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Sample records for acid protease gene

  1. A novel aspartic acid protease gene from pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus): cloning, characterization and relation to postharvest chilling stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Raimbault, Astrid-Kim; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Soler, Alain; Cruz de Carvalho, Maria H

    2013-11-15

    A full-length cDNA encoding a putative aspartic acid protease (AcAP1) was isolated for the first time from the flesh of pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit. The deduced sequence of AcAP1 showed all the common features of a typical plant aspartic protease phytepsin precursor. Analysis of AcAP1 gene expression under postharvest chilling treatment in two pineapple varieties differing in their resistance to blackheart development revealed opposite trends. The resistant variety showed an up-regulation of AcAP1 precursor gene expression whereas the susceptible showed a down-regulation in response to postharvest chilling treatment. The same trend was observed regarding specific AP enzyme activity in both varieties. Taken together our results support the involvement of AcAP1 in postharvest chilling stress resistance in pineapple fruits. PMID:23838125

  2. Effects of dietary soybean stachyose and phytic acid on gene expressions of serine proteases in Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Haifeng; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Wu, Chenglong; Cai, Yinghua

    2011-09-01

    Soybean stachyose (SBS) and phytic acid (PA) are anti-nutritional factors (ANF) which have deleterious effects on the growth and digestibility in fish. The present research studied the effects of dietary SBS and PA on the expression of three serine protease genes in the liver of Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). These genes are trypsinogen 1 (poTRY), elastase 1 (poEL) and chymotrypsinogen 1 (poCTRY). Eight artificial diets with graded levels of supplemented ANFs were formulated to 4 levels of SBS (0.00, 0.40, 0.80 and 1.50%), 4 levels of PA (0.00, 0.20, 0.40 and 0.80), respectively. Japanese flounder (initial weight 2.45 g ± 0.01 g) were fed with these diets for 10 weeks with three replications per treatment. At the end of 10 weeks, supplementation of 0.40% of dietary SBS or PA significantly increased the gene expression of poTRY and poCTRY ( P<0.05). The same level of dietary SBS significantly decreased the gene expression of poEL. In comparison with the control group (ANF-free), dietary PA (0.2% and 0.8%) significantly decreased the gene expression of poTRY, poCTRY and poEL ( P<0.05). However, excessive supplement of dietary SBS (1.5%) has no significant effects on these gene expressions ( P>0.05). These results suggested that dietary SBS and dietary PA could directly affect the serine protease genes at the transcriptional level in Japanese flounder, and these genes' expression was more sensitive to dietary PA than to SBS under the current experimental conditions.

  3. Use of a cloned multidrug resistance gene for coamplification and overproduction of major excreted protein, a transformation-regulated secreted acid protease

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.E.; Troen, B.R.; Gal, S.; Ueda, K.; Pastan, I.; Gottesman, M.M.

    1988-08-01

    Malignantly transformed mouse fibroblasts synthesize and secrete large amounts of major excreted protein (MEP), a 39,000-dalton precursor to an acid protease (cathepsin L). To evaluate the possible role of this protease in the transformed phenotype, the authors transfected cloned genes for mouse or human MEP into mouse MIH 3T3 cells with an expression vector for the dominant, selectable human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene. The cotransfected MEP sequences were efficiently coamplified and transcribed during stepwise selection for multidrug resistance in colchicine. The transfected NIH 3T3 cell lines containing amplified MEP sequences synthesized as much MEP as did Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. The MEP synthesized by cells transfected with the cloned mouse and human MEP genes were also secreted. Elevated synthesis and secretion of MEP by NIH 3T3 cells did not change the nontransformed phenotype of these cells.

  4. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin/protease (HA/protease) gene and construction of an HA/protease-negative strain.

    PubMed Central

    Häse, C C; Finkelstein, R A

    1991-01-01

    The structural gene hap for the extracellular hemagglutinin/protease (HA/protease) of Vibrio cholerae was cloned and sequenced. The cloned DNA fragment contained a 1,827-bp open reading frame potentially encoding a 609-amino-acid polypeptide. The deduced protein contains a putative signal sequence followed by a large propeptide. The extracellular HA/protease consists of 414 amino acids with a computed molecular weight of 46,700. In the absence of protease inhibitors, this is processed to the 32-kDa form which is usually isolated. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature HA/protease showed 61.5% identity with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. The cloned hap gene was inactivated and introduced into the chromosome of V. cholerae by recombination to construct the HA/protease-negative strain HAP-1. The cloned fragment containing the hap gene was then shown to complement the mutant strain. Images PMID:2045361

  5. Extracellular acid proteases from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, R A; Rhodes, W G; Eirich, L D; Drucker, H

    1982-01-01

    Three electrophoretically distinct acid proteases appear in culture filtrates of Neurospora crassa. Like the previously investigated alkaline and neutral proteases, these enzymes require induction by an exogenous protein. But in contrast to alkaline and neutral proteases, which are synthesized and secreted in response to limitation of any one of three nutrilites (carbon, nitrogen or sulfur), extracellular elaboration of the acidic proteases is more specifically a function of the missing nutrilite. AcP, a pepstatin-inhibitable enzyme similar to other fungal carboxyl proteases, was secreted in large amounts when protein was the sole source of sulfur. Only trace amounts were secreted when nitrogen was the limiting nutrilite, and it was undetectable under carbon limitation. M-1, a chelator-sensitive protease, was secreted when nitrogen or carbon was limiting. M-2, also chelator sensitive, was present only when nitrogen or sulfur was limiting. The evidence presented suggests that the differential regulation of the acidic proteases with respect to nutrilite deprivation may not occur at the level of transcription. AcP and M-2 were partially purified from nitrogen-derepressed cultures by ultrafiltration, cation-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. AcP has a molecular weight of 66,000, is stable from pH 3.0 to 6.0, and is optimally active toward bovine serum albumin at pH 4.0. M-2 has a molecular weight of 18,000, is stable from pH 1.6 to 5.5, and has optimal activity at pH 4.5. Images PMID:6210687

  6. Extracellular acid proteases from Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, R A; Rhodes, W G; Eirich, L D; Drucker, H

    1982-06-01

    Three electrophoretically distinct acid proteases appear in culture filtrates of Neurospora crassa. Like the previously investigated alkaline and neutral proteases, these enzymes require induction by an exogenous protein. But in contrast to alkaline and neutral proteases, which are synthesized and secreted in response to limitation of any one of three nutrilites (carbon, nitrogen or sulfur), extracellular elaboration of the acidic proteases is more specifically a function of the missing nutrilite. AcP, a pepstatin-inhibitable enzyme similar to other fungal carboxyl proteases, was secreted in large amounts when protein was the sole source of sulfur. Only trace amounts were secreted when nitrogen was the limiting nutrilite, and it was undetectable under carbon limitation. M-1, a chelator-sensitive protease, was secreted when nitrogen or carbon was limiting. M-2, also chelator sensitive, was present only when nitrogen or sulfur was limiting. The evidence presented suggests that the differential regulation of the acidic proteases with respect to nutrilite deprivation may not occur at the level of transcription. AcP and M-2 were partially purified from nitrogen-derepressed cultures by ultrafiltration, cation-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. AcP has a molecular weight of 66,000, is stable from pH 3.0 to 6.0, and is optimally active toward bovine serum albumin at pH 4.0. M-2 has a molecular weight of 18,000, is stable from pH 1.6 to 5.5, and has optimal activity at pH 4.5. PMID:6210687

  7. Extracellular acid proteases from Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, R.A.; Rhodes, W.G.; Eirich, L.D.; Drucker, H.

    1982-06-01

    Three electrophoretically distinct acid proteases appear in culture filtrates of Neurospora crassa. Like the previously investigated alkaline and neutral proteases, these enzymes require induction by an exogenous protein. But in contrast to alkaline and neutral proteases, which are synthesized and secreted in response to limitation of any one of three nutrilites (carbon, nitrogen or sulfur), extracellular elaboration of the acidic proteases is more specifically a function of the missing nutrilite. AcP, a pepstatin-inhibitable enzyme similar to other fungal carboxyl proteases, was secreted in large amounts when protein was the sole source of sulfur. Only trace amounts were secreted when nitrogen was the limiting nutrilite, and it was undetectable under carbon limitation. M-1, a chelator-sensitive protease, was secreted when nitrogen or carbon was limiting. M-2, also chelator sensitive, was present only when nitrogen or sulfur was limiting. The evidence presented suggests that the differential regulation of the acidic proteases with respect to nutrilite deprivation may not occur at the level of transcription. AcP and M-2 were partially purified from nitrogen-derepressed cultures by ultrafiltration, cation-exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. AcP has a molecular weight of 66,000, is stable from pH 3.0 to 6.0, and is optimally active toward bovine serum albumin at pH 4.0. M-2 has a molecular weight of 18,000, is stable from pH 1.6 to 5.5, and has optimal activity at pH 4.5.

  8. Leukocyte Protease Binding to Nucleic Acids Promotes Nuclear Localization and Cleavage of Nucleic Acid Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Marshall P.; Whangbo, Jennifer; McCrossan, Geoffrey; Deutsch, Aaron; Martinod, Kimberly; Walch, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Killer lymphocyte granzyme (Gzm) serine proteases induce apoptosis of pathogen-infected cells and tumor cells. Many known Gzm substrates are nucleic acid binding proteins, and the Gzms accumulate in the target cell nucleus by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that human Gzms bind to DNA and RNA with nanomolar affinity. Gzms cleave their substrates most efficiently when both are bound to nucleic acids. RNase treatment of cell lysates reduces Gzm cleavage of RNA binding protein (RBP) targets, while adding RNA to recombinant RBP substrates increases in vitro cleavage. Binding to nucleic acids also influences Gzm trafficking within target cells. Pre-incubation with competitor DNA and DNase treatment both reduce Gzm nuclear localization. The Gzms are closely related to neutrophil proteases, including neutrophil elastase (NE) and cathepsin G (CATG). During neutrophil activation, NE translocates to the nucleus to initiate DNA extrusion into neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which bind NE and CATG. These myeloid cell proteases, but not digestive serine proteases, also bind DNA strongly and localize to nuclei and NETs in a DNA-dependent manner. Thus, high affinity nucleic acid binding is a conserved and functionally important property specific to leukocyte serine proteases. Furthermore, nucleic acid binding provides an elegant and simple mechanism to confer specificity of these proteases for cleavage of nucleic acid binding protein substrates that play essential roles in cellular gene expression and cell proliferation. PMID:24771851

  9. Analysis of the immunoglobulin A protease gene of Streptococcus sanguis.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, J V; Plaut, A G; Wright, A

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequence T-P-P-T-P-S-P-S is tandemly duplicated in the heavy chain of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), the major antibody in secretions. The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus sanguis, a precursor to dental caries and a cause of bacterial endocarditis, yields IgA protease that cleaves only the Pro-Thr peptide bond in the left duplication, while the type 2 IgA proteases of the genital pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the respiratory pathogen Haemophilus influenzae cleave only the P-T bond in the right half. We have sequenced the entire S. sanguis iga gene cloned into Escherichia coli. A segment consisting of 20 amino acids tandemly repeated 10 times, of unknown function, occurs near the amino-terminal end of the enzyme encoded in E. coli. Identification of a predicted zinc-binding region in the S. sanguis enzyme and the demonstration that mutations in this region result in production of a catalytically inactive protein support the idea that the enzyme is a metalloprotease. The N. gonorrhoeae and H. influenzae enzymes were earlier shown to be serine-type proteases, while the Bacteroides melaninogenicus IgA protease was shown to be a cysteine-type enzyme. The streptococcal IgA protease amino acid sequence has no significant homology with either of the two previously determined IgA protease sequences, that of type 2 N. gonorrhoeae and type 1 H. influenzae. The differences in both structure and mechanism among these functionally analogous enzymes underscore their role in the infectious process and offer some prospect of therapeutic intervention. Images PMID:1987065

  10. Expression of aspartyl protease and C3HC4-type RING zinc finger genes are responsive to ascorbic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yongshun; Nishikawa, Hitoshi; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Shibata, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA) is a redox buffer and enzyme cofactor with various proposed functions in stress responses and growth. The aim was to identify genes whose transcript levels respond to changes in leaf AsA. The AsA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant vtc2-1 was incubated with the AsA precursor L-galactono-1,4-lactone (L-GalL) to increase leaf AsA concentration. Differentially expressed genes screened by DNA microarray were further characterized for AsA responsiveness in wild-type plants. The analysis of 14 candidates by real-time PCR identified an aspartyl protease gene (ASP, At1g66180) and a C3HC4-type RING zinc finger gene (AtATL15, At1g22500) whose transcripts were rapidly responsive to increases in AsA pool size caused by L-GalL and AsA supplementation and light. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing an AtATL15 promoter::luciferase reporter confirmed that the promoter is L-GalL, AsA, and light responsive. The expression patterns of ASP and AtATL15 suggest they have roles in growth regulation. The promoter of AtATL15 is responsive to AsA status and will provide a tool to investigate the functions of AsA in plants further. PMID:21421703

  11. Expression of aspartyl protease and C3HC4-type RING zinc finger genes are responsive to ascorbic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongshun; Nishikawa, Hitoshi; Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Shibata, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Ishikawa, Takahiro

    2011-06-01

    Ascorbate (AsA) is a redox buffer and enzyme cofactor with various proposed functions in stress responses and growth. The aim was to identify genes whose transcript levels respond to changes in leaf AsA. The AsA-deficient Arabidopsis mutant vtc2-1 was incubated with the AsA precursor L-galactono-1,4-lactone (L-GalL) to increase leaf AsA concentration. Differentially expressed genes screened by DNA microarray were further characterized for AsA responsiveness in wild-type plants. The analysis of 14 candidates by real-time PCR identified an aspartyl protease gene (ASP, At1g66180) and a C3HC4-type RING zinc finger gene (AtATL15, At1g22500) whose transcripts were rapidly responsive to increases in AsA pool size caused by L-GalL and AsA supplementation and light. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing an AtATL15 promoter::luciferase reporter confirmed that the promoter is L-GalL, AsA, and light responsive. The expression patterns of ASP and AtATL15 suggest they have roles in growth regulation. The promoter of AtATL15 is responsive to AsA status and will provide a tool to investigate the functions of AsA in plants further. PMID:21421703

  12. The dsbB gene product is required for protease production by Burkholderia cepacia.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, M; Nakazawa, T

    1996-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia KF1, isolated from a pneumonia patient, produces a 37-kDa extracellular metalloprotease. A protease-deficient and lipase-proficient mutant, KFT1007, was complemented by a clone having an open reading frame coding for a 170-amino-acid polypeptide which showed significant homology to Escherichia coli DsbB. KFT1007, a presumed dsbB mutant, also failed to show motility, and both protease secretion and motility were restored by the introduction of the cloned dsbB gene of B. cepacia. The mutant KFT1007 excreted a 43-kDa polypeptide that is immunologically related to the 37-kDa mature protease. These results suggested that the dsbB mutant secretes a premature and catalytically inactive form of protease and that disulfide formation is required for the production of extracellular protease by B. cepacia. PMID:8926116

  13. Acid phosphatase and protease activities in immobilized rat skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzmann, F. A.; Troup, J. P.; Fitts, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of hind-limb immobilization on selected Iysosomal enzyme activities was studied in rat hing-limb muscles composed primarily of type 1. 2A, or 2B fibers. Following immobilization, acid protease and acid phosphatase both exhibited signifcant increases in their activity per unit weight in all three fiber types. Acid phosphatase activity increased at day 14 of immobilization in the three muscles and returned to control levels by day 21. Acid protease activity also changed biphasically, displaying a higher and earlier rise than acid phosphatase. The pattern of change in acid protease, but not acid phosphatase, closely parallels observed muscle wasting. The present data therefore demonstrate enhanced proteolytic capacity of all three fiber types early during muscular atrophy. In addition, the data suggest a dependence of basal hydrolytic and proteolytic activities and their adaptive response to immobilization on muscle fiber composition.

  14. Leishmania aethiopica: identification and characterization of cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes.

    PubMed

    Kuru, Teklu; Jirata, Dagim; Genetu, Abebe; Barr, Stephen; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abraham; Gedamu, Lashitew

    2007-03-01

    There is limited information on the biology and pathogenesis of Leishmania aethiopica, causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Ethiopia. In this study we have identified and characterized two cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes, Laecpa and Laecpb, from L. aethiopica. The predicted amino acid sequence of Laecpa and Laecpb is more than 75% identical with homologous cathepsin L-like cysteine protease genes of other Leishmania species and less than 50% identical with human cathepsin L. Laecpa is expressed predominantly in the stationary, and to a lower level, during the amastigote stage while Laecpb is specifically expressed in the stationary stage of L. aethiopica development. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the two genes are grouped into separate clades which are the result of gene duplication. The isolation of these genes will be useful in developing Leishmania species specific diagnostics for molecular epidemiological studies and serves as a first step to study the role of cysteine proteases in L. aethiopica pathogenesis. PMID:17083936

  15. Detergent alkaline proteases: enzymatic properties, genes, and crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Katsuhisa; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Tohru; Ito, Susumu

    2007-06-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases from bacilli have been used in various industrial fields worldwide, particularly in the production of laundry and automatic dishwashing detergents. They belong to family A of the subtilase superfamily, which is composed of three clans, namely, true subtilisins, high-alkaline proteases, and intracellular proteases. We succeeded in the large-scale production of a high-alkaline protease (M-protease) from alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16, and the enzyme has been introduced into compact heavy-duty laundry detergents. We have also succeeded in the industrial-scale production of a new alkaline protease, KP-43, which was originally resistant to chemical oxidants and to surfactants, produced by alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-KP43 and have incorporated it into laundry detergents. KP-43 and related proteases form a new clan, oxidatively stable proteases, in subtilase family A. In this review, we describe the enzymatic properties, gene sequences, and crystal structures of M-protease, KP-43, and related enzymes. PMID:17630120

  16. Four Amino Acid Changes in HIV-2 Protease Confer Class-Wide Sensitivity to Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert A.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protease is essential for retroviral replication, and protease inhibitors (PI) are important for treating HIV infection. HIV-2 exhibits intrinsic resistance to most FDA-approved HIV-1 PI, retaining clinically useful susceptibility only to lopinavir, darunavir, and saquinavir. The mechanisms for this resistance are unclear; although HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases share just 38 to 49% sequence identity, all critical structural features of proteases are conserved. Structural studies have implicated four amino acids in the ligand-binding pocket (positions 32, 47, 76, and 82). We constructed HIV-2ROD9 molecular clones encoding the corresponding wild-type HIV-1 amino acids (I32V, V47I, M76L, and I82V) either individually or together (clone PRΔ4) and compared the phenotypic sensitivities (50% effective concentration [EC50]) of mutant and wild-type viruses to nine FDA-approved PI. Single amino acid replacements I32V, V47I, and M76L increased the susceptibility of HIV-2 to multiple PI, but no single change conferred class-wide sensitivity. In contrast, clone PRΔ4 showed PI susceptibility equivalent to or greater than that of HIV-1 for all PI. We also compared crystallographic structures of wild-type HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases complexed with amprenavir and darunavir to models of the PRΔ4 enzyme. These models suggest that the amprenavir sensitivity of PRΔ4 is attributable to stabilizing enzyme-inhibitor interactions in the P2 and P2′ pockets of the protease dimer. Together, our results show that the combination of four amino acid changes in HIV-2 protease confer a pattern of PI susceptibility comparable to that of HIV-1, providing a structural rationale for intrinsic HIV-2 PI resistance and resolving long-standing questions regarding the determinants of differential PI susceptibility in HIV-1 and HIV-2. IMPORTANCE Proteases are essential for retroviral replication, and HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases share a great deal of structural similarity. However, only three of nine

  17. Chymotrypsin protease inhibitor gene family in rice: Genomic organization and evidence for the presence of a bidirectional promoter shared between two chymotrypsin protease inhibitor genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amanjot; Sahi, Chandan; Grover, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Protease inhibitors play important roles in stress and developmental responses of plants. Rice genome contains 17 putative members in chymotrypsin protease inhibitor (ranging in size from 7.21 to 11.9 kDa) gene family with different predicted localization sites. Full-length cDNA encoding for a putative subtilisin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor (OCPI2) was obtained from Pusa basmati 1 (indica) rice seedlings. 620 bp-long OCPI2 cDNA contained 219 bp-long ORF, coding for 72 amino acid-long 7.7 kDa subtilisin-chymotrypsin protease inhibitor (CPI) cytoplasmic protein. Expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that OCPI2 transcript is induced by varied stresses including salt, ABA, low temperature and mechanical injury in both root and shoot tissues of the seedlings. Transgenic rice plants produced with OCPI2 promoter-gus reporter gene showed that this promoter directs high salt- and ABA-regulated expression of the GUS gene. Another CPI gene (OCPI1) upstream to OCPI2 (with 1126 bp distance between the transcription initiation sites of the two genes; transcription in the reverse orientation) was noted in genome sequence of rice genome. A vector that had GFP and GUS reporter genes in opposite orientations driven by 1881 bp intergenic sequence between the OCPI2 and OCPI1 (encompassing the region between the translation initiation sites of the two genes) was constructed and shot in onion epidermal cells by particle bombardment. Expression of both GFP and GUS from the same epidermal cell showed that this sequence represents a bidirectional promoter. Examples illustrating gene pairs showing co-expression of two divergent neighboring genes sharing a bidirectional promoter have recently been extensively worked out in yeast and human systems. We provide an example of a gene pair constituted of two homologous genes showing co-expression governed by a bidirectional promoter in rice. PMID:18952157

  18. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327bp encoding 109 amino acids w...

  19. Production, characterization, gene cloning, and nematocidal activity of the extracellular protease from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N4.

    PubMed

    Jankiewicz, Urszula; Larkowska, Ewa; Swiontek Brzezinska, Maria

    2016-06-01

    A rhizosphere strain of the bacterium Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N4 secretes the serine protease PN4, whose molecular mass is approximately 42 kDa. The optimal temperature for the enzyme activity of the 11-fold purified protein was 50°C and the optimal pH was 10.5. The activity of the enzyme was strongly inhibited by specific serine protease inhibitors, which allowed for its classification as an alkaline serine protease family. Ca(2+) ions stimulated the activity of the protease PN4, while Mg(2+) ions stabilized its activity, and Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions strongly inhibited its activity. The enzyme has broad substrate specificity. For example, it is able to hydrolyse casein, keratin, albumin, haemoglobin, and gelatin, as well as the insoluble modified substrates azure keratin and azocoll. The gene that encodes the 1740 bp precursor form of the enzyme (accession number: LC031815) was cloned. We then deduced that its amino acid sequence includes the region of the conserved domain of the S8 family of peptidases as well as the catalytic triad Asp/His/Ser. The bacterial culture fluid as well as the purified protease PN4 demonstrated biocidal activity with regard to the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus spp. PMID:26896861

  20. Optimum production and characterization of an acid protease from marine yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii W6b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Peng, Ying; Wang, Xianghong; Chi, Zhenming

    2010-12-01

    The marine yeast strain W6b isolated from sediment of the South China Sea was found to produce a cell-bound acid protease. The crude acid protease produced by this marine yeast showed the highest activity at pH 3.5 and 40 °C. The optimal pH and temperature for the crude acid protease were in agreement with those for acid protease produced by the terrestrial yeasts. The optimal medium of the acid protease production was seawater containing 1.0% glucose, 1.5% casein, and 0.5% yeast extract, and the optimal cultivation conditions of the acid protease production were pH 4.0, a temperature of 25 °C and a shaking speed of 140 rmin-1. Under the optimal conditions, 72.5 UmL-1 of acid protease activity could be obtained in cell suspension within 48 h of fermentation at shake flask level. The acid protease production was induced by high-molecular-weight nitrogen sources and repressed by low-molecular-weight nitrogen sources. Skimmed-milk-clotting test showed that the crude acid protease from the cell suspension of the yeast W6b had high skimmed milk coagulability. The acid protease produced by M. reukaufii W6b may have highly potential applications in cheese, food and fermentation industries.

  1. Characterization and gene cloning of a novel serine protease with nematicidal activity from Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei-Lei; Liu, Li-Jun; Shi, Mei; Song, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Chang-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2009-10-01

    Trichoderma pseudokoningii SMF2 is a biocontrol fungus with inhibitory ability against phytopathogenic fungi. Here, a crude extract of strain SMF2 in a solid ferment exhibited strong nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita, and a novel serine protease SprT with nematicidal activity was purified from the crude extract. Protease SprT has a molecular mass of 31 kDa, a pH optimum of 8.5, and a temperature optimum of 60-65 degrees C. It had good thermostability, and was stable in an alkaline environment. SprT could degrade bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, and gelatin, and its activity was enhanced by many metal ions. The cuticles of nematodes treated by protease SprT obviously crimpled. Purified protease SprT could kill juveniles of M. incognita and inhibit egg hatch, suggesting that it is involved in the nematicidal process of T. pseudokoningii SMF2. The full-length cDNA gene-encoding protease SprT was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Sequence analysis showed that SprT is a monodomain subtilase containing 284 amino acid residues. It had higher identities and a closer relation to the nematicidal serine proteases (59-69%) from nematode parasitic fungi than to the serine proteases (<50%) from Trichoderma. Protease SprT represents the first well-characterized subtilase with nematicidal activity from Trichoderma. PMID:19702879

  2. Human mast cell tryptase: Multiple cDNAs and genes reveal a multigene serine protease family

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderslice, P.; Ballinger, S.M., Tam, E.K.; Goldstein, S.M.; Craik, C.S.; Caughey, G.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Three different cDNAs and a gene encoding human skin mast cell tryptase have been cloned and sequenced in their entirety. The deduced amino acid sequences reveal a 30-amino acid prepropeptide followed by a 245-amino acid catalytic domain. The C-terminal undecapeptide of the human preprosequence is identical in dog tryptase and appears to be part of a prosequence unique among serine proteases. The differences among the three human tryptase catalytic domains include the loss of a consensus N-glycosylation site in one cDNA, which may explain some of the heterogeneity in size and susceptibility to deglycosylation seen in tryptase preparations. All three tryptase cDNAs are distinct from a recently reported cDNA obtained from a human lung mast cell library. A skin tryptase cDNA was used to isolate a human tryptase gene, the exons of which match one of the skin-derived cDNAs. The organization of the {approx}1.8-kilobase-pair tryptase gene is unique and is not closely related to that of any other mast cell or leukocyte serine protease. The 5{prime} regulatory regions of the gene share features with those of other serine proteases, including mast cell chymase, but are unusual in being separated from the protein-coding sequence by an intron. High-stringency hybridization of a human genomic DNA blot with a fragment of the tryptase gene confirms the presence of multiple tryptase genes. These findings provide genetic evidence that human mast cell tryptases are the products of a multigene family.

  3. Characterization of the Treponema denticola prtP gene encoding a prolyl-phenylalanine-specific protease (dentilisin).

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, K; Miura, T; Kuramitsu, H K; Okuda, K

    1996-01-01

    A chymotrypsin-like protease from Treponema denticola ATCC 35405 was purified by chromatographic techniques. The purified enzyme consisted of three polypeptides (38, 43, and 72 kDa). The protease exhibited specificity for peptide bonds containing phenylalanine and proline at the P1 and P2 positions, respectively, and was classified as a serine protease on the basis of inhibition studies. Naturally occurring protease inhibitors such as alpha1-antitrypsin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin had no effect on enzymatic activity. The enzyme degraded fibronectin, alpha1-antitrypsin, and gelatin while weakly degrading the immunoglobulin G heavy chain and type IV collagen. N-terminal amino acid sequences were determined for the 43- and 72-kDa proteins. On the basis of these sequences, the genes coding for the 43- and 72-kDa proteins were isolated and sequenced. The open reading frame which codes for the 72-kDa protein was designated prtP. This gene consists of 2,169 bp and codes for a protein with an Mr of 77,471. The protein appeared to be composed of a signal peptide region followed by a prosequence and the mature protein domain. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited similarity with that of the Bacillus subtilis serine protease subtilisin. The deduced properties of the sequence suggest that the 72-kDa protein is a chymotrypsin-like protease. However, the nature and function of the 43-kDa protein have not yet been determined. PMID:8945563

  4. Gene identification and molecular characterization of solvent stable protease from a moderately haloalkaliphilic bacterium, Geomicrobium sp. EMB2.

    PubMed

    Karan, Ram; Singh, Raj Kumar Mohan; Kapoor, Sanjay; Khare, S K

    2011-02-01

    Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding a solvent-tolerant protease from the haloalkaliphilic bacterium Geomicrobium sp. EMB2 are described. Primers designed based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified EMB2 protease helped in the amplification of a 1,505-bp open reading frame that had a coding potential of a 42.7-kDa polypeptide. The deduced EMB2 protein contained a 35.4-kDa mature protein of 311 residues, with a high proportion of acidic amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis placed the EMB2 gene close to a known serine protease from Bacillus clausii KSM-K16. Primary sequence analysis indicated a hydrophobic inclination of the protein; and the 3D structure modeling elucidated a relatively higher percentage of small (glycine, alanine, and valine) and borderline (serine and threonine) hydrophobic residues on its surface. The structure analysis also highlighted enrichment of acidic residues at the cost of basic residues. The study indicated that solvent and salt stabilities in Geomicrobium sp. protease may be accorded to different structural features; that is, the presence of a number of small hydrophobic amino acid residues on the surface and a higher content of acidic amino acid residues, respectively. PMID:21364294

  5. Using in silico techniques: Isolation and characterization of an insect cuticle-degrading-protease gene from Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Wang, Xuewen; Khan, Afsar; Xu, Jianchu; Li, Meng; Tao, Lihong; Khan, Siraj; Karunarathna, Samantha C

    2016-08-01

    Cuticle-degrading-proteases (CDPs) secreted by Beauveria spp. are pivotal biocontrol substances, possessing commercial potential for developing bio-pesticides. Therefore, a thoughtful and contemplative understanding and assessment of the structural and functional features of these proteases would markedly assist the development of biogenic pesticides. Computational molecular biology is a new facile alternative approach to the tedious experimental molecular biology; therefore, by using bioinformatics tools, we isolated and characterized an insect CDP gene from Beauveria bassiana 70 s.l. genomic DNA. The CDP gene (1240 bp with GeneBank accession no. KT804651.1) consisted of three introns and four CDS exons, and shared 74-100% sequence identity to the reference CDP genes. Its phylogenetic tree results showed a unique evolution pattern, and the predicted amino acid peptide (PAAP) consisted of 344 amino acid residues with pI, molecular weight, instability index, grand average hydropathicity value and aliphatic index of 7.2, 35.4 kDa, 24.45, -0.149, and 76.63, respectively. The gene possessed 74-89% amino acid sequence similarity to the 12 reference strains. Three motifs (Peptidase_S8 subtilase family) were detected in the PAAP, and the computed 3D structure possessed 79.09% structural identity to alkaline serine proteases. The PAAP had four (three serine proteases and one Pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase) conserved domains, a disulfide bridge, two calcium binding sites, MY domain, and three predicted active sites in the serine family domains. These results will set the groundwork for further exploitation of proteases and understanding the mechanism of disease caused by cuticle-degrading-serine-proteases from entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:27287496

  6. Salicylic acid induced cysteine protease activity during programmed cell death in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Judit; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2016-06-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR), a type of programmed cell death (PCD) during biotic stress is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). The aim of this work was to reveal the role of proteolysis and cysteine proteases in the execution of PCD in response of SA. Tomato plants were treated with sublethal (0.1 mM) and lethal (1 mM) SA concentrations through the root system. Treatment with 1 mM SA increased the electrolyte leakage and proteolytic activity and reduced the total protein content of roots after 6 h, while the proteolytic activity did not change in the leaves and in plants exposed to 0.1 mM SA. The expression of the papain-type cysteine protease SlCYP1, the vacuolar processing enzyme SlVPE1 and the tomato metacaspase SlMCA1 was induced within the first three hours in the leaves and after 0.5 h in the roots in the presence of 1 mM SA but the transcript levels did not increase significantly at sublethal SA. The Bax inhibitor-1 (SlBI-1), an antiapoptotic gene was over-expressed in the roots after SA treatments and it proved to be transient in the presence of sublethal SA. Protease inhibitors, SlPI2 and SlLTC were upregulated in the roots by sublethal SA but their expression remained low at 1 mM SA concentration. It is concluded that in contrast to leaves the SA-induced PCD is associated with increased proteolytic activity in the root tissues resulting from a fast up-regulation of specific cysteine proteases and down-regulation of protease inhibitors. PMID:27165526

  7. New insights into the evolution of subtilisin-like serine protease genes in Pezizomycotina

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Subtilisin-like serine proteases play an important role in pathogenic fungi during the penetration and colonization of their hosts. In this study, we perform an evolutionary analysis of the subtilisin-like serine protease genes of subphylum Pezizomycotina to find if there are similar pathogenic mechanisms among the pathogenic fungi with different life styles, which utilize subtilisin-like serine proteases as virulence factors. Within Pezizomycotina, nematode-trapping fungi are unique because they capture soil nematodes using specialized trapping devices. Increasing evidence suggests subtilisin-like serine proteases from nematode-trapping fungi are involved in the penetration and digestion of nematode cuticles. Here we also conduct positive selection analysis on the subtilisin-like serine protease genes from nematode-trapping fungi. Results Phylogenetic analysis of 189 subtilisin-like serine protease genes from Pezizomycotina suggests five strongly-supported monophyletic clades. The subtilisin-like serine protease genes previously identified or presumed as endocellular proteases were clustered into one clade and diverged the earliest in the phylogeny. In addition, the cuticle-degrading protease genes from entomopathogenic and nematode-parasitic fungi were clustered together, indicating that they might have overlapping pathogenic mechanisms against insects and nematodes. Our experimental bioassays supported this conclusion. Interestingly, although they both function as cuticle-degrading proteases, the subtilisin-like serine protease genes from nematode-trapping fungi and nematode-parasitic fungi were not grouped together in the phylogenetic tree. Our evolutionary analysis revealed evidence for positive selection on the subtilisin-like serine protease genes of the nematode-trapping fungi. Conclusions Our study provides new insights into the evolution of subtilisin-like serine protease genes in Pezizomycotina. Pezizomycotina subtilisins most likely evolved

  8. Identification of two new keratinolytic proteases from a Bacillus pumilus strain using protein analysis and gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fellahi, Soltana; Chibani, Abdelwaheb; Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The Bacillus strain (CCUG 66887) has a high capacity to excrete keratinase with the ability to degrade both alpha- and beta keratin. In this study we aimed to show the characteristics of the keratinolytic protease and to identify its gene by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry methods (nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) followed by Mascot data base search. The results showed that the enzyme in fact consists of two different keratinases, both with a molecular mass of 38 kDa. Further, DNA sequencing generated the open reading frame (ORF) of one of the genes (Ker1), and de novo genome sequencing identified the ORF of the second gene (Ker2). The two keratinase genes contain 1153 base pairs each and have a gene similarity of 67 %. In addition, the Bacillus strain was classified as Bacillus pumilus and its genes were annotated in the GeneBank at NCBI (accession: CP011109.1). Amino acid sequences alignment with known B. pumilus proteases indicated that the two keratinases of B. pumilus strain C4 are subtilisin-like serine proteases belonging to the Protease S8 family. Taken together, these result suggest the two keratinases as promising candidates for enzymatic processing of keratinous wastes in waste refinery. PMID:27363997

  9. Identification and Partial Characterization of Extracellular Aspartic Protease Genes from Metschnikowia pulcherrima IWBT Y1123 and Candida apicola IWBT Y1384

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Vernita J.; Theron, Louwrens W.; du Toit, Maret

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular acid proteases of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts may fulfill a number of roles in winemaking, which include increasing the available nitrogen sources for the growth of fermentative microbes, affecting the aroma profile of the wine, and potentially reducing protein haze formation. These proteases, however, remain poorly characterized, especially at genetic level. In this study, two extracellular aspartic protease-encoding genes were identified and sequenced, from two yeast species of enological origin: one gene from Metschnikowia pulcherrima IWBT Y1123, named MpAPr1, and the other gene from Candida apicola IWBT Y1384, named CaAPr1. In silico analysis of these two genes revealed a number of features peculiar to aspartic protease genes, and both the MpAPr1 and CaAPr1 putative proteins showed homology to proteases of yeast genera. Heterologous expression of MpAPr1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae YHUM272 confirmed that it encodes an aspartic protease. MpAPr1 production, which was shown to be constitutive, and secretion were confirmed in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), casein, and grape juice proteins. The MpAPr1 gene was found to be present in 12 other M. pulcherrima strains; however, plate assays revealed that the intensity of protease activity was strain dependent and unrelated to the gene sequence. PMID:22820332

  10. Isolation of the human PC6 gene encoding the putative host protease for HIV-1 gp160 processing in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, L; Wolf, J; Pichuantes, S; Duke, R; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Production of infectious HIV-1 virions is dependent on the processing of envelope glycoprotein gp160 by a host cell protease. The protease in human CD4+ T lymphocytes has not been unequivocally identified, yet members of the family of mammalian subtilisin-like protein convertases (SPCs), which are soluble or membrane-bound proteases of the secretory pathway, best fulfill the criteria. These proteases are required for proprotein maturation and cleave at paired basic amino acid motifs in numerous cellular and viral glycoprotein precursors, both in vivo and in vitro. To identify the gp160 processing protease, we have used reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analyses to ascertain the spectrum of SPC proteases in human CD4+ T cells. We have cloned novel members of the SPC family, known as the human PC6 genes. Two isoforms of the hPC6 protease are expressed in human T cells, hPC6A and the larger hPC6B. The patterns of SPC gene expression in human T cells has been compared with the furin-defective LoVo cell line, both of which are competent in the production of infectious HIV virions. This comparison led to the conclusion that the hPC6 gene products are the most likely candidates for the host cell protease responsible for HIV-1 gp160 processing in human CD4+ T cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8755538

  11. Cloning, expression, and sequencing of a protease gene (tpr) from Porphyromonas gingivalis W83 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeau, G; Lapointe, H; Péloquin, P; Mayrand, D

    1992-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a highly proteolytic organism which metabolizes small peptides and amino acids. Indirect evidence suggests that the proteases produced by this microorganism constitute an important virulence factor. In this study, a gene bank of P. gingivalis W83 DNA was constructed by cloning 0.5- to 20-kb HindIII-cut DNA fragments into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha by using the plasmid vector pUC19. A clone expressing a protease from P. gingivalis was isolated on LB agar containing 1% skim milk. The clone contained a 3.0-kb insert that coded for a protease with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa. Sequencing part of the 3.0-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 482 amino acids with a molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. Putative promoter and termination elements flanking the open reading frame were identified. The activity expressed in E. coli was extensively characterized by using various substrates and protease inhibitors, and the results suggest that it is possibly a thiol protease. Images PMID:1322368

  12. Scouring Potential of Mesophile Acidic Proteases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa for Grey Cotton Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, D.

    2013-04-01

    Mesophile, acidic proteases were produced using the microbial source, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with wider thermal tolerances. Process conditions of scouring treatment were optimized using Taguchi method for optimum temperature, time, pH and concentration of protease. Treatment with the protease lower weight loss values compared to the alkali scouring, however, significant improvement in the absorbency compared to the grey samples was observed. Large amounts of pectin left out in the samples resulted in higher extractable impurities, substantiated by the FTIR results. Relatively, lower reduction in the tear strengths was observed in both warp and weft directions after protease treatment of the cotton fabrics.

  13. Cloning and expression analysis of cysteine protease gene (MwCP) in Agropyron mongolicum Keng.

    PubMed

    Ao, T G B Y; Lang, M L; Li, Y Q; Zhao, Y; Wang, L C; Yang, X J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a cysteine protease gene (MwCP) from Agropyron mongolicum Keng was isolated using RACE. Sequence analysis indicated that MwCP was 1473 bp, and it contained a 1134-bp open reading frame, which encoded 377 amino acids with a 24-amino acid N-terminal signal peptide. The results indicated that the MwCP protein was a new member of the papain C1A family, and it was predicted to be an extracellular, secretory stable hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure of MwCP was mainly composed of α-helices and random coils, and the space structure primarily contained α-helices, β-sheets, and β-turns. Homology analyses showed the 98% homology between MwCP amino acids and a cysteine protease found in Triticum aestivum (GenBank accession No. AAW21813.1). Analysis of mRNA using semi-quantitative RT-PCR indicated that during a 48-h drought stress period, MwCP was expressed during the 4th hour, and the expression level peaked during the 6th hour before declining to the original level. The results revealed that MwCP was involved in drought-resistant physiological processes of A. mongolicum. Moreover, the MwCP expression levels were highest in leaves, intermediate in roots, and lowest in stems. PMID:26909915

  14. Gene characterization of two digestive serine proteases in orange blossom wheat midge (Sitodiplosis mosellana)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two full length cDNA sequences, encoding digestive serine proteases (designated as SmPROT-1 and SmPROT-2), were recovered from the midgut of the wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana in an ongoing EST project. The deduced amino acid sequences shared homology with digestive serine proteases from insect...

  15. Ginkgolic acid inhibits HIV protease activity and HIV infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Yan, Shaoyu; Jamaluddin, Saha; Weakley, Sarah M.; Liang, Zhengdong; Siwak, Edward B.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Several HIV protease mutations, which are resistant to clinical HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), have been identified. There is a great need for second-generation PIs with different chemical structures and/or with an alternative mode of inhibition. Ginkgolic acid is a natural herbal substance and a major component of the lipid fraction in the nutshells of the Ginkgo biloba tree. The objective of this study was to determine whether ginkgolic acid could inhibit HIV protease activity in a cell free system and HIV infection in human cells. Material/Methods Purified ginkgolic acid and recombinant HIV-1 HXB2 KIIA protease were used for the HIV protease activity assay. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used for HIV infection (HIV-1SF162 virus), determined by a p24gag ELISA. Cytotoxicity was also determined. Results Ginkgolic acid (31.2 μg/ml) inhibited HIV protease activity by 60%, compared with the negative control, and the effect was concentration-dependent. In addition, ginkgolic acid treatment (50 and 100 μg/ml) effectively inhibited the HIV infection at day 7 in a concentration-dependent manner. Ginkgolic acid at a concentration of up to 150 μg/ml demonstrated very limited cytotoxicity. Conclusions Ginkgolic acid effectively inhibits HIV protease activity in a cell free system and HIV infection in PBMCs without significant cytotoxicity. Ginkgolic acid may inhibit HIV protease through different mechanisms than current FDA-approved HIV PI drugs. These properties of ginkgolic acid make it a promising therapy for HIV infection, especially as the clinical problem of viral resistance to HIV PIs continues to grow. PMID:22847190

  16. Identification of novel secreted proteases during extracellular proteolysis by dermatophytes at acidic pH.

    PubMed

    Sriranganadane, Dev; Waridel, Patrice; Salamin, Karine; Feuermann, Marc; Mignon, Bernard; Staib, Peter; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Quadroni, Manfredo; Monod, Michel

    2011-11-01

    The dermatophytes are a group of closely related fungi which are responsible for the great majority of superficial mycoses in humans and animals. Among various potential virulence factors, their secreted proteolytic activity attracts a lot of attention. Most dermatophyte-secreted proteases which have so far been isolated in vitro are neutral or alkaline enzymes. However, inspection of the recently decoded dermatophyte genomes revealed many other hypothetical secreted proteases, in particular acidic proteases similar to those characterized in Aspergillus spp. The validation of such genome predictions instigated the present study on two dermatophyte species, Microsporum canis and Arthroderma benhamiae. Both fungi were found to grow well in a protein medium at acidic pH, accompanied by extracellular proteolysis. Shotgun MS analysis of secreted protein revealed fundamentally different protease profiles during fungal growth in acidic versus neutral pH conditions. Most notably, novel dermatophyte-secreted proteases were identified at acidic pH such as pepsins, sedolisins and acidic carboxypeptidases. Therefore, our results not only support genome predictions, but demonstrate for the first time the secretion of acidic proteases by dermatophytes. Our findings also suggest the existence of different pathways of protein degradation into amino acids and short peptides in these highly specialized pathogenic fungi. PMID:21919205

  17. Gene Duplication and Adaptive Evolution of Digestive Proteases in Drosophila arizonae Female Reproductive Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Erin S; Swanson, Willie J; Markow, Therese A

    2007-01-01

    It frequently has been postulated that intersexual coevolution between the male ejaculate and the female reproductive tract is a driving force in the rapid evolution of reproductive proteins. The dearth of research on female tracts, however, presents a major obstacle to empirical tests of this hypothesis. Here, we employ a comparative EST approach to identify 241 candidate female reproductive proteins in Drosophila arizonae, a repleta group species in which physiological ejaculate–female coevolution has been documented. Thirty-one of these proteins exhibit elevated amino acid substitution rates, making them candidates for molecular coevolution with the male ejaculate. Strikingly, we also discovered 12 unique digestive proteases whose expression is specific to the D. arizonae lower female reproductive tract. These enzymes belong to classes most commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of a diverse array of organisms. We show that these proteases are associated with recent, lineage-specific gene duplications in the Drosophila repleta species group, and exhibit strong signatures of positive selection. Observation of adaptive evolution in several female reproductive tract proteins indicates they are active players in the evolution of reproductive tract interactions. Additionally, pervasive gene duplication, adaptive evolution, and rapid acquisition of a novel digestive function by the female reproductive tract points to a novel coevolutionary mechanism of ejaculate–female interaction. PMID:17784792

  18. Ubiquitin-specific protease 24 negatively regulates abscisic acid signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinfeng; Zhou, Huapeng; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Yanan; Li, Long; Gao, Ying; Li, Ming; Yang, Yuhong; Guo, Yan; Li, Xueyong

    2016-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important plant hormone integrating environmental stress and plant growth. Protein ubiquitination and deubiquitination are reversible processes catalysed by E3 ubiquitin ligase and deubiquitinating enzyme, respectively. Lots of E3 ubiquitin ligase and transcriptional factors modified by ubiquitination were reported to modulate ABA signalling. However, no deubiquitinating enzyme has been identified that functions in ABA signalling until now. Here, we isolated an ABA overly sensitive mutant, ubp24, in which the gene encoding ubiquitin-specific protease 24 (UBP24, At4g30890) was disrupted by a T-DNA insertion. The ubp24 mutant was hypersensitive to ABA and salt stress in both post-germinative growth and seedling growth. However, stomata closure in the ubp24 mutant was less sensitive to ABA, and the ubp24 mutant showed drought sensitivity. UBP24 possessed deubiquitinating enzyme activity, and the activity was essential for UBP24 function. Additionally, UBP24 formed homodimer in vivo. UBP24 was genetically upstream of ABI2, and the phosphatase activity of protein phosphatase 2C was decreased in the ubp24 mutant compared with the wild type in the presence of ABA. These results uncover an important regulatory role for the ubiquitin-specific protease in response to ABA and salt stress in plant. PMID:26290265

  19. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF CYSTEINE AND TRYPSIN PROTEASE, EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HOSTS ON PROTEASE EXPRESSION, AND RNAI MEDIATED SILENCING OF CYSTEINE PROTEASE GENE IN THE SUNN PEST.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Azam; Bandani, Ali Reza; Alizadeh, Houshang

    2016-04-01

    Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, is a serious pest of cereals in the wide area of the globe from Near and Middle East to East and South Europe and North Africa. This study described for the first time, identification of E. integriceps trypsin serine protease and cathepsin-L cysteine, transcripts involved in digestion, which might serve as targets for pest control management. A total of 478 and 500 base pair long putative trypsin and cysteine gene sequences were characterized and named Tryp and Cys, respectively. In addition, the tissue-specific relative gene expression levels of these genes as well as gluten hydrolase (Gl) were determined under different host kernels feeding conditions. Result showed that mRNA expression of Cys, Tryp, and Gl was significantly affected after feeding on various host plant species. Transcript levels of these genes were most abundant in the wheat-fed E. integriceps larvae compared to other hosts. The Cys transcript was detected exclusively in the gut, whereas the Gl and Tryp transcripts were detectable in both salivary glands and gut. Also possibility of Sunn pest gene silencing was studied by topical application of cysteine double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). The results indicated that topically applied dsRNA on fifth nymphal stage can penetrate the cuticle of the insect and induce RNA interference. The Cys gene mRNA transcript in the gut was reduced to 83.8% 2 days posttreatment. Also, it was found that dsRNA of Cys gene affected fifth nymphal stage development suggesting the involvement of this protease in the insect growth, development, and molting. PMID:26609789

  20. Comparative characterization of the iga gene encoding IgA1 protease in Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, H; Poulsen, K; Kilian, M

    1995-02-01

    Cloning and sequencing of the IgA1 protease gene (iga) from Neisseria meningitidis strain HF13 showed an overall structure equivalent to iga genes from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae, although no region corresponding to the gonococcal alpha-peptide was evident. An additional 18 N. meningitidis and 3 H. influenzae iga genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction technique and sequenced corresponding approximately to the N-terminal half of the mature enzyme. Comparative analyses of a total of 29 iga genes showed that pathogenic Neisseria have iga genes with a significantly lower degree of heterogeneity than H. influenzae iga genes. Recombinational events indicated by mosaic-like structures corresponding to those found among N. gonorrhoeae protease genes were detected among N. meningitidis iga genes. One region showed characteristic differences in sequence and length which correlated with each of the different cleavage specificities. Meningococci were extremely conserved in this region with no evidence of recombination between isolates of different cleavage specificities. Sequences further downstream showed no obvious relationship with enzyme cleavage type. This region consisted of conserved areas interspersed with highly variable areas. Amino acid sequence homologies in the variable regions of meningococci reflected the antigenic types defined by using polyclonal neutralizing antibodies. PMID:7783620

  1. Partial amino acid sequence of human factor D:homology with serine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Volanakis, J E; Bhown, A; Bennett, J C; Mole, J E

    1980-01-01

    Human factor D purified to homogeneity by a modified procedure was subjected to NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis by using a modified automated Beckman sequencer. We identified 48 of the first 57 NH2-terminal amino acids in a single sequencer run, using microgram quantities of factor D. The deduced amino acid sequence represents approximately 25% of the primary structure of factor D. This extended NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of factor D was compared to that of other trypsin-related serine proteases. By visual inspection, strong homologies (33--50% identity) were observed with all the serine proteases included in the comparison. Interestingly, factor D showed a higher degree of homology to serine proteases of pancreatic origin than to those of serum origin. Images PMID:6987665

  2. Molecular characterization of a gene encoding extracellular serine protease isolated from a subtilisin inhibitor-deficient mutant of Streptomyces albogriseolus S-3253.

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, S; Odaka, A; Watanabe, Y; Momose, H

    1995-01-01

    An extracellular serine protease produced by a mutant, M1, derived from Streptomyces albogriseolus S-3253 that no longer produces a protease inhibitor (Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor [SSI]) was isolated. A 20-kDa protein was purified by its affinity for SSI and designated SAM-P20. The amino acid sequence of the amino-terminal region of SAM-P20 revealed high homology with the sequences of Streptomyces griseus proteases A and B, and the gene sequence confirmed the relationships. The sequence also revealed a putative amino acid signal sequence for SAM-P20 that apparently functioned to allow secretion of SAM-P20 from Escherichia coli carrying the recombinant gene. SAM-P20 produced by E. coli cells was shown to be sensitive to SSI inhibition. PMID:7887600

  3. Purification and characterization of cloned alkaline protease gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Irfana; Aftab, Muhammad Nauman; Afzal, Mohammed; Ur-Rehman, Asad; Aftab, Saima; Zafar, Asma; Ud-Din, Zia; Khuharo, Ateeque Rahman; Iqbal, Jawad; Ul-Haq, Ikram

    2015-02-01

    Thermostable alkaline serine protease gene of Geobacillus stearothermophilus B-1172 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using pET-22b(+), as an expression vector. The growth conditions were optimized for maximal production of the protease using variable fermentation parameters, i.e., pH, temperature, and addition of an inducer. Protease, thus produced, was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography with 13.7-fold purification, with specific activity of 97.5 U mg(-1) , and a recovery of 23.6%. Molecular weight of the purified protease, 39 kDa, was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme was stable at 90 °C at pH 9. The enzyme activity was steady in the presence of EDTA indicating that the protease was not a metalloprotease. No significant change in the activity of protease after addition of various metal ions further strengthened this fact. However, an addition of 1% Triton X-100 or SDS surfactants constrained the enzyme specific activity to 34 and 19%, respectively. Among organic solvents, an addition of 1-butanol (20%) augmented the enzyme activity by 29% of the original activity. With casein as a substrate, the enzyme activity under optimized conditions was found to be 73.8 U mg(-1) . The effect of protease expression on the host cells growth was also studied and found to negatively affect E. coli cells to certain extent. Catalytic domains of serine proteases from eight important thermostable organisms were analyzed through WebLogo and found to be conserved in all serine protease sequences suggesting that protease of G. stearothermophilus could be beneficially used as a biocontrol agent and in many industries including detergent industry. PMID:25224381

  4. Skin Barrier Recovery by Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Antagonist Lobaric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Yeon Ah; Chung, Hyunjin; Yoon, Sohyun; Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol Hwan; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) results from gene and environment interactions that lead to a range of immunological abnormalities and breakdown of the skin barrier. Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) belongs to a family of G-protein coupled receptors and is expressed in suprabasal layers of the epidermis. PAR2 is activated by both trypsin and a specific agonist peptide, SLIGKV-NH2 and is involved in both epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis and epithelial inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of lobaric acid on inflammation, keratinocyte differentiation, and recovery of the skin barrier in hairless mice. Lobaric acid blocked trypsin-induced and SLIGKV-NH2-induced PAR2 activation resulting in decreased mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lobaric acid reduced expression of interleukin-8 induced by SLIGKV-NH2 and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC) induced by tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α) and IFN-γ in HaCaT keratinocytes. Lobaric acid also blocked SLIGKV-NH2-induced activation of ERK, which is a downstream signal of PAR2 in normal human keratinocytes (NHEKs). Treatment with SLIGKV-NH2 downregulated expression of involucrin, a differentiation marker protein in HaCaT keratinocytes, and upregulated expression of involucrin, transglutamase1 and filaggrin in NHEKs. However, lobaric acid antagonized the effect of SLIGKV-NH2 in HaCaT keratinocytes and NHEKs. Topical application of lobaric acid accelerated barrier recovery kinetics in a SKH-1 hairless mouse model. These results suggested that lobaric acid is a PAR2 antagonist and could be a possible therapeutic agent for atopic dermatitis. PMID:27169822

  5. Identification and Transcriptional Control of the Genes Encoding the Caulobacter crescentus ClpXP Protease

    PubMed Central

    Østerås, Magne; Stotz, Agathe; Nuoffer, Stefanie Schmid; Jenal, Urs

    1999-01-01

    The region of the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome harboring the genes for the ClpXP protease was isolated and characterized. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the C. crescentus ClpP and ClpX proteins with those of their homologues from several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria revealed stronger conservation for the ATPase regulatory subunit (ClpX) than for the peptidase subunit (ClpP). The C. crescentus clpX gene was shown by complementation analysis to be functional in Escherichia coli. However, clpX from E. coli was not able to substitute for the essential nature of the clpX gene in C. crescentus. The clpP and clpX genes are separated on the C. crescentus chromosome by an open reading frame pointing in the opposite direction from the clp genes, and transcription of clpP and clpX was found to be uncoupled. clpP is transcribed as a monocistronic unit with a promoter (PP1) located immediately upstream of the 5′ end of the gene and a terminator structure following its 3′ end. PP1 is under heat shock control and is induced upon entry of the cells into the stationary phase. At least three promoters for clpX (PX1, PX2, and PX3) were mapped in the clpP-clpX intergenic region. In contrast to PP1, the clpX promoters were found to be downregulated after heat shock but were also subject to growth phase control. In addition, the clpP and clpX promoters showed different activity patterns during the cell cycle. Together, these results demonstrate that the genes coding for the peptidase and the regulatory subunits of the ClpXP protease are under independent transcriptional control in C. crescentus. Determination of the numbers of ClpP and ClpX molecules per cell suggested that ClpX is the limiting component compared with ClpP. PMID:10322004

  6. Isolation of cDNA from Jacaratia mexicana encoding a mexicain-like cysteine protease gene.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Martínez, Erick M; Herrera-Ramírez, Alejandra C; Badillo-Corona, Jesús Agustín; Garibay-Orijel, Claudio; González-Rábade, Nuria; Oliver-Salvador, María Del Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Cysteine proteases (CPs) from the C1 family, which are similar to papain, can be found in animals and plants, as well as some viruses and prokaryotes. These enzymes have diverse physiological functions and are thus very attractive for science and industry. Jacaratia mexicana, a member of the Caricaceae plant family, contains several CPs, the principal being mexicain, found to favorably compete against papain for many industrial applications due to its high stability and specific activity. In this study, leaves of J. mexicana were used to isolate a CP-coding gene, similar to those that code for mexicain and chymomexicain. By using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) as well as oligonucleotide design from papain-like conserved amino acids (aa), a sequence of 1404 bp consisting of a 5' terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 153 bp, a 3' terminal UTR of 131 bp, with a polyadenylation (poly(A)) signal sequence and a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1046 bp, was obtained by overlapping three partial sequences. Two full-length cDNA sequences that encode for mexicain-like proteases were cloned from mRNA (JmCP4 and JmCP5). JmCP4 is predicted to have an ORF of 1044 bp, which codifies for polypeptides that have a 26 aa signal peptide region, a 108 aa propeptide region and a mature enzyme of 214 aa. A 969 bp fragment (JmCP5) encodes for a partial sequence of a CP gene, without the signal peptide region but with a full-length propeptide region. The sequence analysis showed that this protease presented a high similarity to other plant CPs from J. mexicana, Vasconcellea cundinamarcensis, Vasconcellea stipulata, and Carica papaya, among others, mainly at the conserved catalytic site. Obtaining the sequence of this CP gene from J. mexicana provides an alternative for production in a standard system and could be an initial step towards the commercialization of this enzyme. PMID:22543019

  7. Potent inhibitors of HCV-NS3 protease derived from boronic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatraman, Srikanth; Wu, Wanli; Prongay, Andrew; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George

    2009-07-23

    Chronic hepatitis C infection is the leading causes for cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to liver failure and liver transplantation. The etiological agent, HCV virus produces a single positive strand of RNA that is processed with the help of serine protease NS3 to produce mature virus. Inhibition of NS3 protease can be potentially used to develop effective drugs for HCV infections. Numerous efforts are now underway to develop potent inhibitors of HCV protease that contain ketoamides as serine traps. Herein we report the synthesis of a series of potent inhibitors that contain a boronic acid as a serine trap. The activity of these compounds were optimized to 200 pM. X-ray structure of compound 17 bound to NS3 protease is also discussed.

  8. The effect of environmental conditions on expression of Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron C10 protease genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are members of the normal human intestinal microbiota. However, both organisms are capable of causing opportunistic infections, during which the environmental conditions to which the bacteria are exposed change dramatically. To further explore their potential for contributing to infection, we have characterized the expression in B. thetaiotaomicron of four homologues of the gene encoding the C10 cysteine protease SpeB, a potent extracellular virulence factor produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. Results We identified a paralogous set of genes (btp genes) in the B. thetaiotaomicron genome, that were related to C10 protease genes we recently identified in B. fragilis. Similar to C10 proteases found in B. fragilis, three of the B. thetaiotaomicron homologues were transcriptionally coupled to genes encoding small proteins that are similar in structural architecture to Staphostatins, protease inhibitors associated with Staphopains in Staphylococcus aureus. The expression of genes for these C10 proteases in both B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron was found to be regulated by environmental stimuli, in particular by exposure to oxygen, which may be important for their contribution to the development of opportunistic infections. Conclusions Genes encoding C10 proteases are increasingly identified in operons which also contain genes encoding proteins homologous to protease inhibitors. The Bacteroides C10 protease gene expression levels are responsive to different environmental stimuli suggesting they may have distinct roles in the bacterial-host interaction. PMID:22943521

  9. MALT1 Protease Activity Controls the Expression of Inflammatory Genes in Keratinocytes upon Zymosan Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Anja; Grondona, Paula; Maier, Tabea; Brändle, Marc; Schönfeld, Caroline; Jäger, Günter; Kosnopfel, Corinna; Eberle, Franziska C; Schittek, Birgit; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Yazdi, Amir S; Hailfinger, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    The protease activity of the paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1) plays an important role in antigen receptor-mediated lymphocyte activation by controlling the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB and is thus essential for the expression of inflammatory target genes. MALT1 is not only present in cells of the hematopoietic lineage, but is ubiquitously expressed. Here we report that stimulation with zymosan or Staphylococcus aureus induced MALT1 protease activity in human primary keratinocytes. Inhibition of the Src family of kinases or novel protein kinase C isoforms as well as silencing of CARMA2 or BCL10 interfered with activation of MALT1 protease. Silencing or inhibition of MALT1 protease strongly decreased the expression of important inflammatory genes such as TNFα, IL-17C, CXCL8 and HBD-2. MALT1-inhibited cells were unable to mount an antimicrobial response upon zymosan stimulation or phorbolester/ionomycin treatment, demonstrating a central role of MALT1 protease activity in keratinocyte immunity and suggesting MALT1 as a potential target in inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:26767426

  10. The PEP4 gene encodes an aspartyl protease implicated in the posttranslational regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar hydrolases.

    PubMed Central

    Woolford, C A; Daniels, L B; Park, F J; Jones, E W; Van Arsdell, J N; Innis, M A

    1986-01-01

    pep4 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae accumulate inactive precursors of vacuolar hydrolases. The PEP4 gene was isolated from a genomic DNA library by complementation of the pep4-3 mutation. Deletion analysis localized the complementing activity to a 1.5-kilobase pair EcoRI-XhoI restriction enzyme fragment. This fragment was used to identify an 1,800-nucleotide mRNA capable of directing the synthesis of a 44,000-dalton polypeptide. Southern blot analysis of yeast genomic DNA showed that the PEP4 gene is unique; however, several related sequences exist in yeasts. Tetrad analysis and mitotic recombination experiments localized the PEP4 gene proximal to GAL4 on chromosome XVI. Analysis of the DNA sequence indicated that PEP4 encodes a polypeptide with extensive homology to the aspartyl protease family. A comparison of the PEP4 predicted amino acid sequence with the yeast protease A protein sequence revealed that the two genes are, in fact, identical (see also Ammerer et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:2490-2499, 1986). Based on our observations, we propose a model whereby inactive precursor molecules produced from the PEP4 gene self-activate within the yeast vacuole and subsequently activate other vacuolar hydrolases. Images PMID:3537721

  11. Nonnatural amino acid incorporation into the methionine 214 position of the metzincin Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease

    PubMed Central

    Walasek, Paula; Honek, John F

    2005-01-01

    Background The alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (AprA) is a member of the metzincin superfamily of metalloendoproteases. A key feature of these proteases is a conserved methionine-containing 1,4-tight β turn at the base of the active site zinc binding region. Results To explore the invariant methionine position in this class of protease, incorporation of a nonnatural fluorinated methionine, L-difluoromethionine (DFM), into this site was accomplished. Although overproduction of the N-terminal catalytic fragment of AprA resulted in protein aggregates which could not be resolved, successful heterologous production of the entire AprA was accomplished in the presence and absence of the nonnatural amino acid. DFM incorporation was found to only slightly alter the enzyme kinetics of AprA. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry indicated no significant alteration in the thermal stability of the modified enzyme. Conclusion Although invariant in all metzincin proteases, the methionine 214 position in AprA can be successfully replaced by the nonnatural amino acid DFM resulting in little effect on protein structure and function. This study indicates that the increased size of the methyl group by the introduction of two fluorines is still sufficiently non-sterically demanding, and bodes well for the application of DFM to biophysical studies of protein structure and function in this class of protease. PMID:16221305

  12. Cysteine protease gene expression and proteolytic activity during senescence of Alstroemeria petals.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Carol; Leverentz, Michael K; Griffiths, Gareth; Thomas, Brian; Chanasut, Usawadee; Stead, Anthony D; Rogers, Hilary J

    2002-02-01

    The functional life of the flower is terminated by senescence and/or abscission. Multiple processes contribute to produce the visible signs of petal wilting and inrolling that typify senescence, but one of the most important is that of protein degradation and remobilization. This is mediated in many species through protein ubiquitination and the action of specific protease enzymes. This paper reports the changes in protein and protease activity during development and senescence of Alstroemeria flowers, a Liliaceous species that shows very little sensitivity to ethylene during senescence and which shows perianth abscission 8-10 d after flower opening. Partial cDNAs of ubiquitin (ALSUQ1) and a putative cysteine protease (ALSCYP1) were cloned from Alstroemeria using degenerate PCR primers and the expression pattern of these genes was determined semi-quantitatively by RT-PCR. While the levels of ALSUQ1 only fluctuated slightly during floral development and senescence, there was a dramatic increase in the expression of ALSCYP1 indicating that this gene may encode an important enzyme for the proteolytic process in this species. Three papain class cysteine protease enzymes showing different patterns of activity during flower development were identified on zymograms, one of which showed a similar expression pattern to the cysteine protease cDNA. PMID:11807127

  13. Different agonist- and antagonist-induced conformational changes in retinoic acid receptors analyzed by protease mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Keidel, S; LeMotte, P; Apfel, C

    1994-01-01

    The pleiotropic effects of retinoic acid on cell differentiation and proliferation are mediated by two subfamilies of nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Recently the synthetic retinoid Ro 41-5253 was identified as a selective RAR alpha antagonist. As demonstrated by gel retardation assays, Ro 41-5253 and two related new RAR alpha antagonists do not influence RAR alpha/RXR alpha heterodimerization and DNA binding. In a limited trypsin digestion assay, complexation of RAR alpha with retinoic acid or several other agonistic retinoids altered the degradation of the receptor such that a 30-kDa proteolytic fragment became resistant to proteolysis. This suggests a ligand-induced conformational change, which may be necessary for the interaction of the DNA-bound RAR alpha/RXR alpha heterodimer with other transcription factors. Our results demonstrate that antagonists compete with agonists for binding to RAR alpha and may induce a different structural alteration, suggested by the tryptic resistance of a shorter 25-kDa protein fragment in the digestion assay. This RAR alpha conformation seems to allow RAR alpha/RXR alpha binding to DNA but not the subsequent transactivation of target genes. Protease mapping with C-terminally truncated receptors revealed that the proposed conformational changes mainly occur in the DE regions of RAR alpha. Complexation of RAR beta, RAR gamma, and RXR alpha, as well as the vitamin D3 receptor, with their natural ligands resulted in a similar resistance of fragments to proteolytic digestion. This could mean that ligand-induced conformational changes are a general feature in the hormonal activation of vitamin D3 and retinoid receptors. Images PMID:8264595

  14. Inactivation of the cysteine protease SpeB affects hyaluronic acid capsule expression in group A streptococci.

    PubMed

    Woischnik, M; Buttaro, B A; Podbielski, A

    2000-04-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes expresses several virulence factors that are required for the pathogens survival within the host and the concomitant development of disease. To examine the influence of one virulence factor, the extracellular cysteine protease SpeB, on the expression of other virulence factors, the speB structural gene of a serotype M3 and M49 strain was inactivated. Morphologic examination, quantification of extracellular hyaluronic acid capsule, and Northern blot analysis of the isogenic speB -mutants revealed a strain-dependent decrease of hyaluronic acid capsule production and an increase in superoxide dismutase transcription. The transcription of streptolysin O (slo), di- and oligo-peptide permease (dpp, opp), hyaluronidase (hyl), streptokinase (ska) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (speA) was unaffected. PMID:10764613

  15. Alternative splicing, a new target to block cellular gene expression by poliovirus 2A protease

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Enrique; Castello, Alfredo; Carrasco, Luis; Izquierdo, Jose M.

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Novel role for poliovirus 2A protease as splicing modulator. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease inhibits the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. {yields} Poliovirus 2A protease blocks the second catalytic step of splicing. -- Abstract: Viruses have developed multiple strategies to interfere with the gene expression of host cells at different stages to ensure their own survival. Here we report a new role for poliovirus 2A{sup pro} modulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Expression of 2A{sup pro} potently inhibits splicing of reporter genes in HeLa cells. Low amounts of 2A{sup pro} abrogate Fas exon 6 skipping, whereas higher levels of protease fully abolish Fas and FGFR2 splicing. In vitro splicing of MINX mRNA using nuclear extracts is also strongly inhibited by 2A{sup pro}, leading to accumulation of the first exon and the lariat product containing the unspliced second exon. These findings reveal that the mechanism of action of 2A{sup pro} on splicing is to selectively block the second catalytic step.

  16. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    PubMed

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material. PMID:24664515

  17. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Predicted Serine Protease Is Associated with Acid Stress and Intraphagosomal Survival.

    PubMed

    Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Shoyama, Fernanda M; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc(2) 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted. PMID:27597934

  18. A Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Predicted Serine Protease Is Associated with Acid Stress and Intraphagosomal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kugadas, Abirami; Lamont, Elise A.; Bannantine, John P.; Shoyama, Fernanda M.; Brenner, Evan; Janagama, Harish K.; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2016-01-01

    The ability to maintain intra-cellular pH is crucial for bacteria and other microbes to survive in diverse environments, particularly those that undergo fluctuations in pH. Mechanisms of acid resistance remain poorly understood in mycobacteria. Although, studies investigating acid stress in M. tuberculosis are gaining traction, few center on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the etiological agent of chronic enteritis in ruminants. We identified a MAP acid stress response network involved in macrophage infection. The central node of this network was MAP0403, a predicted serine protease that shared an 86% amino acid identity with MarP in M. tuberculosis. Previous studies confirmed MarP as a serine protease integral to maintaining intra-bacterial pH and survival in acid in vitro and in vivo. We show that MAP0403 is upregulated in infected macrophages and MAC-T cells that coincided with phagosome acidification. Treatment of mammalian cells with bafilomcyin A1, a potent inhibitor of phagosomal vATPases, diminished MAP0403 transcription. MAP0403 expression was also noted in acidic medium. A surrogate host, M. smegmatis mc2 155, was designed to express MAP0403 and when exposed to either macrophages or in vitro acid stress had increased bacterial cell viability, which corresponds to maintenance of intra-bacterial pH in acidic (pH = 5) conditions, compared to the parent strain. These data suggest that MAP0403 may be the equivalent of MarP in MAP. Future studies confirming MAP0403 as a serine protease and exploring its structure and possible substrates are warranted. PMID:27597934

  19. Serine and cysteine protease-like genes in the genome of a gall midge and their interactions with host plant genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For plant-feeding insects, digestive proteases are targets for engineering protease inhibitors for pest control. In this study, we identified 105 putative serine- and cysteine-protease genes from Hessian fly genome. Among the genes, 31 encode putative trypsins, 18 encode putative chymotrypsins, se...

  20. Functional diversification of a protease inhibitor gene in the genus Drosophila and its molecular basis.

    PubMed

    Börner, Stefan; Ragg, Hermann

    2008-05-31

    The mutually exclusive use of alternative reactive site loop (RSL) cassettes due to alternative splicing of serpin (serine protease inhibitor) gene transcripts is a widespread strategy to create target-selective protease inhibitors in the animal kingdom. Since molecular basis and evolution of serpin RSL cassette exon amplification and diversification are unexplored, the exon-intron organization of the serpin gene spn4 from 12 species of the genus Drosophila was studied. The analysis of the gene structures shows that both number and target enzyme specificities of Spn4 RSL cassettes are highly variable in fruit flies and includes inhibitor variants with novel antiproteolytic activities in some species, indicating that RSL diversity is the result of adaptive evolution. Comparative genomics suggests that interallelic gene conversion and/or recombination events contribute to RSL cassette exon amplification. Due to an intron that is located at the most suitable position within the RSL region, multiple inhibitors can be formed in an economic manner that are both efficient and target-selective, allowing fruit flies to control an astonishing variety of proteases with different cleavage chemistry and evolutionary ancestry. PMID:18395367

  1. Protease activity at invadopodial focal digestive areas is dependent on NHE1-driven acidic pHe.

    PubMed

    Greco, Maria Raffaella; Antelmi, Ester; Busco, Giovanni; Guerra, Lorenzo; Rubino, Rosa; Casavola, Valeria; Reshkin, Stephan Joel; Cardone, Rosa Angela

    2014-02-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical step of tumor cell invasion and requires protease-dependent proteolysis focalized at the invadopodia where the proteolysis of the ECM occurs. Most of the extracellular proteases belong to serine- or metallo-proteases and the invadopodia is where protease activity is regulated. While recent data looking at global protease activity in the growth medium reported that their activity and role in invasion is dependent on Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1)-driven extracellular acidification, there is no data on this aspect at the invadopodia, and an open question remains whether this acid extracellular pH (pHe) activation of proteases in tumor cells occurs preferentially at invadopodia. We previously reported that the NHE1 is expressed in breast cancer invadopodia and that the NHE1‑dependent acidification of the peri-invadopodial space is critical for ECM proteolysis. In the present study, using, for the first time, in situ zymography analysis, we demonstrated a concordance between NHE1 activity, extracellular acidification and protease activity at invadopodia to finely regulate ECM digestion. We demonstrated that: (i) ECM proteolysis taking place at invadopodia is driven by acidification of the peri-invadopodia microenvironment; (ii) that the proteases have a functional pHe optimum that is acidic; (iii) more than one protease is functioning to digest the ECM at these invadopodial sites of ECM proteolysis; and (iv) lowering pHe or inhibiting the NHE1 increases protease secretion while blocking protease activity changes NHE1 expression at the invadopodia. PMID:24337203

  2. StAR enhances transcription of genes encoding the mitochondrial proteases involved in its own degradation.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas; Orly, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. StAR activity facilitates the supply of cholesterol substrate into the inner mitochondrial membranes where conversion of the sterol to a steroid is catalyzed. Mitochondrial import terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity of StAR and leads to mounting accumulation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix. Our studies suggest that to prevent mitochondrial impairment, StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, ie, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin. Gonadotropin administration to prepubertal rats stimulated ovarian follicular development associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial protein quality control system. In addition, enrichment of LON and AFG3L2 is evident in StAR-expressing ovarian cells examined by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, reporter studies of the protease promoters examined in the heterologous cell model suggest that StAR expression stimulates up to a 3.5-fold increase in the protease gene transcription. Such effects are StAR-specific, are independent of StAR activity, and failed to occur upon expression of StAR mutants that do not enter the matrix. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the presence of a novel regulatory loop, whereby acute accumulation of an apparent nuisance protein in the matrix provokes a mitochondria to nucleus signaling that, in turn, activates selected transcription of genes encoding the enrichment of mitochondrial proteases relevant for enhanced clearance of StAR. PMID:24422629

  3. Characterization of a juvenile hormone-regulated chymotrypsin-like serine protease gene in Aedes aegypti mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Guowu; Raikhel, Alexander S; Zhu, Jinsong

    2008-01-01

    After female mosquitoes ingest blood from vertebrate hosts, exopeptidases and endopeptidases are required for digesting blood proteins in the midgut into amino acids, which female mosquitoes use to build yolk proteins. These proteases are not always present in the midgut, and their diverse expression patterns suggest that production of these enzymes is highly regulated in order to meet specific physiological demands at various stages. Here we report identification of a serine-type protease, JHA15, in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. This protein shares high sequence homology with chymotrypsins, and indeed exhibits specific chymotrypsin enzymatic activity. The JHA15 gene is expressed primarily in the midgut of adult female mosquitoes. Our results indicate that its transcription is activated by juvenile hormone in the newly emerged female adults. Although its mRNA profile is similar to that of the early trypsin gene, we found that JHA15 proteins were readily detected in the midgut epithelium cells of both non-blood-fed and blood-fed mosquitoes. Analysis of polysomal RNA further substantiated that synthesis of JHA15 occurs before and shortly after blood feeding. Knocking down expression of JHA15 resulted in no evident phenotypic changes, implying that functional redundancy exists among those proteolytic enzymes. PMID:18207080

  4. PLANT-PIs: a database for plant protease inhibitors and their genes

    PubMed Central

    De Leo, F.; Volpicella, M.; Licciulli, F.; Liuni, S.; Gallerani, R.; Ceci, L. R.

    2002-01-01

    PLANT-PIs is a database developed to facilitate retrieval of information on plant protease inhibitors (PIs) and related genes. For each PI, links to sequence databases are reported together with a summary of the functional properties of the molecule (and its mutants) as deduced from literature. PLANT-PIs contains information for 351 plant PIs, plus several isoinhibitors. The database is accessible at http://bighost.area.ba.cnr.it/PLANT-PIs. PMID:11752333

  5. Is dihydrolipoic acid among the reductive activators of parasite CysHis proteases?

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Thomas D

    2008-04-01

    Activities of mature CysHis proteases depend upon relative rates of oxidations vs. reductions of catalytic sulfur by multiple enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. CysHis peptidolysis is inhibited by Fe3+ but not Fe2+. Others report the paradox that malarial parasites require exogenous free lipoic acid (LA) from human host, although the apicoplast organelle produces it. Extra-cellular LA disulfide can be taken up and reduced to dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) by reductases of any cell type. Here, the opposing effects of DHLA vs. Fe3+ on the falcipain-2 hemoglobinase were investigated employing Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrate. Despite limited solubility, non-regenerated DHLA (10 microM, threshold 2 microM) was found to be the most potent activator of the air-inactivated (sulfoxygenated) protease discovered thus far. Activation was preemptively opposed by Fe3+, but not Fe2+. However, cruzain from T. cruzi, and cathepsin B from mammal were indistinguishable in their responsiveness to DHLA and Fe redox. Thus, DHLA activation vs. Fe3+ inhibition is not unique to falcipain-2 or apicomplexans but is rather a primordial feature of CysHis peptidolysis. Free LA and/or unassociated lipoylated enzyme subunits could be among multiple pathways shuttling reducing equivalents to reduction of proteins, including CysHis proteases. It is discussed that opposing DHLA-Fe3+ modification of plasmodial proteolysis might be a specialized adaptation to intra-erythrocytic growth. PMID:18068706

  6. The porcine gene TBP10 encodes a protein homologous to the human tat-binding protein/26S protease subunit family.

    PubMed

    Leeb, T; Rettenberger, G; Breech, J; Hameister, H; Brenig, B

    1996-03-01

    We have cloned a porcine gene, designated TBP1O, that belongs to the Tat-binding protein/26S protease subunit family. The genomic structure of the porcine TBP1O gene was analyzed after isolation of three overlapping genomic phage lambda clones. The TBP10 gene harbors 12 exons spanning 4.5 kb of chromosomal DNA. The TBP1O gene was assigned to Chromosome (Chr) 12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes. The chromosomal location was confirmed by PCR analysis of a porcine-rodent hybrid cell panel. The TBP1O protein is encoded by a 1221 nucleotide cDNA and has a molecular mass of 45.6 kDa. The predicted amino acid sequence has highest similarity to the human and bovine p45 subunit of the 26S protease and the human transcription factor TRIP1. Further similarities were detected to the slime mold protein DdTBP1O and the Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein SUG1. Like DdTBP1O and other members of the protein family, the porcine TBP1O harbors a leucine zipper motif in the N-terminal region and a domain characteristics of ATP-dependent proteases in the C-terminal region. PMID:8833236

  7. Phenotypic characterization of virological failure following lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy using full-length gag–protease genes

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Katherine A.; Mbisa, Jean L.; Ghosn, Jade; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Cohen-Codar, Isabelle; Hue, Stephane; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Delaugerre, Constance; Gupta, Ravindra K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Major protease mutations are rarely observed following first-line failure with PIs and interpretation of genotyping results in this context may be difficult. We performed extensive phenotyping of viruses from five patients failing lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in the MONARK study without major PI mutations by standard genotyping. Methods Phenotypic susceptibility testing and viral infectivity assessments were performed using a single-cycle assay and fold changes (FC) relative to a lopinavir-susceptible reference strain were calculated. Results >10-fold reduced baseline susceptibility to lopinavir occurred in two of five patients and >5-fold in another two. Four of five patients exhibited phylogenetic evidence of a limited viral evolution between baseline and failure, with amino acid changes at drug resistance-associated positions in one: T81A emerged in Gag with M36I in the protease gene, correlating with a reduction in lopinavir susceptibility from FC 7 (95% CI 6–8.35) to FC 13 (95% CI 8.11–17.8). Reductions in darunavir susceptibility (>5 FC) occurred in three individuals. Discussion This study suggests both baseline reduced susceptibility and evolution of resistance could be contributing factors to PI failure, despite the absence of classical PI resistance mutations by standard testing methods. Use of phenotyping also reveals lower darunavir susceptibility, warranting further study as this agent is commonly used following lopinavir failure. PMID:25096075

  8. Novel acid resistance genes from the metagenome of the Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment.

    PubMed

    Guazzaroni, María-Eugenia; Morgante, Verónica; Mirete, Salvador; González-Pastor, José E

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms that thrive in acidic environments are endowed with specialized molecular mechanisms to survive under this extremely harsh condition. In this work, we performed functional screening of six metagenomic libraries from planktonic and rhizosphere microbial communities of the Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment, to identify genes involved in acid resistance. This approach has revealed 15 different genes conferring acid resistance to Escherichia coli, most of which encoding putative proteins of unknown function or previously described proteins not known to be related to acid resistance. Moreover, we were able to assign function to one unknown and three hypothetical proteins. Among the recovered genes were the ClpXP protease, the transcriptional repressor LexA and nucleic acid-binding proteins such as an RNA-binding protein, HU and Dps. Furthermore, nine of the retrieved genes were cloned and expressed in Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis and, remarkably, most of them were able to expand the capability of these bacteria to survive under severe acid stress. From this set of genes, four presented a broad-host range as they enhance the acid resistance of the three different organisms tested. These results expand our knowledge about the different strategies used by microorganisms to survive under extremely acid conditions. PMID:23145860

  9. Some Properties of Acid Protease from the Thermophilic Fungus, Penicillium duponti K1014

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hikotaka; Iwaasa, Takashi; Yokotsuka, Tamotsu

    1973-01-01

    A purified acid protease from a true thermophilic fungus, Penicillium duponti K1014, was most active at pH 2.5 for milk casein and at pH 3.0 for hemoglobin. The enzyme was stable at a pH range of 2.5 to 6.0 at 30 C for 20 h. The acid protease retained full activity after 1 h at 60 C at a pH range between 3.5 and 5.5. At the most stable pH of 4.5, more than 65% of its activity remained after heat treatment for 1 h at 70 C. These thermal properties show the enzyme as a thermophilic protein. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by sodium lauryl sulfate and oxidizing reagents such as potassium permanganate and N-bromosuccinimide. No inhibition was caused by chelating reagents, potato inhibitor, and those reagents which convert sulfhydryl groups to mercaptides. Reducing reagents showed an activating effect. The enzyme showed the trypsinogen-activating property at an acidic pH range; optimal trypsinogen activation was obtained at a pH of approximately 3.0. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was estimated to be pH 3.89 by disk electrofocusing. By using gel filtration, an approximate value of 41,000 was estimated for the molecular weight. PMID:4699217

  10. Force generation and protease gene expression in organotypic co-cultures of fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wall, Ivan B; Bhadal, Navneet; Broad, Simon; Whawell, Simon A; Mudera, Vivek; Lewis, Mark P

    2009-12-01

    Fibroblast-epithelium interactions are crucial for successful tissue engineering of skin and oral mucosal equivalents. In this study, we assessed early force generation in organotypic fibroblast-epithelium co-cultures, using normal human keratinocytes (NHK) and HPV16-transformed (UP) cells. During the initial 2 h period, organotypic co-cultures containing both epithelial cell types produced significantly more force than fibroblasts alone (p < 0.05). After 2 h, the epithelial contribution became diminished and did not significantly contribute to intrinsic force generation by fibroblasts, and no differences were observed when using UP vs. NHK. We then measured protease gene expression at the end of the experimental period. Distinct differences were evident in protease expression both between NHK-human skin fibroblast (HSF) vs. UP-HSF co-cultures and compared to fibroblasts alone. We conclude that whilst the very early contractile response of fibroblasts is enhanced by the overlying epithelium, this becomes diminished as the fibroblast response becomes predominant and it does contribute to tissue remodelling via regulation of protease expression. PMID:19701934

  11. The Spn4 gene from Drosophila melanogaster is a multipurpose defence tool directed against proteases from three different peptidase families

    PubMed Central

    Brüning, Mareke; Lummer, Martina; Bentele, Caterina; Smolenaars, Marcel M. W.; Rodenburg, Kees W.; Ragg, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    By alternative use of four RSL (reactive site loop) coding exon cassettes, the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) gene Spn4 from Drosophila melanogaster was proposed to enable the synthesis of multiple protease inhibitor isoforms, one of which has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of human furin. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory spectrum of all Spn4 RSL variants. The analyses indicate that the Spn4 gene encodes inhibitors that may inhibit serine proteases of the subtilase family (S8), the chymotrypsin family (S1), and the papain-like cysteine protease family (C1), most of them at high rates. Thus a cohort of different protease inhibitors is generated simply by grafting enzyme-adapted RSL sequences on to a single serpin scaffold, even though the target proteases contain different types and/or a varying order of catalytic residues and are descendents of different phylogenetic lineages. Since all of the Spn4 RSL isoforms are produced as intracellular residents and additionally as variants destined for export or associated with the secretory pathway, the Spn4 gene represents a versatile defence tool kit that may provide multiple antiproteolytic functions. PMID:16989645

  12. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Rajan; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Thakur, Neelam; Dutt, Som; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Shukle, Rich

    2014-08-10

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327 bp encoding 109 amino acids was cloned from rice bean seeds using degenerate primer set. BlastP search revealed that the RbTI encoded amino acid of approx 13.0 kDa and shared 99% homology each with BBI from Phaseolus parvulus, Vigna trilobata and Vigna vexilata. Phylogenetic tree also showed close relationship of RbTI with BBI from other members of Leguminaceae family. RbTI gene was further confirmed as intronless (GenBank accession no. KJ159908). The secondary and 3D-structural models for the RbTI were predicted with homology modeling. qRT-PCR studies revealed the highest RbTI expression in the seeds nearing maturity, whereas the low expression of the gene was noticed in young leaves. The isolated RbTI was successfully expressed in Escherichiacoli and the highest expression was recorded after 5.5h of induction. Study on the inhibitory activity of expressed protein against the gut proteases of Hessian fly larvae revealed 87% inhibition. The novel RbTI gene will further broaden the pool of plant defense genes and could be an ideal choice for developing transgenic crops resistant to insect pests with high economic value. In addition, it has the potential to be used as a probe for selection of insect- and pathogen-resistant genotypes. PMID:24905651

  13. IgA Protease Activity in Haemophilus parasuis in the Absence of a Recognizable IgA Protease Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Haemophilus parasuis, the bacterium responsible for Glasser’s disease, is a pathogen of significant concern in modern high-health swine production systems. Little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of H. parasuis infection. In some Pasteurellaceae species, IgA proteases aid in d...

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies of a novel acid protease from Aspergillus foetidus.

    PubMed

    Souza, Paula Monteiro; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes Ferreira; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira; Junior, Adalberto Pessoa; Converti, Attilio; Perego, Patrizia

    2015-11-01

    The kinetics of a thermostable extracellular acid protease produced by an Aspergillus foetidus strain was investigated at different pH, temperatures and substrate concentrations. The enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 5.0 and 55°C, and its irreversible deactivation was well described by first-order kinetics. When temperature was raised from 55 to 70°C, the deactivation rate constant increased from 0.018 to 5.06h(-1), while the half-life decreased from 37.6 to 0.13h. The results of activity collected at different temperatures were then used to estimate, the activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction (E*=19.03kJ/mol) and the standard enthalpy variation of reversible enzyme unfolding (ΔH°U=19.03kJ/mol). The results of residual activity tests carried out in the temperature range 55-70°C allowed estimating the activation energy (E(*)d=314.12kJ/mol), enthalpy (311.27≤(ΔH°d≤311.39kJ/mol), entropy (599.59≤ΔS(*)d≤610.49kJ/mol K) and Gibbs free energy (103.18≤ΔG(*)d≤113.87kJ/mol) of the enzyme irreversible denaturation. These thermodynamic parameters suggest that this new protease is highly thermostable and could be important for industrial applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on thermodynamic parameters of an acid protease produced by A. foetidus. PMID:26210038

  15. Pentapeptide Boronic Acid Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MycP1 Protease

    PubMed Central

    Frasinyuk, Mykhaylo S.; Kwiatkowski, Stefan; Wagner, Jonathan M.; Evans, Timothy J.; Reed, Robert W.; Korotkov, Konstantin V.; Watt, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycosin protease-1 (MycP1) cleaves ESX secretion-associated protein B (EspB) that is a virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and accommodates an octapeptide, AVKAASLG, as a short peptide substrate. Because peptidoboronic acids are known inhibitors of serine proteases, the synthesis and binding of a boronic acid analog of the pentapeptide cleavage product, AVKAA, was studied using MycP1 variants from M. thermoresistible (MycP1mth), M. smegmatis (MycP1msm) and M. tuberculosis (MycP1mtu). We synthesized the boropentapeptide, HAlaValLysAlaAlaB(OH)2 (1) and the analogous pinanediol PD-protected HAlaValLysAlaAlaBO2(PD) (2) using an Fmoc/Boc peptide strategy. The pinanediol boropentapeptide 2 displayed IC50 values 121.6±25.3 μM for MycP1mth, 93.2±37.3 μM for MycP1msm and 37.9±5.2 μM for MycP1mtu. Such relatively strong binding creates a chance for crystalizing the complex with 2 and finding the structure of the unknown MycP1 catalytic site that would potentially facilitate the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. PMID:24915878

  16. Impact of an acid fungal protease in high gravity fermentation for ethanol production using Indian sorghum as a feedstock.

    PubMed

    Gohel, V; Duan, G; Maisuria, V B

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the conventional jet cooking liquefaction process followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 30% and 35% dry solids (DS) concentration of Indian sorghum feedstock for ethanol production, with addition of acid fungal protease or urea. To evaluate the efficacy of thermostable α-amylase in liquefaction at 30% and 35% DS concentration of Indian sorghum, liquefact solubility, higher dextrins, and fermentable sugars were analyzed at the end of the process. The liquefact was further subjected to SSF using yeast. In comparison with urea, addition of an acid fungal protease during SSF process was observed to accelerate yeast growth (μ), substrate consumption (Q(s)), ultimately ethanol yield based on substrate (Y(p/s)) and ethanol productivity based on fermentation time (Q(p)). The fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery were determined for both concentrations of Indian sorghum and found to be increased with use of acid fungal protease in SSF process. PMID:23292745

  17. Genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analysis of the aspartic protease gene superfamily in grape

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes found in almost all organisms. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as senescence, stress responses, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the present study, no grape AP gene(s) had been reported, and their research on woody species was very limited. Results In this study, a total of 50 AP genes (VvAP) were identified in the grape genome, among which 30 contained the complete ASP domain. Synteny analysis within grape indicated that segmental and tandem duplication events contributed to the expansion of the grape AP family. Additional analysis between grape and Arabidopsis demonstrated that several grape AP genes were found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, suggesting that these genes arose before the divergence of grape and Arabidopsis. Phylogenetic relationships of the 30 VvAPs with the complete ASP domain and their Arabidopsis orthologs, as well as their gene and protein features were analyzed and their cellular localization was predicted. Moreover, expression profiles of VvAP genes in six different tissues were determined, and their transcript abundance under various stresses and hormone treatments were measured. Twenty-seven VvAP genes were expressed in at least one of the six tissues examined; nineteen VvAPs responded to at least one abiotic stress, 12 VvAPs responded to powdery mildew infection, and most of the VvAPs responded to SA and ABA treatments. Furthermore, integrated synteny and phylogenetic analysis identified orthologous AP genes between grape and Arabidopsis, providing a unique starting point for investigating the function of grape AP genes. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, evolutionary and expression analyses of grape AP genes provide a framework for future analysis of AP genes in defining their roles during stress response. Integrated synteny and phylogenetic analyses provide novel insight into the

  18. Expression and characterization of Drosophila signal peptide peptidase-like (sppL), a gene that encodes an intramembrane protease.

    PubMed

    Casso, David J; Liu, Songmei; Biehs, Brian; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2012-01-01

    Intramembrane proteases of the Signal Peptide Peptidase (SPP) family play important roles in developmental, metabolic and signaling pathways. Although vertebrates have one SPP and four SPP-like (SPPL) genes, we found that insect genomes encode one Spp and one SppL. Characterization of the Drosophila sppL gene revealed that the predicted SppL protein is a highly conserved structural homolog of the vertebrate SPPL3 proteases, with a predicted nine-transmembrane topology, an active site containing aspartyl residues within a transmembrane region, and a carboxy-terminal PAL domain. SppL protein localized to both the Golgi and ER. Whereas spp is an essential gene that is required during early larval stages and whereas spp loss-of-function reduced the unfolded protein response (UPR), sppL loss of function had no apparent phenotype. This was unexpected given that genetic knockdown phenotypes in other organisms suggested significant roles for Spp-related proteases. PMID:22439002

  19. Prorenin processing enzyme (PPE) produced by Baculovirus-infected Sf-9 insect cells: PPE is the cysteine protease encoded in the acMNPV gene.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Takeshi; Awa, Hirono; Kikuchi, Ken-Ichi; Nirasawa, Satoru; Takahashi, Saori

    2010-01-01

    In infection cultures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) insect cells with a recombinant baculovirus, vhpR, carrying human preprorenin cDNA in the polyhedrin locus of Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), the expressed inactive recombinant human (rh)-prorenin is reported to be proteolytically processed to yield active rh-renin in the very late phase of culture (Takahashi et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 71, 2610-2613 (2007)). To identify the enzyme that catalyzes the processing of rh-prorenin, referred to as prorenin processing enzyme (PPE), we purified potential PPE from virus-infected Sf-9 culture supernatant by the use of an internally quenched fluorescent (IQF) substrate for PPE. The 32-kDa protein band agreed well with PPE activity on the final Mono Q FPLC. By N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, the protein was revealed to be a cysteine protease encoded by the AcMNPV gene. Enzyme activity was inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors but not by other protease inhibitors. When the purified rh-prorenin was incubated with the 32-kDa protein, renin activity appeared concomitant with the disappearance of rh-prorenin. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the activated product was identical to that of the rh-renin that had accumulated in the infection cultures. These results indicate that the 32-kDa cysteine protease derived from the AcMNPV gene is the enzyme PPE of virus-infected Sf-9 cells. PMID:20139610

  20. Critical COPD respiratory illness is linked to increased transcriptomic activity of neutrophil proteases genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    essential role of neutrophil proteases in COPD patients with critical respiratory illness. Measurement and modulation of the expression of these genes could present an option for clinical monitoring and treatment of severe COPD exacerbations. PMID:22852767

  1. Two Proteases, Trypsin Domain-containing 1 (Tysnd1) and Peroxisomal Lon Protease (PsLon), Cooperatively Regulate Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Peroxisomal Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Okumoto, Kanji; Kametani, Yukari; Fujiki, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying protein turnover and enzyme regulation in the peroxisomal matrix remain largely unknown. Trypsin domain-containing 1 (Tysnd1) and peroxisomal Lon protease (PsLon) are newly identified peroxisomal matrix proteins that harbor both a serine protease-like domain and a peroxisome-targeting signal 1 (PTS1) sequence. Tysnd1 processes several PTS1-containing proteins and cleaves N-terminal presequences from PTS2-containing protein precursors. Here we report that knockdown of Tysnd1, but not PsLon, resulted in accumulation of endogenous β-oxidation enzymes in their premature form. The protease activity of Tysnd1 was inactivated by intermolecular self-conversion of the 60-kDa form to 15- and 45-kDa chains, which were preferentially degraded by PsLon. Peroxisomal β-oxidation of a very long fatty acid was significantly decreased by knockdown of Tysnd1 and partially lowered by PsLon knockdown. Taken together, these data suggest that Tysnd1 is a key regulator of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathway via proteolytic processing of β-oxidation enzymes. The proteolytic activity of oligomeric Tysnd1 is in turn controlled by self-cleavage of Tysnd1 and degradation of Tysnd1 cleavage products by PsLon. PMID:22002062

  2. Protease- and Acid-catalyzed Labeling Workflows Employing 18O-enriched Water

    PubMed Central

    Klingler, Diana; Hardt, Markus

    2013-01-01

    steps and reaction intermediates in complex proteolytic pathway reactions. Furthermore, the PALeO-reaction allows us to identify proteolytic enzymes such as the serine protease trypsin that is capable to rebind its cleavage products and catalyze the incorporation of a second 18O-atom. Such "double-labeling" enzymes can be used for postdigestion 18O-labeling, in which peptides are exclusively labeled by the carboxyl oxygen exchange reaction. Our third strategy extends labeling employing 18O-enriched water beyond enzymes and uses acidic pH conditions to introduce 18O-stable isotope signatures into peptides. PMID:23462971

  3. Kinetic properties of the binding of alpha-lytic protease to peptide boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kettner, C A; Bone, R; Agard, D A; Bachovchin, W W

    1988-10-01

    The kinetic parameters for peptide boronic acids in their interaction with alpha-lytic protease were determined and found to be similar to those of other serine proteases [Kettner, C., & Shenvi, A. B. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 15106-15114]. alpha-Lytic protease hydrolyzes substrates with either alanine or valine in the P1 site and has a preference for substrate with a P1 alanine. The most effective inhibitors are tri- and tetrapeptide analogues that have a -boroVal-OH residue in the P1 site. At pH 7.5, MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroVal-OH has a Ki of 6.4 nM and Boc-Ala-Pro-boroVal-OH has a Ki of 0.35 nM. Ac-boroVal-OH and Ac-Pro-boroVal-OH are 220,000- and 500-fold less effective, respectively, than the tetrapeptide analogue. The kinetic properties of the tri- and tetrapeptide analogues are consistent with the mechanism for slow-binding inhibition, E + I in equilibrium EI in equilibrium EI*, while the less effective inhibitors are simple competitive inhibitors. MeO-Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroAla-OH is a simple competitive inhibitor with a Ki of 67 nM at pH 7.5. Other peptide boronic acids, which are analogues of nonsubstrates, are less effective than substrate analogues but still are effective competitive inhibitors. For example, MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroPhe-OH has a Ki of 0.54 microM although substrates with a phenylalanine in the P1 position are not hydrolyzed. Binding for boronic acid analogues of both substrate and nonsubstrate analogues is pH dependent with higher affinity near pH 7.5. Similar binding properties have been observed for pancreatic elastase. Both enzymes have almost identical requirements for an extended peptide inhibitor sequence in order to exhibit highly effective binding and slow-binding characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3207699

  4. Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression by Protease-Alleviated Spatial Sequestration (PASS).

    PubMed

    Pitner, Ragan A; Scarpelli, Andrew H; Leonard, Joshua N

    2015-09-18

    In natural microbial systems, conditional spatial sequestration of transcription factors enables cells to respond rapidly to changes in their environment or intracellular state by releasing presynthesized regulatory proteins. Although such a mechanism may be useful for engineering synthetic biology technologies ranging from cell-based biosensors to biosynthetic platforms, to date it remains unknown how or whether such conditional spatial sequestration may be engineered. In particular, based upon seemingly contradictory reports in the literature, it is not clear whether subcellular spatial localization of a transcription factor within the cytoplasm is sufficient to preclude regulation of cognate promoters on plasmid-borne or chromosomal loci. Here, we describe a modular, orthogonal platform for investigating and implementing this mechanism using protease-alleviated spatial sequestration (PASS). In this system, expression of an exogenous protease mediates the proteolytic release of engineered transcriptional regulators from the inner face of the Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane. We demonstrate that PASS mediates robust, conditional regulation of either transcriptional repression, via tetR, or transcriptional activation, by the λ phage CI protein. This work provides new insights into a biologically important facet of microbial gene expression and establishes a new strategy for engineering conditional transcriptional regulation for the microbial synthetic biology toolbox. PMID:25822588

  5. Protease inhibitor 15, a candidate gene for abdominal aortic internal elastic lamina ruptures in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Falak, Samreen; Schafer, Sebastian; Baud, Amelie; Hummel, Oliver; Schulz, Herbert; Gauguier, Dominique; Osborne-Pellegrin, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The inbred Brown Norway (BN) rat develops spontaneous ruptures of the internal elastic lamina (RIEL) of the abdominal aorta (AA) and iliac arteries. Prior studies with crosses of the BN/Orl RJ (susceptible) and LOU/M (resistant) showed the presence of a significant QTL on chromosome 5 and the production of congenic rats proved the involvement of this locus. In this study, we further dissected the above-mentioned QTL by creating a new panel of LOU.BN(chr5) congenic and subcongenic lines and reduced the locus to 5.2 Mb. Then we studied 1,002 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats, whose phenotyping revealed a low prevalence and high variability for RIEL. High-resolution mapping in the HS panel detected the major locus on chromosome 5 (log P > 35) and refined it to 1.4 Mb. Subsequently, RNA-seq analysis on AA of BN, congenics, and LOU revealed expression differences for only protease inhibitor 15 (Pi15) gene and a putative long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) within the linkage region. The high abundance of lincRNA with respect to reduced Pi15 expression, in conjunction with exertion of longitudinal strain, may be related to RIEL, indicating the potential importance of proteases in biological processes related to defective aortic internal elastic lamina structure. Similar mechanisms may be involved in aneurysm initiation in the human AA. PMID:24790086

  6. The spectrum of low molecular weight alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in Triticum aestivum cv. Butte 86 was characterized by transcript and proteomic analysis. Coding sequences for 18 distinct proteins were identified among a collection of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from Butte 86 developi...

  7. Transcriptional activation of the human cytotoxic serine protease gene CSP-B in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R D; Ley, T J

    1990-01-01

    The cytotoxic serine protease B (CSP-B) gene is activated during cytotoxic T-lymphocyte maturation. In this report, we demonstrate that the PEER T-cell line (bearing gamma/delta T-cell receptors) accumulates CSP-B mRNA following exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and N6-2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (bt2cAMP) because of transcriptional activation of the CSP-B gene. TPA and bt2cAMP act synergistically to induce CSP-B expression, since neither agent alone causes activation of CSP-B transcription or mRNA accumulation. Chromatin upstream from the CSP-B gene is resistant to DNase I digestion in untreated PEER cells, but becomes sensitive following TPA-bt2cAMP treatment. Upon activation of PEER cells, a DNase I-hypersensitive site forms upstream from the CSP-B gene within a region that is highly conserved in the mouse. Transient transfection of CSP-B promoter constructs identified two regulatory regions in the CSP-B 5'-flanking sequence, located at positions -609 to -202 and positions -202 to -80. The region from -615 to -63 is sufficient to activate a heterologous promoter in activated PEER cells, but activation is orientation specific, suggesting that this region behaves as an upstream promoter element rather than a classical enhancer. Consensus AP-1, AP-2, and cAMP response elements are found upstream from the CSP-B gene (as are several T-cell-specific consensus elements), but the roles of these elements in CSP-B gene activation have yet to be determined. Images PMID:2233710

  8. Protease Inhibition by Oleic Acid Transfer From Chronic Wound Dressings to Albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. V.; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel M.; Mashchak, Andrew D.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds. These levels can inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid (18:1) is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor with some potential for redressing the imbalance of elastase activity found in chronic wounds. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of 18:1 by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. 18:1-treated cotton was examined for its ability to bind and release the fatty acid in the presence of albumin. The mechanism of 18:1 uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-18:1 complexes under liquid-liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-18:1 complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:18:1. Cotton chromatography under liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of 18:1 per mole albumin. Cotton was contrasted with hydrogel, and hydrocolloid wound dressing for its comparative ability to lower elastase activity. Each dressing material evaluated was found to release 18:1 in the presence of albumin with significant inhibition of elastase activity. The 18:1-formulated wound dressings lowered elastase activity in a dose dependent manner in the order cotton gauze > hydrogel > hydrocolloid. In contrast the cationic serine protease Cathepsin G was inihibited by 18:1 within a narrow range of 18:1-cotton formulations. Four per cent Albumin solutions were most effective in binding cotton bound-18:1. However, 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of 18:1 necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Formulations with 128 mg 18:1/g cotton gauze had equivalent elastase lowering with 1 - 4% albumin. 18:1 bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the

  9. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  10. A New Subtilase-Like Protease Deriving from Fusarium equiseti with High Potential for Industrial Applications.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, Kari; Mäkinen, Susanna; Isoniemi, Sari; Valtakari, Leena; Pelzer, Alexander; Jänis, Janne; Paloheimo, Marja

    2015-09-01

    A gene encoding a novel extracellular subtilisin-like protease was cloned from the ascomycete Fusarium equiseti and expressed in Trichoderma reesei. The F. equiseti protease (Fe protease) showed excellent performance in stain removal and good compatibility with several commercial laundry detergent formulations, suggesting that it has high potential for use in various industrial applications. The recombinant enzyme was purified and characterized. The temperature optimum of the Fe protease was 60 °C and it showed high activity in the pH range of 6-10, with a sharp decline in activity at pH above 10. The amino acid specificity of the Fe protease was studied using casein, cytochrome c, and ubiquitin as substrates. The Fe protease had broad substrate specificity: almost all amino acid residues were accepted at position P1, even though it showed some preference for cleavage at the C-terminal side of asparagine and histidine residues. The S4 subsite of Fe protease favors aspartic acid and threonine. The other well-characterized proteases from filamentous fungi, Proteinase K from Engyodontium album, Thermomycolin from Malbranchea sulfurea, and alkaline subtilisins from Bacillus species prefer hydrophobic amino acids in both the S1 and S4 subsites. Due to its different specificity compared to the members of the S8 family of clan SB of proteases, we consider that the Fe protease is a new protease. It does not belong to any previously defined IUBMB groups of proteases. PMID:26178876

  11. Crystal structure of the caseinolytic protease gene regulator, a transcriptional activator in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Russo, Santina; Schweitzer, Jens-Eric; Polen, Tino; Bott, Michael; Pohl, Ehmke

    2009-02-20

    Human pathogens of the genera Corynebacterium and Mycobacterium possess the transcriptional activator ClgR (clp gene regulator) which in Corynebacterium glutamicum has been shown to regulate the expression of the ClpCP protease genes. ClgR specifically binds to pseudo-palindromic operator regions upstream of clpC and clpP1P2. Here, we present the first crystal structure of a ClgR protein from C. glutamicum. The structure was determined from two different crystal forms to resolutions of 1.75 and 2.05 A, respectively. ClgR folds into a five-helix bundle with a helix-turn-helix motif typical for DNA-binding proteins. Upon dimerization the two DNA-recognition helices are arranged opposite to each other at the protein surface in a distance of approximately 30 A, which suggests that they bind into two adjacent major grooves of B-DNA in an anti-parallel manner. A binding pocket is situated at a strategic position in the dimer interface and could possess a regulatory role altering the positions of the DNA-binding helices. PMID:19019826

  12. Acid stability of the kinetically stable alkaline serine protease possessing polyproline II fold.

    PubMed

    Rohamare, Sonali; Javdekar, Vaishali; Dalal, Sayli; Nareddy, Pavan Kumar; Swamy, Musti J; Gaikwad, Sushama M

    2015-02-01

    The kinetically stable alkaline serine protease from Nocardiopsis sp.; NprotI, possessing polyproline II fold (PPII) was characterized for its pH stability using proteolytic assay, fluorescence and Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). NprotI was found to be functionally stable when incubated at pH 1.0, even after 24 h, while after incubation at pH 10.0, drastic loss in the activity was observed. The enzyme showed enhanced activity after incubation at pH 1.0 and 3.0, at higher temperature (50-60 °C). NprotI maintained the overall PPII fold in broad pH range as seen using far UV CD spectroscopy. The PPII fold of NprotI incubated at pH 1.0 remained fairly intact up to 70 °C. Based on the isodichroic point and Tm values revealed by secondary structural transitions, different modes of thermal denaturation at pH 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 were observed. DSC studies of NprotI incubated at acidic pH (pH 1.0-5.0) showed Tm values in the range of 74-76 °C while significant decrease in Tm (63.8 °C) was observed at pH 10.0. NprotI could be chemically denatured at pH 5.0 (stability pH) only with guanidine thiocynate. NprotI can be classified as type III protein among the three acid denatured states. Acid tolerant and thermostable NprotI can serve as a potential candidate for biotechnological applications. PMID:25576306

  13. Improvement of Functional Properties of Wheat Gluten Using Acid Protease from Aspergillus usamii

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lingli; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yang, Sheng; Song, Junmei; Que, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysis parameters (temperature, E/S ratio, pH, and time) for acid protease (from Aspergillus usamii) hydrolysis of wheat gluten were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using emulsifying activity index (EAI) as the response factor. A temperature of 48.9°C, E/S ratio of 1.60%, pH 3.0, hydrolysis time of 2.5 h was found to be the optimum condition to obtain wheat gluten hydrolysate with higher EAI. The solubility of wheat gluten was greatly improved by hydrolysis and became independent of pH over the studied range. Enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in dramatically increase in EAI, water and oil holding capacity. Molecular weight distribution results showed that most of the peptides above 10 kDa have been hydrolyzed into smaller peptides. The results of FTIR spectra and disulfide bond (SS) and sulfhydryl (SH) content suggested that a more extensional conformation was formed after hydrolysis, which could account for the improved functional properties. PMID:27467884

  14. Improvement of Functional Properties of Wheat Gluten Using Acid Protease from Aspergillus usamii.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lingli; Wang, Zhaoxia; Yang, Sheng; Song, Junmei; Que, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    Hydrolysis parameters (temperature, E/S ratio, pH, and time) for acid protease (from Aspergillus usamii) hydrolysis of wheat gluten were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) using emulsifying activity index (EAI) as the response factor. A temperature of 48.9°C, E/S ratio of 1.60%, pH 3.0, hydrolysis time of 2.5 h was found to be the optimum condition to obtain wheat gluten hydrolysate with higher EAI. The solubility of wheat gluten was greatly improved by hydrolysis and became independent of pH over the studied range. Enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in dramatically increase in EAI, water and oil holding capacity. Molecular weight distribution results showed that most of the peptides above 10 kDa have been hydrolyzed into smaller peptides. The results of FTIR spectra and disulfide bond (SS) and sulfhydryl (SH) content suggested that a more extensional conformation was formed after hydrolysis, which could account for the improved functional properties. PMID:27467884

  15. Production, purification, and characterization of an extracellular acid protease from the marine Antarctic yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa L7.

    PubMed

    Lario, Luciana Daniela; Chaud, Luciana; Almeida, María das Graças; Converti, Attilio; Sette, Lara Durães; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-11-01

    The production, purification, and characterization of an extracellular protease released by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa L7 were evaluated in this study. This strain was isolated from an Antarctic marine alga and previously selected among others based on the capacity to produce the highest extracellular proteolytic activity in preliminary tests. R. mucilaginosa L7 was grown in Saboraud-dextrose medium at 25 °C, and the cell growth, pH of the medium, extracellular protease production and the glucose and protein consumption were determined as a function of time. The protease was then purified, and the effects of pH, temperature, and salt concentration on the catalytic activity and enzyme stability were determined. Enzyme production started at the beginning of the exponential phase of growth and reached a maximum after 48 h, which was accompanied by a decrease in the pH as well as reductions of the protein and glucose concentrations in the medium. The purified protease presented optimal catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and 50 °C. Finally, the enzyme was stable in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl. These characteristics are of interest for future studies and may lead to potential biotechnological applications that require enzyme activity and stability under acidic conditions and/or high salt concentrations. PMID:26466885

  16. Isolation and gene expression analysis of a papain-type cysteine protease in thermogenic skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius).

    PubMed

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Masuko, Hiromi; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2012-01-01

    Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) spadices contain abundant transcripts for cysteine protease (CP). From thermogenic spadices, we isolated SrCPA, a highly expressed CP gene that encoded a papain-type CP. SrCPA is structurally similar to other plant CPs, including the senescence-associated CPs found in aroids. The expression of SrCPA increased during floral development, and was observed in all floral tissues except for the stamens. PMID:23047088

  17. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of duck ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) gene.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei; Wei, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Hongbo; Jin, Meilin

    2016-09-01

    In mammals, ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) is an interferon (IFN)-inducible gene and is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor-mediated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. The role of USP18 in ducks (duUSP18) remains poorly understood. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the full-length coding sequence of duUSP18 from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). In healthy ducks, duUSP18 transcripts were broadly expressed in different tissues, with higher expression levels in the spleen, lung and kidney. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that duUSP18 could be induced by treatment with Poly(I:C) or LPS. Overexpression of duUSP18 inhibited NF-κB and IFN-β expression. Furthermore, deletion mutant analysis revealed that the duUSP18 region between aa 75 and 304 was essential for inhibiting NF-κB. In addition, overexpression of duUSP18 also suppressed the secretion of NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that duUSP18 regulates duck innate immune responses. PMID:27133094

  18. PhAP protease from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125: Gene cloning, recombinant production in E. coli and enzyme characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pascale, D.; Giuliani, M.; De Santi, C.; Bergamasco, N.; Amoresano, A.; Carpentieri, A.; Parrilli, E.; Tutino, M. L.

    2010-08-01

    Cold-adapted proteases have been found to be the dominant activity throughout the cold marine environment, indicating their importance in bacterial acquisition of nitrogen-rich complex organic compounds. However, few extracellular proteases from marine organisms have been characterized so far, and the mechanisms that enable their activity in situ are still largely unknown. Aside from their ecological importance and use as model enzyme for structure/function investigations, cold-active proteolytic enzymes offer great potential for biotechnological applications. Our studies on cold adapted proteases were performed on exo-enzyme produced by the Antarctic marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125. By applying a proteomic approach, we identified several proteolytic activities from its culture supernatant. PhAP protease was selected for further investigations. The encoding gene was cloned and the protein was recombinantly produced in E. coli cells. The homogeneous product was biochemically characterised and it turned out that the enzyme is a Zn-dependent aminopeptidase, with an activity dependence from assay temperature typical of psychrophilic enzymes.

  19. New soluble ATP-dependent protease, Ti, in Escherichia coli that is distinct from protease La

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.H.; Hwang, B.J.; Park, W.J.; Goldberg, A.L.

    1987-05-01

    E. coli must contain other ATP-requiring proteolytic systems in addition to protease La (the lon gene product). A new ATP-dependent protease was purified from lon cells which lack protease La, as shown by immuno-blotting. This enzyme hydrolyzes (TH)casein to acid-soluble products in the presence of ATP (or dATP) and MgS . Nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs, other nucleoside triphosphates and AMP can not replace ATP. Therefore, ATP hydrolysis appears necessary for proteolysis. The enzyme appears to be a serine protease, but also contains essential thiol residues. Unlike protease La, it is not inhibited by vanadate, heparin, or the defective R9 subunit of protease La. On gel filtration, this enzyme has an apparent Mr of 340,000 and is comprised of two components of 190,000D and 130,000D, which can be separated by phosphocellulose chromatography. By themselves, these components do not show ATP-dependent proteolysis, but when mixed, full activity is restored. These finding and similar ones of Maurizi and Gottesman indicate that E. coli contain two soluble ATP-dependent proteases, which function by different mechanisms. This new enzyme may contribute to the rapid breakdown of abnormal polypeptides or of normal proteins during starvation. The authors propose to name it protease Ti.

  20. Escherichia coli contains a soluble ATP-dependent protease (Ti) distinct from protease La

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, B.J.; Park, W.J.; Chung, C.H.; Goldberg, A.L.

    1987-08-01

    The energy requirement for protein breakdown in Escherichia coli has generally been attributed to the ATP-dependence of protease La, the lon gene product. The authors have partially purified another ATP-dependent protease from lon/sup -/ cells that lack protease La (as shown by immunoblotting). This enzyme hydrolyzes (/sup 3/H)methyl-casein to acid-soluble products in the presence of ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. ATP hydrolysis appears necessary for proteolytic activity. Since this enzyme is inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, it appears to be a serine protease, but it also contains essential thiol residues. They propose to name this enzyme protease Ti. It differs from protease La in nucleotide specificity, inhibitor sensitivity, and subunit composition. On gel filtration, protease Ti has an apparent molecular weight of 370,000. It can be fractionated by phosphocellulose chromatography or by DEAE chromatography into two components with apparent molecular weights of 260,000 and 140,000. When separated, they do not show preteolytic activity. One of these components, by itself, has ATPase activity and is labile in the absence of ATP. The other contains the diisopropyl fluorophosphate-sensitive proteolytic site. These results and the similar findings of Katayama-Fujimura et al. indicate that E. coli contains two ATP-hydrolyzing proteases, which differ in many biochemical features and probably in their physiological roles.

  1. Molecular cloning, sequencing analysis, and chromosomal localization of the human protease inhibitor 4 (Kallistatin) gene (P14)

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, K.X.; Chao, J.; Chao, L.; Ward, D.C.

    1994-09-15

    The gene encoding human protease inhibitor 4 (kallistatin; gene symbol PI4), a novel serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), has been isolated and completely sequenced. The kallistatin gene is 9618 bp in length and contains five exons and four introns. The structure and organization of the kallistatin gene are similar to those of the genes encoding {alpha}{sub 1}-antichymotrypsin. The kallistatin gene is also similar to the genes encoding rat and mouse kallikrein-binding proteins. The first exon of the kallistatin gene is a noncoding 89-bp fragment, as determined by primer extension. The fifth exon, which contains 308 bp of noncoding sequence, encodes the reactive center of kallistatin. In the 5`-flanking region of the kallistatin gene, 1125 bp have been sequenced and a consensus promoter segment with potential transcription regulatory sites, including CAAT and TATA boxes, an AP-2 binding site, a GC-rich region, a cAMP response element, and an AP-1 binding site, has been identified within this region. The kallistatin gene was localized by in situ hybridization to human chromosome 14q31-132.1, close to the serpin genes encoding {alpha}{sub 1}-antichymotrypsin, protein C inhibitor, {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin, and corticosteroid-binding globulin. In a genomic DNA Southern blot, kallistatin-related genes were identified in monkey, mouse, rat, bovine, dog, cat, and a ground mole. The patterns of hybridization revealed clues of human serpin evolution. 34 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by streptococcal IgA1 proteases.

    PubMed

    Batten, Margaret R; Senior, Bernard W; Kilian, Mogens; Woof, Jenny M

    2003-03-01

    The amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by IgA1 proteases of different species of Streptococcus were investigated. Recombinant IgA1 antibodies were generated with point mutations at proline 227 and threonine 228, the residues lying on either side of the peptide bond at which all streptococcal IgA1 proteases cleave wild-type human IgA1. The amino acid substitutions produced no major effect upon the structure of the mutant IgA1 antibodies or their functional ability to bind to Fcalpha receptors. However, the substitutions had a substantial effect upon sensitivity to cleavage with some streptococcal IgA1 proteases, with, in some cases, a single point mutation rendering the antibody resistant to a particular IgA1 protease. This effect was least marked with the IgA1 protease from Streptococcus pneumoniae, which showed no absolute requirement for either proline or threonine at residues 227 to 228. By contrast, the IgA1 proteases of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus mitis had an absolute requirement for proline at 227 but not for threonine at 228, which could be replaced by valine. There was evidence in S. mitis that proteases from different strains may have different amino acid requirements for cleavage. Remarkably, some streptococcal proteases appeared able to cleave the hinge at a distant alternative site if substitution prevented efficient cleavage of the original site. Hence, this study has identified key residues required for the recognition of the IgA1 hinge as a substrate by streptococcal IgA1 proteases, and it marks a preliminary step towards development of specific enzyme inhibitors. PMID:12595464

  3. Cleavage of DAP5 by coxsackievirus B3 2A protease facilitates viral replication and enhances apoptosis by altering translation of IRES-containing genes.

    PubMed

    Hanson, P J; Ye, X; Qiu, Y; Zhang, H M; Hemida, M G; Wang, F; Lim, T; Gu, A; Cho, B; Kim, H; Fung, G; Granville, D J; Yang, D

    2016-05-01

    Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) by enterovirus proteases during infection leads to the shutoff of cellular cap-dependent translation, but does not affect the initiation of cap-independent translation of mRNAs containing an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Death-associated protein 5 (DAP5), a structural homolog of eIF4G, is a translation initiation factor specific for IRES-containing mRNAs. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a positive single-stranded RNA virus and a primary causal agent of human myocarditis. Its RNA genome harbors an IRES within the 5'-untranslated region and is translated by a cap-independent, IRES-driven mechanism. Previously, we have shown that DAP5 is cleaved during CVB3 infection. However, the protease responsible for cleavage, cleavage site and effects on the translation of target genes during CVB3 infection have not been investigated. In the present study, we demonstrated that viral protease 2A but not 3C is responsible for DAP5 cleavage, generating 45- and 52-kDa N- (DAP5-N) and C-terminal (DAP5-C) fragments, respectively. By site-directed mutagenesis, we found that DAP5 is cleaved at amino acid G434. Upon cleavage, DAP5-N largely translocated to the nucleus at the later time points of infection, whereas the DAP5-C largely remained in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of these DAP5 truncates demonstrated that DAP5-N retained the capability of initiating IRES-driven translation of apoptosis-associated p53, but not the prosurvival Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) when compared with the full-length DAP5. Similarly, DAP5-N expression promoted CVB3 replication and progeny release; on the other hand, DAP5-C exerted a dominant-negative effect on cap-dependent translation. Taken together, viral protease 2A-mediated cleavage of DAP5 results in the production of two truncates that exert differential effects on protein translation of the IRES-containing genes, leading to enhanced host cell death. PMID:26586572

  4. Amino acid regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Fafournoux, P; Bruhat, A; Jousse, C

    2000-01-01

    The impact of nutrients on gene expression in mammals has become an important area of research. Nevertheless, the current understanding of the amino acid-dependent control of gene expression is limited. Because amino acids have multiple and important functions, their homoeostasis has to be finely maintained. However, amino-acidaemia can be affected by certain nutritional conditions or various forms of stress. It follows that mammals have to adjust several of their physiological functions involved in the adaptation to amino acid availability by regulating the expression of numerous genes. The aim of the present review is to examine the role of amino acids in regulating mammalian gene expression and protein turnover. It has been reported that some genes involved in the control of growth or amino acid metabolism are regulated by amino acid availability. For instance, limitation of several amino acids greatly increases the expression of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein, where C/EBP is CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) and asparagine synthetase. Elevated mRNA levels result from both an increase in the rate of transcription and an increase in mRNA stability. Several observations suggest that the amino acid regulation of gene expression observed in mammalian cells and the general control process described in yeast share common features. Moreover, amino acid response elements have been characterized in the promoters of the CHOP and asparagine synthetase genes. Taken together, the results discussed in the present review demonstrate that amino acids, by themselves, can, in concert with hormones, play an important role in the control of gene expression. PMID:10998343

  5. Improving volatile fatty acids production by exploiting the residual substrates in post-fermented sludge: Protease catalysis of refractory protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bo; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Bai, Jie; Liu, He; Fu, Bo

    2016-03-01

    The real cause to the low yield of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), from inhibition or low biodegradation, is uncertain in sludge anaerobic fermentation. In this study, poor biodegradability of proteins and fast decrease of the indigenous hydrolase activity in the residual post-fermented sludge were found to be the major reasons. With the addition of trypsin or alkaline protease in residual post-fermented sludge after primary alkaline fermentation, degradation efficiency of refractory protein increased by 33.6% and 34.8%, respectively. Accordingly, the VFAs yields were improved by 69.7% and 106.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the activities of added trypsin and alkaline protease could maintain at 13.52 U/mL and 19.11 U/mL in the alkaline fermentation process. This study demonstrated that exploiting the refractory proteins in residual post-fermented sludge by protease addition seems to be a very promising way for improving VFAs yield of conventional alkaline fermentations with waste activated sludge. PMID:26722812

  6. Effects of worts treated with proteases on the assimilation of free amino acids and fermentation performance of lager yeast.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hongjie; Zheng, Liye; Wang, Chenxia; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in free amino acids (FAA) composition by supplementing three commercial proteases (Neutrase, Flavorzyme and Protamex) at the beginning of wort mashing, and monitoring the effects on the assimilation pattern of FAA and fermentation performance of lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) during normal and high gravity fermentations. Proteases supplementation significantly improved the extract yield and FAA level of mashed worts. Normal gravity worts treated with Flavorzyme and Neutrase exhibited higher fermentability, ethanol production and flavor volatiles concentration compared to the control worts, while these beneficial effects were observed in high gravity worts treated with Protamex and Neutrase. The reason for the above results is proposed to be the change in the assimilation pattern of FAA in lager yeast with increased wort gravity, especially for the improved assimilation ratios of Leu, Arg, Phe, His, Asp and Val. In normal gravity fermentations, there were strong correlations between the assimilation amounts of Lys, Leu, Arg and His and fermentability, while in high gravity fermentations, these good correlations were found with only Lys and His. The present study suggested that optimizing the composition of FAA by supplementing proteases during wort mashing was beneficial to beer brewing for improving fermentation performance of lager yeast and flavor volatiles formation. PMID:23279816

  7. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor gene deletion alters bleomycin-induced lung injury, but not development of pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Habgood, Anthony N; Tatler, Amanda L; Porte, Joanne; Wahl, Sharon M; Laurent, Geoffrey J; John, Alison E; Johnson, Simon R; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive, fatal disease with limited treatment options. Protease-mediated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) activation has been proposed as a pathogenic mechanism of lung fibrosis. Protease activity in the lung is tightly regulated by protease inhibitors, particularly secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). The bleomycin model of lung fibrosis was used to determine the effect of increased protease activity in the lungs of Slpi(-/-) mice following injury. Slpi(-/-), and wild-type, mice received oropharyngeal administration of bleomycin (30 IU) and the development of pulmonary fibrosis was assessed. Pro and active forms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were measured. Lung fibrosis was determined by collagen subtype-specific gene expression, hydroxyproline concentration, and histological assessment. Alveolar TGF-β activation was measured using bronchoalveolar lavage cell pSmad2 levels and global TGF-β activity was assessed by pSmad2 immunohistochemistry. The active-MMP-9 to pro-MMP-9 ratio was significantly increased in Slpi(-/-) animals compared with wild-type animals, demonstrating enhanced metalloproteinase activity. Wild-type animals showed an increase in TGF-β activation following bleomycin, with a progressive and sustained increase in collagen type I, alpha 1 (Col1α1), III, alpha 1(Col3α1), IV, alpha 1(Col4α1) mRNA expression, and a significant increase in total lung collagen 28 days post bleomycin. In contrast Slpi(-/-) mice showed no significant increase of alveolar TGF-β activity following bleomycin, above their already elevated levels, although global TGF-β activity did increase. Slpi(-/-) mice had impaired collagen gene expression but animals demonstrated minimal reduction in lung fibrosis compared with wild-type animals. These data suggest that enhanced proteolysis does not further enhance TGF-β activation, and inhibits sustained Col1α1, Col3α1, and Col4α1 gene expression

  8. Peptidyl inverse esters of p-methoxybenzoic acid: a novel class of potent inactivator of the serine proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Lynas, J; Walker, B

    1997-01-01

    A series of novel synthetic peptides, containing a C-terminal beta-amino alcohol linked to p-methoxybenzoic acid via an ester linkage, have been prepared and tested as inhibitors against typical members of the serine protease family. For example, the sequences Ac-Val-Pro-NH-CH-(CH2-C6H5)-CH2O-CO-C6H4-OCH3 (I) and Ac-Val-Pro-NH-CH-[CH-(CH3)2]-CH2O-CO-C6H4-OCH3 (II), which fulfil the known primary and secondary specificity requirements of chymotrypsin and elastase respectively, have been found to behave as exceptionally potent irreversible inactivators of their respective target protease. Thus I was found to inactivate chymotrypsin with an overall second-order rate constant (k2/Ki) of approx. 6.6x10(6) M-1. s-1, whereas II is an even more potent inactivator of human neutrophil elastase, exhibiting a second-order rate constant of inactivation of approx. 1.3x10(7) M-1.s-1. These values represent the largest rate constants ever reported for the inactivation of these proteases with synthetic peptide-based inactivators. On prolonged incubation in substrate-containing buffers, samples of the inactivated proteases were found to regain activity slowly. The first-order rate constants for the regeneration of enzymic activity from chymotrypsin and human neutrophil elastase inactivated by I and II respectively were determined to be approx. 5.8x10(-5) s-1 and approx. 4.3x10(-4) s-1. We believe that the most likely mechanism for the inactivation and regeneration of enzymic activity involves the formation and subsequent slow hydrolysis of long-lived acyl enzyme intermediates. PMID:9271079

  9. The natural killer cell serine protease gene Lmet1 maps to mouse chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Thia, K.Y.T.; Smyth, M.J.; Jenkins, N.A.; Gilbert, D.J.; Copeland, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes play a key role in immune responses against viruses and tumors. Lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis by both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells is often associated with the formation of membrane lesions on target cells caused by exocytosis of cytoplasmic granule serine proteases and a pore-forming protein, perforin. A variety of granzymes have been found to reside within the cytoplasmic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes, but unlike perforin, isolated serine proteases are not intrinsically lytic. However, a role for serine proteases in cellular cytotoxicity has been supported by the ability of protease inhibitors to completely abrogate lymphocyte cytotoxicity, and the demonstration that serine proteases can initiate DNA fragmentation in target cells transfected or pretreated with a sublytic concentration of perforin. Granzymes cloned in human, mouse, and rat encode four granzyme activities and all are expressed in either T cells, their thymic precursors, and/or NK cells. In particular, a rat granzyme that cleaves after methionine residues, but not phenylalanine residues and its human equivalent, human Met-ase 1, are unique granzymes with restricted expression in CD3-NK cells. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Identification and characterization of the cysteine protease inhibitor gene MdCPI from Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Liu, Fengsong; Zhang, D; Tang, T; Ge, X

    2011-10-01

    Cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs) are involved in many vital cellular processes such as signalling pathways, apoptosis, immune response and development; however, no CPIs have yet been reported from the housefly Musca domestica. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a housefly CPI gene designated MdCPI. The gene contains an open reading frame of 357 bp encoding a protein of 118 amino acid residues with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acid residues. Protein alignment demonstrated a high homology to that of Sarcophaga crassipalpis (identity = 51%). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all CPIs from dipterans, including the housefly, belong to the I25A family and may be descended from a single common ancestor. The gene was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. Biochemical studies showed that MdCPI exerts an inhibiting function on papain, which is a classical assay to confirm CPIs. Real-time quantitative PCR and immunolocalization analysis revealed that MdCPI is specifically expressed in haemocytes and fat bodies. It is highly down-regulated in larvae and markedly up-regulated in the pupal stage, suggesting that it may be related to development. PMID:21711401

  11. Crystal growth and preliminary X-ray study of glutamic acid specific serine protease from Bacillus intermedius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranova, I. P.; Blagova, E. V.; Levdikov, V. M.; Rudenskaya, G. N.; Balaban, N. P.; Shakirov, E. V.

    1999-01-01

    The glutamic acid specific protease (glutamyl-endopeptidase) from Bacillus intermedius, strain 3-19, was isolated and purified using ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and Mono-S FPLC column. The conditions for crystallization of the enzyme have been discussed. The crystals of enzyme were grown using hanging-drop vapor-diffusion technique. Crystals belong to the space group C2 with unit cell parameters of a=61.62 Å, b=55.84 Å, c=60.40 Å, β=117.6° X-ray diffraction data to 1.68 Å resolution were collected using synchrotron radiation (EMBL, Hamburg) and an imaging plate scanner.

  12. Nitrogen-15 NMR spectroscopy of the catalytic-triad histidine of a serine protease in peptide boronic acid inhibitor complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Wong, W.Y.L.; Farr-Jones, S. ); Shenvi, A.B.; Kettner, C.A. )

    1988-10-04

    {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy was used to examine the active-site histidyl residue of {alpha}-lytic protease in peptide boronic acid inhibitor complexes. Two distinct types of complexes were observed: (1) Boronic acids that are analogues of substrates form complexes in which the active-site imidazole ring is protonated and both imidazole N-H protons are strongly hydrogen bonded. (2) Boronic acids that are not substrate analogues form complexes in which N{sup {epsilon}2} of the active-site histidine is covalently bonded to the boron atom of the inhibitor. The proton bound to N{sup {delta}1} of the histidine in these histidine-boronate adducts remains strongly hydrogen bonded, presumably to the active-site aspartate. In both types of complexes the N-H protons of His-57 exchange unusually slowly as evidenced by the room temperature visibility of the low-field {sup 1}H resonances and the {sup 15}N-H spin couplings. These results indicate that occupancy of the specificity subsites may be required to fully form the transition-state binding site. The significance of these findings for understanding inhibitor binding and the catalytic mechanism of serine proteases is discussed.

  13. Effects of L- and iso-ascorbic acid on meat protein hydrolyzing activity of four commercial plant and three microbial protease preparations.

    PubMed

    Ha, Minh; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Carne, Alan

    2014-04-15

    The present study investigated the effects of both l- and iso-ascorbic acid (AA) on the activity of four plant proteases (papain, bromelain, actinidin and zingibain) and three microbial proteases (Bacterial Protease G, Fungal 31,000 and Fungal 60,000) preparations using fluorescent-labelled casein, meat myofibrillar and connective tissue extracts to explore their effects on meat structure components upon treatment with individual proteases. While l-AA in the range 0.8-3.2mM inhibited the activity of papain, bromelain and zingibain, iso-AA acted as an inhibitor of papain but as an activator of zingibain and had no significant effect on bromelain. Both AA isoforms acted as an activator of the actinidin protease and the concentration of AA isoforms appeared to affect the level of activation of the protease. The effect of the two AA isoforms on collagen and myofibrillar protein hydrolyzing activity varied depending on the concentration of the two AA isoforms. The results indicate the ability to up and down regulate the activity of the investigated proteases by using an appropriate concentration of the AA isoform. PMID:24295669

  14. Profiling Gene Expression Induced by Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Activation in Human Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Jacky Y.; Gardiner, Brooke; Grimmond, Sean; Fairlie, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Protease-Activated Receptor-2 (PAR2) has been implicated through genetic knockout mice with cytokine regulation and arthritis development. Many studies have associated PAR2 with inflammatory conditions (arthritis, airways inflammation, IBD) and key events in tumor progression (angiogenesis, metastasis), but they have relied heavily on the use of single agonists to identify physiological roles for PAR2. However such probes are now known not to be highly selective for PAR2, and thus precisely what PAR2 does and what mechanisms of downstream regulation are truly affected remain obscure. Effects of PAR2 activation on gene expression in Human Embryonic Kidney cells (HEK293), a commonly studied cell line in PAR2 research, were investigated here by comparing 19,000 human genes for intersecting up- or down-regulation by both trypsin (an endogenous protease that activates PAR2) and a PAR2 activating hexapeptide (2f-LIGRLO-NH2). Among 2,500 human genes regulated similarly by both agonists, there were clear associations between PAR2 activation and cellular metabolism (1,000 genes), the cell cycle, the MAPK pathway, HDAC and sirtuin enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and anti-complement function. PAR-2 activation up-regulated four genes more than 5 fold (DUSP6, WWOX, AREG, SERPINB2) and down-regulated another six genes more than 3 fold (TXNIP, RARG, ITGB4, CTSD, MSC and TM4SF15). Both PAR2 and PAR1 activation resulted in up-regulated expression of several genes (CD44, FOSL1, TNFRSF12A, RAB3A, COPEB, CORO1C, THBS1, SDC4) known to be important in cancer. This is the first widespread profiling of specific activation of PAR2 and provides a valuable platform for better understanding key mechanistic roles of PAR2 in human physiology. Results clearly support the development of both antagonists and agonists of human PAR2 as potential disease modifying therapeutic agents. PMID:21072196

  15. Genome-wide identification, evolutuionary and expression analysis of aspartic proteases gene superfamily in grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspartic proteases (APs) are a large family of proteolytic enzymes in vertebrates, plants, yeast, nematodes, parasites, fungi, and viruses. In plants, they are involved in many biological processes, such as plant senescence, stress response, programmed cell death, and reproduction. Prior to the pr...

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose of review. This review focuses on the effect(s) of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on gene transcription as determined from data generated using cDNA microarrays. Introduced within the past decade, this methodology allows detection of the expression of thousands of genes simultaneo...

  17. Genotype-dependent expression of specific members of potato protease inhibitor gene families in different tissues and in response to wounding and nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Turrà, David; Bellin, Diana; Lorito, Matteo; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2009-05-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are small ubiquitous proteins with a variety of biological functions in plants, including protein stabilization, modulation of apoptosis and defense against pathogens. Kunitz-like inhibitors (PKPIs) and proteinase inhibitors 1 (PI-1) are abundant in storage organs of potato plants and are up-regulated in other tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little information is available on genotype-dependent regulation of individual PKPI group- and PI-1 genes. We isolated, sequenced and characterized four novel full-length PI-1 cDNAs (PPI3A2, PPI3A4, PPI2C4 and PPI2C1A) from Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée. Specific primers were developed for PI-1 genes PPI3A2, PPI3B2 and PPI2C4 and the three PKPI homology groups A, B and C. Their expression profiles were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in comparison with transcripts of the PI-1, Pin2 and PR1 gene families in various tissues, after wounding and Globodera rostochiensis infection of nematode-resistant genotypes P40 and LB7/4/c-I-7, and susceptible cv. Desirée. Individual PI-1 genes and PKPI homology groups were expressed in a tissue- and genotype-dependent manner after wounding and nematode infection. The differences in PI expression patterns were related to the intensity, type of inhibitors produced, and the kinetics of induction. Therefore, different genotype-environment combinations produce different sets of PI transcripts. Potato plants reacted to G. rostochiensis infection by modulating PKPI, PI-1 and Pin2, but not PR1 gene expression, suggesting that the jasmonic acid but not the salicylic acid defense signaling pathway is activated. PI expression profiles were not correlated with the resistance status of the potato genotype infected with G. rostochiensis. PMID:19095329

  18. Ectopic expression of a grape aspartic protease gene, AP13, in Arabidopsis thaliana improves resistance to powdery mildew but increases susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Xianhang; Zhao, Jiao; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yuejin; Wang, Xiping

    2016-07-01

    The grape aspartic protease gene, AP13 was previously reported to be responsive, in Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis cv. 'Shang-24', to infection by Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew disease, as well as to treatment with salicylic acid in V. labrusca×V. vinifera cv. 'Kyoho'. In the current study, we evaluated the expression levels of AP13 in 'Shang-24' in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and ethylene (ET) treatments, as well as to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, and the transcript levels of VqAP13 decreased after B. cinerea infection and MeJA treatment, but increased following ET and SA treatments. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines over-expressing VqAP13 under the control of a constitutive promoter showed enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and to the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and accumulated more callose than wild type plants, while the resistance of transgenic A. thaliana lines to B. cinerea inoculation was reduced. In addition, the expression profiles of various disease resistance- related genes in the transgenic A. thaliana lines following infection by different pathogens were compared to the equivalent profiles in the wild type plants. The results suggest that VqAP13 action promotes the SA dependent signal transduction pathway, but suppresses the JA signal transduction pathway. PMID:27181943

  19. Amino acid sequence alignment of bacterial and mammalian pancreatic serine proteases based on topological equivalences.

    PubMed

    James, M N; Delbaere, L T; Brayer, G D

    1978-06-01

    The three-dimensional structures of the bacterial serine proteases SGPA, SGPB, and alpha-lytic protease have been compared with those of the pancreatic enzymes alpha-chymotrypsin and elastase. This comparison shows that approximately 60% (55-64%) of the alpha-carbon atom positions of the bacterial serine proteases are topologically equivalent to the alpha-carbon atom positions of the pancreatic enzymes. The corresponding value for a comparison of the bacterial enzymes among themselves is approximately 84%. The results of these topological comparisons have been used to deduce an experimentally sound sequence alignment for these several enzymes. This alignment shows that there is extensive tertiary structural homology among the bacteria and pancreatic enzymes without significant primary sequence identity (less than 21%). The acquisition of a zymogen function by the pancreatic enzymes is accompanied by two major changes to the bacterial enzymes' architecture: an insertion of 9 residues to increase the length of the N-terminal loop, and one of 12 residues to a loop near the activation salt bridge. In addition, in these two enzyme families, the methionine loop (residues 164-182) adopts very different comformations which are associated with their altered substrate specificities. PMID:96920

  20. Molecular cloning of a thermostable neutral protease gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus in a vector plasmid and its expression in Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, M; Takagi, M; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1983-01-01

    The structural gene for a thermostable protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus was cloned in plasmid pTB90. It is expressed in both B. stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis. B. stearothermophilus carrying the recombinant plasmid produced about 15-fold more protease (310 U/mg of cell dry weight) than did the wild-type strain of B. stearothermophilus. Some properties of the proteases that have been purified from the transformants of B. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis were examined. No significant difference was observed among the enzyme properties studied here despite the difference in host cells. We found that the protease, neutral in pH characteristics and with a molecular weight of 36,000, retained about 80% of its activity even after treatment of 65 degrees C for 30 min. Images PMID:6302083

  1. T Cell Determinants Incorporating [beta]-Amino Acid Residues Are Protease Resistant and Remain Immunogenic In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Andrew I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Williamson, Nicholas A.; Price, Jason D.; Kauwe, Andreade; Chen, Weisan; Oakley, Aaron; Perlmutter, Patrick; McCluskey, James; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Rossjohn, Jamie; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2010-07-20

    A major hurdle in designing successful epitope-based vaccines resides in the delivery, stability, and immunogenicity of the peptide immunogen. The short-lived nature of unmodified peptide-based vaccines in vivo limits their therapeutic application in the immunotherapy of cancers and chronic viral infections as well as their use in generating prophylactic immunity. The incorporation of {beta}-amino acids into peptides decreases proteolysis, yet its potential application in the rational design of T cell mimotopes is poorly understood. To address this, we have replaced each residue of the SIINFEKL epitope individually with the corresponding {beta}-amino acid and examined the resultant efficacy of these mimotopes. Some analogs displayed similar MHC binding and superior protease stability compared with the native epitope. Importantly, these analogs were able to generate cross-reactive CTLs in vivo that were capable of lysing tumor cells that expressed the unmodified epitope as a surrogate tumor Ag. Structural analysis of peptides in which anchor residues were substituted with {beta}-amino acids revealed the basis for enhanced MHC binding and retention of immunogenicity observed for these analogs and paves the way for future vaccine design using {beta}-amino acids. We conclude that the rational incorporation of {beta}-amino acids into T cell determinants is a powerful alternative to the traditional homologous substitution of randomly chosen naturally occurring {alpha}-amino acids, and these mimotopes may prove particularly useful for inclusion in epitope-based vaccines.

  2. Nitrogen-15 NMR spectroscopy of the catalytic-triad histidine of a serine protease in peptide boronic acid inhibitor complexes.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, W W; Wong, W Y; Farr-Jones, S; Shenvi, A B; Kettner, C A

    1988-10-01

    15N NMR spectroscopy was used to examine the active-site histidyl residue of alpha-lytic protease in peptide boronic acid inhibitor complexes. Two distinct types of complexes were observed: (1) Boronic acids that are analogues of substrates form complexes in which the active-site imidazole ring is protonated and both imidazole N-H protons are strongly hydrogen bonded. With the better inhibitors of the class this arrangement is stable over the pH range 4.0-10.5. The results are consistent with a putative tetrahedral intermediate like complex involving a negatively charged, tetrahedral boron atom covalently bonded to O gamma of the active-site serine. (2) Boronic acids that are not substrate analogues form complexes in which N epsilon 2 of the active-site histidine is covalently bonded to the boron atom of the inhibitor. The proton bound to N delta 1 of the histidine in these histidine-boronate adducts remains strongly hydrogen bonded, presumably to the active-site aspartate. Benzeneboronic acid, which falls in this category, forms an adduct with histidine. In both types of complexes the N-H protons of His-57 exchange unusually slowly as evidenced by the room temperature visibility of the low-field 1H resonances and the 15N-H spin couplings. These results, coupled with the kinetic data of the preceding paper [Kettner, C. A., Bone, R., Agard, D. A., & Bachovchin, W. W. (1988) Biochemistry (preceding paper in this issue)], indicate that occupancy of the specificity subsites may be required to fully form the transition-state binding site. The significance of these findings for understanding inhibitor binding and the catalytic mechanism of serine proteases is discussed. PMID:3207700

  3. Identification, Characterization and Down-Regulation of Cysteine Protease Genes in Tobacco for Use in Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Duwadi, Kishor; Chen, Ling; Menassa, Rima; Dhaubhadel, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Plants are an attractive host system for pharmaceutical protein production. Many therapeutic proteins have been produced and scaled up in plants at a low cost compared to the conventional microbial and animal-based systems. The main technical challenge during this process is to produce sufficient levels of recombinant proteins in plants. Low yield is generally caused by proteolytic degradation during expression and downstream processing of recombinant proteins. The yield of human therapeutic interleukin (IL)-10 produced in transgenic tobacco leaves was found to be below the critical level, and may be due to degradation by tobacco proteases. Here, we identified a total of 60 putative cysteine protease genes (CysP) in tobacco. Based on their predicted expression in leaf tissue, 10 candidate CysPs (CysP1-CysP10) were selected for further characterization. The effect of CysP gene silencing on IL-10 accumulation was examined in tobacco. It was found that the recombinant protein yield in tobacco could be increased by silencing CysP6. Transient expression of CysP6 silencing construct also showed an increase in IL-10 accumulation in comparison to the control. Moreover, CysP6 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that ER may be the site of IL-10 degradation. Overall results suggest that CysP6 is important in determining the yield of recombinant IL-10 in tobacco leaves. PMID:26148064

  4. Cloning and analysis of a Trichinella pseudospiralis muscle larva secreted serine protease gene

    PubMed Central

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Meskill, Diana; Robinson, Mark W.; Pozio, E.; Appleton, Judith A.; Connolly, Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    Nematode parasites of the genus Trichinella are intracellular and distinct life cycle stages invade intestinal epithelial and skeletal muscle cells. Within the genus, Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis exhibit species-specific differences with respect to host-parasite complex formation and host immune modulation. Parasite excretory-secretory (ES) proteins play important roles at the host-parasite interface and are thought to underpin these differences in biology. Serine proteases are among the most abundant group of T. spiralis ES proteins and multiple isoforms of the muscle larvae-specific TspSP-1 serine protease have been identified. Recently, a similar protein (TppSP-1) in T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae was identified. Here we report the cloning and characterisation of the full-length transcript of TppSP-1 and present comparative data between TspSP-1 and TppSP-1. PMID:19054614

  5. Cloning and analysis of a Trichinella pseudospiralis muscle larva secreted serine protease gene.

    PubMed

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Meskill, Diana; Robinson, Mark W; Pozio, Eduardo; Appleton, Judith A; Connolly, Bernadette

    2009-02-23

    Nematode parasites of the genus Trichinella are intracellular and distinct life cycle stages invade intestinal epithelial and skeletal muscle cells. Within the genus, Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis exhibit species-specific differences with respect to host-parasite complex formation and host immune modulation. Parasite excretory-secretory (ES) proteins play important roles at the host-parasite interface and are thought to underpin these differences in biology. Serine proteases are among the most abundant group of T. spiralis ES proteins and multiple isoforms of the muscle larvae-specific TspSP-1 serine protease have been identified. Recently, a similar protein (TppSP-1) in T. pseudospiralis muscle larvae was identified. Here we report the cloning and characterisation of the full-length transcript of TppSP-1 and present comparative data between TspSP-1 and TppSP-1. PMID:19054614

  6. Different control mechanisms regulate glucoamylase and protease gene transcription in Aspergillus oryzae in solid-state and submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    te Biesebeke, R; van Biezen, N; de Vos, W M; van den Hondel, C A M J J; Punt, P J

    2005-04-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Aspergillus oryzae results in high levels of secreted protein. However, control mechanisms of gene expression in SSF have been only poorly studied. In this study we show that both glucoamylase (glaB) and protease (alpA, nptB) genes are highly expressed during surface cultivation on wheat-based solid medium, and even higher during cultivation on wheat kernels. In wheat-based liquid medium, low levels of gene expression are observed. Typical SSF cultivation conditions, such as low water activity and the formation of aerial hyphae, did not contribute to the high-level gene expression on wheat-based solid medium. Analysis of wheat-based solid and liquid cultivations showed differences in carbon and nitrogen utilisation and external pH. The results presented show that the difference in regulation of transcription of the alpA and nptB genes in wheat-based liquid and solid medium could be pH dependent, involving a pH-dependent transcription regulator. The results obtained suggest that the difference in regulation of transcription of the glaB gene in wheat-based liquid and solid medium is caused by a difference in carbohydrate degradation and consumption under the different culture conditions. PMID:15800731

  7. Peptide-Modulated Activity Enhancement of Acidic Protease Cathepsin E at Neutral pH

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Masayuki; Biyani, Madhu; Ghimire Gautam, Sunita; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes are regulated by their activation and inhibition. Enzyme activators can often be effective tools for scientific and medical purposes, although they are more difficult to obtain than inhibitors. Here, using the paired peptide method, we report on protease-cathepsin-E-activating peptides that are obtained at neutral pH. These selected peptides also underwent molecular evolution, after which their cathepsin E activation capability improved. Thus, the activators we obtained could enhance cathepsin-E-induced cancer cell apoptosis, which indicated their potential as cancer drug precursors. PMID:23365585

  8. Airway uric acid is a sensor of inhaled protease allergens and initiates type 2 immune responses in respiratory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kenichiro; Iijima, Koji; Elias, Martha K; Seno, Satoshi; Tojima, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-05-01

    Although type 2 immune responses to environmental Ags are thought to play pivotal roles in asthma and allergic airway diseases, the immunological mechanisms that initiate the responses are largely unknown. Many allergens have biologic activities, including enzymatic activities and abilities to engage innate pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR4. In this article, we report that IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin were produced quickly in the lungs of naive mice exposed to cysteine proteases, such as bromelain and papain, as a model for allergens. IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin sensitized naive animals to an innocuous airway Ag OVA, which resulted in production of type 2 cytokines and IgE Ab, and eosinophilic airway inflammation when mice were challenged with the same Ag. Importantly, upon exposure to proteases, uric acid (UA) was rapidly released into the airway lumen, and removal of this endogenous UA by uricase prevented type 2 immune responses. UA promoted secretion of IL-33 by airway epithelial cells in vitro, and administration of UA into the airways of naive animals induced extracellular release of IL-33, followed by both innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses in vivo. Finally, a potent UA synthesis inhibitor, febuxostat, mitigated asthma phenotypes that were caused by repeated exposure to natural airborne allergens. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the development of type 2 immunity to airborne allergens and recognize airway UA as a key player that regulates the process in respiratory mucosa. PMID:24663677

  9. Identification of protease and rpoN-associated genes of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis by negative selection in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Li, X; Johnson, D E; Mobley, H L

    1999-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a motile gram-negative bacterium, is a principal cause of urinary tract infections in patients with functional or anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract or those with urinary catheters in place. Thus far, virulence factors including urease, flagella, haemolysin, various fimbriae, IgA protease and a deaminase have been characterized based on the phenotypic traits conferred by these proteins. In this study, an attempt was made to identify new virulence genes of P. mirabilis that may not have identifiable phenotypes using the recently described technique of signature-tagged mutagenesis. A pool of chromosomal transposon mutants was made through conjugation and kanamycin/tetracycline selection; random insertion was confirmed by Southern blotting of chromosomal DNA isolated from 16 mutants using the aphA gene as a probe. From the total pool, 2.3% (9/397) auxotrophic mutants and 3.5% (14/397) swarming mutants were identified by screening on minimal salts agar and Luria agar plates, respectively. Thirty per cent of the mutants, found to have either no tag or an unamplifiable tag, were removed from the input pool. Then 10(7) c.f.u. from a 96-mutant pool (approximately 10(5) c.f.u. of each mutant) were used as an input pool to transurethrally inoculate seven CBA mice. After 2 d infection, bacteria were recovered from the bladders and kidneys and yielded about 10(5) c.f.u. as an output pool. Dot blot analysis showed that two of the 96 mutants, designated B2 and B5, could not be hybridized by signature tags amplified from the bladder output pool. Interrupted genes from these two mutants were cloned and sequenced. The interrupted gene in B2 predicts a polypeptide of 37.3 kDa that shares amino acid similarity with a putative protease or collagenase precursor. The gene in B5 predicts a polypeptide of 32.6 kDa that is very similar to that encoded by ORF284 of the rpoN operon controlling expression of nitrogen-regulated genes from several bacterial species

  10. Identification and characterization of alkaline protease producing Bacillus firmus species EMBS023 by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wishard, Rohan; wishard, Rohan; Jaiswal, Mahak; Parveda, Maheshwari; Amareshwari, P; Bhadoriya, Sneha Singh; Rathore, Pragya; Yadav, Mukesh; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2014-12-01

    Probiotic microorganisms are those which exert a positive exect on the growth of the host, when administered as a dietary mixture in an adequate amount. They form the best alternative to the use of antibiotics for controlling enteric diseases in poultry farm animals, especially in the light of the gruesome problems of development of antibiotic resistance in enteric pathogens and the contamination of poultry products with antibiotics. 16S rDNA sequencing which has gained wide popularity amongst microbiologists for the molecular characterization and identification of newly discovered isolates provides accurate identification of isolates down to the level of sub-species (strain). It's most important advantage over the traditional biochemical characterization methods are that it can provide an accurate identification of strains with atypical phenotypic characters as well. The following work is an application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to identify a novel, alkaline protease producing bacteria, from poultry farm waste. The sample was collected from a local poultry farm in the Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subsequently the sample was serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time period following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed the isolate to be a novel, high alkaline protease producing bacteria, which was named Bacillus firmus isolate EMBS023, after characterization the sequence of isolate was deposited in GenBank with accession number JN990980. PMID:25118655

  11. Crystal versus solution structure of enzymes: NMR spectroscopy of a peptide boronic acid-serine protease complex in the crystalline state.

    PubMed

    Farr-Jones, S; Smith, S O; Kettner, C A; Griffin, R G; Bachovchin, W W

    1989-09-01

    The effectiveness of boronic acids as inhibitors of serine proteases has been widely ascribed to the ability of the boronyl group to form a tetrahedral adduct with the active-site serine that closely mimics the putative tetrahedral intermediate or transition state formed with substrates. However, recent 15N NMR studies of alpha-lytic protease (EC 3.4.21.12) in solution have shown that some boronic acids and peptide boronic acids form adducts with the active-site histidine instead of with the serine. Such histidine-boron adducts have not thus far been reported in x-ray diffraction studies of boronic acid-serine protease complexes. Here, we report an 15N NMR study of the MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroPhe complex of alpha-lytic protease in the crystalline state using magic-angle spinning. Previous 15N NMR studies have shown this complex involves the formation of a histidine-boron bond in solution. The 15N NMR spectra of the crystalline complex are essentially identical to those of the complex in solution, thereby showing that the structure of this complex is the same in solution and in the crystal and that both involve formation of a histidine-boron adduct. PMID:2780549

  12. Influence of nitrogen source and pH value on undesired poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation of a protease producing Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Lena; Kauffmann, Kira; Wengeler, Timo; Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Büchs, Jochen

    2015-09-01

    Bacillus spp. are used for the production of industrial enzymes but are also known to be capable of producing biopolymers such as poly(γ-glutamic acid). Biopolymers increase the viscosity of the fermentation broth, thereby impairing mixing, gas/liquid mass and heat transfer in any bioreactor system. Undesired biopolymer formation has a significant impact on the fermentation and downstream processing performance. This study shows how undesirable poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation of an industrial protease producing Bacillus licheniformis strain was prevented by switching the nitrogen source from ammonium to nitrate. The viscosity was reduced from 32 to 2.5 mPa s. A constant or changing pH value did not influence the poly(γ-glutamic acid) production. Protease production was not affected: protease activities of 38 and 46 U mL(-1) were obtained for ammonium and nitrate, respectively. With the presented results, protease production with industrial Bacillus strains is now possible without the negative impact on fermentation and downstream processing by undesired poly(γ-glutamic acid) formation. PMID:26153501

  13. Single amino acid mutation alters thermostability of the alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus: thermodynamics and temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Yang, Qingjun; Feng, Hong

    2015-02-01

    Dehairing alkaline protease (DHAP) from Bacillus pumilus BA06 has been demonstrated to have high catalytic efficiency and good thermostability, with potential application in leather processing. In order to get insights into its catalytic mechanism, two mutants with single amino acid substitution according to the homology modeling and multiple sequence alignment were characterized in thermodynamics of thermal denaturation and temperature dependence of substrate hydrolysis. The results showed that both mutants of V149I and R249E have a systematic increase in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) in a wide range of temperatures, mainly due to an increase of k1 (substrate diffusion) and k2 (acylation) for V149I and of k2 and k3 (deacylation) for R249E. In comparison with the wild-type DHAP, the thermostability is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the free energy (ΔGa°) of activation for thermal denaturation may govern the thermostability. The value of ΔGa° is increased for V149I and decreased for R249E. Based on these data and the structural modeling, it is suggested that substitution of Val149 with Ile may disturb the local flexibility in the substrate-binding pocket, leading to enhancement of binding affinity for the substrate. In contrast, substitution of Arg249 with Glu leads to interruption of interaction with the C-terminal of enzyme, thus resulting in less thermostability. This study indicates that amino acid residues in the active center or in the substrate-binding pocket may disturb the catalytic process and can be selected as the target for protein engineering in the bacterial alkaline proteases. PMID:25534779

  14. A cysteine protease encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, T; Majima, K; Maeda, S

    1994-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the BamHI F fragment of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) revealed an open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had homology to those of cysteine proteases of the papain superfamily. The putative cysteine protease sequence (BmNPV-CP) was 323 amino acids long and showed 35% identity to a cysteine proteinase precursor from Trypanosoma brucei. Of 36 residues conserved among cathepsins B, H, L, and S and papain, 31 were identical in BmNPV-CP. In order to determine the activity and function of the putative cysteine protease, a BmNPV mutant (BmCysPD) was constructed by homologous recombination of the protease gene with a beta-galactosidase gene cassette. BmCysPD-infected BmN cell extracts were significantly reduced in acid protease activity compared with wild-type virus-infected cell extracts. The cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 [trans-epoxysuccinylleucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] inhibited wild-type virus-expressed protease activity. Deletion of the cysteine protease gene had no significant effect on viral growth or polyhedron production in BmN cells, indicating that the cysteine protease was not essential for viral replication in vitro. However, B. mori larvae infected with BmCysPD showed symptoms different from those of wild-type BmNPV-infected larvae, e.g., less degradation of the body, including fat body cells, white body surface color due presumably to undegraded epidermal cells, and an increase in the number of polyhedra released into the hemolymph. This is the first report of (i) a virus-encoded protease with activity on general substrates and (ii) evidence that a virus-encoded protease may play a role in degradation of infected larvae to facilitate horizontal transmission of the virus. Images PMID:8083997

  15. Host Generated siRNAs Attenuate Expression of Serine Protease Gene in Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Varnika; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan; Uniyal, Prem L.; Singh, Rajendra; Niranjan, Rampal S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sap sucking hemipteran aphids damage diverse crop species. Although delivery of ds-RNA or siRNA through microinjection/feeding has been demonstrated, the efficacy of host-mediated delivery of aphid-specific dsRNA in developing aphid resistance has been far from being elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing ds-RNA of Myzus persicae serine protease (MySP) was developed that triggered the generation of corresponding siRNAs amenable for delivery to the feeding aphids. M. persicae when fed on the transgenic plants for different time intervals under controlled growth conditions resulted in a significant attenuation of the expression of MySP and a commensurate decline in gut protease activity. Although the survivability of these aphids was not affected, there was a noticeable decline in their fecundity resulting in a significant reduction in parthenogenetic population. Conclusions/Significance The study highlighted the feasibility of developing host based RNAi-mediated resistance against hemipteran pest aphids. PMID:23071558

  16. Tomato transgenic plants expressing hairpin construct of a nematode protease gene conferred enhanced resistance to root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tushar K.; Papolu, Pradeep K.; Banakar, Prakash; Choudhary, Divya; Sirohi, Anil; Rao, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) cause substantial yield losses in vegetables worldwide, and are difficult to manage. Continuous withdrawal of environmentally-harmful nematicides from the global market warrants the need for novel nematode management strategies. Utility of host-delivered RNAi has been demonstrated in several plants (Arabidopsis, tobacco, and soybean) that exhibited resistance against root-knot and cyst nematodes. Herein, a M. incognita-specific protease gene, cathepsin L cysteine proteinase (Mi-cpl-1), was targeted to generate tomato transgenic lines to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. In vitro knockdown of Mi-cpl-1 gene led to the reduced attraction and penetration of M. incognita in tomato, suggesting the involvement of Mi-cpl-1 in nematode parasitism. Transgenic expression of the RNAi construct of Mi-cpl-1 gene resulted in 60–80% reduction in infection and multiplication of M. incognita in tomato. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo silencing of Mi-cpl-1 was confirmed by expression analysis using quantitative PCR. Our study demonstrates that Mi-cpl-1 plays crucial role during plant-nematode interaction and plant-mediated downregulation of this gene elicits detrimental effect on M. incognita development, reinforcing the potential of RNAi technology for management of phytonematodes in crop plants. PMID:25883594

  17. Amino acid sequence requirements in the human IgA1 hinge for cleavage by streptococcal IgA1 proteases.

    PubMed

    Senior, B W; Batten, M R; Kilian, M; Woof, J M

    2002-08-01

    All the IgA1 proteases of the different pathogenic species of Streptococcus cleave the hinge of the alpha chain of human IgA1 only at one proline-threonine peptide bond. In order to study the importance of these amino acids for cleavage, several hinge mutant recombinant IgA1 antibodies were constructed. The mutations were found to be without major effect upon the structure or functional abilities of the antibodies. However, they had a major effect upon their sensitivity to cleavage by some of the IgA1 proteases. PMID:12196126

  18. Genome-wide identification and immune response analysis of serine protease inhibitor genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Dong, Zhaoming; Duan, Jun; Wang, Genhong; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Youshan; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Xia, Qingyou

    2012-01-01

    In most insect species, a variety of serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) have been found in multiple tissues, including integument, gonad, salivary gland, and hemolymph, and are required for preventing unwanted proteolysis. These SPIs belong to different families and have distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Herein, we predicted and characterized potential SPI genes based on the genome sequences of silkworm, Bombyx mori. As a result, a total of eighty SPI genes were identified in B. mori. These SPI genes contain 10 kinds of SPI domains, including serpin, Kunitz_BPTI, Kazal, TIL, amfpi, Bowman-Birk, Antistasin, WAP, Pacifastin, and alpha-macroglobulin. Sixty-three SPIs contain single SPI domain while the others have at least two inhibitor units. Some SPIs also contain non-inhibitor domains for protein-protein interactions, including EGF, ADAM_spacer, spondin_N, reeler, TSP_1 and other modules. Microarray analysis showed that fourteen SPI genes from lineage-specific TIL family and Group F of serpin family had enriched expression in the silk gland. The roles of SPIs in resisting pathogens were investigated in silkworms when they were infected by four pathogens. Microarray and qRT-PCR experiments revealed obvious up-regulation of 8, 4, 3 and 3 SPI genes after infection with Escherichia coli, Bacillus bombysepticus, Beauveria bassiana or B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), respectively. On the contrary, 4, 11, 7 and 9 SPI genes were down-regulated after infection with E. coli, B. bombysepticus, B. bassiana or BmNPV, respectively. These results suggested that these SPI genes may be involved in resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. These findings may provide valuable information for further clarifying the roles of SPIs in the development, immune defence, and efficient synthesis of silk gland protein. PMID:22348050

  19. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    PubMed

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach

  20. Novel 2-oxoimidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives as Hepatitis C virus NS3-4A serine protease inhibitors: synthesis, activity, and X-ray crystal structure of an enzyme inhibitor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Arasappan, Ashok; Njoroge, F. George; Parekh, Tejal N.; Yang, Xiaozheng; Pichardo, John; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Prongay, Andrew; Yao, Nanhua; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor

    2008-06-30

    Synthesis and HCV NS3 serine protease inhibitory activity of some novel 2-oxoimidazolidine-4-carboxylic acid derivatives are reported. Inhibitors derived from this new P2 core exhibited activity in the low {micro}M range. X-ray structure of an inhibitor, 15c bound to the protease is presented.

  1. Nitrated Fatty Acids Reverse Cigarette Smoke-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Activation and Inhibit Protease Activity via Electrophilic S-Alkylation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Aravind T.; Lakshmi, Sowmya P.; Muchumarri, Ramamohan R.; Reddy, Raju C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrated fatty acids (NFAs), endogenous products of nonenzymatic reactions of NO-derived reactive nitrogen species with unsaturated fatty acids, exhibit substantial anti-inflammatory activities. They are both reversible electrophiles and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, but the physiological implications of their electrophilic activity are poorly understood. We tested their effects on inflammatory and emphysema-related biomarkers in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of smoke-exposed mice. NFA (10-nitro-oleic acid or 12-nitrolinoleic acid) treatment downregulated expression and activity of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB while upregulating those of PPARγ. It also downregulated production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and of the protease cathepsin S (Cat S), a key mediator of emphysematous septal destruction. Cat S downregulation was accompanied by decreased AM elastolytic activity, a major mechanism of septal destruction. NFAs downregulated both Cat S expression and activity in AMs of wild-type mice, but only inhibited its activity in AMs of PPARγ knockout mice, pointing to a PPARγ-independent mechanism of enzyme inhibition. We hypothesized that this mechanism was electrophilic S-alkylation of target Cat S cysteines, and found that NFAs bind directly to Cat S following treatment of intact AMs and, as suggested by in silico modeling and calculation of relevant parameters, elicit S-alkylation of Cys25 when incubated with purified Cat S. These results demonstrate that NFAs’ electrophilic activity, in addition to their role as PPARγ agonists, underlies their protective effects in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and support their therapeutic potential in this disease. PMID:27119365

  2. The group A streptococcal dipeptide permease (Dpp) is involved in the uptake of essential amino acids and affects the expression of cysteine protease.

    PubMed

    Podbielski, A; Leonard, B A

    1998-06-01

    The majority of characterized bacterial dipeptide permeases (Dpp) are membrane-associated complexes of five proteins belonging to the ABC-transporter family. They have been found to be involved in the uptake of essential amino acids, haem production, chemotaxis and sporulation. A 5.8 kb genomic DNA fragment of the serotype M49 group A streptococcal (GAS) strain CS101 was sequenced and found to contain five putative GAS Dpp genes (dppA to dppE). Deduced amino acid sequences exhibited 17-54% similarity to corresponding ABC-transporter sequences. The operon organization of the five genes was confirmed by transcriptional analysis, and a shorter, more abundant, dppA-only transcript was detected similar to that found in the GAS oligopeptide permease (Opp) system. Insertional inactivation was used to create serotype M2 and M49 strains that did not express the dppD and dppEATPase genes or nearly the entire operon. In feeding experiments with di- to hexapeptides, the wild-type strain grew with each peptide tested. The dpp mutants were unable to grow on dipeptides, whereas hexapeptides did not sustain the growth of opp mutants. Expression of the dpp operon was induced approximately fourfold in late exponential growth phase. In addition, a striking increase in the dppA to dppA-E ratio from 5:1 to more than 20:1 occurred during late exponential growth phase in complex medium. Growth in chemically defined medium (CDM) supplemented with various dipeptides specifically induced the expression of dpp and reduced both the dppA to dppA-E and oppA to oppA-F mRNA ratios. Expression of the virulence factor SpeB (major cysteine protease) was reduced eightfold in dpp mutants, whereas dpp expression was decreased about fourfold in a Mga virulence regulator mutant. Taken together, these data indicate a correlation between levels of intracellular essential amino acids and the regulation of virulence factor expression. PMID:9680220

  3. Boron-11 pure quadrupole resonance investigation of peptide boronic acid inhibitors bound to alpha-lytic protease.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Dmitri; Bachovchin, William W; Redfield, Alfred G

    2002-02-01

    Pure quadrupole resonance is a potentially useful spectroscopic approach to study the coordination of quadrupolar nuclei in biological systems. We used a field-cycling NMR method to observe boron pure quadrupole resonance of two peptide boronic acid inhibitors bound to alpha-lytic protease. The method is similar to our earlier field-cycling experiment [Ivanov, D., and Redfield, A. R. (1998) Z. Naturforsch. A 53, 269-272] but uses a simple Hartmann-Hahn transfer from proton to (11)B before field cycle and direct (11)B observe after it. Pure quadrupole resonance is sensitive to the boron coordination geometry. For example, trigonal boron in neutral phenylboronic acid, which was used as a model compound, resonates at 1450 kHz, while the resonance of the tetrahedral phenylboronic acid anion appears at approximately 600 kHz. In the complex of the MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroVal inhibitor with the enzyme the quadrupole resonance signal was observed at 600-650 kHz, which indicates tetrahedral boron coordination in the active site. The quadrupole frequency of the MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroPhe enzyme-inhibitor complex, in which a boron-histidine bond is known to be formed, was found to be the same within experimental error as in the MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroVal enzyme-inhibitor adduct, suggesting that the boron coordination geometry in the enzyme-MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroPhe adduct is also close to tetrahedral. PMID:11814352

  4. Amino Acid Prodrugs: An Approach to Improve the Absorption of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Lopinavir

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mitesh; Mandava, Nanda; Gokulgandhi, Mitan; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2014-01-01

    Poor systemic concentrations of lopinavir (LPV) following oral administration occur due to high cellular efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and extensive metabolism by CYP3A4 enzymes. In this study, amino acid prodrugs of LPV were designed and investigated for their potential to circumvent efflux processes and first pass effects. Three amino acid prodrugs were synthesized by conjugating isoleucine, tryptophan and methionine to LPV. Prodrug formation was confirmed by the LCMS/MS and NMR technique. Interaction of LPV prodrugs with efflux proteins were carried out in P-gp (MDCK-MDR1) and MRP2 (MDCK-MRP2) transfected cells. Aqueous solubility studies demonstrated that prodrugs generate higher solubility relative to LPV. Prodrugs displayed higher stability under acidic conditions and degraded significantly with rise in pH. Uptake and transport data suggested that prodrugs carry significantly lower affinity towards P-gp and MRP2 relative to LPV. Moreover, prodrugs exhibited higher liver microsomal stability relative to LPV. Hence, amino acid prodrug modification might be a viable approach for enhancing LPV absorption across intestinal epithelial and brain endothelial cells which expresses high levels of P-gp and MRP2. PMID:24727459

  5. Molecular characterization of alkaline protease of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SP1 involved in biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Guleria, Shiwani; Walia, Abhishek; Chauhan, Anjali; Shirkot, C K

    2016-09-01

    An alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic DNA of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SP1 which was involved in effective biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum. We investigated the antagonistic capacity of protease of B. amyloliquifaciens SP1, under in vitro conditions. The 5.62 fold purified enzyme with specific activity of 607.69U/mg reported 24.14% growth inhibition of F. oxysporum. However, no antagonistic activity was found after addition of protease inhibitor i.e. PMSF (15mM) to purified enzyme. An 1149bp nucleotide sequence of protease gene encoded 382 amino acids of 43kDa and calculated isoelectric point of 9.29. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence revealed high homology (86%) with subtilisin E of Bacillus subtilis. The B. amyloliquefaciens SP1 protease gene was expressed in Escherichiax coli BL21. The expressed protease was secreted into culture medium by E. coli and exhibited optimum activity at pH8.0 and 60°C. The most reliable three dimensional structure of alkaline protease was determined using Phyre 2 server which was validated on the basis of Ramachandran plot and ERRAT value. The expression and structure prediction of the enzyme offers potential value for commercial application in agriculture and industry. PMID:27294522

  6. The C2H2-type transcription factor, FlbC, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of Aspergillus oryzae glucoamylase and protease genes specifically expressed in solid-state culture.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Yoshimura, Midori; Ogawa, Masahiro; Koyama, Yasuji; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces a large amount of secreted proteins in solid-state culture, and some proteins such as glucoamylase (GlaB) and acid protease (PepA) are specifically produced in solid-state culture, but rarely in submerged culture. From the disruption mutant library of A. oryzae transcriptional regulators, we successfully identified a disruption mutant showing an extremely low production level of GlaB but a normal level of α-amylase production. This strain was a disruption mutant of the C2H2-type transcription factor, FlbC, which is reported to be involved in the regulation of conidiospore development. Disruption mutants of other upstream regulators comprising a conidiation regulatory network had no apparent effect on GlaB production in solid-state culture. In addition to GlaB, the production of acid protease in solid-state culture was also markedly decreased by flbC disruption. Northern blot analyses revealed that transcripts of glaB and pepA were significantly decreased in the flbC disruption strain. These results suggested that FlbC is involved in the transcriptional regulation of genes specifically expressed under solid-state cultivation conditions, possibly independent of the conidiation regulatory network. PMID:26960315

  7. The intronic minisatellite OsMin1 within a serine protease gene in the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Jie; Hou, Jun-Xiu; Zhang, Shu; Hausner, Georg; Liu, Xing-Zhong; Li, Wen-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences make up a significant portion of all genomes and may occur in intergenic, regulatory, coding, or even intronic regions. Partial sequences of a serine protease gene csp1 was previously used as a population genetic marker of the Chinese caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis, but its first intron region was excluded due to ambiguous alignment. Here in this study, we report the presence of a minisatellite OsMin1 within this intron, where a 20(19)-bp repeat motif is duplicated two to six times in different isolates. Fourteen intron alleles and 13 OsMin1 alleles were identified among 125 O. sinensis samples distributed broadly on the Tibetan Plateau. Two OsMin1 alleles were prevalent, corresponding to either two or five repeats of the core sequence motif. OsMin1 appears to be a single locus marker in the O. sinensis genome, but its origin is undetermined. Abundant recombination signals were detected between upstream and downstream flanking regions of OsMin1, suggesting that OsMin1 mutate by unequal crossing over. Geographic distribution, fungal phylogeny, and host insect phylogeny all significantly affected intron distribution patterns but with the greatest influence noted for fungal genotypes and the least for geography. As far as we know, OsMin1 is the first minisatellite found in O. sinensis and the second found in fungal introns. OsMin1 may be useful in designing an efficient protocol to discriminate authentic O. sinensis from counterfeits. PMID:26754819

  8. Conditional Depletion of the Chlamydomonas Chloroplast ClpP Protease Activates Nuclear Genes Involved in Autophagy and Plastid Protein Quality Control[W

    PubMed Central

    Ramundo, Silvia; Casero, David; Mühlhaus, Timo; Hemme, Dorothea; Sommer, Frederik; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Rahire, Michèle; Schroda, Michael; Rusch, Jannette; Goodenough, Ursula; Pellegrini, Matteo; Perez-Perez, Maria Esther; Crespo, José Luis; Schaad, Olivier; Civic, Natacha; Rochaix, Jean David

    2014-01-01

    Plastid protein homeostasis is critical during chloroplast biogenesis and responses to changes in environmental conditions. Proteases and molecular chaperones involved in plastid protein quality control are encoded by the nucleus except for the catalytic subunit of ClpP, an evolutionarily conserved serine protease. Unlike its Escherichia coli ortholog, this chloroplast protease is essential for cell viability. To study its function, we used a recently developed system of repressible chloroplast gene expression in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using this repressible system, we have shown that a selective gradual depletion of ClpP leads to alteration of chloroplast morphology, causes formation of vesicles, and induces extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization that is reminiscent of autophagy. Analysis of the transcriptome and proteome during ClpP depletion revealed a set of proteins that are more abundant at the protein level, but not at the RNA level. These proteins may comprise some of the ClpP substrates. Moreover, the specific increase in accumulation, both at the RNA and protein level, of small heat shock proteins, chaperones, proteases, and proteins involved in thylakoid maintenance upon perturbation of plastid protein homeostasis suggests the existence of a chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling pathway involved in organelle quality control. We suggest that this represents a chloroplast unfolded protein response that is conceptually similar to that observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria. PMID:24879428

  9. Conditional Depletion of the Chlamydomonas Chloroplast ClpP Protease Activates Nuclear Genes Involved in Autophagy and Plastid Protein Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Ramundo, Silvia; Casero, David; Mühlhaus, Timo; Hemme, Dorothea; Sommer, Frederik; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Rahire, Michèle; Schroda, Michael; Rusch, Jannette; Goodenough, Ursula; Pellegrini, Matteo; Perez-Perez, Maria Esther; Crespo, José Luis; Schaad, Olivier; Civic, Natacha; Rochaix, Jean David

    2014-05-30

    Plastid protein homeostasis is critical during chloroplast biogenesis and responses to changes in environmental conditions. Proteases and molecular chaperones involved in plastid protein quality control are encoded by the nucleus except for the catalytic subunit of ClpP, an evolutionarily conserved serine protease. Unlike its Escherichia coli ortholog, this chloroplast protease is essential for cell viability. To study its function, we used a recently developed system of repressible chloroplast gene expression in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using this repressible system, we have shown that a selective gradual depletion of ClpP leads to alteration of chloroplast morphology, causes formation of vesicles, and induces extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization that is reminiscent of autophagy. Analysis of the transcriptome and proteome during ClpP depletion revealed a set of proteins that are more abundant at the protein level, but not at the RNA level. These proteins may comprise some of the ClpP substrates. Moreover, the specific increase in accumulation, both at the RNA and protein level, of small heat shock proteins, chaperones, proteases, and proteins involved in thylakoid maintenance upon perturbation of plastid protein homeostasis suggests the existence of a chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling pathway involved in organelle quality control. We suggest that this represents a chloroplast unfolded protein response that is conceptually similar to that observed in the endoplasmic reticulum and in mitochondria. PMID:24879428

  10. Cloning and Expression of clt Genes Encoding Milk-Clotting Proteases from Myxococcus xanthus 422

    PubMed Central

    Poza, M.; Prieto-Alcedo, M.; Sieiro, C.; Villa, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    The screening of a gene library of the milk-clotting strain Myxococcus xanthus 422 constructed in Escherichia coli allowed the description of eight positive clones containing 26 open reading frames. Only three of them (cltA, cltB, and cltC) encoded proteins that exhibited intracellular milk-clotting ability in E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia pastoris expression systems. PMID:15466588

  11. Protease activated receptor-1 inhibits the Maspin tumor-suppressor gene to determine the melanoma metastatic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Villares, Gabriel J.; Zigler, Maya; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Wang, Hua; Song, Renduo; Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Huang, Li; Braeuer, Russell R.; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-01-01

    The thrombin receptor protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is overexpressed in metastatic melanoma cell lines and tumor specimens. Previously, we demonstrated a significant reduction in tumor growth and experimental lung metastasis after PAR-1 silencing via systemic delivery of siRNA encapsulated into nanoliposomes. Gene expression profiling identified a 40-fold increase in expression of Maspin in PAR-1–silenced metastatic melanoma cell lines. Maspin promoter activity was significantly increased after PAR-1 silencing, suggesting that PAR1 negatively regulates Maspin at the transcriptional level. ChIP analyses revealed that PAR-1 decreases binding of Ets-1 and c-Jun transcription factors to the Maspin promoter, both known to activate Maspin transcription. PAR-1 silencing did not affect Ets-1 or c-Jun expression; rather it resulted in increased expression of the chromatin remodeling complex CBP/p300, as well as decreased activity of the CBP/p300 inhibitor p38, resulting in increased binding of Ets-1 and c-Jun to the Maspin promoter and higher Maspin expression. Functionally, Maspin expression reduced the invasive capability of melanoma cells after PAR-1 silencing, which was abrogated after rescuing with PAR-1. Furthermore, tumor growth and experimental lung metastasis was significantly decreased after expressing Maspin in a metastatic melanoma cell line. Moreover, silencing Maspin in PAR-1–silenced cells reverted the inhibition of tumor growth and experimental lung metastasis. Herein, we demonstrate a mechanism by which PAR-1 negatively regulates the expression of the Maspin tumor-suppressor gene in the acquisition of the metastatic melanoma phenotype, thus attributing an alternative function to PAR-1 other than coagulation. PMID:21187389

  12. Protease activated receptor-1 inhibits the Maspin tumor-suppressor gene to determine the melanoma metastatic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Villares, Gabriel J; Zigler, Maya; Dobroff, Andrey S; Wang, Hua; Song, Renduo; Melnikova, Vladislava O; Huang, Li; Braeuer, Russell R; Bar-Eli, Menashe

    2011-01-11

    The thrombin receptor protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is overexpressed in metastatic melanoma cell lines and tumor specimens. Previously, we demonstrated a significant reduction in tumor growth and experimental lung metastasis after PAR-1 silencing via systemic delivery of siRNA encapsulated into nanoliposomes. Gene expression profiling identified a 40-fold increase in expression of Maspin in PAR-1-silenced metastatic melanoma cell lines. Maspin promoter activity was significantly increased after PAR-1 silencing, suggesting that PAR1 negatively regulates Maspin at the transcriptional level. ChIP analyses revealed that PAR-1 decreases binding of Ets-1 and c-Jun transcription factors to the Maspin promoter, both known to activate Maspin transcription. PAR-1 silencing did not affect Ets-1 or c-Jun expression; rather it resulted in increased expression of the chromatin remodeling complex CBP/p300, as well as decreased activity of the CBP/p300 inhibitor p38, resulting in increased binding of Ets-1 and c-Jun to the Maspin promoter and higher Maspin expression. Functionally, Maspin expression reduced the invasive capability of melanoma cells after PAR-1 silencing, which was abrogated after rescuing with PAR-1. Furthermore, tumor growth and experimental lung metastasis was significantly decreased after expressing Maspin in a metastatic melanoma cell line. Moreover, silencing Maspin in PAR-1-silenced cells reverted the inhibition of tumor growth and experimental lung metastasis. Herein, we demonstrate a mechanism by which PAR-1 negatively regulates the expression of the Maspin tumor-suppressor gene in the acquisition of the metastatic melanoma phenotype, thus attributing an alternative function to PAR-1 other than coagulation. PMID:21187389

  13. Acidic proteases from Monterey sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) immobilized on shrimp waste chitin and chitosan supports: searching for a by-product catalytic system.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Leyva, Jesus Aaron; Lizardi-Mendoza, Jaime; Ramirez-Suarez, Juan Carlos; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa Miriam; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Castillo-Yañez, Francisco Javier; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramon

    2013-10-01

    Solid wastes generated from the seafood industry represent an important environmental pollutant; therefore, utilization of those wastes for the development of processing biochemical tools could be an attractive and clean solution for the seafood industry. This study reports the immobilization of semi-purified acidic proteases from Monterey sardine stomachs onto chitin and chitosan materials extracted from shrimp head waste. Several supports (chitosan beads, chitosan flakes, and partially deacetylated flakes) were activated either with genipin or Na-tripolyphosphate and evaluated as a mean to immobilize acidic proteases. The protein load varied within the 67-91% range on different supports. The immobilization systems based on chitosan beads achieved the highest protein loads but showed the lowest retained catalytic activities. The best catalytic behavior was obtained using partially deacetylated chitin flakes activated either with genipin or Na-tripolyphosphate. According to results, the immobilization matrix structure, as well as acetylation degree of chitin-chitosan used, has considerable influence on the catalytic behavior of immobilized proteases. Partially deacetylated chitin flakes represent a suitable option as support for enzyme immobilization because its preparation requires fewer steps than other supports. Two abundant seafood by-products were used to obtain a catalytic system with enough proteolytic activity to be considered for biotechnological applications in diverse fields. PMID:23897542

  14. Supermarket Proteases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, William G.; Bullerwell, Lornie D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity on enzymes. Uses common items found in the supermarket that contain protease enzymes, such as contact lens cleaner and meat tenderizer. Demonstrates the digestion of gelatin proteins as part of enzymatic reactions. (Author/SOE)

  15. Stability of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 modulates salicylic acid signalling and SUMO1/2 conjugation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Mark; Srivastava, Anjil; Conti, Lucio; Nelis, Stuart; Zhang, Cunjin; Florance, Hannah; Love, Andrew; Milner, Joel; Napier, Richard; Grant, Murray; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases 1 and 2 (SUMO1/2) have been linked to the regulation of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to define the role of the SUMO proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 (OTS1/2) in defence and to provide insight into SUMO1/2-mediated regulation of SA signalling, we examined the status of SA-mediated defences in ots1/2 mutants. The ots1 ots2 double mutant displayed enhanced resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae and higher levels of SA compared with wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, ots1 ots2 mutants exhibited upregulated expression of the SA biosynthesis gene ICS1 in addition to enhanced SA-responsive ICS1 expression beyond that of WT. SA stimulated OTS1/2 degradation and promoted accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates. These results indicate that OTS1 and -2 act in a feedback loop in SA signalling and that de novo OTS1/2 synthesis works antagonistically to SA-promoted degradation, adjusting the abundance of OTS1/2 to moderate SA signalling. Accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates coincides with SA-promoted OTS degradation and may play a positive role in SA-mediated signalling in addition to its repressive roles reported elsewhere. PMID:26494731

  16. Stability of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 modulates salicylic acid signalling and SUMO1/2 conjugation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Mark; Srivastava, Anjil; Conti, Lucio; Nelis, Stuart; Zhang, Cunjin; Florance, Hannah; Love, Andrew; Milner, Joel; Napier, Richard; Grant, Murray; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier proteases 1 and 2 (SUMO1/2) have been linked to the regulation of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to define the role of the SUMO proteases OVERLY TOLERANT TO SALT1 and -2 (OTS1/2) in defence and to provide insight into SUMO1/2-mediated regulation of SA signalling, we examined the status of SA-mediated defences in ots1/2 mutants. The ots1 ots2 double mutant displayed enhanced resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae and higher levels of SA compared with wild-type (WT) plants. Furthermore, ots1 ots2 mutants exhibited upregulated expression of the SA biosynthesis gene ICS1 in addition to enhanced SA-responsive ICS1 expression beyond that of WT. SA stimulated OTS1/2 degradation and promoted accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates. These results indicate that OTS1 and -2 act in a feedback loop in SA signalling and that de novo OTS1/2 synthesis works antagonistically to SA-promoted degradation, adjusting the abundance of OTS1/2 to moderate SA signalling. Accumulation of SUMO1/2 conjugates coincides with SA-promoted OTS degradation and may play a positive role in SA-mediated signalling in addition to its repressive roles reported elsewhere. PMID:26494731

  17. Genetic improvement of the nematicidal fungus Lecanicillium attenuatum against Heterodera glycines by expression of the Beauveria bassiana Cdep1 protease gene.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Peng, De-Liang; Yu, Wen-Bin; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Lecanicillium attenuatum is an important nematophagous fungus with potential as a biopesticide against plant-parasitic nematodes. The Pr1A-like cuticle-degrading protease (Cdep1) gene originating from the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was transformed into the nematophagous fungus L. attenuatum using a polyethylene-glycol mediated protoplast-based transformation system. Protease activity was increased 0.64- to 1.63-fold 2-10d after growth in the transformed L. attenuatum. Inhibition of egg-hatching and J2 motility of soybean cyst nematodes (Heterodera glycines) by cell-free fungal culture filtrates were enhanced by 17-76% 2-14d and 43-152% 1-13d after incubation, respectively. PMID:27342597

  18. Structural Insight into Serine Protease Rv3671c that Protects M. tuberculosis from Oxidative and Acidic Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Tapan; Small, Jennifer; Vandal, Omar; Odaira, Toshiko; Deng, Haiteng; Ehrt, Sabine; Tsodikov, Oleg V.

    2010-11-15

    Rv3671c, a putative serine protease, is crucial for persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the hostile environment of the phagosome. We show that Rv3671c is required for M. tuberculosis resistance to oxidative stress in addition to its role in protection from acidification. Structural and biochemical analyses demonstrate that the periplasmic domain of Rv3671c is a functional serine protease of the chymotrypsin family and, remarkably, that its activity increases on oxidation. High-resolution crystal structures of this protease in an active strained state and in an inactive relaxed state reveal that a solvent-exposed disulfide bond controls the protease activity by constraining two distant regions of Rv3671c and stabilizing it in the catalytically active conformation. In vitro biochemical studies confirm that activation of the protease in an oxidative environment is dependent on this reversible disulfide bond. These results suggest that the disulfide bond modulates activity of Rv3671c depending on the oxidative environment in vivo.

  19. Structural insight into serine protease Rv3671c that protects M. tuberculosis from oxidative and acidic stress

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tapan; Small, Jennifer; Vandal, Omar; Odaira, Toshiko; Deng, Haiteng; Ehrt, Sabine; Tsodikov, Oleg V.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Rv3671c, a putative serine protease, is crucial for persistence of M. tuberculosis in the hostile environment of the phagosome. We show that Rv3671c is required for M. tuberculosis resistance to oxidative stress in addition to its role in protection from acidification. Structural and biochemical analyses demonstrate that the periplasmic domain of Rv3671c is a functional serine protease of the chymotrypsin family and, remarkably, that its activity increases upon oxidation. High-resolution crystal structures of this protease in an active strained state and in an inactive relaxed state reveal that a solvent-exposed disulfide bond controls the protease activity by constraining two distant regions of Rv3671c and stabilizing it in the catalytically active conformation. In vitro biochemical studies confirm that activation of the protease in an oxidative environment is dependent on this reversible disulfide bond. These results suggest that the disulfide bond modulates activity of Rv3671c depending on the oxidative environment in vivo. PMID:20947023

  20. Polymorphism in a serine protease inhibitor gene and its association with disease resistance in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin).

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiyang; He, Yan; Wang, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Quanqi; Bao, Zhenmin; Guo, Ximing

    2011-03-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (SPIs) are a superfamily of structurally related but functionally diverse proteins found in almost all organisms ranging from viruses to humans. Some of them play important roles in host defense. A recently identified SPI from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), cvSI-1, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of the Dermo pathogen Perkinsus marinus in vitro, although direct evidence linking it to disease resistance is lacking. In this study, we identified polymorphism in the cvSI-1 gene and studied its association with improved survival after disease-caused mortalities and in disease-resistant eastern oyster strains. Full-cDNA sequence of cvSI-1 was sequenced in a diverse panel of oysters, revealing 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 273 bp coding region: five were synonymous and seven non-synonymous. The Dn/Ds ratio, 1.4, suggests that cvSI-1 is under positive selection. Selected SNPs were genotyped in families before and after disease-caused mortalities as well as in disease-resistant and susceptible strains. At SNP198, the C allele consistently increased in frequency after mortalities that are caused primarily by Dermo and possibly also by MSX. Its frequency in the disease-resistant strain is significantly higher than that in the susceptible strains and the base population from which the selected strains were derived. These results indicate that polymorphism at cvSI-1 is associated with Dermo (possibly also MSX) resistance in the eastern oyster. SNP198 is a synonymous mutation, and its association with disease resistance may be due to its close linkage to a functional polymorphism nearby. PMID:21215804

  1. The rice OsSAG12-2 gene codes for a functional protease that negatively regulates stress-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Singh, Subaran; Singh, Anupriya; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Senescence is the final stage of plant development. Although expression of most of the genes is suppressed during senescence, a set of genes referred as senescence-associated genes (SAGs) is induced. Arabidopsis thaliana SAG12 (AtSAG12) is one such gene that has been mostly studied for its strict association with senescence. AtSAG12 encodes a papain-like cysteine protease, expressed predominantly in senescence-associated vacuoles. Rice genome contains multiple AtSAG12 homologues (OsSAGs). OsSAG12-1, the closest structural homologue of AtSAG12, is a negative regulator of developmental and stress-induced cell death. Proteolytic activity has not been established for any SAG12 homologues in vitro. Here, we report that OsSAG12-2, the second structural homologue of AtSAG12 from rice, codes for a functional proteolytic enzyme. The recombinant OsSAG12-2 protein produced in Escherichia coli undergoes autolysis to generate a functional protease. The matured OsSAG12-2 protein shows 27 percent trypsin-equivalent proteolytic activity on azocasein substrate. Dark-induced senescence activates OsSAG12-2 expression. Down-regulation of OsSAG12-2 in the transgenic artificial miRNA lines results in enhanced salt- and UV-induced cell death, even though it does not affect cell viability in the stress-free condition. Our results show that OsSAG12-2 codes for a functional protease that negatively regulates stress-induced cell death in rice. PMID:27581936

  2. Characterization, biomedical and agricultural applications of protease inhibitors: A review.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Tooba Naz; Parveen, Romana; Fatima, Sadaf

    2016-10-01

    This review describes Protease Inhibitors (PIs) which target or inhibit proteases, protein digesting enzymes. These proteases play a crucial task in many biological events including digestion, blood coagulation, apoptosis etc. Regardless of their crucial roles, they need to be checked regularly by PIs as their excess may possibly damage host organism. On basis of amino acid composition of PIs where Protease-PI enzymatic reactions occur i.e. serine, cysteine, and aspartic acid, they are classified. Nowadays, various PIs are being worked upon to fight various parasitic or viral diseases including malaria, schistosomiasis, colds, flu', dengue etc. They prevent an ongoing process begun by carcinogen exposure by keeping a check on metastasis. They also possess potential to reduce carcinogen-induced, increased levels of gene amplification to almost normal levels. Some PIs can principally be used for treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure by blocking conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II for example Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). Also PIs target amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) level in brain which is prime responsible for development of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Also, PIs inhibit enzymatic activity of HIV-1 Protease Receptor (PR) by preventing cleavage events in Gag and Gag-Pol that result in production of non-virulent virus particles. PMID:26955746

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera using commercial proteases: effects on lipid distribution and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kechaou, Emna Soufi; Dumay, Justine; Donnay-Moreno, Claire; Jaouen, Pascal; Gouygou, Jean-Paul; Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-02-01

    Total lipid and phospholipid recovery as well as amino acid quality and composition from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were compared. Enzymatic hydrolyses were performed using the three proteases Protamex, Alcalase, and Flavourzyme by the pH-stat method (24 h, pH 8, 50 degrees C). Three fractions were generated: an insoluble sludge, a soluble aqueous phase, and an oily phase. For each fraction, lipids, phospholipids, and proteins were quantified. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the raw material and hydrolysates were performed. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) for cuttlefish viscera was 3.2% using Protamex, 6.8% using Flavourzyme, and 7% using Alcalase. DH for sardine viscera was 1.9% (using Flavourzyme), 3.1% (using Protamex) and 3.3% (using Alcalase). Dry matter yields of all hydrolysis reactions increased in the aqueous phases. Protein recovery following hydrolysis ranged from 57.2% to 64.3% for cuttlefish and 57.4% to 61.2% for sardine. Tissue disruption following protease treatment increased lipid extractability, leading to higher total lipid content after hydrolysis. At least 80% of the lipids quantified in the raw material were distributed in the liquid phases for both substrates. The hydrolysed lipids were richer in phospholipids than in the lipids extracted by classical chemical extraction, especially after Flavourzyme hydrolysis for cuttlefish and Alcalase hydrolysis for sardine. The total amino acid content differed according to the substrate and the enzyme used. However, regardless of the raw material or the protease used, hydrolysis increased the level of essential amino acids in the hydrolysates, thereby increasing their potential nutritional value for feed products. PMID:19217554

  4. Cleavage of peptide bonds bearing ionizable amino acids at P{sub 1} by serine proteases with hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket

    SciTech Connect

    Qasim, Mohammad A.; Song, Jikui; Markley, John L.; Laskowski, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Large pK shifts in ionizable groups when buried in the protein interior. {yields} Substrate dependent shifts in pH optimum for serine proteases. {yields} Lys side chain is a stronger acid in serine protease S{sub 1} pocket than Asp side chain. -- Abstract: Enzymatic hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Xxx-pNA (where Xxx = Leu, Asp or Lys) catalyzed by bovine chymotrypsin (CHYM) or Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) has been studied at different pH values in the pH range 3-11. The pH optima for substrates having Leu, Asp, and Lys have been found to be 7.5-8.0, 5.5-6.0, and {approx}10, respectively. At the normally reported pH optimum (pH 7-8) of CHYM and SGPB, the substrate with Leu at the reactive site is more than 25,000-fold more reactive than that with Asp. However, when fully protonated, Asp is nearly as good a substrate as Leu. The pK values of the side chains of Asp and Lys in the hydrophobic S{sub 1} pocket of CHYM and SGPB have been calculated from pH-dependent hydrolysis data and have been found to be about 9 for Asp and 7.4 and 9.7 for Lys for CHYM and SGPB, respectively. The results presented in this communication suggest a possible application of CHYM like enzymes in cleaving peptide bonds contributed by acidic amino acids between pH 5 and 6.

  5. Biochemical and functional analysis of the YME1 gene product, an ATP and zinc-dependent mitochondrial protease from S. cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, E R; Hanekamp, T; Thorsness, P E

    1996-01-01

    Inactivation of YME1 in yeast causes several distinct phenotypes: an increased rate of DNA escape from mitochondria, temperature-sensitive growth on nonfermentable carbon sources, extremely slow growth when mitochondrial DNA is completely absent from the cell, and altered morphology of the mitochondrial compartment. The protein encoded by YME1, Yme1p, contains two highly conserved sequence elements, one implicated in the binding and hydrolysis of ATP, and the second characteristic of active site residues found in neutral, zinc-dependent proteases. Both the putative ATPase and zinc-dependent protease elements are necessary for the function of Yme1p as genes having mutations in critical residues of either of these motifs are unable to suppress any of the phenotypes exhibited by yme1 deletion strains. Yme1p co-fractionates with proteins associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane, is tightly associated with this membrane, and is oriented with the bulk of the protein facing the matrix. Unassembled subunit II of cytochrome oxidase is stabilized in yme1 yeast strains. The data support a model in which Yme1p is an ATP and zinc-dependent protease associated with the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Subunit II of cytochrome oxidase, when not assembled into a higher order complex, is a likely substrate of Yme1p. Images PMID:8688560

  6. Expression and deletion analysis of the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense cysteine protease in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Pamer, E G; Davis, C E; So, M

    1991-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, the cause of African sleeping sickness, differentiates in the mammalian bloodstream from a long, slender trypanosome into a short, stumpy trypanosome. This event is necessary for infection of the tsetse fly and maintenance of the life cycle. We have previously shown that the stumpy form contains 10- to 15-fold-greater cysteine protease activity than either the slender form or the insect midgut procyclic, and we have isolated a cDNA encoding the protease. In order to determine whether the cDNA encodes the developmentally regulated cysteine protease, we have purified the protease from trypanosomes and have made a polyclonal antiserum against it. The trypanosomal protease gene was then expressed in Escherichia coli with three different methionines within the pre- and propeptides acting as initiation sites. In each case, a protein was synthesized that was recognized by an antiserum specific for the developmentally regulated trypanosomal cysteine protease. The protein synthesized from the more upstream initiation site within the propeptide was proteolytically active. The recombinant protease and the trypanosomal enzyme were identical with respect to peptide substrates and protease inhibitors. The protein remained active when synthesized in a truncated form lacking the nine consecutive prolines and carboxy-terminus extension, indicating that the terminal 108 amino acids are not necessary for proteolytic activity. Images PMID:1997411

  7. Synthesis of 1,2,3-triazol-1-yl-methaneboronic acids via click chemistry: an easy access to a new potential scaffold for protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Chiara; Caselli, Emilia; Prati, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Stereoselective synthesis of previously unreported 1,2,3-triazol-1-yl-methaneboronic acids has been achieved from azidomethaneboronates by Copper-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC). The proximity of the cycloaddition reaction center to the boronic group is not detrimental for the stability of the sp3-carbon-boron bond nor to the stereoisomeric composition, further expanding the field of application of click chemistry to new boronate substrates and offering a new potential scaffold for protease inhibitors. PMID:26257579

  8. Intragenomic diversity of the V1 regions of 16S rRNA genes in high-alkaline protease-producing Bacillus clausii spp.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Yasushi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Shimamura, Shigeru; Nishi, Shinro; Nogi, Yuichi; Uchimura, Kohsuke; Kobayashi, Tohru; Hitomi, Jun; Ozaki, Katsuya; Kawai, Shuji; Ito, Susumu; Horikoshi, Koki

    2007-07-01

    Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K16, which produces high-alkaline M-protease, was characterized phenotypically, biochemically and genetically. This strain was identified as Bacillus clausii based on the results of taxonomic studies, including sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and DNA-DNA hybridization. Seven rRNA operons in the genome were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes revealed two distinct types of variable region V1. Moreover, some cloned 16S rRNA genes in some of the reference strains of B. clausii had a V1 region of yet another type. The B. clausii strains could clearly be divided into at least two subgroups based on the frequencies of the types of cloned V1 sequence. Bacillus sp. strain KSM-K16 was found to be in a different phylogenetic position from other high-alkaline protease-producing strains of B. clausii. PMID:17429572

  9. Molecular Cloning and Optimization for High Level Expression of Cold-Adapted Serine Protease from Antarctic Yeast Glaciozyma antarctica PI12

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Mazian, Mu'adz; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd.

    2014-01-01

    Psychrophilic basidiomycete yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica strain PI12, was shown to be a protease-producer. Isolation of the PI12 protease gene from genomic and mRNA sequences allowed determination of 19 exons and 18 introns. Full-length cDNA of PI12 protease gene was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2892 bp, coded for 963 amino acids. PI12 protease showed low homology with the subtilisin-like protease from fungus Rhodosporidium toruloides (42% identity) and no homology to other psychrophilic proteases. The gene encoding mature PI12 protease was cloned into Pichia pastoris expression vector, pPIC9, and positioned under the induction of methanol-alcohol oxidase (AOX) promoter. The recombinant PI12 protease was efficiently secreted into the culture medium driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor signal sequence. The highest protease production (28.3 U/ml) was obtained from P. pastoris GS115 host (GpPro2) at 20°C after 72 hours of postinduction time with 0.5% (v/v) of methanol inducer. The expressed protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and activity staining with a molecular weight of 99 kDa. PMID:25093119

  10. Molecular Cloning and Optimization for High Level Expression of Cold-Adapted Serine Protease from Antarctic Yeast Glaciozyma antarctica PI12.

    PubMed

    Alias, Norsyuhada; Ahmad Mazian, Mu'adz; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd

    2014-01-01

    Psychrophilic basidiomycete yeast, Glaciozyma antarctica strain PI12, was shown to be a protease-producer. Isolation of the PI12 protease gene from genomic and mRNA sequences allowed determination of 19 exons and 18 introns. Full-length cDNA of PI12 protease gene was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2892 bp, coded for 963 amino acids. PI12 protease showed low homology with the subtilisin-like protease from fungus Rhodosporidium toruloides (42% identity) and no homology to other psychrophilic proteases. The gene encoding mature PI12 protease was cloned into Pichia pastoris expression vector, pPIC9, and positioned under the induction of methanol-alcohol oxidase (AOX) promoter. The recombinant PI12 protease was efficiently secreted into the culture medium driven by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-factor signal sequence. The highest protease production (28.3 U/ml) was obtained from P. pastoris GS115 host (GpPro2) at 20°C after 72 hours of postinduction time with 0.5% (v/v) of methanol inducer. The expressed protein was detected by SDS-PAGE and activity staining with a molecular weight of 99 kDa. PMID:25093119

  11. Substrate Specificity of MarP, a Periplasmic Protease Required for Resistance to Acid and Oxidative Stress in Mycobacterium tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Small, Jennifer L.; O'Donoghue, Anthony J.; Boritsch, Eva C.; Tsodikov, Oleg V.; Knudsen, Giselle M.; Vandal, Omar; Craik, Charles S.; Ehrt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The transmembrane serine protease MarP is important for pH homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previous structural studies revealed that MarP contains a chymotrypsin fold and a disulfide bond that stabilizes the protease active site in the substrate-bound conformation. Here, we determined that MarP is located in the Mtb periplasm and showed that this localization is essential for function. Using the recombinant protease domain of MarP, we identified its substrate specificity using two independent assays: positional-scanning synthetic combinatorial library profiling and multiplex substrate profiling by mass spectrometry. These methods revealed that MarP prefers bulky residues at P4, tryptophan or leucine at P2, arginine or hydrophobic residues at P1, and alanine or asparagine at P1′. Guided by these data, we designed fluorogenic peptide substrates and characterized the kinetic properties of MarP. Finally, we tested the impact of mutating MarP cysteine residues on the peptidolytic activity of recombinant MarP and its ability to complement phenotypes of Mtb ΔMarP. Taken together, our studies provide insight into the enzymatic properties of MarP, its substrate preference, and the importance of its transmembrane helices and disulfide bond. PMID:23504313

  12. Genome and secretome analyses provide insights into keratin decomposition by novel proteases from the non-pathogenic fungus Onygena corvina.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhong; Busk, Peter Kamp; Herbst, Florian-Alexander; Lange, Lene

    2015-11-01

    Poultry processing plants and slaughterhouses produce huge quantities of feathers and hair/bristle waste annually. These keratinaceous wastes are highly resistant to degradation. Onygena corvina, a non-pathogenic fungus, grows specifically on feathers, hooves, horn, and hair in nature. Hence, the proteases secreted by O. corvina are interesting in view of their potential relevance for industrial decomposition of keratinaceous wastes. We sequenced and assembled the genome of O. corvina and used a method called peptide pattern recognition to identify 73 different proteases. Comparative genome analysis of proteases in keratin-degrading and non-keratin-degrading fungi indicated that 18 putative secreted proteases from four protease families (M36, M35, M43, and S8) may be responsible for keratin decomposition. Twelve of the 18 predicted protease genes could be amplified from O. corvina grown on keratinaceous materials and were transformed into Pichia pastoris. One of the recombinant proteases belonging to the S8 family showed high keratin-degrading activity. Furthermore, 29 different proteases were identified by mass spectrometry in the culture broth of O. corvina grown on feathers and bristle. The culture broth was fractionated by ion exchange chromatography to isolate active fractions with five novel proteases belonging to three protease families (S8, M28, and M3). Enzyme blends composed of three of these five proteases, one from each family, showed high degree of degradation of keratin in vitro. A blend of novel proteases, such as those we discovered, could possibly find a use for degrading keratinaceous wastes and provide proteins, peptides, and amino acids as valuable ingredients for animal feed. PMID:26177915

  13. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  14. A Rhomboid Protease Gene Deletion Affects a Novel Oligosaccharide N-Linked to the S-layer Glycoprotein of Haloferax volcanii*

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Juliana; Casabuono, Adriana; Ferrari, María Celeste; Paggi, Roberto Alejandro; De Castro, Rosana Esther; Couto, Alicia Susana; Giménez, María Inés

    2014-01-01

    Rhomboid proteases occur in all domains of life; however, their physiological role is not completely understood, and nothing is known of the biology of these enzymes in Archaea. One of the two rhomboid homologs of Haloferax volcanii (RhoII) is fused to a zinc finger domain. Chromosomal deletion of rhoII was successful, indicating that this gene is not essential for this organism; however, the mutant strain (MIG1) showed reduced motility and increased sensitivity to novobiocin. Membrane preparations of MIG1 were enriched in two glycoproteins, identified as the S-layer glycoprotein and an ABC transporter component. The H. volcanii S-layer glycoprotein has been extensively used as a model to study haloarchaeal protein N-glycosylation. HPLC analysis of oligosaccharides released from the S-layer glycoprotein after PNGase treatment revealed that MIG1 was enriched in species with lower retention times than those derived from the parent strain. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the wild type glycoprotein released a novel oligosaccharide species corresponding to GlcNAc-GlcNAc(Hex)2-(SQ-Hex)6 in contrast to the mutant protein, which contained the shorter form GlcNAc2(Hex)2-SQ-Hex-SQ. A glycoproteomics approach of the wild type glycopeptide fraction revealed Asn-732 peptide fragments linked to the sulfoquinovose-containing oligosaccharide. This work describes a novel N-linked oligosaccharide containing a repeating SQ-Hex unit bound to Asn-732 of the H. volcanii S-layer glycoprotein, a position that had not been reported as glycosylated. Furthermore, this study provides the first insight on the biological role of rhomboid proteases in Archaea, suggesting a link between protein glycosylation and this protease family. PMID:24596091

  15. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2016-01-01

    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15–3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:26890881

  16. Cell-free production of integral membrane aspartic acid proteases reveals zinc-dependent methyltransferase activity of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa prepilin peptidase PilD

    PubMed Central

    Aly, Khaled A; Beebe, Emily T; Chan, Chi H; Goren, Michael A; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Makino, Shin-ichi; Fox, Brian G; Forest, Katrina T

    2013-01-01

    Integral membrane aspartic acid proteases are receiving growing recognition for their fundamental roles in cellular physiology of eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and may be medically important pharmaceutical targets. The Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa PilD and the archaeal Methanococcus voltae FlaK were synthesized in the presence of unilamellar liposomes in a cell-free translation system. Cosynthesis of PilD with its full-length substrate, PilA, or of FlaK with its full-length substrate, FlaB2, led to complete cleavage of the substrate signal peptides. Scaled-up synthesis of PilD, followed by solubilization in dodecyl-β-d-maltoside and chromatography, led to a pure enzyme that retained both of its known biochemical activities: cleavage of the PilA signal peptide and S-adenosyl methionine-dependent methylation of the mature pilin. X-ray fluorescence scans show for the first time that PilD is a zinc-binding protein. Zinc is required for the N-terminal methylation of the mature pilin, but not for signal peptide cleavage. Taken together, our work identifies the P. aeruginosa prepilin peptidase PilD as a zinc-dependent N-methyltransferase and provides a new platform for large-scale synthesis of PilD and other integral membrane proteases important for basic microbial physiology and virulence. PMID:23255525

  17. Unmasking Heavily O-Glycosylated Serum Proteins Using Perchloric Acid: Identification of Serum Proteoglycan 4 and Protease C1 Inhibitor as Molecular Indicators for Screening of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Siang; Taib, Nur Aishah Mohd; Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Fadzli, Farhana; Harun, Faizah; Rahmat, Kartini; Hoong, See Mee; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Hashim, Onn Haji

    2016-01-01

    Heavily glycosylated mucin glycopeptides such as CA 27.29 and CA 15-3 are currently being used as biomarkers for detection and monitoring of breast cancer. However, they are not well detected at the early stages of the cancer. In the present study, perchloric acid (PCA) was used to enhance detection of mucin-type O-glycosylated proteins in the serum in an attempt to identify new biomarkers for early stage breast cancer. Sensitivity and specificity of an earlier developed sandwich enzyme-linked lectin assay were significantly improved with the use of serum PCA isolates. When a pilot case-control study was performed using the serum PCA isolates of normal participants (n = 105) and patients with stage 0 (n = 31) and stage I (n = 48) breast cancer, higher levels of total O-glycosylated proteins in sera of both groups of early stage breast cancer patients compared to the normal control women were demonstrated. Further analysis by gel-based proteomics detected significant inverse altered abundance of proteoglycan 4 and plasma protease C1 inhibitor in both the early stages of breast cancer patients compared to the controls. Our data suggests that the ratio of serum proteoglycan 4 to protease C1 inhibitor may be used for screening of early breast cancer although this requires further validation in clinically representative populations. PMID:26890881

  18. Properties of Hemolysin and Protease Produced by Aeromonas trota

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Eizo; Ozaki, Haruka; Fujii, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2014-01-01

    We examined the properties of exotoxins produced by Aeromonas trota (A. enteropelogenes), one of the diarrheagenic species of Aeromonadaceae. Nine of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing erythrocytes showed hemolytic activity. However, the hemolytic activities of the culture supernatants of these hemolytic strains of A. trota were markedly lower than those of A. sobria when cultured in liquid medium, and the amount of hemolysin detected by immunoblotting using antiserum against the hemolysin produced by A. sobria was also low. A mouse intestine loop assay using living bacterial cells showed that A. trota 701 caused the significant accumulation of fluid, and antiserum against the hemolysin produced suppressed the enterotoxic action of A. trota 701. These results indicated that A. trota 701 was diarrheagenic and the hemolysin produced was the causative agent of the enterotoxic activity of A. trota. The hemolysin in A. sobria was previously shown to be secreted in a preform (inactive form) and be activated when the carboxy-terminal domain was cleaved off by proteases in the culture supernatant. Since mature hemolysin was detected in the culture supernatants of A. trota, we analyzed the extracellular protease produced by A. trota. Fifteen of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing skim milk showed proteolytic activity. We subsequently found that most A. trota isolates possessed the serine protease gene, but not the metalloprotease gene. Therefore, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the serine protease gene and its chaperone A. trota gene. The results obtained revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of serine protease and the chaperone were homologous to those of A. sobria with identities of 83.0% and 75.8%, respectively. PMID:24633045

  19. Expression of Bacillus protease (Protease BYA) from Bacillus sp. Y in Bacillus subtilis and enhancement of its specific activity by site-directed mutagenesis-improvement in productivity of detergent enzyme-.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Shimogaki, Hisao; Ohdera, Motoyasu; Asai, Yoshio; Oba, Kenkichi; Iwama, Masanori; Irie, Masachika

    2006-01-01

    An attempt was made to express protease BYA produced by an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. Y in Bacillus subtilis by gene engineering methods. The gene encoding protease BYA was cloned from Bacillus sp. Y, and expression vector pTA71 was constructed from the amylase promoter of Bacillus licheniformis, DNA fragments encoding the open reading frame of protease BYA, and pUB110. Protease BYA was secreted at an activity level of 5100 APU/ml in the common industrial culture medium of Bacillus subtilis transformed with pTA71. We then attempted to increase the specific activity of protease BYA by site-directed mutagenesis. Amino acid residue Ala29 next to catalytic Asp30 was replaced by one of three uncharged amino acid residues (Val29, Leu29, Ile29), and each mutant enzyme was expressed and isolated from the culture medium. Val29 mutant enzyme was secreted at an activity level of greater than 7000 APU/ml in culture medium, and its specific activity was 1.5-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme. Other mutant enzymes had specific activity similar to that of the original one and were less stabile than the wild-type enzyme. It can be thought that the substitution at amino acid residue 29 affects the level of activity and stability of protease BYA. PMID:16394504

  20. The sigA Gene Which Is Borne on the she Pathogenicity Island of Shigella flexneri 2a Encodes an Exported Cytopathic Protease Involved in Intestinal Fluid Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasani, Keith; Henderson, Ian R.; Sakellaris, Harry; Rajakumar, Kumar; Grant, Travis; Nataro, James P.; Robins-Browne, Roy; Adler, Ben

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the sigA gene situated on the she pathogenicity island of Shigella flexneri 2a was cloned and characterized. Sequence analysis showed that sigA encodes a 139.6-kDa protein which belongs to the SPATE (serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae) subfamily of autotransporter proteins. The demonstration that SigA is autonomously secreted from the cell to yield a 103-kDa processed form and possesses a conserved C-terminal domain for export from the cell were consistent with the autotransporter pathway of secretion. Functional analysis showed that SigA is a secreted temperature-regulated serine protease capable of degrading casein. SigA was cytopathic for HEp-2 cells, suggesting that it may be a cell-altering toxin with a role in the pathogenesis of Shigella infections. SigA was at least partly responsible for the ability of S. flexneri to stimulate fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops. PMID:10768931

  1. Processing and targeting of the thiol protease aleurain: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    This study addresses the processing and targeting of the thiol protease aleurain in monocots. A probe derived from the aleurain cDNA specific for the 5'-most 400 bp (a region encoding the first 140 amino acids of the preprotein hybridized to at least 3 separate elements in the barley genome; only one represented the aleurain gene. In contrast, a probe specific for the remaining 2/23 of the cDNA (representing the protease domain) hybridized to only a single copy sequence. To know if this pattern pertained in other, closely related, monocots, we probed Southern blots of genomic DNA from maize, rye, oats, sorghum, and pearl millet with each probe. In each instance except for maize DNA, the 5' domain probe hybridizes to several fragments in addition to those identified by the protease domain probe. Presumable the darkest hybridization in each represents the fragment carrying the sequences homologous to barley aleurain. The fragments from a given restriction enzyme identified by the protease domain probe in sorghum, millet, and maize, were indistinguishable in size indicating that the gene sequences, as well as flanking DNA, are so well conserved among the group that the location of the hexanucleotide sequences have not diverged. (3 refs., 3 figs.)

  2. Proteases as Insecticidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Robert L.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases from a variety of sources (viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects) have toxicity towards insects. Some of these insecticidal proteases evolved as venom components, herbivore resistance factors, or microbial pathogenicity factors, while other proteases play roles in insect development or digestion, but exert an insecticidal effect when over-expressed from genetically engineered plants or microbial pathogens. Many of these proteases are cysteine proteases, although insect-toxic metalloproteases and serine proteases have also been examined. The sites of protease toxic activity range from the insect midgut to the hemocoel (body cavity) to the cuticle. This review discusses these insecticidal proteases along with their evaluation and use as potential pesticides. PMID:22069618

  3. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents.

    PubMed

    Vojcic, Ljubica; Pitzler, Christian; Körfer, Georgette; Jakob, Felix; Ronny Martinez; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-12-25

    Proteases are essential ingredients in modern laundry detergents. Over the past 30 years, subtilisin proteases employed in the laundry detergent industry have been engineered by directed evolution and rational design to tailor their properties towards industrial demands. This comprehensive review discusses recent success stories in subtilisin protease engineering. Advances in protease engineering for laundry detergents comprise simultaneous improvement of thermal resistance and activity at low temperatures, a rational strategy to modulate pH profiles, and a general hypothesis for how to increase promiscuous activity towards the production of peroxycarboxylic acids as mild bleaching agents. The three protease engineering campaigns presented provide in-depth analysis of protease properties and have identified principles that can be applied to improve or generate enzyme variants for industrial applications beyond laundry detergents. PMID:25579194

  4. Adenoviral gene delivery of elafin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor attenuates NF-kappa B-dependent inflammatory responses of human endothelial cells and macrophages to atherogenic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Peter A; Hitt, Mary; Xing, Zhou; Wang, Jun; Haslett, Chris; Riemersma, Rudolph A; Webb, David J; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2004-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting arterial vessels. Strategies to reduce the inflammatory responses of endothelial cells and macrophages may slow lesion development and prevent complications such as plaque rupture. The human protease human neutrophil elastase (HNE), oxidized low density lipoprotein, LPS, and TNF-alpha were chosen as model stimuli of arterial wall inflammation and led to production of the chemokine IL-8 in endothelial cells. To counteract the activity of HNE, we have examined the effects of adenoviral gene delivery of the anti-elastases elafin, previously demonstrated within human atheroma, and murine secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a related molecule, on the inflammatory responses of human endothelial cells and macrophages to atherogenic stimuli. We developed a technique of precomplexing adenovirus with cationic lipid to augment adenoviral infection efficiency in endothelial cells and to facilitate infection in macrophages. Elafin overexpression protected endothelial cells from HNE-induced IL-8 production and cytotoxicity. Elafin and murine SLPI also reduced endothelial IL-8 release in response to oxidized low density lipoprotein, LPS, and TNF-alpha and macrophage TNF-alpha production in response to LPS. This effect was associated with reduced activation of the inflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, through up-regulation of IkappaBalpha, in both cell types. Our work suggests a novel and extended anti-inflammatory role for these HNE inhibitors working as effectors of innate immunity to protect tissues against maladaptive inflammatory responses. Our findings indicate that elafin and SLPI may be gene therapy targets for the treatment of atheroma. PMID:15034071

  5. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2015-11-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  6. Production of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid by Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 containing cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xuewei; He, Qingfang; Peng, Zhenying; Yu, Jinhui; Bian, Fei; Li, Youzhi; Bi, Yuping

    2016-07-01

    Genetic modification is useful for improving the nutritional qualities of cyanobacteria. To increase the total unsaturated fatty acid content, along with the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 fatty acids, genetic engineering can be used to modify fatty acid metabolism. Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, a fast-growing cyanobacterium, does not contain a Δ6 desaturase gene and is therefore unable to synthesize γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA), which are important in human health. In this work, we constructed recombinant vectors Syd6D, Syd15D and Syd6Dd15D to express the Δ15 desaturase and Δ6 desaturase genes from Synechocystis PCC6803 in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, with the aim of expressing polyunsaturated fatty acids. Overexpression of the Δ15 desaturase gene in Synechococcus resulted in 5.4 times greater accumulation of α-linolenic acid compared with the wild-type while Δ6 desaturase gene expression produced both GLA and SDA. Co-expression of the two genes resulted in low-level accumulation of GLA but much larger amounts of SDA, accounting for as much to 11.64% of the total fatty acid content.

  7. The gene for the serpin thrombin inhibitor (P17), protease nexin I, is located on human chromosome 2q33-q35 and on syntenic regions in the mouse and sheep genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.E.; Burkin, D.J.; Fournier, R.E.K.

    1995-05-01

    Protease nexin I (PNI) is the most important physiologic regulator of {alpha}-thrombin in tissues. PNI is highly expressed and developmentally regulated in the nervous system where it is concentrated at neuromuscular junctions and also central synapses in the hippocampus and striatum. Approximately 10% of identified proteins at mammalian neuromuscular junctions are serine protease inhibitors, consistent with their central role in balancing serine protease activity to develop, maintain, and remodel synapses. Southern blot hybridization of PNI cDNA to somatic cell hybrids placed the structural gene for PNI (locus PI7) on human chromosome 2q33-q35 and to syntenic chromosomes in the mouse (chromosome 1) and sheep (chromosome 2). 30 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Effects of oral eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial effects on inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our aim was to assess the effect of a six-week supplementation with either olive oil, EPA, or DHA on gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (...

  9. Single Nucleotide Variant rs2232710 in the Protein Z-Dependent Protease Inhibitor (ZPI, SERPINA10) Gene Is Not Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Marcin M; Lotta, Luca A; Pappalardo, Emanuela; de Haan, Hugoline G; Passamonti, Serena M; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Martinelli, Ida; Peyvandi, Flora

    2016-01-01

    Rare mutations in PROC, PROS1 or SERPINC1 as well as common variants in F5, F2, F11 and SERPINC1 have been identified as risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). To identify novel genetic risk factors for DVT, we have developed and applied next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) of the coding area of hemostatic and proinflammatory genes. Using this strategy, we previously identified a single nucleotide variant (SNV) rs6050 in the FGA gene and novel, rare SNVs in the ADAMTS13 gene associated with DVT. To identify novel coding variants in the genetic predisposition to DVT, we applied NGS analysis of the coding area of 186 hemostatic and proinflammatory genes in 94 DVT cases and 98 controls and we identified 18 variants with putative role in DVT. A group of 585 Italian idiopathic DVT patients and 550 healthy controls was used to genotype all the 18 risk-associated variants identified by NGS. Replication study in the Italian population identified the rs2232710 variant in the protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) gene to be associated with an increased risk of DVT (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.33-5.65; P = 0.0045; Bonferroni P = 0.081). However, the rs2232710 SNV showed no association with DVT in two Dutch replication cohorts the LETS study (454 patients and 451 controls) and the MEGA study (3799 patients and 4399 controls), indicating that the rs2232710 variant is not a risk factor for DVT. PMID:26982741

  10. Single Nucleotide Variant rs2232710 in the Protein Z-Dependent Protease Inhibitor (ZPI, SERPINA10) Gene Is Not Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Marcin M.; Lotta, Luca A.; Pappalardo, Emanuela; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Passamonti, Serena M.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Martinelli, Ida; Peyvandi, Flora

    2016-01-01

    Rare mutations in PROC, PROS1 or SERPINC1 as well as common variants in F5, F2, F11 and SERPINC1 have been identified as risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). To identify novel genetic risk factors for DVT, we have developed and applied next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) of the coding area of hemostatic and proinflammatory genes. Using this strategy, we previously identified a single nucleotide variant (SNV) rs6050 in the FGA gene and novel, rare SNVs in the ADAMTS13 gene associated with DVT. To identify novel coding variants in the genetic predisposition to DVT, we applied NGS analysis of the coding area of 186 hemostatic and proinflammatory genes in 94 DVT cases and 98 controls and we identified 18 variants with putative role in DVT. A group of 585 Italian idiopathic DVT patients and 550 healthy controls was used to genotype all the 18 risk-associated variants identified by NGS. Replication study in the Italian population identified the rs2232710 variant in the protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) gene to be associated with an increased risk of DVT (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.33–5.65; P = 0.0045; Bonferroni P = 0.081). However, the rs2232710 SNV showed no association with DVT in two Dutch replication cohorts the LETS study (454 patients and 451 controls) and the MEGA study (3799 patients and 4399 controls), indicating that the rs2232710 variant is not a risk factor for DVT. PMID:26982741

  11. Cloning and over-expression of an alkaline protease from Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xue-Ming; Shen, Wei; Lakay, F M; Shao, Wei-Lan; Wang, Zheng-Xiang; Prior, B A; Zhuge, Jian

    2004-06-01

    The alkaline protease gene, apr, from Bacillus licheniformis 2709 was cloned into a Bacillus shuttle expression vector, pHL, to yield the recombinant plasmid pHL-apr. The pHL-apr was expressed in Bacillus subtilis WB600, yielding a high expression strain BW-016. The amount of alkaline protease produced in the recombinant increased by 65% relative to the original strain. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated a Mr of 30.5 kDa. The amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence analysis revealed a 98% identity to that of Bacillus licheniformis 6816. PMID:15269522

  12. Identification of Nitrogen-Fixing Genes and Gene Clusters from Metagenomic Library of Acid Mine Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huaqun; Liang, Yili; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is an essential function of acid mine drainage (AMD) microbial communities. However, most acidophiles in AMD environments are uncultured microorganisms and little is known about the diversity of nitrogen-fixing genes and structure of nif gene cluster in AMD microbial communities. In this study, we used metagenomic sequencing to isolate nif genes in the AMD microbial community from Dexing Copper Mine, China. Meanwhile, a metagenome microarray containing 7,776 large-insertion fosmids was constructed to screen novel nif gene clusters. Metagenomic analyses revealed that 742 sequences were identified as nif genes including structural subunit genes nifH, nifD, nifK and various additional genes. The AMD community is massively dominated by the genus Acidithiobacillus. However, the phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms is much higher than previously thought in the AMD community. Furthermore, a 32.5-kb genomic sequence harboring nif, fix and associated genes was screened by metagenome microarray. Comparative genome analysis indicated that most nif genes in this cluster are most similar to those of Herbaspirillum seropedicae, but the organization of the nif gene cluster had significant differences from H. seropedicae. Sequence analysis and reverse transcription PCR also suggested that distinct transcription units of nif genes exist in this gene cluster. nifQ gene falls into the same transcription unit with fixABCX genes, which have not been reported in other diazotrophs before. All of these results indicated that more novel diazotrophs survive in the AMD community. PMID:24498417

  13. Protease and protease inhibitory activity in pregnant and postpartum involuting uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Milwidsky, A.; Beller, U.; Palti, Z.; Mayer, M.

    1982-08-15

    The presence of two distinct proteolytic activities in the rat uterus was confirmed with /sup 14/C-labeled globin used as a sensitive protein substrate and following release of label into the trichloroacetic acid-soluble supernatant fraction. Protease I is a cytoplasmic acid protease while protease II is associated with the pellet fraction, can be extracted by 0.6 M sodium chloride, and is active at pH 7.0. Protease I activity is low during pregnancy and markedly increases at term achieving maximal activity at day 3 post partum with a subsequent decline to preterm activity values. Lactation did not affect the uterine protease I activity. Protease II activity is not significantly different during pregnancy, at term, and post partum. The presence of an inhibitor of protease I was suggested by a decrease in enzyme activity with an increased cytosolic protein concentration. The inhibitor also lessened bovine trypsin activity but had no effect on protease II. Although its inhibitory potency on trypsin fluctuated during the various uterine physiologic stages, these changes appeared to be statistically insignificant. Human uterine samples were also found to contain the two protease activities with similar changes in protease I post partum. It is suggested that, both in the rat and in man, uterine involution post partum is associated with a marked increase in activity of acid cytosolic protease, while a particulate neutral protease and a soluble inhibitor of trypsin, which are also present in uterine cells, do not appear to play a significant role in the dissolution of uterine tissues after parturition.

  14. Cadmium induces retinoic acid signaling by regulating retinoic acid metabolic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H

    2009-09-11

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, beta,beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1-6 cells. In C. elegans, bcmo-1 was expressed in the intestine and was cadmium inducible. Similarly, in Hepa 1-6 cells, Bcmo1 was induced by cadmium. Retinoic acid-mediated signaling increased after 24-h exposures to 5 and 10 microm cadmium in Hepa 1-6 cells. Examination of gene expression demonstrated that the induction of retinoic acid signaling by cadmium may be mediated by overexpression of Bcmo1. Furthermore, cadmium inhibited the expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1, which are involved in retinoic acid degradation. These results indicate that cadmium-induced teratogenicity may be due to the ability of the metal to increase the levels of retinoic acid by disrupting the expression of retinoic acid-metabolizing genes. PMID:19556237

  15. Cadmium Induces Retinoic Acid Signaling by Regulating Retinoic Acid Metabolic Gene Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuxia; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2009-01-01

    The transition metal cadmium is an environmental teratogen. In addition, cadmium and retinoic acid can act synergistically to induce forelimb malformations. The molecular mechanism underlying the teratogenicity of cadmium and the synergistic effect with retinoic acid has not been addressed. An evolutionarily conserved gene, β,β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase (BCMO), which is involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis, was studied in both Caenorhabditis elegans and murine Hepa 1–6 cells. In C. elegans, bcmo-1 was expressed in the intestine and was cadmium inducible. Similarly, in Hepa 1–6 cells, Bcmo1 was induced by cadmium. Retinoic acid-mediated signaling increased after 24-h exposures to 5 and 10 μm cadmium in Hepa 1–6 cells. Examination of gene expression demonstrated that the induction of retinoic acid signaling by cadmium may be mediated by overexpression of Bcmo1. Furthermore, cadmium inhibited the expression of Cyp26a1 and Cyp26b1, which are involved in retinoic acid degradation. These results indicate that cadmium-induced teratogenicity may be due to the ability of the metal to increase the levels of retinoic acid by disrupting the expression of retinoic acid-metabolizing genes. PMID:19556237

  16. Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    PubMed

    Kongkerd, Natthawan; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Morakote, Nimit; Sajid, Mohammed; McKerrow, James H

    2008-08-01

    Gnathostoma spinigerum is a causative agent of human gnathostomiasis, a common parasitic disease involving skin and visceral organs, especially the central nervous system. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease (GsCL1) from the lambdaZAP cDNA library of G. spinigerum advanced third-stage larva (aL3) and characterized the biochemical properties of the recombinant enzyme. The cloned cDNA of 1484bp encoded 398 amino acids which contained a typical signal peptide sequence (23 amino acids), a pro-domain (156 amino acids), and a mature domain (219 amino acids) with an approximate molecular weight of 24kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of GsCL1 gene showed 53-64% identity to cathepsin L proteases of various organisms including a cathepsin L family member (cpl-1) of Caenorhabditis elegans. Recombinant proGsCL1 expressed in Pichia pastoris showed typical biochemical characteristics of cysteine proteases. The expressed enzyme displayed optimal protease activity toward Z-Phe-Arg-AMC substrate at pH 6.0 but not toward Z-Arg-Arg-AMC. The activity was sensitive to cysteine protease inhibitors E-64 and K11777. The preference for large hydrophilic and aromatic residues in the P2 position (I, L, F, W, U, V) was typical of cathepsin L proteases. Mouse anti-GST-proGsCL1 serum showed reactivity with 35-, 38- and 45-kDa proteins in the aL3 extracts. These proteins were shown to localize inside the intestinal cells of aL3. PMID:18554733

  17. Regulation of SulA cleavage by Lon protease by the C-terminal amino acid of SulA, histidine.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Y; Amano, F

    2001-09-01

    SulA protein, a cell division inhibitor in Escherichia coli, is degraded by Lon protease. The C-terminal eight residues of SulA have been shown to be recognized by Lon; however, it remains to be elucidated which amino acid in the C-terminus of SulA is critical for the recognition of SulA by Lon. To clarify this point, we constructed mutants of SulA with changes in the C-terminal residues, and examined the accumulation and stability of the resulting mutant SulA proteins in vivo. Substitution of the extreme C-terminal histidine residue with another amino acid led to marked accumulation and high stability of SulA in lon(+) cells. A SulA mutant in which the C-terminal eight residues were deleted (SulAC161) showed high accumulation and stability, but the addition of histidine to the C-terminus of SulAC161 (SulAC161+H) made it labile. Similarly, SulAC161+H fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-SulAC161+H) formed a tight complex with and was degraded rapidly by Lon in vitro. Histidine competitively inhibited the degradation of MBP-SulA by Lon, while other amino acids did not. These results suggest that the histidine residue at the extreme C-terminus of SulA is recognized specifically by Lon, leading to a high-affinity interaction between SulA and Lon. PMID:11513747

  18. Molecular evolution of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) gene family.

    PubMed

    Körbes, Ana Paula; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Margis, Rogério; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina

    2016-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) perform an essential cellular function by controlling the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a key intermediate in the synthesis of membrane, signaling and storage lipids. Although LPAATs have been extensively explored by functional and biotechnological studies, little is known about their molecular evolution and diversification. We performed a genome-wide analysis using data from several plants and animals, as well as other eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, to identify LPAAT genes and analyze their evolutionary history. We used phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis to test the hypothesis of distinct origins for these genes. The reconstructed phylogeny supported the ancient origin of some isoforms (plant LPAAT1 and LPAATB; animal AGPAAT1/2), while others emerged more recently (plant LPAAT2/3/4/5; AGPAAT3/4/5/8). Additionally, the hypothesis of endosymbiotic origin of the plastidic isoform LPAAT1 was confirmed. LPAAT genes from plants and animals mainly experienced strong purifying selection pressures with limited functional divergence after the species-specific duplications. Gene expression analyses of LPAAT isoforms in model plants demonstrated distinct LPAAT expression patterns in these organisms. The results showed that distinct origins followed by diversification of the LPAAT genes shaped the evolution of TAG biosynthesis. The expression pattern of individual genes may be responsible for adaptation into multiple ecological niches. PMID:26721558

  19. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) Gene Family Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding. PMID:25310287

  20. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) gene family revisited.

    PubMed

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding. PMID:25310287

  1. The ubiquitin-specific protease family from Arabidopsis. AtUBP1 and 2 are required for the resistance to the amino acid analog canavanine.

    PubMed

    Yan, N; Doelling, J H; Falbel, T G; Durski, A M; Vierstra, R D

    2000-12-01

    Ubiquitin-specific proteases (UBPs) are a family of unique hydrolases that specifically remove polypeptides covalently linked via peptide or isopeptide bonds to the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin. UBPs help regulate the ubiquitin/26S proteolytic pathway by generating free ubiquitin monomers from their initial translational products, recycling ubiquitins during the breakdown of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, and/or by removing ubiquitin from specific targets and thus presumably preventing target degradation. Here, we describe a family of 27 UBP genes from Arabidopsis that contain both the conserved cysteine (Cys) and histidine boxes essential for catalysis. They can be clustered into 14 subfamilies based on sequence similarity, genomic organization, and alignments with their closest relatives from other organisms, with seven subfamilies having two or more members. Recombinant AtUBP2 functions as a bona fide UBP: It can release polypeptides attached to ubiquitins via either alpha- or epsilon-amino linkages by an activity that requires the predicted active-site Cys within the Cys box. From the analysis of T-DNA insertion mutants, we demonstrate that the AtUBP1 and 2 subfamily helps confer resistance to the arginine analog canavanine. This phenotype suggests that the AtUBP1 and 2 enzymes are needed for abnormal protein turnover in Arabidopsis. PMID:11115897

  2. Post-endocytotic Deubiquitination and Degradation of the Metabotropic γ-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor by the Ubiquitin-specific Protease 14.

    PubMed

    Lahaie, Nicolas; Kralikova, Michaela; Prézeau, Laurent; Blahos, Jaroslav; Bouvier, Michel

    2016-03-25

    Mechanisms controlling the metabotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAB) cell surface stability are still poorly understood. In contrast with many other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), it is not subject to agonist-promoted internalization, but is constitutively internalized and rapidly down-regulated. In search of novel interacting proteins regulating receptor fate, we report that the ubiquitin-specific protease 14 (USP14) interacts with the GABAB(1b)subunit's second intracellular loop. Probing the receptor for ubiquitination using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), we detected a constitutive and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ubiquitination of the receptor at the cell surface. PMA also increased internalization and accelerated receptor degradation. Overexpression of USP14 decreased ubiquitination while treatment with a small molecule inhibitor of the deubiquitinase (IU1) increased receptor ubiquitination. Treatment with the internalization inhibitor Dynasore blunted both USP14 and IU1 effects on the receptor ubiquitination state, suggesting a post-endocytic site of action. Overexpression of USP14 also led to an accelerated degradation of GABABin a catalytically independent fashion. We thus propose a model whereby cell surface ubiquitination precedes endocytosis, after which USP14 acts as an ubiquitin-binding protein that targets the ubiquitinated receptor to lysosomal degradation and promotes its deubiquitination. PMID:26817839

  3. The Pochonia chlamydosporia Serine Protease Gene vcp1 Is Subject to Regulation by Carbon, Nitrogen and pH: Implications for Nematode Biocontrol

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Elaine; Kerry, Brian R.; Manzanilla-López, Rosa H.; Mutua, Gerald; Devonshire, Jean; Kimenju, John; Hirsch, Penny R.

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline serine protease VCP1 of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia belongs to a family of subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in infection of nematode and insect hosts. It is involved early in the infection process, removing the outer proteinaceous vitelline membrane of nematode eggs. Little is known about the regulation of this gene, even though an understanding of how nutrients and other factors affect its expression is critical for ensuring its efficacy as a biocontrol agent. This paper provides new information on the regulation of vcp1 expression. Sequence analysis of the upstream regulatory region of this gene in 30 isolates revealed that it was highly conserved and contained sequence motifs characteristic of genes that are subject to carbon, nitrogen and pH-regulation. Expression studies, monitoring enzyme activity and mRNA, confirmed that these factors affect VCP1 production. As expected, glucose reduced VCP1 expression and for a few hours so did ammonium chloride. Surprisingly, however, by 24 h VCP1 levels were increased in the presence of ammonium chloride for most isolates. Ambient pH also regulated VCP1 expression, with most isolates producing more VCP1 under alkaline conditions. There were some differences in the response of one isolate with a distinctive upstream sequence including a variant regulatory-motif profile. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the presence of nematode eggs stimulates VCP1 production by P. chlamydosporia, but only where the two are in close contact. Overall, the results indicate that readily-metabolisable carbon sources and unfavourable pH in the rhizosphere/egg-mass environment may compromise nematode parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. However, contrary to previous indications using other nematophagous and entomopathogenic fungi, ammonium nitrate (e.g. from fertilizers) may enhance biocontrol potential in some circumstances. PMID:22558192

  4. An Escherichia coli Expression Assay and Screen for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Variants with Decreased Susceptibility to Indinavir

    PubMed Central

    Melnick, Laurence; Yang, Shiow-Shong; Rossi, Rick; Zepp, Charlie; Heefner, Donald

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a recombinant Escherichia coli screening system for the rapid detection and identification of amino acid substitutions in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease associated with decreased susceptibility to the protease inhibitor indinavir (MK-639; Merck & Co.). The assay depends upon the correct processing of a segment of the HIV-1 HXB2 gag-pol polyprotein followed by detection of HIV reverse transcriptase activity by a highly sensitive, colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highly sensitive system detects the contributions of single substitutions such as I84V, L90M, and L63P. The combination of single substitutions further decreases the sensitivity to indinavir. We constructed a library of HIV protease variant genes containing dispersed mutations and, using the E. coli recombinant system, screened for mutants with decreased indinavir sensitivity. The discovered HIV protease variants contain amino acid substitutions commonly associated with indinavir resistance in clinical isolates, including the substitutions L90M, L63P, I64V, V82A, L24I, and I54T. One substitution, W6R, is also frequently found by the screen and has not been reported elsewhere. Of a total of 12,000 isolates that were screened, 12 protease variants with decreased sensitivity to indinavir were found. The L63P substitution, which is also associated with indinavir resistance, increases the stability of the isolated protease relative to that of the native HXB2 protease. The rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of this screen also make it useful for screening for novel inhibitors. We have found the approach described here to be useful for the detection of amino acid substitutions in HIV protease that have been associated with drug resistance as well as for the screening of novel compounds for inhibitory activity. PMID:9835523

  5. Regulation of the aprX-lipA operon of Pseudomonas fluorescens B52: differential regulation of the proximal and distal genes, encoding protease and lipase, by ompR-envZ.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Conor N; Woods, Rick G; Beacham, Ifor R

    2004-12-15

    The production of lipase and protease from psychrotrophic strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens may result in spoilage of dairy products. The lipase (lipA) and alkaline metalloprotease (aprX) genes of P. fluorescens B52 are regulated by temperature and are located at opposite ends of an operon which contains eight genes and spans 14 kb. In this report, we show that lipase activity in the supernatant of cultures of P. fluorescens strain B52 is also regulated by the homologue of the Escherichia coli EnvZ-OmpR two-component regulatory system. Differences in the regulation of lipase and protease may be related to the proximal and distal locations of aprX and lipA within the operon. PMID:15598539

  6. A novel detergent-stable solvent-tolerant serine thiol alkaline protease from Streptomyces koyangensis TN650.

    PubMed

    Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Bejar, Wacim; Boulkour Touioui, Souraya; Hmidi, Maher; Badis, Abdelmalek; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    An alkaline proteinase (STAP) was produced from strain TN650 isolated from a Tunisian off-shore oil field and assigned as Streptomyces koyangensis strain TN650 based on physiological and biochemical properties and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 45125.17-Da. The enzyme had an NH2-terminal sequence of TQSNPPSWGLDRIDQTTAFTKACSIKY, thus sharing high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. The results showed that this protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), and partially inhibited by 5,5-dithio-bis-(2-nitro benzoic acid) (DTNB), which strongly suggested its belonging to the serine thiol protease family. Using casein as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for protease activity were pH 10 and 70 °C, respectively. The protease was stable at pH 7-10 and 30-60 °C for 24 h. STAP exhibited high catalytic efficiency, significant detergent stability, and elevated organic solvent resistance compared to the SG-XIV proteases from S. griseus and KERAB from Streptomyces sp. AB1. The stap gene encoding STAP was isolated, and its DNA sequence was determined. These properties make STAP a potential candidate for future application in detergent formulations and non-aqueous peptide biocatalysis. PMID:26056991

  7. Investigations with Protease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents two simple and reliable ways for measuring protease activity that can be used for a variety of investigations in a range of biology class levels. The investigations use protease from a variety of sources. (DDR)

  8. Abscisic acid represses the transcription of chloroplast genes*

    PubMed Central

    Yamburenko, Maria V.; Zubo, Yan O.; Börner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on nuclear genes encoding chloroplast-localized proteins. ABA effects on the transcription of chloroplast genes, however, have not been investigated yet thoroughly. This work, therefore, studied the effects of ABA (75 μM) on transcription and steady-state levels of transcripts in chloroplasts of basal and apical segments of primary leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Basal segments consist of young cells with developing chloroplasts, while apical segments contain the oldest cells with mature chloroplasts. Exogenous ABA reduced the chlorophyll content and caused changes of the endogenous concentrations not only of ABA but also of cytokinins to different extents in the basal and apical segments. It repressed transcription by the chloroplast phage-type and bacteria-type RNA polymerases and lowered transcript levels of most investigated chloroplast genes drastically. ABA did not repress the transcription of psbD and a few other genes and even increased psbD mRNA levels under certain conditions. The ABA effects on chloroplast transcription were more pronounced in basal vs. apical leaf segments and enhanced by light. Simultaneous application of cytokinin (22 μM 6-benzyladenine) minimized the ABA effects on chloroplast gene expression. These data demonstrate that ABA affects the expression of chloroplast genes differentially and points to a role of ABA in the regulation and coordination of the activities of nuclear and chloroplast genes coding for proteins with functions in photosynthesis. PMID:24078671

  9. Gene therapy for aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Muramatsu, Shin-ichi; Tseng, Sheng-Hong; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Lee, Ni-Chung; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Snyder, Richard O; Byrne, Barry J; Tai, Chun-Hwei; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2012-05-16

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is required for the synthesis of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin. Children with defects in the AADC gene show compromised development, particularly in motor function. Drug therapy has only marginal effects on some of the symptoms and does not change early childhood mortality. Here, we performed adeno-associated viral vector-mediated gene transfer of the human AADC gene bilaterally into the putamen of four patients 4 to 6 years of age. All of the patients showed improvements in motor performance: One patient was able to stand 16 months after gene transfer, and the other three patients achieved supported sitting 6 to 15 months after gene transfer. Choreic dyskinesia was observed in all patients, but this resolved after several months. Positron emission tomography revealed increased uptake by the putamen of 6-[(18)F]fluorodopa, a tracer for AADC. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed increased dopamine and serotonin levels after gene transfer. Thus, gene therapy targeting primary AADC deficiency is well tolerated and leads to improved motor function. PMID:22593174

  10. Early trypsin, a female-specific midgut protease in Aedes aegypti: isolation, aminoterminal sequence determination, and cloning and sequencing of the gene.

    PubMed

    Noriega, F G; Wang, X Y; Pennington, J E; Barillas-Mury, C V; Wells, M A

    1996-02-01

    Early trypsin is a female-specific protease present in the Aedes aegypti midgut during the first hours after ingestion of a blood meal. It plays an essential role in the transcriptional activation of the late trypsin form, the major midgut endoprotease involved in the blood meal digestion. Early trypsin is the most abundant midgut polypeptide isolated by benzamidine-sepharose affinity chromatography 3 h after feeding. The amino-terminal sequence of the early trypsin protein matches that of the 3a1 cDNA for a putative trypsinogen described by Kalhok et al. (Insect. Molec. Biol., 2, 71-79, 1993). The early trypsin cDNA was over expressed in Escherichia coli. Polyclonal antibodies generated against this recombinant protein were used to show that the enzyme was present in the midgut during the first 4 h after feeding. A 2.5 kb genomic clone of the early trypsin was isolated, mapped and subcloned. A 1.56 kb subclone, corresponding to 1303 bp of the upstream regulatory region and 265 bp of the coding region, was sequenced. The gene contains a 64 nucleotide intron which interrupts the codon for Val at position 18 of the protein. This Val is located toward the end of the putative signal sequence of the protein. PMID:8882654

  11. Expression and characterization of two pesticide resistance-associated serine protease genes (NYD-tr and NYD-ch) from Culex pipiens pallens for metabolism of deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinggui; Zhou, Dan; Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Donghui; Qian, Jin; Xiong, Chunrong; Sun, Yan; Ma, Lei; Zhu, Changliang

    2008-08-01

    Two deltamethrin resistance-associated serine protease genes (NYD-tr and NYD-ch) were isolated from Culex pipiens pallens in our previous study. To study the function of NYD-Tr and NYD-Ch in the metabolism of deltamethrin, we constructed the recombinant plasmid pET32a(+)/NYD-tr and pET32a(+)/NYD-ch with a 6x histidine tag. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses of the recombinant proteins revealed that the molecular weights of NYD-Tr and NYD-Ch are 42 and 50 kDa. Enzyme activity assay indicated that the recombinant NYD-Tr and NYD-Ch had the corresponding features of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Using BApNA as the substrate, NYD-Tr gave optimal activity between pH 9.0 and 10.5, while NYD-Ch was optimally active over the range of pH 8.0-11.0 using the S(Ala)(2)ProPhe-pNA as the substrate. Then, we investigated the metabolism of deltamethrin by NYD-Tr and NYD-Ch. Our results showed that NYD-Tr and NYD-Ch could hydrolyze deltamethrin. The acute oral toxicity of the metabolite to Wistar rats was much lower than deltamethrin. PMID:18496715

  12. Combinations of mutant FAD2 and FAD3 genes to produce high oleic acid and low linolenic acid soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High oleic acid soybeans were produced by combining a mutant FAD2-1A and a mutant FAD2-1B gene. Despite having a high oleic acid content, the linolenic acid content of these soybeans was in the range of 4-6%. Therefore, a study was conducted to incorporate one or two mutant FAD3 genes into the high ...

  13. Deletion of Braun Lipoprotein and Plasminogen-Activating Protease-Encoding Genes Attenuates Yersinia pestis in Mouse Models of Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague

    PubMed Central

    van Lier, Christina J.; Sha, Jian; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Cao, Anthony; Tiner, Bethany L.; Erova, Tatiana E.; Cong, Yingzi; Kozlova, Elena V.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Baze, Wallace B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no FDA-approved vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. Since both humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity are essential in providing the host with protection against plague, we developed a live-attenuated vaccine strain by deleting the Braun lipoprotein (lpp) and plasminogen-activating protease (pla) genes from Y. pestis CO92. The Δlpp Δpla double isogenic mutant was highly attenuated in evoking both bubonic and pneumonic plague in a mouse model. Further, animals immunized with the mutant by either the intranasal or the subcutaneous route were significantly protected from developing subsequent pneumonic plague. In mice, the mutant poorly disseminated to peripheral organs and the production of proinflammatory cytokines concurrently decreased. Histopathologically, reduced damage to the lungs and livers of mice infected with the Δlpp Δpla double mutant compared to the level of damage in wild-type (WT) CO92-challenged animals was observed. The Δlpp Δpla mutant-immunized mice elicited a humoral immune response to the WT bacterium, as well as to CO92-specific antigens. Moreover, T cells from mutant-immunized animals exhibited significantly higher proliferative responses, when stimulated ex vivo with heat-killed WT CO92 antigens, than mice immunized with the same sublethal dose of WT CO92. Likewise, T cells from the mutant-immunized mice produced more gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4. These animals had an increasing number of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than WT CO92-infected mice. These data emphasize the role of TNF-α and IFN-γ in protecting mice against pneumonic plague. Overall, our studies provide evidence that deletion of the lpp and pla genes acts synergistically in protecting animals against pneumonic plague, and we have demonstrated an immunological basis for this protection. PMID:24686064

  14. Use of buckwheat seed protease inhibitor gene for improvement of tobacco and potato plant resistance to biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Khadeeva, N V; Kochieva, E Z; Tcherednitchenko, M Yu; Yakovleva, E Yu; Sydoruk, K V; Bogush, V G; Dunaevsky, Y E; Belozersky, M A

    2009-03-01

    The possibility to use agrobacterial transformation of leaf discs to produce resistance to bacterial infections in tobacco and potato plants by introduction of a single gene encoding the serine proteinase inhibitor BWI-1a (ISP) from buckwheat seeds is shown. All studied PCR-positive transgenic plants exhibited antibacterial activity in biotests. It was shown that the presence of just a single gene of serine proteinase inhibitor provides sufficient protection at least against two bacterial phytopathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Clavibacter michiganensis sbsp. michiganensis. The biotest including tobacco plant infection by the white wings butterfly in the green house has also demonstrated the existence of protective effect in transgenic tobacco plants. Significant genotypic variations in the protection efficiency were found between members of different genera of the same family (potato and tobacco) as well as between different lines of the same species. Northern blot analysis of four transgenic potato lines and three tobacco lines transformed by a vector plasmid containing the ISP gene of serine proteinases BWI-1a from buckwheat seeds has shown the presence of the expected size mRNA transcript. PMID:19364319

  15. The fibrinolytic activity of a novel protease derived from a tempeh producing fungus, Fusarium sp. BLB.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fujii, Tadashi; Morimiya, Tatsuo; Johdo, Osamu; Nakamura, Takumi

    2007-09-01

    Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian soybean-fermented food produced by filamentous fungi, Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. We isolated and sequenced the genomic gene and a cDNA clone encoding a novel protease (FP) from Fusarium sp. BLB. The genomic gene was 856 bp in length and contained two introns. An isolated cDNA clone encoded a protein of 250 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence of FP showed highest homology, of 76%, with that of trypsin from Fusarium oxysporum. The hydrolysis activity of FP toward synthetic peptide was higher than that of any other protease tested, including Nattokinases. Furthermore, the thrombolytic activity of FP was about 2.1-fold higher than that of Nattokinase when the concentration of plasminogen was 24 units/ml. These results suggest that FP is superior to Nattokinases in dissolving fibrin when absorbed into the blood. PMID:17827689

  16. Benzoic Acid-Inducible Gene Expression in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dragset, Marte S.; Barczak, Amy K.; Kannan, Nisha; Mærk, Mali; Flo, Trude H.; Valla, Svein; Rubin, Eric J.; Steigedal, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Conditional expression is a powerful tool to investigate the role of bacterial genes. Here, we adapt the Pseudomonas putida-derived positively regulated XylS/Pm expression system to control inducible gene expression in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis. By making simple changes to a Gram-negative broad-host-range XylS/Pm-regulated gene expression vector, we prove that it is possible to adapt this well-studied expression system to non-Gram-negative species. With the benzoic acid-derived inducer m-toluate, we achieve a robust, time- and dose-dependent reversible induction of Pm-mediated expression in mycobacteria, with low background expression levels. XylS/Pm is thus an important addition to existing mycobacterial expression tools, especially when low basal expression is of particular importance. PMID:26348349

  17. Identification of genes regulated by UV/salicylic acid.

    SciTech Connect

    Paunesku, T.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Shearin-Jones, P.; Watson, C.; Milton, J.; Oryhon, J.; Salbego, D.; Milosavljevic, A.; Woloschak, G. E.; CuraGen Corp.

    2000-02-01

    Purpose : Previous work from the authors' group and others has demonstrated that some of the effects of UV irradiation on gene expression are modulated in response to the addition of salicylic acid to irradiated cells. The presumed effector molecule responsible for this modulation is NF-kappaB. In the experiments described here, differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify those cDNAs that are differentially modulated by UV radiation with and without the addition of salicylic acid. Materials and methods : Differential-display RT-PCR was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Results : Eight such cDNAs are presented: lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-beta), nuclear encoded mitochondrial NADH ubiquinone reductase 24kDa (NDUFV2), elongation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B), nuclear dots protein SP100, nuclear encoded mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor (IF1), a cDNA similar to a subunit of yeast CCAAT transcription factor HAP5, and two expressed sequence tags (AA187906 and AA513156). Conclusions : Sequences of four of these genes contained NF-kappaB DNA binding sites of the type that may attract transrepressor p55/p55 NF-kappaB homodimers. Down-regulation of these genes upon UV irradiation may contribute to increased cell survival via suppression of p53 independent apoptosis.

  18. Comparison of gene expression methods to identify genes responsive to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyue; Jones, Paul D; Decoen, Wim; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2005-01-01

    Genome-wide expression techniques are being increasingly used to assess the effects of environmental contaminants. Oligonucleotide or cDNA microarray methods make possible the screening of large numbers of known sequences for a given model species, while differential display analysis makes possible analysis of the expression of all the genes from any species. We report a comparison of two currently popular methods for genome-wide expression analysis in rat hepatoma cells treated with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid. The two analyses provided 'complimentary' information. Approximately 5% of the 8000 genes analyzed by the GeneChip array, were altered by a factor of three or greater. Differential display results were more difficult to interpret, since multiple gene products were present in most gel bands so a probabilistic approach was used to determine which pathways were affected. The mechanistic interpretation derived from these two methods was in agreement, both showing similar alterations in a specific set of genes. PMID:21783471

  19. Nucleic Acid Modifications in Regulation of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; He, Chuan

    2016-01-21

    Nucleic acids carry a wide range of different chemical modifications. In contrast to previous views that these modifications are static and only play fine-tuning functions, recent research advances paint a much more dynamic picture. Nucleic acids carry diverse modifications and employ these chemical marks to exert essential or critical influences in a variety of cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. This review covers several nucleic acid modifications that play important regulatory roles in biological systems, especially in regulation of gene expression: 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidative derivatives, and N(6)-methyladenine (6mA) in DNA; N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), pseudouridine (Ψ), and 5-methylcytidine (m(5)C) in mRNA and long non-coding RNA. Modifications in other non-coding RNAs, such as tRNA, miRNA, and snRNA, are also briefly summarized. We provide brief historical perspective of the field, and highlight recent progress in identifying diverse nucleic acid modifications and exploring their functions in different organisms. Overall, we believe that work in this field will yield additional layers of both chemical and biological complexity as we continue to uncover functional consequences of known nucleic acid modifications and discover new ones. PMID:26933737

  20. Extracellular proteases of Trichoderma species. A review.

    PubMed

    Kredics, L; Antal, Zsuzsanna; Szekeres, A; Hatvani, L; Manczinger, L; Vágvölgyi, Cs; Nagy, Erzsébet

    2005-01-01

    Cellulolytic, xylanolytic, chitinolytic and beta-1,3-glucanolytic enzyme systems of species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma have been investigated in details and are well characterised. The ability of Trichoderma strains to produce extracellular proteases has also been known for a long time, however, the proteolytic enzyme system is relatively unknown in this genus. Fortunately, in the recent years more and more attention is focused on the research in this field. The role of Trichoderma proteases in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes has been demonstrated, and it is also suspected that they may be important for the competitive saprophytic ability of green mould isolates and may represent potential virulence factors of Trichoderma strains as emerging fungal pathogens of clinical importance. The aim of this review is to summarize the information available about the extracellular proteases of Trichoderma. Numerous studies are available about the extracellular proteolytic enzyme profiles of Trichoderma strains and about the effect of abiotic environmental factors on protease activities. A number of protease enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and some protease encoding genes have been cloned and characterized. These results will be reviewed and the role of Trichoderma proteases in biological control as well as their advantages and disadvantages in biotechnology will be discussed. PMID:16003937

  1. Regulation of protease production in Clostridium sporogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, C; Macfarlane, G T

    1990-01-01

    The physiological and nutritional factors that regulate protease synthesis in Clostridium sporogenes C25 were studied in batch and continuous cultures. Formation of extracellular proteases occurred at the end of active growth and during the stationary phase in batch cultures. Protease production was inversely related to growth rate in glucose-excess and glucose-limited chemostats over the range D = 0.05 to 0.70 h-1. In pulse experiments, glucose, ammonia, phosphate, and some amino acids (tryptophan, proline, tyrosine, and isoleucine) strongly repressed protease synthesis. This repression was not relieved by addition of 4 mM cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Protease formation was markedly inhibited by 4 mM ATP and ADP, but GTP and GDP had little effect on the process. It is concluded that protease production by C. sporogenes is strongly influenced by the amount of energy available to the cells, with the highest levels of protease synthesis occurring under energy-limiting conditions. PMID:2268158

  2. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  3. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira Filho, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa Junior, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  4. Synthetic Fatty Acids Prevent Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Getino, María; Sanabria-Ríos, David J.; Fernández-López, Raúl; Campos-Gómez, Javier; Sánchez-López, José M.; Fernández, Antonio; Carballeira, Néstor M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial conjugation constitutes a major horizontal gene transfer mechanism for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among human pathogens. Antibiotic resistance spread could be halted or diminished by molecules that interfere with the conjugation process. In this work, synthetic 2-alkynoic fatty acids were identified as a novel class of conjugation inhibitors. Their chemical properties were investigated by using the prototype 2-hexadecynoic acid and its derivatives. Essential features of effective inhibitors were the carboxylic group, an optimal long aliphatic chain of 16 carbon atoms, and one unsaturation. Chemical modification of these groups led to inactive or less-active derivatives. Conjugation inhibitors were found to act on the donor cell, affecting a wide number of pathogenic bacterial hosts, including Escherichia, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter spp. Conjugation inhibitors were active in inhibiting transfer of IncF, IncW, and IncH plasmids, moderately active against IncI, IncL/M, and IncX plasmids, and inactive against IncP and IncN plasmids. Importantly, the use of 2-hexadecynoic acid avoided the spread of a derepressed IncF plasmid into a recipient population, demonstrating the feasibility of abolishing the dissemination of antimicrobial resistances by blocking bacterial conjugation. PMID:26330514

  5. Degradation of intact chicken feathers by Thermoactinomyces sp. CDF and characterization of its keratinolytic protease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Guyue; Ren, Yuxia; Dai, Zheng; Zhao, Zhong-Shu; Liu, Feng; Li, Shiyong; Wei, Yahan; Xiong, Jing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Tang, Bing

    2015-05-01

    Thermoactinomyces is known for its resistance to extreme environmental conditions and its ability to digest a wide range of hard-to-degrade compounds. Here, Thermoactinomyces sp. strain CDF isolated from soil was found to completely degrade intact chicken feathers at 55 °C, with the resulting degradation products sufficient to support growth as the primary source of both carbon and nitrogen. Although feathers were not essential for the expression of keratinase, the use of this substrate led to a further 50-300 % increase in enzyme production level under different nutrition conditions, with extracellular keratinolytic activity reaching its highest level (∼400 U/mL) during the late-log phase. Full degradation of feathers required the presence of living cells, which are thought to supply reducing agents necessary for the cleavage of keratin disulfide bonds. Direct contact between the hyphae and substrate may enhance the reducing power and protease concentrations present in the local microenvironment, thereby facilitating keratin degradation. The gene encoding the major keratinolytic protease (protease C2) of strain CDF was cloned, revealing an amino acid sequence identical to that of subtilisin-like E79 protease from Thermoactinomyces sp. E79, albeit with significant differences in the upstream flanking region. Exogenous expression of protease C2 in Escherichia coli resulted in the production of inclusion bodies with proteolytic activity, which could be solubilized to an alkaline solution to produce mature protease C2. Purified protease C2 was able to efficiently hydrolyze α- and β-keratins at 60-80 °C and pH 11.0, representing a promising candidate for enzymatic processing of hard-to-degrade proteins such as keratinous wastes. PMID:25412577

  6. Associations between a fatty acid desaturase gene polymorphism and blood arachidonic acid compositions in Japanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Sayaka; Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Iwamoto, Sadahiko; Ishijima, Akiko; Minezaki, Takayuki; Baba, Mamiko; Kontai, Yoshiko; Horikawa, Chika; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Yasuo; Kawabata, Terue

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether the single nucleotide polymorphism rs174547 (T/C) of the fatty acid desaturase-1 gene, FADS1, is associated with changes in erythrocyte membrane and plasma phospholipid (PL) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) composition in elderly Japanese participants (n=124; 65 years or older; self-feeding and oral intake). The rs174547 C-allele carriers had significantly lower arachidonic acid (ARA; n-6 PUFA) and higher linoleic acid (LA, n-6 PUFA precursor) levels in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL (15% and 6% ARA reduction, respectively, per C-allele), suggesting a low LA to ARA conversion rate in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL of C-allele carriers. α-linolenic acid (n-3 PUFA precursor) levels were higher in the plasma PL of C-allele carriers, whereas levels of the n-3 LCPUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were unchanged in erythrocyte membrane and plasma PL. Thus, rs174547 genotypes were significantly associated with different ARA compositions of the blood of elderly Japanese. PMID:26869086

  7. Cationic liposome–nucleic acid complexes for gene delivery and gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Kai K.; Majzoub, Ramsey N.; Leal, Cecília

    2014-01-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are studied worldwide as carriers of DNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA) for gene delivery and gene silencing, and related clinical trials are ongoing. Optimization of transfection efficiency and silencing efficiency by cationic liposome carriers requires a comprehensive understanding of the structures of CL–nucleic acid complexes and the nature of their interactions with cell membranes as well as events leading to release of active nucleic acids within the cytoplasm. Synchrotron x-ray scattering has revealed that CL–nucleic acid complexes spontaneously assemble into distinct liquid crystalline phases including the lamellar, inverse hexagonal, hexagonal, and gyroid cubic phases, and fluorescence microscopy has revealed CL–DNA pathways and interactions with cells. The combining of custom synthesis with characterization techniques and gene expression and silencing assays has begun to unveil structure–function relations in vitro. As a recent example, this review will briefly describe experiments with surface-functionalized PEGylated CL–DNA nanoparticles. The functionalization, which is achieved through custom synthesis, is intended to address and overcome cell targeting and endosomal escape barriers to nucleic acid delivery faced by PEGylated nanoparticles designed for in vivo applications. PMID:25587216

  8. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. PMID:26041210

  9. A gene network engineering platform for lactic acid bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wentao; Kapuganti, Venkata S.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in synthetic biology have positioned lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a major class of cellular chassis for applications. To achieve the full potential of LAB, one fundamental prerequisite is the capacity for rapid engineering of complex gene networks, such as natural biosynthetic pathways and multicomponent synthetic circuits, into which cellular functions are encoded. Here, we present a synthetic biology platform for rapid construction and optimization of large-scale gene networks in LAB. The platform involves a copy-controlled shuttle for hosting target networks and two associated strategies that enable efficient genetic editing and phenotypic validation. By using a nisin biosynthesis pathway and its variants as examples, we demonstrated multiplex, continuous editing of small DNA parts, such as ribosome-binding sites, as well as efficient manipulation of large building blocks such as genes and operons. To showcase the platform, we applied it to expand the phenotypic diversity of the nisin pathway by quickly generating a library of 63 pathway variants. We further demonstrated its utility by altering the regulatory topology of the nisin pathway for constitutive bacteriocin biosynthesis. This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapid and advanced engineering of gene networks in LAB, fostering their applications in biomedicine and other areas. PMID:26503255

  10. A gene network engineering platform for lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wentao; Kapuganti, Venkata S; Lu, Ting

    2016-02-29

    Recent developments in synthetic biology have positioned lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as a major class of cellular chassis for applications. To achieve the full potential of LAB, one fundamental prerequisite is the capacity for rapid engineering of complex gene networks, such as natural biosynthetic pathways and multicomponent synthetic circuits, into which cellular functions are encoded. Here, we present a synthetic biology platform for rapid construction and optimization of large-scale gene networks in LAB. The platform involves a copy-controlled shuttle for hosting target networks and two associated strategies that enable efficient genetic editing and phenotypic validation. By using a nisin biosynthesis pathway and its variants as examples, we demonstrated multiplex, continuous editing of small DNA parts, such as ribosome-binding sites, as well as efficient manipulation of large building blocks such as genes and operons. To showcase the platform, we applied it to expand the phenotypic diversity of the nisin pathway by quickly generating a library of 63 pathway variants. We further demonstrated its utility by altering the regulatory topology of the nisin pathway for constitutive bacteriocin biosynthesis. This work demonstrates the feasibility of rapid and advanced engineering of gene networks in LAB, fostering their applications in biomedicine and other areas. PMID:26503255

  11. 11B NMR spectroscopy of peptide boronic acid inhibitor complexes of alpha-lytic protease. Direct evidence for tetrahedral boron in both boron-histidine and boron-serine adduct complexes.

    PubMed

    Tsilikounas, E; Kettner, C A; Bachovchin, W W

    1993-11-30

    We have previously shown, using 15N and 1H NMR spectroscopy, that MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroPhe and certain other boronic acid inhibitors form boron-histidine adducts with alpha-lytic protease instead of transition-state-like tetrahedral boron-serine adducts as is generally supposed [Bachovchin, W. W., Wong, W. Y. L., Farr-Jones, S., Shenvi, A. B., & Kettner, C. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 7689-7697]. An X-ray crystallographic study of the MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroPhe complex with alpha-lytic protease [Bone, R., Frank, D., Kettner, C. A., & Agard, D. A. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 7600-7609] has confirmed the existence of the boron-histidine bond but has concluded that the boron atom is trigonal rather than tetrahedral. Here we report a 11B NMR study at 160.46 MHz of this histidine adduct complex and of two other complexes known to be serine adducts: alpha-lytic protease with MeOSuc-Ala-Ala-Pro-boroVal and chymotrypsin with MeOSucAla-Ala-Pro-boroPhe. The 11B NMR chemical shifts demonstrate that the boron atom is tetrahedral in both the histidine and serine adduct complexes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8251483

  12. Purification and characterization of thermostable serine proteases encoded by the genes ttha0099 and ttha01320 from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Sun, Yajie; Jiao, Xue; Wang, Honglin; Zhu, Hu

    2016-07-01

    As an important class of proteases, serine proteases are required to show high activity under diverse conditions, especially at high temperatures. In the current study, two serine proteases SP348 and SP404 were analyzed by different bioinformatics tools. Both proteins are comprised of a trypsin domain and a PDZ domain, and belong to the trypsin family of proteases. The proteins were successfully expressed with Trx-tags as soluble proteins in the specialized Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami B(DE3)pLysS strain. A simple three-step purification protocol involving heat treatment, Ni-NTA purification and gel filtration was adopted to purify SP404. The molecular weight of recombinant SP404 was about 64 kDa. According to the circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis, SP404 is thermostable at 70 °C with alpha-helix, beta-sheet and random coil contents of about 8, 22 and 70 %, respectively. Our findings may broaden the range of microorganism-derived proteases and have a wide potential for industrial and fundamental studies. PMID:27215206

  13. The AtCathB3 gene, encoding a cathepsin B-like protease, is expressed during germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and transcriptionally repressed by the basic leucine zipper protein GBF1

    PubMed Central

    Wozny, Dorothee; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Protein hydrolysis plays an important role during seed germination and post-germination seedling establishment. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cathepsin B-like proteases are encoded by a gene family of three members, but only the AtCathB3 gene is highly induced upon seed germination and at the early post-germination stage. Seeds of a homozygous T-DNA insertion mutant in the AtCathB3 gene have, besides a reduced cathepsin B activity, a slower germination than the wild type. To explore the transcriptional regulation of this gene, we used a combined phylogenetic shadowing approach together with a yeast one-hybrid screening of an arrayed library of approximately 1200 transcription factor open reading frames from Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified a conserved CathB3-element in the promoters of orthologous CathB3 genes within the Brassicaceae species analysed, and, as its DNA-interacting protein, the G-Box Binding Factor1 (GBF1). Transient overexpression of GBF1 together with a PAtCathB3::uidA (β-glucuronidase) construct in tobacco plants revealed a negative effect of GBF1 on expression driven by the AtCathB3 promoter. In stable P35S::GBF1 lines, not only was the expression of the AtCathB3 gene drastically reduced, but a significant slower germination was also observed. In the homozygous knockout mutant for the GBF1 gene, the opposite effect was found. These data indicate that GBF1 is a transcriptional repressor of the AtCathB3 gene and affects the germination kinetics of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. As AtCathB3 is also expressed during post-germination in the cotyledons, a role for the AtCathB3-like protease in reserve mobilization is also inferred. PMID:24600022

  14. Clustered Genes Involved in Cyclopiazonic Acid Production are Next to the Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), an indole-tetramic acid toxin, is produced by many species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. In addition to CPA Aspergillus flavus produces polyketide-derived carcinogenic aflatoxins (AFs). AF biosynthesis genes form a gene cluster in a subtelomeric region. Isolates of A. fla...

  15. Cloning and heterologous expression of SS10, a subtilisin-like protease displaying antifungal activity from Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liu; Qian, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. Trichoderma harzianum mycoparasitic activity depends on the secretion of complex mixtures of hydrolytic enzymes able to degrade the host cell wall. A gene (SS10) encoding a subtilisin-like protease was cloned from T. harzianum T88, a biocontrol agent effective against soil-borne fungal pathogens. The full-length cDNA was isolated by 5' and 3' rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. The coding region of the gene is 1302 bp long, encoding 433 amino acids of a predicted protein with a molecular mass of 45 kDa and a pI of 6.1. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that this protein had homology to the serine proteases of the subtilisin-like superfamily (subtilases) (EC 3.4.21.) and had a predicted active site made up of the catalytic residues Asp 187, His 218 and Ser 376. Northern experiments demonstrated that SS10 was induced in response to different fungal cell walls. Subtilisin-like protease gene SS10 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under control of the GAL1 promoter. The enzyme activity culminates (17.8 U mL(-1)) 60 h after induction with galactose. The optimal enzyme reaction temperature was 50 degrees C and the optimal pH was 8. The subtilisin-like protease exerted broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Cytospora chrysosperma. PMID:19025577

  16. Enterotoxigenicity of Mature 45-Kilodalton and Processed 35-Kilodalton Forms of Hemagglutinin Protease Purified from a Cholera Toxin Gene-Negative Vibrio cholerae Non-O1, Non-O139 Strain

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, A.; Saha, D. R.; Hoque, K. M.; Asakuna, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Koley, H.; Das, S. S.; Chakrabarti, M. K.; Pal, A.

    2006-01-01

    Cholera toxin gene-negative Vibrio cholerae non-O1, non-O139 strain PL-21 is the etiologic agent of cholera-like syndrome. Hemagglutinin protease (HAP) is one of the major secretory proteins of PL-21. The mature 45-kDa and processed 35-kDa forms of HAP were purified in the presence and absence of EDTA from culture supernatants of PL-21. Enterotoxigenicities of both forms of HAP were tested in rabbit ileal loop (RIL), Ussing chamber, and tissue culture assays. The 35-kDa HAP showed hemorrhagic fluid response in a dose-dependent manner in the RIL assay. Histopathological examination of 20 μg of purified protease-treated rabbit ileum showed the presence of erythrocytes and neutrophils in the upper part of the villous lamina propria. Treatment with 40 μg of protease resulted in gross damage of the villous epithelium with inflammation, hemorrhage, and necrosis. The 35-kDa form of HAP, when added to the lumenal surface of rat ileum loaded in an Ussing chamber, showed a decrease in the intestinal short-circuit current and a cell rounding effect on HeLa cells. The mature 45-kDa form of HAP showed an increase in intestinal short-circuit current in an Ussing chamber and a cell distending effect on HeLa cells. These results show that HAP may play a role in the pathogenesis of PL-21. PMID:16622232

  17. Light-induced expression of fatty acid desaturase genes

    PubMed Central

    Kis, Mihály; Zsiros, Otto; Farkas, Tibor; Wada, Hajime; Nagy, Ferenc; Gombos, Zoltán

    1998-01-01

    In cyanobacterial cells, fatty acid desaturation is one of the crucial steps in the acclimation processes to low-temperature conditions. The expression of all the four acyl lipid desaturase genes of Synechocystis PCC 6803 was studied as a function of temperature and separately as a function of light. We used cells grown at 25°C in light-activated heterotrophic growth conditions. In these cells, the production of α-linolenic acid and 18:4 fatty acids was negligible and the synthesis of γ-linolenic acid was remarkably suppressed compared with those of the cells grown photoautotrophically. The cells grown in the light in the presence of glucose showed no difference in fatty acid composition compared with cells grown photoautotrophically. The level of desC mRNA for Δ9 desaturase was not affected by either the temperature or the light. It was constitutively expressed at 25°C with and without illumination. The level of desB transcripts was negligible in the dark-grown cells and was enhanced about 10-fold by exposure of the cells to light. The maximum level of expression occurred within 15 min. The level of desA and desD mRNAs was higher in dark-grown cells than that of desB mRNA for ω3 desaturase. However, the induction of both desA and desD mRNAs for Δ12 and Δ6 desaturases, respectively, was enhanced by light about 10-fold. Rifampicin, chloramphenicol, and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea completely blocked the induction of the expression of desA, desB, and desD. Consequently, we suggest the regulatory role of light via photosynthetic processes in the induction of the expression of acyl lipid desaturases. PMID:9539715

  18. Cationic liposome-nucleic acid nanoparticle assemblies with applications in gene delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ramsey N; Ewert, Kai K; Safinya, Cyrus R

    2016-07-28

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are synthetic carriers of nucleic acids in gene delivery and gene silencing therapeutics. The introduction will describe the structures of distinct liquid crystalline phases of CL-nucleic acid complexes, which were revealed in earlier synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. When mixed with plasmid DNA, CLs containing lipids with distinct shapes spontaneously undergo topological transitions into self-assembled lamellar, inverse hexagonal, and hexagonal CL-DNA phases. CLs containing cubic phase lipids are observed to readily mix with short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules creating double gyroid CL-siRNA phases for gene silencing. Custom synthesis of multivalent lipids and a range of novel polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lipids with attached targeting ligands and hydrolysable moieties have led to functionalized equilibrium nanoparticles (NPs) optimized for cell targeting, uptake or endosomal escape. Very recent experiments are described with surface-functionalized PEGylated CL-DNA NPs, including fluorescence microscopy colocalization with members of the Rab family of GTPases, which directly reveal interactions with cell membranes and NP pathways. In vitro optimization of CL-DNA and CL-siRNA NPs with relevant primary cancer cells is expected to impact nucleic acid therapeutics in vivo. This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298431

  19. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of new gene for chlorogenic acid biosynthesis of Lonicera hypoglauca].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shu-lin; Huang, Lu-qi; Yuan, Yuan; Qi, Lin-jie; Liu, Da-hui

    2015-03-01

    To obtain the key genes for chlorogenic acid biosynthesis of Lonicera hypoglauca, four new genes ware obtained from the our dataset of L. hypoglauca. And we also predicted the structure and function of LHPAL4, LHHCT1 , LHHCT2 and LHHCT3 proteins. The phylogenetic tree showed that LHPAL4 was closely related with LHPAL1, LHHCT1 was closely related with LHHCT3, LHHCT2 clustered into a single group. By Real-time PCR to detect the gene expressed level in different organs of L. hypoglauca, we found that the transcripted level of LHPAL4, LHHCT1 and LHHCT3 was the highest in defeat flowers, and the transcripted level of LHHCT2 was the highest in leaves. These result provided a basis to further analysis the mechanism of active ingredients in different organs, as well as the element for in vitro biosynthesis of active ingredients. PMID:26087546

  20. Structural characterization reveals the keratinolytic activity of an arthrobacter nicotinovorans protease.

    PubMed

    Sone, Teruo; Haraguchi, Yumiko; Kuwahara, Aki; Ose, Toyoyuki; Takano, Megumi; Abe, Ayumi; Tanaka, Michiko; Tanaka, Isao; Asano, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Elevated cadmium (Cd) concentrations in fishery byproducts are an environmental concern, that might be reduced by enzymatic removal and adsorption of the contaminants during recycling the byproducts as animal food. We cloned the gene for Arthrobacter nicotinovorans serine protease (ANISEP), which was isolated from the hepatopancreas of the Japanese scallop (Patiopecten yessoensis) and has been found to be an effective enzyme for Cd(II) removal. The gene is 993 bp in length and encodes 330 amino acids, including the pre (1-30) and pro (31-111) sequences. The catalytic triad consists of His, Asp, and Ser. Sequence similarities indicate that ANISEP is a extracellular serine protease. X-ray crystallography revealed structural similarities between ANISEP and the trypsin-like serine protease NAALP from Nesterenkonia sp. Site-directed mutagenesis identified Ser171 as catalytic residue. The keratinolytic activity of ANISEP was 10-fold greater than that of trypsin. ANISEP digested Cd(II)-bound recombinant metallothionein MT-10a from Laternula elliptica, but did not release Cd. These results further suggest ANISEP is a trypsin-like serine protease that can release Cd from the Japanese scallop hepatopancreas because of its strong keratinolytic activity. PMID:25256266

  1. Improving the performance of industrial ethanol-producing yeast by expressing the aspartyl protease on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhong-peng; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhong-yang; Wang, Zheng-Xiang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2010-12-01

    The yeasts used in fuel ethanol manufacture are unable to metabolize soluble proteins. The PEP4 gene, encoding a vacuolar aspartyl protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was either secretively or cell-surface anchored expressed in industrial ethanol-producing S. cerevisiae. The obtained recombinant strains APA (expressing the protease secretively) and APB (expressing the protease on the cell wall) were studied under ethanol fermentation conditions in feed barley cultures. The effects of expression of the protease on product formation, growth and cell protein content were measured. The biomass yield of the wild-type was clearly lower than that of the recombinant strains (0.578 ± 0.12 g biomass/g glucose for APA and 0.582 ± 0.08 g biomass/g glucose for APB). In addition, nearly 98-99% of the theoretical maximum level of ethanol yield was achieved (relative to the amount of substrate consumed) for the recombinant strains, while limiting the nitrogen source resulted in dissatisfactory fermentation for the wild-type and more than 30 g/l residual sugar was detected at the end of fermentation. In addition, higher growth rate, viability and lower yields of byproducts such as glycerol and pyruvic acid for recombinant strains were observed. Expressing acid protease can be expected to lead to a significant increase in ethanol productivity. PMID:20737427

  2. Characterization of a new oxidant-stable serine protease isolated by functional metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Biver, Sophie; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2013-01-01

    A novel serine protease gene, SBcas3.3, was identified by functional screening of a forest-soil metagenomic library on agar plates supplemented with AZCL-casein. Overproduction in Escherichia coli revealed that the enzyme is produced as a 770-amino-acid precursor which is processed to a mature protease of ~55 kDa. The latter was purified by affinity chromatography for characterization with the azocasein substrate. The enzyme proved to be an alkaline protease showing maximal activity between pH 9 and 10 and at 50°C. Treatment with the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid irreversibly denatured the protease, whose stability was found to depend strictly on calcium ions. The enzyme appeared relatively resistant to denaturing and reducing agents, and its activity was enhanced in the presence of 10 ml/l nonionic detergent (Tween 20, Tween 80, or Triton X-100). Moreover, SBcas3.3 displayed oxidant stability, a feature particularly sought in the detergent and bleaching industries. SBcas3.3 was activated by hydrogen peroxide at concentrations up to 10 g/l and it still retained 30% of activity in 50 g/l H2O2. PMID:24024096

  3. Inferring selection in the Anopheles gambiae species complex: an example from immune-related serine protease inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Obbard, Darren J; Welch, John J; Little, Tom J

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae species complex are the primary vectors of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Many host genes have been shown to affect Plasmodium development in the mosquito, and so are expected to engage in an evolutionary arms race with the pathogen. However, there is little conclusive evidence that any of these mosquito genes evolve rapidly, or show other signatures of adaptive evolution. Methods Three serine protease inhibitors have previously been identified as candidate immune system genes mediating mosquito-Plasmodium interaction, and serine protease inhibitors have been identified as hot-spots of adaptive evolution in other taxa. Population-genetic tests for selection, including a recent multi-gene extension of the McDonald-Kreitman test, were applied to 16 serine protease inhibitors and 16 other genes sampled from the An. gambiae species complex in both East and West Africa. Results Serine protease inhibitors were found to show a marginally significant trend towards higher levels of amino acid diversity than other genes, and display extensive genetic structuring associated with the 2La chromosomal inversion. However, although serpins are candidate targets for strong parasite-mediated selection, no evidence was found for rapid adaptive evolution in these genes. Conclusion It is well known that phylogenetic and population history in the An. gambiae complex can present special problems for the application of standard population-genetic tests for selection, and this may explain the failure of this study to detect selection acting on serine protease inhibitors. The pitfalls of uncritically applying these tests in this species complex are highlighted, and the future prospects for detecting selection acting on the An. gambiae genome are discussed. PMID:19497100

  4. Characterization of protease IV expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Conibear, Tim C R; Willcox, Mark D P; Flanagan, Judith L; Zhu, Hua

    2012-02-01

    Expression of protease IV by Pseudomonas aeruginosa during ocular infections contributes significantly to tissue damage. However, several P. aeruginosa strains isolated from ocular infections or inflammatory events produce very low levels of protease IV. The aim of the present study was to characterize, genetically and phenotypically, the presence and expression of the protease IV gene in a group of clinical isolates that cause adverse ocular events of varying degrees, and to elucidate the possible control mechanisms of expression associated with this virulence factor. Protease IV gene sequences from seven clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were determined and compared to P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 and PA103-29. Production and enzyme activity of protease IV were measured in test strains and compared to that of quorum-sensing gene (lasRI) mutants and the expression of other virulence factors. Protease IV gene sequence similarities between the isolates were 97.5-99.5 %. The strains were classified into two distinct phylogenetic groups that correlated with the presence of exo-enzymes from type three secretion systems (TTSS). Protease IV concentrations produced by PAOΔlasRI mutants and the two clinical isolates with a lasRI gene deficiency were restored to levels comparable to strain PAO1 following complementation of the quorum-sensing gene deficiencies. The protease IV gene is highly conserved in P. aeruginosa clinical isolates that cause a range of adverse ocular events. Observed variations within the gene sequence appear to correlate with presence of specific TTSS genes. Protease IV expression was shown to be regulated by the Las quorum-sensing system. PMID:21921113

  5. Expression and characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus alkaline serine protease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT A putative protease gene (aprE) from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated the enzyme had...

  6. Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Leishmania infantum in canine leishmaniasis based on cysteine protease B genes.

    PubMed

    Chaouch, Melek; Mhadhbi, Moez; Adams, Emily R; Schoone, Gerard J; Limam, Sassi; Gharbi, Zyneb; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz; Guizani, Ikram; BenAbderrazak, Souha

    2013-11-15

    We developed a Leishmania infantum specific LAMP assay that was carried out using a set of, six primers targeting the cysteine protease B multi copy gene of L. infantum. Our result shows that we, successfully detect the L. infantum DNA and that amplification is specific as no cross reaction was seen, with L. major, L. tropica, L. turanica, L. aethiopica, L. tarentolae, L. gerbilii, Trypanosoma cruzi or, human genomic DNA. When compared to conventional cpb based PCR, the sensitivity of LAMP assay, was higher with a detection limit of 50 fg/μl of genomic L. infantum parasite DNA. Accurate and rapid, diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is an important issue that allows early treatment and, prevents transmission. Our developed LAMP assay was used to evaluate occurrences of Leishmania infantum in seventy five (75) dogs from the field. Blood samples were used to perform LAMP assay, classical PCR, IFAT and microscopy that was used as gold standard. The IFAT in addition to, microscopy, are the basic techniques used for CanL diagnosis at the School of Veterinary Medicine, where we obtained our samples. Compared to molecular methods, the serology (IFAT) test shows the, best sensitivity (88.57%) with, however, a much lower specificity (52.5%) due to a relatively high, number of false-positive results (22 animals). The PCR assay shows a low sensitivity (37.14%) and, specificity around (82.5%). Our LAMP assay shows a suitable sensitivity (54%) and a good specificity, (80%), with however, positive (70%) and negative (66%) predictive values. Furthermore, the best, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was obtained by LAMP assay (2.7). This technique presents the highest, kappa value (with a fair agreement of 0.34). Moreover, the relative stability of the reagents indicates, that LAMP may be a good alternative to a conventional PCR, especially under field conditions. Finally in, a brief cost evaluation, the LAMP assay compares favorably with other molecular diagnostic tests. This

  7. A radiometric assay for HIV-1 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, L.J.; Dayton, B.D.; Moore, M.L.; Shu, A.Y.; Heys, J.R.; Meek, T.D. )

    1990-08-01

    A rapid, high-throughput radiometric assay for HIV-1 protease has been developed using ion-exchange chromatography performed in 96-well filtration plates. The assay monitors the activity of the HIV-1 protease on the radiolabeled form of a heptapeptide substrate, (tyrosyl-3,5-3H)Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr-Pro-Val-Val-NH2, which is based on the p17-p24 cleavage site found in the viral polyprotein substrate Pr55gag. Specific cleavage of this uncharged heptapeptide substrate by HIV-1 protease releases the anionic product (tyrosyl-3,5-3H)Ac-Ser-Gln-Asn-Tyr, which is retained upon minicolumns of the anion-exchange resin AG1-X8. Protease activity is determined from the recovery of this radiolabeled product following elution with formic acid. This facile and highly sensitive assay may be utilized for steady-state kinetic analysis of the protease, for measurements of enzyme activity during its purification, and as a routine assay for the evaluation of protease inhibitors from natural product or synthetic sources.

  8. Population structure of Banana bract mosaic virus reveals recombination and negative selection in the helper component protease (HC-Pro) gene.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, V; Sukanya, R S; Anuradha, C; Selvarajan, R

    2014-12-01

    Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) is a serious constraint in the production of banana and plantain in India. In this study, we have cloned, sequenced and analyzed the helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) gene of 22 isolates from India and compared with previously reported BBrMV isolates. Sequence identity of BBrMV isolates encoding HC-Pro gene, were 92-100 % both at the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis based on nt sequences of non recombinant isolates showed that TN15, TN9 and TN24 formed one cluster and all the remaining isolates formed into another cluster. Different functional motifs in the central region of HC-Pro gene of BBrMV isolates were found conserved. Four potential recombinants with a total of 15 breakpoints were mostly observed at the N and a few from C terminal regions. The codon based selection analysis revealed that most of the codons were under purifying or negative selection except a codon at position 74 which was under positive selection. It is likely that recombination identified in Indian BBrMV isolates, along with strong purifying selection, enhances the speed of elimination of deleterious mutations in the HC-Pro gene. This study suggested that negative selection and recombination were important evolutionary factors driving the genetic diversification and population structure of Indian BBrMV isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the diversity analysis and occurrence of recombination in the HC-Pro gene of BBrMV. PMID:25674623

  9. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  10. Expression, purification and molecular modeling of the NIa protease of Cardamom mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Jebasingh, T; Pandaranayaka, Eswari P J; Mahalakshmi, A; Kasin Yadunandam, A; Krishnaswamy, S; Usha, R

    2013-01-01

    The NIa protease of Potyviridae is the major viral protease that processes potyviral polyproteins. The NIa protease coding region of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is amplified from the viral cDNA, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. NIa protease forms inclusion bodies in E.coli. The inclusion bodies are solubilized with 8 M urea, refolded and purified by Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Three-dimensional modeling of the CdMV NIa protease is achieved by threading approach using the homologous X-ray crystallographic structure of Tobacco etch mosaic virus NIa protease. The model gave an insight in to the substrate specificities of the NIa proteases and predicted the complementation of nearby residues in the catalytic triad (H42, D74 and C141) mutants in the cis protease activity of CdMV NIa protease. PMID:22888800

  11. Dataset of cocoa aspartic protease cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Janek, Katharina; Niewienda, Agathe; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Voigt, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The data provide information in support of the research article, "The cleavage specificity of the aspartic protease of cocoa beans involved in the generation of the cocoa-specific aroma precursors" (Janek et al., 2016) [1]. Three different protein substrates were partially digested with the aspartic protease isolated from cocoa beans and commercial pepsin, respectively. The obtained peptide fragments were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) and identified using the MASCOT server. The N- and C-terminal ends of the peptide fragments were used to identify the corresponding in-vitro cleavage sites by comparison with the amino acid sequences of the substrate proteins. The same procedure was applied to identify the cleavage sites used by the cocoa aspartic protease during cocoa fermentation starting from the published amino acid sequences of oligopeptides isolated from fermented cocoa beans. PMID:27508221

  12. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  13. Expression of fatty acid synthesis genes and fatty acid accumulation in haematococcus pluvialis under different stressors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofuel has been the focus of intensive global research over the past few years. The development of 4th generation biofuel production (algae-to-biofuels) based on metabolic engineering of algae is still in its infancy, one of the main barriers is our lacking of understanding of microalgal growth, metabolism and biofuel production. Although fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis pathway genes have been all cloned and biosynthesis pathway was built up in some higher plants, the molecular mechanism for its regulation in microalgae is far away from elucidation. Results We cloned main key genes for FA biosynthesis in Haematococcus pluvialis, a green microalga as a potential biodiesel feedstock, and investigated the correlations between their expression alternation and FA composition and content detected by GC-MS under different stress treatments, such as nitrogen depletion, salinity, high or low temperature. Our results showed that high temperature, high salinity, and nitrogen depletion treatments played significant roles in promoting microalgal FA synthesis, while FA qualities were not changed much. Correlation analysis showed that acyl carrier protein (ACP), 3-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase (KAS), and acyl-ACP thioesterase (FATA) gene expression had significant correlations with monounsaturated FA (MUFA) synthesis and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) synthesis. Conclusions We proposed that ACP, KAS, and FATA in H. pluvialis may play an important role in FA synthesis and may be rate limiting genes, which probably could be modified for the further study of metabolic engineering to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production. PMID:22448811

  14. Hybrubins: Bipyrrole Tetramic Acids Obtained by Crosstalk between a Truncated Undecylprodigiosin Pathway and Heterologous Tetramic Acid Biosynthetic Genes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhilong; Shi, Ting; Xu, Min; Brock, Nelson L; Zhao, Yi-Lei; Wang, Yemin; Deng, Zixin; Pang, Xiuhua; Tao, Meifeng

    2016-02-01

    Heterologous expression of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the genomic library of Streptomyces variabilis Snt24 in Streptomyces lividans SBT5 which carried a truncated undecylprodigiosin biosynthetic gene cluster led to the identification of hybrubins A-C. The hybrubins represent a new carbon skeleton in which a tetramic acid moiety is fused to a 2,2'-dipyrrole building block. Gene knockout experiments confirmed that hybrubins are derived from two convergent biosynthetic pathways including the remaining genomic red genes of S. lividans SBT5 as well as the BAC encoded hbn genes for the production of 5-ethylidenetetramic acid. A possible biosynthetic pathway was also proposed. PMID:26800378

  15. Defining the level of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease activity required for HIV-1 particle maturation and infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Rosé, J R; Babé, L M; Craik, C S

    1995-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease is the enzyme required for processing of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins to yield mature, infectious virions. Although the complete absence of proteolytic activity prevents maturation, the level of activity sufficient for maturation and subsequent infectivity has not been determined. Amino acid substitutions that reduce catalytic activity without affecting substrate recognition have been engineered into the active site of the HIV-1 protease. The catalytic efficiency (kcat) of the HIV-1 protease is decreased 4-fold when threonine 26 is replaced by serine (T26S) and approximately 50-fold when alanine 28 is replaced by serine (A28S). Genes containing these mutations were cloned into a proviral vector for analysis of their effects on virion maturation and infectivity. The results show that virions containing the T26S protease variant, in which only 25% of the protease is active, are very similar to wild-type virions, although slight reductions in infectivity are observed. Virions containing the A28S protease variant are not infectious, even though a limited amount of polyprotein processing does occur. There appears to be a linear correlation between the level of protease activity and particle infectivity. Our observations suggest that a threshold of protease activity exists between a 4-fold and 50-fold reduction, below which processing is insufficient to yield infectious particles. Our data also suggest that a reduction of protease activity by 50-fold or greater is sufficient to prevent the formation of infectious particles. PMID:7535864

  16. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  17. Positive selection of digestive Cys proteases in herbivorous Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Vorster, Juan; Rasoolizadeh, Asieh; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Cloutier, Conrad; Sainsbury, Frank; Michaud, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Positive selection is thought to contribute to the functional diversification of insect-inducible protease inhibitors in plants in response to selective pressures exerted by the digestive proteases of their herbivorous enemies. Here we assessed whether a reciprocal evolutionary process takes place on the insect side, and whether ingestion of a positively selected plant inhibitor may translate into a measurable rebalancing of midgut proteases in vivo. Midgut Cys proteases of herbivorous Coleoptera, including the major pest Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), were first compared using a codon-based evolutionary model to look for the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites among the tested sequences. Hypervariable sites were found, distributed within -or close to- amino acid regions interacting with Cys-type inhibitors of the plant cystatin protein family. A close examination of L. decemlineata sequences indicated a link between their assignment to protease functional families and amino acid identity at positively selected sites. A function-diversifying role for positive selection was further suggested empirically by in vitro protease assays and a shotgun proteomic analysis of L. decemlineata Cys proteases showing a differential rebalancing of protease functional family complements in larvae fed single variants of a model cystatin mutated at positively selected amino acid sites. These data confirm overall the occurrence of hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites in herbivorous Coleoptera digestive Cys proteases. They also support the idea of an adaptive role for positive selection, useful to generate functionally diverse proteases in insect herbivores ingesting functionally diverse, rapidly evolving dietary cystatins. PMID:26264818

  18. Preclinical Characterization of BI 201335, a C-Terminal Carboxylic Acid Inhibitor of the Hepatitis C Virus NS3-NS4A Protease ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter W.; Llinàs-Brunet, Montse; Amad, Ma'an; Bethell, Richard C.; Bolger, Gordon; Cordingley, Michael G.; Duan, Jianmin; Garneau, Michel; Lagacé, Lisette; Thibeault, Diane; Kukolj, George

    2010-01-01

    BI 201335 is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A (NS3 coexpressed with NS4A) protease inhibitor that has been shown to have potent clinical antiviral activity. It is a highly optimized noncovalent competitive inhibitor of full-length NS3-NS4A proteases of HCV genotypes 1a and 1b with Ki values of 2.6 and 2.0 nM, respectively. Ki values of 2 to 230 nM were measured against the NS3-NS4A proteases of HCV genotypes 2 to 6, whereas it was a very weak inhibitor of cathepsin B and showed no measurable inhibition of human leukocyte elastase. BI 201335 was also shown to be a potent inhibitor of HCV RNA replication in vitro with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 6.5 and 3.1 nM obtained in genotype 1a and 1b replicon assays. Combinations of BI 201335 with either interferon or ribavirin had additive effects in replicon assays. BI 201335 had good permeability in Caco-2 cell assays and high metabolic stability after incubation with human, rat, monkey, and dog liver microsomes. Its good absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile in vitro, as well as in rat, monkey, and dog, predicted good pharmacokinetics (PK) in humans. Furthermore, drug levels were significantly higher in rat liver than in plasma, suggesting that distribution to the target organ may be especially favorable. BI 201335 is a highly potent and selective NS3-NS4A protease inhibitor with good in vitro and animal ADME properties, consistent with its good human PK profile, and shows great promise as a treatment for HCV infection. PMID:20823284

  19. Preclinical characterization of BI 201335, a C-terminal carboxylic acid inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus NS3-NS4A protease.

    PubMed

    White, Peter W; Llinàs-Brunet, Montse; Amad, Ma'an; Bethell, Richard C; Bolger, Gordon; Cordingley, Michael G; Duan, Jianmin; Garneau, Michel; Lagacé, Lisette; Thibeault, Diane; Kukolj, George

    2010-11-01

    BI 201335 is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A (NS3 coexpressed with NS4A) protease inhibitor that has been shown to have potent clinical antiviral activity. It is a highly optimized noncovalent competitive inhibitor of full-length NS3-NS4A proteases of HCV genotypes 1a and 1b with K(i) values of 2.6 and 2.0 nM, respectively. K(i) values of 2 to 230 nM were measured against the NS3-NS4A proteases of HCV genotypes 2 to 6, whereas it was a very weak inhibitor of cathepsin B and showed no measurable inhibition of human leukocyte elastase. BI 201335 was also shown to be a potent inhibitor of HCV RNA replication in vitro with 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 6.5 and 3.1 nM obtained in genotype 1a and 1b replicon assays. Combinations of BI 201335 with either interferon or ribavirin had additive effects in replicon assays. BI 201335 had good permeability in Caco-2 cell assays and high metabolic stability after incubation with human, rat, monkey, and dog liver microsomes. Its good absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile in vitro, as well as in rat, monkey, and dog, predicted good pharmacokinetics (PK) in humans. Furthermore, drug levels were significantly higher in rat liver than in plasma, suggesting that distribution to the target organ may be especially favorable. BI 201335 is a highly potent and selective NS3-NS4A protease inhibitor with good in vitro and animal ADME properties, consistent with its good human PK profile, and shows great promise as a treatment for HCV infection. PMID:20823284

  20. Emergence of protease inhibitor resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from patients and rapid screening procedure for their detection.

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevachari, M B; Zhang, Y M; Imamichi, H; Imamichi, T; Falloon, J; Salzman, N P

    1996-01-01

    Patient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates that are resistant to protease inhibitors may contain amino acid substitutions L10I/V, M46L/I, G-48V, L63P, V82A/F/T, I84V, and L90M in the protease gene. Substitutions at positions 82 and/or 90 occur in variants that display high levels of resistance to certain protease inhibitors. Nucleotide substitutions at these two sites also lead to the loss of two HindII restriction enzyme digestion sites, and these changes make possible a rapid procedure for the detection of drug-resistant variants in patients on protease inhibitor therapy. This procedure was used to detect the emergence of mutated viruses at various times after the initiation of therapy with the HIV-1 protease inhibitor indinavir. The method includes viral RNA isolation from plasma and reverse transcription PCR amplification of the protease gene with fluorescence-tagged primers. The PCR product is digested with HindII, the cleavage products are separated on a urea-acrylamide gel in a DNA sequencer, and the extent of cleavage is automatically analyzed with commercially available software. In viruses from 34 blood samples from four patients, mutations leading to an amino acid change at residue 82 appeared as early as 6 weeks after the start of therapy and persisted throughout the course of the study period (48 weeks). Mutations leading to double substitutions at residues 82 and 90 were seen at a lower frequency and appeared later than the change at position 82. The changes detected by restriction enzyme cleavage were confirmed by DNA sequencing of the cloned protease genes by reverse transcription PCR amplification of viral RNA from isolates in plasma. In addition to the changes at positions 82 and 90, we have identified M46L/I, G48V, and I54V substitutions in isolates derived from indinavir-treated patients. HindII analysis of uncloned, PCR-amplified DNA offers a rapid screening procedure for the detection of virus isolates containing mutations at

  1. Gene Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Extracellular Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Depolymerase from Amycolatopsis sp. Strain K104-1

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Emiko; Abe, Naoki; Tamakawa, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Jun; Kamio, Yoshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated a polylactide or poly(l-lactic acid) (PLA)-degrading bacterium, Amycolatopsis sp. strain K104-1, and purified PLA depolymerase (PLD) from the culture fluid of the bacterium. Here, we cloned and expressed the pld gene encoding PLD in Streptomyces lividans 1326 and characterized a recombinant PLD (rPLD) preparation. We also describe the processing mechanism from nascent PLD to mature PLD. The pld gene encodes PLD as a 24,225-Da polypeptide consisting of 238 amino acids. Biochemical and Western immunoblot analyses of PLD and its precursors revealed that PLD is synthesized as a precursor (prepro-type), requiring proteolytic cleavage of the N-terminal 35-amino-acid extension including the 26-amino-acid signal sequence and 9-residue prosequence to generate the mature enzyme of 20,904 Da. The cleavage of the prosequence was found to be autocatalytic. PLD showed about 45% similarity to many eukaryotic serine proteases. In addition, three amino acid residues, H57, D102, and S195 (chymotrypsin numbering), which are implicated in forming the catalytic triad necessary for cleavage of amide bond of substrates in eukaryotic serine proteases, were conserved in PLD as residues H74, D111, and S197. The G193 residue (chymotrypsin numbering), which is implicated in forming an oxyanion hole with residue S195 and forms an important hydrogen bond for interaction with the carbonyl group of the scissile peptide bond, was also conserved in PLD. The functional analysis of the PLD mutants H74A, D111A, and S197A revealed that residues H74, D111, and S197 are important for the depolymerase and caseinolytic activities of PLD and for cleavage of the prosequence from pro-type PLD to form the mature one. The PLD preparation had elastase activity which was not inhibited by 1 mM elastatinal, which is 10 times higher than needed for complete inhibition of porcine pancreatic elastase. The rPLD preparation degraded PLA with an average molecular mass of 220 kDa into lactic acid dimers

  2. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2014-01-01

    Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

  3. The biosynthetic gene cluster for coronamic acid, an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid, contains genes homologous to amino acid-activating enzymes and thioesterases.

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, M; Bender, C L

    1994-01-01

    Coronamic acid (CMA), an ethylcyclopropyl amino acid derived from isoleucine, functions as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of coronatine, a chlorosis-inducing phytotoxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea PG4180. The DNA required for CMA biosynthesis (6.9 kb) was sequenced, revealing three distinct open reading frames (ORFs) which share a common orientation for transcription. The deduced amino acid sequence of a 2.7-kb ORF designated cmaA contained six core sequences and two conserved motifs which are present in a variety of amino acid-activating enzymes, including nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Furthermore, CmaA contained a spatial arrangement of histidine, aspartate, and arginine residues which are conserved in the ferrous active site of some nonheme iron(II) enzymes which catalyze oxidative cyclizations. The deduced amino acid sequence of a 1.2-kb ORF designated cmaT was related to thioesterases of both procaryotic and eucaryotic origins. These data suggest that CMA assembly is similar to the thiotemplate mechanism of nonribosomal peptide synthesis. No significant similarities between a 0.9-kb ORF designated cmaU and other database entries were found. The start sites of two transcripts required for CMA biosynthesis were identified in the present study. pRG960sd, a vector containing a promoterless glucuronidase gene, was used to localize and study the promoter regions upstream of the two transcripts. Data obtained in the present study indicate that CMA biosynthesis is regulated at the transcriptional level by temperature. Images PMID:8002582

  4. Cathepsin L Plays a Major Role in Cholecystokinin Production in Mouse Brain Cortex and in Pituitary AtT-20 Cells: Protease Gene Knockout and Inhibitor Studies

    PubMed Central

    Beinfeld, Margery C.; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Foulon, Thierry; Cadel, Sandrine; Kitagawa, Kouki; Toneff, Thomas; Reinheckel, Thomas; Peters, Christoph; Hook, Vivian

    2009-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide neurotransmitter whose production requires proteolytic processing of the proCCK precursor to generate active CCK8 neuropeptide in brain. This study demonstrates the significant role of the cysteine protease cathepsin L for CCK8 production. In cathepsin L knockout (KO) mice, CCK8 levels were substantially reduced in brain cortex by an average of 75%. To evaluate the role of cathepsin L in producing CCK in the regulated secretory pathway of neuroendocrine cells, pituitary AtT-20 cells that stably produce CCK were treated with the specific cathepsin L inhibitor, CLIK-148. CLIK-148 inhibitor treatment resulted in decreased amounts of CCK secreted from the regulated secretory pathway of AtT-20 cells. CLIK-148 also reduced cellular levels of CCK9 (Arg-CCK8), consistent with CCK9 as an intermediate product of cathepsin L, shown by the decreased ratio of CCK9/CCK8. The decreased CCK0/CCK8 ratio also suggests a shift in the production to CCK8 over CCK9 during inhibition of cathepsin L. During reduction of the PC1/3 processing enzyme by siRNA, the ratio of CCK9/CCK8 was increased, suggesting a shift to the cathepsin L pathway for production of CCK9. The changes in ratios of CCK9 compared to CCK8 are consistent with dual roles of the cathepsin L protease pathway that includes aminopeptidase B to remove NH2-terminal Arg or Lys, and the PC1/3 protease pathway. These results suggest that cathepsin L functions as a major protease responsible for CCK8 production in mouse brain cortex, and participates with PC1/3 for CCK8 production in pituitary cells. PMID:19589362

  5. Mutation and gene transfer of neutral amino acid transport System L genes in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gewely, M.R.; Collarini, E.J.; Campbell, G.S.; Oxender, D.L.

    1987-05-01

    The authors are attempting to clone the genes coding for amino acid transport System L. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants that are temperature sensitive in their leucyl-tRNA synthetase show temperature-dependent regulation of System L. Temperature resistant mutants isolated from these cells have constitutively derepressed System L activity. Somatic cell fusion studies using these mutants have suggested that a trans-acting element controls regulation of System L. Mutants with reduced transport activity were isolated by a TH-suicide selection. The growth of these mutant cells is limited by the transport defect. CHO mutants were transformed with a human cosmid library, followed by selection at high temperatures and low leucine concentrations. Some transformants have increased levels of System L activity, suggesting that human genes coding for leucine transport have been incorporated into the CHO genome. Human sequences were rescued by a lambda in vitro packaging system. These sequences hybridize to vector and total human DNA. Experiments are being done to confirm that these sequences indeed code for transport System L. They are also attempting to label membrane components of amino acid transporters by group-specific modifying reagents.

  6. The rice OsLpa1 gene encodse a novel protein involved in phytic acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice low phytic acid 1 (OsLpa1) gene was originally identified using a forward genetics approach. Mutation of this gene resulted in a 45% reduction in rice seed phytic acid with a molar-equivalent increase in inorganic phosphorus; however, the rice lpa1 mutant does not appear to differ significa...

  7. Isolation of a psychrotrophic Exiguobacterium sp. SKPB5 (MTCC 7803) and characterization of its alkaline protease.

    PubMed

    Kasana, Ramesh C; Yadav, Sudesh K

    2007-03-01

    Out of nine psychrotrophic bacterial strains isolated from cold environments of the Western Himalayas, SKPB5 was selected for protease purification and characterization because it had the largest zone of clearance on plate assay. On the basis of the phenotypic and biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing studies, isolate was identified as Exiguobacterium sp. SKPB5. The protease was purified near to homogeneity with a purification fold of 7.1, and its molecular weight was determined to be 36 kDa. The enzyme exhibited maximum stability at 50 degrees C and an optimal pH of 8.0. Metal ions Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, and Mn2+ enhanced the enzyme activity, whereas Cu2+ had no effect. Phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid did not show any effect on the activity of the enzyme, whereas a 20% increase in activity was observed when it was incubated in presence of reducing agents such as beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol. This suggests that the protease isolated from psychrotrophic Exiguobacterium sp. SKPB5 belongs to the cysteine family. The results highlight the relevance of unexplored microbes from cold environments of Western Himalayas for the isolation of protease enzymes active at wide range of temperature and pH. PMID:17294327

  8. Biochemical study of the extracellular aspartyl protease Eap1 from the phytopathogen fungus Sporisorium reilianum.

    PubMed

    Mandujano-González, Virginia; Arana-Cuenca, Ainhoa; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Ángel; Téllez-Jurado, Alejandro; González-Becerra, Aldo E; Mercado-Flores, Yuridia

    2013-12-01

    In this work, the extracellular protease Eap1 from Sporisorium reilianum was characterized in solid and liquid cultures using different culture media. The results showed that Eap1 was produced in all media and under all culture conditions, with the most activity in solid culture at an acidic pH of 3-5. Following purification, the 41 kDa protease demonstrated aspartyl protease activity. The enzyme was stable at a wide range of temperatures and pH values, but 45°C and pH 3 were optimal. The K(m) and V(max( values obtained were 0.69 mg/mL and 0.66 μmol/min, respectively, with albumin as the substrate. Eap1 degraded hemoglobin as well as proteins obtained from corn germ, roots, stems and slides at pH 3 and also had milk-clotting activity. Sequencing analysis showed that this protein has 100% similarity to the peptide sequence theoretically obtained from the sr11394 gene, which encodes an aspartyl protease secreted by S. reilianum. PMID:24128693

  9. Identifying and assessing the impact of wine acid-related genes in yeast.

    PubMed

    Chidi, Boredi S; Rossouw, Debra; Bauer, Florian F

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for winemaking show a wide range of fermentation phenotypes, and the genetic background of individual strains contributes significantly to the organoleptic properties of wine. This strain-dependent impact extends to the organic acid composition of the wine, an important quality parameter. However, little is known about the genes which may impact on organic acids during grape must fermentation. To generate novel insights into the genetic regulation of this metabolic network, a subset of genes was identified based on a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes and organic acid profiles of different yeast strains showing different production levels of organic acids. These genes showed significant inter-strain differences in their transcription levels at one or more stages of fermentation and were also considered likely to influence organic acid metabolism based on existing functional annotations. Genes selected in this manner were ADH3, AAD6, SER33, ICL1, GLY1, SFC1, SER1, KGD1, AGX1, OSM1 and GPD2. Yeast strains carrying deletions for these genes were used to conduct fermentations and determine organic acid levels at various stages of alcoholic fermentation in synthetic grape must. The impact of these deletions on organic acid profiles was quantified, leading to novel insights and hypothesis generation regarding the role/s of these genes in wine yeast acid metabolism under fermentative conditions. Overall, the data contribute to our understanding of the roles of selected genes in yeast metabolism in general and of organic acid metabolism in particular. PMID:26040556

  10. Branched-chain-amino-acid biosynthesis in plants: molecular cloning and characterization of the gene encoding acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (ketol-acid reductoisomerase) from Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress).

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, R; Curien, G; DeRose, R T; Douce, R

    1993-01-01

    Towards the goal of gaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling branched-chain-amino-acid biosynthesis in plants, we have isolated, sequenced and characterized a gene encoding acetohydroxy acid isomero-reductase (ketol-acid reductoisomerase) from Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress). Comparison between the acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase cDNA and the genomic sequence has allowed us to determine the exon structure of the coding region. The isolated acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase gene is distributed over approx. 4.5 kbp and contains nine introns (79-347 bp). The transcriptional start site was found to be 52 bp upstream of the translational initiation site. Southern-blot analysis of A. thaliana genomic DNA shows that the acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase is encoded by a single-copy gene. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8379936

  11. Identification of a 12-gene fusaric acid biosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium species through comparative and functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, genes involved in biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite (SM) are often located adjacent to one another in the genome and are coordinately regulated. These SM biosynthetic gene clusters typically encode enzymes, one or more transcription factors, and a transport protein. Fusaric acid is a ...

  12. Subtilisin-like proteases in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Poole, Catherine B; Jin, Jingmin; McReynolds, Larry A

    2007-09-01

    Cleavage by subtilisin-like proteases (subtilases) is an essential step in post-translational processing of proteins found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. Our knowledge of the diversity of this protease family in nematodes is aided by the rapid increase in sequence information, especially from the Brugia malayi genome project. Genetic studies of the subtilases in Caenorhabitis elegans give valuable insight into the biological function of these proteases in other nematode species. In this review, we focus on the subtilases in filarial nematodes as well as other parasitic and free-living nematodes in comparison to what is known in C. elegans. Topics to be addressed include expansion and diversity of the subtilase gene family during evolution, enhanced complexity created by alternative RNA splicing, molecular and biochemical characterization of the different subtilases and the challenges of designing subtilase-specific inhibitors for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17570539

  13. Microsomal Omega-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Low Linolenic Acid Soybean Line RG10 and Validation of Major Linolenic Acid QTL

    PubMed Central

    Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Pauls, K. Peter

    2016-01-01

    High levels of linolenic acid (80 g kg−1) are associated with the development of off-flavors and poor stability in soybean oil. The development of low linolenic acid lines such as RG10 (20 g kg−1 linolenic acid) can reduce these problems. The level of linolenic acid in seed oil is determined by the activities of microsomal omega-3 fatty acid desaturases (FAD3). A major linolenic acid QTL (>70% of variation) on linkage group B2 (chromosome Gm14) was previously detected in a recombinant inbred line population from the RG10 × OX948 cross. The objectives of this study were to validate the major linolenic acid QTL in an independent population and characterize all the soybean FAD3 genes. Four FAD3 genes were sequenced and localized in RG10 and OX948 and compared to the genes in the reference Williams 82 genome. The FAD3A gene sequences mapped to the locus Glyma.14g194300 [on the chromosome Gm14 (B2)], which is syntenic to the FAD3B gene (locus Glyma.02g227200) on the chromosome Gm02 (D1b). The location of the FAD3A gene is the same as was previously determined for the fan allele, that conditions low linolenic acid content and several linolenic acid QTL, including Linolen 3-3, mapped previously with the RG10 × OX948 population and confirmed in the PI 361088B × OX948 population as Linolen-PO (FAD3A). The FAD3B gene-based marker, developed previously, was mapped to the chromosome Gm02 (D1b) in a region containing a newly detected linolenic acid QTL [Linolen-RO(FAD3B)] in the RG10 × OX948 genetic map and corresponds well with the in silico position of the FAD3B gene sequences. FAD3C and FAD3D gene sequences, mapped to syntenic regions on chromosomes Gm18 (locus Glyma.18g062000) and Gm11 (locus Glyma.11g227200), respectively. Association of linolenic acid QTL with the desaturase genes FAD3A and FAD3B, their validation in an independent population, and development of FAD3 gene-specific markers should simplify and accelerate breeding for low linolenic acid soybean

  14. Mouse models for assessing the cross-protective efficacy of oral non-typhoidal Salmonella vaccine candidates harbouring in-frame deletions of the ATP-dependent protease lon and other genes.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hidenori; Fukiya, Satoru; Kodama-Akaboshi, Chie; Eguchi, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Tomoko

    2015-03-01

    In BALB/c mouse models of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, a single oral immunization with a mutant strain with an insertion of the chloramphenicol resistance gene into the ATP-dependent protease clpP or lon gene decreased the number of salmonellae in each tissue sample 5 days after oral challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium at weeks 26 and 54 post-immunization. These data suggested that an oral immunization with the ClpP- or Lon-disrupted S. Typhimurium strain could provide long-term protection against oral challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium. Accordingly, recombinant oral non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) vaccines were constructed by incorporating mutants of both S. Typhimurium and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis harbouring stable in-frame markerless deletions of the clpP-lon-sulA (suppressor of lon), lon-sulA or lon-msbB (acyltransferase) genes. Amongst these orally administered vaccine candidates, those with the lon-sulA gene deletion mutants of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis protected BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice against oral challenge with both virulent S. Typhimurium and virulent S. Enteritidis. Therefore, the in-frame markerless lon-sulA gene deletion mutant of S. Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis could be a promising cross-protective NTS live vaccine candidate for practical use in humans. PMID:25589672

  15. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acids are one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavor compounds. However, the molecular-genetic control of acid accumulation in fruit is poorly understood and, to date, no genes responsible for acid accumulation in fleshy fruit have been function...

  16. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene.

    PubMed

    Mihálik, Daniel; Klčová, Lenka; Ondreičková, Katarína; Hudcovicová, Martina; Gubišová, Marcela; Klempová, Tatiana; Čertík, Milan; Pauk, János; Kraic, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆⁶desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T₀ and T₁ generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%-0.32% (v/v) of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T₁ generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T₂ generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%-1.40% (v/v) and 0%-1.53% (v/v) from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat. PMID:26694368

  17. Biosynthesis of Essential Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Wheat Triggered by Expression of Artificial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Mihálik, Daniel; Klčová, Lenka; Ondreičková, Katarína; Hudcovicová, Martina; Gubišová, Marcela; Klempová, Tatiana; Čertík, Milan; Pauk, János; Kraic, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The artificial gene D6D encoding the enzyme ∆6desaturase was designed and synthesized using the sequence of the same gene from the fungus Thamnidium elegans. The original start codon was replaced by the signal sequence derived from the wheat gene for high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit and the codon usage was completely changed for optimal expression in wheat. Synthesized artificial D6D gene was delivered into plants of the spring wheat line CY-45 and the gene itself, as well as transcribed D6D mRNA were confirmed in plants of T0 and T1 generations. The desired product of the wheat genetic modification by artificial D6D gene was the γ-linolenic acid. Its presence was confirmed in mature grains of transgenic wheat plants in the amount 0.04%–0.32% (v/v) of the total amount of fatty acids. Both newly synthesized γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid have been detected also in leaves, stems, roots, awns, paleas, rachillas, and immature grains of the T1 generation as well as in immature and mature grains of the T2 generation. Contents of γ-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid varied in range 0%–1.40% (v/v) and 0%–1.53% (v/v) from the total amount of fatty acids, respectively. This approach has opened the pathway of desaturation of fatty acids and production of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat. PMID:26694368

  18. Phosphoramidates as novel activity-based probes for serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Haedke, Ute R; Frommel, Sandra C; Hansen, Fabian; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Bogyo, Matthew; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2014-05-26

    Activity-based probes (ABPs) are small molecules that exclusively form covalent bonds with catalytically active enzymes. In the last decade, they have especially been used in functional proteomics studies of proteases. Here, we present phosphoramidate peptides as a novel type of ABP for serine proteases. These molecules can be made in a straightforward manner by standard Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis, allowing rapid diversification. The resulting ABPs covalently bind different serine proteases, depending on the amino acid recognition element adjacent to the reactive group. A reporter tag enables downstream gel-based analysis or LC-MS/MS-mediated identification of the targeted proteases. Overall, we believe that these readily accessible probes will provide new avenues for the functional study of serine proteases in complex proteomes. PMID:24817682

  19. Substrate properties of C1 inhibitor Ma (alanine 434----glutamic acid). Genetic and structural evidence suggesting that the P12-region contains critical determinants of serine protease inhibitor/substrate status.

    PubMed

    Skriver, K; Wikoff, W R; Patston, P A; Tausk, F; Schapira, M; Kaplan, A P; Bock, S C

    1991-05-15

    The serine protease inhibitor (serpin) C1 inhibitor inactivates enzymes involved in the regulation of vascular permeability. A patient from the Ma family with the genetic disorder hereditary angioedema inherited a dysfunctional C1 inhibitor allele. Relative to normal plasma, the patients's plasma contained an additional C1 inhibitor immunoreactive band, which comigrated with normal C1 inhibitor cleaved by plasma kallikrein, C1s, or factor XIIa. C1 inhibitor Ma did not react with a monoclonal antibody to a neoepitope that is present in complexed and cleaved normal C1 inhibitor, suggesting conformational differences between cleaved normal C1- inhibitor and cleaved C1 inhibitor Ma. Molecular cloning and sequencing of exon 8 of the C1 inhibitor Ma allele revealed a single C to A mutation, changing alanine 434 to glutamic acid. Ala 434 of C1 inhibitor aligns with the P12 residue of the prototypical serpin alpha 1-antitrypsin. The P12 amino acid of all inhibitory serpins is alanine, and it is present in a highly conserved region on the amino-terminal side of the serpin-reactive center loop. Whereas normal C1 inhibitor expressed by transfected COS-1 cells formed complexes with and was cleaved by kallikrein, fXIIa, and C1s, COS-1-expressed Ala434---Glu C1 inhibitor was cleaved by these enzymes but did not form complexes with them. These results, together with evidence from other studies, suggest that serpin protease inhibitor activity is the result of protein conformational change that occurs when the P12 region of a serpin moves from a surface location, on the reactive site loop of the native molecule, to an internal location within sheet A of the complexed inhibitor. PMID:2026621

  20. Gene Activation in Eukaryotes: Are Nuclear Acidic Proteins the Cause or the Effect?

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear acidic proteins have been implicated in the positive control of gene transcription in eukaryotes. This hypothesis was examined in greater detail by analysis of these proteins during experimental gene activation by a technique for fractionating nuclei into chromatin and the ribonucleoprotein particles that contain heterogeneous nuclear RNA. When synthesis of rat-liver heterogeneous nuclear RNA was stimulated by administration of hydrocortisone, there was a parallel increase in the labeling of acidic proteins in ribonucleoprotein particles. However, there was no detectable effect on the labeling of either acidic chromatin proteins or histones. Thus, the nuclear acidic proteins that respond to the hormone are concerned with a post-transcriptional event, namely the assembly and processing of ribonucleoprotein particles that contain heterogeneous RNA, rather than with direct gene activation. Increases in synthesis of “chromatin” acidic proteins during gene activation observed by others may reflect the presence of these ribonucleoprotein particles in crude chromatin preparations. Images PMID:4522777

  1. Human uterus myoma and gene expression profiling: A novel in vitro model for studying secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor-mediated tumor invasion.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yoshikazu; Fukushima, Atsushi; Komiyama, Yusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Tsuda, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Yasuhiko; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Kuyama, Kayo; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2016-08-28

    Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) is a serine protease inhibitor that diminishes tissue destruction during inflammation. A recent report revealed high levels of SLPI expression in the oral carcinoma cell. In addition, overexpression of SLPI up-regulates metastasis in lung carcinoma cells. On the other hand, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteinases that participate in extracellular matrix degradation. SLPI and MMPs are involved as accelerators of the tumor invasion process; however, their exact roles are not fully understood. Understanding the mechanism of tumor invasion requires models that take the effect of microenvironmental factors into account. In one such in vitro model, different carcinoma cells have been shown to invade myoma tissue in highly distinct patterns. We have used this myoma model, as it provides a more natural stroma-like environment, to investigate the role of SLPI in tumor invasion. Our results indicate that the model provides a relevant matrix for tumor invasion studies, and that SLPI is important for the invasion of oral carcinoma Ca9-22 cells in conjunction with MMPs. Furthermore, using bioinformatics analysis, we have identified candidates as key molecules involved in SLPI-mediated tumor invasion. PMID:27238568

  2. A novel member of the subtilisin-like protease family from Streptomyces albogriseolus.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, M; Taguchi, S; Yamada, S; Kojima, S; Miura, K I; Momose, H

    1997-01-01

    We previously isolated three extracellular endogenous enzymes from a Streptomyces albogriseolus mutant strain which were targets of Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI) (S. Taguchi, A. Odaka, Y. Watanabe, and H. Momose, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:180-186, 1995). In the present study, of the three enzymes the largest one, with a molecular mass of 45 kDa (estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis), termed SAM-P45, has been characterized in detail. The entire gene encoding SAM-P45 was cloned as an approximately 10-kb fragment from S. albogriseolus S-3253 genomic DNA into an Escherichia coli host by using a shuttle plasmid vector. The amino acid sequence corresponding to the internal region of SAM-P45, deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the gene, revealed high homology, particularly in three regions around the active-site residues (Asp, His, and Ser), with the amino acid sequences of the mature domain of subtilisin-like serine proteases. In order to investigate the enzymatic properties of this protease, recombinant SAM-P45 was overproduced in Streptomyces coelicolor by using a strong SSI gene promoter. Sequence analysis of the SAM-P45 gene and peptide mapping of the purified SAM-P45 suggested that it is synthesized as a large precursor protein containing a large C-terminal prodomain (494 residues) in addition to an N-terminal preprodomain (23 and 172 residues). A high proportion of basic amino acids in the C-terminal prodomain was considered to serve an element interactive with the phospholipid bilayer existing in the C-terminal prodomain, as found in other membrane-anchoring proteases of gram-positive bacteria. It is noteworthy that SAM-P45 was found to prefer basic amino acids to aromatic or aliphatic amino acids in contrast to subtilisin BPN', which has a broad substrate specificity. The hydrolysis by SAM-P45 of the synthetic substrate (N-succinyl-L-Gly-L-Pro-L-Lys-p-nitroanilide) most preferred by this enzyme was inhibited by

  3. A Comprehensive Genetic Study of Streptococcal Immunoglobulin A1 Proteases: Evidence for Recombination within and between Species

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, Knud; Reinholdt, Jesper; Jespersgaard, Christina; Boye, Kit; Brown, Thomas A.; Hauge, Majbritt; Kilian, Mogens

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of 13 immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease genes (iga) of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Streptococcus sanguis was carried out to obtain information on the structure, polymorphism, and phylogeny of this specific protease, which enables bacteria to evade functions of the predominant Ig isotype on mucosal surfaces. The analysis included cloning and sequencing of iga genes from S. oralis and S. mitis biovar 1, sequencing of an additional seven iga genes from S. sanguis biovars 1 through 4, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of iga genes of another 10 strains of S. mitis biovar 1 and 6 strains of S. oralis. All 13 genes sequenced had the potential of encoding proteins with molecular masses of approximately 200 kDa containing the sequence motif HEMTH and an E residue 20 amino acids downstream, which are characteristic of Zn metalloproteinases. In addition, all had a typical gram-positive cell wall anchor motif, LPNTG, which, in contrast to such motifs in other known streptococcal and staphylococcal proteins, was located in their N-terminal parts. Repeat structures showing variation in number and sequence were present in all strains and may be of relevance to the immunogenicities of the enzymes. Protease activities in cultures of the streptococcal strains were associated with species of different molecular masses ranging from 130 to 200 kDa, suggesting posttranslational processing possibly as a result of autoproteolysis at post-proline peptide bonds in the N-terminal parts of the molecules. Comparison of deduced amino acid sequences revealed a 94% similarity between S. oralis and S. mitis IgA1 proteases and a 75 to 79% similarity between IgA1 proteases of these species and those of S. pneumoniae and S. sanguis, respectively. Combined with the results of RFLP analyses using different iga gene fragments as probes, the results of nucleotide sequence comparisons provide evidence of

  4. Induction of nodD Gene in a Betarhizobium Isolate, Cupriavidus sp. of Mimosa pudica, by Root Nodule Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Dutta, Suhrid R; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R; Korpole, Suresh; Paul, Debarati

    2016-06-01

    A range of phenolic acids, viz., p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid have been isolated and identified by LC-MS analysis in the roots and root nodules of Mimosa pudica. The effects of identified phenolic acids on the regulation of nodulation (nod) genes have been evaluated in a betarhizobium isolate of M. pudica root nodule. Protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most effective in inducing nod gene, whereas caffeic acid had no significant effect. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were estimated, indicating regulation and metabolism of phenolic acids in root nodules. These results showed that nodD gene expression of betarhizobium is regulated by simple phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid present in host root nodule and sustains nodule organogenesis. PMID:26897126

  5. Streptomyces serine protease (SAM-P20): recombinant production, characterization, and interaction with endogenous protease inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, S; Suzuki, M; Kojima, S; Miura, K; Momose, H

    1995-01-01

    Previously, we isolated a candidate for an endogenous target enzyme(s) of the Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor (SSI), termed SAM-P20, from a non-SSI-producing mutant strain (S. Taguchi, A. Odaka, Y. Watanabe, and H. Momose, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:180-186, 1995). In this study, in order to investigate the detailed enzymatic properties of this protease, an overproduction system of recombinant SAM-P20 was established in Streptomyces coelicolor with the SSI gene promoter. The recombinant SAM-P20 was purified by salting out and by two successive ion-exchange chromatographies to give a homogeneous band by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Partial peptide mapping and amino acid composition analysis revealed that the recombinant SAM-P20 was identical to natural SAM-P20. From the results for substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity, SAM-P20 could be categorized as a chymotrypsin-like protease with an arginine-cleavable activity, i.e., a serine protease with broad substrate specificity. For proteolytic activity, the optimal pH was 10.0 and the optimal temperature was shifted from 50 to 80 degrees C by the addition of 10 mM calcium ion. The strong stoichiometric inhibition of SAM-P20 activity by SSI dimer protein occurred in a subunit molar ratio of these two proteins of about 1, and an inhibitor constant of SSI toward SAM-P20 was estimated to be 8.0 x 10(-10) M. The complex formation of SAM-P20 and SSI was monitored by analytical gel filtration, and a complex composed of two molecules of SAM-P20 and one dimer molecule of SSI was detected, in addition to a complex of one molecule of SAM-P20 bound to one dimer molecule of SSI. The reactive site of SSI toward SAM-P20 was identified as Met-73-Val-74 by sequence analysis of the modified form of SSI, which was produced by the acidification of the complex of SSI and SAM-P20. This reactive site is the same that toward an exogenous target enzyme, subtilisin BPN'. PMID:7592444

  6. Acid environments affect biofilm formation and gene expression in isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Denis; McCabe, Evonne M; McCusker, Matthew P; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the survival and potential virulence of biofilm-forming Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 under mild acid conditions. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 employs an acid tolerance response (ATR) allowing it to adapt to acidic environments. The threat that these acid adapted cells pose to food safety could be enhanced if they also produce biofilms in acidic conditions. The cells were acid-adapted by culturing them in 1% glucose and their ability to form biofilms on stainless steel and on the surface of Luria Bertani (LB) broth at pH7 and pH5 was examined. Plate counts were performed to examine cell survival. RNA was isolated from cells to examine changes in the expression of genes associated with virulence, invasion, biofilm formation and global gene regulation in response to acid stress. Of the 4 isolates that were examined only one (1481) that produced a rigid biofilm in LB broth at pH7 also formed this same structure at pH5. This indicated that the lactic acid severely impeded the biofilm producing capabilities of the other isolates examined under these conditions. Isolate 1481 also had higher expression of genes associated with virulence (hilA) and invasion (invA) with a 24.34-fold and 13.68-fold increase in relative gene expression respectively at pH5 compared to pH7. Although genes associated with biofilm formation had increased expression in response to acid stress for all the isolates this only resulted in the formation of a biofilm by isolate 1481. This suggests that in addition to the range of genes associated with biofilm production at neutral pH, there are genes whose protein products specifically aid in biofilm production in acidic environments. Furthermore, it highlights the potential for the use of lactic acid for the inhibition of Salmonella biofilms. PMID:25912312

  7. Vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms do not influence the outcome and serum vitamin D level in pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy combined with protease inhibitor for patients with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Arai, Taeang; Atsukawa, Masanori; Tsubota, Akihito; Kondo, Chisa; Shimada, Noritomo; Abe, Hiroshi; Itokawa, Norio; Nakagawa, Ai; Okubo, Tomomi; Aizawa, Yoshio; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Although several vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms were reported to affect the outcome of pegylated interferon/ribavirin (PR) therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients, there are no reports on the impact of the vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms in PR therapy combined with protease inhibitor (PI). Vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms were determined in 177 genotype 1b-infected chronic hepatitis C patients who received 12 weeks of PR therapy with telaprevir, a first-generation PI, followed by 12 weeks of PR therapy. The sustained virologic response (SVR) rate was 83.1% (147 of 177 patients). The frequencies of vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms were: 83 non-TT and 94 TT genotypes for GC, 97 non-AA and 80 AA genotypes for DHCR7, 151 non-AA and 26 AA genotypes for CYP2R1, 162 non-GG and 15 GG genotypes for CYP27B1, and 105 non-GG and 72 GG genotypes for VDR gene. Multivariate analysis extracted IL28B TT genotype (P = 2.05 × 10(-6)) and serum 25(OH) D3 level (P = 0.024) as independent factors contributing to the achieving of SVR. The SVR rate in IL28B TT genotype patients with serum 25(OH) D3 level of < 25 ng/ml was significantly low compared to other patients. None of the vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms affected the treatment outcome and serum 25(OH) D3 level. In conclusions, the IL28B polymorphism and serum 25(OH) D3 level contributed significantly and independently to SVR in PR combined with PI for genotype 1b-infected chronic hepatitis C patients. However, none of vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms had an impact on the treatment outcome and serum 25(OH) D3 level. PMID:25964133

  8. CodY Regulates Expression of the Bacillus subtilis Extracellular Proteases Vpr and Mpr

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Giulia; Voigt, Birgit; Albrecht, Dirk; Hecker, Michael; Albertini, Alessandra M.; Sonenshein, Abraham L.; Ferrari, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CodY is a global transcriptional regulator in low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria that is responsive to GTP and branched-chain amino acids. By interacting with its two cofactors, it is able to sense the nutritional and energetic status of the cell and respond by regulating expression of adaptive genetic programs. In Bacillus subtilis, more than 200 genes, including those for peptide transporters, intracellular proteolytic enzymes, and amino acid degradative pathways, are controlled by CodY. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of two extracellular proteases, Vpr and Mpr, is negatively controlled by CodY. By gel mobility shift and DNase I footprinting assays, we showed that CodY binds to the regulatory regions of both genes, in the vicinity of their transcription start points. The mpr gene is also characterized by the presence of a second, higher-affinity CodY-binding site located at the beginning of its coding sequence. Using strains carrying vpr- or mpr-lacZ transcriptional fusions in which CodY-binding sites were mutated, we demonstrated that repression of both protease genes is due to the direct effect by CodY and that the mpr internal site is required for regulation. The vpr promoter is a rare example of a sigma H-dependent promoter that is regulated by CodY. In a codY null mutant, Vpr became one of the more abundant proteins of the B. subtilis exoproteome. IMPORTANCE CodY is a global transcriptional regulator of metabolism and virulence in low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria. In B. subtilis, more than 200 genes, including those for peptide transporters, intracellular proteolytic enzymes, and amino acid degradative pathways, are controlled by CodY. However, no role for B. subtilis CodY in regulating expression of extracellular proteases has been established to date. In this work, we demonstrate that by binding to the regulatory regions of the corresponding genes, B. subtilis CodY negatively controls expression of Vpr and Mpr, two extracellular

  9. Functional expression of a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase gene from spinach in transgenic pigs

    PubMed Central

    Saeki, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Kinoshita, Mikio; Suzuki, Iwane; Tasaka, Yasushi; Kano, Koichiro; Taguchi, Yoshitomo; Mikami, Koji; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Murata, Norio; Iritani, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) are polyunsaturated fatty acids that are essential for mammalian nutrition, because mammals lack the desaturases required for synthesis of Δ12 (n-6) and n-3 fatty acids. Many plants can synthesize these fatty acids and, therefore, to examine the effects of a plant desaturase in mammals, we generated transgenic pigs that carried the fatty acid desaturation 2 gene for a Δ12 fatty acid desaturase from spinach. Levels of linoleic acid (18:2n-6) in adipocytes that had differentiated in vitro from cells derived from the transgenic pigs were ≈10 times higher than those from wild-type pigs. In addition, the white adipose tissue of transgenic pigs contained ≈20% more linoleic acid (18:2n-6) than that of wild-type pigs. These results demonstrate the functional expression of a plant gene for a fatty acid desaturase in mammals, opening up the possibility of modifying the fatty acid composition of products from domestic animals by transgenic technology, using plant genes for fatty acid desaturases. PMID:15067141

  10. Characteristic Features in the Structure and Collagen-Binding Ability of a Thermophilic Collagenolytic Protease from the Thermophile Geobacillus collagenovorans MO-1

    PubMed Central

    Itoi, Yuichi; Horinaka, Mano; Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2006-01-01

    A collagen-degrading thermophile, Geobacillus collagenovorans MO-1, extracellularly produces a collagenolytic protease with a large molecular mass. Complete nucleotide sequencing of this gene after gene cloning revealed that the collagenolytic protease is a member of the subtilisin family of serine proteases and consists of a signal sequence for secretion, a prosequence for maturation, a catalytic region, 14 direct repeats of 20 amino acids at the C terminus, and a region with unknown function intervening between the catalytic region and the numerous repeats. Since the unusual repeats are most likely to be cleaved in the secreted form of the enzyme, the intervening region was investigated to determine whether it participates in collagen binding to facilitate collagen degradation. It was found that the mature collagenolytic protease containing the intervening region at the C terminus bound collagen but not the other insoluble proteins, elastin and keratin. Furthermore, the intervening region fused with glutathione S-transferase showed a collagen-binding ability comparable to that of the mature collagenolytic protease. The collagen-binding ability was finally attributed to two-thirds of the intervening region which is rich in β-strands and is approximately 35 kDa in molecular mass. In the collagenolytic protease from strain MO-1, hydrogen bonds most likely predominate over the hydrophobic interaction for collagen binding, since a higher concentration of NaCl released collagen from the enzyme surface but a nonionic detergent could not. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a thermophilic collagenolytic protease containing the collagen-binding segment. PMID:16952949

  11. Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Barberá, Maria José; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression vector but not with other expression vectors driving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARgamma or a form of RXR devoid of ligand-dependent sensitivity. The effect of phytanic acid on the UCP1 gene required the 5' enhancer region of the gene and the effects of phytanic acid were mediated in an additive manner by three binding sites for RXR. Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid promoted the acquisition of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of brown adipocyte differentiation, such as UCP1, adipocyte lipid-binding protein aP2, lipoprotein lipase, the glucose transporter GLUT4 or subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase. In conclusion, phytanic acid is a natural product of phytol metabolism that activates brown adipocyte thermogenic function. It constitutes a potential nutritional signal linking dietary status to adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:11829740

  12. Cloning and enhancing production of a detergent- and organic-solvent-resistant nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis VTCC-DVN-12-01 by using an eight-protease-gene-deficient Bacillus subtilis WB800

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nattokinases/Subtilisins (EC 3.4.21.62) belong to the second large family of serine proteases, which gain significant attention and play important role in many biotechnology processes. Thus, a number of nattokinases/subtilisins from various Bacillus species, especially from B. subtilis strains, extensively have been investigated to understand their biochemical and physical properties as well as to improve the production for industrial application. The purpose of this study was to clone a nattokinase gene from Bacillus subtilis strain VTCC-DVN-12-01, enhance its production in B. subtilis WB800, which is deficient in eight extracellular proteases and characterize its physicochemical properties for potential application in organic synthesis and detergent production. Results A gene coding for the nattokinase (Nk) from B. subtilis strain VTCC-DVN-12-01 consisted of an ORF of 1146 nucleotides, encoding a pre-pro-protein enzyme (30-aa pre-signal peptide, 76-aa pro-peptide and 275-aa mature protein with a predicted molecular mass of 27.7 kDa and pI 6.6). The nattokinase showed 98-99% identity with other nattokinases/subtilisins from B. subtilis strains in GenBank. Nk was expressed in B. subtilis WB800 under the control of acoA promoter at a high level of 600 mg protein per liter culture medium which is highest yield of proteins expressed in any extracellular-protease-deficient B. subtilis system till date. Nk was purified to homogeneity with 3.25 fold purification, a specific activity of 12.7 U/mg, and a recovery of 54.17%. The purified Nk was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry through three peptides, which showed 100% identity to corresponding peptides of the B. subtilis nattokinase (CAC41625). An optimal activity for Nk was observed at 65°C and pH 9. The nattokinase was stable at temperature up to 50°C and in pH range of 5–11 and retained more than 85% of its initial activity after incubation for 1 h. Mg2+ activated Nk up to 162% of its activity

  13. Hepatitis A Virus 3C Protease Cleaves NEMO To Impair Induction of Beta Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Wei, Dahai; Zhang, Huan; Luo, Rui; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-01-01

    NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) is a bridging adaptor indispensable for viral activation of interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Herein, we show that hepatitis A virus (HAV) 3C protease (3Cpro) cleaves NEMO at the Q304 residue, negating its signaling adaptor function and abrogating viral induction of IFN-β synthesis via the retinoic acid-inducible gene I/melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (RIG-I/MDA5) and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathways. NEMO cleavage and IFN antagonism, however, were lost upon ablation of the catalytic activity of 3Cpro. These data describe a novel immune evasion mechanism of HAV. PMID:24920812

  14. Effects of Long Chain Fatty Acid Synthesis and Associated Gene Expression in Microalga Tetraselmis sp

    PubMed Central

    Adarme-Vega, T. Catalina; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Lim, David K. Y.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2014-01-01

    With the depletion of global fish stocks, caused by high demand and effective fishing techniques, alternative sources for long chain omega-3 fatty acids are required for human nutrition and aquaculture feeds. Recent research has focused on land-based cultivation of microalgae, the primary producers of omega-3 fatty acids in the marine food web. The effect of salinity on fatty acids and related gene expression was studied in the model marine microalga, Tetraselmis sp. M8. Correlations were found for specific fatty acid biosynthesis and gene expression according to salinity and the growth phase. Low salinity was found to increase the conversion of C18:4 stearidonic acid (SDA) to C20:4 eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA), correlating with increased transcript abundance of the Δ-6-elongase-encoding gene in salinities of 5 and 10 ppt compared to higher salinity levels. The expression of the gene encoding β-ketoacyl-coenzyme was also found to increase at lower salinities during the nutrient deprivation phase (Day 4), but decreased with further nutrient stress. Nutrient deprivation also triggered fatty acids synthesis at all salinities, and C20:5 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increased relative to total fatty acids, with nutrient starvation achieving a maximum of 7% EPA at Day 6 at a salinity of 40 ppt. PMID:24901700

  15. Copper inhibits the HIV-1 protease by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstroem, A.R.; Levine, R.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The protease encoded by HIV-1 is essential for the processing of the viral polyproteins encoded by the gag and pol genes into mature viral proteins. Mutation or deletion of the protease gene blocks replication of the virus, making the protease an attractive target for antiviral therapy. The authors found that the HIV-1 protease is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+}. Protease was 50% inhibited by exposure to 5 {mu}M copper for 5 min while exposure to 25 {mu}M caused complete inhibition. This inhibition was not oxygen-dependent and was not reversed by treatment with EDTA, presumably due to the slow off-rate of copper from the protease. Consistent with this interpretation, enzyme activity was recovered after denaturation and refolding of the copper exposed protease. Titration of the inactivated enzyme with Ellman's reagent demonstrated a loss of one of the two sulfhydryl groups present in the molecule, suggesting that copper inhibition was mediated through binding to a cysteine. This was confirmed in studies with a chemically synthesize, mutant protease in which the two cysteine residues were replaced by {alpha}-amino butyrate: The mutant protease was not inhibited by copper. However, both the wild-type and mutant protease were inactivated when exposed to copper, oxygen, and dithiothreitol. This inactivation required oxygen. Thus, the protease can also be inactivated by metal catalyzed oxidation (MCO), a presumably irreversible covalent modification.

  16. Inhibitors of rhomboid proteases.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Eliane V; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2016-03-01

    Rhomboid proteases form one of the most widespread families of intramembrane proteases. They utilize a catalytic serine-histidine dyad located several Å below the surface of the membrane for substrate hydrolysis. Multiple studies have implicated rhomboid proteases in biologically and medically relevant processes. Several assays have been developed that are able to monitor rhomboid activity. With the aid of these assays, different types of inhibitors have been found, all based on electrophiles that covalently react with the active site machinery. Although the currently available inhibitors have limited selectivity and moderate potency, they can function as research tools and as starting point for the development of activity-based probes, which are reagents that can specifically detect active rhomboid species. Structural studies on complexes of inhibitors with the Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG have provided insight into how substrate recognition may occur. Future synthetic efforts, aided by high-throughput screening or structure-based design, may lead to more potent and selective inhibitors for this interesting family of proteases. PMID:26166068

  17. A natural variant of the cysteine protease virulence factor of group A Streptococcus with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif preferentially binds human integrins alphavbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3.

    PubMed

    Stockbauer, K E; Magoun, L; Liu, M; Burns, E H; Gubba, S; Renish, S; Pan, X; Bodary, S C; Baker, E; Coburn, J; Leong, J M; Musser, J M

    1999-01-01

    The human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus produces an extracellular cysteine protease [streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB)] that is a critical virulence factor for invasive disease episodes. Sequence analysis of the speB gene from 200 group A Streptococcus isolates collected worldwide identified three main mature SpeB (mSpeB) variants. One of these variants (mSpeB2) contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, a tripeptide motif that is commonly recognized by integrin receptors. mSpeB2 is made by all isolates of the unusually virulent serotype M1 and several other geographically widespread clones that frequently cause invasive infections. Only the mSpeB2 variant bound to transfected cells expressing integrin alphavbeta3 (also known as the vitronectin receptor) or alphaIIbbeta3 (platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa), and binding was blocked by a mAb that recognizes the streptococcal protease RGD motif region. In addition, mSpeB2 bound purified platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3. Defined beta3 mutants that are altered for fibrinogen binding were defective for SpeB binding. Synthetic peptides with the mSpeB2 RGD motif, but not the RSD sequence present in other mSpeB variants, blocked binding of mSpeB2 to transfected cells expressing alphavbeta3 and caused detachment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results (i) identify a Gram-positive virulence factor that directly binds integrins, (ii) identify naturally occurring variants of a documented Gram-positive virulence factor with biomedically relevant differences in their interactions with host cells, and (iii) add to the theme that subtle natural variation in microbial virulence factor structure alters the character of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:9874803

  18. A natural variant of the cysteine protease virulence factor of group A Streptococcus with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif preferentially binds human integrins αvβ3 and αIIbβ3

    PubMed Central

    Stockbauer, Kathryn E.; Magoun, Loranne; Liu, Mengyao; Burns, Eugene H.; Gubba, Siddeswar; Renish, Sarah; Pan, Xi; Bodary, Sarah C.; Baker, Elizabeth; Coburn, Jenifer; Leong, John M.; Musser, James M.

    1999-01-01

    The human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus produces an extracellular cysteine protease [streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB)] that is a critical virulence factor for invasive disease episodes. Sequence analysis of the speB gene from 200 group A Streptococcus isolates collected worldwide identified three main mature SpeB (mSpeB) variants. One of these variants (mSpeB2) contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence, a tripeptide motif that is commonly recognized by integrin receptors. mSpeB2 is made by all isolates of the unusually virulent serotype M1 and several other geographically widespread clones that frequently cause invasive infections. Only the mSpeB2 variant bound to transfected cells expressing integrin αvβ3 (also known as the vitronectin receptor) or αIIbβ3 (platelet glycoprotein IIb-IIIa), and binding was blocked by a mAb that recognizes the streptococcal protease RGD motif region. In addition, mSpeB2 bound purified platelet integrin αIIbβ3. Defined β3 mutants that are altered for fibrinogen binding were defective for SpeB binding. Synthetic peptides with the mSpeB2 RGD motif, but not the RSD sequence present in other mSpeB variants, blocked binding of mSpeB2 to transfected cells expressing αvβ3 and caused detachment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The results (i) identify a Gram-positive virulence factor that directly binds integrins, (ii) identify naturally occurring variants of a documented Gram-positive virulence factor with biomedically relevant differences in their interactions with host cells, and (iii) add to the theme that subtle natural variation in microbial virulence factor structure alters the character of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:9874803

  19. Genetics of Extracellular Protease Production in SACCHAROMYCOPSIS LIPOLYTICA

    PubMed Central

    Ogrydziak, David M.; Mortimer, Robert K.

    1977-01-01

    Mutants of Saccharomycopsis lipolytica with reduced ability to produce zones of clearing on skim-milk agar plates were isolated and their properties studied. For 18 mutants it was possible to score unambiguously segregants of crosses between these mutants and wild type for extracellular protease production. These mutants all produce reduced levels of extracellular protease in liquid culture. The mutations are recessive and are in nuclear genes. The 18 mutations define 10 or 11 complementation groups, no two of which are closely linked. Mutants in four of the complementation groups also produced reduced levels of extracellular RNAse, and the reduced levels of extracellular protease and RNAse production segregate together. Five of the mutants exhibited reduced mating frequency, and one mutant was osmotic remedial for extracellular protease production. These results demonstrate that many genes can affect extracellular protease production. Besides mutations in the structural gene and in regulatory genes, mutations are likely to be in genes involved in steps common to the production of several extracellular enzymes or in genes coding for cell wall or membrane components necessary for extracellular enzyme production. PMID:17248782

  20. Cloning, characterization, expression and antifungal activity of an alkaline serine protease of Aureobasidium pullulans PL5 involved in the biological control of postharvest pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dianpeng; Spadaro, Davide; Valente, Silvia; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2012-02-15

    An alkaline protease gene was amplified from genomic DNA and cDNA of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans PL5, a biocontrol agent effective against Monilinia laxa on stone fruit and Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum on pome fruits. An open reading frame of 1248 bp encoding a 415-amino acid (aa) protein with a calculated molecular weight (M(r)) of 42.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.5 was characterized. The cDNAALP5 gene had an 18-amino acid signal peptide, one N-gylcosylation, one histidine active site, and one serine active site. The ALP5 gene with a M(r) of 1351 bp contained two introns. One intron was of 54 bp, while the other was of 50 bp. Protein BLAST and phylogenetic tree analysis of the deduced amino sequences from the cDNAALP5 gene showed that the encoded protein had 100% homology to a protease enzyme (ALP2) of a sea strain of A. pullulans, suggesting that the protein ALP5 was an alkaline serine protease. Expression of ALP5 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), followed by identification with Western-blotting, purification with Ni-NTA and analysis of enzymatic activity, yielded an homogeneous recombinant ALP5 which hydrolysed the substrate casein and inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogens. At its optimal pH of 10.0 and reaction temperature of 50°C, the recombinant protease exhibited the highest activity towards the substrate casein, though the highest stability was at lower temperatures and pH between 7.0 and 9.0. This study provided the direct evidence that extracellular proteases secreted by the antagonist A. pullulans PL5 played a role in the biocontrol activities against some postharvest pathogens of apple and peach. PMID:22225984

  1. Origin and Diversification of Meprin Proteases.

    PubMed

    Marín, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Meprins are astacin metalloproteases with a characteristic, easily recognizable structure, given that they are the only proteases with both MAM and MATH domains plus a transmembrane region. So far assumed to be vertebrate-specific, it is shown here, using a combination of evolutionary and genomic analyses, that meprins originated before the urochordates/vertebrates split. In particular, three genes encoding structurally typical meprin proteins are arranged in tandem in the genome of the urochordate Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the protease and MATH domains present in the meprin-like proteins encoded by the Ciona genes are very similar in sequence to the domains found in vertebrate meprins, which supports them having a common origin. While many vertebrates have the two canonical meprin-encoding genes orthologous to human MEP1A and MEP1B (which respectively encode for the proteins known as meprin α and meprin β), a single gene has been found so far in the genome of the chondrichthyan fish Callorhinchus milii, and additional meprin-encoding genes are present in some species. Particularly, a group of bony fish species have genes encoding highly divergent meprins, here named meprin-F. Genes encoding meprin-F proteins, derived from MEP1B genes, are abundant in some species, as the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, which has 7 of them. Finally, it is confirmed that the MATH domains of meprins are very similar to the ones in TRAF ubiquitin ligases, which suggests that meprins originated when protease and TRAF E3-encoding sequences were combined. PMID:26288188

  2. Origin and Diversification of Meprin Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Meprins are astacin metalloproteases with a characteristic, easily recognizable structure, given that they are the only proteases with both MAM and MATH domains plus a transmembrane region. So far assumed to be vertebrate-specific, it is shown here, using a combination of evolutionary and genomic analyses, that meprins originated before the urochordates/vertebrates split. In particular, three genes encoding structurally typical meprin proteins are arranged in tandem in the genome of the urochordate Ciona intestinalis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the protease and MATH domains present in the meprin-like proteins encoded by the Ciona genes are very similar in sequence to the domains found in vertebrate meprins, which supports them having a common origin. While many vertebrates have the two canonical meprin-encoding genes orthologous to human MEP1A and MEP1B (which respectively encode for the proteins known as meprin α and meprin β), a single gene has been found so far in the genome of the chondrichthyan fish Callorhinchus milii, and additional meprin-encoding genes are present in some species. Particularly, a group of bony fish species have genes encoding highly divergent meprins, here named meprin-F. Genes encoding meprin-F proteins, derived from MEP1B genes, are abundant in some species, as the Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa, which has 7 of them. Finally, it is confirmed that the MATH domains of meprins are very similar to the ones in TRAF ubiquitin ligases, which suggests that meprins originated when protease and TRAF E3-encoding sequences were combined. PMID:26288188

  3. Multiple Classes of Immune-Related Proteases Associated with the Cell Death Response in Pepper Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Su-min; Lee, Dong Ju; Choi, Doil

    2013-01-01

    Proteases regulate a large number of biological processes in plants, such as metabolism, physiology, growth, and defense. In this study, we carried out virus-induced gene silencing assays with pepper cDNA clones to elucidate the biological roles of protease superfamilies. A total of 153 representative protease genes from pepper cDNA were selected and cloned into a Tobacco rattle virus-ligation independent cloning vector in a loss-of-function study. Silencing of 61 proteases resulted in altered phenotypes, such as the inhibition of shoot growth, abnormal leaf shape, leaf color change, and lethality. Furthermore, the silencing experiments revealed that multiple proteases play a role in cell death and immune response against avirulent and virulent pathogens. Among these 153 proteases, 34 modulated the hypersensitive cell death response caused by infection with an avirulent pathogen, and 16 proteases affected disease symptom development caused by a virulent pathogen. Specifically, we provide experimental evidence for the roles of multiple protease genes in plant development and immune defense following pathogen infection. With these results, we created a broad sketch of each protease function. This information will provide basic information for further understanding the roles of the protease superfamily in plant growth, development, and defense. PMID:23696830

  4. Salt stress represses production of extracellular proteases in Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Liu, R F; Huang, C L; Feng, H

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus is able to secrete subtilisin-like prote-ases, one of which has been purified and characterized biochemically, demonstrating great potential for use in industrial applications. In the current study, the biosynthesis and transcription of extracellular pro-teases in B. pumilus (BA06) under salt stress were investigated using various methods, including a proteolytic assay, zymogram analysis, and real-time PCR. Our results showed that total extracellular proteolytic activity, both in fermentation broth and on milk-containing agar plates, was considerably repressed by salt in a dosage-dependent manner. As Bacillus species usually secret multiple extracellular proteases, a vari-ety of individual extracellular protease encoding genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis. It was shown that proteases encoded by the aprE and aprX genes were the major proteases in the fermentation broth in terms of their transcripts in B. pumilus. Further, transcription of aprE, aprX, and epr genes was indeed repressed by salt stress. In con-trast, transcription of other genes (e.g., vpr and wprA) was not repressed or significantly affected by the salt. Conclusively, salt stress represses total extracellular proteolytic activity in B. pumilus, which can largely be ascribed to suppression of the major protease-encoding genes (aprE, aprX) at the transcriptional level. In contrast, transcription of other pro-tease-encoding genes (e.g., vpr, wprA) was not repressed by salt stress. PMID:25966269

  5. The human ubiquitin-52 amino acid fusion protein gene shares several structural features with mammalian ribosomal protein genes.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, R T; Board, P G

    1991-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones encoding ubiquitin fused to a 52 amino acid tail protein were isolated from human placental and adrenal gland cDNA libraries. The deduced human 52 amino acid tail protein is very similar to the homologous protein from other species, including the conservation of the putative metal-binding, nucleic acid-binding domain observed in these proteins. Northern blot analysis with a tail-specific probe indicated that the previously identified UbA mRNA species most likely represents comigrating transcripts of the 52 amino acid tail (UbA52) and 80 amino acid tail (UbA80) ubiquitin fusion genes. The UbA52 gene was isolated from a human genomic library and consists of five exons distributed over 3400 base pairs. One intron is in the 5' non-coding region, two interrupt the single ubiquitin coding unit, and the fourth intron is within the tail coding region. Several members of the Alu family of repetitive DNA are associated with the gene. The UbA52 promoter has several features in common with mammalian ribosomal protein genes, including its location in a CpG-rich island, initiation of transcription within a polypyrimidine tract, the lack of a consensus TATA motif, and the presence of Sp1 binding sites, observations that are consistent with the recent identification of the ubiquitin-free tail proteins as ribosomal proteins. Thus, in spite of its unusual feature of being translationally fused to ubiquitin, the 52 amino acid tail ribosomal protein is expressed from a structurally typical ribosomal protein gene. Images PMID:1850507

  6. Characterization of a membrane-associated serine protease in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.M.; St. John, A.C.

    1987-04-01

    Three membrane-associated proteolytic activities in Escherichia coli were resolved by DEAE-cellulose chromatography from detergent extracts of the total envelope fraction. On the basis of substrate specificity for the hydrolysis of chromogenic amino acid ester substrates, the first two eluting activities were determined previously to be protease V and protease IV, respectively. The third proteolytic activity eluting from the DEAE-cellulose column was further purified by affinity chromatography on benzamidine-Sepharose 6B. They termed this enzyme protease VI. Protease VI did not hydrolyze any of the chromogenic substrates used in the detection of protease IV and protease V. However, all three enzymes generated acid-soluble fragments from a mixture of E. coli membrane proteins which were biosynthetically labeled with radioactive amino acids. The activity of protease VI was sensitive to serine protease inhibitors. Using (/sup 3/H)diisopropylfluorophosphate as an active-site labeling reagent, they determined that protease VI has an apparent molecular weight of 43,000 in polyacrylamide gels. All three membrane-associated serine proteases were insensitive to inhibition by Ecotin, an endogenous, periplasmic inhibitor of trypsin.

  7. Impact of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Gene Expression during Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro—A Comprehensive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Masako; Nakahama, Ken-ichi; Morita, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are known to protect against inflammation-induced bone loss in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis and osteoporosis. We previously reported that DHA, not EPA, inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (sRANKL) in vitro. In this study, we performed gene expression analysis using microarrays to identify genes affected by the DHA treatment during osteoclastogenesis. DHA strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis at the late stage. Among the genes upregulated by the sRANKL treatment, 4779 genes were downregulated by DHA and upregulated by the EPA treatment. Gene ontology analysis identified sets of genes related to cell motility, cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling and cell morphogenesis. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that DC-STAMP, an essential gene for the cell fusion process in osteoclastogenesis, and other osteoclast-related genes, such as Siglec-15, Tspan7 and Mst1r, were inhibited by DHA. PMID:23945674

  8. Regulation of the expression of key genes involved in HDL metabolism by unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects, and possible mechanisms of action, of unsaturated fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in HDL metabolism in HepG2 cells. The mRNA concentration of target genes was assessed by real time PCR. Protein concentrations were determined by wes...

  9. MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory


    MICROARRAY ANALYSIS OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID-INDUCED CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated the hepatocarcinogenicity of DCA in rodents when administered in dri...

  10. Gene expression profiles of soybeans with mid-oleic acid seed phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of the mid-oleic acid soybean mutant M23 accumulate higher levels of oleic acid (50-60% oleate) by virtue of a deletion of GmFAD2-1A, an isoform of the microsomal omega-6 oleate desaturase gene. In other less well characterized natural soybean varieties that are phenotypically mid-oleic, litt...

  11. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinking wate...

  12. EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHOLORACETC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    EARLY GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE LIVERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO DICHLOROACETIC ACID

    Dichloroacetic acid COCA) is a major by-product ofwater disinfection by cWorination. Several
    studies have shown that DCA induces liver tumors in rodents when administered in drinkmg wate...

  13. Potency of individual bile acids to regulate bile acid synthesis and transport genes in primary human hepatocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Lu, Hong; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Lei, Xiaohong; Cui, Julia Yue; Ellis, Ewa; Strom, Stephen C; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-10-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate their own homeostasis, but the potency of individual bile acids is not known. This study examined the effects of cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on expression of BA synthesis and transport genes in human primary hepatocyte cultures. Hepatocytes were treated with the individual BAs at 10, 30, and 100μM for 48 h, and RNA was extracted for real-time PCR analysis. For the classic pathway of BA synthesis, BAs except for UDCA markedly suppressed CYP7A1 (70-95%), the rate-limiting enzyme of bile acid synthesis, but only moderately (35%) down-regulated CYP8B1 at a high concentration of 100μM. BAs had minimal effects on mRNA of two enzymes of the alternative pathway of BA synthesis, namely CYP27A1 and CYP7B1. BAs increased the two major target genes of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), namely the small heterodimer partner (SHP) by fourfold, and markedly induced fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) over 100-fold. The BA uptake transporter Na(+)-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide was unaffected, whereas the efflux transporter bile salt export pump was increased 15-fold and OSTα/β were increased 10-100-fold by BAs. The expression of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3; sixfold), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter G5 (ABCG5; sixfold), multidrug associated protein-2 (MRP2; twofold), and MRP3 (threefold) were also increased, albeit to lesser degrees. In general, CDCA was the most potent and effective BA in regulating these genes important for BA homeostasis, whereas DCA and CA were intermediate, LCA the least, and UDCA ineffective. PMID:25055961

  14. Dysregulation of protease and protease inhibitors in a mouse model of human pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Budatha, Madhusudhan; Silva, Simone; Montoya, Teodoro Ignacio; Suzuki, Ayako; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Wieslander, Cecilia Karin; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Word, Ruth Ann; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Mice deficient for the fibulin-5 gene (Fbln5(-/-)) develop pelvic organ prolapse (POP) due to compromised elastic fibers and upregulation of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9. Here, we used casein zymography, inhibitor profiling, affinity pull-down, and mass spectrometry to discover additional protease upregulated in the vaginal wall of Fbln5(-/-) mice, herein named V1 (25 kDa). V1 was a serine protease with trypsin-like activity similar to protease, serine (PRSS) 3, a major extrapancreatic trypsinogen, was optimum at pH 8.0, and predominantly detected in estrogenized vaginal epithelium of Fbln5(-/-) mice. PRSS3 was (a) localized in epithelial secretions, (b) detected in media of vaginal organ culture from both Fbln5(-/-) and wild type mice, and (c) cleaved fibulin-5 in vitro. Expression of two serine protease inhibitors [Serpina1a (α1-antitrypsin) and Elafin] was dysregulated in Fbln5(-/-) epithelium. Finally, we confirmed that PRSS3 was expressed in human vaginal epithelium and that SERPINA1 and Elafin were downregulated in vaginal tissues from women with POP. These data collectively suggest that the balance between proteases and their inhibitors contributes to support of the pelvic organs in humans and mice. PMID:23437119

  15. Biosynthetic Gene Cluster for the Polyenoyltetramic Acid α-Lipomycin

    PubMed Central

    Bihlmaier, C.; Welle, E.; Hofmann, C.; Welzel, K.; Vente, A.; Breitling, E.; Müller, M.; Glaser, S.; Bechthold, A.

    2006-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces aureofaciens Tü117 produces the acyclic polyene antibiotic α-lipomycin. The entire biosynthetic gene cluster (lip gene cluster) was cloned and characterized. DNA sequence analysis of a 74-kb region revealed the presence of 28 complete open reading frames (ORFs), 22 of them belonging to the biosynthetic gene cluster. Central to the cluster is a polyketide synthase locus that encodes an eight-module system comprised of four multifunctional proteins. In addition, one ORF shows homology to those for nonribosomal peptide synthetases, indicating that α-lipomycin belongs to the classification of hybrid peptide-polyketide natural products. Furthermore, the lip cluster includes genes responsible for the formation and attachment of d-digitoxose as well as ORFs that resemble those for putative regulatory and export functions. We generated biosynthetic mutants by insertional gene inactivation. By analysis of culture extracts of these mutants, we could prove that, indeed, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of lipomycin had been cloned, and additionally we gained insight into an unusual biosynthesis pathway. PMID:16723573

  16. Identification of papain-like cysteine proteases from the bovine piroplasm Babesia bigemina and evolutionary relationship of piroplasms C1 family of cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Martins, Tiago M; do Rosário, Virgílio E; Domingos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Papain-like cysteine proteases have been shown to have essential roles in parasitic protozoa and are under study as promising drug targets. Five genes were identified by sequence similarity search to be homologous to the cysteine protease family in the ongoing Babesia bigemina genome sequencing project database and were compared with the annotated genes from the complete bovine piroplasm genomes of Babesia bovis, Theileria annulata, and Theileria parva. Multiple genome alignments and sequence analysis were used to evaluate the molecular evolution events that occurred in the C1 family of cysteine proteases in these piroplasms of veterinary importance. BbiCPL1, one of the newly identified cysteine protease genes in the B. bigemina genome was expressed in Escherichia coli and shows activity against peptide substrates. Considerable differences were observed in the cysteine protease family between Babesia and Theileria genera, and this may partially explain the diverse infection mechanisms of these tick-borne diseases. PMID:20655912

  17. Expressed sequence tag survey of gene expression in the scab mite Psoroptes ovis--allergens, proteases and free-radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, F; Welsh, M; Parkinson, J; Whitton, C; Blaxter, M L; Knox, D P

    2003-05-01

    Psoroptes ovis, the causative agent of sheep scab, is an important ectoparasitic mite infecting sheep, goats and cattle. Infection is characterized by an extensive dermatitis, scab formation and intense itching. Initial focal lesions spread outwards, coalesce and may extend over the whole body. The host response to infestation has all the characteristics of an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction but the mite antigens and allergens which initiate this response are almost completely undefined. Here, 507 randomly selected cDNAs derived from a mixed population of P. ovis were sequenced and the resultant nucleotide sequences subjected to Cluster analysis and Blast searches. This analysis yielded 280 clusters of which 49 had > 1 sequence with 24 showing significant Blast X homology to another protein in the databases. There were 231 sequences which appeared on one occasion and 109 of these showed significant Blast X homology to other sequences in the databases. This analysis identified homologues of 9 different types of allergens which have been characterized in other allergic conditions such as responses to house dust mites. It also identified a number of cysteine proteases which may contribute to lesion development as well as several free-radical scavenging enzymes which may protect the mite from host immune effector responses. PMID:12793649

  18. Gene Expression Levels Are Correlated with Synonymous Codon Usage, Amino Acid Composition, and Gene Architecture in the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Williford, Anna; Demuth, Jeffery P.

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression levels correlate with multiple aspects of gene sequence and gene structure in phylogenetically diverse taxa, suggesting an important role of gene expression levels in the evolution of protein-coding genes. Here we present results of a genome-wide study of the influence of gene expression on synonymous codon usage, amino acid composition, and gene structure in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Consistent with the action of translational selection, we find that synonymous codon usage bias increases with gene expression. However, the correspondence between tRNA gene copy number and optimal codons is weak. At the amino acid level, translational selection is suggested by the positive correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid usage, which is stronger for highly expressed genes. In addition, there is a clear trend for increased use of metabolically cheaper, less complex amino acids as gene expression increases. tRNA gene numbers also correlate negatively with amino acid size/complexity (S/C) score indicating the coupling between translational selection and selection to minimize the use of large/complex amino acids. Interestingly, the analysis of 10 additional genomes suggests that the correlation between tRNA gene numbers and amino acid S/C score is widespread and might be explained by selection against negative consequences of protein misfolding. At the level of gene structure, three major trends are detected: 1) complete coding region length increases across low and intermediate expression levels but decreases in highly expressed genes; 2) the average intron size shows the opposite trend, first decreasing with expression, followed by a slight increase in highly expressed genes; and 3) intron density remains nearly constant across all expression levels. These changes in gene architecture are only in partial agreement with selection favoring reduced cost of biosynthesis. PMID:22826459

  19. Targeted expression of cystatin restores fertility in cysteine protease induced male sterile tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Pawan; Subhashini, Mranu; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Ahmed, Israr; Trishla, Shalibhadra; Kirti, P B

    2016-05-01

    Fertility restoration in male sterile plants is an essential requirement for their utilization in hybrid seed production. In an earlier investigation, we have demonstrated that the targeted expression of a cysteine protease in tapetal cell layer resulted in complete male sterility in tobacco transgenic plants. In the present investigation, we have used a cystatin gene, which encodes for a cysteine protease inhibitor, from a wild peanut, Arachis diogoi and developed a plant gene based restoration system for cysteine protease induced male sterile transgenic tobacco plants. We confirmed the interaction between the cysteine protease and a cystatin of the wild peanut, A. diogoi through in silico modeling and yeast two-hybrid assay. Pollen from primary transgenic tobacco plants expressing cystatin gene under the tapetum specific promoter- TA29 restored fertility on cysteine protease induced male sterile tobacco plants developed earlier. This has confirmed the in vivo interaction of cysteine protease and cystatin in the tapetal cells, and the inactivation of cysteine protease and modulation of its negative effects on pollen fertility. Both the cysteine protease and cystatin genes are of plant origin in contrast to the analogous barnase-barstar system that deploys genes of prokaryotic origin. Because of the deployment of genes of plant origin, this system might not face biosafety problems in developing hybrids in food crops. PMID:26993235

  20. Identification of a 12-gene Fusaric Acid Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium Species Through Comparative and Functional Genomics.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daren W; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Lee-Han; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Lee, Soohyung; Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho; Busman, Mark; Yun, Sung-Hwan; Proctor, Robert H; Lee, Theresa

    2015-03-01

    In fungi, genes involved in biosynthesis of a secondary metabolite (SM) are often located adjacent to one another in the genome and are coordinately regulated. These SM biosynthetic gene clusters typically encode enzymes, one or more transcription factors, and a transport protein. Fusaric acid is a polyketide-derived SM produced by multiple species of the fungal genus Fusarium. This SM is of concern because it is toxic to animals and, therefore, is considered a mycotoxin and may contribute to plant pathogenesis. Preliminary descriptions of the fusaric acid (FA) biosynthetic gene (FUB) cluster have been reported in two Fusarium species, the maize pathogen F. verticillioides and the rice pathogen F. fujikuroi. The cluster consisted of five genes and did not include a transcription factor or transporter gene. Here, analysis of the FUB region in F. verticillioides, F. fujikuroi, and F. oxysporum, a plant pathogen with multiple hosts, indicates the FUB cluster consists of at least 12 genes (FUB1 to FUB12). Deletion analysis confirmed that nine FUB genes, including two Zn(II)2Cys6 transcription factor genes, are required for production of wild-type levels of FA. Comparisons of FUB cluster homologs across multiple Fusarium isolates and species revealed insertion of non-FUB genes at one or two locations in some homologs. Although the ability to produce FA contributed to the phytotoxicity of F. oxysporum culture extracts, lack of production did not affect virulence of F. oxysporum on cactus or F. verticillioides on maize seedlings. These findings provide new insights into the genetic and biochemical processes required for FA production. PMID:25372119

  1. From proteases to proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, Hans

    2001-01-01

    This personal and professional autobiography covers the 50-yr period of 1950–2000 and includes the following topics: History of the University of Washington School of Medicine and its Department of Biochemistry (Mount Rainier and the University of Washington, recruiting faculty, biology, research programs); scientific editing (publication, Biochemistry, Protein Science, electronic publication); Europe revisited (Heidelberg, approaching retirement, the German Research Center, reunion in Vienna); and 50 yr of research on proteolytic enzymes (trypsin, carboxypeptidases, mast cell proteases, future developments). PMID:11274481

  2. Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Shahin; Nabian, Sedighe; Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Najafi, Ali; Moghaddam, Mehrdad Moosazadeh; Sazmand, Alireza; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud; Tabrizi, Saeed Sattari

    2016-02-01

    The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important ectoparasites of bovines and is responsible for the transmission of different pathogens such as Babesia and Anaplasma. Cysteine proteases are involved in several host-tick interactions including invasion of host tissues, immune evasion, pathogen transmission, embryogenesis and blood digestion. In this study, the gene encoding R. annulatus cathepsin L-like enzyme (RaCL1) was cloned into pTZ57R/T vector, sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. The nucleotide length of RaCL1 was 999 bp. Bioinformatics analysis showed 332 amino acids with an approximate molecular weight of 36.3 kDa which contained a signal peptide sequence (18 amino acids), pro-region (97 amino acids) and mature enzyme (217 amino acids). Multiple sequence alignment of the RaCL1 revealed high similarity to cathepsin L-like cysteine proteases from other tick species such as Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Amblyomma variegatum. Based on bioinformatics analyses, results of this work suggest that RaCL1 can be a suitable candidate for the development of vaccine against R. annulatus. PMID:26597589

  3. Isolation and molecular characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase genes in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jia-Hong; Xu, Jing; Chang, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Li

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is an important factor that stimulates Hevea brasiliensis to produce natural rubber. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) is a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. However, knowledge of the ACS gene family of H. brasiliensis is limited. In this study, nine ACS-like genes were identified in H. brasiliensis. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis results confirmed that seven isozymes (HbACS1-7) of these nine ACS-like genes were similar to ACS isozymes with ACS activity in other plants. Expression analysis results showed that seven ACS genes were differentially expressed in roots, barks, flowers, and leaves of H. brasiliensis. However, no or low ACS gene expression was detected in the latex of H. brasiliensis. Moreover, seven genes were differentially up-regulated by ethylene treatment. These results provided relevant information to help determine the functions of the ACS gene in H. brasiliensis, particularly the functions in regulating ethylene stimulation of latex production. PMID:25690030

  4. Coagulation factor XII protease domain crystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, M; Wilmann, P; Awford, J; Li, C; Hamad, BK; Fischer, PM; Dreveny, I; Dekker, LV; Emsley, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Coagulation factor XII is a serine protease that is important for kinin generation and blood coagulation, cleaving the substrates plasma kallikrein and FXI. Objective To investigate FXII zymogen activation and substrate recognition by determining the crystal structure of the FXII protease domain. Methods and results A series of recombinant FXII protease constructs were characterized by measurement of cleavage of chromogenic peptide and plasma kallikrein protein substrates. This revealed that the FXII protease construct spanning the light chain has unexpectedly weak proteolytic activity compared to β-FXIIa, which has an additional nine amino acid remnant of the heavy chain present. Consistent with these data, the crystal structure of the light chain protease reveals a zymogen conformation for active site residues Gly193 and Ser195, where the oxyanion hole is absent. The Asp194 side chain salt bridge to Arg73 constitutes an atypical conformation of the 70-loop. In one crystal form, the S1 pocket loops are partially flexible, which is typical of a zymogen. In a second crystal form of the deglycosylated light chain, the S1 pocket loops are ordered, and a short α-helix in the 180-loop of the structure results in an enlarged and distorted S1 pocket with a buried conformation of Asp189, which is critical for P1 Arg substrate recognition. The FXII structures define patches of negative charge surrounding the active site cleft that may be critical for interactions with inhibitors and substrates. Conclusions These data provide the first structural basis for understanding FXII substrate recognition and zymogen activation. PMID:25604127

  5. Characterization of up-regulated proteases in an industrial recombinant Escherichia coli fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jordan, G L; Harcum, S W

    2002-02-01

    Proteolytic degradation of recombinant proteins is an industry-wide challenge in host organisms such as Escherichia coli. These proteases have been linked to stresses, such as the stringent and heat-shock responses. This study reports the dramatic up-regulation of protease activity in an industrial recombinant E. coli fermentation upon induction. The objective of this project was to detect and characterize up-regulated proteases due to recombinant AXOKINE overexpression upon IPTG induction. AXOKINE is a 22-kDa protein currently in clinical trials as a therapeutic for obesity associated with diabetes. AXOKINE was expressed in both the soluble and inclusion body fractions in E. coli. Sodium dodecyl sulfate gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-GPAGE) was used to analyze the up-regulated protease activity. Western blot analysis showed degraded AXOKINE in both the soluble and insoluble fractions. Protease inhibitors were used to characterize the proteases. The proteases were ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) sensitive. The protease activity increased in the presence of phenyl-methyl sulfonyl-fluoride (PMSF), a serine protease inhibitor. The incubation buffer composition was varied with respect to Mg2+ and ATP, and the protease activity was ATP independent and Mg2+ dependent. A two-dimensional electrophoresis technique was used to estimate the pI of the proteases to be between 2.9 and 4.0. PMID:12074055

  6. Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Cordes, Thekla; Ghelfi, Jenny; Pailot, Arnaud; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Oliver; Binz, Tina; Wegner, André; Tallam, Aravind; Rausell, Antonio; Buttini, Manuel; Linster, Carole L; Medina, Eva; Balling, Rudi; Hiller, Karsten

    2013-05-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production. PMID:23610393

  7. Immune-responsive gene 1 protein links metabolism to immunity by catalyzing itaconic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Michelucci, Alessandro; Cordes, Thekla; Ghelfi, Jenny; Pailot, Arnaud; Reiling, Norbert; Goldmann, Oliver; Binz, Tina; Wegner, André; Tallam, Aravind; Rausell, Antonio; Buttini, Manuel; Linster, Carole L.; Medina, Eva; Balling, Rudi; Hiller, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (Irg1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation, but its biological function has not yet been elucidated. Here, we identify Irg1 as the gene coding for an enzyme producing itaconic acid (also known as methylenesuccinic acid) through the decarboxylation of cis-aconitate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate. Using a gain-and-loss-of-function approach in both mouse and human immune cells, we found Irg1 expression levels correlating with the amounts of itaconic acid, a metabolite previously proposed to have an antimicrobial effect. We purified IRG1 protein and identified its cis-aconitate decarboxylating activity in an enzymatic assay. Itaconic acid is an organic compound that inhibits isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, a pathway essential for bacterial growth under specific conditions. Here we show that itaconic acid inhibits the growth of bacteria expressing isocitrate lyase, such as Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Furthermore, Irg1 gene silencing in macrophages resulted in significantly decreased intracellular itaconic acid levels as well as significantly reduced antimicrobial activity during bacterial infections. Taken together, our results demonstrate that IRG1 links cellular metabolism with immune defense by catalyzing itaconic acid production. PMID:23610393

  8. The fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene product catalyzes Δ4 desaturation to yield n-3 docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hui Gyu; Park, Woo Jung; Kothapalli, Kumar S. D.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a Δ4-desaturated C22 fatty acid and the limiting highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) in neural tissue. The biosynthesis of Δ4-desaturated docosanoid fatty acids 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-6 are believed to proceed via a circuitous biochemical pathway requiring repeated use of a fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) protein to perform Δ6 desaturation on C24 fatty acids in the endoplasmic reticulum followed by 1 round of β-oxidation in the peroxisomes. We demonstrate here that the FADS2 gene product can directly Δ4-desaturate 22:5n-3→22:6n-3 (DHA) and 22:4n-6→22:5n-6. Human MCF-7 cells lacking functional FADS2-mediated Δ6-desaturase were stably transformed with FADS2, FADS1, or empty vector. When incubated with 22:5n-3 or 22:4n-6, FADS2 stable cells produce 22:6n-3 or 22:5n-6, respectively. Similarly, FADS2 stable cells when incubated with d5-18:3n-3 show synthesis of d5-22:6n-3 with no labeling of 24:5n-3 or 24:6n-3 at 24 h. Further, both C24 fatty acids are shown to be products of the respective C22 fatty acids via elongation. Our results demonstrate that the FADS2 classical transcript mediates direct Δ4 desaturation to yield 22:6n-3 and 22:5n-6 in human cells, as has been widely shown previously for desaturation by fish and many other organisms.—Park, H. G., Park, W. J., Kothapalli, K. S. D., Brenna, J. T. The fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) gene product catalyzes Δ4 desaturation to yield n-3 docosahexaenoic acid and n-6 docosapentaenoic acid in human cells. PMID:26065859

  9. Identification of the Escherichia coli Nicotinic Acid Mononucleotide Adenylyltransferase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Mehl, Ryan A.; Kinsland, Cynthia; Begley, Tadhg P.

    2000-01-01

    The gene (ybeN) coding for nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase, an NAD(P) biosynthetic enzyme, has been identified and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible adenylation of nicotinate mononucleotide and shows product inhibition. The rate of adenylation of nicotinate mononucleotide is at least 20 times faster than the rate of adenylation of nicotinamide mononucleotide. PMID:10894752

  10. ALTERED GENE EXPRESSION IN MOUSE LIVERS AFTER DICHLOROACETIC ACID EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a major by-product of water disinfection by chlorination. Several studies have demonstrated that DCA exhibits hepatocarcinogenic effects in rodents when administered in drinking water. The mechanism(s) involved in DCA induction of cancer are not clear...

  11. TOPORS, a Dual E3 Ubiquitin and Sumo1 Ligase, Interacts with 26 S Protease Regulatory Subunit 4, Encoded by the PSMC1 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Czub, Barbara; Shah, Amna Z.; Alfano, Giovanna; Kruczek, Przemysław M.; Chakarova, Christina F.; Bhattacharya, Shomi S.

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for protein degradation has been highlighted in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, including retinal dystrophies. TOPORS, a dual E3 ubiquitin and SUMO1 ligase, forms a component of the UPS and selected substrates for its enzymatic activities, such as DJ-1/PARK7 and APOBEC2, are important for neuronal as well as retinal homeostasis, respectively. TOPORS is ubiquitously expressed, yet its mutations are only known to result in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. We performed a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen of a human retinal cDNA library in order to identify interacting protein partners of TOPORS from the retina, and thus begin delineating the putative disease mechanism(s) associated with the retina-specific phenotype resulting from mutations in TOPORS. The screen led to isolation of the 26 S protease regulatory subunit 4 (P26s4/ PSMC1), an ATPase indispensable for correct functioning of UPS-mediated proteostasis. The interaction between endogenous TOPORS and P26s4 proteins was validated by co-immuno-precipitation from mammalian cell extracts and further characterised by immunofluorescent co-localisation studies in cell lines and retinal sections. Findings from hTERT-RPE1 and 661W cells demonstrated that TOPORS and P26s4 co-localise at the centrosome in cultured cells. Immunofluorescent staining of mouse retinae revealed a strong P26s4 reactivity at the interface between retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) layer and the photoreceptors outer segments (OS). This finding leads us to speculate that P26s4, along with TOPORS, may have a role(s) in RPE phagocytosis, in addition to contributing to the overall photoreceptor and retinal homeostasis via the UPS. PMID:26872363

  12. Novel proteases: common themes and surprising features.

    PubMed

    Vandeputte-Rutten, Lucy; Gros, Piet

    2002-12-01

    Proteases perform a wide variety of functions, inside and outside cells, regulating many biological processes. Recent years have witnessed a number of significant advances in the structural biology of proteases, including aspects of intracellular protein and peptide degradation by self-compartmentalizing proteases, activation of proteases in proteolytic cascades of regulatory pathways, and mechanisms of microbial proteases in pathogenicity. PMID:12504673

  13. Gene expression analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum subjected to long-term lactic acid adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Kinga; Satorhelyi, Peter; Lange, Christian; Wendisch, Volker F; Silakowski, Barbara; Scherer, Siegfried; Neuhaus, Klaus

    2007-08-01

    Corynebacteria form an important part of the red smear cheese microbial surface consortium. To gain a better understanding of molecular adaptation due to low pH induced by lactose fermentation, the global gene expression profile of Corynebacterium glutamicum adapted to pH 5.7 with lactic acid under continuous growth in a chemostat was characterized by DNA microarray analysis. Expression of a total of 116 genes was increased and that of 90 genes was decreased compared to pH 7.5 without lactic acid, representing 7% of the genes in the genome. The up-regulated genes encode mainly transcriptional regulators, proteins responsible for export, import, and metabolism, and several proteins of unknown function. As much as 45% of the up-regulated open reading frames code for hypothetical proteins. These results were validated using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. To characterize the functions of 38 up-regulated genes, 36 single-crossover disruption mutants were generated and analyzed for their lactic acid sensitivities. However, only a sigB knockout mutant showed a highly significant negative effect on growth at low pH, suggesting a function in organic-acid adaptation. A sigE mutant already displayed growth retardation at neutral pH but grew better at acidic pH than the sigB mutant. The lack of acid-sensitive phenotypes in 34 out of 36 disrupted genes suggests either a considerable redundancy in acid adaptation response or coincidental effects. Other up-regulated genes included genes for ion transporters and metabolic pathways, including carbohydrate and respiratory metabolism. The enhanced expression of the nrd (ribonucleotide reductase) operon and a DNA ATPase repair protein implies a cellular response to combat acid-induced DNA damage. Surprisingly, multiple iron uptake systems (totaling 15% of the genes induced >or=2-fold) were induced at low pH. This induction was shown to be coincidental and could be attributed to iron-sequestering effects in complex media at low p

  14. Gene Expression Analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum Subjected to Long-Term Lactic Acid Adaptation▿ ¶

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Kinga; Satorhelyi, Peter; Lange, Christian; Wendisch, Volker F.; Silakowski, Barbara; Scherer, Siegfried; Neuhaus, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Corynebacteria form an important part of the red smear cheese microbial surface consortium. To gain a better understanding of molecular adaptation due to low pH induced by lactose fermentation, the global gene expression profile of Corynebacterium glutamicum adapted to pH 5.7 with lactic acid under continuous growth in a chemostat was characterized by DNA microarray analysis. Expression of a total of 116 genes was increased and that of 90 genes was decreased compared to pH 7.5 without lactic acid, representing 7% of the genes in the genome. The up-regulated genes encode mainly transcriptional regulators, proteins responsible for export, import, and metabolism, and several proteins of unknown function. As much as 45% of the up-regulated open reading frames code for hypothetical proteins. These results were validated using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. To characterize the functions of 38 up-regulated genes, 36 single-crossover disruption mutants were generated and analyzed for their lactic acid sensitivities. However, only a sigB knockout mutant showed a highly significant negative effect on growth at low pH, suggesting a function in organic-acid adaptation. A sigE mutant already displayed growth retardation at neutral pH but grew better at acidic pH than the sigB mutant. The lack of acid-sensitive phenotypes in 34 out of 36 disrupted genes suggests either a considerable redundancy in acid adaptation response or coincidental effects. Other up-regulated genes included genes for ion transporters and metabolic pathways, including carbohydrate and respiratory metabolism. The enhanced expression of the nrd (ribonucleotide reductase) operon and a DNA ATPase repair protein implies a cellular response to combat acid-induced DNA damage. Surprisingly, multiple iron uptake systems (totaling 15% of the genes induced ≥2-fold) were induced at low pH. This induction was shown to be coincidental and could be attributed to iron-sequestering effects in complex media at low p

  15. [Expression of Mortierella isabellina delta6-fatty acid desaturase gene in gamma-linolenic acid production in transgenic tobacco].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Chun; Liu, Li; Hu, Guo-Wu; Xing, Lai-Jun

    2003-03-01

    Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3delta6.9.12) is nutritional and important polyunsaturated fatty acid in human and animal diets. GLA play an important role in hormone regulation and fatty acid metabolization. Furthermore it is also the biological precursor of a group of molecules, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes. Vast majority of oilseed crops do not produce GLA, but linoleic acid (LA, C18:2delta9.12) as its substrate. GLA is only produced by a small number of oilseed plants such as evening promrose ( Oenotheera spp.), borage (Borago officinalis) and etc. delta6-fatty acid desaturase (D6D) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of GLA. It can convert from linoleic acid to linolenic acid. To produce GLA in tobacco, plant expression vector was first constructed. To facilitate preparation of plant expression constructs, flanking Xba I and Bgl II restriction enzyme sites were added to the coding region of clone pTMICL6 by PCR amplification. pTMICL6 contains delta6-fatty acid desaturase gene cloned from Mortierella isabellina which is an oil-producing fugus. The PCR product was purified and subcloned into the plant expression vector pGA643 to generate the recombinant vector pGAMICL6 which contains the ORF of the D6D gene of Mortierella isabellina, together with regulatory elements consisting of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase (nos) termination sequence. The plasmid pGAMICL6 was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 by method of freeze thawing of liquid nitrogen. Transformants were selected by plating on YEB medium plates containing kanamycin and streptomycin and grown overnight at 28 degrees C, then transformants were further identified by PCR. The positive transformant containing the plant expression vector pGAMICL6 was transformed into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) via Agrobacterium infection. Transgenic plants were selected on 100 microg/mL kanamycin. Plants were

  16. Multiplexed analysis of genes using nucleic acid-stabilized silver-nanocluster quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Enkin, Natalie; Wang, Fuan; Sharon, Etery; Albada, H Bauke; Willner, Itamar

    2014-11-25

    Luminescent nucleic acid-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) are applied for the optical detection of DNA and for the multiplexed analysis of genes. Two different sensing modules including Ag NCs as luminescence labels are described. One sensing module involves the assembly of a three-component sensing module composed of a nucleic acid-stabilized Ag NC and a quencher-modified nucleic acid hybridized with a nucleic acid scaffold that is complementary to the target DNA. The luminescence of the Ag NCs is quenched in the sensing module nanostructure. The strand displacement of the scaffold by the target DNA separates the nucleic acid-functionalized Ag NCs, leading to the turned-on luminescence of the NCs and to the optical readout of the sensing process. By implementing two different-sized Ag NC-modified sensing modules, the parallel multiplexed analysis of two genes (the Werner Syndrome gene and the HIV, human immunodeficiency, gene), using 615 and 560 nm luminescent Ag NCs, is demonstrated. The second sensing module includes the nucleic acid functionalized Ag NCs and the quencher-modified nucleic acid hybridized with a hairpin DNA scaffold. The luminescence of the Ag NCs is quenched in the sensing module. Opening of the hairpin by the target DNA triggers the luminescence of the Ag NCs, due to the spatial separation of the Ag NCs/quencher units. The system is applied for the optical detection of the BRAC1 gene. In addition, by implementing two-sized Ag NCs, the multiplexed analysis of two genes by the hairpin sensing module approach is demonstrated. PMID:25327411

  17. The expansion of amino-acid repeats is not associated to adaptive evolution in mammalian genes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The expansion of amino acid repeats is determined by a high mutation rate and can be increased or limited by selection. It has been suggested that recent expansions could be associated with the potential of adaptation to new environments. In this work, we quantify the strength of this association, as well as the contribution of potential confounding factors. Results Mammalian positively selected genes have accumulated more recent amino acid repeats than other mammalian genes. However, we found little support for an accelerated evolutionary rate as the main driver for the expansion of amino acid repeats. The most significant predictors of amino acid repeats are gene function and GC content. There is no correlation with expression level. Conclusions Our analyses show that amino acid repeat expansions are causally independent from protein adaptive evolution in mammalian genomes. Relaxed purifying selection or positive selection do not associate with more or more recent amino acid repeats. Their occurrence is slightly favoured by the sequence context but mainly determined by the molecular function of the gene. PMID:20021652

  18. Covalent structure of human haptoglobin: a serine protease homolog.

    PubMed Central

    Kurosky, A; Barnett, D R; Lee, T H; Touchstone, B; Hay, R E; Arnott, M S; Bowman, B H; Fitch, W M

    1980-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequences and the disulfide arrangements of the two chains of human haptoglobin 1-1 were established. The alpha 1 and beta chains of haptoglobin contain 83 and 245 residues, respectively. Comparison of the primary structure of haptoglobin with that of the chymotrypsinogen family of serine proteases revealed a significant degree of chemical similarity. The probability was less than 10(-5) that the chemical similarity of the beta chain of haptoglobin to the proteases was due to chance. The amino acid sequence of the beta chain of haptoglobin is 29--33% identical to bovine trypsin, bovine chymotrypsin, porcine elastase, human thrombin, or human plasmin. Comparison of haptoglobin alpha 1 chain to activation peptide regions of the zymogens revealed an identity of 25% to the fifth "kringle" region of the activation peptide of plasminogen. The probability was less than 0.014 that this similarity was due to chance. These results strongly indicate haptoglobin to be a homolog of the chymotrypsinogen family of serine proteases. Alignment of the beta-chain sequence of haptoglobin to the serine proteases is remarkably consistent except for an insertion of 16 residues in the region corresponding to the methionyl loop of the serine proteases. The active-site residues typical of the serine proteases, histidine-57 and serine-195, are replaced in haptoglobin by lysine and alanine, respectively; however, aspartic acid-102 and the trypsin specificity, residue, aspartic acid-189, do occur in haptoglobin. Haptoglobin and the serine proteases represent a striking example of homologous proteins with different biological functions. PMID:6997877

  19. A substitution at His-120 in the LasA protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa blocks enzymatic activity without affecting propeptide processing or extracellular secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, J K; Kessler, E; Ohman, D E

    1996-01-01

    The LasA protease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can degrade elastin and is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of this organism. LasA (20 kDa) is a member of the beta-lytic endopeptidase family of extracellular bacterial proteases, and it shows high-level staphylolytic activity. We sequenced the lasA gene from strain FRD1 and overexpressed it in Escherichia coli. The lasA gene encodes a precursor, known as pre-proLasA, of 45,582 Da. Amino-terminal sequence analysis allowed the identification of the signal peptidase cleavage site and revealed that the 31-amino-acid signal peptide was removed in E. coli. The remaining proLasA (42 kDa) did not undergo autoproteolytic processing and showed little staphylolytic activity. However, it was readily processed to a 20-kDa active staphylolytic protease by incubation with trypsin or with the culture filtrate of a P. aeruginosa lasAdelta mutant. Thus, removal of the propeptide (22 kDa) was required to convert proLasA into an active protease. Although LasA protease was critical for staphylolytic activity, other proteases like elastase were found to enhance staphylolysis. Under the control of an inducible trc promoter, lasA was overexpressed in P. aeruginosa and the processing intermediates were examined. Compared with wild-type cells, the overproducing cells accumulated more 42-kDa proLasA species, and the culture supernatants of the overproducing cells showed increased levels of active 20-kDa LasA protease. Small amounts of a 25-kDa extracellular LasA-related protein, which could represent a potential processing intermediate, were also observed. To better understand the structure-function relationships in LasA protease, we tested whether His-120-X-His-122 in the mature portion of LasA plays a role in activity. This motif and surrounding sequences are conserved in the related beta-lytic protease of Achromobacter lyticus. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis was used to change His-120 to Ala-120, thus forming the lasA5 allele

  20. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for quantitative gene expression analysis of acid responses in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Rode, Tone Mari; Berget, Ingunn; Langsrud, Solveig; Møretrø, Trond; Holck, Askild

    2009-07-01

    Microorganisms are constantly exposed to new and altered growth conditions, and respond by changing gene expression patterns. Several methods for studying gene expression exist. During the last decade, the analysis of microarrays has been one of the most common approaches applied for large scale gene expression studies. A relatively new method for gene expression analysis is MassARRAY, which combines real competitive-PCR and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry. In contrast to microarray methods, MassARRAY technology is suitable for analysing a larger number of samples, though for a smaller set of genes. In this study we compare the results from MassARRAY with microarrays on gene expression responses of Staphylococcus aureus exposed to acid stress at pH 4.5. RNA isolated from the same stress experiments was analysed using both the MassARRAY and the microarray methods. The MassARRAY and microarray methods showed good correlation. Both MassARRAY and microarray estimated somewhat lower fold changes compared with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results confirmed the up-regulation of the urease genes in acidic environments, and also indicated the importance of metal ion regulation. This study shows that the MassARRAY technology is suitable for gene expression analysis in prokaryotes, and has advantages when a set of genes is being analysed for an organism exposed to many different environmental conditions. PMID:19445975

  1. The Genes for Cytoplasmic Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid in Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Scott, N. Steele; Ingle, J.

    1973-01-01

    The genes for cytoplasmic ribosomal RNA are partially resolved from the bulk of the DNA by CsCl equilibrium centrifugation. Although in some plants the buoyant density of the ribosomal RNA genes is as expected from the base composition of ribosomal RNA, others show a large discrepancy which cannot be due to the presence of low G-C spacer-DNA. The cross-hybridization observed with 1.3 and 0.7 × 106 molecular weight ribosomal RNAs and DNA, which varies greatly with different plant species, is not due to contamination of the ribosomal RNAs, and is specific for the ribosomal DNA of each species, probably largely restricted to those sequences coding for the two stable ribosomal RNAs. The double reciprocal plot may be used for the extrapolation of saturation values only with caution, because in these cases such plots are not linear over the whole of the hybridization reaction. PMID:16658392

  2. Protease-mediated drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Eva F.; Goyan, Rebecca L.; Kennedy, James C.; Mackay, M.; Mendes, M. A. K.; Pottier, Roy H.

    2003-12-01

    Drugs used in disease treatment can cause damage to both malignant and normal tissue. This toxicity limits the maximum therapeutic dose. Drug targeting is of high interest to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. Certain tissue abnormalities, disease processes, cancers, and infections are characterized by high levels of activity of specific extracellular and/or intracellular proteases. Abnormally high activity levels of specific proteases are present at sites of physical or chemical trauma, blood clots, malignant tumors, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, gingival disease, glomerulonerphritis, and acute pancreatitis. Abnormal protease activity is suspected in development of liver thrombosis, pulmonary emphysema, atherosclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Inactiviating disease-associated proteases by the administration of appropriate protease inhibitors has had limited success. Instead, one could use such proteases to target drugs to treat the condition. Protease mediated drug delivery offers such a possibility. Solubilizing groups are attached to insoluble drugs via a polypeptide chain which is specifically cleavable by certian proteases. When the solubilized drug enounters the protease, the solubilizing moieties are cleaved, and the drug precipitates at the disease location. Thus, a smaller systemic dosage could result in a therapeutic drug concentration at the treatment site with less systemic toxicity.

  3. Neuroserpin, an axonally secreted serine protease inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Osterwalder, T; Contartese, J; Stoeckli, E T; Kuhn, T B; Sonderegger, P

    1996-01-01

    We have identified and chromatographically purified an axonally secreted glycoprotein of CNS and PNS neurons. Several peptides derived from it were microsequenced. Based on these sequences, a fragment of the corresponding cDNA was amplified and used as a probe to isolate a full length cDNA from a chicken brain cDNA library. Because the deduced amino acid sequence qualified the protein as a novel member of the serpin family of serine protease inhibitors, we called it neuroserpin. Analysis of the primary structural features further characterized neuroserpin as a heparin-independent, functional inhibitor of a trypsin-like serine protease. In situ hybridization revealed a predominantly neuronal expression during the late stages of neurogenesis and in the adult brain in regions which exhibit synaptic plasticity. Thus, neuroserpin might function as an axonally secreted regulator of the local extracellular proteolysis involved in the reorganization of the synaptic connectivity during development and synapse plasticity in the adult. Images PMID:8670795

  4. Foreign gene recruitment to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Baglivi, Francesca L; Jenkins, Christina E; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2013-09-01

    Diatoms are highly successful marine and freshwater algae that contribute up to 20% of global carbon fixation. These species are leading candidates for biofuel production owing to ease of culturing and high fatty acid content. To assist in strain improvement and downstream applications for potential use as a biofuel, it is important to understand the evolution of lipid biosynthesis in diatoms. The evolutionary history of diatoms is however complicated by likely multiple endosymbioses involving the capture of foreign cells and horizontal gene transfer into the host genome. Using a phylogenomic approach, we assessed the evolutionary history of 12 diatom genes putatively encoding functions related to lipid biosynthesis. We found evidence of gene transfer likely from a green algal source for seven of these genes, with the remaining showing either vertical inheritance or evolutionary histories too complicated to interpret given current genome data. The functions of horizontally transferred genes encompass all aspects of lipid biosynthesis (initiation, biosynthesis, and desaturation of fatty acids) as well as fatty acid elongation, and are not restricted to plastid-targeted proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the transfer, duplication, and subfunctionalization of genes were key steps in the evolution of lipid biosynthesis in diatoms and other photosynthetic eukaryotes. This target pathway for biofuel research is highly chimeric and surprisingly, our results suggest that research done on related genes in green algae may have application to diatom models. PMID:24404416

  5. Improved soybean oil quality by targeted mutagenesis of the fatty acid desaturase 2 gene family.

    PubMed

    Haun, William; Coffman, Andrew; Clasen, Benjamin M; Demorest, Zachary L; Lowy, Anita; Ray, Erin; Retterath, Adam; Stoddard, Thomas; Juillerat, Alexandre; Cedrone, Frederic; Mathis, Luc; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhang, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated to increase its shelf life and improve oxidative stability. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat. Soybean lines that are low in polyunsaturated fats were generated by introducing mutations in two fatty acid desaturase 2 genes (FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B), which in the seed convert the monounsaturated fat, oleic acid, to the polyunsaturated fat, linoleic acid. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were engineered to recognize and cleave conserved DNA sequences in both genes. In four of 19 transgenic soybean lines expressing the TALENs, mutations in FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were observed in DNA extracted from leaf tissue; three of the four lines transmitted heritable FAD2-1 mutations to the next generation. The fatty acid profile of the seed was dramatically changed in plants homozygous for mutations in both FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B: oleic acid increased from 20% to 80% and linoleic acid decreased from 50% to under 4%. Further, mutant plants were identified that lacked the TALEN transgene and only carried the targeted mutations. The ability to create a valuable trait in a single generation through targeted modification of a gene family demonstrates the power of TALENs for genome engineering and crop improvement. PMID:24851712

  6. Structural gene and complete amino acid sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3455 elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, J; Yamamoto, S; Morihara, K; Atsumi, Y; Takeuchi, H; Kawamoto, S; Okuda, K

    1989-01-01

    The DNA encoding the elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IFO 3455 was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. When the cloned gene was ligated to pUC18, the Escherichia coli expression vector, bacteria carrying the gene exhibited high levels of both elastase activity and elastase antigens. The amino acid sequence, deduced from the nucleotide sequence, revealed that the mature elastase consisted of 301 amino acids with a relative molecular mass of 32,926 daltons. The amino acid composition predicted from the DNA sequence was quite similar to the chemically determined composition of purified elastase reported previously. We also observed nucleotide sequence encoding a signal peptide and "pro" sequence consisting of 197 amino acids upstream from the mature elastase protein gene. The amino acid sequence analysis revealed that both the N-terminal sequence of the purified elastase and the N-terminal side sequences of the C-terminal tryptic peptide as well as the internal lysyl peptide fragment were completely identical to the deduced amino acid sequences. The pattern of identity of amino acid sequences was quite evident in the regions that include structurally and functionally important residues of Bacillus subtilis thermolysin. PMID:2493453

  7. Comparative genomics of lactic acid bacteria reveals a niche-specific gene set

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The recently sequenced genome of Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 [1] revealed a dairy organism with significant homology (75% of genes are homologous) to a probiotic bacteria Lb. acidophilus NCFM [2]. This led us to hypothesise that a group of genes could be determined which could define an organism's niche. Results Taking 11 fully sequenced lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as our target, (3 dairy LAB, 5 gut LAB and 3 multi-niche LAB), we demonstrated that the presence or absence of certain genes involved in sugar metabolism, the proteolytic system, and restriction modification enzymes were pivotal in suggesting the niche of a strain. We identified 9 niche specific genes, of which 6 are dairy specific and 3 are gut specific. The dairy specific genes identified in Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 were lhv_1161 and lhv_1171, encoding components of the proteolytic system, lhv_1031 lhv_1152, lhv_1978 and lhv_0028 encoding restriction endonuclease genes, while bile salt hydrolase genes lba_0892 and lba_1078, and the sugar metabolism gene lba_1689 from Lb. acidophilus NCFM were identified as gut specific genes. Conclusion Comparative analysis revealed that if an organism had homologs to the dairy specific geneset, it probably came from a dairy environment, whilst if it had homologs to gut specific genes, it was highly likely to be of intestinal origin. We propose that this "barcode" of 9 genes will be a useful initial guide to researchers in the LAB field to indicate an organism's ability to occupy a specific niche. PMID:19265535

  8. In vivo sequence diversity of the protease of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: presence of protease inhibitor-resistant variants in untreated subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Lech, W J; Wang, G; Yang, Y L; Chee, Y; Dorman, K; McCrae, D; Lazzeroni, L C; Erickson, J W; Sinsheimer, J S; Kaplan, A H

    1996-01-01

    We have evaluated the sequence diversity of the protease human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in vivo. Our analysis of 246 protease coding domain sequences obtained from 12 subjects indicates that amino acid substitutions predicted to give rise to protease inhibitor resistance may be present in patients who have not received protease inhibitors. In addition, we demonstrated that amino acid residues directly involved in enzyme-substrate interactions may be varied in infected individuals. Several of these substitutions occurred in combination either more or less frequently than would be expected if their appearance was independent, suggesting that one substitution may compensate for the effects of another. Taken together, our analysis indicates that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease has flexibility sufficient to vary critical subsites in vivo, thereby retaining enzyme function and viral pathogenicity. PMID:8627733

  9. Expression analysis for genes involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68

    PubMed Central

    Samadlouie, Hamid-Reza; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Alavi, Seyed-Mehdi; Varastegani, Boshra

    2014-01-01

    The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase. PMID:25242926

  10. Gene-related strain variation of Staphylococcus aureus for homologous resistance response to acid stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Ahn, Sooyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Won-Il; Kim, Hwang-Yong; Ryu, Jae-Gee; Kim, Se-Ri; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of adaptation of Staphylococcus aureus strains to the acidic condition of tomato in response to environmental stresses, such as heat and acid. S. aureus ATCC 13565, ATCC 14458, ATCC 23235, ATCC 27664, and NCCP10826 habituated in tomato extract at 35°C for 24 h were inoculated in tryptic soy broth. The culture suspensions were then subjected to heat challenge or acid challenge at 60°C and pH 3.0, respectively, for 60 min. In addition, transcriptional analysis using quantitative real-time PCR was performed to evaluate the expression level of acid-shock genes, such as clpB, zwf, nuoF, and gnd, from five S. aureus strains after the acid habituation of strains in tomato at 35°C for 15 min and 60 min in comparison with that of the nonhabituated strains. In comparison with the nonhabituated strains, the five tomato-habituated S. aureus strains did not show cross protection to heat, but tomato-habituated S. aureus ATCC 23235 showed acid resistance. In quantitative real-time-PCR analysis, the relative expression levels of acid-shock genes (clpB, zwf, nuoF, and gnd) were increased the most in S. aureus ATCC 23235 after 60 min of tomato habituation, but there was little difference in the expression levels among the five S. aureus strains after 15 min of tomato habituation. These results indicate that the variation of acid resistance of S. aureus is related to the expression of acid-shock genes during acid habituation. PMID:25285500

  11. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  12. Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) Reprogram Gene Expression in Human Malignant Epithelial and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Lidiia; Ngara, Mtakai; Babich, Olga; Prosekov, Aleksandr; Asyakina, Lyudmila; Dyshlyuk, Lyubov; Midtvedt, Tore; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ernberg, Ingemar; Matskova, Liudmila

    2016-01-01

    The effect of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on gene expression in human, malignant cell lines was investigated, with a focus on signaling pathways. The commensal microbial flora produce high levels of SCFAs with established physiologic effects in humans. The most abundant SCFA metabolite in the human microflora is n-butyric acid. It is well known to activate endogenous latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), that was used as a reference read out system and extended to EBV+ epithelial cancer cell lines. N-butyric acid and its salt induced inflammatory and apoptotic responses in tumor cells of epithelial and lymphoid origin. Epithelial cell migration was inhibited. The n-butyric gene activation was reduced by knock-down of the cell membrane transporters MCT-1 and -4 by siRNA. N-butyric acid show biologically significant effects on several important cellular functions, also with relevance for tumor cell phenotype. PMID:27441625

  13. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of a fatty acid elongase gene from Nannochloropsis oculata CS179

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kehou; Ma, Xiaolei; Yu, Jianzhong; Zhu, Baohua; Yang, Guanpin

    2009-12-01

    Nannochloropsis oculata CS179, a unicellular marine microalga, is rich in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Elongase and desaturase play a key role in the biosynthesis of PUFAs. A new elongase gene, which encodes 322 amino acids, was identified via RT-PCR and 5' and 3' RACE. The sequence of the elongase gene was blast-searched in the NCBI GenBank and showed a similarity to those of the cryptosporidium. But the NJ-tree revealed that the N. oculata CS179 elongase clustered with those of the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Ostreococcus tauri and Thalassiosira pseudonana.

  14. Engineering Clostridium beijerinckii with the Cbei_4693 gene knockout for enhanced ferulic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Guo, Ting; Shen, Xiaoning; Xu, Jiahui; Wang, Junzhi; Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Dong; Niu, Huanqing; Liang, Lei; Ying, Hanjie

    2016-07-10

    A mutant strain of Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052, C. beijerinckii M11, which exhibited ferulic acid tolerance up to 0.9g/L, was generated using atmospheric pressure glow discharge and high-throughput screening. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that this strain harbored a mutation of the Cbei_4693 gene, which encodes a hypothetical protein suspected to be an NADPH-dependent FMN reductase. After disrupting the Cbei_4693 gene in C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 using the ClosTron group II intron-based gene inactivation system, we obtained the Cbei_4693 gene inactivated mutant strain, C. beijerinckii 4693::int. Compared with C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052, 6.23g/L of butanol was produced in P2 medium containing 0.5g/L of ferulic acid by 4693::int, and the ferulic acid tolerance was also significantly increased up to 0.8g/L. These data showed, for the first time, that the Cbei_4693 gene plays an important role in regulating ferulic acid tolerance in ABE fermentation by C. beijerinckii. PMID:27164255

  15. Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism in vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yasar, Ali; Gunduz, Kamer; Onur, Ece; Calkan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine (Hcy) levels as well as MTHFR (C677, A1298C) gene polymorphisms in patients with vitiligo, and to compare the results with healthy controls. Forty patients with vitiligo and 40 age and sex matched healthy subjects were studied. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma Hcy levels and MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by chemiluminescence and real time PCR methods, respectively. Mean serum vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were not significantly different while folic acid levels were significantly lower in the control group. There was no significant relationship between disease activity and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocystein levels. No significant difference in C677T gene polymorphism was detected. Heterozygote A1298C gene polymorphism in the patient group was statistically higher than the control group. There was no significant relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine levels. In conclusion, vitamin B12, folate and Hcy levels are not altered in vitiligo and MTHFR gene mutations (C677T and A1298C) do not seem to create susceptibility for vitiligo. PMID:22846211

  16. Archaeal Lipid Genes: Clues to Life in Acid and the Evolution of Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macalady, J. L.; Croft, L.; Vestling, M. M.; Harms, A. C.; Zheng, L.; Baumler, D. J.; Kaspar, C. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Microorganisms living in acid mine drainage environments face extraordinary challenges. Acid-loving archaea such as Ferroplasma acidarmanus maintain pH gradients of 4 to 5 pH units across their membranes and thrive in hot, extremely low pH (0-1), metal-rich, solutions. New lipid analyses for two extremely acidophilic archaea, F. acidarmanus and F. acidiphilum, reveal that all known archaeal acidophiles have cell membranes composed primarily of tetraether-linked lipids. Because tetraether lipids assemble in rigid monolayers that exclude protons and metals, we suggest that tetraether synthesis genes are essential for archaeal survival in acid. Fusion of two diether-linked lipids to form a tetraether-linked lipid is a distinctive biochemical reaction with no analogy in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition to archaeal acidophiles, tetraethers are present in members of every archaeal lineage except halophiles. Genes responsible for tetraether synthesis and subsequent biochemical steps which "tune" membrane lipid properties in response to environmental changes have not been identified to date. Comparative genomic analyses using the newly completed genome of F. acidarmanus and available genomes from Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya have generated candidate tetraether synthase genes found only in archaea. Because tetraether-linked lipids are advantageous for acid-loving and possibly also for heat-loving archaea, the phylogeny of these genes has the potential to shed new light on role of hot, acid environments in early evolution.

  17. The prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) gene is localized to human chromosome 3q21-q23

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.S.L.; Sharief, F.S. )

    1993-09-01

    Human prostatic acid phosphatase (ACPP) has been used as a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer. It is synthesized under androgen regulation and secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. The authors have confirmed the previous assignment of the ACPP gene to chromosome 3 by probing a panel of 25 human-Chinese hamster somatic cell hybrids, and they have further localized the ACPP gene to chromosome 3q21-q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Multiple copies of a bile acid-inducible gene in Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708.

    PubMed Central

    Gopal-Srivastava, R; Mallonee, D H; White, W B; Hylemon, P B

    1990-01-01

    Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 is an anaerobic intestinal bacterium which possesses inducible bile acid 7-dehydroxylation activity. Several new polypeptides are produced in this strain following induction with cholic acid. Genes coding for two copies of a bile acid-inducible 27,000-dalton polypeptide (baiA1 and baiA2) have been previously cloned and sequenced. We now report on a gene coding for a third copy of this 27,000-dalton polypeptide (baiA3). The baiA3 gene has been cloned in lambda DASH on an 11.2-kilobase DNA fragment from a partial Sau3A digest of the Eubacterium DNA. DNA sequence analysis of the baiA3 gene revealed 100% homology with the baiA1 gene within the coding region of the 27,000-dalton polypeptides. The baiA2 gene shares 81% sequence identity with the other two genes at the nucleotide level. The flanking nucleotide sequences associated with the baiA1 and baiA3 genes are identical for 930 bases in the 5' direction from the initiation codon and for at least 325 bases in the 3' direction from the stop codon, including the putative promoter regions for the genes. An additional open reading frame (occupying from 621 to 648 bases, depending on the correct start codon) was found in the identical 5' regions associated with the baiA1 and baiA3 clones. The 5' sequence 930 bases upstream from the baiA1 and baiA3 genes was totally divergent. The baiA2 gene, which is part of a large bile acid-inducible operon, showed no homology with the other two genes either in the 5' or 3' direction from the polypeptide coding region, except for a 15-base-pair presumed ribosome-binding site in the 5' region. These studies strongly suggest that a gene duplication (baiA1 and baiA3) has occurred and is stably maintained in this bacterium. Images PMID:2376563

  19. Antitumor Molecular Mechanism of Chlorogenic Acid on Inducting Genes GSK-3 β and APC and Inhibiting Gene β -Catenin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruoshi; Kang, Qiumei; Ren, Jie; Li, Zukun; Xu, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Inhibiting gene β -catenin and inducting genes GSK-3 β and APC, promoting the tumor cell apoptosis in Wnt pathway, by chlorogenic acid were discussed (CGA). Method. The different genes were scanned by the 4∗44K mouse microarray chips. The effect of the three genes was confirmed by RT-PCR technique with CGA dosage of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg. Result. The expression of GSK-3 β and APC was upregulated in group of 20 mg/kg dosage (P < 0.05) and the expression of β -catenin was downregulated in the same dosage (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The results infer that the multimeric protein complex of β -catenin could be increased by CGA upregulated genes GSK-3 β and APC, which could inhibit the free β -catenin into the nucleus to connect with TCF. So the transcriptional expression of the target genes will be cut to abnormal cell proliferation. It is probably one of the ways that can stop the tumor increase by CGA. PMID:23844319

  20. Kinetics of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Vesal; Saffari, Zahra; Farhanghi, Ali; Atyabi, Seyed Mohammad; Norouzian, Dariush

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Proteases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the degradation of proteins resulting in the production of their amino acid constituents. They are the most important group of industrial enzymes which account for about 60% of total enzymes in the market and produced mainly by microorganisms. The attempts were made to study the kinetic parameters of protease produced by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130. Materials and Methods: Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130 was grown on casein agar. Different media such as BM1, BM2, BM3 and BM4 were prepared. Data obtained from growth and protease production were subjected to kinetics evaluation. Casein was used as substrate for protease activity and the released soluble peptide bearing aromatic amino acid were quantified by Folin Cioclateaue reagent. Protein content of the enzyme and the sugar utilized by the organism were estimated by Bradford and Miller’s methods respectively. Results: Basal Medium named as BM1, BM2, BM3 and BM4(50 mL in 250 mL Erlen Meyer flasks) were screened out to evaluate protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130. They were inoculated with known amount of seed culture and kept on rotary shaker. To obtain the specific growth rate, wet weight of biomass was plotted against the time. The clarified supernatant was used for the analysis of protease by measuring the soluble peptide containing aromatic amino acid residues employing Folin Cioclateaue reagent. Our results showed that maximum level of enzyme production (14035 U/L) was occurred at late exponential phase using Basal Medium supplemented with zinc sulfate (0.5g/L), casein (10g/L) at pH 6.5. Conclusions: A kinetic study of protease production by Streptomyces griseoflavus PTCC1130 provided highly quantitative information regarding the behavior of a system, which is essential to study the fermentation process. Exploitation of such kinetics analysis would be useful in commercialization of microbial enzyme

  1. Fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.).

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the relationship between expression levels of fatty acid desaturase genes during seed development and fatty acid (FA) composition in flax. In the present study, we looked at promoter structural variations of six FA desaturase genes and their relative expression throughout seed development. Computational analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b promoters showed several basic transcriptional elements including CAAT and TATA boxes, and several putative target-binding sites for transcription factors, which have been reported to be involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the expression patterns throughout seed development of the six FA desaturase genes were measured in six flax genotypes that differed for FA composition but that carried the same desaturase isoforms. FA composition data were determined by phenotyping the field grown genotypes over four years in two environments. All six genes displayed a bell-shaped pattern of expression peaking at 20 or 24 days after anthesis. Sad2 was the most highly expressed. The expression of all six desaturase genes did not differ significantly between genotypes (P = 0.1400), hence there were no correlations between FA desaturase gene expression and variations in FA composition in relatively low, intermediate and high linolenic acid genotypes expressing identical isoforms for all six desaturases. These results provide further clues towards understanding the genetic factors responsible for FA composition in flax. PMID:24871199

  2. Further characterization of a highly attenuated Yersinia pestis CO92 mutant deleted for the genes encoding Braun lipoprotein and plasminogen activator protease in murine alveolar and primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Christina J; Tiner, Bethany L; Chauhan, Sadhana; Motin, Vladimir L; Fitts, Eric C; Huante, Matthew B; Endsley, Janice J; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K

    2015-03-01

    We recently characterized the Δlpp Δpla double in-frame deletion mutant of Yersinia pestis CO92 molecularly, biologically, and immunologically. While Braun lipoprotein (Lpp) activates toll-like receptor-2 to initiate an inflammatory cascade, plasminogen activator (Pla) protease facilitates bacterial dissemination in the host. The Δlpp Δpla double mutant was highly attenuated in evoking bubonic and pneumonic plague, was rapidly cleared from mouse organs, and generated humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to provide subsequent protection to mice against a lethal challenge dose of wild-type (WT) CO92. Here, we further characterized the Δlpp Δpla double mutant in two murine macrophage cell lines as well as in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages to gauge its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. We first demonstrated that the Δpla single and the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were unable to survive efficiently in murine and human macrophages, unlike WT CO92. We observed that the levels of Pla and its associated protease activity were not affected in the Δlpp single mutant, and, likewise, deletion of the pla gene from WT CO92 did not alter Lpp levels. Further, our study revealed that both Lpp and Pla contributed to the intracellular survival of WT CO92 via different mechanisms. Importantly, the ability of the Δlpp Δpla double mutant to be phagocytized by macrophages, to stimulate production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, and to activate the nitric oxide killing pathways of the host cells remained unaltered when compared to the WT CO92-infected macrophages. Finally, macrophages infected with either the WT CO92 or the Δlpp Δpla double mutant were equally efficient in their uptake of zymosan particles as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Overall, our data indicated that although the Δlpp Δpla double mutant of Y. pestis CO92 was highly attenuated, it retained the ability to elicit innate and subsequent acquired immune

  3. Effects of Oils Rich in Linoleic and α-Linolenic Acids on Fatty Acid Profile and Gene Expression in Goat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Goh, Yong Meng

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of foods can result in a healthier product. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of flaxseed oil or sunflower oil in the goat diet on fatty acid composition of muscle and expression of lipogenic genes in the semitendinosus (ST) muscle. Twenty-one entire male Boer kid goats were fed diets containing different levels of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (LNA) for 100 days. Inclusion of flaxseed oil increased (p < 0.05) the α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) concentration in the ST muscle. The diet high in α-linolenic acid (p < 0.05) decreased the arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6) and conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) c-9 t-11 content in the ST muscle. There was a significant (p < 0.05) upregulation of PPARα and PPARγ gene expression and downregulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene in the ST muscle for the high α-linolenic acid group compared with the low α-linolenic acid group. The results of the present study show that flaxseed oil as a source of α-linolenic acid can be incorporated into the diets of goats to enrich goat meat with n-3 fatty acids, upregulate the PPARα and PPARγ, and downregulate the SCD gene expression. PMID:25255382

  4. Gene expression profiles of murine fatty liver induced by the administration of valproic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho; Hong, Il; Kim, Mingoo; Lee, Byung Hoon; Kim, Ju-Han; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-Il; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu; Lee, Mi-Ock . E-mail: molee@snu.ac.kr

    2007-04-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) has been used as anticonvulsants, however, it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis and necrosis in the liver. To explore the mechanisms of VPA-induced steatosis, we profiled the gene expression patterns of the mouse liver that were altered by treatment with VPA using microarray analysis. VPA was orally administered as a single dose of 100 mg/kg (low-dose) or 1000 mg/kg (high-dose) to ICR mice and the animals were killed at 6, 24, or 72 h after treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were not significantly altered in the experimental animals. However, symptoms of steatosis were observed at 72 h with low-dose and at 24 h and 72 h with high-dose. After microarray data analysis, 1910 genes were selected by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) as VPA-responsive genes. Hierarchical clustering revealed that gene expression changes depended on the time rather than the dose of VPA treatment. Gene profiling data showed striking changes in the expression of genes associated with lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism, oncogenesis, signal transduction, and development. Functional categorization of 1156 characteristically up- and down-regulated genes (cutoff > 1.5-fold) revealed that 60 genes were involved in lipid metabolism that was interconnected with biological pathways for biosynthesis of triglyceride and cholesterol, catabolism of fatty acid, and lipid transport. This gene expression profile may be associated with the known steatogenic hepatotoxicity of VPA and it may provide useful information for prediction of hepatotoxicity of unknown chemicals or new drug candidates through pattern recognition.

  5. Protease addition to increase yield and fermentation rate in dry grind ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a small scale laboratory procedure (100g shake flasks) for ethanol production from corn, the effects of acid protease addition during the fermentation step were evaluated. The batch fermentations were conducted in duplicate using standard conditions and with protease addition during fermentati...

  6. HIV protease inhibitors disrupt astrocytic glutamate transporter function and neurobehavioral performance

    PubMed Central

    Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Asahchop, Eugene L.; Acharjee, Shaona; Baker, Glen B.; Power, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The neurotoxic actions of the HIV protease inhibitors, amprenavir (APV) and lopinavir (LPV) were investigated. Design: With combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-infected persons exhibit neurocognitive impairments, raising the possibility that cART might exert adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects. We examined the effects of LPV and APV using in-vitro and in-vivo assays of CNS function. Methods: Gene expression, cell viability and amino-acid levels were measured in human astrocytes, following exposure to APV or LPV. Neurobehavioral performance, amino-acid levels and neuropathology were examined in HIV-1 Vpr transgenic mice after treatment with APV or LPV. Results: Excitatory amino-acid transporter-2 (EAAT2) expression was reduced in astrocytes treated with LPV or APV, especially LPV (P < 0.05), which was accompanied by reduced intracellular l-glutamate levels in LPV-treated cells (P < 0.05). Treatment of astrocytes with APV or LPV reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (P < 0.05) although cell survival was unaffected. Exposure of LPV to astrocytes augmented glutamate-evoked transient rises in [Cai] (P < 0.05). Vpr mice treated with LPV showed lower concentrations of l-glutamate, l-aspartate and l-serine in cortex compared with vehicle-treated mice (P < 0.05). Total errors in T-maze assessment were increased in LPV and APV-treated animals (P < 0.05). EAAT2 expression was reduced in the brains of protease inhibitor-treated animals, which was associated with gliosis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These results indicated that contemporary protease inhibitors disrupt astrocyte functions at therapeutic concentrations with enhanced sensitivity to glutamate, which can lead to neurobehavioral impairments. ART neurotoxicity should be considered in future therapeutic regimens for HIV/AIDS. PMID:26558720

  7. PEGylated substrates of NSP4 protease: A tool to study protease specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka, Magdalena; Gruba, Natalia; Grzywa, Renata; Giełdoń, Artur; Bąchor, Remigiusz; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Sieńczyk, Marcin; Dieter, Jenne; Szewczuk, Zbigniew; Rolka, Krzysztof; Lesner, Adam

    2016-03-01

    Herein we present the synthesis of a novel type of peptidomimetics composed of repeating diaminopropionic acid residues modified with structurally diverse heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol chains (abbreviated as DAPEG). Based on the developed compounds, a library of fluorogenic substrates was synthesized. Further library deconvolution towards human neutrophil serine protease 4 (NSP4) yielded highly sensitive and selective internally quenched peptidomimetic substrates. In silico analysis of the obtained peptidomimetics revealed the presence of an interaction network with distant subsites located on the enzyme surface.

  8. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  9. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of the gene for goose fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Kameda, K; Goodridge, A G

    1991-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase is regulated by diet and hormones, with regulation being primarily transcriptional. In chick embryo hepatocytes in culture, triiodothyronine stimulates accumulation of enzyme and transcription of the gene. Since the 5'-flanking region of this gene is likely involved in hormonal regulation of its expression, we have isolated and partially characterized an avian fatty acid synthase gene. A genomic DNA library was constructed in a cosmid vector and screened with cDNA clones that contained sequence complementary to the 3' end of goose fatty acid synthase mRNA. A genomic clone (approximately 35 kilobase pairs (kb] was isolated, and a 6.5-kb EcoRI fragment thereof contained DNA complementary to the 3' noncoding region of fatty acid synthase mRNA. Additional cosmid libraries were screened with 5' fragments of previously isolated genomic clones, resulting in the isolation of five overlapping cosmid DNAs. The entire region of cloned DNA spans approximately 105 kb. Exon-containing fragments were identified by hybridization with end-labeled poly(A)+ RNA and by hybridization of labeled exon-containing genomic DNA fragments to fatty acid synthase mRNA. A new set of cDNA clones spanning approximately 3.2 kb was isolated from a lambda-ZAP goose liver cDNA library using the 5'-most exon-containing fragment of the 5'-most genomic DNA clone. This region of mRNA contains a 5'-untranslated sequence and a continuous open reading frame which includes a region that codes for the essential cysteine of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. The entire fatty acid synthase gene spans about 50 kb. The 5' 15 kb of the gene contain 7 exons. S1 nuclease and primer extension analyses were used to identify a single site for initiation of transcription, 174 nucleotides upstream from the putative translation initiation codon. Putative "TATA" and "CCAAT" boxes are located 28 and 60 base pairs (bp), respectively, upstream of the site of initiation of transcription. The 5'-flanking 597

  11. Protease degradable electrospun fibrous hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ryan J.; Bassin, Ethan J.; Rodell, Christopher B.; Burdick, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers are promising in biomedical applications to replicate features of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). However, nearly all electrospun scaffolds are either non-degradable or degrade hydrolytically, whereas natural ECM degrades proteolytically, often through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Here, we synthesize reactive macromers that contain protease-cleavable and fluorescent peptides and are able to form both isotropic hydrogels and electrospun fibrous hydrogels through a photoinitiated polymerization. These biomimetic scaffolds are susceptible to protease-mediated cleavage in vitro in a protease dose dependent manner and in vivo in a subcutaneous mouse model using transdermal fluorescent imaging to monitor degradation. Importantly, materials containing an alternate and non-protease-cleavable peptide sequence are stable in both in vitro and in vivo settings. To illustrate the specificity in degradation, scaffolds with mixed fiber populations support selective fiber degradation based on individual fiber degradability. Overall, this represents a novel biomimetic approach to generate protease-sensitive fibrous scaffolds for biomedical applications. PMID:25799370

  12. A Systems Genetics Approach Identifies Gene Regulatory Networks Associated with Fatty Acid Composition in Brassica rapa Seed.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Ram Kumar; Del Carpio, Dunia Pino; Xiao, Dong; Bucher, Johan; Jin, Mina; Boyle, Kerry; Fobert, Pierre; Visser, Richard G F; Maliepaard, Chris; Bonnema, Guusje

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids in seeds affect seed germination and seedling vigor, and fatty acid composition determines the quality of seed oil. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fatty acid and transcript abundance was integrated with gene network analysis to unravel the genetic regulation of seed fatty acid composition in a Brassica rapa doubled haploid population from a cross between a yellow sarson oil type and a black-seeded pak choi. The distribution of major QTLs for fatty acids showed a relationship with the fatty acid types: linkage group A03 for monounsaturated fatty acids, A04 for saturated fatty acids, and A05 for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Using a genetical genomics approach, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) hotspots were found at major fatty acid QTLs on linkage groups A03, A04, A05, and A09. An eQTL-guided gene coexpression network of lipid metabolism-related genes showed major hubs at the genes BrPLA2-ALPHA, BrWD-40, a number of seed storage protein genes, and the transcription factor BrMD-2, suggesting essential roles for these genes in lipid metabolism. Three subnetworks were extracted for the economically important and most abundant fatty acids erucic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids. Network analysis, combined with comparison of the genome positions of cis- or trans-eQTLs with fatty acid QTLs, allowed the identification of candidate genes for genetic regulation of these fatty acids. The generated insights in the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and the underlying complex gene regulatory networks in B. rapa seeds are discussed. PMID:26518343

  13. Characterizing Protease Specificity: How Many Substrates Do We Need?

    PubMed Central

    Schauperl, Michael; Fuchs, Julian E.; Waldner, Birgit J.; Huber, Roland G.; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of cleavage entropies allows to quantify, map and compare protease substrate specificity by an information entropy based approach. The metric intrinsically depends on the number of experimentally determined substrates (data points). Thus a statistical analysis of its numerical stability is crucial to estimate the systematic error made by estimating specificity based on a limited number of substrates. In this contribution, we show the mathematical basis for estimating the uncertainty in cleavage entropies. Sets of cleavage entropies are calculated using experimental cleavage data and modeled extreme cases. By analyzing the underlying mathematics and applying statistical tools, a linear dependence of the metric in respect to 1/n was found. This allows us to extrapolate the values to an infinite number of samples and to estimate the errors. Analyzing the errors, a minimum number of 30 substrates was found to be necessary to characterize substrate specificity, in terms of amino acid variability, for a protease (S4-S4’) with an uncertainty of 5 percent. Therefore, we encourage experimental researchers in the protease field to record specificity profiles of novel proteases aiming to identify at least 30 peptide substrates of maximum sequence diversity. We expect a full characterization of protease specificity helpful to rationalize biological functions of proteases and to assist rational drug design. PMID:26559682

  14. Comparative Analysis of Human, Mouse, and Pig Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Gene Structures.

    PubMed

    Eun, Kiyoung; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Jeon, Hye-Min; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Hyunggee

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the coding and regulatory sequences of genes in different species provides information on whether proteins translated from genes have conserved functions or gene expressions are regulated by analogical mechanisms. Herein, we compared the coding and regulatory sequences of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) from humans, mice, and pigs. The GFAP gene encodes a class III intermediate filament protein expressed specifically in astrocytes of the central nervous system. On comparing the mRNA, regulatory region (promoter), and protein sequences of GFAP gene in silico, we found that GFAP mRNA 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), promoter, and amino acid sequences showed higher similarities between humans and pigs than between humans and mice. In addition, the promoter-luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that the pig GFAP promoter functioned in human astrocytes. Notably, the 1.8-kb promoter fragment upstream from transcription initiation site showed strongest transcriptional activity compared to 5.2-kb DNA fragment or other regions of GFAP promoter. We also found that pig GFAP mRNA and promoter activity increased in pig fibroblasts by human IL-1β treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that the regulatory mechanisms and functions of pig genes might be more similar to those of humans than mice, indicating that pigs, particularly miniature pigs, are a useful model for studying human biological and pathological events. PMID:26913554

  15. Alkaline extracellular protease produced by Saccharomycopsis lipolytica CX161-1B.

    PubMed

    Ogrydziak, D M; Scharf, S J

    1982-06-01

    Saccharomycopsis lipolytica CX161-1B, a strain suitable for genetic studies, when grown at neutral pH produced a single alkaline extracellular protease, lower levels of acid extracellular protease(s) and no neutral extracellular protease. The alkaline protease was purified to homogeneity (as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated by gel filtration to be 27000-30000, and the isoelectric point was pH 5.7. The purified enzyme had an alkaline pH optimum (pH 9-10). It was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, reversibly inhibited by EDTA, partially inhibited by o-phenanthroline, and not inhibited by dithiothreitol, N-ethylmaleimide or 4-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid, indicating that it is a serine protease. The content of sulphur amino acids was determined, and the purified protease contained no more than 1.8% carbohydrate as determined by the phenol-sulphuric acid method. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (25 residues) was determined; the N-terminal amino acid was alanine. PMID:6750031

  16. Fighting an enemy within: cytoplasmic inhibitors of bacterial cysteine proteases.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Jan; Golonka, Ewa; Filipek, Renata; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2005-08-01

    The genes encoding secreted, broad-spectrum activity cysteine proteases of Staphylococcus spp. (staphopains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (streptopain, SpeB) are genetically linked to genes encoding cytoplasmic inhibitors. While staphopain inhibitors have lipocalin-like folds, streptopain is inhibited by a protein bearing the scaffold of the enzyme profragment. Bioinformatic analysis of other prokaryotic genomes has revealed that two more species may utilize this same genetic arrangement to control streptopain-like proteases with lipocalin-like inhibitors, while three other species may employ a C-terminally located domain that resembles the profragment. This apparently represents a novel system that bacteria use to control the intracellular activity of their proteases. PMID:16045606

  17. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Xiang-dong; Zhang, Yuan-yu; Yang, Jing; Qi, Guang-xun; Guo, Dong-quan; Xing, Guo-jie; Yao, Yao; Xu, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-yun; Li, Qi-yun; Dong, Ying-shan

    2014-01-01

    The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. PMID:25197629

  18. The rolC gene increases caffeoylquinic acid production in transformed artichoke cells.

    PubMed

    Vereshchagina, Y V; Bulgakov, V P; Grigorchuk, V P; Rybin, V G; Veremeichik, G N; Tchernoded, G K; Gorpenchenko, T Y; Koren, O G; Phan, N H T; Minh, N T; Chau, L T; Zhuravlev, Y N

    2014-09-01

    Caffeoylquinic acids are found in artichokes, and they are currently considered important therapeutic or preventive agents for treating Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. We transformed artichoke [the cultivated cardoon or Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC (Asteraceae)] with the rolC gene, which is a known inducer of secondary metabolism. High-performance liquid chromatography with UV and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV-HRMS) revealed that the predominant metabolites synthesized in the transgenic calli were 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and chlorogenic acid. The rolC-transformed calli contained 1.5% caffeoylquinic acids by dry weight. The overall production of these metabolites was three times higher than that of the corresponding control calli. The enhancing effect of rolC remained stable over long-term cultivation. PMID:24938208

  19. Transplastomic Nicotiana benthamiana plants expressing multiple defence genes encoding protease inhibitors and chitinase display broad-spectrum resistance against insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Jane, Wann-Neng; He, Yong; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2014-05-01

    Plastid engineering provides several advantages for the next generation of transgenic technology, including the convenient use of transgene stacking and the generation of high expression levels of foreign proteins. With the goal of generating transplastomic plants with multiresistance against both phytopathogens and insects, a construct containing a monocistronic patterned gene stack was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plastids harbouring sweet potato sporamin, taro cystatin and chitinase from Paecilomyces javanicus. Transplastomic lines were screened and characterized by Southern/Northern/Western blot analysis for the confirmation of transgene integration and respective expression level. Immunogold localization analyses confirmed the high level of accumulation proteins that were specifically expressed in leaf and root plastids. Subsequent functional bioassays confirmed that the gene stacks conferred a high level of resistance against both insects and phytopathogens. Specifically, larva of Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua either died or exhibited growth retardation after ingesting transplastomic plant leaves. In addition, the inhibitory effects on both leaf spot diseases caused by Alternaria alternata and soft rot disease caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum were markedly observed. Moreover, tolerance to abiotic stresses such as salt/osmotic stress was highly enhanced. The results confirmed that the simultaneous expression of sporamin, cystatin and chitinase conferred a broad spectrum of resistance. Conversely, the expression of single transgenes was not capable of conferring such resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an efficacious stacked combination of plastid-expressed defence genes which resulted in an engineered tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:24479648

  20. Bugs, genes, fatty acids, and serotonin: Unraveling inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed Central

    Kaunitz, Jonathan; Nayyar, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    The annual incidence of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease has increased at an alarming rate. Although the specific pathophysiology underlying IBD continues to be elusive, it is hypothesized that IBD results from an aberrant and persistent immune response directed against microbes or their products in the gut, facilitated by the genetic susceptibility of the host and intrinsic alterations in mucosal barrier function. In this review, we will describe advances in the understanding of how the interaction of host genetics and the intestinal microbiome contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on bacterial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) as possible key signaling molecules.  In particular, we will describe alterations of the intestinal microbiota in IBD, focusing on how genetic loci affect the gut microbial phylogenetic distribution and the production of their major microbial metabolic product, SCFAs. We then describe how enteroendocrine cells and myenteric nerves express SCFA receptors that integrate networks such as the cholinergic and serotonergic neural systems and the glucagon-like peptide hormonal pathway, to modulate gut inflammation, permeability, and growth as part of an integrated model of IBD pathogenesis.  Through this integrative approach, we hope that novel hypotheses will emerge that will be tested in reductionist, hypothesis-driven studies in order to examine the interrelationship of these systems in the hope of better understanding IBD pathogenesis and to inform novel therapies.

  1. Monitoring Gene Expression In Vivo with Nucleic Acid Molecular Switches

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Ward; Patricia Bray-Ward

    2005-01-26

    The overall objectives of this project were (1) to develop allosteric ribozymes capable of acting as molecular switches for monitoring the levels of both wild-type and mutant mRNA species in living cells and whole animals and (2) to develop highly efficient reagents to deliver nucleic acid molecular switches into living cells, tissues and animals with the ultimate goal of expression profiling specific mRNAs of diagnostic or prognostic value within tumors in animals. During the past year, we have moved our laboratory to Nevada and in the moving process we have lost electronic and paper copies of prior progress reports concerning the construction and biological properties of the molecular switches. Since there was minimal progress during the last year on molecular switches, we are relying on past project reports to provide a summary of our data on this facet of the grant. Here we are summarizing the work done on the delivery reagents and their application to inducing mutations in living cells, which will include work done during the no cost extension.

  2. Identification and transcriptional profiling of Pseudomonas putida genes involved in furoic acid metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furfural (2-furaldehyde) is a furan formed by dehydration of pentose sugars. Pseudomonas putida Fu1 metabolizes furfural through a pathway involving conversion to 2-oxoglutarate, via 2-furoic acid and Coenzyme A intermediates. To identify genes involved in furan metabolism, two P. putida transposo...

  3. Efflux Pump Gene Expression in Erwinia Chrysanthemi is Induced by Exposure to Phenolic Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signaling molecule in local and systemic plant resistance. Following infection by microbial pathogens and the initial oxidative burst in plants, SA accumulation functions in the amplification of defense gene expression. Production of pathogenesisrelated proteins a...

  4. A Low Phytic Acid Barley Mutation Alters Gene Expression in Early Seed Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid (lpa) mutants have reduced levels of seed phytate, the most abundant form of phosphorus in seeds, and increases in seed inorganic phosphorus. To understand how lpa mutations affect metabolic and developmental processes during seed growth, gene expression ...

  5. Differential influence of distinct fatty acids on cardiomyocyte metabolic gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus increases risk for cardiovascular disease, and exposes the heart to high plasma fatty acid (FA) levels, which induce genes promoting FA oxidation (e.g., malonyl-CoA decarboxylase; mcd), as well as those suppressing carbohydrate oxidation (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4; pdk4...

  6. DIFFERENTIAL INFLUENCE OF DISTINCT FATTY ACIDS ON CARDIOMYOCYTE METABOLIC GENE EXPRESSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic adaptation of the heart to increased fatty acids (FAs) in the diabetic milieu is mediated by induction of genes promoting FA oxidation (e.g. malonyl-CoA decarboxylase; mcd), as well as those suppressing car...

  7. GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

  8. Metatranscriptomic analysis of lactic acid bacterial gene expression during kimchi fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Jin, Hyun Mi; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Madsen, Eugene L; Jeon, Che Ok

    2013-05-15

    Barcode-based 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing showed that the kimchi microbiome was dominated by six lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc (Lc.) mesenteroides, Lactobacillus (Lb.) sakei, Weissella (W.) koreensis, Lc. gelidum, Lc. carnosum, and Lc. gasicomitatum. Therefore, we used completed genome sequences of representatives of these bacteria to investigate metatranscriptomic gene-expression profiles during kimchi fermentation. Total mRNA was extracted from kimchi samples taken at five time points during a 29 day-fermentation. Nearly all (97.7%) of the metagenome sequences that were recruited on all LAB genomes of GenBank mapped onto the six LAB strains; this high coverage rate indicated that this approach for assessing processes carried out by the kimchi microbiome was valid. Expressed mRNA sequences (as cDNA) were determined using Illumina GA IIx. Assignment of mRNA sequences to metabolic genes using MG-RAST revealed the prevalence of carbohydrate metabolism and lactic acid fermentation. The mRNA sequencing reads were mapped onto genomes of the six LAB strains, which showed that Lc. mesenteroides was most active during the early-stage fermentation, whereas gene expression by Lb. sakei and W. koreensis was high during later stages. However, gene expression by Lb. sakei decreased rapidly at 25 days of fermentation, which was possibly caused by bacteriophage infection of the Lactobacillus species. Many genes related to carbohydrate transport and hydrolysis and lactate fermentation were actively expressed, which indicated typical heterolactic acid fermentation. Mannitol dehydrogenase-encoding genes (mdh) were identified from all Leuconostoc species and especially Lc. mesenteroides, which harbored three copies (two copies on chromosome and one copy on plasmid) of mdh with different expression patterns. These results contribute to knowledge of the active populations and gene expression in the LAB community responsible for an important fermentation process. PMID

  9. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  10. Characterization of the Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes in Cucumber: Structure, Phylogeny, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturases (FADs) introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids, and therefore play a critical role in plant development and acclimation to environmental stresses. In this study, 23 full-length FAD genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were identified through database searches, including three CsFAB2 genes, two CsFAD2 genes, fourteen CsFAD5 genes, and one gene each for CsFAD3, CsFAD4, CsFAD6 and CsFAD7. These cucumber FAD genes were distributed on all seven chromosomes and two additional scaffolds. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the cucumber FAD proteins were clustered into five subfamilies with their counterparts from other plants. Gene structures and protein sequences were considerably conserved in each subfamily. All three CsFAB2 proteins shared conserved structure with the known plant soluble FAD proteins. The other cucumber FADs belonged to the membrane-bound FADs and contained three highly conserved histidine boxes. Additionally, the putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was found at the C-termini of the CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 proteins, while the N-termini of CsFAD4, CsFAD5, CsFAD6, CsFAD7 and three CsFAB2s contained a predicted chloroplast signal peptide, which was consistent with their associated metabolic pathways. Furthermore, a gene expression analysis showed that CsFAD2 and CsFAD3 were universally expressed in all tested tissues, whereas the other cucumber FAD genes were preferentially expressed in the cotyledons or leaves. The tissue-specific expression patterns of cucumber FAD genes were correlated well with the differences in the fatty acid compositions ofroots and leaves. Finally, the cucumber FAD genes showed a cold-induced and heat-repressed expression pattern, although with distinct regulatory time courses among the different CsFAD members, which indicates the potential roles of the FADs in temperature stress resistance in cucumber. PMID:26938877

  11. Regulation of inflammatory and lipid metabolism genes by eicosapentaenoic acid-rich oil[S

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, Peter J.; Bhatia, Sujata K.; Belcher, Leigh A; Hannon, Daniel B.; Thompson, Jerry T.; Vanden Heuvel, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3-PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are associated with prevention of various aspects of metabolic syndrome. In the present studies, the effects of oil rich in EPA on gene expression and activation of nuclear receptors was examined and compared with other ω3-PUFAs. The EPA-rich oil (EO) altered the expression of FA metabolism genes in THP-1 cells, including stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) and FA desaturase-1 and -2 (FASDS1 and -2). Other ω3-PUFAs resulted in a similar gene expression response for a subset of genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation. In reporter assays, EO activated human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARβ/γ with minimal effects on PPARγ, liver X receptor, retinoid X receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and retinoid acid receptor γ (RARγ); these effects were similar to that observed for purified EPA. When serum from a 6 week clinical intervention with dietary supplements containing olive oil (control), DHA, or two levels of EPA were applied to THP-1 cells, the expression of SCD and FADS2 decreased in the cells treated with serum from the ω3-PUFA-supplemented individuals. Taken together, these studies indicate regulation of gene expression by EO that is consistent with treating aspects of dyslipidemia and inflammation. PMID:22556214

  12. Exploring the diversity of arsenic resistance genes from acid mine drainage microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Morgante, Verónica; Mirete, Salvador; de Figueras, Carolina G; Postigo Cacho, Marina; González-Pastor, José E

    2015-06-01

    The microbial communities from the Tinto River, a natural acid mine drainage environment, were explored to search for novel genes involved in arsenic resistance using a functional metagenomic approach. Seven pentavalent arsenate resistance clones were selected and analysed to find the genes responsible for this phenotype. Insights about their possible mechanisms of resistance were obtained from sequence similarities and cellular arsenic concentration. A total of 19 individual open reading frames were analysed, and each one was individually cloned and assayed for its ability to confer arsenic resistance in Escherichia coli cells. A total of 13 functionally active genes involved in arsenic resistance were identified, and they could be classified into different global processes: transport, stress response, DNA damage repair, phospholipids biosynthesis, amino acid biosynthesis and RNA-modifying enzymes. Most genes (11) encode proteins not previously related to heavy metal resistance or hypothetical or unknown proteins. On the other hand, two genes were previously related to heavy metal resistance in microorganisms. In addition, the ClpB chaperone and the RNA-modifying enzymes retrieved in this work were shown to increase the cell survival under different stress conditions (heat shock, acid pH and UV radiation). Thus, these results reveal novel insights about unidentified mechanisms of arsenic resistance. PMID:24801164

  13. Polyamidoamine dendrimer and oleic acid-functionalized graphene as biocompatible and efficient gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiahui; Ma, Dongmei; Tang, Hao; Tan, Liang; Xie, Qingji; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2014-06-11

    Functionalized graphene has good potential in biomedical applications. To address a better and multiplex design of graphene-based gene vectors, the graphene-oleate-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer hybrids were synthesized by the oleic acid adsorption and covalent linkage of PAMAM dendrimers. The micromorphology, electrical charge property, and amount of free amine groups of the graphene-oleate-PAMAM hybrids were characterized, and the peripheral functional groups were identified. The PAMAM dendrimers could be tethered onto graphene surface in high density. The graphene-oleate-PAMAM hybrids exhibit relatively good dispersity and stability in aqueous solutions. To evaluate the potential application of the hybrids in gene delivery vectors, cytotoxicity to HeLa and MG-63 cells and gene (plasmid DNA of enhanced green fluorescent protein) transfection capacity of the hybrids were investigated in detail. The graphene-oleate-PAMAM hybrids show mammalian cell type- and dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity. Under the optimal condition, the hybrids possess good biocompatibility and gene transfection capacity. The surface modification of graphene with oleic acid and PAMAM improves the gene transfection efficiency 13 times in contrast to the ultrasonicated graphene. Moreover, the hybrids show better transfection efficiency than the graphene oxide-PAMAM without the oleic acid modification. PMID:24836601

  14. Production, Purification, and Biochemical Characterization of Thermostable Metallo-Protease from Novel Bacillus alkalitelluris TWI3 Isolated from Tannery Waste.

    PubMed

    Anandharaj, Marimuthu; Sivasankari, Balayogan; Siddharthan, Nagarajan; Rani, Rizwana Parveen; Sivakumar, Subramaniyan

    2016-04-01

    Protease enzymes in tannery industries have enormous applications. Seeking a potential candidate for efficient protease production has emerged in recent years. In our study, we sought to isolate proteolytic bacteria from tannery waste dumping site in Tamilnadu, India. Novel proteolytic Bacillus alkalitelluris TWI3 was isolated and tested for protease production. Maximum protease production was achieved using lactose and skim milk as a carbon and nitrogen source, respectively, and optimum growth temperature was found to be 40 °C at pH 8. Protease enzyme was purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation method and anion exchange chromatography. Diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) column chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography yielded an overall 4.92-fold and 7.19-fold purification, respectively. The 42.6-kDa TWI3 protease was characterized as alkaline metallo-protease and stable up to 60 °C and pH 10. Ca(2+), Mn(2+), and Mg(2+) ions activated the protease, while Hg(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(2+) greatly inhibited it. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited TWI3 protease and was activated by Ca(2+), which confirmed that TWI3 protease is a metallo-protease. Moreover, this protease is capable of dehairing goat skin and also removed several cloth stains, which makes it more suitable for various biotechnological applications. PMID:26749296

  15. Carbohydrate protease conjugates: Stabilized proteases for peptide synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wartchow, C.A.; Wang, Peng; Bednarski, M.D.; Callstrom, M.R. |

    1995-12-31

    The synthesis of oligopeptides using stable carbohydrate protease conjugates (CPCs) was examined in acetonitrile solvent systems. CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin] was used for the preparation of peptides containing histidine, phenylalanine, tryptophan in the P{sub 1} position in 60-93% yield. The CPC[{alpha}-chymotrypsin]-catalyzed synthesis of octamer Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-OEt from Z-Gly-Gly-Phe-Gly-Gly-Phe-OMe was achieved in 71% yield demonstrating that synthesis peptides containing both hydrophylic and hydrophobic amino acids. The P{sub 2} specificity of papain for aromatic residues was utilized for the 2 + 3 coupling of Z-Tyr-Gly-OMe to H{sub 2}N-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH to generate the leucine enkephalin derivative in 79% yield. Although papain is nonspecific for the hydrolysis of N-benzyloxycarbonyl amino acid methyl esters in aqueous solution, the rates of synthesis for these derivitives with nucleophile leucine tert-butyl ester differed by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. CPC[thermolysin] was used to prepare the aspartame precursor Z-Asp-Phe-OMe in 90% yield. The increased stability of CPCs prepared from periodate-modified poly(2-methacryl- amido-2-deoxy-D-glucose), poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose), and poly(5-methacryl-amido-5-deoxy-D-ribose), carbohydrate materials designed to increase the aldehyde concentration in aqueous solution, suggests that the stability of CPCs is directly related to the aldehyde concentration of the carbohydrate material. Periodate oxidation of poly(2-methacrylamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose) followed by covalent attachment to {alpha}-chymotrypsin gave a CPC with catalytic activity in potassium phosphate buffer at 90{degrees}C for 2 h. 1 fig., 1 tab., 40 refs.

  16. Skin Commensal Staphylococci May Act as Reservoir for Fusidic Acid Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Wei-Chun; Chen, Hsiao-Jan; Lin, Yu-Tzu; Tsai, Jui-Chang; Chen, Chiao-Wei; Lu, Hsiao-Hung; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Jheng, Yao-Yu; Leong, Kin Hong; Teng, Lee-Jene

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the occurrence and mechanisms of fusidic acid resistance present in staphylococci isolated from 59 healthy volunteers. The fingers of the volunteers were screened for the presence of staphylococci, and the collected isolates were tested for resistance to fusidic acid. A total of 34 fusidic acid resistant staphylococcal strains (all were coagulase-negative) were isolated from 22 individuals (22/59, 37.3%). Examination of the resistance genes revealed that acquired fusB or fusC was present in Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus capitis subsp. urealyticus, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. Resistance islands (RIs) carrying fusB were found in S. epidermidis and S. capitis subsp. urealyticus, while staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC)-related structures harboring fusC were found in S. hominis subsp. hominis. Genotypic analysis of S. epidermidis and S. hominis subsp. hominis indicated that the fus elements were disseminated in diverse genetic strain backgrounds. The fusC elements in S. hominis subsp. hominis strains were highly homologous to SCCfusC in the epidemic sequence type (ST) 239/SCCmecIII methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) or the pseudo SCCmec in ST779 MRSA. The presence of acquired fusidic acid resistance genes and their genetic environment in commensal staphylococci suggested that the skin commensal staphylococci may act as reservoir for fusidic acid resistance genes. PMID:26581090

  17. MmpL Genes Are Associated with Mycolic Acid Metabolism in Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Cristian; Rittmann, Doris; Singh, Albel; Krumbach, Karin; Bhatt, Kiranmai; Eggeling, Lothar; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Bhatt, Apoorva

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mycolic acids are vital components of the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are required for viability and virulence. While mycolic acid biosynthesis is studied extensively, components involved in mycolate transport remain unidentified. We investigated the role of large membrane proteins encoded by mmpL genes in mycolic acid transport in mycobacteria and the related corynebacteria. MmpL3 was found to be essential in mycobacteria and conditional depletion of MmpL3 in Mycobacterium smegmatis resulted in loss of cell wall mycolylation, and of the cell wall-associated glycolipid, trehalose dimycolate. In parallel, an accumulation of trehalose monomycolate (TMM) was observed, suggesting that mycolic acids were transported as TMM. In contrast to mycobacteria, we found redundancy in the role of two mmpL genes, in Corynebacterium glutamicum; a complete loss of trehalose-associated and cell wall bound corynomycolates was observed in an NCgl0228-NCgl2769 double mutant, but not in individual single mutants. Our studies highlight the role of mmpL genes in mycolic acid metabolism and identify potential new targets for anti-TB drug development. PMID:22520756

  18. Biological characterization of liver fatty acid binding gene from miniature pig liver cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y H; Wang, K F; Zhang, S; Fan, Y N; Guan, W J; Ma, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP) are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind to long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Wuzhishan miniature pig, and then the L-FABP gene was cloned from this cDNA library and an expression vector (pEGFP-N3-L-FABP) was constructed in vitro. This vector was transfected into hepatocytes to test its function. The results of western blotting analysis demonstrated that the L-FABP gene from our full-length enriched cDNA library regulated downstream genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family in hepatocytes. This study provides a theoretical basis and experimental evidence for the application of L-FABP for the treatment of liver injury. PMID:26345909

  19. The effect of pyruvate decarboxylase gene knockout in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on L-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Onishi, Toru; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Nagamori, Eiji; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2006-05-01

    A plant- and crop-based renewable plastic, poly-lactic acid (PLA), is receiving attention as a new material for a sustainable society in place of petroleum-based plastics. We constructed a metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae that has both pyruvate decarboxylase genes (PDC1 and PDC5) disrupted in the genetic background to express two copies of the bovine L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene. With this recombinant, the yield of lactate was 82.3 g/liter, up to 81.5% of the glucose being transformed into lactic acid on neutralizing cultivation, although pdc1 pdc5 double disruption led to ineffective decreases in cell growth and fermentation speed. This strain showed lactate productivity improvement as much as 1.5 times higher than the previous strain. This production yield is the highest value for a lactic acid-producing yeast yet reported. PMID:16717415

  20. Pro-soft Val-boroPro: a strategy for enhancing in vivo performance of boronic acid inhibitors of serine proteases.

    PubMed

    Poplawski, Sarah E; Lai, Jack H; Sanford, David G; Sudmeier, James L; Wu, Wengen; Bachovchin, William W

    2011-04-14

    Val-boroPro, 1, is a potent, but relatively nonspecific inhibitor of the prolyl peptidases. It has antihyperglycemic activity from inhibition of DPPIV but also striking anticancer activity and a toxicity for which the mechanisms are unknown. 1 cyclizes at physiological pH, which attenuates its inhibitory potency >100-fold, which is a "soft drug" effect. Here we show that this phenomenon can be exploited to create prodrugs with unique properties and potential for selective in vivo targeting. Enzyme-mediated release delivers 1 to the target in the active form at physiological pH; cyclization attenuates systemic pharmacological effects from subsequent diffusion. This "pro-soft" design is demonstrated with a construct activated by and targeted to DPPIV, including in vivo results showing improved antihyperglycemic activity and reduced toxicity relative to 1. Pro-soft derivatives of 1 can help to illuminate the mechanisms underlying the three biological activities, or to help localize 1 at a tumor and thereby lead to improved anticancer agents with reduced toxicity. The design concept can also be applied to a variety of other boronic acid inhibitors. PMID:21388136

  1. Revisiting rubisco as a protein substrate for insect midgut proteases.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Usha; Bhardwaj, Amit; Kumar, Rakesh; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Mazumdar-Leighton, Sudeshna

    2014-01-01

    Gene fragments encoding the large subunit (LS) of Rubisco (RBCL) were cloned from various species of host plants of phytophagous Lepidoptera and expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Recombinant RBCLs were compared among each other along with casein and native Rubisco as proteinaceous substrates for measuring total midgut protease activities of fourth instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera feeding on casein, Pieris brassicae feeding on cauliflower, and Antheraea assamensis feeding on Litsea monopetala and Persea bombycina. Cognate rRBCL (from the pertinent host plant species) substrates performed similar to noncognate rRBCL reflecting the conserved nature of encoding genes and the versatile use of these recombinant proteins. Casein and recombinant RBCL generally outperformed native Rubisco as substrates, except where inclusion of a reducing agent in the enzyme assay likely unfolded the plant proteins. Levels of total midgut protease activities detected in A. assamensis larvae feeding on two primary host species were similar, suggesting that the suite(s) of digestive enzymes in these insects could hydrolyze a plant protein efficiently. Protease activities detected in the presence of protease inhibitors and the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) suggested that recombinant RBCL was a suitable protein substrate for studying insect proteases using in vitro enzyme assays and substrate zymography. PMID:24338735

  2. Expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism during maturation in diploid and triploid female rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To study effects of sexual maturation on fatty acid metabolism in fish on a high nutritional plane, expression of thirty-five genes involved in fatty acid metabolism was determined in sexually maturing diploid (2N; fertile) and triploid (3N; sterile) female rainbow trout. Gene expression was assesse...

  3. Effects of Protease, Phytase and a Bacillus sp. Direct-Fed Microbial on Nutrient and Energy Digestibility, Ileal Brush Border Digestive Enzyme Activity and Cecal Short-Chain Fatty Acid Concentration in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Ganapathi R.; Romero, Luis F.; Persia, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of protease and phytase (PP) and a Bacillus sp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) on dietary energy and nutrient utilization in broiler chickens. In the first experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed diets supplemented with PP and DFM in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The 4 diets (control (CON), CON + PP, CON + DFM, and CON + PP + DFM) were fed from 15–21 days of age. In Experiment 1, significant interaction (P≤0.01) between PP and DFM on the apparent ileal digestibility coefficient for starch, crude protein, and amino acid indicated that both additives increased the digestibility. Both additives increased the nitrogen retention coefficient with a significant interaction (P≤0.01). Although no interaction was observed, significant main effects (P≤0.01) for nitrogen-corrected apparent ME (AMEn) for PP or DFM indicated an additive response. In a follow-up experiment, Ross 308 broiler chicks were fed the same experimental diets from 1–21 days of age. Activities of ileal brush border maltase, sucrase, and L-alanine aminopeptidase were increased (P≤0.01) by PP addition, while a trend (P = 0.07) for increased sucrase activity was observed in chickens fed DFM, in Experiment 2. The proportion of cecal butyrate was increased (P≤0.01) by DFM addition. Increased nutrient utilization and nitrogen retention appear to involve separate but complementary mechanisms for PP and DFM, however AMEn responses appear to have separate and additive mechanisms. PMID:25013936

  4. Candidate gene expression affects intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Xue, Wenda; Jin, Bangquan; Zhang, Xixia; Ma, Fei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the expression pattern of candidate genes with the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle of Duroc × Shanzhu commercial crossbred pigs. Animals of both sexes were slaughtered at a body weight of about 90 kg. The IMF content and fatty acid composition of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were measured and correlated with candidate genes mRNA expression (AdPLA, ADRB3, LEPR, MC4R, PPARγ, PPARα, LPL, PEPCK, and SCD). Females presented higher IMF content (p < 0.05) than males. The total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in males was greater (p < 0.01), whereas the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (p < 0.01) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (p < 0.05) were lower than in females. The expressions of AdPLA, MC4R, PEPCK, and SCD correlated with the IMF content (p < 0.05). AdPLA showed a positive association with MUFA and a negative association with SFA (p < 0.05). LEPR and MC4R were both positively and significantly associated with C18:3 and C20:0 (p < 0.05). PPARα and PPARγ were negatively correlated with SFA, and PPARγ was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). LPL was positively associated with MUFA and negatively associated with SFA (p < 0.05). PEPCK was negatively correlated with PUFA (p < 0.05). SCD was positively associated with MUFA (p < 0.05). The revealed correlations may confirm that these candidate genes are important for fat deposition and fatty acid composition in pigs, and the evaluation and use of these genes may be useful for improving porcine meat quality. PMID:23275256

  5. Protease Inhibitors in View of Peptide Substrate Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protease substrate profiling has nowadays almost become a routine task for experimentalists, and the knowledge on protease peptide substrates is easily accessible via the MEROPS database. We present a shape-based virtual screening workflow using vROCS that applies the information about the specificity of the proteases to find new small-molecule inhibitors. Peptide substrate sequences for three to four substrate positions of each substrate from the MEROPS database were used to build the training set. Two-dimensional substrate sequences were converted to three-dimensional conformations through mutation of a template peptide substrate. The vROCS query was built from single amino acid queries for each substrate position considering the relative frequencies of the amino acids. The peptide-substrate-based shape-based virtual screening approach gives good performance for the four proteases thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, and caspase-3 with the DUD-E data set. The results show that the method works for protease targets with different specificity profiles as well as for targets with different active-site mechanisms. As no structure of the target and no information on small-molecule inhibitors are required to use our approach, the method has significant advantages in comparison with conventional structure- and ligand-based methods. PMID:27247997

  6. Protease Inhibitors in View of Peptide Substrate Databases.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Birgit J; Fuchs, Julian E; Schauperl, Michael; Kramer, Christian; Liedl, Klaus R

    2016-06-27

    Protease substrate profiling has nowadays almost become a routine task for experimentalists, and the knowledge on protease peptide substrates is easily accessible via the MEROPS database. We present a shape-based virtual screening workflow using vROCS that applies the information about the specificity of the proteases to find new small-molecule inhibitors. Peptide substrate sequences for three to four substrate positions of each substrate from the MEROPS database were used to build the training set. Two-dimensional substrate sequences were converted to three-dimensional conformations through mutation of a template peptide substrate. The vROCS query was built from single amino acid queries for each substrate position considering the relative frequencies of the amino acids. The peptide-substrate-based shape-based virtual screening approach gives good performance for the four proteases thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, and caspase-3 with the DUD-E data set. The results show that the method works for protease targets with different specificity profiles as well as for targets with different active-site mechanisms. As no structure of the target and no information on small-molecule inhibitors are required to use our approach, the method has significant advantages in comparison with conventional structure- and ligand-based methods. PMID:27247997

  7. Cloning and sequence analysis of partial genomic DNA coding for HtrA-type serine protease of Wolbachia from human lymphatic filarial parasite, Wuchereria bancrofti

    PubMed Central

    Dhamodharan, R; Hoti, SL; Sivapragasam, G; Das, MK

    2011-01-01

    Background: Periplasmic serine proteases of HtrA type of Wolbachia have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of filarial disease. Aims: This study was aimed to sequence Wb-HtrA serine protease and analyze its phylogenetic position by comparing with other filarial and non-filarial nematode homologs. Materials and Methods: Partial HtrA gene fragment was amplified from DNA isolated from periodic and sub-periodic Wuchereria bancrofti parasites collected from Pondicherry and Nicobar islands, respectively. The amplicons were sequenced, and sequence homology and phylogenetic relationship with other filarial and non-filarial nematodes were analyzed. Results: Partial orthologue of HtrA-type serine protease from Wolbachia of W. bancrofti was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited 87%, 81% and 74% identity with the homologous Wolbachia proteases identified from Brugia malayi, Onchocerca volvulus and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The Wb-HtrA has arthologues in several proteobacteria with very high homology and hence is highly conserved not only among Wolbachia of filarial parasites but also across proteobacteria. The phylogenetic tree constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showed two main clusters: cluster-I containing bacteria that dwell in diverse habitats such as soil, fresh and marine waters and plants and cluster-II comprising Anaplasma sp. and Erlichia, and Wolbachia endosymbionts of insects and nematodes, in distinct groups. Conclusions: HtrA-type serine protease from Wolbachia of W. bancrofti is highly conserved among filarial parasites. It will be of interest to know whether filarial Wolbachia HtrA type of serine protease might influence apoptosis and lymphatic epithelium, thereby playing a role in the filarial pathogenesis. Such information will be useful for identifying targets for the development of newer drugs for filariasis treatment, especially for preventing lymphatic pathology. PMID:23508470

  8. Seasonal changes in nitrogen-cycle gene abundances and in bacterial communities in acidic forest soils.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaejoon; Yeom, Jinki; Han, Jiwon; Kim, Jisun; Park, Woojun

    2012-06-01

    The abundance of genes related to the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle and the microbial community in forest soils (bacteria, archaea, fungi) were quantitatively analyzed via real-time PCR using 11 sets of specific primers amplifying nifH, bacterial amoA, archaeal amoA, narG, nirS, nirK, norB, nosZ, bacterial 16S rRNA gene, archaeal 16S rRNA gene, and the ITS sequence of fungi. Soils were sampled from Bukhan Mountain from September of 2010 to July of 2011 (7 times). Bacteria were the predominant microbial community in all samples. However, the abundance of archaeal amoA was greater than bacterial amoA throughout the year. The abundances of nifH, nirS, nirK, and norB genes changed in a similar pattern, while narG and nosZ appeared in sensitive to the environmental changes. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were constructed from summer and winter soil samples and these revealed that Acidobacteria was the most predominant phylum in acidic forest soil environments in both samples. Although a specific correlation of environmental factor and gene abundance was not verified by principle component analysis, our data suggested that the combination of biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of forest soils created distinct conditions favoring the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle and that bacterial communities in undisturbed acidic forest soils were quite stable during seasonal change. PMID:22752898

  9. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Azelmat, Jabrane; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest. PMID:26859747

  10. The Daiokanzoto (TJ-84) Kampo Formulation Reduces Virulence Factor Gene Expression in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Possesses Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Protease Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fournier-Larente, Jade; Azelmat, Jabrane; Yoshioka, Masami; Hinode, Daisuke; Grenier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Kampo formulations used in Japan to treat a wide variety of diseases and to promote health are composed of mixtures of crude extracts from the roots, bark, leaves, and rhizomes of a number of herbs. The present study was aimed at identifying the beneficial biological properties of Daiokanzoto (TJ-84), a Kampo formulation composed of crude extracts of Rhubarb rhizomes and Glycyrrhiza roots, with a view to using it as a potential treatment for periodontal disease. Daiokanzoto dose-dependently inhibited the expression of major Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence factors involved in host colonization and tissue destruction. More specifically, Daiokanzoto reduced the expression of the fimA, hagA, rgpA, and rgpB genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The U937-3xκB-LUC monocyte cell line transfected with a luciferase reporter gene was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of Daiokanzoto. Daiokanzoto attenuated the P. gingivalis-mediated activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. It also reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL8) by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Lastly, Daiokanzoto, dose-dependently inhibited the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (-1 and -9). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence that Daiokanzoto shows potential for treating and/or preventing periodontal disease. The ability of this Kampo formulation to act on both bacterial pathogens and the host inflammatory response, the two etiological components of periodontal disease, is of high therapeutic interest. PMID:26859747

  11. Subchronic effects of valproic acid on gene expression profiles for lipid metabolism in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Ho |; Kim, Mingoo |; Lee, Byung-Hoon |; Kim, Ju-Han |; Kang, Kyung-Sun |; Kim, Hyung-Lae |; Yoon, Byung-Il |; Chung, Heekyoung; Kong, Gu |; Lee, Mi-Ock ||

    2008-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is used clinically to treat epilepsy, however it induces hepatotoxicity such as microvesicular steatosis. Acute hepatotoxicity of VPA has been well documented by biochemical studies and microarray analysis, but little is known about the chronic effects of VPA in the liver. In the present investigation, we profiled gene expression patterns in the mouse liver after subchronic treatment with VPA. VPA was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 500 mg/kg/day to ICR mice, and the livers were obtained after 1, 2, or 4 weeks. The activities of serum liver enzymes did not change, whereas triglyceride concentration increased significantly. Microarray analysis revealed that 1325 genes of a set of 32,996 individual genes were VPA responsive when examined by two-way ANOVA (P < 0.05) and fold change (> 1.5). Consistent with our previous results obtained using an acute VPA exposure model (Lee et al., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 220:45-59, 2007), the most significantly over-represented biological terms for these genes included lipid, fatty acid, and steroid metabolism. Biological pathway analysis suggests that the genes responsible for increased biosynthesis of cholesterol and triglyceride, and for decreased fatty acid {beta}-oxidation contribute to the abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by subchronic VPA treatment. A comparison of the VPA-responsive genes in the acute and subchronic models extracted 15 commonly altered genes, such as Cyp4a14 and Adpn, which may have predictive power to distinguish the mode of action of hepatotoxicants. Our data provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and useful information to predict steatogenic hepatotoxicity.

  12. Expanding Duplication of Free Fatty Acid Receptor-2 (GPR43) Genes in the Chicken Genome

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Desert, Colette; Callebaut, Isabelle; Djari, Anis; Klopp, Christophe; Pitel, Frédérique; Leroux, Sophie; Martin, Pascal; Froment, Pascal; Guilbert, Edith; Gondret, Florence; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Monget, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) belong to a family of five G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, so that their loss of function increases the risk of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the expansion of genes encoding paralogs of FFAR2 in the chicken, considered as a model organism for developmental biology and biomedical research. By estimating the gene copy number using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genomic DNA resequencing, and RNA sequencing data, we showed the existence of 23 ± 1.5 genes encoding FFAR2 paralogs in the chicken genome. The FFAR2 paralogs shared an identity from 87.2% up to 99%. Extensive gene conversion was responsible for this high degree of sequence similarities between these genes, and this concerned especially the four amino acids known to be critical for ligand binding. Moreover, elevated nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios on some amino acids within or in close-vicinity of the ligand-binding groove suggest that positive selection may have reduced the effective rate of gene conversion in this region, thus contributing to diversify the function of some FFAR2 paralogs. All the FFAR2 paralogs were located on a microchromosome in a same linkage group. FFAR2 genes were expressed in different tissues and cells such as spleen, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, abdominal adipose tissue, intestine, and lung, with the highest rate of expression in testis. Further investigations are needed to determine whether these chicken-specific events along evolution are the consequence of domestication and may play a role in regulating lipid metabolism in this species. PMID:25912043

  13. Fatty acid regulates gene expression and growth of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Chen, Y.; Tjandrawinata, R. R.

    2001-01-01

    It has been proposed that the omega-6 fatty acids increase the rate of tumor growth. Here we test that hypothesis in the PC-3 human prostate tumor. We found that the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA), and the AA metabolite PGE(2) stimulate tumor growth while oleic acid (OA) and the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) inhibited growth. In examining the role of AA in growth response, we extended our studies to analyze changes in early gene expression induced by AA. We demonstrate that c-fos expression is increased within minutes of addition in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the immediate early gene cox-2 is also increased in the presence of AA in a dose-dependent manner, while the constitutive cox-1 message was not increased. Three hours after exposure to AA, the synthesis of PGE(2) via COX-2 was also increased. Previous studies have demonstrated that AA was primarily delivered by low density lipoprotein (LDL) via its receptor (LDLr). Since it is known that hepatomas, acute myelogenous leukemia and colorectal tumors lack normal cholesterol feedback, we examined the role of the LDLr in growth regulation of the PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Analysis of ldlr mRNA expression and LDLr function demonstrated that human PC-3 prostate cancer cells lack normal feedback regulation. While exogenous LDL caused a significant stimulation of cell growth and PGE(2) synthesis, no change was seen in regulation of the LDLr by LDL. Taken together, these data show that normal cholesterol feedback of ldlr message and protein is lost in prostate cancer. These data suggest that unregulated over-expression of LDLr in tumor cells would permit increased availability of AA, which induces immediate early genes c-fos and cox-2 within minutes of uptake.

  14. Gene characterized for membrane desaturase that produces (E)-11 isomers of mono- and diunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitian; Jiao, Hongmei; Murray, Nancy C; O'Connor, Marion; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2002-01-22

    Moth species have evolved integral membrane desaturases that exhibit a wide diversity in substrate specificity, as well as in regiospecificity and stereospecificity of the unsaturated products. We report here the cloning and expression of a single desaturase from the sex pheromone gland of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, that makes E11 isomers of monounsaturated (E11-16 and E11-14) fatty acids and a diunsaturated (E9,E11-14) fatty acid. In the pheromone gland, the monoene precursor is made available by beta oxidation of E11-16 acid with a subsequent two-carbon loss to E9-14 acid. A functional assay using a baculovirus expression system required addition of myristic acid and E9-14 acid precursors to demonstrate the unusual regiospecificity and stereospecificity of this desaturase. The amino acid sequence of this desaturase has approximately 61% identity to that of Z11-desaturases from two other insect species, and only approximately 48% identity to the metabolic Z9-desaturases in those species. A pheromone-gland Z9-desaturase gene also was found with the light brown apple moth that differed in its deduced amino acid sequence (66% identity) with the metabolic Z9-desaturase from fat body in this species. PMID:11805319

  15. Incorporation of D-alanine into lipoteichoic acid and wall teichoic acid in Bacillus subtilis. Identification of genes and regulation.

    PubMed

    Perego, M; Glaser, P; Minutello, A; Strauch, M A; Leopold, K; Fischer, W

    1995-06-30

    The Bacillus subtilis dlt operon (D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid) is responsible for D-alanine esterification of both lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and wall teichoic acid (WTA). The dlt operon contains five genes, dltA-dltE. Insertional inactivation of dltA-dltD results in complete absence of D-alanine from both LTA and WTA. Based on protein sequence similarity with the Lactobacillus casei dlt gene products (Heaton, M. P., and Neuhaus, F. C. (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 4707-4717), we propose that dltA encodes the D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase (Dcl) and dltC the D-alanyl carrier protein (Dcp). We further hypothesize that the products of dltB and dltD are concerned with the transport of activated D-alanine through the membrane and the final incorporation of D-alanine into LTA. The hydropathy profiles of the dltB and dltD gene products suggest a transmembrane location for the former and an amino-terminal signal peptide for the latter. The incorporation of D-alanine into LTA and WTA did not separate in any of the mutants studied which indicates that either one and the same enzyme is responsible for D-alanine incorporation into both polymers or a separate enzyme, encoded outside the dlt operon, transfers the D-alanyl residues from LTA to WTA (Haas, R., Koch, H.-U., and Fischer, W. (1984) FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 21, 27-31). Inactivation of dltE has no effect on D-alanine ester content of both LTA and WTA, and at present we cannot propose any function for its gene product. Transcription analysis shows that the dlt operon is transcribed from a sigma D-dependent promoter and follows the pattern of transcription of genes belonging to the sigma D regulon. However, the turn off of transcription observed before sporulation starts seems to be dependent on the Spo0A and AbrB sporulation proteins and results in a D-alanine-free purely anionic LTA in the spore membrane. The dlt operon is dispensable for cell growth; its inactivation does not affect cell growth or morphology as

  16. Lvserpin3 is involved in shrimp innate immunity via the inhibition of bacterial proteases and proteases involved in prophenoloxidase system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjie; Liu, Tao; Hou, Fujun; Wang, Xianzong; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitor, represented by serpin, plays an important inhibitory role on proteases involved in the immune responses. To clarify the immune characterizations of serpin, a novel serpin (Lvserpin3) encoding for 410 amino acids with a 23-amino acid signal peptide and a serpin domain was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Lvserpin3 expressed strongest in hepatopancreas, and was significantly up-regulated in the early stage upon Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus lysodeikticus or White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection. Suppression of Lvserpin3 by dsRNA led to a significant increase in the transcripts of LvPPAF, LvproPO and phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and also led to the high cumulative mortality. The recombinant Lvserpin3 protein (rLvserpin3) inhibited the proteases secreted by M. lysodeikticus and Bacillus subtilis, and further exhibited inhibitory role on the growth of B. subtilis and M. lysodeikticu. Moreover, rLvserpin3 was found to be able to block the activation of prophenoloxidase system. Taken together, the results imply that Lvserpin3 may be involved in shrimp innate immunity via the inhibition of bacterial proteases and proteases involved in prophenoloxidase system. PMID:26432049

  17. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids in biosurfactants affects the efficiency of gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Inoh, Yoshikazu; Furuno, Tadahide; Hirashima, Naohide; Kitamoto, Dai; Nakanishi, Mamoru

    2010-10-15

    An unsaturated hydrocarbon chain in phospholipid was reported to affect a phase transition and a fusogenic activity after mixing membranes, and consequently to achieve a high DNA transfection efficiency. We previously showed that a biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A) enhances the gene transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes. Here, we have studied the effects of unsaturated fatty acid ratio of MEL-A on the physicochemical properties and gene delivery into cells of cationic liposomes using MEL-A with three different unsaturated fatty acid ratios (9.1%, 21.5%, and 46.3%). The gene transfer efficiency of cationic liposomes containing MEL-A (21.5%) was much higher than that of those containing MEL-A (9.1%) and MEL-A (46.3%). MEL-A (21.5%)-containing cationic liposomes induced highly efficient membrane fusion after addition of anionic liposomes and led to subsequent DNA release. Imaging analysis revealed that MEL-A (21.5%)-containing liposomes fused with the plasma membrane and delivered DNA into the nucleus of NIH-3T3 cells, MEL-A (46.3%)-containing liposomes fused with the plasma membrane did not deliver DNA into the nucleus, and MEL-A (9.1%)-containing liposomes neither fused with the plasma membrane nor delivered DNA into the nucleus. Thus, it is understandable that the unsaturated fatty acid ratio of MEL-A strongly influences the gene transfection efficiency of cationic liposomes. PMID:20674726

  18. Controllably local gene delivery mediated by polyelectrolyte multilayer films assembled from gene-loaded nanopolymersomes and hyaluronic acid

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Wei; Wang, Qinmei; Chen, Ying; Huang, Hongzhang

    2014-01-01

    To explore a spatiotemporally controllable gene delivery system with high efficiency and safety, polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films were constructed on titanium or quartz substrates via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique by using plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid-loaded lipopolysaccharide–amine nanopolymersomes (pNPs) as polycations and hyaluronic acid (HA) as polyanions. pNPs were chosen because they have high transfection efficiency (>95%) in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induce significant angiogenesis in zebrafish in conventional bolus transfection. The assembly process of PEM films was confirmed by analyses of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared, contact angle, and zeta potential along with atomic force microscopy observation. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation analysis reveals that this film grows in an exponential mode, pNPs are the main contributor to the film mass, and the film mass can be modulated in a relatively wide range (1.0–29 μg/cm2) by adjusting the deposition layer number. Atomic force microscopy observation shows that the assembly leads to the formation of a patterned film with three-dimensional tree-like nanostructure, where the branches are composed of beaded chains (pNP beads are strung on HA molecular chains), and the incorporated pNPs keep structure intact. In vitro release experiment shows that plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid can be gradually released from films over 14 days, and the released plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid exists in a complex form. In vitro cell experiments demonstrate that PEM films can enhance the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs and efficiently transfect MSCs in situ in vitro for at least 4 days. Our results suggest that a (pNPs/HA)n system can mediate efficient transfection in stem cells in a spatially and temporally controllable pattern, highlighting its huge potential in local gene therapy. PMID:25378927

  19. Detection of genes involved in fatty acid elongation and desaturation in thraustochytrid marine eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Naoki; Sakaguchi, Keishi; Taoka, Yousuke; Okita, Yuji; Honda, Daiske; Ito, Makoto; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Heterotrophic marine protists known as thraustochytrids can synthesize polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The biosynthetic pathways of PUFAs in thraustochytrids are poorly understood, however. In this study, we attempted to reveal the enzymes involved in DHA synthesis in thraustochytrids. Nine thraustochytrid strains representing 3 genera (Aurantiochytrium, Schizochytrium, and Thraustochytrium) were used for PCR-based detection of the genes encoding Δ5-elongase and Δ4-desaturase and for fatty acid analysis. The degenerate primers were designed to amplify the Δ5-elongase and Δ4-desaturase genes, and the partial sequences of the enzymes were obtained from the genera Thraustochytrium and Schizochytrium. These fragments were identical to those of known Δ5-elongase and Δ4-desaturase. Neither Δ5-elongase nor Δ4-desaturase was detected in the strains belonging to the genus Aurantiochytrium, however, suggesting that this group likely synthesizes DHA not via the elongation/desaturation pathway but via an alternate pathway such as the polyketide synthase pathway. The fatty acid profiles of thraustochytrids were consistent with the presence of genes involved in PUFA biosynthesis in thraustochytrid genera. Thus, our findings suggest that two biosynthetic pathways for PUFAs exist in these organisms. PMID:21852747

  20. Extracellular production of a Serratia marcescens serine protease in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Y; Horinouchi, S

    1996-10-01

    The Serratia marcescens serine protease (SSP) is one of the extracellular enzymes secreted from this Gram-negative bacterium. When the ssp gene, which encodes a SSP precursor (preproSSP) composed of a typical NH2-terminal signal peptide, a mature enzyme domain, and a large COOH-terminal pro-region, is expressed in Escherichia coli, the mature protease is excreted through the outer membrane into the medium. The COOH-terminal pro-region, which is integrated into the outer membrane, provides the essential function for the export of the mature protein across the outer membrane. This is a very simple pathway, in contrast to the general secretory pathway exemplified by the secretion of a pullulanase from Klebsiella oxytoca, in which many separately encoded accessory proteins are required for the transport through the outer membrane. Moreover, the NH2-terminal region of 71 amino acid residues of the COOH-terminal pro-sequence plays an essential role, as an "intramolecular chaperone," in the folding of the mature enzyme in the medium. In addition to ssp, the S. marcescens strain contains two ssp homologues encoding proteins similar to SSP in amino acid sequence and size, but with no protease activity. Characterization of the homologue proteins and chimeric proteins between the homologues and SSP, all of which are produced in E. coli, has shown that they are membrane proteins that are localized in the outer membrane in the same manner as for SSP. By use of the COOH-terminal domain of SSP, pseudoazurin was exported to the cell surface of E. coli, which proves the usefulness of the SSP secretory system in the export of foreign proteins across the outer membrane. PMID:8987650

  1. A Role of AREB in the Regulation of PACC-Dependent Acid-Expressed-Genes and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Ment, Dana; Alkan, Noam; Luria, Neta; Bi, Fang-Cheng; Reuveni, Eli; Fluhr, Robert; Prusky, Dov

    2015-02-01

    Gene expression regulation by pH in filamentous fungi and yeasts is controlled by the PACC/RIM101 transcription factor. In Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, PACC is known to act as positive regulator of alkaline-expressed genes, and this regulation was shown to contribute to fungal pathogenicity. PACC is also a negative regulator of acid-expressed genes, however; the mechanism of downregulation of acid-expressed genes by PACC and their contribution to C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity is not well understood. RNA sequencing data analysis was employed to demonstrate that PACC transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) are significantly overrepresented in the promoter of PACC-upregulated, alkaline-expressed genes. In contrast, they are not overrepresented in the PACC-downregulated, acid-expressed genes. Instead, acid-expressed genes showed overrepresentation of AREB GATA TFBS in C. gloeosporioides and in homologs of five other ascomycetes genomes. The areB promoter contains PACC TFBS; its transcript was upregulated at pH 7 and repressed in ΔpacC. Furthermore, acid-expressed genes were found to be constitutively upregulated in ΔareB during alkalizing conditions. The areB mutants showed significantly reduced ammonia secretion and pathogenicity on tomato fruit. Present results indicate that PACC activates areB expression, thereby conditionally repressing acid-expressed genes and contributing critically to C. gloeosporioides pathogenicity. PMID:25317668

  2. Transcriptome analysis and identification of genes associated with ¿-3 fatty acid biosynthesis in Perilla frutescens (L.) var. frutescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) var frutescens) produces high levels of a-linolenic acid (ALA), a '-3 fatty acid important to health and development. To uncover key genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in perilla, we conducted deep sequencing of cDNAs f...

  3. Serine proteases of parasitic helminths.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-02-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  4. Serine Proteases of Parasitic Helminths

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yong; Wen, Yun jun; Cai, Ya Nan; Vallée, Isabelle; Boireau, Pascal; Liu, Ming Yuan; Cheng, Shi Peng

    2015-01-01

    Serine proteases form one of the most important families of enzymes and perform significant functions in a broad range of biological processes, such as intra- and extracellular protein metabolism, digestion, blood coagulation, regulation of development, and fertilization. A number of serine proteases have been identified in parasitic helminths that have putative roles in parasite development and nutrition, host tissues and cell invasion, anticoagulation, and immune evasion. In this review, we described the serine proteases that have been identified in parasitic helminths, including nematodes (Trichinella spiralis, T. pseudospiralis, Trichuris muris, Anisakis simplex, Ascaris suum, Onchocerca volvulus, O. lienalis, Brugia malayi, Ancylostoma caninum, and Steinernema carpocapsae), cestodes (Spirometra mansoni, Echinococcus granulosus, and Schistocephalus solidus), and trematodes (Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, and Schistosoma mansoni). Moreover, the possible biological functions of these serine proteases in the endogenous biological phenomena of these parasites and in the host-parasite interaction were also discussed. PMID:25748703

  5. Increased Missense Mutation Burden of Fatty Acid Metabolism Related Genes in Nunavik Inuit Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Sirui; Xiong, Lan; Xie, Pingxing; Ambalavanan, Amirthagowri; Bourassa, Cynthia V.; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Spiegelman, Dan; Turcotte Gauthier, Maude; Henrion, Edouard; Diallo, Ousmane; Dion, Patrick A.; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nunavik Inuit (northern Quebec, Canada) reside along the arctic coastline where for generations their daily energy intake has mainly been derived from animal fat. Given this particular diet it has been hypothesized that natural selection would lead to population specific allele frequency differences and unique variants in genes related to fatty acid metabolism. A group of genes, namely CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2, CRAT and CROT, encode for three carnitine acyltransferases that are important for the oxidation of fatty acids, a critical step in their metabolism. Methods Exome sequencing and SNP array genotyping were used to examine the genetic variations in the six genes encoding for the carnitine acyltransferases in 113 Nunavik Inuit individuals. Results Altogether ten missense variants were found in genes CPT1A, CPT1B, CPT1C, CPT2 and CRAT, including three novel variants and one Inuit specific variant CPT1A p.P479L (rs80356779). The latter has the highest frequency (0.955) compared to other Inuit populations. We found that by comparison to Asians or Europeans, the Nunavik Inuit have an increased mutation burden in CPT1A, CPT2 and CRAT; there is also a high level of population differentiation based on carnitine acyltransferase gene variations between Nunavik Inuit and Asians. Conclusion The increased number and frequency of deleterious variants in these fatty acid metabolism genes in Nunavik Inuit may be the result of genetic adaptation to their diet and/or the extremely cold climate. In addition, the identification of these variants may help to understand some of the specific health risks of Nunavik Inuit. PMID:26010953

  6. Evolution of thrombin and other hemostatic proteases by survey of protochordate, hemichordate, and echinoderm genomes.

    PubMed

    Ponczek, Michal B; Bijak, Michal Z; Nowak, Pawel Z

    2012-06-01

    Protochordate genomes enable a prevalence of hemostasis evolution. Broad searches were performed for homologs of human serine proteases of hemostasis on the genomes of Branchiostoma floridae, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Sequences were analyzed by multiple bioinformatic tools. The survey revealed numerous homologous components. Amphioxus was rich in some serine proteases not accompanied by gamma-carboxyglutamic or kringle domains similar more to thrombin than to other coagulation factors. The serine proteases found in amphioxus exhibited the attributes similar to those of thrombin by phylogeny relationships, sequence conservation, gene synteny, spatial structure, and ligand docking. A few plasminogen- and plasminogen activators-like proteases with kringles were also present. Those serine proteases demonstrated the greatest proximity rather to plasminogen or plasminogen activators than to thrombin. Searching for homologs of serine protease hemostatic factors in acorn worm and sea urchin revealed several components similar to those found in amphioxus. Hypothetically, the common ancestor of chordates had three separate serine proteases that evolved independently into immunoglobulin-like and kringle proteases in lancelets, and prothrombin, plasminogen activators, and plasminogen in vertebrates. Ancestral proteases evolved in vertebrates into hemostasis factors after merging the proper N-terminal domains and duplications. PMID:22752046

  7. Effect of Group A Streptococcal Cysteine Protease on Invasion of Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pei-Jane; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Lin, Kuei-Yuan; Lin, Yee-Shin; Lei, Huan-Yao; Chen, Fen-Fen; Wang, Jen-Ren; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    1998-01-01

    Cysteine protease of group A streptococci (GAS) is considered an important virulence factor. However, its role in invasiveness of GAS has not been investigated. We demonstrated in this study that two strains of protease-producing GAS had the ability to invade A-549 human respiratory epithelial cells. Isogenic protease mutants were constructed by using integrational plasmids to disrupt the speB gene and confirmed by Southern hybridization and Western immunoblot analyses. No extracellular protease activity was produced by the mutants. The mutants had growth rates similar to those of the wild-type strains and produced normal levels of other extracellular proteins. When invading A-549 cells, the mutants had a two- to threefold decrease in activity compared to that of the wild-type strains. The invasion activity increased when the A-549 cells were incubated with purified cysteine protease and the mutant. However, blockage of the cysteine protease with a specific cysteine protease inhibitor, E-64, decreased the invasion activity of GAS. Intracellular growth of GAS was not found in A-549 cells. The presence or absence of protease activity did not affect the adhesive ability of GAS. These results suggested that streptococcal cysteine protease can enhance the invasion ability of GAS in human respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:9529068

  8. Effect of group A streptococcal cysteine protease on invasion of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, P J; Kuo, C F; Lin, K Y; Lin, Y S; Lei, H Y; Chen, F F; Wang, J R; Wu, J J

    1998-04-01

    Cysteine protease of group A streptococci (GAS) is considered an important virulence factor. However, its role in invasiveness of GAS has not been investigated. We demonstrated in this study that two strains of protease-producing GAS had the ability to invade A-549 human respiratory epithelial cells. Isogenic protease mutants were constructed by using integrational plasmids to disrupt the speB gene and confirmed by Southern hybridization and Western immunoblot analyses. No extracellular protease activity was produced by the mutants. The mutants had growth rates similar to those of the wild-type strains and produced normal levels of other extracellular proteins. When invading A-549 cells, the mutants had a two- to threefold decrease in activity compared to that of the wild-type strains. The invasion activity increased when the A-549 cells were incubated with purified cysteine protease and the mutant. However, blockage of the cysteine protease with a specific cysteine protease inhibitor, E-64, decreased the invasion activity of GAS. Intracellular growth of GAS was not found in A-549 cells. The presence or absence of protease activity did not affect the adhesive ability of GAS. These results suggested that streptococcal cysteine protease can enhance the invasion ability of GAS in human respiratory epithelial cells. PMID:9529068

  9. Transcription of the procyclic acidic repetitive protein genes of Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, C.E.; Fueri, J.P.; Itzhaki, J.E.; Bellofatto, V.; Sherman, D.R.; Wisdom, G.S.; Vijayasarathy, S.; Mowatt, M.R. )

    1990-06-01

    The procyclic acidic repetitive protein (parp) genes of Trypanosoma brucei encode a small family of abundant surface proteins whose expression is restricted to the procyclic form of the parasite. They are found at two unlinked loci, parpA and parpB; transcription of both loci is developmentally regulated. The region of homology upstream of the A and B parp genes is only 640 base pairs long and may contain sequences responsible for transcriptional initiation and regulation. Transcription upstream of this putative promoter region is not developmentally regulated and is much less active than that of the parp genes; the polymerase responsible is inhibited by alpha-amanitin, whereas that transcribing the parp genes is not. Transcription of the parp genes is strongly stimulated by low levels of UV irradiation. The putative parp promoter, when placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, is sufficient to cause production of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in a T. brucei DNA transformation assay. Taken together, these results suggest that a promoter for an alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerase lies less than 600 nucleotides upstream of the parp genes.

  10. Identification and Functional Analysis of the Mycophenolic Acid Gene Cluster of Penicillium roqueforti.

    PubMed

    Del-Cid, Abdiel; Gil-Durán, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Rojas-Aedo, Juan F; García-Rico, Ramón O; Levicán, Gloria; Chávez, Renato

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti is widely known as the ripening agent of blue-veined cheeses. Additionally, this fungus is able to produce several secondary metabolites, including the meroterpenoid compound mycophenolic acid (MPA). Cheeses ripened with P. roqueforti are usually contaminated with MPA. On the other hand, MPA is a commercially valuable immunosuppressant. However, to date the molecular basis of the production of MPA by P. roqueforti is still unknown. Using a bioinformatic approach, we have identified a genomic region of approximately 24.4 kbp containing a seven-gene cluster that may be involved in the MPA biosynthesis in P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of these seven genes (named mpaA, mpaB, mpaC, mpaDE, mpaF, mpaG and mpaH) resulted in dramatic reductions in MPA production, confirming that all of these genes are involved in the biosynthesis of the compound. Interestingly, the mpaF gene, originally described in P. brevicompactum as a MPA self-resistance gene, also exerts the same function in P. roqueforti, suggesting that this gene has a dual function in MPA metabolism. The knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of MPA in P. roqueforti will be important for the future control of MPA contamination in cheeses and the improvement of MPA production for commercial purposes. PMID:26751579

  11. Structure and expression of the Drosophila ubiquitin-80-amino-acid fusion-protein gene.

    PubMed Central

    Barrio, R; del Arco, A; Cabrera, H L; Arribas, C

    1994-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila, as in all eukaryotes examined so far, some ubiquitin-coding sequences appear fused to unrelated open reading frames. Two of these fusion genes have been previously described (the homologues of UBI1-UBI2 and UBI4 in yeast), and we report here the organization and expression of a third one, the DUb80 gene (the homologue of UBI3 in yeast). This gene encodes a ubiquitin monomer fused to an 80-amino-acid extension which is homologous with the ribosomal protein encoded by the UB13 gene. The 5' regulatory region of DUb80 shares common features with another ubiquitin fusion gene, DUb52, and with the ribosomal protein genes of Drosophila, Xenopus and mouse. We also find helix-loop-helix protein-binding sequences (E-boxes). The DUb80 gene is transcribed to a 0.9 kb mRNA which is particularly abundant under conditions of high protein synthesis, such as in ovaries and exponentially growing cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8068011

  12. Schistosome serine protease inhibitors: parasite defense or homeostasis?

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Quezada, Landys A.; McKerrow, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Serpins are a structurally conserved family of macromolecular inhibitors found in numerous biological systems. The completion and annotation of the genomes of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum has enabled the identification by phylogenetic analysis of two major serpin clades. S. mansoni shows a greater multiplicity of serpin genes, perhaps reflecting adaptation to infection of a human host. Putative targets of schistosome serpins can be predicted from the sequence of the reactive center loop (RCL). Schistosome serpins may play important roles in both post-translational regulation of schistosome-derived proteases, as well as parasite defense mechanisms against the action of host proteases. PMID:21670886

  13. KLIKK proteases of Tannerella forsythia: putative virulence factors with a unique domain structure

    PubMed Central

    Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Mizgalska, Danuta; Eick, Sigrum; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Potempa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics of virulent Tannerella forsythia ATCC 43037 and a close health-associated relative, Tannerella BU063, revealed, in the latter, the absence of an entire array of genes encoding putative secretory proteases that possess a nearly identical C-terminal domain (CTD) that ends with a -Lys-Leu-Ile-Lys-Lys motif. This observation suggests that these proteins, referred to as KLIKK proteases, may function as virulence factors. Re-sequencing of the loci of the KLIKK proteases found only six genes grouped in two clusters. All six genes were expressed by T. forsythia in routine culture conditions, although at different levels. More importantly, a transcript of each gene was detected in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from periodontitis sites infected with T. forsythia indicating that the proteases are expressed in vivo. In each protein, a protease domain was flanked by a unique N-terminal profragment and a C-terminal extension ending with the CTD. Partially purified recombinant proteases showed variable levels of proteolytic activity in zymography gels and toward protein substrates, including collagen, gelatin, elastin, and casein. Taken together, these results indicate that the pathogenic strain of T. forsythia secretes active proteases capable of degrading an array of host proteins, which likely represents an important pathogenic feature of this bacterium. PMID:25954253

  14. Immobilized protease on the magnetic nanoparticles used for the hydrolysis of rapeseed meals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Li, Ju-Fang; Huang, Ping-Ying; Dong, Xu-Yan; Guo, Lu-Lu; Yang, Liang; Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Chen, Hong

    2010-07-01

    (3-aminopropl) triethoxysilaneand modified magnetic nanoparticles with the average diameter of 25.4 nm were synthesized in water-phase co-precipitation method. And then these nanoparticles were covalently coupled with alkaline protease as enzyme carrier by using 1,4-phenylene diisothlocyanate as coupling agent. Experiments showed that the immobilized protease can keep the catalytic bioactivity, which can reach to 47.8% when casein was served as substrate. Results showed that the catalytic activity of immobilized protease on these magnetic nanoparticles could retain 98.63±2.37% after 60 days. And it is more stable than the free protease during the shelf-life test. The enzyme reaction conditions such as optimum reaction temperature and pH are the same as free protease. Furthermore, mix-and-separate experiments showed that the immobilized protease could be recycled through the magnetic nanoparticles after the biocatalysis process. When the rapeseed meals were used as substrate, the degree of hydrolysis of immobilized alkaline protease achieved 9.86%, while it was 10.41% for the free protease. The macromolecular proteins of rapeseed meals were hydrolyzed by immobilized protease into small molecules such as polypeptides or amino acids. Thus, a novel efficient and economic way for the recycling of enzymes in the application of continuous production of active peptides was provided based on these magnetic nanoparticles.

  15. Characterization of the bovine gene LIPE and possible influence on fatty acid composition of meat

    PubMed Central

    Goszczynski, Daniel Estanislao; Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Ripoli, María Verónica; Villarreal, Edgardo Leopoldo; Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Mezzadra, Carlos Alberto; Melucci, Lilia Magdalena; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    LIPE is an intracellular neutral lipase, which is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of esters and plays a key role in the mobilization of fatty acids from diacylglycerols. The objectives of this study were to characterize the genetic polymorphism of bovine LIPE gene and to evaluate the possible association between three SNPs in the coding regions of this gene with the fatty acid composition of meat in a cattle population. Forty-three unrelated animals from different cattle breeds were re-sequenced and 21 SNPs were detected over approximately 2600 bp, five of these SNPs were novel. Three SNPs were selected, on the basis of evolutionary conservation, to perform validation and association studies in a crossbred cattle population. Our results may suggest a possible association of SNP1 with contents of oleic acid and total monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.01), and SNP2 and SNP3 with Heneicosylic acid content (p < 0.01), may be helpful to improve the quality of meat and improve health. PMID:25606458

  16. Positive selection systems for discovery of novel polyester biosynthesis genes based on fatty acid detoxification.

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, R G; Gabbert, K K; Madigan, M T

    1997-01-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can grow with short- to long-chain fatty acids as the sole carbon source (R. G. Kranz, K. K. Gabbert, T. A. Locke, and M. T. Madigan, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:3003-3009, 1997). Concomitant with growth on fatty acids is the production to high levels of the polyester storage compounds called polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Here, we describe colony screening and selection systems to analyze the production of PHAs in R. capsulatus. A screen with Nile red dissolved in acetone distinguishes between PHA producers and nonproducers. Unlike the wild type, an R. capsulatus PhaC- strain with the gene encoding PHA synthase deleted is unable to grow on solid media containing high concentrations of certain fatty acids. It is proposed that this deficiency is due to the inability of the PhaC- strain to detoxify the surrounding medium by consumption of fatty acids and their incorporation into PHAs. This fatty acid toxicity phenotype is used in selection for the cloning and characterization of heterologous phaC genes. PMID:9251190

  17. A novel carboxyl-terminal protease derived from Paenibacillus lautus CHN26 exhibiting high activities at multiple sites of substrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Carboxyl-terminal protease (CtpA) plays essential functions in posttranslational protein processing in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. To date, only a few bacterial ctpA genes have been characterized. Here we cloned and characterized a novel CtpA. The encoding gene, ctpAp (ctpA of Paenibacillus lautus), was derived from P. lautus CHN26, a Gram-positive bacterium isolated by functional screening. Recombinant protein was obtained from protein over-expression in Escherichia coli and the biochemical properties of the enzyme were investigated. Results Screening of environmental sediment samples with a skim milk-containing medium led to the isolation of a P. lautus CHN26 strain that exhibited a high proteolytic activity. A gene encoding a carboxyl-terminal protease (ctpAp) was cloned from the isolate and characterized. The deduced mature protein contains 466 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 51.94 kDa, displaying 29-38% amino acid sequence identity to characterized bacterial CtpA enzymes. CtpAp contains an unusual catalytic dyad (Ser309-Lys334) and a PDZ substrate-binding motif, characteristic for carboxyl-terminal proteases. CtpAp was expressed as a recombinant protein and characterized. The purified enzyme showed an endopeptidase activity, which effectively cleaved α S1- and β- casein substrates at carboxyl-terminus as well as at multiple internal sites. Furthermore, CtpAp exhibited a high activity at room temperature and strong tolerance to conventional protease inhibitors, demonstrating that CtpAp is a novel endopeptidase. Conclusions Our work on CtpA represents the first investigation of a member of Family II CtpA enzymes. The gene was derived from a newly isolated P. lautus CHN26 strain exhibiting a high protease activity in the skim milk assay. We have demonstrated that CtpAp is a novel endopeptidase with distinct cleavage specificities, showing a strong potential in biotechnology and industry applications. PMID:24161150

  18. Purification and properties of an extracellular protease from Myxococcus virescens.

    PubMed Central

    Gnosspelius, G

    1978-01-01

    An extracellular protease from Myxococcus virescens was purified by phosphate precipitation, gel exclusion, and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme appeared homogeneous upon disc electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated to be 26,000. The enzyme was rapidly inactivated by ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but the activity could be partially restored by divalent cations. Diisopropylphosphorofluoridate inhibited enzyme activity completely. Michaelis-Menten kinetics were obeyed with casein and hemoglobin as substrates. First-order kinetics were obtained with elastin as the substrate, provided trypsin was in excess. Petidolytic activity indicated that the peptide bonds hydrolyzed by the enzyme were mainly those involving amino acids with nonpolar side chains. PMID:22536

  19. Optimization of some additives to improve protease production under SSF.

    PubMed

    Tunga, R; Banerjee, R; Bhattacharyya, B C

    2001-11-01

    In a locally isolated Rhizopus oryzae strain highest-production of protease (388.54/g wheat bran) was observed in presence of Tween-80 and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate individually at 40mg/g wheat bran concentration. Under solid state fermentation biotin (0.0025mg/g wheat bran); Ca2+ (0.05mg/g wheat bran) and 1-Naphthyl acetic acid (0.01mg/g wheat bran) also showed some inducing effect on the synthesis of the enzyme protease by solid state fermentation. PMID:11906108

  20. Identification and heterologous expression of a Δ4-fatty acid desaturase gene from Isochrysis sphaerica.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bing; Jiang, Mulan; Wan, Xia; Gong, Yangmin; Liang, Zhuo; Hu, Chuanjiong

    2013-10-28

    The marine microalga Isochrysis sphaerica is rich in the very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6ω-3) that are important to human health. Here, we report a functional characterization of a Δ4-fatty acid desaturase gene (FAD4) from I. sphaerica. IsFAD4 contains a 1,284 bp open reading frame encoding a 427 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced amino sequence comprises three conserved histidine motifs and a cytochrome b5 domain at its N-terminus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that IsFad4 formed a unique Isochrysis clade distinct from the counterparts of other eukaryotes. Heterologous expression of IsFAD4 in Pichia pastoris showed that IsFad4 was able to desaturate docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) to form DHA, and the rate of converting DPA to DHA was 79.8%. These results throw light on the potential industrial production of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids through IsFAD4 transgenic yeast or oil crops. PMID:23851273

  1. Molecular characterization of group A streptococcal (GAS) oligopeptide permease (opp) and its effect on cysteine protease production.

    PubMed

    Podbielski, A; Pohl, B; Woischnik, M; Körner, C; Schmidt, K H; Rozdzinski, E; Leonard, B A

    1996-09-01

    Bacterial oligopeptide permeases are membrane-associated complexes of five proteins belonging to the ABC-transporter family, which have been found to be involved in obtaining nutrients, cell-wall metabolism, competence, and adherence to host cells. A lambda library of the strain CS101 group A streptococcal (GAS) genome was used to sequence 10,192 bp containing the five genes oppA to oppF of the GAS opp operon. The deduced amino acid sequences exhibited 50-84% homology to pneumococcal AmiA to AmiF sequences. The operon organization of the five genes was confirmed by transcriptional analysis and an additional shorter oppA transcript was detected. Insertional inactivation was used to create serotype M49 strains which did not express either the oppA gene or the ATPase genes, oppD and oppF. The mutation in oppA confirmed that the additional shorter oppA transcript originated from the opp operon and was probably due to an intra-operon transcription terminator site located downstream of oppA. While growth kinetics, binding of serum proteins, and attachment to eukaryotic cells were unaffected, the oppD/F mutants showed reduced production of the cysteine protease, SpeB, and a change in the pattern of secreted proteins. Thus, the GAS opp operon appears to contribute to both protease production and export/processing of secreted proteins. PMID:8885277

  2. Identification of homologues to the pathogenicity factor Pat-1, a putative serine protease of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Burger, Annette; Gräfen, Ines; Engemann, Jutta; Niermann, Erik; Pieper, Martina; Kirchner, Oliver; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    Hybridization of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis total DNA against the pathogenicity gene pat-1 indicated the presence of pat-1 homologous nucleotide sequences on the chromosome and on plasmid pCM2. Isolation of the corresponding DNA fragments and nucleotide sequence determination showed that there are three pat-1 homologous genes: chpA (chromosome) and phpA and phpB (plasmid pCM2). The gene products share common characteristics, i.e. a signal sequence for Sec-dependent secretion, a serine protease motif, and six cysteine residues at conserved positions. Gene chpA located on the chromosome is a pseudogene since it contains a translational stop codon after 97 of 280 amino acids. In contrast to pat-1, cloning of the plasmid encoded homologs phpA and phpB into the avirulent plasmid free Cmm strain CMM100 did not result in a virulent phenotype. So far, no proteolytic activity could be demonstrated for Pat-1, however, site specific mutagenesis of pat-1 showed that the serine residue in the motif GDSGG is required for the virulent phenotype of pat-1 and thus Pat-1 could be a functional protease. PMID:16255147

  3. Genetic engineering to contain the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene enhances degradation of benzoic acid by Xanthomonas maltophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.C.; Webster, D.A.; Wei, M.L.; Stark, B.C.

    1996-01-05

    Xanthomonas maltophilia was transformed with the gene encoding Vitreoscilla (bacterial) hemoglobin, vgb, and the growth of the engineered strain was compared with that of the untransformed strain using benzoic acid as the sole carbon source. In general, growth of the engineered strain was greater than that of the untransformed strain; this was true for experiments using both overnight cultures and log phase cells as inocula, but particularly for the latter. In both cases the engineered strain was also more efficiency than the untransformed strain in converting benzoic acid into biomass.

  4. Cloning and chromosomal assignment of a human cDNA encoding a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific trypsin-like serine protease

    SciTech Connect

    Gershenfeld, H.K.; Hershberger, R.J.; Shows, T.B.; Weissman, I.L.

    1988-02-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a human T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease was obtained by screening a phage lambdagt10 cDNA library from phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes with the mouse Hanukah factor cDNA clone. In an RNA blot-hybridization analysis, this human Hanukah factor cDNA hybridized with a 1.3-kilobase band in allogeneic-stimulated cytotoxic T cells and the Jurkat cell line, but this transcript was not detectable in normal muscle, liver, tonsil, or thymus. By dot-blot hybridization, this cDNA hybridized with RNA from three cytolytic T-cell clones and three noncytolytic T-cell clones grown in vitro as well as with purified CD16/sup +/ natural killer cells and CD3/sup +/, CD16/sup -/ T-cell large granular lymphocytes from peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD = cluster designation). The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone encodes a predicted serine protease of 262 amino acids. The active enzyme is 71% and 77% similar to the mouse sequence at the amino acid and DNA level, respectively. The human and mouse sequences conserve the active site residues of serine proteases--the trypsin-specific Asp-189 and all 10 cysteine residues. The gene for the human Hanukah factor serine protease is located on human chromosome 5. The authors propose that this trypsin-like serine protease may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

  5. Changes in Gene Expression Profiling of Apoptotic Genes in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines upon Retinoic Acid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Celay, Jon; Blanco, Idoia; Lázcoz, Paula; Rotinen, Mirja; Castresana, Javier S.; Encío, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of retinoic acid (RA) in neuroblastoma we treated RA sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines with 9-cis RA or ATRA for 9 days, or for 5 days followed by absence of RA for another 4 days. Both isomers induced apoptosis and reduced cell density as a result of cell differentiation and/or apoptosis. Flow cytometry revealed that 9-cis RA induced apoptosis more effectively than ATRA. The expression profile of apoptosis and survival pathways was cell line specific and depended on the isomer used. PMID:23650528

  6. Differential Response of Extracellular Proteases of Trichoderma Harzianum Against Fungal Phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vivek; Salwan, Richa; Sharma, Prem N

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, production of extracellular proteases by Trichoderma harzianum was evaluated based on the relative gene expression and spectrophotometric assay. The fungal isolates were grown in Czapek Dox Broth medium supplemented with deactivated mycelium of plant fungal pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum capsici, Gloeocercospora sorghi, and Colletotrichum truncatum. The maximum protease activity was detected after 48 h of incubation against Colletotrichum spp. Similarly in qRT-PCR, the relative gene expression of four proteases varied from 48 to 96 h against host pathogens in a time-independent manner. Among proteases, statistically significant upregulation of asp, asp, and srp was observed against Colletotrichum spp., followed by F. oxysporum. But in the case of pepM22, maximum upregulation was observed against F. oxysporum. The variation in enzyme assay and qRT-PCR of proteases at different time intervals against various fungal phytopathogens could be due to the limitation of using casein as a substrate for all types of proteases or protease-encoding transcripts selected for qRT-PCR, which may not be true representative of total protease activity. PMID:27278806

  7. Cloning and heterologous expression of serine protease SL41 related to biocontrol in Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Serine proteases are highly conserved among fungi and considered to play a key role in different aspects of fungal biology. These proteases are involved in fungal growth and have been related to biocontrol processes. To assess the functional role of serine proteases from Trichoderma harzianum T88, an effective biocontrol agent, on inhibition of phytopathogenic fungi, a gene (SL41) encoding a serine protease was isolated by 5' and 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Northern blot analysis indicated that SL41 was induced in response to cell walls of different fungi. This protease gene was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. After induction, the enzyme activity was culminated (16.2 units ml(-1)) at 60 h of cultivation. The optimal enzyme reaction temperature was 40°C and optimal pH was 10.5. Northern blot analysis indicated that the amount of the transcripts increased with the culture time in agreement with the measured enzyme activity. Antifungal activity of serine protease against five phytopathogens was investigated in vitro. It can inhibit the mycelial growth of phytopathogenic fungi and exerted broad spectrum antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi. This is the first time that the different regulation of serine protease in T. harzianum response to five phytopathogenic fungi was shown, the protease was functionally expressed in a heterologous host, and its antagonistic activity was evaluated in vitro. PMID:24060651

  8. Genome-wide analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family in Gossypium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yurchenko, Olga P.; Park, Sunjung; Ilut, Daniel C.; Inmon, Jay J.; Millhollon, Jon C.; Liechty, Zach; Page, Justin T.; Jenks, Matthew A.; Chapman, Kent D.; Udall, Joshua A.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The majority of commercial cotton varieties planted worldwide are derived from Gossypium hirsutum, which is a naturally occurring allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization of A- and D-genome diploid progenitor species. While most cotton species are adapted to warm, semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, and thus perform well in these geographical areas, cotton seedlings are sensitive to cold temperature, which can significantly reduce crop yields. One of the common biochemical responses of plants to cold temperatures is an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, which protects cellular function by maintaining membrane integrity. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterizemore » the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family in G. hirsutum, with an emphasis on identifying omega-3 FADs involved in cold temperature adaptation. Results: Eleven omega-3 FAD genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and characterization of the gene family in extant A and D diploid species (G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, respectively) allowed for unambiguous genome assignment of all homoeologs in tetraploid G. hirsutum. The omega-3 FAD family of cotton includes five distinct genes, two of which encode endoplasmic reticulum-type enzymes (FAD3-1 and FAD3-2) and three that encode chloroplast-type enzymes (FAD7/8-1, FAD7/8-2, and FAD7/8-3). The FAD3-2 gene was duplicated in the A genome progenitor species after the evolutionary split from the D progenitor, but before the interspecific hybridization event that gave rise to modern tetraploid cotton. RNA-seq analysis revealed conserved, gene-specific expression patterns in various organs and cell types and semi-quantitative RT-PCR further revealed that FAD7/8-1 was specifically induced during cold temperature treatment of G. hirsutum seedlings. Conclusions: The omega-3 FAD gene family in cotton was characterized at the genome-wide level in three species, showing relatively ancient establishment of the gene family prior

  9. Effects of candidate gene polymorphisms on the detailed fatty acids profile determined by gas chromatography in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Pegolo, S; Cecchinato, A; Mele, M; Conte, G; Schiavon, S; Bittante, G

    2016-06-01

    Association analyses between candidate genes and bovine milk fatty acids can improve our understanding of genetic variation in milk fatty acid profiles and reveal potential opportunities to tailor milk fat composition through selection strategies. In this work, we investigated the association of 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) selected from 37 candidate genes using a functional and positional approach, with 47 fatty acids, 9 fatty acid groups, and 5 Δ(9)-desaturation indices in milk samples from Brown Swiss cows. Individual milk samples were collected from 1,158 Italian Brown Swiss cows, and gas chromatography was used to obtain detailed milk fatty acid compositions. A GoldenGate assay system (Illumina, San Diego, CA) was used to perform genotype 96 selected SNP located in 54 genes across 22 chromosomes. In total, 51 polymorphic SNP in 37 candidate genes were retained for the association analysis. A Bayesian linear animal model was used to estimate the contribution of each SNP. A total of 129 tests indicated relevant additive effects between a given SNP and a single fatty acid trait; 38 SNP belonging to 30 genes were relevant for a total of 57 fatty acid traits. Most of the studied fatty acid traits (~81%) were relevantly associated with multiple SNP. Relevantly associated SNP were mainly found in genes related to fat metabolism, linked to or contained in previously identified quantitative trait loci for fat yield or content, or associated with genes previously identified in association analyses with milk fatty acid profiles in other cow breeds. The most representative candidate genes were LEP, PRL, STAT5A, CCL3, ACACA, GHR, ADRB2, LPIN1, STAT1, FABP4, and CSN2. In particular, relevant associations with SNP located on bovine chromosome 19 (BTA19) were found. Two candidate genes on BTA19 (CCL3 and ACACA) were relevantly associated with de novo short- and medium-chain fatty acids, likely explaining the high heritability values found for these fatty acids

  10. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. PMID:26514651

  11. Analysis of ldh genes in Lactobacillus casei BL23: role on lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Rico, Juan; Yebra, María Jesús; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

    2008-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei is a lactic acid bacterium that produces L-lactate as the main product of sugar fermentation via L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh1) activity. In addition, small amounts of the D-lactate isomer are produced by the activity of a D-hydroxycaproate dehydrogenase (HicD). Ldh1 is the main L-lactate producing enzyme, but mutation of its gene does not eliminate L-lactate synthesis. A survey of the L. casei BL23 draft genome sequence revealed the presence of three additional genes encoding Ldh paralogs. In order to study the contribution of these genes to the global lactate production in this organism, individual, as well as double mutants (ldh1 ldh2, ldh1 ldh3, ldh1 ldh4 and ldh1 hicD) were constructed and lactic acid production was assessed in culture supernatants. ldh2, ldh3 and ldh4 genes play a minor role in lactate production, as their single mutation or a mutation in combination with an ldh1 deletion had a low impact on L-lactate synthesis. A Deltaldh1 mutant displayed an increased production of D-lactate, which was probably synthesized via the activity of HicD, as it was abolished in a Deltaldh1 hicD double mutant. Contrarily to HicD, no Ldh1, Ldh2, Ldh3 or Ldh4 activities could be detected by zymogram assays. In addition, these assays revealed the presence of extra bands exhibiting D-/L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, which could not be attributed to any of the described genes. These results suggest that L. casei BL23 possesses a complex enzymatic system able to reduce pyruvic to lactic acid. PMID:18231816

  12. Regulation of Extracellular Protease Production in Bacillus cereus T: Characterization of Mutants Producing Altered Amounts of Protease

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, A. I.; Angelo, N.; Holt, S. C.

    1971-01-01

    Twenty-nine mutants of Bacillus cereus T were selected on casein agar for their inability to produce large amounts of extracellular protease. They all formed spores, and 27 were also auxotrophs for purines or pyrimidines. Upon reversion to prototrophy, a large fraction regained the capacity to produce protease. Conversely, reversion to normal protease production resulted in loss of the purine or pyrimidine requirement in a large fraction of the revertants. One spontaneous low-protease-producing pyrimidine auxotroph studied in detail grew as well as the wild type and produced spores which were identical to those produced by the wild type on the basis of heat resistance, dipicolinic acid content, density, and appearance in the electron microscope. The rate of protein turnover in the mutant was the same as the wild type. The mutant did grow poorly, however, when casein was the principal carbon source. A mutant excreting 5 to 10 times as much protease as the wild type was isolated as a secondary mutation from the hypoproducer discussed above. Loss of the pyrimidine requirement in this case did not alter the regulation of protease production. Although the secondary mutant grew somewhat faster in most media than the wild type, the final cell yield was lower. The spores of this mutant appeared to have excess coat on the basis of both electron microscopic and chemical studies. There appear to be closely related but distinct catabolic controls for both extracellular protease and spore formation. These controls can be dissociated as for the hypoproducers but can also appear integrated as for the hyperprotease producer. Images PMID:4104235

  13. Hollow spherical nucleic acids for intracellular gene regulation based upon biocompatible silica shells.

    PubMed

    Young, Kaylie L; Scott, Alexander W; Hao, Liangliang; Mirkin, Sarah E; Liu, Guoliang; Mirkin, Chad A

    2012-07-11

    Cellular transfection of nucleic acids is necessary for regulating gene expression through antisense or RNAi pathways. The development of spherical nucleic acids (SNAs, originally gold nanoparticles functionalized with synthetic oligonucleotides) has resulted in a powerful set of constructs that are able to efficiently transfect cells and regulate gene expression without the use of auxiliary cationic cocarriers. The gold core in such structures is primarily used as a template to arrange the nucleic acids into a densely packed and highly oriented form. In this work, we have developed methodology for coating the gold particle with a shell of silica, modifying the silica with a layer of oligonucleotides, and subsequently oxidatively dissolving the gold core with I(2). The resulting hollow silica-based SNAs exhibit cooperative binding behavior with respect to complementary oligonucleotides and cellular uptake properties comparable to their gold-core SNA counterparts. Importantly, they exhibit no cytotoxicity and have been used to effectively silence the eGFP gene in mouse endothelial cells through an antisense approach. PMID:22725653

  14. Targeted gene correction using psoralen, chlorambucil and camptothecin conjugates of triplex forming peptide nucleic acid (PNA)

    PubMed Central

    Birkedal, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Gene correction activation effects of a small series of triplex forming peptide nucleic acid (PNA) covalently conjugated to the DNA interacting ligands psoralen, chlorambucil and camptothecin targeted proximal to a stop codon mutation in an EGFP reporter gene were studied. A 15-mer homopyrimidine PNA conjugated to the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin was found to increase the frequency of repair domain mediated gene correctional events of the EGFP reporter in an in vitro HeLa cell nuclear extract assay, whereas PNA psoralen or chlorambucil conjugates both of which form covalent and also interstrand crosslinked adducts with dsDNA dramatically decreased the frequency of targeted repair/correction. The PNA conjugates were also studied in mammalian cell lines upon transfection of PNA bound EGFP reporter vector and scoring repair of the EGFP gene by FACS analysis of functional EGFP expression. Consistent with the extract experiments, treatment with adduct forming PNA conjugates (psoralen and chlorambucil) resulted in a decrease in background correction frequencies in transiently transfected cells, whereas unmodified PNA or the PNA-camptothecin conjugate had little or no effect. These results suggest that simple triplex forming PNAs have little effect on proximal gene correctional events whereas PNA conjugates capable of forming DNA adducts and interstrand crosslinks are strong inhibitors. Most interestingly the PNA conjugated to the topoisomerase inhibitor, camptothecin enhanced repair in nuclear extract. Thus the effects and use of camptothecin conjugates in gene targeted repair merit further studies. PMID:21686249

  15. The ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid receptor gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Lin; Cui, Ying-Jun; Lang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Yan; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2010-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a very important inhibitory neurotransmitter in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. GABA receptors (GABARs) are known to be the molecular targets of a class of insecticides. Members of the GABAR gene family of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, a model insect of Lepidoptera, have been identified and characterized in this study. All putative silkworm GABAR cDNAs were cloned using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Bombyx mori appears to have the largest insect GABAR gene family known to date, including three RDL, one LCCH3, and one GRD subunit. The silkworm RDL1 gene has RNA-editing sites, and the RDL1 and RDL3 genes possess alternative splicing. These mRNA modifications enhance the diversity of the silkworm's GABAR gene family. In addition, truncated transcripts were found for the RDL1 and LCCH3 genes. In particular, the three RDL subunits may have arisen from two duplication events. PMID:20924418

  16. Assessment of fecal bacteria with bile acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylating activity for the presence of bai-like genes.

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, K C; Takamine, F; LaVoie, C P; Mallonee, D H; Hylemon, P B

    1997-01-01

    Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708 has several bile acid-inducible (bai) genes which encode enzymes in the bile acid 7 alpha-dehydroxylation (7 alpha DeOH) pathway. Twelve 7 alpha DeOH-positive intestinal bacterial strains were assayed for 7 alpha DeOH activity, and 13 strains were tested for hybridization with bai genes. Cholic acid 7 alpha DeOH activity varied greatly (> 100-fold) among these strains. Southern blot experiments showed that DNA prepared from 7 of 13 strains hybridized with at least one of the bai genes from Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708. PMID:9055436

  17. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa; Wei, Na

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  18. Identification and characterization of the retinoic acid response elements in the human RIG1 gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Wu, M.-S.; Chen, L.-M.; Hung, M.-W.; Lin, H.-E.; Chang, G.-G.; Chang, T.-C. . E-mail: tcchang@ndmctsgh.edu.tw

    2005-06-03

    The expression of retinoic acid-induced gene 1 (RIG1), a class II tumor suppressor gene, is induced in cells treated with retinoids. RIG1 has been shown to express ubiquitously and the increased expression of this gene appears to suppress cell proliferation. Recent studies also demonstrated that this gene may play an important role in cell differentiation and the progression of cancer. In spite of the remarkable regulatory role of this protein, the molecular mechanism of RIG1 expression induced by retinoids remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to study the molecular mechanism underlying the all-trans retinoic acid (atRA)-mediated induction of RIG1 gene expression. Polymerase chain reaction was used to generate a total of 10 luciferase constructs that contain various fragments of the RIG1 5'-genomic region. These constructs were then transfected into human gastric cancer SC-M1 and breast cancer T47D cells for transactivation analysis. atRA exhibited a significant induction in luciferase activity only through the -4910/-5509 fragment of the 5'-genomic region of RIG1 gene relative to the translation initiation site. Further analysis of this promoter fragment indicated that the primary atRA response region is located in between -5048 and -5403 of the RIG1 gene. Within this region, a direct repeat sequence with five nucleotide spacing, 5'-TGACCTctattTGCCCT-3' (DR5, -5243/-5259), and an inverted repeat sequence with six nucleotide spacing, 5'-AGGCCAtggtaaTGGCCT-3' (IR6, -5323/-5340), were identified. Deletion and mutation of the DR5, but not the IR6 element, abolished the atRA-mediated activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with nuclear extract from atRA-treated cells indicated the binding of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers specifically to this response element. In addition to the functional DR5, the region contains many other potential sequence elements that are required to maximize the at

  19. Isolation and characterization of all-trans-retinoic acid-responsive genes in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Gaemers, I C; Van Pelt, A M; Themmen, A P; De Rooij, D G

    1998-05-01

    By way of differential screening of testis cDNA libraries from vitamin A-deficient (VAD) rats before and after administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), genes, the transcription of which was influenced by ATRA, were isolated. Most clones with an increased transcription encoded different subunits of the same mitochondrial protein complex, cytochrome c oxidase (COX). The mRNA expression of COX increased by a factor 3.9 +/- 1.5 (mean +/- SD, n = 4). This increased expression seems to reflect an increased energy demand in the ATRA-supplemented VAD testis. Also, one gene was isolated, the transcription of which was reduced to about 70% by ATRA. This gene, sulfated glycoprotein 2 (Sgp-2), is a major secretion product of Sertoli cells, the function of which is still unknown. The effect of ATRA on Sgp-2 expression may be direct, since the promoter of Sgp-2 contains a putative ATRA-responsive element (RARE). PMID:9547504

  20. Role of a liver fatty acid-binding protein gene in lipid metabolism in chicken hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, G L; Na, W; Wang, Y X; Zhang, H F; Li, H; Wang, Q G

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of the chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) gene in lipid metabolism in hepatocytes, and the regulatory relationships between L-FABP and genes related to lipid metabolism. The short hairpin RNA (shRNA) interference vector with L-FABP and an eukaryotic expression vector were used. Chicken hepatocytes were subjected to shRNA-mediated knockdown or L-FABP cDNA overexpression. Expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes and biochemical parameters were detected 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h after transfection with the interference or overexpression plasmids for L-FABP, PPARα and L-BABP expression levels, and the total amount of cholesterol, were significantly affected by L-FABP expression. L-FABP may affect lipid metabolism by regulating PPARα and L-BABP in chicken hepatocytes. PMID:25966259

  1. Cloning the mouse homologue of the human lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, J.H.; Yang, B.Z.; Liu, H.M.

    1994-09-01

    Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid {alpha}-glucosidase (GAA). In an attempt to create a mouse model for Pompe disease, we isolated and characterized the gene encoding the mouse homologue of the human GAA. Twenty clones that extend from exon 2 to the poly(A) tail were isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library, but the remainder of the mRNA proved difficult to obtain by conventional cDNA library screening. Sequences spanning exons 1-2 were cloned by RACE from mouse liver RNA. The full-length liver GAA cDNA contains 3365 nucleotides with a coding region of 2859 nucleotides and a 394 base pair 3{prime}-nontranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mouse GAA shows 84% identity to the human GAA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that the mouse GAA was encoded by a single copy gene. Then six bacteriophages containing DNA from the GAA gene were isolated by screening 10{sup 6} phage plaques of a mouse 129 genomic library using a mouse GAA cDNA as a probe. From one of these bacteriophages, an 11-kilobase EcoRI fragment containing exons 3 to 15 was subcloned and sequenced. Work is in progress using this genomic clone to disrupt the GAA gene in murine embryonic stem cells in order to create GSD II mice.

  2. Recent progress in gene therapy to deliver nucleic acids with multivalent cationic vectors.

    PubMed

    Junquera, Elena; Aicart, Emilio

    2016-07-01

    Due to the potential use as transfecting agents of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), multivalent cationic non-viral vectors have received special attention in the last decade. Much effort has been addressed to synthesize more efficient and biocompatible gene vectors able to transport nucleic acids into the cells without provoking an immune response. Among them, the mostly explored to compact and transfect nucleic acids are: (a) gemini and multivalent cationic lipids, mixed with a helper lipid, by forming lipoplexes; and (b) cationic polymers, polycations, and polyrotaxanes, by forming polyplexes. This review is focused on the progress and recent advances experimented in this area, mainly during the present decade, devoting special attention to the lipoplexes and polyplexes, as follows: (a) to its biophysical characterization (mainly electrostatics, structure, size and morphology) using a wide variety of experimental methods; and (b) to its biological activity (transfection efficacy and cytotoxicity) addressed to confirm the optimum formulations and viability of these complexes as very promising gene vectors of nucleic acids in nanomedicine. PMID:26265376

  3. Transcriptome Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis Gene Expressionfollowing Exposure to Acidic and Alkaline pH

    SciTech Connect

    Leaphart, Adam B.; Thompson, Dorothea K.; Huang, Katherine; Alm,Eric; Wan, Xiu-Feng; Arkin, Adam P.; Brown, Steven D.; Wu, Liyou; Yan,Tingfen; Liu, Xueduan; Wickham, Gene S.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2007-04-02

    The molecular response of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 tovariations in extracellular pH was investigated based on genomewide geneexpression profiling. Microarray analysis revealed that cells elicitedboth general and specific transcriptome responses when challenged withenvironmental acid (pH 4) or base (pH 10) conditions over a 60-minperiod. Global responses included the differential expression of genesfunctionally linked to amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulationand signal transduction, transport, cell membrane structure, andoxidative stress protection. Response to acid stress included theelevated expression of genes encoding glycogen biosynthetic enzymes,phosphate transporters, and the RNA polymerase sigma-38 factor (rpoS),whereas the molecular response to alkaline pH was characterized byupregulation of nhaA and nhaR, which are predicted to encode an Na+/H+antiporter and transcriptional activator, respectively, as well assulfate transport and sulfur metabolism genes. Collectively, theseresults suggest that S. oneidensis modulates multiple transporters, cellenvelope components, and pathways of amino acid consumption and centralintermediary metabolism as part of its transcriptome response to changingexternal pH conditions.

  4. Deletion of a Chitin Synthase Gene in a Citric Acid Producing Strain of Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, Torri E.; Baker, Scott E.

    2007-01-29

    Citric acid production by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is carried out in a process that causes the organism to drastically alter its morphology. This altered morphology includes hyphal swelling and highly limited polar growth resulting in clumps of swollen cells that eventually aggregate into pellets of approximately 100 microns in diameter. In this pelleted form, A. niger has increased citric acid production as compared to growth in filamentous form. Chitin is a crucial component of the cell wall of filamentous fungi. Alterations in the deposition or production of chitin may have profound effects on the morphology of the organism. In order to study the role of chitin synthesis in pellet formation we have deleted a chitin synthase gene (csmA) in Aspergillus niger strain ATCC 11414 using a PCR based deletion construct. This class of chitin synthases is only found in filamentous fungi and is not present in yeasts. The csmA genes contain a myosin motor domain at the N-terminus and a chitin synthesis domain at the C-terminus. They are believed to contribute to the specialized polar growth observed in filamentous fungi that is lacking in yeasts. The csmA deletion strain (csmAΔ) was subjected to minimal media with and without osmotic stabilizers as well as tested in citric acid production media. Without osmotic stabilizers, the mutant germlings were abnormally swollen, primarily in the subapical regions, and contained large vacuoles. However, this swelling is ultimately not inhibitory to growth as the germlings are able to recover and undergo polar growth. Colony formation was largely unaffected in the absence of osmotic stabilizers. In citric acid production media csmAΔ was observed to have a 2.5 fold increase in citric acid production. The controlled expression of this class of chitin synthases may be useful for improving production of organic acids in filamentous fungi.

  5. Bioinformatics study of delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) gene in oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Nayeri, Fatemeh; Yarizade, Kazem

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acid desaturases constitute a group of enzymes that introduce double bonds into the hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to produce unsaturated fatty acids. In plants, seed-specific delta-12 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the high content of linoleic acid by inserting a double bond at the delta-12 (omega-6) position of oleic acid. In this study, sixteen FAD2 and FAD2-2 protein sequences from oilseeds were analyzed by computational tools including two databases of the NCBI and EXPASY and data management tools such as SignalP, TMHMM, Psort, ProtParam, TargetP, PLACE and PlantCARE. These services were used to predict the protein properties such as molecular mass, pI, signal peptide, transmembrane and conserved domains, secondary and spatial structures. The polypeptide sequences were aligned and a neighbour-joining tree was constructed using MEGA5.1 to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among FAD2 genes. Based on the phylogenetic analysis species with high similarity in FAD2 sequence grouped together. FAD2 proteins include highly conserved histidine-rich motifs (HECGHH, HRRHH and HV[A/C/T]HH) that are located by three to five transmembrane anchors. For further investigations Sesamum indicum FAD2 was selected and analyzed by bioinformatics tools. Analysis showed no N-terminal signal peptide for probable localization of FAD2 protein in cytoplasmic organelles such as chloroplast, mitochondria and Golgi. Instead the C-terminal signaling motif YNNKL, Y(K/N)NKF or YRNKI allows FAD2 protein to selectively bind to and embed in the endoplasmic reticulum. FAD2 promoter contains different cis-regulatory elements involve in the biotic and abiotic stresses response or control of gene expression specifically in seeds. PMID:24816719

  6. Target-based screen against a periplasmic serine protease that regulates intrabacterial pH homeostasis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Darby, Crystal M; Small, Jennifer; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Jiang, Xiuju; Burns-Huang, Kristin E; Botella, Helene; Ehrt, Sabine; Boger, Dale L; Anderson, Erin D; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Speers, Anna E; Fernandez-Vega, Virneliz; Hodder, Peter S; Eberhart, Christina; Rosen, Hugh; Spicer, Timothy P; Nathan, Carl F

    2015-02-20

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) maintains its intrabacterial pH (pHIB) near neutrality in the acidic environment of phagosomes within activated macrophages. A previously reported genetic screen revealed that Mtb loses this ability when the mycobacterial acid resistance protease (marP) gene is disrupted. In the present study, a high throughput screen (HTS) of compounds against the protease domain of MarP identified benzoxazinones as inhibitors of MarP. A potent benzoxazinone, BO43 (6-chloro-2-(2'-methylphenyl)-4H-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one), acylated MarP and lowered Mtb's pHIB and survival during incubation at pH 4.5. BO43 had similar effects on MarP-deficient Mtb, suggesting the existence of additional target(s). Reaction of an alkynyl-benzoxazinone, BO43T, with Mycobacterium bovis variant bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) followed by click chemistry with azido-biotin identified both the MarP homologue and the high temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) homologue, an essential protein. Thus, the chemical probe identified through a target-based screen not only reacted with its intended target in the intact cells but also implicated an additional enzyme that had eluded a genetic screen bia