, Michael D; Rideout, Jai Ram; Caporaso, J Gregory; Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Identifying specific gut microorganisms associated with chronic constipation may be useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether or not the gut microbial community of constipated subjects had specific microbial signatures and to assess the effects of lubiprostone treatment on the gut microbial community. Stool diaries, breath H2 and CH4 levels, and stool samples were collected from ten healthy subjects and nine patients meeting the Rome III criteria for chronic functional constipation. Constipated subjects received lubiprostone for four weeks, during which stool diaries were maintained. Stool samples were evaluated for gut microbial communities using pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting 16S-rRNA gene, along with concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Prior to treatment, gut microbial profiles were similar between constipated subjects and healthy subjects, while iso-butyrate levels were significantly higher in constipated subjects compared with healthy subjects. Despite increases in stool frequency and improvements in consistency after lubiprostone treatment, gut microbial profiles and community diversity after treatment showed no significant change compared to before treatment. While we did not observe a significant difference in either breath methane or archaeal abundance between the stool samples of healthy and constipated subjects, we confirmed a strong correlation between archaeal abundance measured by qPCR and the amount of methane gas exhaled in the fasting breath. Butyrate levels, however, were significantly higher in the stool samples of constipated subjects after lubiprostone treatment, suggesting that lubiprostone treatment had an effect on the net accumulation of SCFAs in the gut. In conclusion, lubiprostone treatment improved constipation symptoms and increased levels of butyrate without substantial modification of

  6. Effect of dietary physically effective fiber on ruminal fermentation and the fatty acid profile of milk in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Li, Zongjun; Li, Shengxiang; Ferguson, James D; Cao, Yangchun; Yao, Junhu; Sun, Feifei; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to characterize the relationship among rumen fermentation variables, milk fatty acid profile, and dietary physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) content in a study that controlled for the potential confounding effects of dissimilar dry matter intake among treatments. Ten multiparous Xinong Saanen dairy goats were divided into 2 groups with 2 ruminally cannulated goats per group. Goats in each group were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments (high and low peNDF) according to a 2×2 crossover design with 2 periods. The peNDF content of alfalfa hay (proportion of neutral detergent fiber retained on an 8.0-mm screen) was 42.1% for the high-peNDF and 14.5% for the low-peNDF group. To ensure similar dry matter intake, each morning the amount of alfalfa hay consumed on the prior day by the high-peNDF group was determined (amount offered minus morning refusals), and this was the amount of hay offered to the low-peNDF group that day. Each adaptation period consisted of 21d, followed by a 9-d sampling period. Dry matter intake and milk production and composition were similar between treatments. Milk energy efficiency increased with low dietary peNDF. Duration of pH below 5.60 was longer for goats fed the low-peNDF ration compared with the high-peNDF ration (4.08 vs. 0.41h/d); however, mean rumen pH (6.05 vs. 6.13) was not different between treatments. Reducing dietary peNDF increased rumen total volatile fatty acids (114.6 vs. 95.1mM) and decreased chewing time (404 vs. 673min/d), but did not affect the ratios of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. The relative abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens increased with reduced dietary peNDF, but Ruminococcus albus proportions were not influenced by treatment. Reducing dietary peNDF decreased the proportion of iso C14:0, iso C15:0, and trans-11 C18:1 in milk fat, whereas the iso C17:0 and trans-10 C18:1 increased. This study demonstrated that low

  7. Fatty acid content and profile of the aerial microalga Coccomyxa sp. isolated from dry environments.

    PubMed

    Abe, Katsuya; Ishiwatari, Takehiro; Wakamatsu, Michihiro; Aburai, Nobuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Aerial algae are considered to be highly tolerant of and adaptable to severe conditions including radiation, desiccation, high temperatures, and nutrient deficiency, compared with those from aquatic habitats. There are considerable variations in the fatty acid (FA) composition of aerial microalgae from dry environments. A new species with a high lipid level was found on concrete surfaces and was identified as Coccomyxa sp. KGU-D001 (Trebouxiophyceae). This study characterized its FA content and profile in a bath culture. The alga showed a constant specific growth rate (0.26 day(-1)) ranging in light intensity from 20 to 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). The algal cells started to form oil bodies in the early stationary phase of growth, and oil bodies occupied most of the cells during the late stationary phase when the cells accumulated 27 % total fatty acids (TFA). The process of lipid body formation accumulating large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) appeared to be very unusual in response to stress conditions persisting for a relatively long culture time (50 days). This study could indicate that aerial microalgae will be a candidate for biodiesel production when a new cultivation method is developed using extreme stresses such as nutritional deficiency and/or desiccation. PMID:25146196

  8. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity, color, and free phenolic acid profile of malt.

    PubMed

    Inns, Elizabeth L; Buggey, Lesley A; Booer, Christopher; Nursten, Harry E; Ames, Jennifer M

    2007-08-01

    Green malt was kilned at 95 degrees C following two regimens: a standard regimen (SKR) and a rapid regimen (RKR). Both resulting malts were treated further in a tray dryer heated to 120 degrees C, as was green malt previously dried to 65 degrees C (TDR). Each regimen was monitored by determining the color, antioxidant activity (by both ABTS(.+) and FRAP methods), and polyphenolic profile. SKR and RKR malts exhibited decreased L* and increased b* values above approximately 80 degrees C. TDR malts changed significantly less, and color did not develop until 110 degrees C, implying that different chemical reactions lead to color in those malts. Antioxidant activity increased progressively with each regimen, although with TDR malts this became significant only at 110-120 degrees C. The RKR malt ABTS(.+) values were higher than those of the SKR malt. The main phenolics, that is, ferulic, p-coumaric, and vanillic acids, were monitored throughout heating. Ferulic acid levels increased upon heating to 80 degrees C for SKR and to 70 degrees C for RKR, with subsequent decreases. However, the levels for TDR malts did not increase significantly. The increase in free phenolics early in kilning could be due to enzymatic release of bound phenolics and/or easier extractability due to changes in the matrix. The differences between the kilning regimens used suggest that further modification of the regimens could lead to greater release of bound phenolics with consequent beneficial effects on flavor stability in beer and, more generally, on human health. PMID:17616212

  9. MDG-1, an Ophiopogon polysaccharide, alleviates hyperlipidemia in mice based on metabolic profile of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Linlin; Wang, Jie; Wang, Yuan; Feng, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a chronic metabolic disorder with systemic complications that is prevalent worldwide. MDG-1, a water-soluble β-d-fructan polysaccharide from Ophiopogon japonicas has potent hypolipidemic and weight-control effects. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of MDG-1 on lipid metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese mice based on the metabolic profile of bile acids. C57BL/6 mice were treated with a low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high fat mixed with 1‰ (w/w) MDG-1 diet for 12 weeks. The results showed that MDG-1 inhibited body weight gain and lowered serum and liver total cholesterol contents in obese mice. In addition, MDG-1 could adsorb bile acids in the gut lumen and reduce their reabsorption, thus promoting cholesterol catabolism. Furthermore, MDG-1 inhibited the expression of the farnesoid X receptor, but activated the liver X receptor. Our findings shed new light on the mechanism of MDG-1 in the control of lipids. PMID:27312615

  10. Induced Changes in the Amino Acid Profile of Biomphalaria alexandrina Molluscan Host to Schistosoma mansoni Using Sublethal Concentrations of Selected Plant Molluscicides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad Soliman, Mahmoud; El-Ansary, Afaf

    Amino acid profiles of control and Solanum nigrum, Ambrosia maritima, Thymelaea hirsute, Sinapis arvensis, Peganum haramala and Callistemon lanceolatus-treated Biomphalaria alexandrina snails were investigated in a trial to correlate the amino acid profile of treated snails to their previously reported molluscicidal and biological effects. Amino acid profiles of the snails were greatly manipulated with the treatment of dry powdered sublethal concentrations of the six studied plant molluscicides. The disturbed amino acid profiles of treated snails were discussed in relation to the decrease in snail's egg laying capacity, reduction of their compatibility for the development of the schistosome larvae and cercarial penetration of mammalian skin.

  11. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho |; Kim, Mingoo |; Lee, Byung-Hoon |; Kim, Ju-Han |; Kang, Kyung-Sun |; Kim, Hyung-Lae |; Yoon, Byung-Il |; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu |; Lee, Mi-Ock ||

    2008-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and fold change (> 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity.

  12. Evidence for a close similarity in the catalytic sites of papain and ficin in near-neutral media despite differences in acidic and alkaline media. Kinetics of the reactions of papain and ficin with chloroacetate.

    PubMed Central

    Brocklehurst, K; Mushiri, S M; Patel, G; Willenbrock, F

    1982-01-01

    1. The pH-dependences of the second-order rate constants (k) for the alkylation by chloroacetate of the active-centre thiol groups of papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and ficin (EC 3.4.22.3) were determined over a wide range of pH at 25 degrees C at I 0.1. 2. The main feature of both pH-k profiles is a striking rate maximum at pH6 (characterizing parameters in both cases pKI approx. 3.5, pKII approx. 8.4 and pH-independent rate constant approximately kXH 2.5-3.0 M-1 . s-1). 3. The profile for the ficin reaction contains a plateau at high pH, with approximately kX 0.10 M-1 . s-1; if an analogous plateau exists in the papain reaction, approximately kX ix much lower, less than 0.02 M-1 . s-1. 4. Both enzymes appear to contain closely similar thiolate-imidazolium interactive systems at pH6, but differences in their behaviour in more-acidic media and in alkaline media suggest differences in interaction with the postulated carboxylate component of the putative catalytic triad. PMID:7044370

  13. Changes in ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid profiles of subsurface bacteria during starvation and desiccation in a porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Ringelberg, D.B.; White, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of a Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain and an Arthrobacter protophormiae strain, each isolated from a subsurface sediment, were quantified in a starvation experiment in a silica sand porous medium under moist and dry conditions. Washed cells were added to sand microcosms and maintained under saturated conditions or subjected to desiccation by slow drying over a period of 16 days. In a third treatment, cells were added to saturated microcosms along with organic nutrients and maintained under saturated conditions. The numbers of culturable cells of both bacterial strains declined to below detection level within 16 days in both the moist and dried nutrient-deprived conditions, while direct counts and total PLFAs remained relatively constant. Both strains of bacteria maintained culturability in the nutrient-amended microcosms. The dried P. aureofaciens cells showed increased ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, increased ratios of trans- to cis-monoenoic fatty acids, and increased ratios of cyclopropyl fatty acids to their monoenoic precursors. P. aureofaciens starved under moist conditions showed few changes in PLFA profiles during the 16-day incubation, whereas cells incubated in the presence of nutrients showed decreases in the ratios of both saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids and cyclopropyl fatty acids to their monoenoic precursors. The PLFA profiles of A. protophormiae changed very little in response to either nutrient deprivation or desiccation. Diglyceride fatty acids, proposedindicators of dead or lysed cells, remained relatively constant throughout the experiment. The results of this laboratory experiment can be useful for interpreting PLFA profiles of subsurface communities of microorganisms for the purpose of determining their physiological status. 43 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Profiling Amino Acids of Jordanian Scalp Hair as a Tool for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rashaid, Ayat H B; Harrington, Peter de B; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-21

    Hair analysis is an area of increasing interest in the fields of medical and forensic sciences. Human scalp hair has attractive features in clinical studies because hair can be sampled easily and noninvasively from human subjects, and unlike blood and urine samples, it contains a chronological record of medication use. Keratin protein is the major component of scalp hair shaft material and it is composed of 21 amino acids. The method used herein for the amino acid determination in hair included keratin protein acid hydrolysis using 6 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), followed by amino acids derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and the determination of derivatized amino acids by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Amino acid profiles of scalp hair of 27 Jordanian subjects (15 diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 patients and 12 control subjects) were analyzed. A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) classified the amino acid profiles into diabetic and control groups based on multivariate analyses of the abundance of 14 amino acids. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% for diabetes detection using leave-one-individual-out cross-validation. The areas under the receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curves were 1.0, which represents a highly sensitive and specific diabetes test. The nonessential amino acids Gly and Glu, and the essential amino acid Ile were more abundant in the scalp hair of diabetic patients compared to the hair of control subjects. The associations between the abundance of amino acids of human hair and health status may have clinical applications in providing diagnostic indicator or predicting other chronic or acute diseases. PMID:26075473

  15. Ruminal fermentation, milk fatty acid profiles, and productive performance of Holstein dairy cows fed 2 different safflower seeds.

    PubMed

    Dschaak, C M; Noviandi, C T; Eun, J-S; Fellner, V; Young, A J; Zobell, D R; Israelsen, C E

    2011-10-01

    A lactation trial was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing whole safflower seeds (SS) on ruminal fermentation, lactational performance, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (days in milk = 110 ± 20) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d, with 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data collection. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 3 dietary treatments as follows: cottonseed total mixed ration (TMR; CST), conventional SS (variety S-208) TMR (CSST), and NutraSaff SS (Safflower Technologies International, Sidney, MT) TMR (NSST). Diets contained approximately 63% forage (36% alfalfa hay, 4% grass hay, and 23% corn silage) and 37% concentrate supplemented with 2% cottonseed to the CST and 3% conventional or NutraSaff SS to the CSST or the NSST, respectively. Intake of dry matter (DM) averaged 21.8 kg/d and did not differ across diets, but feeding the NSST decreased intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) due to lower dietary concentration of NDF in the NSST. Digestibilities of DM and nutrients were similar among treatments. No differences in yields of milk or milk components were observed in response to supplementing SS. Dietary treatments did not affect ruminal pH, total or molar proportions of ruminal volatile FA, and ammonia-N. However, cows fed SS had a higher molar proportion of isobutyrate than those fed the CST diet. Ruminal C16:0 FA concentration increased with the CST, whereas C18:1 cis-9 and C18:2 n-6 tended to increase with SS supplementation, indicating that conventional and NutraSaff SS were partially protected from microbial biohydrogenation. Supplementing SS decreased milk C16:0 concentration, whereas it increased C18:1 cis-9 and C18:1 trans-9. Milk FA C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid increased and tended to increase with feeding the NSST, respectively, but not the CSST diet. In conclusion, supplementing diets with whole SS at 3

  16. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    PubMed

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated. PMID:26971161

  17. Obtaining Efficacy and Aptitude Measures from the ACID Profiles of Post-Secondary Students with and without Severe Scholastic Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slemon, Jill C.; Shafrir, Uri

    This study investigated how obtaining predicted and actual scores on aptitude tests can provide crucial information regarding personal beliefs about ability. The ACID profile of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Revised) (WAIS-R) was used to collect the subjective and objective scores of 92 college students with severe scholastic deficits…

  18. Objective and sensory measures of meat quality and fatty acid profile of longissimus intramuscular lipid from pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The longissimus dorsi from 87 pigs (43 barrows, 44 gilts) fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 5, or 10% crude glycerol for 138 days were examined for objective and sensory measures of meat quality and the fatty acid profile of LD lipid was determined. Crude glycerol was obtained from AG ...

  19. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  20. Lysophosphatidic Acid-Induced Transcriptional Profile Represents Serous Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma and Worsened Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Murph, Mandi M.; Liu, Wenbin; Yu, Shuangxing; Lu, Yiling; Hall, Hassan; Hennessy, Bryan T.; Lahad, John; Schaner, Marci; Helland, Åslaug; Kristensen, Gunnar; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Mills, Gordon B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) governs a number of physiologic and pathophysiological processes. Malignant ascites fluid is rich in LPA, and LPA receptors are aberrantly expressed by ovarian cancer cells, implicating LPA in the initiation and progression of ovarian cancer. However, there is an absence of systematic data critically analyzing the transcriptional changes induced by LPA in ovarian cancer. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, gene expression profiling was used to examine LPA-mediated transcription by exogenously adding LPA to human epithelial ovarian cancer cells for 24 h to mimic long-term stimulation in the tumor microenvironment. The resultant transcriptional profile comprised a 39-gene signature that closely correlated to serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Hierarchical clustering of ovarian cancer patient specimens demonstrated that the signature is associated with worsened prognosis. Patients with LPA-signature-positive ovarian tumors have reduced disease-specific and progression-free survival times. They have a higher frequency of stage IIIc serous carcinoma and a greater proportion is deceased. Among the 39-gene signature, a group of seven genes associated with cell adhesion recapitulated the results. Out of those seven, claudin-1, an adhesion molecule and phenotypic epithelial marker, is the only independent biomarker of serous epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Knockdown of claudin-1 expression in ovarian cancer cells reduces LPA-mediated cellular adhesion, enhances suspended cells and reduces LPA-mediated migration. Conclusions The data suggest that transcriptional events mediated by LPA in the tumor microenvironment influence tumor progression through modulation of cell adhesion molecules like claudin-1 and, for the first time, report an LPA-mediated expression signature in ovarian cancer that predicts a worse prognosis. PMID:19440550

  1. Effects of candidate gene polymorphisms on the detailed fatty acids profile determined by gas chromatography in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, S; Cecchinato, A; Mele, M; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-06-01

    Association analyses between candidate genes and bovine milk fatty acids can improve our understanding of genetic variation in milk fatty acid profiles and reveal potential opportunities to tailor milk fat composition through selection strategies. In this work, we investigated the association of 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) selected from 37 candidate genes using a functional and positional approach, with 47 fatty acids, 9 fatty acid groups, and 5 Δ(9)-desaturation indices in milk samples from Brown Swiss cows. Individual milk samples were collected from 1,158 Italian Brown Swiss cows, and gas chromatography was used to obtain detailed milk fatty acid compositions. A GoldenGate assay system (Illumina, San Diego, CA) was used to perform genotype 96 selected SNP located in 54 genes across 22 chromosomes. In total, 51 polymorphic SNP in 37 candidate genes were retained for the association analysis. A Bayesian linear animal model was used to estimate the contribution of each SNP. A total of 129 tests indicated relevant additive effects between a given SNP and a single fatty acid trait; 38 SNP belonging to 30 genes were relevant for a total of 57 fatty acid traits. Most of the studied fatty acid traits (~81%) were relevantly associated with multiple SNP. Relevantly associated SNP were mainly found in genes related to fat metabolism, linked to or contained in previously identified quantitative trait loci for fat yield or content, or associated with genes previously identified in association analyses with milk fatty acid profiles in other cow breeds. The most representative candidate genes were LEP, PRL, STAT5A, CCL3, ACACA, GHR, ADRB2, LPIN1, STAT1, FABP4, and CSN2. In particular, relevant associations with SNP located on bovine chromosome 19 (BTA19) were found. Two candidate genes on BTA19 (CCL3 and ACACA) were relevantly associated with de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids, likely explaining the high heritability values found for these fatty acids

  2. Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish. PMID:24996368

  3. Consumption of argan oil (Morocco) with its unique profile of fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic compounds should confer valuable cancer chemopreventive effects.

    PubMed

    Khallouki, F; Younos, C; Soulimani, R; Oster, T; Charrouf, Z; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene, sterols and phenolic antioxidants in three types of argan oil (Moroccan food, Moroccan aesthetic and a French commercial variety) along with a basic comparison with extra virgin olive and sunflower oil. The fatty acid profiles in the argan oils were very similar, with oleic acid (43%) and linoleic acid (36%) and their respective monoacylglycerols predominating. The major vitamer identified was -tocopherol with a mean of 483+/-11 mg/kg, in contrast to -tocopherol, which is the major vitamer in olive (190+/-1 mg/kg) and sunflower oil (532+/-6 mg/kg). The squalene content of the argan oils was very similar with a mean of 313+/-4 mg/100 g, which is lower than that of the olive oil (499 mg/100 g) but significantly higher than in the sunflower oil (6 mg/100 g). In contrast to olive and sunflower oils in which -sitosterol is predominant, the major sterols detected in the argan oils were schottenol (mean 147+/-10 mg/kg) and spinasterol (mean 122+/-10 mg/kg). The only phenolic compounds other than the tocopherol vitamers which could be readily detected and quantitated were vanillic, syringic and ferulic (probably conjugated to glucose) acids along with tyrosol. In contrast to the extra virgin olive oil (793 mg/kg), the concentration of total phenolic compounds is extremely low (<5.0 mg/kg). Nevertheless, argan oil with its high content of the vitamer -tocopherol, squalene and oleic acid is likely to enhance the cancer prevention effects of the Moroccan diet. PMID:12548113

  4. Study of the microbial dynamics in the root environment of closed, hydroponic cultivation systems for tomato using phospholipid fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Waechter-Kristensen, B; Khalil, S; Sundin, P; Englund, J E; Gertsson, U E; Jensen, P

    1996-12-01

    A more basic understanding of the microbial dynamics of closed, hydroponic cultivation systems is needed. We therefore initiated a study of the microbial community inhabiting the root environment, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, and started to examine whether changes in the microbial population structure would result from the introduction of selected isolates of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Tomato were cultured in deep-flow systems with circulating nutrient solution. Bacteria were sampled from tomato roots at three locations, longitudinally, in the gutters of a control system and in two systems inoculated with PGPR. In the beginning of the gutters the PLFA profiles were similar in all systems, whereas the profiles differed in the gutter ends (following the direction of flow). In the control system, and in a treatment inoculated with two Gram-negative and one Gram-positive PGPR strain, the relative proportion of PLFAs characteristic to Gram-positive bacteria was highest at the end of the gutter. In a treatment inoculated only with a Gram-negative PGPR strain, the relative proportion of PLFAs characteristic of Gram-negative bacteria was highest at the end of the gutter. The results indicate a complex situation with different micro-environments distributed along the root mat. It can also be concluded that PLFA profiles may be useful tools in the study of the microbiology of closed hydroponic plant cultivation systems. PMID:11541571

  5. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  6. Seasonal changes in the fatty acid profile of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Cuber, Piotr; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Naczk, Aleksandra; Stepnowski, Piotr; Gołębiowski, Marek

    2016-06-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) from nymphs, females and males of Ixodes ricinus were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ticks were collected from May to October 2013. The most abundant FAs were 18:1, 18:0, 16:0 and 18:2 which are also dominant FAs of insects. Adults contained higher concentrations of FAs in general than nymphs because they contain more fat body and probably a thicker layer of epicuticular lipids. Larger quantities of FAs > 20 carbon atoms in the carboxylic chain were present in females, which generally show higher content of lipids essential for oogenesis, whereas there were similar amounts of 14-18 in both sexes. In September and October, ticks contained large concentrations of the majority of FAs except for 18:1, the most abundant one in ticks collected from May through August. Thus, most FAs, especially those with more than 20 C atoms, tend to increase at lower temperatures. PMID:26976134

  7. Vertical profiles of nitrous acid in the nocturnal urban atmosphere of Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Oh, H.-J.; Lefer, B. L.; Rappenglück, B.; Stutz, J.

    2011-04-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) often plays an important role in tropospheric photochemistry as a major precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in early morning hours and potentially during the day. However, the processes leading to formation of HONO and its vertical distribution at night, which can have a considerable impact on daytime ozone formation, are currently poorly characterized by observations and models. Long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements of HONO during the 2006 TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP), near downtown Houston, TX, show nocturnal vertical profiles of HONO, with mixing ratios of up to 2.2 ppb near the surface and below 100 ppt aloft. Three nighttime periods of HONO, NO2 and O3 observations during TRAMP were used to perform model simulations of vertical mixing ratio profiles. By adjusting vertical mixing and NOx emissions the modeled NO2 and O3 mixing ratios showed very good agreement with the observations. Using a simple conversion of NO2 to HONO on the ground, direct HONO emissions, as well as HONO loss at the ground and on aerosol, the observed HONO profiles were reproduced by the model for 1-2 and 7-8 September in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The unobserved increase of HONO to NO2 ratio (HONO/NO2) with altitude that was simulated by the initial model runs was found to be due to HONO uptake being too small on aerosol and too large on the ground. Refined model runs, with adjusted HONO uptake coefficients, showed much better agreement of HONO and HONO/NO2 for two typical nights, except during morning rush hour, when other HONO formation pathways are most likely active. One of the nights analyzed showed an increase of HONO mixing ratios together with decreasing NO2 mixing ratios that the model was unable to reproduce, most likely due to the impact of weak precipitation during this night. HONO formation and removal rates averaged over the lowest 300 m of the atmosphere showed that NO2 to

  8. Vertical profiles of nitrous acid in the nocturnal urban atmosphere of Houston, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. W.; Oh, H.-J.; Lefer, B.; Rappenglück, B.; Stutz, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) often plays an important role in tropospheric photochemistry as a major precursor of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in early morning hours and potentially during the day. However, the processes leading to formation of HONO and its vertical distribution at night, which can have a considerable impact on daytime ozone formation, are currently poorly characterized by observations and models. Long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) measurements of HONO during the 2006 TexAQS II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project (TRAMP), near downtown Houston, TX, show nocturnal vertical profiles of HONO, with mixing ratios of up to 2.2 ppb near the surface and below 100 ppt aloft. Three nighttime periods of HONO, NO2 and O3 observations during TRAMP were used to perform model simulations of vertical mixing ratio profiles. By adjusting vertical mixing and NOx emissions the modeled NO2 and O3 mixing ratios showed very good agreement with the observations. Using a simple conversion of NO2 to HONO on the ground, direct HONO emissions, as well as HONO loss at the ground and on aerosol, the observed HONO profiles were reproduced well by the model. The unobserved increase of HONO to NO2 ratio (HONO/NO2) with altitude that was simulated by the initial model runs was found to be due to HONO uptake being too small on aerosol and too large on the ground. Refined model runs, with adjusted HONO uptake coefficients, showed much better agreement of HONO and HONO/NO2 for two typical nights, except during morning rush hour, when other HONO formation pathways are most likely active. One of the nights analyzed showed increase of HONO mixing ratios together with decreasing NO2 mixing ratios that the model was unable to reproduce, most likely due to the impact of weak precipitation during this night. HONO formation and removal rates averaged over the lowest 300 m of the atmosphere showed that NO2 to HONO conversion on the ground was the dominant source of HONO

  9. Impact of dual temperature profile in dilute acid hydrolysis of spruce for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The two-step dilute acid hydrolysis (DAH) of softwood is costly in energy demands and capital costs. However, it has the advantage that hydrolysis and subsequent removal of hemicellulose-derived sugars can be carried out under conditions of low severity, resulting in a reduction in the level of sugar degradation products during the more severe subsequent steps of cellulose hydrolysis. In this paper, we discuss a single-step DAH method that incorporates a temperature profile at two levels. This profile should simulate the two-step process while removing its major disadvantage, that is, the washing step between the runs, which leads to increased energy demand. Results The experiments were conducted in a reactor with a controlled temperature profile. The total dry matter content of the hydrolysate was up to 21.1% w/w, corresponding to a content of 15.5% w/w of water insoluble solids. The highest measured glucose yield, (18.3 g glucose per 100 g dry raw material), was obtained after DAH cycles of 3 min at 209°C and 6 min at 211°C with 1% H2SO4, which resulted in a total of 26.3 g solubilized C6 sugars per 100 g dry raw material. To estimate the remaining sugar potential, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) of the solid fraction was also performed. EH of the solid residue increased the total level of solubilized C6 sugars to a maximum of 35.5 g per 100 g dry raw material when DAH was performed as described above (3 min at 210°C and 2 min at 211°C with 1% H2SO4). Conclusion The dual-temperature DAH method did not yield decisively better results than the single-temperature, one-step DAH. When we compared the results with those of earlier studies, the hydrolysis performance was better than with the one-step DAH but not as well as that of the two-step, single-temperature DAH. Additional enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in lower levels of solubilized sugars compared with other studies on one-step DAH and two-step DAH followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. A two-step steam

  10. Enhanced L-lactic acid production in Lactobacillus paracasei by exogenous proline addition based on comparative metabolite profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Yonghong; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated cell physiological and metabolic responses of Lactobacillus paracasei to osmotic stresses. Both cellular fatty acid composition and metabolite profiling were responded by increasing unsaturated and epoxy-fatty acid proportions, as well as accumulating some specific intracellular metabolites. Simultaneously, metabolite profiling was adopted to rationally and systematically discover potential osmoprotectants. Consequently, exogenous addition of proline or aspartate was validated to be a feasible and efficacious approach to improve cell growth under hyperosmotic stress in shake flasks. Particularly, with 5-L cultivation system, L-lactic acid concentration increased from 108 to 150 g/L during the following 16-h fermentation in 2 g/L proline addition group, while it only increased from 110 to 140 g/L in no proline addition group. Moreover, glucose consumption rate with proline addition reached 3.49 g/L/h during this phase, 35.8 % higher than that with no proline addition. However, extreme high osmotic pressure would significantly limit the osmoprotection of proline, and the osmolality threshold for L. paracasei was approximately 3600 mOsm/kg. It was suggested that proline principally played a role as a compatible solute accumulated in the cell for hyperosmotic preservation. The strategies of exploiting osmotic protectant with metabolite profiling and enhancing L-lactic acid production by osmoprotectant addition would be potential to provide a new insight for other microorganisms and organic acids production. PMID:26658821

  11. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  12. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  13. Supplementation of essential fatty acids to Holstein calves during late uterine life and first month of life alters hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Lock, A L; Block, E; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R

    2016-09-01

    Linoleic acid is an essential dietary fatty acid (FA). However, how the supplementation of linoleic acid during uterine and early life may modify the FA profile and transcriptome regulation of the liver, and performance of preweaned dairy calves is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of essential FA to Holstein calves during late uterine and early life on their hepatic FA profile and global gene expression at 30 d of age. During the last 8 wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed either no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA supplement enriched with C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched with linoleic acid. Male calves (n=40) born from these dams were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low (LLA) or high linoleic acid (HLA) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30 d. Liver biopsy was performed at 30 d of age, and microarray analysis was performed on 18 liver samples. Total concentration of FA in liver were greater in calves fed LLA compared with those fed HLA MR (8.2 vs. 7.1%), but plasma concentrations of total FA did not differ due to MR diets. The FA profiles of plasma and liver of calves were affected differently by the prepartum diets. Specifically, the FA profile in liver was affected moderately by the feeding of fat prepartum, but the profiles did not differ due to the type of FA fed prepartum. The type of MR fed during the first 30 d of life had major effects on both plasma and liver FA profiles, resembling the type of fat fed. Plasma and liver of calves fed LLA MR had greater percentage of medium-chain FA (C12:0 and C14:0), whereas plasma and liver from calves fed HLA MR had greater percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Dams fed fat or a specific type of FA modified the expression of some genes in liver of calves, particularly those genes involved in biological functions and pathways related to upregulation of lipid metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory responses

  14. Changes in Ester-Linked Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profiles of Subsurface Bacteria during Starvation and Desiccation in a Porous Medium

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, T. L.; Ringelberg, D. B.; White, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles of a Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain and an Arthrobacter protophormiae strain, each isolated from a subsurface sediment, were quantified in a starvation experiment in a silica sand porous medium under moist and dry conditions. Washed cells were added to sand microcosms and maintained under saturated conditions or subjected to desiccation by slow drying over a period of 16 days to final water potentials of approximately - 7.5 MPa for the P. aureofaciens and - 15 MPa for the A. protophormiae. In a third treatment, cells were added to saturated microcosms along with organic nutrients and maintained under saturated conditions. The numbers of culturable cells of both bacterial strains declined to below detection level within 16 days in both the moist and dried nutrient-deprived conditions, while direct counts and total PLFAs remained relatively constant. Both strains of bacteria maintained culturability in the nutrient-amended microcosms. The dried P. aureofaciens cells showed changes in PLFA profiles that are typically associated with stressed gram-negative cells, i.e., increased ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, increased ratios of trans- to cis-monoenoic fatty acids, and increased ratios of cyclopropyl fatty acids to their monoenoic precursors. P. aureofaciens starved under moist conditions showed few changes in PLFA profiles during the 16-day incubation, whereas cells incubated in the presence of nutrients showed decreases in the ratios of both saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids and cyclopropyl fatty acids to their monoenoic precursors. The PLFA profiles of A. protophormiae changed very little in response to either nutrient deprivation or desiccation. Diglyceride fatty acids, which have been proposed to be indicators of dead or lysed cells, remained relatively constant throughout the experiment. Only the A. protophormiae desiccated for 16 days showed an increase in the ratio of

  15. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Marlon E.; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs). We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA) profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1), second (HF2), or third (HF3) week, or for all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA) proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status. PMID:26742067

  16. High Fat Diet Administration during Specific Periods of Pregnancy Alters Maternal Fatty Acid Profiles in the Near-Term Rat.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Marlon E; Herrera, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fat intake is a global health concern as women of childbearing age increasingly ingest high fat diets (HFDs). We therefore determined the maternal fatty acid (FA) profiles in metabolic organs after HFD administration during specific periods of gestation. Rats were fed a HFD for the first (HF1), second (HF2), or third (HF3) week, or for all three weeks (HFG) of gestation. Total maternal plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were monitored throughout pregnancy. At day 20 of gestation, maternal plasma, liver, adipose tissue, and placenta FA profiles were determined. In HF3 mothers, plasma myristic and stearic acid concentrations were elevated, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reduced in both HF3 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, hepatic stearic and oleic acid proportions were elevated; conversely, DHA and linoleic acid (LA) proportions were reduced. In adipose tissue, myristic acid was elevated, whereas DHA and LA proportions were reduced in all mothers. Further, adipose tissue stearic acid proportions were elevated in HF2, HF3, and HFG mothers; with oleic acid increased in HF1 and HFG mothers. In HF3 and HFG mothers, placental neutral myristic acid proportions were elevated, whereas DHA was reduced. Further, placental phospholipid DHA proportions were reduced in HF3 and HFG mothers. Maintenance on a diet, high in saturated fat, but low in DHA and LA proportions, during late or throughout gestation, perpetuated reduced DHA across metabolic organs that adapt during pregnancy. Therefore a diet, with normal DHA proportions during gestation, may be important for balancing maternal FA status. PMID:26742067

  17. Serum Amino Acids Profile and the Beneficial Effects of L-Arginine or L-Glutamine Supplementation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaomiao; Liu, Gang; Yang, Guan; Xion, Yan; Su, Dingding; Wu, Li; Li, Tiejun; Chen, Shuai; Duan, Jielin; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate serum amino acids profile in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, and impacts of graded dose of arginine or glutamine supplementation on the colitis. Using DSS-induced colitis model, which is similar to human ulcerative colitis, we determined serum profile of amino acids at day 3, 7, 10 and 12 (5 days post DSS treatment). Meanwhile, effects of graded dose of arginine (0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.5%) or glutamine (0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%) supplementation on clinical parameters, serum amino acids, colonic tight junction proteins, colonic anti-oxidative indicators [catalase, total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)], colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in DSS-induced colitis were fully analyzed at day 7 and 12. Additionally, the activation of signal transduction pathways, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide-3-kinases (PI3K)/PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)- myosin light chain (MLC20), were analyzed using immunoblotting. Serum amino acids analysis showed that DSS treatment changed the serum contents of amino acids, such as Trp, Glu, and Gln (P<0.05). Dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation had significant (P<0.05) influence on the clinical and biochemical parameters (T-SOD, IL-17 and TNF-α) in colitis model. These results were associated with colonic NF-κB, PI3K-Akt and MLCK signaling pathways. In conclusion, arginine or glutamine could be a potential therapy for intestinal inflammatory diseases. PMID:24505477

  18. Whole Rye Consumption Improves Blood and Liver n-3 Fatty Acid Profile and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Salen, Patricia; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Calani, Luca; Bresciani, Letizia; López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, François; Brugère, Jean-François; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole rye (WR) consumption seems to be associated with beneficial health effects. Although rye fiber and polyphenols are thought to be bioactive, the mechanisms behind the health effects of WR have yet to be fully identified. This study in rats was designed to investigate whether WR can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and gut microbiota composition. Methods For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR). The WR diet provided more fiber (+21%) and polyphenols (+29%) than the RR diet. Fat intake was the same in both diets and particularly involved similar amounts of essential (18-carbon) n-3 and n-6 LCFAs. Results The WR diet significantly increased the 24-hour urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites–including enterolactone–compared with the RR diet. The WR rats had significantly more n-3 LCFA–in particular, eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids–in their plasma and liver. Compared with the RR diet, the WR diet brought significant changes in gut microbiota composition, with increased diversity in the feces (Shannon and Simpson indices), decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased proportions of uncultured Clostridiales cluster IA and Clostridium cluster IV in the feces. In contrast, no difference was found between groups with regards to cecum microbiota. The WR rats had lower concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in cecum and feces (p<0.05). Finally, acetate was lower (p<0.001) in the cecum of WR rats while butyrate was lower (p<0.05) in the feces of WR rats. Interpretation This study shows for the first time that WR consumption results in major biological modifications–increased plasma and liver n-3 EPA and DHA levels and improved gut microbiota profile, notably with increased diversity–known to provide health benefits. Unexpectedly, WR decreased SCFA levels in both cecum and feces. More studies are needed to understand the

  19. 2-D DIGE proteomic profiles of three strains of Fusarium graminearum grown in agmatine or glutamic acid medium

    PubMed Central

    Serchi, Tommaso; Pasquali, Matias; Leclercq, Céline C.; Planchon, Sébastien; Hoffmann, Lucien; Renaut, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    2D DIGE proteomics data obtained from three strains belonging to Fusarium graminearum s.s. species growing in a glutamic acid or agmatine containing medium are provided. A total of 381 protein species have been identified which do differ for abundance among the two treatments and among the strains (ANOVA<0.05 and abundance ratio>±1.3). Data on the diversity of protein species profiles between the two media for each strain are made available. Shared profiles among strains are discussed in Pasquali et al. [1]. Here proteins that with diverse profile can be used to differentiate strains are highlighted. The full dataset allow to obtaining single strain proteomic profiles. PMID:26981549

  20. 2-D DIGE proteomic profiles of three strains of Fusarium graminearum grown in agmatine or glutamic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Serchi, Tommaso; Pasquali, Matias; Leclercq, Céline C; Planchon, Sébastien; Hoffmann, Lucien; Renaut, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    2D DIGE proteomics data obtained from three strains belonging to Fusarium graminearum s.s. species growing in a glutamic acid or agmatine containing medium are provided. A total of 381 protein species have been identified which do differ for abundance among the two treatments and among the strains (ANOVA<0.05 and abundance ratio>±1.3). Data on the diversity of protein species profiles between the two media for each strain are made available. Shared profiles among strains are discussed in Pasquali et al. [1]. Here proteins that with diverse profile can be used to differentiate strains are highlighted. The full dataset allow to obtaining single strain proteomic profiles. PMID:26981549

  1. Creatine Metabolism and Safety Profiles after Six-Week Oral Guanidinoacetic Acid Administration in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Niess, Barbara; Stojanovic, Marko; Obrenovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives; Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is a natural precursor of creatine, yet the potential use of GAA as a nutritional additive for restoring creatine availability in humans has been limited by unclear efficacy and safety after exogenous GAA administration. The present study evaluated the effects of orally administered GAA on serum and urinary GAA, creatine and creatinine concentration, and on the occurrence of adverse events in healthy humans. Methods and Results; Twenty-four healthy volunteers were randomized in a double-blind design to receive either GAA (2.4 grams daily) or placebo (PLA) by oral administration for 6 weeks. Clinical trial registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, identification number NCT01133899. Serum creatine and creatinine increased significantly from before to after administration in GAA-supplemented participants (P < 0.05). The proportion of participants who reported minor side effects was 58.3% in the GAA group and 45.5% in the placebo group (P = 0.68). A few participants experienced serum creatine levels above 70 µmol/L. Conclusion; Exogenous GAA is metabolized to creatine, resulting in a significant increase of fasting serum creatine after intervention. GAA had an acceptable side-effects profile with a low incidence of biochemical abnormalities. PMID:23329885

  2. Multi-omics profile of the mouse dentate gyrus after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Marijn; Bielefeld, Pascal; Fratantoni, Silvina A; Hubens, Chantal J; Piersma, Sander R; Pham, Thang V; Voskuyl, Rob A; Lucassen, Paul J; Jimenez, Connie R; Fitzsimons, Carlos P

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can develop from alterations in hippocampal structure and circuit characteristics, and can be modeled in mice by administration of kainic acid (KA). Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to hippocampal functions and has been reported to contribute to the development of TLE. Some of the phenotypical changes include neural stem and precursor cells (NPSC) apoptosis, shortly after their birth, before they produce hippocampal neurons. Here we explored these early phenotypical changes in the DG 3 days after a systemic injection of KA inducing status epilepticus (KA-SE), in mice. We performed a multi-omics experimental setup and analyzed DG tissue samples using proteomics, transcriptomics and microRNA profiling techniques, detecting the expression of 2327 proteins, 13401 mRNAs and 311 microRNAs. We here present a description of how these data were obtained and make them available for further analysis and validation. Our data may help to further identify and characterize molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations induced shortly after KA-SE in the mouse DG. PMID:27529540

  3. Phenotypic Characterization of Retinoic Acid Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells by Transcriptional Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Korecka, Joanna A.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Blaas, Eva; Spitzer, Sonia O.; Kamstra, Jorke H.; Smit, August B.; Swaab, Dick F.; Verhaagen, Joost; Bossers, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Multiple genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The main neuropathological hallmark of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To study genetic and molecular contributors to the disease process, there is a great need for readily accessible cells with prominent DAergic features that can be used for reproducible in vitro cellular screening. Here, we investigated the molecular phenotype of retinoic acid (RA) differentiated SH-SY5Y cells using genome wide transcriptional profiling combined with gene ontology, transcription factor and molecular pathway analysis. We demonstrated that RA induces a general neuronal differentiation program in SH-SY5Y cells and that these cells develop a predominantly mature DAergic-like neurotransmitter phenotype. This phenotype is characterized by increased dopamine levels together with a substantial suppression of other neurotransmitter phenotypes, such as those for noradrenaline, acetylcholine, glutamate, serotonin and histamine. In addition, we show that RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells express the dopamine and noradrenalin neurotransmitter transporters that are responsible for uptake of MPP(+), a well known DAergic cell toxicant. MPP(+) treatment alters mitochondrial activity according to its proposed cytotoxic effect in DAergic neurons. Taken together, RA differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have a DAergic-like phenotype, and provide a good cellular screening tool to find novel genes or compounds that affect cytotoxic processes that are associated with PD. PMID:23724009

  4. Systematic profiling of indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis in bacteria using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guang-Huey; Chang, Chung-Yu; Lin, Huei-Ru

    2015-04-15

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is produced from tryptophan through five synthesis pathways. A comprehensive method for the quantification of IAA and biosynthesis-related intermediates in a culture medium was developed. Sample preparation was simple with protein precipitation. The analytes were separated on a superficially porous C18 silica column and detected by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in the positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limit of detection was 0.05 μM, and the lower limits of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 2 μM. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy were less than 13.96%. Ion suppression was observed, and the deuterated internal standards were used to compensate for the matrix effect. The method was applied to analyze changes in tryptophan catabolism in a culture medium of Pseudomonas putida. The proposed method is robust and suitable for the systematic profiling of IAA biosynthesis in culture supernatant. PMID:25746752

  5. High throughput volatile fatty acid skin metabolite profiling by thermal desorption secondary electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Helen J; Reynolds, James C; Riazanskaia, Svetlana; Thomas, C L Paul

    2014-09-01

    The non-invasive nature of volatile organic compound (VOC) sampling from skin makes this a priority in the development of new screening and diagnostic assays. Evaluation of recent literature highlights the tension between the analytical utility of ambient ionisation approaches for skin profiling and the practicality of undertaking larger campaigns (higher statistical power), or undertaking research in remote locations. This study describes how VOC may be sampled from skin and recovered from a polydimethylsilicone sampling coupon and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) interfaced to secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for the high throughput screening of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from human skin. Analysis times were reduced by 79% compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods (GC-MS) and limits of detection in the range 300 to 900 pg cm(-2) for VFA skin concentrations were obtained. Using body odour as a surrogate model for clinical testing 10 Filipino participants, 5 high and 5 low odour, were sampled in Manilla and the samples returned to the UK and screened by TD-SESI-MS and TD-GC-MS for malodour precursors with greater than >95% agreement between the two analytical techniques. Eight additional VFAs were also identified by both techniques with chains 4 to 15 carbons long being observed. TD-SESI-MS appears to have significant potential for the high throughput targeted screening of volatile biomarkers in human skin. PMID:24992564

  6. Multi-omics profile of the mouse dentate gyrus after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Marijn; Bielefeld, Pascal; Fratantoni, Silvina A.; Hubens, Chantal J.; Piersma, Sander R.; Pham, Thang V.; Voskuyl, Rob A.; Lucassen, Paul J.; Jimenez, Connie R.; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can develop from alterations in hippocampal structure and circuit characteristics, and can be modeled in mice by administration of kainic acid (KA). Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to hippocampal functions and has been reported to contribute to the development of TLE. Some of the phenotypical changes include neural stem and precursor cells (NPSC) apoptosis, shortly after their birth, before they produce hippocampal neurons. Here we explored these early phenotypical changes in the DG 3 days after a systemic injection of KA inducing status epilepticus (KA-SE), in mice. We performed a multi-omics experimental setup and analyzed DG tissue samples using proteomics, transcriptomics and microRNA profiling techniques, detecting the expression of 2327 proteins, 13401 mRNAs and 311 microRNAs. We here present a description of how these data were obtained and make them available for further analysis and validation. Our data may help to further identify and characterize molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations induced shortly after KA-SE in the mouse DG. PMID:27529540

  7. Calcium- and polyphosphate-containing acidic granules of sea urchin eggs are similar to acidocalcisomes, but are not the targets for NAADP

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Isabela B.; Miranda, Kildare; Pace, Douglas A.; Verbist, Katherine C.; Lin, Fu-Yang; Zhang, Yonghui; Oldfield, Eric; Machado, Ednildo A.; De Souza, Wanderley; Docampo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium-storage compartments described from bacteria to humans and characterized by their high content in poly P (polyphosphate), a linear polymer of many tens to hundreds of Pi residues linked by high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds. In the present paper we report that millimolar levels of short-chain poly P (in terms of Pi residues) and inorganic PPi are present in sea urchin extracts as detected using 31P-NMR, enzymatic determinations and agarose gel electrophoresis. Poly P was localized to granules randomly distributed in the sea urchin eggs, as shown by labelling with the poly-P-binding domain of Escherichia coli exopolyphosphatase. These granules were enriched using iodixanol centrifugation and shown to be acidic and to contain poly P, as determined by Acridine Orange and DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining respectively. These granules also contained large amounts of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and zinc, as detected by X-ray microanalysis, and bafilomycin A1-sensitive ATPase, pyrophosphatase and exopolyphosphatase activities, as well as Ca2+/H+ and Na+/H+ exchange activities, being therefore similar to acidocalcisomes described in other organisms. Calcium release from these granules induced by nigericin was associated with poly P hydrolysis. Although NAADP (nicotinic acid–adenine dinucleotide phosphate) released calcium from the granule fraction, this activity was not significantly enriched as compared with the NAADP-stimulated calcium release from homogenates and was not accompanied by poly P hydrolysis. GPN (glycyl-L-phenylalanine-naphthylamide) released calcium when added to sea urchin homogenates, but was unable to release calcium from acidocalcisome-enriched fractions, suggesting that these acidic stores are not the targets for NAADP. PMID:20497125

  8. Anti-acids lead to immunological and morphological changes in the intestine of BALB/c mice similar to human food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Yildirim, Ali O; Ackermann, Ute; Knauer, Tanja; Becker, Christoph; Garn, Holger; Renz, Harald; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2008-08-01

    We have shown that anti-acid medication for treating dyspeptic disorders can block protein digestion and induce a higher risk for food sensitization. This mechanism was confirmed in human and animal studies on the humoral as well as the cellular level. Here we aimed to investigate the outcome of the treatment with the anti-acid drug sucralfate on the intestine in our murine model, assuming that morphological and immunological changes will occur. BALB/c mice were fed codfish extract plus sucralfate. Antibodies were examined in ELISA, RBL assay and Western blot. Quantitative morphological analysis of the intestine was performed by design-based stereology, focussing on epithelium, lamina propria, smooth muscle, eosinophils and CD3(+) cells. Histological analyses were performed after H&E-, PAS- and Congo red-staining, while immune histochemistry was done for detection of CD3(+) cells. Codfish-specific IgE and its activity in RBL assay confirmed the Th2-response after treatment with sucralfate. The reactivity pattern of murine IgE in Western blot was similar to allergic patients' IgE. Histological examination showed more slender villi in the duodenum, and increased goblet cell mucus in the cecum after sucralfate treatment. Stereological analyses of the intestine revealed higher eosinophil/CD3(+) ratios, decreased mean thickness of the epithelium of duodenum and cecum, and thinner smooth muscle cell layer in the colon of food allergic mice. Anti-acid treatment with sucralfate induces changes in the structure of epithelium and villi, and an increase in eosinophils and mucus-producing cells in the intestine. Therefore, this medication leads to sensitization against food with changes typical for food allergy also in the intestine. PMID:18524557

  9. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

    PubMed

    Maguire, L S; O'Sullivan, S M; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; O'Brien, N M

    2004-05-01

    Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:15223592

  10. Toxicogenomic profiling of perfluorononanoic acid in wild-type and PPARa-null mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and a developmental toxicant in laboratory animals. Like other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOA) and perfluoroalkyl acid (PFOS), PFNA is a known activator ofperoxisome prol...

  11. Urinary bile acids as biomarkers for liver diseases I. Stability of the baseline profile in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bathena, Sai Praneeth R; Thakare, Rhishikesh; Gautam, Nagsen; Mukherjee, Sandeep; Olivera, Marco; Meza, Jane; Alnouti, Yazen

    2015-02-01

    The role of bile acids (BAs) as biomarkers for liver injury has been proposed for decades. However, the large inter- and intra-individual variability of the BA profile has prevented its clinical application. To this end, we investigated the effect of covariates such as food, gender, age, BMI, and moderate alcohol consumption on the BA profile in healthy human subjects. The BA profile was characterized by the calculation of indices that describe the composition, sulfation, and amidation of total and individual BAs. Both inter- and intra-individual variabilities of BA indices were low in serum and even lower in urine compared with those of absolute concentrations of BAs. Serum BA concentrations increased with consumption of food, whereas urinary BA concentrations were mildly affected by food. Gender differences in the urinary and serum BA profile were minimal. The serum and urinary BA profiles were also not affected by age. BMI showed minimal effect on the urine and serum BA profile. Moderate alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on the BA profile in both urine and serum. When the effect of the type of alcohol was studied, the results indicate that moderate drinking of beer does not affect BA concentrations and has minimal effect on BA indices, whereas moderate wine consumption slightly increases BA concentrations without affecting the BA indices. In summary, urinary BA indices showed lower variability and higher stability than absolute BA concentrations in serum and showed minimal changes to covariate effects suggesting their utility as biomarkers in clinic. PMID:25344562

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation at various temperatures and packaging conditions on chicken tissues. I. Fatty acid profiles of neutral and polar lipids separated from muscle irradiated at -20°C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rady, Aly H.; Maxwell, Robert J.; Wierbicki, Eugen; Phillips, John G.

    A lipid composition study on irradiated chicken muscle is reported. All muscle samples, packed either under air or vacuum, were gamma irradiated (-20°C) at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 10 kGy using 137Cs (dose rate = 0.1 kGy/min). Lipids were isolated from the muscle using a dry column extraction method with concominant isolation of separated neutral and polar fractions. Lipid isolates were converted to their methyl esters and analyzed by capillary column gas chromatography with computer assisted data storage, followed by data consolidation and statistical computer analysis. Separated fatty acid profiles for neutral and polar lipids were obtained as normalized reports (each fatty acid as percentage of total fatty acids) and as "gravimetric" reports (mg of each fatty acid/100 g tissue). In each set, side by side profiles allowed comparative and statistically valid (p < 0.05) conclusions to be made for the effects of different irradiation levels at -20°C on air or vacuum packed samples. Fatty acids were grouped into classes such as saturated and unsaturated, the latter subgrouped as monoenoic, dienoic and polyenoic unsaturated for ease of comparison. Separate analysis of polar fractions allowed detailed examinations of the polyunsaturated fatty acids to be made and gave profiles representative of muscle cells separate from contiguous intramascular adipose cells. Normalized reports showed only negligible occurrence of significant changes in fatty acid profiles of neutral muscle lipid fractions regardless of irradiation doses (0 to 10 kGy) in either air and vacuum packaging. These differences were not apparent when the data were compiled as gravimetric reports. The polar lipid fractions containing the nutritionally significant ω3 and ω6 fatty acids showed only slight changes in normalized and gravimetric reports and were similarly unaffected with increasing levels of irradiation. Additionally, no new fatty acids or other artifacts due to gamma-irradiation were observed in

  13. Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.

    PubMed

    do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-03-15

    This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of α-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products. PMID:22264421

  14. Function of all-trans retinoic acid observation on similar myopia changes in cultivated rabbit retinal pigment epithelium and relation with myopia relevant factors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bin

    2016-03-01

    To observe the role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) during the similar myopia changes of cultured rabbit retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, as well as the variation changes and relationships with myopic correlation factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and matrix metalloprateinase-2 (MMP-2). Rabbit RPE cells of primary generation were selected and cultured to fifth generation by subculture. Then the morphology of RPE cells were observed and cell vitality was analyzed by using the Trypan blue reject test. The expressions of HGF and MMP-2 in RPE cells were tested by using an immunobistochemistry method. The HGF concentration in RPE cell culture fluid was detected by applying enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). As the ATRA concentration enhanced and action time prolonged, the survival rate of RPE cells was reduced, but the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased, so did the secretion of HGF. ATRA concentration with no less than 5 nM/ml was able to induce the growth inhibition of RPE cells and the decrease in survival rate, which was similar to the changes in RPE cells in myopia. With the actin of ATRA, the expressions of HGF and MMP-2 increased in RPE cells, with more distinct in HGF increase. PMID:27113312

  15. Supplementation of herbage-based diets with corn meal or liquid molasses changes the milk fatty acids profile in grazing dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies showed that feeding carbohydrate sources with different NSC profiles (e.g., starch vs. sucrose) and rates of ruminal degradation altered the milk fatty acids (FA) profile in dairy cows. This study evalu¬ated the impact of corn meal (CM) or liquid molasses (MOL) on the milk FA profil...

  16. Nucleic acid labeling with ( sup 3 H)orotic acid and nucleotide profile in rats in protein deprivation, enteral and parenteral essential amino acid administration, and 5-fluorouracil treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsson, B.; el Hag, I.A.; Andersson, M.; Christensson, P.I.; Stenram, U. )

    1990-09-01

    Rats were fed a 0% casein diet for 1 week, with or without enteral or parenteral administration of essential amino acids, or a 25% casein diet, in one group supplemented with 5-fluorouracil treatment. Ninety minutes before sacrifice the rats were given a tracer of (3H)orotic acid. Incorporation into the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA was determined in liver, small intestine, bone marrow, and kidney. Nucleotide profile was examined in liver and intestine. Protein deficiency caused inter alia a decrease in body weight; a decrease in RNA/DNA ratio and an increase in the specific RNA labeling in liver and kidney; an altered nucleotide profile in the liver; an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios and a decrease in the specific labeling of the acid soluble fraction, RNA, and DNA in the bone marrow. These changes were prevented to the same extent by giving essential amino acids, either orally or intravenously. The minor changes in intestinal nucleotide profile in protein deprivation were prevented to a slightly larger extent by amino acids orally than parenterally. 5-Fluorouracil treatment gave a decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the liver and kidney but an increase in the nucleotide/DNA and RNA/DNA ratios in the bone marrow. Nucleotide profiles were unaltered. The amount of DNA per gram of tissue decreased in bone marrow and increased in kidney. Parenteral administration per se resulted in almost no changes.

  17. Echinococcus multilocularis in Kyrgyzstan: similarity in the Asian EmsB genotypic profiles from village populations of Eastern mole voles (Ellobius tancrei) and dogs in the Alay valley.

    PubMed

    Afonso, E; Knapp, J; Tête, N; Umhang, G; Rieffel, D; van Kesteren, F; Ziadinov, I; Craig, P S; Torgerson, P R; Giraudoux, P

    2015-11-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a cestode that causes human alveolar echinococcosis, a lethal zoonosis of public health concern in central Asia and western China. In the present study, one of 42 Eastern mole voles (Ellobius tancrei) caught in Sary Mogol (Alay valley, southern Kyrgyzstan) presented liver lesions with E. multilocularis from which the EmsB target was amplified. The Asian profile obtained was almost identical to one amplified from domestic dog faeces collected in a nearby village. This observation adds additional information to the potential role of E. tancrei in the transmission of E. multilocularis, and to the known distribution range of E. multilocularis (Asian strain) in central Asia. PMID:26137938

  18. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Heden, Timothy D.; Morris, E. Matthew; Kearney, Monica L.; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-min; Kanaley, Jill A.; Thyfault, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague–Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ~27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p < 0.05); the protein expression of all other molecules was similar in the 2 diets. The fed-state hepatic TAG secretion rate was ~39% lower (p < 0.05) in HF- (4.62 ± 0.18 mmol·h−1) than in LF- (7.60 ± 0.57 mmol·h−1) fed animals. Hepatic TAG content was ~2-fold higher (p < 0.05) in HF- (1.07 ± 0.15 nmol·g−1 tissue) than in LF- (0.50 ± 0.16 nmol·g−1 tissue) fed animals. In addition, the fatty acid profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression. PMID:24669989

  19. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines. PMID:27455227

  20. The deposition of conjugated linoleic acids in eggs of laying hens fed diets varying in fat level and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Raes, Katleen; Huyghebaert, Gerard; De Smet, Stefaan; Nollet, Lode; Arnouts, Sven; Demeyer, Daniel

    2002-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into eggs and its effect on the fatty acid metabolism when layers are fed diets with different fat sources and fat levels. Layers were fed either a low fat diet (LF) or one of three high fat diets based on soybean oil (SB), animal fat (AF) or flaxseed oil (FSO). CLA was added at a concentration of 1 g/100 g feed from two different CLA premixes with a different CLA profile. For the trial, 144 laying hens were allocated to 12 treatments (4 basal fat sources x 3 CLA treatments) with 3 replicates of 4 hens each. No significant differences were observed in feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion or laying rate between chickens fed control and CLA-supplemented diets. Differences in yolk fat, cholesterol or yolk color were not clearly related to the dietary CLA. However, the supplementation of CLA to the diets had clear effects on the fatty acid composition, i.e., a decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and an increase in saturated fatty acids (SFA) was observed, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content were essentially unaffected. The results suggest that CLA may influence the activity of the desaturases to a different extent in the synthesis of (n-6) and (n-3) long-chain fatty acids. These effects of CLA depend on the level of (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids available in the feed. The apparent deposition rate (%) is clearly higher for the c9, t11 isomer than for the t10, c12 isomer. Adding CLA to layers diets rich in (n-3) fatty acids produces eggs that could promote the health of the consumer in terms of a higher intake of (n-3) fatty acids and CLA. PMID:11823576

  1. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  2. A Novel Multivariate Index for Pancreatic Cancer Detection Based On the Plasma Free Amino Acid Profile

    PubMed Central

    Fukutake, Nobuyasu; Ueno, Makoto; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi; Shimada, Kazuaki; Shiraishi, Koichi; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Ito, Toshifumi; Yamakado, Minoru; Ono, Nobukazu; Imaizumi, Akira; Kikuchi, Shinya; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Katayama, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of pancreatic cancer (PC) continues to increase in the world, while most patients are diagnosed with advanced stages and survive <12 months. This poor prognosis is attributable to difficulty of early detection. Here we developed and evaluated a multivariate index composed of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) for early detection of PC. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in multi-institutions in Japan. Fasting plasma samples from PC patients (n = 360), chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients (n = 28), and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 8372) without apparent cancers who were undergoing comprehensive medical examinations were collected. Concentrations of 19 PFAAs were measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We generated an index consisting of the following six PFAAs: serine, asparagine, isoleucine, alanine, histidine, and tryptophan as variables for discrimination in a training set (120 PC and matching 600 HC) and evaluation in a validation set (240 PC, 28 CP, and 7772 HC). Results Several amino acid concentrations in plasma were significantly altered in PC. Plasma tryptophan and histidine concentrations in PC were particularly low, while serine was particularly higher than that of HC. The area under curve (AUC) based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the resulting index to discriminate PC from HC were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86–0.93] in the training set. In the validation set, AUCs based on ROC curve analysis of the PFAA index were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.84–0.89) for all PC patients versus HC subjects, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.75–0.86) for PC patients from stage IIA to IIB versus HC subjects, and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.80–0.93) for all PC patients versus CP patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that the PFAA profile of PC was significantly different from that of HC. The PFAA index is a promising biomarker for screening and diagnosis of PC. PMID:26133769

  3. A Correlation by Means of the Transonic Similarity Rules of the Experimentally Determined Characteristics of 22 Rectangular Wings of Symmetrical Profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdevitt, John B

    1952-01-01

    The transonic similarity rules have been applied to the correlation of experimental data for a series of 22 rectangular wings having symmetrical NACA 63A-series sections, aspect ratios from 1/2 to 6, and thicknesses from 2 to 10 percent. The data were obtained by use of the transonic bump technique over a Mach number range from 0.40 to 1.10, corresponding to a Reynolds number range from 1.25 to 2.05 million. The results show that it is possible to correlate experimental data throughout the subsonic, transonic, and moderate supersonic regimes by using the transonic similarity parameters in forms which are consistent with the Prandtl-Glauert rule of linearized theory. The multiple families of basic data curves for the various aspect ratios and thickness ratios have been summarized in single presentations involving only one geometric variable - the product of the aspect ratio and the l/3 power of the thickness ratio.

  4. Fatty acid profile of milk and Cacioricotta cheese from Italian Simmental cows as affected by dietary flaxseed supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; d'Angelo, F; Sevi, A; Albenzio, M

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to determine the effects of adding flaxseed to the diet on the fatty acid profile of the milk of Italian Simmental cows and on the Cacioricotta cheese thereby produced. The experiment involved 24 Italian Simmental cows divided into 2 groups of 12 animals according to the diet fed: a control diet (CO) with no flaxseed supplementation, and a diet supplemented with whole flaxseed (FS). Milk yield and composition was not significantly changed by diet, whereas saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased by flaxseed supplementation. Cows fed flaxseed showed higher percentages of long-chain fatty acids: in particular, linolenic acids, mainly represented by C18:3n-3, and n-3 series were higher in the FS group than in the CO group. The percentage of MUFA was higher by about 12% in FS than in CO, mainly due to the contribution of C18:1 cis-9. The percentage of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk was not significantly changed by flaxseed supplementation. Furthermore, atherogenic and thrombogenic indices were lower by about 30 and 16%, respectively, in the FS group compared with the CO group. The fatty acid profile of Cacioricotta cheese produced using Italian Simmental cow milk showed higher levels of MUFA, PUFA, and n-3, and improved atherogenic and thrombogenic indices in FS than in CO, confirming the ability to transfer beneficial molecules from milk into cheese. In particular, cheese-making technology contributed to the increased CLA content in Cacioricotta cheese. PMID:26851850

  5. Circulating and synovial antibody profiling of juvenile arthritis patients by nucleic acid programmable protein arrays

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation of unknown cause in children. JIA is an autoimmune disease and small numbers of autoantibodies have been reported in JIA patients. The identification of antibody markers could improve the existing clinical management of patients. Methods A pilot study was performed on the application of a high-throughput platform, the nucleic acid programmable protein array (NAPPA), to assess the levels of antibodies present in the systemic circulation and synovial joint of a small cohort of juvenile arthritis patients. Plasma and synovial fluid from 10 JIA patients was screened for antibodies against 768 proteins on NAPPAs. Results Quantitative reproducibility of NAPPAs was demonstrated with > 0.95 intra-array and inter-array correlations. A strong correlation was also observed for the levels of antibodies between plasma and synovial fluid across the study cohort (r = 0.96). Differences in the levels of 18 antibodies were revealed between sample types across all patients. Patients were segregated into two clinical subtypes with distinct antibody signatures by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Conclusion The NAPPAs provide a high-throughput quantitatively reproducible platform to screen for disease-specific autoantibodies at the proteome level on a microscope slide. The strong correlation between the circulating antibody levels and those of the inflamed joint represents a novel finding and provides confidence to use plasma for discovery of autoantibodies in JIA, thus circumventing the challenges associated with joint aspiration. We expect that autoantibody profiling of JIA patients on NAPPAs could yield antibody markers that can act as criteria to stratify patients, predict outcomes and understand disease etiology at the molecular level. PMID:22510425

  6. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    PubMed

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality. PMID:25522520

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  8. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) wholemeals have similar sterol profiles, as determined by quantitative liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruibal-Mendieta, Nike L; Rozenberg, Raoul; Delacroix, Dominique L; Petitjean, Géraldine; Dekeyser, Adrien; Baccelli, Chiara; Marques, Carole; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Meurens, Marc; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2004-07-28

    From a nutritional point of view, cereal lipids include valuable molecules, such as essential fatty acids, phytosterols, and fat-soluble vitamins. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) is an alternative hulled bread cereal mostly grown in Belgium, where it is mainly intended for animal feed but should increasingly be used for human consumption. The present research focused on phytosterol quantification by LC/APCI-MS2 in saponified wholemeal extracts of 16 dehulled spelt and 5 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties grown in Belgium during 2001-2002 at the same location. Glycosylated sterols and free and formerly esterified sterols could be determined in saponified extracts. Results show that the mean phytosterol content is comparable in both cereals (whereas other lipids, such as oleic and linoleic acids, are increased in spelt wholemeal): spelt extract has, on average, 527.7 microg of free and esterified sterols g(-1) of wholemeal and 123.8 microg of glycosylated sterols g(-1) of wholemeal versus 528.5 and 112.6 microg x g(-1) in winter wheat (values not corrected for recoveries). This is the first report on the application and validation of an LC/MS2 method for the quantification of phytosterols in spelt and winter wheat. PMID:15264918

  9. Influence of cycling current and power profiles on the cycle life of lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazov, G.; Pavlov, D.

    Batteries are assembled with positive plates of the novel strap grid tubular (SGTP) design described in a previous paper [1]. These batteries are subjected to four tests: (i) Peukert dependence determinations; (ii) classical galvanostatic cycling (5 h charge and 1 h discharge); (iii) EV-SFUDS, and (iv) EV-ECE-15 cycling tests. It has been established that the Peukert dependence curve of SGTP batteries is very close in profile to that for SLI batteries. This guarantees SGTP's batteries high power performance. These batteries endure over 950 cycles on galvanostatic cycling. When cycled according to the SFUDS power profile under a current load of 320 A/kg positive active mass during the 15th SFUDS step, SGTP batteries exhibit a cycle life of 350-450 cycles. If the current density during the 15th step is 190 A/kg PAM, the batteries endure over 600 charge/discharge cycles. The life of positive SGT plates is limited by power loss, but not by capacity. Similar results have also been obtained from ECE-15 cycle-life tests. On cycling SGTP batteries with a current load of 210 A/kg PAM during the 23rd ECE-15 step (the step during which maximum power output is demanded from the battery), they endure between 550 and 650 charge/discharge cycles. A summary of the test results obtained for two batches of experimental batteries indicates that there is a direct dependence between the SGTP battery cycle life and the maximum current density on discharge. Increasing the discharge current density decreases the battery life. It has also been established that the capacity on SFUDS (ECE-15) discharge declines gradually on cycling in favour of the residual galvanostatic capacity at 5 h rate of discharge (100% depth-of-discharge) which increases. This implies that two types of structures are formed in the positive plates on cycling: the first type ensuring high power output and the second type yielding low power but long cycle life. The higher the power delivered by the positive plate, the

  10. Influence of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pankaj; Tiwari, S. P.; Sahu, Tarini; Naik, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid on serum mineral profile and nutrient utilization of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: The present study was a 2×3 factorial arrangement of two levels of selenomethionine (0 and 0.3 ppm) and three levels of omega-3 fatty acid (0, 0.5 and 1%). Day-old Vencobb broiler chicks (n=180), were randomly assigned in six treatment groups. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Treatment groups followed of: Group I was a control. Group II, III, IV, V and VI were supplemented with 0 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid, 0 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0% omega-3 fatty acid, 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid and 0.3 ppm selenomethionine with 1% omega-3 fatty acid, respectively. Linseed oil was used as a source of omega-3 fatty acid while sel-plex is used for selenomethionine supplementation. Results: Significant (p<0.05) interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for serum zinc and iron concentration whereas, it was non-significant for serum calcium and copper. Significantly (p<0.05) increased concentration of selenium, zinc, iron and phosphorus was observed in birds fed 0.3 ppm selenomethionine whereas, significantly (p<0.05) increased zinc and iron was observed in birds fed 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was significant (p<0.05) interaction exist between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for calcium and phosphorus retention percentage. The maximum retention of calcium and phosphorus was recorded in birds supplemented with 0.3 ppm selenomethionine in combination with 0.5% omega-3 fatty acid. There was marked interaction between selenomethionine and omega-3 fatty acid for hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count, total leukocytic count and platelets (p<0.05) however, it was non-significant for mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb, MCH concentration and

  11. Dietary sunflower oil modulates milk fatty acid composition without major changes in adipose and mammary tissue fatty acid profile or related gene mRNA abundance in sheep.

    PubMed

    Castro-Carrera, T; Frutos, P; Leroux, C; Chilliard, Y; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Bernard, L; Toral, P G

    2015-04-01

    There are very few studies in ruminants characterizing mammary and adipose tissue (AT) expression of genes and gene networks for diets causing variations in milk fatty acid (FA) composition without altering milk fat secretion, and even less complementing this information with data on tissue FA profiles. This work was conducted in sheep in order to investigate the response of the mammary gland and the subcutaneous and perirenal AT, in terms of FA profile and mRNA abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, to a diet known to modify milk FA composition. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (60 : 40) supplemented with 0 (control diet) or 25 (SO diet) g of sunflower oil/kg of diet dry matter for 7 weeks. Milk composition, including FA profile, was analysed after 48 days on treatments. On day 49, the animals were euthanized and tissue samples were collected to analyse FA and mRNA abundance of 16 candidate genes. Feeding SO did not affect animal performance but modified milk FA composition. Major changes included decreases in the concentration of FA derived from de novo synthesis (e.g. 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) and increases in that of long-chain FA (e.g. 18:0, c9-18:1, trans-18:1 isomers and c9,t11-CLA); however, they were not accompanied by significant variations in the mRNA abundance of the studied lipogenic genes (i.e. ACACA, FASN, LPL, CD36, FABP3, SCD1 and SCD5) and transcription factors (SREBF1 and PPARG), or in the constituent FA of mammary tissue. Regarding the FA composition of AT, the little influence of SO did not appear to be linked to changes in gene mRNA abundance (decreases of GPAM and SREBF1 in both tissues, and of PPARG in the subcutaneous depot). Similarly, the great variation between AT (higher contents of saturated FA and trans-18:1 isomers in the perirenal, and of cis-18:1, c9,t11-CLA and n-3 PUFA in the subcutaneous AT) could not be related to

  12. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    PubMed

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat. PMID:26246145

  13. Fatty acid profile, trans-octadecenoic, α-linolenic and conjugated linoleic acid contents differing in certified organic and conventional probiotic fermented milks.

    PubMed

    Florence, Ana Carolina R; Béal, Catherine; Silva, Roberta C; Bogsan, Cristina S B; Pilleggi, Ana Lucia O S; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Oliveira, Maricê N

    2012-12-15

    Development of dairy organic probiotic fermented products is of great interest as they associate ecological practices and benefits of probiotic bacteria. As organic management practices of cow milk production allow modification of the fatty acid composition of milk (as compared to conventional milk), we studied the influence of the type of milk on some characteristics of fermented milks, such as acidification kinetics, bacterial counts and fatty acid content. Conventional and organic probiotic fermented milks were produced using Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019 in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340. The use of organic milk led to a higher acidification rate and cultivability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Fatty acids profile of organic fermented milks showed higher amounts of trans-octadecenoic acid (C18:1, 1.6 times) and polyunsaturated fatty acids, including cis-9 trans-11, C18:2 conjugated linoleic (CLA-1.4 times), and α-linolenic acids (ALA-1.6 times), as compared to conventional fermented milks. These higher levels were the result of both initial percentage in the milk and increase during acidification, with no further modification during storage. Finally, use of bifidobacteria slightly increased CLA relative content in the conventional fermented milks, after 7 days of storage at 4°C, whereas no difference was seen in organic fermented milks. PMID:22980792

  14. Kefir Grains Change Fatty Acid Profile of Milk during Fermentation and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, C. P.; Álvares, T. S.; Gomes, L. S.; Torres, A. G.; Paschoalin, V. M. F.; Conte-Junior, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported that lactic acid bacteria may increase the production of free fatty acids by lipolysis of milk fat, though no studies have been found in the literature showing the effect of kefir grains on the composition of fatty acids in milk. In this study the influence of kefir grains from different origins [Rio de Janeiro (AR), Viçosa (AV) e Lavras (AD)], different time of storage, and different fat content on the fatty acid content of cow milk after fermentation was investigated. Fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Values were considered significantly different when p<0.05. The highest palmitic acid content, which is antimutagenic compost, was seen in AV grain (36.6g/100g fatty acids), which may have contributed to increasing the antimutagenic potential in fermented milk. Higher monounsaturated fatty acid (25.8g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (72.7g/100g fatty acids) contents were observed in AV, when compared to other grains, due to higher Δ9-desaturase activity (0.31) that improves the nutritional quality of lipids. Higher oleic acid (25.0g/100g fatty acids) and monounsaturated fatty acid (28.2g/100g fatty acids) and lower saturated fatty acid (67.2g/100g fatty acids) contents were found in stored kefir relatively to fermented kefir leading to possible increase of antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential and improvement of nutritional quality of lipids in storage milk. Only high-lipidic matrix displayed increase polyunsaturated fatty acids after fermentation. These findings open up new areas of study related to optimizing desaturase activity during fermentation in order to obtaining a fermented product with higher nutritional lipid quality. PMID:26444286

  15. Recommended dairy product intake modulates circulating fatty acid profile in healthy adults: a multi-centre cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Couture, Patrick; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2015-02-14

    Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1% fat milk, 1·5% fat yogurt and 34% fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22% and 0·42 v. 0·39% of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake. PMID:25609231

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation: effects of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed on milk production and fatty acid profile of lactating ewes during summer.

    PubMed

    Caroprese, Mariangela; Ciliberti, Maria Giovanna; Marino, Rosaria; Santillo, Antonella; Sevi, Agostino; Albenzio, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    The research reported in this Research Communication was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplemented in the diet on milk production and milk fatty acid profile of lactating ewes exposed to long term heat stress. The experiment was conducted during summer, involved 32 ewes divided into 4 groups of 8 each, and lasted 6 weeks. The ewes in all groups were fed twice daily and received 1·8 kg/d of oat hay and 1 kg/d of concentrate. Flaxseed group (FS) was supplemented with 250 g/d of whole flaxseed, Ascophyllum nodosum group (AG) was supplemented with 25 g/d of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum, and the combination group (FS + AG) received both flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation. The control group (CON) was fed with 1 kg/d of pelleted concentrate without PUFA supplementation. Milk samples were collected twice daily per week, and analysed for fat, total protein, casein, and lactose content. At the beginning and then at 2, 4 and 6 week of the experiment each milk sample was analysed for milk fatty acids. Temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated daily. Supplementation of flaxseed and of the combination of flaxseed and Ascophyllum nodosum increased milk yield. The total content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in milk decreased for ewes fed FS, followed by FS + AG. On the contrary, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) increased for ewes fed FS and FS + AG. The total n-3 FA was found higher in FS and FS + AG than in AG and CON groups mainly because of the increase in C 18 : 3 n-3 in FS and FS + AG milk. Milk from FS + AG resulted in the highest n-3/n-6 ratio and decreases in atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. The combination of seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum and flaxseed can be suggested as an adequate supplementation to sustain milk production and milk fatty acid profile of sheep during summer season. PMID:27600962

  17. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ronaldo; Faria, Mario; Silva, Raimundo; Bezerra, Leilson; Carvalho, Gleidson; Pinheiro, Alyson; Simionato, Juliana; Leão, André

    2015-01-01

    Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables) are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg). Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001) fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016). However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045). There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05). The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065) quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%). Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12) and tridecanoic (C13) acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index. PMID:26305244

  18. Similar names for similar biologics.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Nicole; Felix, Thomas; Strober, Bruce E; Warnock, David G

    2014-10-01

    Approval of the first biosimilar in the USA may occur by the end of 2014, yet a naming approach for biosimilars has not been determined. Biosimilars are highly similar to their biologic reference product but are not identical to it, because of their structural complexity and variations in manufacturing processes among companies. There is a need for a naming approach that can distinguish a biosimilar from its reference product and other biosimilars and ensure accurate tracing of adverse events (AEs) to the administered product. In contrast, generic small-molecule drugs are identical to their reference product and, therefore, share the same nonproprietary name. Clinical trials required to demonstrate biosimilarity for approval may not detect rare AEs or those occurring after prolonged use, and the incidence of such events may differ between a biosimilar and its reference product. The need for precise biologic identification is further underscored by the possibility of biosimilar interchangeability, a US designation that will allow substitution without prescriber intervention. For several biologics, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has used a naming approach that adds a prefix to a common root nonproprietary name, enabling healthcare providers to distinguish between products, avoid medication errors, and facilitate pharmacovigilance. We recommend that the FDA implement a biosimilars naming policy that likewise would add a distinguishable prefix or suffix to the root nonproprietary name of the reference product. This approach would ensure that a biosimilar could be distinguished from its reference product and other biosimilars in patient records and pharmacovigilance databases/reports, facilitating accurate attribution of AEs. PMID:25001080

  19. Ex vivo generated natural killer cells acquire typical natural killer receptors and display a cytotoxic gene expression profile similar to peripheral blood natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Dorit; Spanholtz, Jan; Osl, Markus; Tordoir, Marleen; Lipnik, Karoline; Bilban, Martin; Schlechta, Bernhard; Dolstra, Harry; Hofer, Erhard

    2012-11-01

    Ex vivo differentiation systems of natural killer (NK) cells from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells are of potential importance for adjuvant immunotherapy of cancer. Here, we analyzed ex vivo differentiation of NK cells from cord blood-derived CD34+ stem cells by gene expression profiling, real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and functional analysis. Additionally, we compared the identified characteristics to peripheral blood (PB) CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells. The data show sequential expression of CD56 and the CD94 and NKG2 receptor chains during ex vivo NK cell development, resulting finally in the expression of a range of genes with partial characteristics of CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells from PB. Expression of characteristic NK cell receptors and cytotoxic genes was mainly found within the predominant ex vivo generated population of NKG2A+ NK cells, indicating the importance of NKG2A expression during NK cell differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, despite distinct phenotypic characteristics, the detailed analysis of cytolytic genes expressed within the ex vivo differentiated NK cells revealed a pattern close to CD56(dim) NK cells. In line with this finding, ex vivo generated NK cells displayed potent cytotoxicity. This supports that the ex vivo differentiation system faithfully reproduces major steps of the differentiation of NK cells from their progenitors, constitutes an excellent model to study NK cell differentiation, and is valuable to generate large-scale NK cells appropriate for immunotherapy. PMID:22571679

  20. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches

    PubMed Central

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  1. Safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with rosmarinic acid for oral use: in vitro and animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Ana Raquel; Nunes, Sara; Campos, Débora A; Fernandes, João C; Marques, Cláudia; Zuzarte, Monica; Gullón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Calhau, Conceição; Sarmento, Bruno; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pintado, Maria Manuela; Reis, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) possesses several protective bioactivities that have attracted increasing interest by nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industries. Considering the reduced bioavailability after oral use, effective (and safe) delivery systems are crucial to protect RA from gastrointestinal degradation. This study aims to characterize the safety profile of solid lipid nanoparticles produced with Witepsol and Carnauba waxes and loaded with RA, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, focused on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays, redox status markers, hematological and biochemical profile, liver and kidney function, gut bacterial microbiota, and fecal fatty acids composition. Free RA and sage extract, empty nanoparticles, or nanoparticles loaded with RA or sage extract (0.15 and 1.5 mg/mL) were evaluated for cell (lymphocytes) viability, necrosis and apoptosis, and antioxidant/prooxidant effects upon DNA. Wistar rats were orally treated for 14 days with vehicle (control) and with Witepsol or Carnauba nanoparticles loaded with RA at 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight/d. Blood, urine, feces, and several tissues were collected for analysis. Free and loaded RA, at 0.15 mg/mL, presented a safe profile, while genotoxic potential was found for the higher dose (1.5 mg/mL), mainly by necrosis. Our data suggest that both types of nanoparticles are safe when loaded with moderate concentrations of RA, without in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity and with an in vivo safety profile in rats orally treated, thus opening new avenues for use in nutraceutical applications. PMID:27536103

  2. Low to middle tropospheric profiles and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases in the summertime Canadian taiga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemm, O.; Talbot, R. W.; Fitzgerald, D. R.; Klemm, K. I.; Lefer, B. L.

    1994-01-01

    We report features of acidic gases in the troposphere from 9 to 5000 m altitude above ground over the Canadian taiga in the summer of 1990. The measurements were conducted at a 30-m meteorological tower and from the NASA Wallops Electra aircraft as part of the joint U.S.-Canadian Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE) 3B Northern Wetland Studies (NOWES). We sampled air for acidic gases using the mist chamber collector coupled with subsequent analysis using ion chromatography. At the tower we collected samples at two heights during a 13-day period, including diurnal studies. Using eddy flux and profile data, we estimated the biosphere/troposphere fluxes of nitric, formic, and acetic acids and sulfur dioxide. For the organic acids, emissions from the taiga in the afternoon hours and deposition during the predawn morning hours were observed. The flux intensities alone were however not high enough to explain the observed changes in mixing ratios. The measured deposition fluxes of nitric acid were high enough to have a significant influence on its mixing ratio in the boundary layer. On three days we measured vertical profiles of nitric, formic, and acetic acids through the lower to midtroposphere. We found that the chemical composition of the troposphere was extremely heterogenous. Pronounced layers of polluted air were readily apparent from our measurements. Local photochemical production and episodic long-range transport of trace components, originating from biomass burning and possibly industrial emissions, appear to have a strong influence on the composition of the troposphere and biosphere/troposphere fluxes of acidic gases at this site.

  3. Effect of crossbreeding with Limousine, Rubia Gallega and Belgium Blue on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Antonio; Monserrat, Lorenzo; Sanchez, Luciano; Cantalapiedra, Jesus; Lorenzo, Jose Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The object of this work was to study the effects of crossbreeding on meat quality and fatty acid profile of Holstein calves. Samples were taken from Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of 36 calves of three different groups (Holstein crossed with Rubia Gallega (HF×RG), Holstein crossed with Limousine (HF×LI) and Holstein crossed with Belgian Blue (HF×BB)). Significant differences were observed in carcass weight and killing out percentage (P < 0.001) among, groups reaching the highest values in the HF×BB group (228 kg and 59.4%, respectively), while the cross with Limousine presented the lowest values for carcass weight (191 kg) and the cross with Rubia Gallega showed the lowest killing out percentages (54.9%). Meat from HF×RG animals was redder (a* 13.31) and lightest (L* 39.55) than meat from HF×LI and HF×BB groups. With regard to fatty acid profile, the saturated fatty acids were the most abundant fatty acid, followed by monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the three groups. Crossbreeding did not affect the proportion of fatty acid. Finally, live weight, cold carcass weight, killing out, shear force, L* from LT, b*from LT, a* from fat, b* from fat, C14:0, C15:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:3n-6, MUFA and price-to-sales ratio were the selected variables from discriminant analysis to classify the types of crossbreeding. PMID:25706373

  4. Different Serum Free Fatty Acid Profiles in NAFLD Subjects and Healthy Controls after Oral Fat Load

    PubMed Central

    Gambino, Roberto; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Rosso, Chiara; Mezzabotta, Lavinia; Pinach, Silvia; Alemanno, Natalina; Saba, Francesca; Cassader, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism can impact on metabolic conditions, such as obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This work studied the increase in total FFA shown in NAFLD subjects to possibly characterize which fatty acids significantly accounted for the whole increase. Methods: 21 patients with NAFLD were selected according to specified criteria. The control group consisted of nine healthy subjects. All subjects underwent an oral standard fat load. Triglycerides; cholesterol; FFA; glucose and insulin were measured every 2 h with the determination of fatty acid composition of FFA. Results: higher serum FFA levels in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids at different times. Significant increases were shown for docosahexaenoic acid, linolenic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, although this was just on one occasion. In the postprandial phase, homeostatic model assessment HOMA index positively correlated with the ω3/ω6 ratio in NAFLD patients. Conclusions: the higher serum levels of FFA in NAFLD subjects are mainly due to levels of oleic and palmitic acids which are the most abundant circulating free fatty acids. This is almost exactly corresponded with significant increases in linoleic acid. An imbalance in the n-3/n-6 fatty acids ratio could modulate postprandial responses with more pronounced effects in insulin-resistant subjects, such as NAFLD patients. PMID:27043543

  5. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Maaike J; Dane, Adrie D; Strassburg, Katrin; Vreeken, Rob J; Newman, John W; Salem, Norman; Tyburczy, Cynthia; Brenna, J Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n = 8 per group) from days 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained incremental ARA or incremental DHA levels as follows (% fatty acid, ARA/DHA): (A1) 0.1/1.0; (A2) 0.53/1.0; (A3-D3) 0.69/1.0; (A4) 1.1/1.0; (D1) 0.66/0.33; and (D2) 0.67/0.62, resulting in incremental intake (g/kg BW/day) of ARA: 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.03, 0.55 ± 0.03, and 0.82 ± 0.05 at constant DHA intake (0.82 ± 0.05), or incremental intake of DHA: 0.27 ± 0.02, 0.49 ± 0.03, and 0.81 ± 0.05 at constant ARA intake (0.54 ± 0.04). Plasma oxylipin concentrations and free plasma PUFA levels were determined at day 28 using LC-MS/MS. Incremental dietary ARA intake dose-dependently increased plasma ARA levels. In parallel, ARA intake dose-dependently increased ARA-derived diols 5,6- and 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DiHETrE) and linoleic acid-derived 12,13-dihydroxyoctadecenoic acid (DiHOME), downstream metabolites of cytochrome P450 expoxygenase (CYP). The ARA epoxide products from CYP are important in vascular homeostatic maintenance. Incremental DHA intake increased plasma DHA and most markedly raised the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) metabolite 17,18-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DiHETE) and the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxydocosapentaenoic acid (DiHDPE). In conclusion, increasing ARA and DHA intake dose-dependently influenced endogenous n-6 and n-3 oxylipin plasma concentrations in growing piglets, although the biological relevance of these findings remains to be determined. PMID:23543770

  6. Combination therapies with oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine or intravenous 5-FU show similar toxicity profiles in gastrointestinal carcinoma patients if hand-food syndrome prophylaxis is performed continuously

    PubMed Central

    WEHLER, THOMAS C.; CAO, YANG; GALLE, PETER R.; THEOBALD, MATTHIAS; MOEHLER, MARKUS; SCHIMANSKI, CARL C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin prophylaxis (10% urea, panthenol, bisabolol, vitamin A, C and E) is capable of protecting against capecitabine-induced HFS and allowing a more convenient oral therapeutic option. In this retrospective analysis, the toxicity profiles, according to NCI CTCAE 3.0 criteria, of 54 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who received either XELOX (34 patients) or FOLFOX-4 (20 patients) were compared using Fisher tests. The treatment protocols that were compared, herein, did not differ significantly in the majority of the analyzed items, with the exception of increased nausea (XELOX-70), fatigue (XELOX-130) and tumor pain (XELOX-70 and XELOX-130). No significant differences were observed among the various groups with regard to emesis, diarrhea, mucositis, exanthema, alopecia, loss of weight and the incidence of infections. In particular, no significant differences in toxicity levels occurred in terms of dose, and HFS was limited if skin prophylaxis was performed continuously. XELOX-based palliative regimens provide an equally effective and comparably toxic therapeutic alternative to FOLFOX-4 if HFS prophylaxis is performed continuously. Since the oral administration of capecitabine is a more convenient method of application, it provides patients with a quality of life-preserving therapeutic alternative. PMID:22783416

  7. Combination therapies with oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine or intravenous 5-FU show similar toxicity profiles in gastrointestinal carcinoma patients if hand-food syndrome prophylaxis is performed continuously.

    PubMed

    Wehler, Thomas C; Cao, Yang; Galle, Peter R; Theobald, Matthias; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C

    2012-06-01

    The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin prophylaxis (10% urea, panthenol, bisabolol, vitamin A, C and E) is capable of protecting against capecitabine-induced HFS and allowing a more convenient oral therapeutic option. In this retrospective analysis, the toxicity profiles, according to NCI CTCAE 3.0 criteria, of 54 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who received either XELOX (34 patients) or FOLFOX-4 (20 patients) were compared using Fisher tests. The treatment protocols that were compared, herein, did not differ significantly in the majority of the analyzed items, with the exception of increased nausea (XELOX-70), fatigue (XELOX-130) and tumor pain (XELOX-70 and XELOX-130). No significant differences were observed among the various groups with regard to emesis, diarrhea, mucositis, exanthema, alopecia, loss of weight and the incidence of infections. In particular, no significant differences in toxicity levels occurred in terms of dose, and HFS was limited if skin prophylaxis was performed continuously. XELOX-based palliative regimens provide an equally effective and comparably toxic therapeutic alternative to FOLFOX-4 if HFS prophylaxis is performed continuously. Since the oral administration of capecitabine is a more convenient method of application, it provides patients with a quality of life-preserving therapeutic alternative. PMID:22783416

  8. Structural profiling of lipopolysaccharide glycoforms expressed by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae: phenotypic similarities between NTHi strain 162 and the genome strain Rd.

    PubMed

    Schweda, Elke K H; Landerholm, Malin K; Li, Jianjun; Richard Moxon, E; Richards, James C

    2003-11-14

    Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a significant cause of otitis media in children. We have employed single and multiple step electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) and NMR spectroscopy to profile and elucidate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structural types expressed by NTHi strain 162, a strain obtained from an epidemiological study in Finland. ESIMS on O-deacylated LPS (LPS-OH) and core oligosaccharide (OS) samples of LPS provided information on the composition and relative abundance of glycoforms differing in the number of hexoses linked to the conserved inner-core element, L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->2)-[PEtn-->6]-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->3)-L-alpha-D-Hepp-(1-->5)-[PPEtn-->4]-alpha-Kdop-(2-->6)-Lipid A of H. influenzae LPS. The strain examined was found to elaborate Hex2 to Hex5 LPS glycoform populations having structures identical to those observed for H. influenzae strain Rd [Risberg, A.; Masoud, H.; Martin, A.; Richards, J.C.; Moxon, E.R.; Schweda, E.K.H. Eur. J. Biochem. 1999, 261, 171-180], the strain for which the complete genome has been sequenced. In addition, sialyllactose-containing glycoforms previously identified in strain Rd as well as several NTHi strains, were identified as minor components. Multiple step tandem ESIMS (MS(n)) on dephosphorylated and permethylated OS provided information on the arrangement of glycoses within the major population of glycoforms and on the existence of additional isomeric glycoforms. Minor Hex1 and Hex6 glycoforms were detected and characterized where the Hex6 glycoform was comprised of a dihexosamine-containing pentasaccharide chain attached at the proximal heptose residue of the inner-core unit. LPS structural motifs present in the NTHi strain 162 are expressed by a genetically diverse set of disease causing isolates, providing the basis for a vaccine strategy against NTHi otitis media. PMID:14670731

  9. Proteomic profiling of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and its mucous reveals similarities with human secretions and those predicted for parasitic flatworms.

    PubMed

    Bocchinfuso, Donald G; Taylor, Paul; Ross, Eric; Ignatchenko, Alex; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Pearson, Bret J; Moran, Michael F

    2012-09-01

    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been used in research for over 100 years, and is an emerging stem cell model because of its capability of regenerating large portions of missing body parts. Exteriorly, planarians are covered in mucous secretions of unknown composition, implicated in locomotion, predation, innate immunity, and substrate adhesion. Although the planarian genome has been sequenced, it remains mostly unannotated, challenging both genomic and proteomic analyses. The goal of the current study was to annotate the proteome of the whole planarian and its mucous fraction. The S. mediterranea proteome was analyzed via mass spectrometry by using multidimensional protein identification technology with whole-worm tryptic digests. By using a proteogenomics approach, MS data were searched against an in silico translated planarian transcript database, and by using the Swiss-Prot BLAST algorithm to identify proteins similar to planarian queries. A total of 1604 proteins were identified. The mucous subproteome was defined through analysis of a mucous trail fraction and an extract obtained by treating whole worms with the mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine. Gene Ontology analysis confirmed that the mucous fractions were enriched with secreted proteins. The S. mediterranea proteome is highly similar to that predicted for the trematode Schistosoma mansoni associated with intestinal schistosomiasis, with the mucous subproteome particularly highly conserved. Remarkably, orthologs of 119 planarian mucous proteins are present in human mucosal secretions and tear fluid. We suggest planarians have potential to be a model system for the characterization of mucous protein function and relevant to parasitic flatworm infections and diseases underlined by mucous aberrancies, such as cystic fibrosis, asthma, and other lung diseases. PMID:22653920

  10. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  11. Proteomic Profiling of the Planarian Schmidtea mediterranea and Its Mucous Reveals Similarities with Human Secretions and Those Predicted for Parasitic Flatworms*

    PubMed Central

    Bocchinfuso, Donald G.; Taylor, Paul; Ross, Eric; Ignatchenko, Alex; Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Kislinger, Thomas; Pearson, Bret J.; Moran, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has been used in research for over 100 years, and is an emerging stem cell model because of its capability of regenerating large portions of missing body parts. Exteriorly, planarians are covered in mucous secretions of unknown composition, implicated in locomotion, predation, innate immunity, and substrate adhesion. Although the planarian genome has been sequenced, it remains mostly unannotated, challenging both genomic and proteomic analyses. The goal of the current study was to annotate the proteome of the whole planarian and its mucous fraction. The S. mediterranea proteome was analyzed via mass spectrometry by using multidimensional protein identification technology with whole-worm tryptic digests. By using a proteogenomics approach, MS data were searched against an in silico translated planarian transcript database, and by using the Swiss-Prot BLAST algorithm to identify proteins similar to planarian queries. A total of 1604 proteins were identified. The mucous subproteome was defined through analysis of a mucous trail fraction and an extract obtained by treating whole worms with the mucolytic agent N-acetylcysteine. Gene Ontology analysis confirmed that the mucous fractions were enriched with secreted proteins. The S. mediterranea proteome is highly similar to that predicted for the trematode Schistosoma mansoni associated with intestinal schistosomiasis, with the mucous subproteome particularly highly conserved. Remarkably, orthologs of 119 planarian mucous proteins are present in human mucosal secretions and tear fluid. We suggest planarians have potential to be a model system for the characterization of mucous protein function and relevant to parasitic flatworm infections and diseases underlined by mucous aberrancies, such as cystic fibrosis, asthma, and other lung diseases. PMID:22653920

  12. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  13. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1) values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA), eicosapentanoic (EPA), and arachidonic (AA) acids were present in very small amounts (<1%). In addition, the AA/EPA ratio was low (0.18). The fat and energetic values decreased (P < 0.01) during lactation. The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P < 0.01) in saturated fatty acids content and an increase (P < 0.01) in the unsaturated fatty acids content. The n-6 to n-3 ratio and the LA/ALA ratio were approximately 2:1, with values <1 during the last period of lactation, suggesting the more optimal use of milk during this period. Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio

  14. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    PubMed

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. PMID:25839884

  15. The antioxidant and chlorogenic acid profiles of whole coffee fruits are influenced by the extraction procedures.

    PubMed

    Mullen, W; Nemzer, B; Ou, B; Stalmach, A; Hunter, J; Clifford, M N; Combet, E

    2011-04-27

    Commercial whole coffee fruit extracts and powder samples were analyzed for chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine and antioxidant activities. CGA and caffeine were characterized by LC-MS(n) and HPLC accordingly, and quantified by UV absorbance. ORAC, HORAC, NORAC, SORAC and SOAC (antioxidant capacities) were assessed. Three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, three dicaffeoylquinic acids, one p-coumaroylquinic acid, two caffeoylferuloylquinic acids and three putative chlorogenic lactones were quantified, along with a methyl ester of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (detected in one sample, the first such report in any coffee material). Multistep whole coffee fruit extracts displayed higher CGA content than single-step extracts, freeze-dried, or air-dried whole raw fruits. Caffeine in multistep extracts was lower than in the single-step extracts and powders. Antioxidant activity in whole coffee fruit extracts was up to 25-fold higher than in powders dependent upon the radical. Total antioxidant activity of samples displayed strong correlation to CGA content. PMID:21401105

  16. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P < 0.05), indicating the positive effects of n-3 HUFAs on the growth of sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. PMID:27079426

  17. The influence of thermal processing on the fatty acid profile of pork and lamb meat fed diet with increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Janiszewski, Piotr; Grześkowiak, Eugenia; Lisiak, Dariusz; Borys, Bronisław; Borzuta, Karol; Pospiech, Edward; Poławska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The research was carried out on 32 crossbred pigs of Polish Large White × Danish Landrace with Duroc and 80 rams, crossbreds of the Prolific-Dairy Koludzka Sheep with the Ile de France, a meat sheep. The fodder for the animals was enriched with the unsaturated fatty acids originated mainly from linseed and rapeseed oils. The fatty acid profile was determined in cooked longissimus lumborum, roasted triceps brachii and raw ripened rump from pigs as well as in grilled lambs' legs and their corresponding raw materials. Roasting caused the most pronounced increase of the saturated fatty acids and decrease in the polyunsaturated fatty acids of heated pork muscles. The smallest changes were observed in grilled lamb legs. The heating processes applied in this study, in most cases, did not cause essential changes in the indices of pro-health properties of fatty acid, therefore meat in the majority fulfil the latest recommendations of EFSA and FAO/WHO according to human health. PMID:26422798

  18. Intravaginally administered lactic acid bacteria expedited uterine involution and modulated hormonal profiles of transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Deng, Q; Odhiambo, J F; Farooq, U; Lam, T; Dunn, S M; Gänzle, M G; Ametaj, B N

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) around parturition could expedite involution rate of the uterus and improve reproductive performance of postpartum dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental groups: (1) 1 dose of LAB in wk -2 and -1 and 1 dose of carrier in wk 1 relative to the expected day of parturition (TRT1); (2) 1 dose of LAB in wk -2, -1, and 1 (TRT2); and (3) 1 dose of carrier in wk -2, -1, and 1 (CTR). The LAB treatment was a lyophilized mixture of Lactobacillus sakei FUA3089, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3138, and Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3140 with a cell count of 10(8) to 10(9) cfu/dose. Uterine involution and ovarian activity was evaluated by transrectal ultrasonography weekly from d 7 to 49 postpartum. Blood samples were collected from a subset of cows to quantify prostaglandin (PG) F2α metabolite (PGFM), PGE2, and progesterone. Cows treated with LAB had smaller cross-sectional areas of gravid horn and uterine body on d 14 postpartum. Cows in TRT2 resumed ovarian cyclicity earlier, as indicated by increased concentrations of serum progesterone. Cows in TRT1 had fewer days open than those in the CTR (110 vs. 150 d), whereas cows in TRT2 and CTR did not differ in days open. In addition, both TRT1 and TRT2 increased the concentrations of PGFM at calving week, and cows in TRT2 also had greater concentrations of PGE2 on d 14 and d 21 postpartum relative to CTR. Overall, cows treated intravaginally with LAB had smaller gravid horn and uterine body on d 14 postpartum than those in the CTR group. Treatment with LAB also increased concentrations of serum PGFM (3,533±328pg/mL in TRT1, 4,470±372pg/mL in TRT2, and 2,000±328pg/mL in CTR on d 0, respectively), with the TRT1 group having fewer cows that resumed ovarian cyclicity but fewer days open compared with both TRT2 and CTR groups. More research is warranted to better understand the

  19. Fatty acid profile of gamma-irradiated and cooked African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).

    PubMed

    Olotu, Ifeoluwa; Enujiugha, Victor; Obadina, Adewale; Owolabi, Kikelomo

    2014-11-01

    The safety and shelf-life of food products can be, respectively, ensured and extended with important food-processing technologies such as irradiation. The joint effect of cooking and 10 kGy gamma irradiation on the fatty acid composition of the oil of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth was evaluated. Oils from the raw seed, cooked seeds, irradiated seeds (10 kGy), cooked, and irradiated seeds (10 kGy) were extracted and analyzed for their fatty acid content. An omega-6-fatty acid (linoleic acid) was the principal unsaturated fatty acid in the bean seed oil (24.6%). Cooking significantly (P < 0.05) increased Erucic acid by 3.3% and Linolenic acid by 23.0%. Combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased C18:2, C6:0, C20:2, C18:3, C20:3, C24:0, and C22:6 being linoleic, caproic, eicosadienoic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, ligoceric, and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively, and this increase made the oil sample to have the highest total fatty acid content (154.9%), unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (109.6), and unsaturated fatty acid content (153.9%). 10 kGy irradiation induces the formation of C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic), while cooking induced the formation of C20:4 (arachidic acid), C22:6 (Heneicosanoic acid), and C22:2 (docosadienoic acid). Combined 10 kGy cooking and irradiation increased the susceptibility of the oil of the African oil bean to rancidity. PMID:25493197

  20. Fatty acid profiles, meat quality, and sensory attributes of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic and conventional dairy steers were evaluated and compared for fatty acid profiles, meat quality, sensory attributes, and consumer acceptance. Bull calves (n=49) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups: conventional (CONV), organic (ORG, pasture + concentrate), or grass-fed organic (GRS) and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN) between March and May 2011. The CONV steers (n=16) were fed a diet that contained 80% concentrate and 20% forage, and ORG steers (n=16) were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and organic protein supplement. Furthermore, ORG steers consumed at least 30% of diet dry matter of high-quality organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers (n=17) consumed 100% forage from pasture during the grazing season and high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. The ORG steers had fat that was greater in oleic acid (C18:1) than the GRS and CONV steers (47.1, 36.1, and 39.9%, respectively). The GRS steers (21.9%) were lower for monounsaturated fat than the ORG (42.1%) and CONV (40.4%) steers. Furthermore, the GRS steers tended to have greater n-3 fat and had lower n-6 fat than the ORG and CONV steers. Consequently, the GRS (1.4%) steers had a lower n-6-to-n-3 fat ratio than the ORG (12.9%) and CONV (10.0%) steers. The GRS (2.6 kg) steers had steaks that were not different for Warner-Bratzler shear force than ORG (2.3 kg) steaks; however, the GRS steaks tended to have greater shear force than the CONV (2.0 kg) steaks. The 3 steer group had steaks that were not different for color brightness (L*; 0 = black and 100 = white) and yellowness/blueness (b*; positive values = yellow and negative values = blue) values; however, the GRS (10.5) steaks had lower redness/greenness (a*; positive values = red and negative values = green) values than CONV (14.5) steaks. For sensory attributes (0- to 120-point scale), no

  1. Simultaneous quantitative profiling of 20 isoprostanoids from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids by LC-MS/MS in various biological samples.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Aude; Le Faouder, Pauline; Vigor, Claire; Oger, Camille; Galano, Jean-Marie; Dray, Cédric; Lee, Jetty Chung-Yung; Valet, Philippe; Gladine, Cécile; Durand, Thierry; Bertrand-Michel, Justine

    2016-05-19

    Isoprostanoids are a group of non-enzymatic oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It belongs to oxylipins group, which are important lipid mediators in biological processes, such as tissue repair, blood clotting, blood vessel permeability, inflammation and immunity regulation. Recently, isoprostanoids from eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, adrenic and α-linolenic namely F3-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, F2-dihomo-isoprostanes and F1-phytoprostanes, respectively have attracted attention because of their putative contribution to health. Since isoprostanoids are derived from different substrate of PUFAs and can have similar or opposing biological consequences, a total isoprostanoids profile is essential to understand the overall effect in the testing model. However, the concentration of most isoprostanoids range from picogram to nanogram, therefore a sensitive method to quantify 20 isoprostanoids simultaneously was formulated and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The lipid portion from various biological samples was extracted prior to LC-MS/MS evaluation. For all the isoprostanoids LOD and LOQ, and the method was validated on plasma samples for matrix effect, yield of extraction and reproducibility were determined. The methodology was further tested for the isoprostanoids profiles in brain and liver of LDLR(-/-) mice with and without docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation. Our analysis showed similar levels of total F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes in the liver and brain of non-supplemented LDLR(-/-) mice. The distribution of different F2-isoprostane isomers varied between tissues but not for F4-neuroprostanes which were predominated by the 4(RS)-4-F4t-neuroprostane isomer. DHA supplementation to LDLR(-/-) mice concomitantly increased total F4-neuroprostanes levels compared to F2-isoprostanes but this effect was more pronounced in the liver than brain. PMID:27126789

  2. Plasma oxylipin profiling identifies polyunsaturated vicinal diols as responsive to arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake in growing piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dose-responsiveness of plasma oxylipins to incremental dietary intake of arachidonic (20:4n-6; ARA) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3; DHA) acid was determined in piglets. Piglets randomly received one of six formulas (n=8 per group) from day 3 to 27 postnatally. Diets contained varying ARA and DHA l...

  3. AtCAST3.0 update: a web-based tool for analysis of transcriptome data by searching similarities in gene expression profiles.

    PubMed

    Kakei, Yusuke; Shimada, Yukihisa

    2015-01-01

    In transcriptome experiments, the experimental conditions (e.g. mutants and/or treatments) cause transcriptional changes. Identifying experimental conditions that induce similar or opposite transcriptional changes can be useful to identify experimental conditions that affect the same biological process. AtCAST (http://atpbsmd.yokohama-cu.ac.jp) is a web-based tool to analyze the relationship between experimental conditions among transcriptome data. Users can analyze 'user's transcriptome data' of a new mutant or a new chemical compound whose function remains unknown to generate novel biological hypotheses. This tool also allows for mining of related 'experimental conditions' from the public microarray data, which are pre-included in AtCAST. This tool extracts a set of genes (i.e. module) that show significant transcriptional changes and generates a network graph to present related transcriptome data. The updated AtCAST now contains data on >7,000 microarrays, including experiments on various stresses, mutants and chemical treatments. Gene ontology term enrichment (GOE) analysis is introduced to assist the characterization of transcriptome data. The new AtCAST supports input from multiple platforms, including the 'Arabisopsis gene 1.1 ST array', a new microarray chip from Affymetrix and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained using next-generation sequencing (NGS). As a pilot study, we conducted microarray analysis of Arabidopsis under auxin treatment using the new Affymetrix chip, and then analyzed the data in AtCAST. We also analyzed RNA-seq data of the pifq mutant using AtCAST. These new features will facilitate analysis of associations between transcriptome data obtained using different platforms. PMID:25505006

  4. DNase I hypersensitivity sites and nuclear protein binding on the fatty acid synthase gene: identification of an element with properties similar to known glucose-responsive elements.

    PubMed Central

    Foufelle, F; Lepetit, N; Bosc, D; Delzenne, N; Morin, J; Raymondjean, M; Ferré, P

    1995-01-01

    We have shown previously that fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression is positively regulated by glucose in rat adipose tissue and liver. In the present study, we have identified in the first intron of the gene a sequence closely related to known glucose-responsive elements such as in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes, including a putative upstream stimulatory factor/major late transcription factor (USF/MLTF) binding site (E-box) (+ 292 nt to + 297 nt). Location of this sequence corresponds to a site of hypersensitivity to DNase I which is present in the liver but not in the spleen. Moreover, using this information from a preliminary report of the present work, others have shown that a + 283 nt to + 303 nt sequence of the FAS gene can confer glucose responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. The protein binding to this region has been investigated in vitro by a combination of DNase I footprinting and gel-retardation experiments with synthetic oligonucleotides and known nuclear proteins. DNase I footprinting experiments using a + 161 nt to + 405 nt fragment of the FAS gene demonstrate that a region from + 290 nt to + 316 nt is protected by nuclear extracts from liver and spleen. This region binds two ubiquitous nuclear factors, USF/MLTF and the CAAT-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor 1 (CTF/NF1). Binding of these factors is similar in nuclear extracts from liver which does or does not express the FAS gene as observed for glucose-responsive elements in the L-pyruvate kinase and S14 genes. This suggests a posttranslational modification of a factor of the complex after glucose stimulation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7772036

  5. Animal performance and milk fatty acid profile of dairy goats fed diets with different unsaturated plant oils.

    PubMed

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Gómez Castro, A G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L M; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of supplementing a basal diet with 1 of 3 plant oils on productive efficiency and milk fatty acid composition was studied in dairy goats. Sixteen Malagueña goats were used in a 4×4 Latin square experiment with 21-d periods and 4 goats per treatment. The basal diet comprised 30% alfalfa hay and 70% pelleted concentrate. Experimental treatments were control (basal diet without added oil) and the basal diet supplemented with 48g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO), regular sunflower oil (RSFO), or linseed oil (LO). Dry matter intake and body weight were not affected by treatments. Milk production was higher in HOSFO treatment and milk fat content was higher in RSFO and LO treatments, although no differences in milk energy production or milk renneting properties were found. The RSFO and LO treatments increased the proportion of vaccenic acid in milk fat more so than the HOSFO diet, and rumenic acid followed the same pattern. The content of trans10-18:1 remained low in all experimental diets (<0.7% of total fatty acid methyl esters) although HOSFO and RSFO diets increased it. The variations in the fatty acid profiles observed with the 4 diets, mainly the unsaturated fatty acid isomer contents, are extensively discussed. Compared with that in the control diet, the n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio in milk fat substantially decreased with the LO, increased with RSFO, and did not change with HOSFO. The addition of moderate amounts of LO to the diets of dairy goats has favorable effects on milk fatty acid composition from the point of view of the human consumer, without negative effects on animal performance. PMID:22032358

  6. Venus Then and Now: Simulating Sulfuric Acid Clouds Using Latitudinally Dependent VIRA and VeRA Temperature Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Parkinson, C. D.; Bardeen, C.; Yung, Y. L.

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and from SPICAV/SOIR aboard Venus Express (VEx) have shown the upper haze (UH) of Venus to be highly spatially and temporally variable. Previous models of this system, using typical temperature profiles representative of the Venus atmosphere as a whole, did not investigate the effects of temperature variations on the UH particle distributions. Parkinson et al. (2014, submitted) showed that the inclusion of latitudinally dependent temperature profiles retrieved from SPICAV/SOIR observations in the Venus cloud model of Gao et al. (2014) resulted in markedly different cloud distributions between the different latitude cases, such as a lowered cloud base near the equator and a slightly thicker UH at the poles. Thus, temperature variations across Venus could help explain spatial variations in the atmospheric aerosol distribution. In this work, we expand on the aforementioned study by including VIRA temperature profiles derived from Venera and PVO observations (Kliore et al. 1985) at similar latitudes as the SPICAV/SOIR profiles to assess how the aerosol distribution varies spatially and temporally. By comparing the simulated cloud and haze distributions arising from the two sets of temperature profiles, we can evaluate whether secular changes have occurred in the ~30 years between the PVO and VEx epochs.

  7. Differentiation of gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria isolated from biofilters on the basis of Fatty Acid composition, quinone system, and physiological reaction profiles.

    PubMed

    Lipski, A; Klatte, S; Bendinger, B; Altendorf, K

    1992-06-01

    Gram-negative, nonfermentative bacteria isolated from biofilters for off-gas treatment of animal-rendering-plant emissions were differentiated by whole-cell fatty acid analysis, quinone analysis, and numerical taxonomy based on their physiological reaction profiles. The last system consisted of 60 physiological tests and was arranged as a microtest system on microtitration plates. Based on fatty acid analyses, 31 isolates were separated into six clusters and five single-member clusters. The isolates of two clusters were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis and Pseudomonas diminuta. The remaining nine clusters were characterized by their fatty acid profiles, quinone systems, and physiological reaction profiles. Clusters resulting from fatty acid analyses were compared with those resulting from physiological reaction profiles. Six clusters could be confirmed this way. The efficiency of the physiological test system was increased by the prearrangement of the isolates according to their quinone type. PMID:16348724

  8. Plasma Acylcarnitine Profiles Suggest Incomplete Fatty Acid ß-Oxidation and Altered Tricarboxylic Cycle Activity in Type 2 Diabetic African-American Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inefficient muscle long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) combustion is associated with insulin resistance, but molecular links between mitochondrial fat catabolism and insulin action remain controversial. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitine profiling would identify distinct metabolite patterns reflect...

  9. Effects of feeding diets rich in α-linolenic acid and copper on performance, carcass characteristics, and fatty acid profiles of feedlot heifers.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Aperce, C C; Miller, K A; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Uwituze, S; Drouillard, J S; Higgins, J J

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether feeding elevated Cu concentrations in conjunction with Linpro, a co-extruded blend of field peas and flaxseed, affected in vitro fermentation, performance, and plasma lipid profiles of fattening beef heifers. In study 1, 2 in vitro trials were conducted as randomized complete experiments with a 2×2 factorial treatment arrangement (10 or 100 mg/kg added Cu and 0 or 10% Linpro, DM basis) to determine VFA/gas production and IVDMD. Linpro contains 12% α-linolenic acid and added vitamins and minerals. In study 2, a randomized complete block experiment with a 2×2 factorial treatment arrangement was conducted with the same previously described treatment. Crossbred yearling heifers (n=261; 351±23 kg initial BW) were blocked by weight into heavy and light groups and randomly assigned to experimental pens containing 10 or 11 heifers each. In study 1, no interactions between levels of Cu and Linpro were observed. Copper concentration did not affect IVDMD (P>0.2) but increased (P<0.05) by 1.2% when Linpro was included. Final pH was not effected by added Cu (P>0.05), but pH increased when Linpro was added (P<0.05). Total VFA were greater in high-Cu treatments (P=0.038) and molar proportions were not affected (P>0.34). Linpro had no effect on total VFA (P=0.46) and molar proportions of propionate and isobutyrate increased whereas acetate and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased (P<0.01). Linpro increased the production of H2S (30% higher; P=0.05), and Cu inclusion slightly increased CO2 proportion (64.06 vs. 67.58% for Linpro vs. Cu treatments, respectively). In study 2, there were no interactions between levels of Linpro and supplemental Cu except for plasma n-6:n-3 ratio (P<0.01). Final BW were similar for cattle fed 0 and 10% Linpro (581 vs. 588 kg; P>0.20), but cattle fed diets with Linpro consumed less feed (14.08 vs. 13.59 kg/d; P<0.05) and were therefore more efficient (0.129 vs. 0.137 for 0 vs. 10% Linpro, respectively; P<0

  10. Fatty acid profiles as a potential lipidomic biomarker of exposure to brevetoxin for endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Dana L; Reynolds, John E; Sprinkel, Jay M; Schwacke, Lori; Mercurio, Philip; Rommel, Sentiel A

    2010-11-15

    Fatty acid signature analysis (FASA) is an important tool by which marine mammal scientists gain insight into foraging ecology. Fatty acid profiles (resulting from FASA) represent a potential biomarker to assess exposure to natural and anthropogenic stressors. Florida manatees are well studied, and an excellent necropsy program provides a basis against which to assess this budding tool. Results using samples from 54 manatees assigned to four cause-of-death categories indicated that those animals exposed to or that died due to brevetoxin exposure (red tide, or RT samples) demonstrate a distinctive hepatic fatty acid profile. Discriminant function analysis indicated that hepatic fatty acids could be used to classify RT versus non-RT liver samples with reasonable certainty. A discriminant function was derived based on 8 fatty acids which correctly classified 100% of samples from a training dataset (10 RT and 25 non-RT) and 85% of samples in a cross-validation dataset (5 RT and 13 non-RT). Of the latter dataset, all RT samples were correctly classified, but two of thirteen non-RT samples were incorrectly classified. However, the "incorrect" samples came from manatees that died due to other causes during documented red tide outbreaks; thus although the proximal cause of death was due to watercraft collisions, exposure to brevetoxin may have affected these individuals in ways that increased their vulnerability. This use of FASA could: a) provide an additional forensic tool to help scientists and managers to understand cause of death or debilitation due to exposure to red tide in manatees; b) serve as a model that could be applied to studies to improve assessments of cause of death in other marine mammals; and c) be used, as in humans, to help diagnose metabolic disorders or disease states in manatees and other species. PMID:20880571

  11. Accurate small and wide angle x-ray scattering profiles from atomic models of proteins and nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Hung T.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Pollack, Lois; Case, David A.

    2014-12-14

    A new method is introduced to compute X-ray solution scattering profiles from atomic models of macromolecules. The three-dimensional version of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM) from liquid-state statistical mechanics is employed to compute the solvent distribution around the solute, including both water and ions. X-ray scattering profiles are computed from this distribution together with the solute geometry. We describe an efficient procedure for performing this calculation employing a Lebedev grid for the angular averaging. The intensity profiles (which involve no adjustable parameters) match experiment and molecular dynamics simulations up to wide angle for two proteins (lysozyme and myoglobin) in water, as well as the small-angle profiles for a dozen biomolecules taken from the BioIsis.net database. The RISM model is especially well-suited for studies of nucleic acids in salt solution. Use of fiber-diffraction models for the structure of duplex DNA in solution yields close agreement with the observed scattering profiles in both the small and wide angle scattering (SAXS and WAXS) regimes. In addition, computed profiles of anomalous SAXS signals (for Rb{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+}) emphasize the ionic contribution to scattering and are in reasonable agreement with experiment. In cases where an absolute calibration of the experimental data at q = 0 is available, one can extract a count of the excess number of waters and ions; computed values depend on the closure that is assumed in the solution of the Ornstein–Zernike equations, with results from the Kovalenko–Hirata closure being closest to experiment for the cases studied here.

  12. Accurate small and wide angle x-ray scattering profiles from atomic models of proteins and nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hung T.; Pabit, Suzette A.; Meisburger, Steve P.; Pollack, Lois; Case, David A.

    2014-12-01

    A new method is introduced to compute X-ray solution scattering profiles from atomic models of macromolecules. The three-dimensional version of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM) from liquid-state statistical mechanics is employed to compute the solvent distribution around the solute, including both water and ions. X-ray scattering profiles are computed from this distribution together with the solute geometry. We describe an efficient procedure for performing this calculation employing a Lebedev grid for the angular averaging. The intensity profiles (which involve no adjustable parameters) match experiment and molecular dynamics simulations up to wide angle for two proteins (lysozyme and myoglobin) in water, as well as the small-angle profiles for a dozen biomolecules taken from the BioIsis.net database. The RISM model is especially well-suited for studies of nucleic acids in salt solution. Use of fiber-diffraction models for the structure of duplex DNA in solution yields close agreement with the observed scattering profiles in both the small and wide angle scattering (SAXS and WAXS) regimes. In addition, computed profiles of anomalous SAXS signals (for Rb+ and Sr2+) emphasize the ionic contribution to scattering and are in reasonable agreement with experiment. In cases where an absolute calibration of the experimental data at q = 0 is available, one can extract a count of the excess number of waters and ions; computed values depend on the closure that is assumed in the solution of the Ornstein-Zernike equations, with results from the Kovalenko-Hirata closure being closest to experiment for the cases studied here.

  13. Improvements in the profiles and distributions of nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide with the LIMS version 6 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, E.; Natarajan, M.; Marshall, T.; Gordley, L. L.; Thompson, R. E.; Lingenfelser, G.

    2010-02-01

    The quality of the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles and distributions of 1978/1979 is described after their processing with an updated, Version 6 (V6) algorithm and subsequent archival in 2002. Estimates of the precision and accuracy of both of those species are developed and provided herein. The character of the V6 HNO3 profiles is relatively unchanged from that of the earlier LIMS Version 5 (V5) profiles, except in the upper stratosphere where the interfering effects of CO2 are accounted for better with V6. The accuracy of the retrieved V6 NO2 is also significantly better in the middle and upper stratosphere, due to improvements in its spectral line parameters and in the reduced biases for the accompanying V6 temperature and water vapor profiles. As a result of these important updates, there is better agreement with theoretical calculations for profiles of the HNO3/NO2 ratio, day-to-night NO2 ratio, and with estimates of the production of NO2 in the mesosphere and its descent to the upper stratosphere during polar night. The improved precisions and more frequent retrievals of the profiles along the LIMS orbit tracks provide for better continuity and detail in map analyses of these two species on pressure surfaces. It is judged that the chemical effects of the oxides of nitrogen on ozone can be examined quantitatively throughout the stratosphere with the LIMS V6 data, and that the findings will be more compatible with those obtained from measurements of the same species from subsequent satellite sensors.

  14. Improvements in the profiles and distributions of nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide with the LIMS version 6 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remsberg, E.; Natarajan, M.; Marshall, B. T.; Gordley, L. L.; Thompson, R. E.; Lingenfelser, G.

    2010-05-01

    The quality of the Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) nitric acid (HNO3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) profiles and distributions of 1978/1979 are described after their processing with an updated, Version 6 (V6) algorithm and subsequent archival in 2002. Estimates of the precision and accuracy of both of those species are developed and provided herein. The character of the V6 HNO3 profiles is relatively unchanged from that of the earlier LIMS Version 5 (V5) profiles, except in the upper stratosphere where the interfering effects of CO2 are accounted for better with V6. The accuracy of the retrieved V6 NO2 is also significantly better in the middle and upper stratosphere, due to improvements in its spectral line parameters and in the reduced biases for the accompanying V6 temperature and water vapor profiles. As a result of these important updates, there is better agreement with theoretical calculations for profiles of the HNO3/NO2 ratio, day-to-night NO2 ratio, and with estimates of the production of NO2 in the mesosphere and its descent to the upper stratosphere during polar night. In particular, the findings for middle and upper stratospheric NO2 should also be more compatible with those obtained from more recent satellite sensors because the effects of the spin-splitting of the NO2 lines are accounted for now with the LIMS V6 algorithm. The improved precisions and more frequent retrievals of the LIMS profiles along their orbit tracks provide for better continuity and detail in map analyses of these two species on pressure surfaces. It is judged that the chemical effects of the oxides of nitrogen on ozone can be studied quantitatively throughout the stratosphere with the LIMS V6 data.

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) levels and profiles in breast milk, maternal and cord serum of French women and their newborns.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Ronan; Veyrand, Bruno; Yamada, Ami; Berrebi, Alain; Zalko, Daniel; Durand, Sophie; Pollono, Charles; Marchand, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    One major concern regarding perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) is their potential role in onset of health troubles consecutive to early exposure during the perinatal period. In the present work, the internal exposure levels of 18 targeted PFAAs were determined in ca. 100 mother-newborn pairs recruited in France between 2010 and 2013. In serum, the cumulated concentrations of the 7 most frequently detected compounds were 5.70ng/mL and 2.83ng/mL (median values) in maternal and cord serum, respectively. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexylesulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) contributed to around 90% of the total PFAAs contamination, with concentration levels and contamination profiles in accordance with other published work in Europe. Levels measured in breast milk were far lower (20 to 150 fold) than those determined in serum. Associations between the different monitored substances as well as between levels determined in the different investigated biological matrices mostly do not appear statistically significant. The estimated materno-foetal transfer would be thus substance-dependant, mainly driven by the physico-chemical properties of the different PFAAs (nature of polar group and length of alkylated side chain). We conclude that trans-placental passage and breastfeeding are both significant routes of human exposure to PFAAs. PMID:26232143

  16. A semi-quantitative approach for the rapid screening and mass profiling of naphthenic acids directly in contaminated aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kyle D; Letourneau, Dane R; Vandergrift, Gregory W; Jobst, Karl; Reiner, Eric; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of a direct sampling, online analytical approach for the determination of acid extractable naphthenic acids in complex aqueous samples, known as condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS). The technique employs a capillary hollow fibre semi-permeable membrane probe configured for immersion into a pH adjusted sample. A continuously flowing methanol acceptor phase transfers naphthenic acids to an electrospray ionization source, operated in negative ion mode, whereupon they are analysed by mass spectrometry as [M-H](-) ions. High-resolution mass spectrometry is used to characterize the influence of sample pH on membrane transport of multiple components of complex naphthenic acid mixtures. We demonstrate the use of CP-MIMS for semi-quantitative analysis of real-world samples using selected ion monitoring and full scan mass spectra at unit mass resolution. The technique has also been employed to continuously monitor the temporal evolution in the mass profile and concentrations of individual naphthenic acid isomer classes in heterogeneous solutions during adsorption processes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26757071

  17. REACTIVITY PROFILE OF LIGANDS OF MAMMALIAN RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS: A PRELIMINARY COREPA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retinoic acid and associated derivatives comprise a class of endogenous hormones that bind to and activate different families of retinoic acid receptors (RARs, RXRs), and control many aspects of vertebrate development. Identification of potential RAR and RXR ligands is of interes...

  18. The effect of rotifer enrichment strategy on sunshine bass larvae fatty acid profile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that larval hybrid striped bass subjected to different fatty acid enrichments showed little differences in morphometric characters or survival. In this study we investigated the influence of enrichment fatty acid composition on that of the larval fish. A canonical discriminant...

  19. Gene expression profiles of soybeans with mid-oleic acid seed phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of the mid-oleic acid soybean mutant M23 accumulate higher levels of oleic acid (50-60% oleate) by virtue of a deletion of GmFAD2-1A, an isoform of the microsomal omega-6 oleate desaturase gene. In other less well characterized natural soybean varieties that are phenotypically mid-oleic, litt...

  20. Effect of Nicotinic Acid (Vitamin B3 or Niacin) on the lipid profile of diabetic and non – diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeb Shah, Talmeez; Ali, Abdul Basit; Ahmad Jafri, Saghir; Qazi, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of nicotinic acid on the lipid profile of diabetic and non diabetic rats. Methods: This was an experimental study done at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Pakistan between May 2010 to July 2010. Nicotinic acid was administered to a hypercholesterolemic group and a hypercholesterolemic + diabetic Group of Albino rats for 42 days and response to therapy was recorded on day 21 and day 42 of the experiment. Comparison among these two groups as well as three control groups was determined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and differences were considered significant at (P<0.05). A total of 50 rats were included in the study. Results: Lipid profile of the hypercholesterolemic group as well as hypercholesterolemic + diabetic group as compared with the control groups showed highly significant improvement on the day 21 and day 42 of the experiment. The values of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total lipids (TL) showed highly significant decrease whereas serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol showed highly significant increase. Conclusion: Nicotinic acid is the most effective agent available in increasing HDL cholesterol and lowering serum TC, triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol and TL in hypercholesterolemic Diabetic and hypercholesterolemic non-diabetic Albino rats. PMID:24353732

  1. Alterations of the lipid content and fatty acid profile of Chlorella protothecoides under different light intensities.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Izabela; Piasecka, Agata; Nosalewicz, Artur; Simionato, Diana; Wawrzykowski, Jacek

    2015-11-01

    Chlorella protothecoides is a valuable source of lipids that may be used for biodiesel production. The present work shows analysis of the potential of photoheterotrophic cultivation of C. protothecoides under various light intensities aiming to identify the conditions with maximal biomass and lipid content. An increase in light intensity was associated with an increased specific growth rate and a shortened doubling time. Also, the relative total lipid content increased from 24.8% to 37.5% with increase of light intensity. The composition of fatty acid methyl esters was affected by light intensity with the C16-18 fatty acids increased from 76.97% to 90.24% of total fatty acids. However, the content of linolenic acids decreased with the increase of the culture irradiance. These studies indicate that cultures irradiated with high light intensities achieve the minimal specifications for biodiesel quality on linolenic acids and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. PMID:26231126

  2. Developmental and spatial variations in the diet signatures of hyperbenthic shrimp Nauticaris marionis at the Prince Edward Islands based on stable isotope ratios and fatty acid profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richoux, Nicole B.; Allan, E. Louise; Froneman, P. William

    2016-04-01

    The caridean shrimp Nauticaris marionis is an ecologically important species in the benthic community around the sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands (PEI) as it represents a key prey item for a variety of top predators breeding on the islands. We hypothesized that the diet of N. marionis shifts during its development, and that spatial variability in food availability results in differentiation in the diet signatures of specimens collected from various locations of the shelf waters around the PEI. Specimens were collected from nine stations (depth range 70 to 240 m) around the PEI at inter-island shelf (from west to east: upstream, between and downstream) and nearshore regions during austral autumn 2009. Stable isotope and fatty acid data both revealed spatial and developmental variations in the shrimp diet. Nearshore shrimp were more 13C-enriched than those from the inter-island region, suggesting increased kelp detritus entered the food web in the nearshore regions. The shrimp showed increases in δ13C and δ15N signatures (and trophic position) with an increase in body size, resulting in distinctions between size classes that reflected shifts in their trophic niche through development. The fatty acid profiles similarly indicated distinctions in diet with increased shrimp size (in the deep regions), and spatial variability was evident in relation to region and depth. All shrimp contained large proportions of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids, indicating that the quality of food consumed was similar between regions despite the diet variability. Our results provide new dietary information about a key species operating near the base of the food web at the highly productive PEI, and show that there were no areas of enhanced nutrition available to the shrimp. As such, there was no nutritional advantage to shrimp inhabiting any specific region around the PEI.

  3. [Characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in red soil profile under different vegetation types].

    PubMed

    Ji, Gang; Xu, Ming-gang; Wen, Shi-lin; Wang, Bo-ren; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of soil pH and exchangeable acidity in soil profile under different vegetation types were studied in hilly red soil regions of southern Hunan Province, China. The soil samples from red soil profiles within 0-100 cm depth at fertilized plots and unfertilized plots were collected and analyzed to understand the profile distribution of soil pH and exchangeable acidity. The results showed that, pH in 0-60 cm soil from the fertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: citrus orchard > Arachis hypogaea field > tea garden. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was A. hypogaea field ≤ citrus orchard < tea garden. After tea tree and A. hypogaea were planted for long time, acidification occurred in surface soil (0-40 cm), compared with the deep soil (60-100 cm), and soil pH decreased by 0.55 and 0.17 respectively, but such changes did not occur in citrus orchard. Soil pH in 0-40 cm soil from the natural recovery vegetation unfertilized plots decreased as the following sequence: Imperata cylindrica land > Castanea mollissima garden > Pinus elliottii forest ≥ Loropetalum chinensis forest. As for exchangeable acidity content, the sequence was L cylindrica land < C. mollissima garden < L. chinensis forest ≤ P. elliottii forest. Soil pH in surface soil (0-20 cm) from natural forest plots, secondary forest and Camellia oleifera forest were significantly lower than that from P. massoniana forest, decreased by 0.34 and 0.20 respectively. For exchangeable acidity content in 0-20 cm soil from natural forest plot, P. massoniana forest and secondary forest were significantly lower than C. oleifera forest. Compared with bare land, surface soil acidification in unfertilized plots except I. cylindrica land had been accelerated, and the natural secondary forest was the most serious among them, with surface soil pH decreasing by 0.52. However, the pH increased in deep soils from unfertilized plots except natural secondary forest, and I. cylindrica

  4. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  5. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  6. Functional replacement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid synthase with a bacterial type II system allows flexible product profiles.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moya, Ruben; Leber, Christopher; Cardenas, Javier; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    The native yeast type I fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a complex, rigid enzyme, and challenging to engineer for the production of medium- or short-chain fatty acids. Introduction of a type II FAS is a promising alternative as it allows expression control for each discrete enzyme and the addition of heterologous thioesterases. In this study, the native Saccharomyces cerevisiae FAS was functionally replaced by the Escherichia coli type II FAS (eFAS) system. The E. coli acpS + acpP (together), fabB, fabD, fabG, fabH, fabI, fabZ, and tesA were expressed in individual S. cerevisiae strains, and enzyme activity was confirmed by in vitro activity assays. Eight genes were then integrated into the yeast genome, while tesA or an alternate thioesterase gene, fatB from Ricinus communis or TEII from Rattus novergicus, was expressed from a multi-copy plasmid. Native FAS activity was eliminated by knocking out the yeast FAS2 gene. The strains expressing only the eFAS as de novo fatty acid source grew without fatty acid supplementation demonstrating that this type II FAS is able to functionally replace the native yeast FAS. The engineered strain expressing the R. communis fatB thioesterase increased total fatty acid titer 1.7-fold and shifted the fatty acid profile towards C14 production, increasing it from <1% in the native strain to more than 30% of total fatty acids, and reducing C18 production from 39% to 8%. PMID:26084339

  7. Characterisation of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa). Part I: volatiles, aromatic profiles and phenolic acids in the peel.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mun Wai; Chong, Zhi Soon; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Bin Yu

    2012-09-15

    Volatile compounds in the peel of calamansi (Citrus microcarpa) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam were extracted with dichloromethane and hexane, and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy/flame ionisation detector. Seventy-nine compounds representing >98% of the volatiles were identified. Across the three geographical sources, a relatively small proportion of potent oxygenated compounds was significantly different, exemplified by the highest amount of methyl N-methylanthranilate in Malaysian calamansi peel. Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to interpret the complex volatile compounds in the calamansi peel extracts, and to verify the discrimination among the different origins. In addition, four common hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids) were determined in the methanolic extracts of calamansi peel using ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detector. The Philippines calamansi peel contained the highest amount of total phenolic acids. In addition, p-Coumaric acid was the dominant free phenolic acids, whereas ferulic acid was the main bound phenolic acid. PMID:23107679

  8. Evidence of improved serum fatty acid profile of postmenopausal women receiving atorvastatin and raloxifene.

    PubMed

    Piperi, C; Zisaki, K; Skenderi, K; Kalofoutis, C; Kalofoutis, A

    2005-07-01

    Raloxifene and atorvastatin have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with postmenopausal status and it has been postulated that their effects may be partly mediated by favourable changes in serum lipids and fatty acid composition. In the present study, individual administration of either raloxifene (Group A) or atorvastatin (Group B) or both (Group C) was compared for a period of 3 months and their effects on total lipids and fatty acids composition was evaluated. Postmenopausal women receiving both raloxifene and atorvastatin showed significant changes in the majority of serum lipids with important reductions in total cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p < 0.001) and Apo B levels (p < 0.001). Phospholipids concentrations (p < 0.01) as well as Apo A-I were also significantly raised (p < 0.001). Furthermore, oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2) levels were significantly increased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively) followed by a marked reduction in palmitic acid (16:0) and arachidonic acid (20:4) concentrations (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 respectively). The results of the study indicate that the serum lipid and fatty acid composition in postmenopausal women is influenced by the combined treatment of raloxifene and atorvastatin and a further attempt to evaluate the significance of these results is discussed. PMID:16183584

  9. Fatty Acid and Transcriptome Profiling of Longissimus Dorsi Muscles between Pig Breeds Differing in Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kaifan; Shu, Gang; yuan, Fangfang; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Wang, Songbo; Wang, Lina; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Shouquan; Zhang, Yongliang; Li, Yan; Wu, Tongshan; Yuan, Li; Jiang, Qingyan

    2013-01-01

    Fat and lean pig breeds show obvious differences in meat quality characteristics including the fatty acid composition of muscle. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. This study compared meat quality traits between Lantang (a Chinese indigenous breed) and Landrace (a typical lean breed). The Lantang pigs showed higher L* values and intramuscular fat content, lower pH45min, pH24h and shear force in longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle than Landrace (P < 0.05). Fatty acid analysis demonstrated the lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) percentage in Lantang LD than that in Landrace LD (P < 0.05). To further identify candidate genes for fatty acid composition, the transcriptome of LD muscle from the two breeds were measured by microarrays. There were 586 transcripts differentially expressed, of which 267 transcripts were highly expressed in Lantang pigs. After the validation by real-time quantitative PCR, 13 genes were determined as candidate genes for fatty acid composition of muscle, including Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Then, a SCD over-expression plasmid was transfected into C2C12 cells to reveal the effect of SCD on the fatty acid composition in vitro. The results showed that SCD over-expression significantly increased PUFA proportion, while reduced that of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in C2C12 cells (P < 0.05). In summary, this study compared the differences of fatty acid composition and transcriptome in two breeds differing in meat quality, and further identified the novel role of SCD in the regulation of PUFA deposition. PMID:23355796

  10. Fatty acid profile of different species of algae of the Cystoseira genus: a nutraceutical perspective.

    PubMed

    Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Pereira, Hugo; Bruno de Sousa, Carolina; Pilar Rauter, Amélia; Albericio, Fernando; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Varela, João

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of six macroalgae from the Cystoseira genus, namely Cystoseira compressa, Cystoseira humilis, Cystoseira tamariscifolia, Cystoseira nodicaulis, Cystoseira baccata and Cystoseira barbata, was determined. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) corresponded to 29-46% of the total FA detected. C. compressa, C. tamariscifolia and C. nodicaulis stood out for their low PUFA/saturated fatty acid, low n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios as well as favourable unsaturation, atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices, suggesting a high nutritional value with potential applications in the nutraceutical industry. PMID:25554366

  11. Postruminal synthesis modifies the odd- and branched-chain fatty acid profile from the duodenum to milk.

    PubMed

    Vlaeminck, B; Gervais, R; Rahman, M M; Gadeyne, F; Gorniak, M; Doreau, M; Fievez, V

    2015-07-01

    Milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids (OBCFA) have been suggested as potential biomarkers for rumen function. The potential of milk OBCFA as a biomarker depends on whether their profile reflects the profile observed in the duodenum. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the OBCFA profile in duodenum samples is reflected in plasma and milk. For this, 2 dairy cattle experiments were used. In experiment 1, 4 Holstein cows fitted with rumen and proximal duodenum cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of 2 nitrogen levels (143 vs. 110g of crude protein/kg of dry matter for high and low N, respectively) combined with either 1 of the 2 energy sources (i.e., starch from barley, corn, and wheat or fiber from soybean hulls and dehydrated beet pulp). In experiment 2, 4 Holstein cows fitted with rumen and proximal duodenum cannulas were used in a 3×3 Latin square design, with the treatments consisting of 3 diets: (1) RNB-, a diet with a crude protein content of 122g/kg of dry matter, predicted to provide protein digested in the small intestine according to the requirement of the animals, but with a shortage of rumen degradable protein; (2) RNB- to which 6g/d of niacin was added through inclusion in the mineral and vitamin premix, and (3) RNB- to which urea was added to balance rumen degradable N supply resulting in a CP content of 156g/kg of dry matter. In both experiments, samples of duodenal digesta, plasma, and milk were collected and analyzed for fatty acids. Additionally, lipids in plasma samples were separated in lipid classes and analyzed for fatty acids. The OBCFA profile in milk was enriched in 15:0, iso-17:0, anteiso-17:0, and cis-9-17:1 as compared with duodenal samples, and milk secretions even exceeded duodenal flows, which suggests occurrence of postruminal synthesis, such as de novo synthesis, desaturation, and elongation. The postruminal modification of the OBCFA profile might hamper the application of OBCFA

  12. Light-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Profiles of Specific Lipid Classes in Several Freshwater Phytoplankton Species

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Alexander; Piepho, Maike; Harwood, John L.; Guschina, Irina A.; Arts, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    We tested the influence of two light intensities [40 and 300 μmol PAR / (m2s)] on the fatty acid composition of three distinct lipid classes in four freshwater phytoplankton species. We chose species of different taxonomic classes in order to detect potentially similar reaction characteristics that might also be present in natural phytoplankton communities. From samples of the bacillariophyte Asterionella formosa, the chrysophyte Chromulina sp., the cryptophyte Cryptomonas ovata and the zygnematophyte Cosmarium botrytis we first separated glycolipids (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol), phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylserine) as well as non-polar lipids (triacylglycerols), before analyzing the fatty acid composition of each lipid class. High variation in the fatty acid composition existed among different species. Individual fatty acid compositions differed in their reaction to changing light intensities in the four species. Although no generalizations could be made for species across taxonomic classes, individual species showed clear but small responses in their ecologically-relevant omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in terms of proportions and of per tissue carbon quotas. Knowledge on how lipids like fatty acids change with environmental or culture conditions is of great interest in ecological food web studies, aquaculture, and biotechnology, since algal lipids are the most important sources of omega-3 long-chain PUFA for aquatic and terrestrial consumers, including humans. PMID:27014290

  13. TOXICOGENOMIC DISSECTION OF RODENT LIVER TRANSCRIPT PROFILES AFTER EXPOSURE TO PERFLUOROALKYL ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) leads to alterations in the balance between hepatocyte growth and apoptosis, increases in liver to body weight ratios and liver tumors. The perfluoroalkyl acids including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (...

  14. Capillary Electrophoresis Profiles and Fluorophore Components of Humic Acids in Nebraska Corn and Philippine Rice Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As humic substances represent relatively high molecular mass polyelectrolytes containing aromatic, aliphatic and heterocyclic subunits, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an attractive method for “finger-print” characterization of humic acids. In addition, fluorescence excitation-emission ma...

  15. Fatty Acid Profiles for Differentiating Growth Medium Formulations Used to Culture Bacillus cereus T-strain Spores.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Murphy, Devonie L; Robertson, James M; Bannan, Jason D

    2015-07-01

    Microbial biomarkers that indicate aspects of an organism's growth conditions are important targets of forensic research. In this study, we examined fatty acid composition as a signature for the types of complex nutrients in the culturing medium. Bacillus cereus T-strain spores were grown in medium formulations supplemented with one of the following: peptone (meat protein), tryptone (casein protein), soy protein, and brain-heart infusion. Cellular biomass was profiled with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Results showed peptone cultures produced spores enriched in straight-chained lipids. Tryptone cultures produced spores enriched in branched-odd lipids when compared with peptone, soy, and brain-heart formulations. The observed FAME variation was used to construct a set of discriminant functions that could help identify the nutrients in a culturing recipe for an unknown spore sample. Blinded classification tests were most successful for spores grown on media containing peptone and tryptone, showing 88% and 100% correct identification, respectively. PMID:25854710

  16. Fatty acid profiles of ecotypes of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens growing under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Zemanová, Veronika; Pavlík, Milan; Kyjaková, Pavlína; Pavlíková, Daniela

    2015-05-15

    Changes in the fatty acid (FAs) composition in response to the extent of Cd contamination of soils (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg Cd kg(-1)) differed between ecotypes of Noccaea caerulescens originating from France - Ganges, Slovenia - Mežica and Austria - Redlschlag. Mežica ecotype accumulated more Cd in aboveground biomass compared to Ganges and Redlschlag ecotypes. Hyperaccumulators contained saturated fatty acids (SFAs) rarely occurring in plants, as are cerotic (26:0), montanic (28:0), melissic (30:0) acids, and unusual unsaturated fatty acids (USFAs), as are 16:2, 16:3, 20:2 and 20:3. Typical USFAs occurring in the family Brassicaceae, such as erucic, oleic and arachidonic acids, were missing in tested plants. Our results clearly indicate a relationship between Cd accumulation and the FAs composition. The content of SFAs decreased and the content of USFAs increased in aboveground biomass of Ganges and Mežica ecotypes with increasing Cd concentration. Opposite trend of FAs content was determined in Redlschlag ecotype. Linoleic (18:2n-6), α-linolenic (18:3n-3) and palmitic (16:0) acids were found in all ecotypes. The results observed in N. caerulescens ecotypes, showed that mainly Mežica ecotype has an efficient defense strategies which can be related on changes in FAs composition, mainly in VLCFAs synthesis. The most significant effect of ecotype on FAs composition was confirmed using multivariate analysis of variance. PMID:25886397

  17. Domoic acid--a new toxin in the Croatian Adriatic shellfish toxin profile.

    PubMed

    Ujević, Ivana; Ninčević-Gladan, Zivana; Roje, Romana; Skejić, Sanda; Arapov, Jasna; Marasović, Ivona

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study that presents concentrations of domoic acid detected in the whole shellfish tissue from breeding and harvesting areas along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea during the period 2006 to 2008. Shellfish sample analyses after SAX cleaning procedures, using a UV-DAD-HPLC system, showed the presence of domoic acid in four species. The most prevalent of those species were the blue mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), followed by European flat oyster (Ostrea edulis), Mediterranean scallop (Pecten jacobaeus) and proteus scallop (Flexopecten proteus). Domoic acid, a potentially lethal phycotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), was detected for the first time in January 2006 with the highest value of 6.5486 μg g⁻¹ in whole shellfish tissue. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. bloom events preceded these high domoic acid concentrations. According to this study, retention of domoic acid in the blue mussel M. galloprovincialis is more than 42 days. This investigation indicates the first presence of domoic acid in Croatian shellfish, but in concentrations under the regulatory limit (20 μg g⁻¹), therefore shellfish consumption was not found to endanger human health. PMID:20938398

  18. Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E; Galvin, K; O'Connor, T P; Maguire, A R; O'Brien, N M

    2006-01-01

    Nuts contain bioactive constituents that elicit cardio-protective effects including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. The objective of the present study was to determine the total oil content, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and levels of tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols in oil extracted from freshly ground brazil, pecan, pine, pistachio and cashew nuts. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 40.4 to 60.8% (w/w) while the peroxide values ranged from 0.14 to 0.22 mEq O2/kg oil. The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1), while linoleic acid (C18:2) was the most prevalent polyunsaturated fatty acid. The levels of total tocopherols ranged from 60.8 to 291.0 mg/g. Squalene ranged from 39.5 mg/g oil in the pine nut to 1377.8 mg/g oil in the brazil nut. beta-Sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, ranging in concentration from 1325.4 to 4685.9 mg/g oil. In conclusion, the present data indicate that nuts are a good dietary source of unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols. PMID:17127473

  19. Ultraviolet-B radiation modifies the quantitative and qualitative profile of flavonoids and amino acids in grape berries.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Torres, N; Hilbert, G; Richard, T; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Pascual, I; Gomès, E

    2014-06-01

    Grapevine cv. Tempranillo fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to supplemental ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation under controlled conditions, in order to study its effect on grape traits, ripening, amino acids and flavonoid profile. The plants were exposed to two doses of UV-B biologically effective (5.98 and 9.66kJm(-2)d(-1)), applied either from fruit set to ripeness or from the onset of veraison to ripeness. A 0kJm(-2)d(-1) treatment was included as a control. UV-B did not significantly modify grape berry size, but increased the relative mass of berry skin. Time to reach ripeness was not affected by UV-B, which may explain the lack of changes in technological maturity. The concentration of must extractable anthocyanins, colour density and skin flavonols were enhanced by UV-B, especially in plants exposed from fruit set. The quantitative and qualitative profile of grape skin flavonols were modified by UV-B radiation. Monosubstituted flavonols relative abundance increased proportionally to the accumulated UV-B doses. Furthermore, trisubstituted forms, which where predominant in non-exposed berries, were less abundant as UV-B exposure increased. Although total free amino acid content remained unaffected by the treatments, the increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), as well as the decrease in threonine, isoleucine, methionine, serine and glycine, revealed a potential influence of UV-B on the GABA-mediated signalling and amino acid metabolism. UV-B had an overall positive impact on grape berry composition. PMID:24713570

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from different breeds of layers.

    PubMed

    Yin, J D; Shang, X G; Li, D F; Wang, F L; Guan, Y F; Wang, Z Y

    2008-02-01

    Brown Dwarf hens and White Leghorn hens were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets containing 0, 2.5, or 5.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to explore the effects of dietary CLA on the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of egg yolks from laying hens of different breeds. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate, resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of the egg yolks. From d 54 to 56, eggs were collected to measure the cholesterol content of yolks, and on d 56, a hen was selected randomly from each replicate and bled to determine the cholesterol content in plasma. There was a significant effect of layer breed on layer performance and egg composition. Concentrations of stearic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the yolks of Brown Dwarf hens than in those of White Leghorn hens. Enrichment of cis-11, trans-13 was higher in the yolks of White Leghorns, but cis-10, cis-12 was higher in those of Brown Dwarf hens. In contrast, feed intake and egg weight, as well as yolk weight and its ratio to egg, were decreased by the 5% dietary CLA treatment. Egg production and feed efficiency were not affected by dietary CLA. Concentrations of total CLA and CLA isomers in the yolk lipids increased (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Furthermore, yolk cholesterol was increased with increasing dietary CLA (P < 0.01), but this was significantly decreased in Brown Dwarf hens (P < 0.01) by feeding 2.5% CLA. There was no apparent correlation between yolk cholesterol content and serum cholesterol content. In conclusion, Brown Dwarf layers had the breed-specific characteristics of enrichment of CLA isomers and fatty acids in yolk lipids in response to dietary CLA. PMID:18212371

  1. INDUSTRIAL PROCESS PROFILES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL USE: CHAPTER 23. SULFUR, SULFUR OXIDES AND SULFURIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalog of Industrial Process Profiles for Environmental Use was developed as an aid in defining the environmental impacts of industrial activity in the United States. Entries for each industry are in consistent format and form separate chapters of the study. The sulfur indus...

  2. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S. P.; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A.; Rosário Domingues, M.; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers’ interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  3. Potential use of fatty acid profiles of the adductor muscle of cockles (Cerastoderma edule) for traceability of collection site.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Fernando; Pimentel, Tânia; Moreira, Ana S P; Rey, Felisa; Coimbra, Manuel A; Rosário Domingues, M; Domingues, Pedro; Costa Leal, Miguel; Calado, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Geographic traceability of seafood is key for controlling its quality and safeguarding consumers' interest. The present study assessed if the fatty acid (FA) profile of the adductor muscle (AM) of fresh cockles (Cerastoderma edule) can be used to discriminate the origin of specimens collected in different bivalve capture/production areas legally defined within a coastal lagoon. Results suggest that this biochemical approach holds the potential to trace sampling locations with a spatial resolution <10 Km, even for areas with identical classification for bivalve production. Cockles further away from the inlet, i.e. in areas exposed to a higher saline variation, exhibited lower levels of saturated fatty acids, which are key for stabilizing the bilayer structure of cell membranes, and a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which enhance bilayer fluidity. Results suggest that the structural nature of the lipids present in the AM provides a stable fatty acid signature and holds potential for tracing the origin of bivalves to their capture/production areas. PMID:26084395

  4. The Effect of Slaughter Season on the Fatty Acid Profile in Four Types of Fat Deposits in Crossbred Beef Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Wroński, Marek; Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia; Mochol, Magdalena; Rzemieniewski, Arkadiusz; Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Purwin, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of slaughter season on the fatty acid profile in four types of fat deposits in crossbred (Polish Holstein Friesian Black-and-White×Limousine) beef bulls. The percentage share of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography and were divided into the following categories of fatty acids: saturated (SFAs), unsaturated (UFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), polyunsaturated (PUFAs), desirable hypocholesterolemic (DFAs) and undesirable hypercholesterolemic (OFAs), n-3 and n-6. Perinephric fat was characterized by the highest SFA concentrations (59.89%), and subcutaneous fat had the highest MUFA content (50.63%). Intramuscular fat was marked by a high percentage share of PUFAs and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. The slaughter season had a significant effect on the levels of C18:3, C20:4 (p≤0.01) and conjugated linoleic acid (p≤0.05). There was an interaction between the slaughter season and fat type for the content of C20:4 (p≤0.01) and C20:5 (p≤0.05). The results of this study show that beef from cattle slaughtered in the summer season has a higher nutritional value and more health-promoting properties. PMID:25049787

  5. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  6. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    PubMed Central

    Morsy, T. A.; Kholif, S. M.; Kholif, A. E.; Matloup, O. H.; Salem, A. Z. M.; Elella, A. Abu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance. PMID:26104519

  7. Cation profiling of passive films on stainless steel formed in sulphuric and acetic acid by deconvolution of angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Högström, Jonas; Fredriksson, Wendy; Edstrom, Kristina; Björefors, Fredrik; Nyholm, Leif; Olsson, Claes-Olof A.

    2013-11-01

    An approach for determining depth gradients of metal-ion concentrations in passive films on stainless steel using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) is described. The iterative method, which is based on analyses of the oxidised metal peaks, provides increased precision and hence allows faster ARXPS measurements to be carried out. The method was used to determine the concentration depth profiles for molybdenum, iron and chromium in passive films on 316L/EN 1.4432 stainless steel samples oxidised in 0.5 M H2SO4 and acetic acid diluted with 0.02 M Na2B4O7 · 10H2O and 1 M H2O, respectively. The molybdenum concentration in the film is pin-pointed to the oxide/metal interface and the films also contained an iron-ion-enriched surface layer and a chromium-ion-dominated middle layer. Although films of similar composition and thickness (i.e., about 2 nm) were formed in the two electrolytes, the corrosion currents were found to be three orders of magnitude larger in the acetic acid solution. The differences in the layer composition, found for the two electrolytes as well as different oxidation conditions, can be explained based on the oxidation potentials of the metals and the dissolution rates of the different metal ions.

  8. Fatty acid profiles and their distribution patterns in microalgae: a comprehensive analysis of more than 2000 strains from the SAG culture collection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Among the various biochemical markers, fatty acids or lipid profiles represent a chemically relatively inert class of compounds that is easy to isolate from biological material. Fatty acid (FA) profiles are considered as chemotaxonomic markers to define groups of various taxonomic ranks in flowering plants, trees and other embryophytes. Results The fatty acid profiles of 2076 microalgal strains from the culture collection of algae of Göttingen University (SAG) were determined in the stationary phase. Overall 76 different fatty acids and 10 other lipophilic substances were identified and quantified. The obtained FA profiles were added into a database providing information about fatty acid composition. Using this database we tested whether FA profiles are suitable as chemotaxonomic markers. FA distribution patterns were found to reflect phylogenetic relationships at the level of phyla and classes. In contrast, at lower taxonomic levels, e.g. between closely related species and even among multiple isolates of the same species, FA contents may be rather variable. Conclusion FA distribution patterns are suitable chemotaxonomic markers to define taxa of higher rank in algae. However, due to their extensive variation at the species level it is difficult to make predictions about the FA profile in a novel isolate. PMID:21896160

  9. Fatty acid profiling reveals seasonal and spatial shifts in zooplankton diet in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Azeiteiro, U. M.; Pardal, M. A.; De Troch, M.

    2012-08-01

    Fatty acids composition of copepod and cladoceran species and their possible food sources was investigated in the Mondego estuary (southern Europe) in order to explain the seasonal variation of the small copepods Acartia clausi, Acartia tonsa, Copidodiaptomus numidicus, Temora longicornis and the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina. A total of 12 zooplankton species (7 marine, 2 estuarine and 3 freshwater species) were studied. A multivariate analysis revealed a clear seasonal distribution of zooplankton species in terms of fatty acids composition and abundance, with winter and spring zooplankton species showing maximal concentrations and diversity of total fatty acids. These findings underline the role of lipids as storage during the colder seasons in a highly variable environment like an estuary. Estuarine and freshwater species showed a more diverse array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids rather than marine species, except for Centropages typicus. Fatty acids markers of trophic position indicated the presence of two trophic levels: copepod species were primarily omnivorous, whereas cladocerans showed to be herbivorous. Our results suggest that feeding patterns of plankton change spatially and temporally, reflecting the shifts in dominance between diatoms and flagellates as well as between dinoflagellates/diatoms and small animals.

  10. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic profiles of antipsoriatic fumaric acid derivatives in keratinocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Sebök, B; Bonnekoh, B; Geisel, J; Mahrle, G

    1994-01-01

    Oral administration with complex mixtures of fumaric acid derivatives is known to have antipsoriatic efficacy. The present studies aimed to clarify the mode of action and toxicity of the individual compounds. Hyperproliferative HaCaT keratinocytes in monolayer cultures were exposed to fumaric acid, dimethylfumarate, zinc monoethylfumarate, calcium monoethylfumarate and magnesium monoethylfumarate at concentrations between 0.4 microM and 960 microM for 48 h. Cell proliferation was studied by [3H]thymidine incorporation. In addition 14C-labelled amino acid uptake and total protein content were measured. Direct cytotoxicity was determined by the release of cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium. The corresponding 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) were calculated for DNA/protein synthesis: 2.3/2.5 microM (dimethylfumarate), 133/145 microM (zinc monoethylfumarate), 215/230 microM (calcium monoethylfumarate), 275/270 microM (magnesium monoethylfumarate), > 960/> 960 microM (fumaric acid). The total protein content was less sensitive. Antiproliferative activity was found for dimethylfumarate and to a lesser degree for calcium monoethylfumarate already at the subtoxic concentrations of 1.3 and 4 microM, respectively. In the case of magnesium monoethylfumarate, zinc monoethylfumarate and fumaric acid there was no such dissociation between their cytotoxic and antiproliferative potential. These data indicate that most of the antipsoriatic potential of fumaric therapies is due to the dimethylfumarate compound. PMID:8157084

  11. Glycolic Acid Peels/Azelaic Acid 20% Cream Combination and Low Potency Triple Combination Lead to Similar Reduction in Melasma Severity in Ethnic Skin: Results of a Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rahul; Kanwar, Amrinder Jit; Parsad, Davinder; Kumaran, Muthu Sendhil; Sharma, Reena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Numerous therapeutic options have been tried in the management of melasma. Aims and Objectives: This prospective randomized study was planned to assess the efficacy of low potency triple combination (TC) cream (TC-hydroquinone 2%/tretinoin 0.05%/fluocinolone 0.01%) versus glycolic acid (GA) peels/azelaic acid (AA) 20% cream (GA/AA) combination in melasma. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with melasma were recruited into this study and randomized into two groups. Group A consisting 20 patients received TC cream once a day for night time application for 3 months. Group B comprising of 20 patients received GA/AA 20% cream combination for 3 months. The disease severity was monitored with digital photography, melasma area and severity index (MASI) score, which was calculated at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks, and visual analog scale (VAS) score, which was calculated at baseline and 12 weeks. Results: Of 40 patients, 38 were completed the study. A significant reduction in MASI and VAS was recorded after 6 weeks and 12 weeks of treatment in both groups A and B (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the mean MASI scores between the two groups at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Similarly, there was no difference in the mean VAS scores between the two groups at baseline and 12 weeks. Four patients in group A and 3 in group B experienced adverse effects such as irritation, dryness, and photosensitivity. Conclusion: Both low potency TC cream and GA/AA 20% cream combination are effective in treating melasma among Indian patients. PMID:25814702

  12. Profiling of Fatty Acids Composition in Suet Oil Based on GC–EI-qMS and Chemometrics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Jia, Xiaobin

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) composition of suet oil (SO) was measured by precolumn methylesterification (PME) optimized using a Box–Behnken design (BBD) and gas chromatography/electron ionization-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–EI-qMS). A spectral library (NIST 08) and standard compounds were used to identify FAs in SO representing 90.89% of the total peak area. The ten mos